Science.gov

Sample records for living organisms produce

  1. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  2. Microholography of Living Organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Johndale C.; Baldwin, George C.

    1982-01-01

    By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of living elementary biological structures at precisely defined instants. Discussed are sources/geometrics for x-ray holography, x-radiation interactions, factors affecting resolution, recording the hologram, high-intensity holography,…

  3. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  4. Producing a Live HDTV Program from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney; Fontanot, Carlos; Hames, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    By the year 2000, NASA had flown HDTV camcorders on three Space Shuttle missions: STS-95, STS-93 and STS-99. All three flights of these camcorders were accomplished with cooperation from the Japanese space agency (then known as NASDA and now known as JAXA). The cameras were large broadcast-standard cameras provided by NASDA and flight certified by both NASA and NASDA. The high-definition video shot during these missions was spectacular. Waiting for the return of the tapes to Earth emphasized the next logical step: finding a way to downlink the HDTV live from space. Both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) programs were interested in live HDTV from space, but neither had the resources to fully fund the technology. Technically, downlinking from the ISS was the most effective approach. Only when the Japanese broadcaster NHK and the Japanese space agency expressed interest in covering a Japanese astronaut's journey to the ISS did the project become possible. Together, JAXA and NHK offered equipment, technology, and funding toward the project. In return, NHK asked for a live HDTV downlink during one of its broadcast programs. NASA and the ISS Program sought a US partner to broadcast a live HDTV program and approached the Discovery Channel. The Discovery Channel had proposed a live HDTV project in response to NASA's previous call for offers. The Discovery Channel agreed to provide addItional resources. With the final partner in place, the project was under way. Engineers in the Avionics Systems Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) had already studied the various options for downlinking HDTV from the ISS. They concluded that the easiest way was to compress the HDTV so that the resulting data stream would "look" like a payload data stream. The flight system would consist of a professional HDTV camcorder with live HD-SDI output, an HDTV MPEG-2 encoder, and a packetizer/protocol converter.

  5. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOEpatents

    Wong; Pak C. (Richland, WA), Wong; Kwong K. (Sugar Land, TX), Foote; Harlan P. (Richland, WA)

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  6. Living Organisms for the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Carolyn H.; Hampton, Carol D.

    This publication was prepared for elementary teachers and other local personnel responsible for providing, maintaining and using living organisms to enhance elementary science programs. The manual contains a foreword, general information, and an appendix. It gives information concerning equipment and supplies, establishing and maintaining an…

  7. Vitamin C content of organically grown produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organically grown produce is the fastest growing sector of fresh market sales in the U.S. While accounting for only 3% of total produce sales, it is growing by 20% per year. There has been much debate over the relative health merits of organically grown fruits and vegetables. Most consumers believ...

  8. [Distant mental influence on living organisms].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand. PMID:24502184

  9. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

  10. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

  11. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

  12. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

  13. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

  14. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The WSO found in produced water samples was primarily polar in nature and distributed between the low and midrange carbon ranges. Typical levels of total extractable material (TEM) was about 20 mg/L; that associated with the aromatic fraction was present at 0.2 mg/L and that in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction was present at less than 0.02 mg/L. Formic, acetic, and propionic acids were also found in the produced water, occurring at a total concentration of 30 mg/L. It was estimated that the presence of 30 mg/L organic acids would artificially overstate TEM content by 2 mg/L. Of the five tested parameters, the factor that most controlled the total WSO in produced water was that of aqueous phase pH. Beyond a value of pH7 significant quantities of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} range material become markedly soluble as they deprotonate in a basic aqueous phase. Both the absolute and relative volumes of GOM brine and crude additionally affected total WSO. Produced water appeared to reach a saturation level of WSO at a.50% water/oil ratio. Pressure slightly enhanced WSO by increasing the relative quantity of C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} range material. Temperature primarily altered the relative ratio of carbon ranges within the WSO without significantly elevating the total WSO in the GOM brine. Salinity had the least affect on the chemical character or the carbon size of WSO in produced water.

  15. Toward quantum superposition of living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Isart, Oriol; Juan, Mathieu L.; Quidant, Romain; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The most striking feature of quantum mechanics is the existence of superposition states, where an object appears to be in different situations at the same time. The existence of such states has been previously tested with small objects, such as atoms, ions, electrons and photons (Zoller et al 2005 Eur. Phys. J. D 36 203-28), and even with molecules (Arndt et al 1999 Nature 401 680-2). More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to create superpositions of collections of photons (Deléglise et al 2008 Nature 455 510-14), atoms (Hammerer et al 2008 arXiv:0807.3358) or Cooper pairs (Friedman et al 2000 Nature 406 43-6). Very recent progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow us to create superpositions of even larger objects, such as micro-sized mirrors or cantilevers (Marshall et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 130401; Kippenberg and Vahala 2008 Science 321 1172-6 Marquardt and Girvin 2009 Physics 2 40; Favero and Karrai 2009 Nature Photon. 3 201-5), and thus to test quantum mechanical phenomena at larger scales. Here we propose a method to cool down and create quantum superpositions of the motion of sub-wavelength, arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects trapped inside a high-finesse cavity at a very low pressure. Our method is ideally suited for the smallest living organisms, such as viruses, which survive under low-vacuum pressures (Rothschild and Mancinelli 2001 Nature 406 1092-101) and optically behave as dielectric objects (Ashkin and Dziedzic 1987 Science 235 1517-20). This opens up the possibility of testing the quantum nature of living organisms by creating quantum superposition states in very much the same spirit as the original Schrödinger's cat 'gedanken' paradigm (Schrödinger 1935 Naturwissenschaften 23 807-12, 823-8, 844-9). We anticipate that our paper will be a starting point for experimentally addressing fundamental questions, such as the role of life and consciousness in quantum mechanics.

  16. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  1. Nuclear genome organization explored by dynamic studies in live cells

    E-print Network

    Potsdam, Universität

    Nuclear genome organization explored by dynamic studies in live cells Yuval Garini, Eldad Kepten identified crucial aspects of the mechanism by studying the dynamics of genomic sites in the nucleus of live-conformational-capture methods. In normal cells, all the sites in the genome exhibit anomalous diffusion (visco

  2. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  3. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  4. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  5. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  6. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  7. Bodies, organs and saving lives: the alternatives.

    PubMed

    Saunders, John

    2010-02-01

    In a paper in the last issue of Clinical Medicine, some of the background to attitudes to newly dead bodies, the current context of an urgent need for organs for transplant and the objections to calling a proposal to address this 'presumed consent' were outlined. Here further concerns are explored. PMID:20408301

  8. X-ray microscopy of live biological micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Al-Ani, Ma'an Nassar

    Real-time, compact x-ray microscopy has the potential to benefit many scientific fields, including microbiology, pharmacology, organic chemistry, and physics. Single frame x-ray micro-radiography, produced by a compact, solid-state laser plasma source, allows scientists to use x-ray emission for elemental analysis, and to observe biological specimens in their natural state. In this study, x-ray images of mouse kidney tissue, live bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia, and the bacteria's interaction with the antibiotic gentamicin, are examined using x-ray microscopy. For the purposes of comparing between confocal microscopy and x-ray microscopy, we introduced to our work the technique of gold labeling. Indirect immunofluorescence staining and immuno-gold labeling were applied on human lymphocytes and human tumor cells. Differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) showed the lymphocyte body and nucleus, as did x-ray microscopy. However, the high resolution of x-ray microscopy allows us to differentiate between the gold particles bound to the antibodies and the free gold. A compact, tabletop Nd: glass laser is used in this study to produce x-rays from an Yttrium target. An atomic force microscope is used to scan the x-ray images from the developed photo-resist. The use of compact, tabletop laser plasma sources, in conjunction with x-ray microscopy, is a new technique that has great potential as a flexible, user-friendly scientific research tool.

  9. Biopsychronology: live confocal imaging of biopsies to assess organ function.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Imtiaz; Fries, Dietmar; Streif, Werner; Aigner, Felix; Hengster, Paul; Troppmair, Jakob; Hermann, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged ischemia (I) times caused by organ procurement and transport are main contributors to a decrease in organ function, which is further enhanced during reperfusion (R). This combined damage, referred to as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), is a main contributor to delayed graft function, which leads to costly and lengthy follow-up treatments or even organ loss. Methods to monitor the status of a graft prior to transplantation are therefore highly desirable to optimize the clinical outcome. Here, we propose the use of fine needle biopsies, which are analyzed by real-time live confocal microscopy. Such a combination provides information about the functional and structural integrity of an organ within a few minutes. To confirm the feasibility of this approach, we obtained fine needle biopsies from rodent kidneys and exposed them to various stress conditions. Following the addition of a range of live stains, biopsies were monitored for mitochondrial function, cell viability, and tissue integrity using confocal live cell imaging. Our data demonstrate that this procedure requires minimal time for sample preparation and data acquisition and is well suitable to record organ damage resulting from unphysiological stress. PMID:24750326

  10. D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Noriko

    2002-04-01

    The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

  11. Living and deceased organ donation should be financially neutral acts.

    PubMed

    Delmonico, F L; Martin, D; Domínguez-Gil, B; Muller, E; Jha, V; Levin, A; Danovitch, G M; Capron, A M

    2015-05-01

    The supply of organs—particularly kidneys—donated by living and deceased donors falls short of the number of patients added annually to transplant waiting lists in the United States. To remedy this problem, a number of prominent physicians, ethicists, economists and others have mounted a campaign to suspend the prohibitions in the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) on the buying and selling of organs. The argument that providing financial benefits would incentivize enough people to part with a kidney (or a portion of a liver) to clear the waiting lists is flawed. This commentary marshals arguments against the claim that the shortage of donor organs would best be overcome by providing financial incentives for donation. We can increase the number of organs available for transplantation by removing all financial disincentives that deter unpaid living or deceased kidney donation. These disincentives include a range of burdens, such as the costs of travel and lodging for medical evaluation and surgery, lost wages, and the expense of dependent care during the period of organ removal and recuperation. Organ donation should remain an act that is financially neutral for donors, neither imposing financial burdens nor enriching them monetarily. PMID:25833381

  12. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  12. GUIDELINES AND ACCEPTABLE POSTHARVEST PRACTICES FOR ORGANICALLY GROWN PRODUCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic foods are produced using agricultural practices that emphasize renewable resources and conservation of soil and water. Horticultural crops are grown and processed without synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, ingredients and processing aids. Crops or ingredients derived from genetic engineeri...

  13. On the Testing Maturity of Software Producing Organizations Mats Grindal

    E-print Network

    Offutt, Jeff

    On the Testing Maturity of Software Producing Organizations Mats Grindal Humanities and Informatics, and the knowledge of the personnel in the test organizations. The data indicate that the overall test maturity of maturity and thereby articulate the potential gain from increasing testing maturity to upper management

  14. Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.

  15. OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2002-03-14

    This project was an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum-industry problem of treating produced water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project was to maximize oxidation of hexane-extractable organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigated: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Several types of methodologies for treatment of soluble organics in synthetic and actual produced waters have been performed. The technologies tested may be categorized as follows: (1) Destruction via sonochemical oxidation at different pH, salt concentration, ultraviolet irradiation, and ferrous iron concentrations. (2) Destruction via ozonation at different pH, salt concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentrations, ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and reactor configurations.

  16. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in...

  17. 77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S...concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in...

  18. 77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S...concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in...

  19. Living Organisms Coupling to Electromagnetic Radiation Below Thermal Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolc, Viktor; Freund, Friedemann

    2013-04-01

    Ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation is part of the natural environment. Prior to major earthquakes the local ULF and global ELF radiation field is often markedly perturbed. This has detrimental effects on living organisms. We are studying the mechanism of these effects on the biochemical, cellular and organismal levels. The transfer of electrons along the Electron Transfer Chain (ETC) controls the universal reduction-oxidation reactions that are essential for fundamental biochemical processes in living cells. In order for these processes to work properly, the ETC has to maintain some form of synchronization, or coherence with all biochemical reactions in the living cells, including energy production, RNA transcription, and DNA replication. As a consequence of this synchronization, harmful chemical conflict between the reductive and the oxidative partial reactions can be minimized or avoided. At the same time we note that the synchronization allows for a transfer of energy, coherent or interfering, via coupling to the natural ambient EM field. Extremely weak high frequency EM fields, well below the thermal noise level, tuned in frequency to the electron spins of certain steps in the ETC, have already been shown to cause aberrant cell growth and disorientation among plants and animals with respect to the magnetic and gravity vectors. We investigate EM fields over a much wider frequency range, including ULF known to be generated deep in the Earth prior to major earthquakes locally, and ELF known to be fed by lightning discharges, traveling around the globe in the cavity formed between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. This ULF/ELF radiation can control the timing of the biochemical redox cycle and thereby have a universal effect on physiology of organisms. The timing can even have a detrimental influence, via increased oxidative damage, on the DNA replication, which controls heredity.

  20. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  1. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  2. THE REVISED ORGANIC CHEMICAL PRODUCERS DATA BASE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the revised Organic Chemical Producers Data Base (OCPDB), an automated chemical information system developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Improvements have been made in two ways: (1) expansion of the data base to include more chemicals...

  3. MAINTENANCE OF THE ORGANIC CHEMICAL PRODUCERS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the maintenance and operation of the Organic Chemical Producers Data Base (OCPDB) from March 1979 to December 1980. During this period the OCPDB, an automated chemical information system developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was expanded an...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed

  5. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316...

  10. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine but not the other common amino acids, suggesting that leucine degradation leads to acetone formation. Acetone production by marine vibrios may contribute to the dissolved organic carbon associated with phytoplankton, and some of the acetone produced may be volatilized to the atmosphere. PMID:16534920

  11. TREE TRAILS Trees are living organisms with many specialized structures leaves, roots, wood, and the living cells

    E-print Network

    1 TREE TRAILS Trees are living organisms with many specialized structures ­ leaves, roots, wood, and the living cells that connect them. Understanding how trees are constructed and grow is essential to care for trees and calculate the benefits that trees provide. Tree Trails Tree Structure and Function Goal

  12. Racemization and the origin of optically active organic compounds in living organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    The organic compounds synthesized in prebiotic experiments are racemic mixtures. A number of proposals have been offered to explain how asymmetric organic compounds formed on the Earth before life arose, with the influence of chiral weak nuclear interactions being the most frequent proposal. This and other proposed asymmetric syntheses give only sight enantiomeric excess and any slight excess will be degraded by racemization. This applies particularly to amino acids where half-lives of 10(5)-10(6) years are to be expected at temperatures characteristic of the Earth's surface. Since the generation of chiral molecules could not have been a significant process under geological conditions, the origins of this asymmetry must have occurred at the time of the origin of life or shortly thereafter. It is possible that the compounds in the first living organisms were prochiral rather than chiral; this is unlikely for amino acids, but it is possible for the monomers of RNA-like molecules.

  13. Long-lived states of antiprotonic lithium pLi {sup +} produced in p+ Li collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakimoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-09-15

    Antiproton capture by lithium atoms (p+Li{yields}pLi{sup +}+e) is investigated at collision energies from 0.01 to 10 eV by using a semiclassical (also know as quantum-classical hybrid) method, in which the radial distance between the antiproton and the Li{sup +} ion is treated as a classical variable, and the other degrees of freedom are described by quantum mechanics. Analyzing the wave packet of the emitted electrons and making use of the energy conservation rule enable us to calculate the state distribution of the produced antiprotonic lithium pLi{sup +} atoms and also to distinguish between the capture and ionization ({yields}p+Li{sup +}+e) channels at collisional energies above the ionization threshold. This method is tested for the capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms, which was rigorously investigated in previous quantum mechanical studies. Most of the pLi{sup +} atoms produced in p+Li are found to be sufficiently stable against Auger decays and are experimentally observable as long-lived states. The present system bears close similarities to the system of p+He(2S). It is therefore expected that long-lived antiprotonic helium pHe{sup +} atoms can be efficiently produced in the p capture by metastable He(2 {sup 3}S) atoms.

  14. 75 FR 873 - Extramural Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration... reimbursement for qualifying travel and subsistence expenses related to live organ donation. The existing... subsistence expenses in the Federal Register (70 FR 59760). On April 9, 2007, HRSA published a Request...

  15. Wind Shear May Produce Long-Lived Storms and Squall Lines on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Barth, Erika

    2015-11-01

    The impact of CAPE and wind shear on storms in a Titan-like environment are explored through numerical simulation. Numerical modeling indicates that both large-scale shear and CAPE environment control the dynamics of the clouds. This response to the large-scale environment is analogous to the behavior of deep convective clouds on Earth. The balance between shear and CAPE, as expressed through the bulk Richardson Number (NR), is a good indicator of the response of a storm to its environment. Large NR results in short-lived single cell storms (Figure 1). As shear increases for a given CAPE, and NR decreases, the storms transition to a multicellular regime. Multicellular storms are longer-lived and are characterized by a downdraft generated cold pool that interacts with the background shear vorticity to initiate cells along the leading edge of the storm gust front (Figure 2). Very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. The most intense multicellular systems simulated in this study behave similar to terrestrial squall lines, and very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. Cloud outbursts and linear cloud features observed from ground and Cassini may be the result of these organized storm systems. Varying amounts of shear in the Titan environment might explain the variety of convective cloud expressions identified in Cassini orbiter and ground-based observations. The resulting distribution and magnitude of precipitation as well as surface winds associated with storms have implications on the formation of fluvial and aeolian features, including dunes, and on the exchange of methane with the surface and lakes.

  16. Microbial sucrose isomerases: producing organisms, genes and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Goulter, Ken C; Hashimi, Saeed M; Birch, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose isomerase (SI) activity is used industrially for the conversion of sucrose into isomers, particularly isomaltulose or trehalulose, which have properties advantageous over sucrose for some food uses. All of the known microbial SIs are TIM barrel proteins that convert sucrose without need for any cofactors, with varying kinetics and product specificities. The current analysis was undertaken to bridge key gaps between the information in patents and scientific publications about the microbes and enzymes useful for sucrose isomer production. This analysis shows that microbial SIs can be considered in 5 structural classes with corresponding functional distinctions that broadly align with the taxonomic differences between producing organisms. The most widely used bacterial strain for industrial production of isomaltulose, widely referred to as "Protaminobacter rubrum" CBS 574.77, is identified as Serratia plymuthica. The strain producing the most structurally divergent SI, with a high product specificity for trehalulose, widely referred to as "Pseudomonas mesoacidophila" MX-45, is identified as Rhizobium sp. Each tested SI-producer is shown to have a single SI gene and enzyme, so the properties reported previously for the isolated proteins can reasonably be associated with the products of the genes subsequently cloned from the same isolates and SI classes. Some natural isolates with potent SI activity do not catabolize the isomer under usual production conditions. The results indicate that their industrial potential may be further enhanced by selection for variants that do not catabolize the sucrose substrate. PMID:22133441

  17. Shrinky Dink microbes! icrobes are living organisms smaller

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    . Some kinds of microbes, called extremophiles, thrive in places that are freezing, super hot, deep it will resemble the life on Earth living in the extreme environments (extremophiles). On the back of this page

  18. The Cost of Organ Donation: Potential Living Kidney Donors' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Briand, Beatriz; Wray, Natalie; Boudville, Neil

    2015-11-01

    Living kidney transplantation is a treatment option for some people with end-stage kidney disease. The procedure has low complication rates and positive outcomes; despite this evidence, the number of living kidney donations has decreased in recent years, and the causes are not well understood. This qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of potential living kidney donors before the transplantation. A total of 19 semistructured interviews were conducted with potential living kidney donors in Perth, Western Australia. Results reported here relate to participants' experience of the employment and financial implications of living kidney donation. Participants incurred direct and indirect costs during the time leading up to the transplantation, and many had concerns about the potential financial impact during the recovery period. Employment status, occupation type, and financial commitments affected participants' experiences, and financial concerns were exacerbated for those who were donating to their partners. Results suggest that potential living kidney donors would benefit from tailored financial planning advice to help them prepare for the time of the surgery and the recovery period. PMID:26638507

  19. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  20. Self-organization and entropy reduction in a living cell

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Paul C.W.; Rieper, Elisabeth; Tuszynski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the entropy and information aspects of a living cell. Particular attention is paid to the information gain on assembling and maintaining a living state. Numerical estimates of the information and entropy reduction are given and discussed in the context of the cell’s metabolic activity. We discuss a solution to an apparent paradox that there is less information content in DNA than in the proteins that are assembled based on the genetic code encrypted in DNA. When energy input required for protein synthesis is accounted for, the paradox is clearly resolved. Finally, differences between biological information and instruction are discussed. PMID:23159919

  1. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...

  2. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  3. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  4. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  5. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  6. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  7. CYSTIC FIBROSIS: AN INHERITED DISEASE AFFECTING MUCIN-PRODUCING ORGANS

    PubMed Central

    Ehre, Camille; Ridley, Caroline; Thornton, David J

    2014-01-01

    Our current understanding of cystic fibrosis (CF) has revealed that the biophysical properties of mucus play a considerable role in the pathogenesis of the disease in view of the fact that most mucus-producing organs are affected in CF patients. In this review, we discuss the potential causal relationship between altered cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function and the production of mucus with abnormal biophysical properties in the intestine and lungs, highlighting what has been learned from cell cultures and animal models that mimic CF pathogenesis. A similar cascade of events, including mucus obstruction, infection and inflammation, is common to all epithelia affected by impaired surface hydration. Hence, the main structural components of mucus, namely the polymeric, gel-forming mucins, are critical to the onset of the disease. Defective CFTR leads to epithelial surface dehydration, altered pH/electrolyte composition and mucin concentration. Further, it can influence mucin transition from the intracellular to extracellular environment, potentially resulting in aberrant mucus gel formation. While defective HCO3? production has long been identified as a feature of CF, it has only recently been considered as a key player in the transition phase of mucins. We conclude by examining the influence of mucins on the biophysical properties of CF sputum and discuss existing and novel therapies aimed at removing mucus from the lungs. PMID:24685676

  8. "Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Monir

    2012-03-01

    The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain. PMID:22574392

  9. STUDYING MEMBRANE ANCHOR ORGANIZATION IN LIVING CELL MEMBRANES

    E-print Network

    Huang, Hector Han-Li

    2011-01-01

    LCK-NT-GFP or GFP-RhoA-CT indicating no energy transfer dueshow evidence of energy transfer. GFP fluorescence lifetimesenergy transfer In order to examine local spatial organization, we measure the lifetime of the GFP-

  10. In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

  11. A novel hydroxamic acid-containing antibiotic produced by a Saharan soil-living Streptomyces strain.

    PubMed

    Yekkour, A; Meklat, A; Bijani, C; Toumatia, O; Errakhi, R; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Zitouni, A; Sabaou, N

    2015-06-01

    During screening for potentially antimicrobial actinobacteria, a highly antagonistic strain, designated WAB9, was isolated from a Saharan soil of Algeria. A polyphasic approach characterized the strain taxonomically as a member of the genus Streptomyces. The strain WAB9 exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity toward various multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. A PCR-based assay of genomic potential for producing bioactive metabolites revealed the presence of PKS-II gene. After 6 days of strain fermentation, one bioactive compound was extracted from the remaining aqueous phase and then purified by HPLC. The chemical structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic (UV-visible, and (1)H and (13)C NMR) and spectrometric analysis. The compound was identified to be 2-amino-N-(2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl)-N-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanamide, a novel hydroxamic acid-containing molecule. The pure molecule showed appreciable minimum inhibitory concentration values against a selection of drug-resistant bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Significance and impact of the study: This study presents the isolation of a Streptomyces strain, named WAB9, from a Saharan soil in Algeria. This strain was found to produce a new hydroxamic acid-containing molecule with interesting antimicrobial activities towards various multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. Although hydroxamic acid-containing molecules are known to exhibit low toxicities in general, only real evaluations of the toxicity levels could decide on the applications for which this new molecule is potentially most appropriate. Thus, this article provides a new framework of research. PMID:25754683

  12. Introduction Organisms that live in wave-exposed, intertidal habitats

    E-print Network

    Martone, Patrick T.

    inhabitants (Helmuth and Denny, 2003). Moreover, sessile organisms, such as marine macroalgae, cannot seek fleshy macroalgae For decades, researchers have studied the mechanical properties and morphological adaptations that allow macroalgae to survive intertidal wave forces (e.g. Delf, 1932; Gerard and Mann, 1979

  13. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  14. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  15. The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano: A new model organism for ageing research

    E-print Network

    Schärer, Lukas

    Review The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano: A new model organism for ageing research Stijn Accepted 28 November 2008 Available online 11 December 2008 Keywords: Flatworm Macrostomum lignano Ageing organism which can study this relation where other model systems fail. The flatworm Macrostomum lignano

  16. Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Marco; Del Giudice, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Intermolecular interactions within living organisms have been found to occur not as individual independent events but as a part of a collective array of interconnected events. The problem of the emergence of this collective dynamics and of the correlated biocommunication therefore arises. In the present paper we review the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of microscopic units (atoms/molecules) has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field. Experimental corroboration of this scheme is presented. Some consequences for future biological developments are discussed. PMID:24288611

  17. Visualizing protein partnerships in living cells and organisms.

    PubMed

    Lowder, Melissa A; Appelbaum, Jacob S; Hobert, Elissa M; Schepartz, Alanna

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, scientists have expanded their focus from cataloging genes to characterizing the multiple states of their translated products. One anticipated result is a dynamic map of the protein association networks and activities that occur within the cellular environment. While in vitro-derived network maps can illustrate which of a multitude of possible protein-protein associations could exist, they supply a falsely static picture lacking the subtleties of subcellular location (where) or cellular state (when). Generating protein association network maps that are informed by both subcellular location and cell state requires novel approaches that accurately characterize the state of protein associations in living cells and provide precise spatiotemporal resolution. In this review, we highlight recent advances in visualizing protein associations and networks under increasingly native conditions. These advances include second generation protein complementation assays (PCAs), chemical and photo-crosslinking techniques, and proximity-induced ligation approaches. The advances described focus on background reduction, signal optimization, rapid and reversible reporter assembly, decreased cytotoxicity, and minimal functional perturbation. Key breakthroughs have addressed many challenges and should expand the repertoire of tools useful for generating maps of protein interactions resolved in both time and space. PMID:22104179

  18. 10-1 RISK MANAGEMENT GUIDE FOR ORGANIC PRODUCERS Soybean Production

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    10-1 RISK MANAGEMENT GUIDE FOR ORGANIC PRODUCERS CHAPTER 10 Soybean Production M innesota ranks into two types: food-grade and feed-grade (Figure 10-2). The majority of food-grade organic soybeans SHEAFFER #12;10-2 RISK MANAGEMENT GUIDE FOR ORGANIC PRODUCERS feed. A third type of soybean is a vegetable

  19. Two-photon fluorescent probe for detection of exogenous and endogenous hydrogen persulfide and polysulfide in living organisms.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingyu; Chen, Shiyu; Xia, Tian; Hu, Wei; Li, Chunya; Liu, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogen persulfide and polysulfide (H2S(n)) are newly discovered intracellular reactive species considered to have high protein S-sulfhydration efficiency. The detection of H2S(n) in living systems is essential for studying their functions but is quite challenging. In this work, we report a two-photon excited fluorescent probe, QS(n), capable of tracking H2S(n) in living organisms. QS(n) exhibited turn-on two-photon fluorescence response upon reaction with H2S(n). With a favorable photophysical property, high specificity, and low cytotoxicity, QS(n) was able to recognize exogenous H2S(n) in living cells. More importantly, it realized for the first time the visualization of endogenous H2S(n) generated in cells overexpressing cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase, the enzymes responsible for producing endogenous H2S(n). Taking advantage of two-photon microscopy, the probe was also applied to achieve H2S(n) detection in zebrafish embryos and to observe H2S(n) distribution in living organisms. PMID:25655109

  20. New method to detect organic nanoparticles in live tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixler, Dror; Yariv, Inbar

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, infiltrating materials into the human body has become a great challenge many researches are facing. In medicine and cosmetics today, there are materials which are administrated to patients by injection only. The main challenge with topical medication is penetrating the skin barrier. The skin is an effective barrier between the body and the outside environment, which prevents foreign materials entering the body easily. However, reducing the size of the desired materials might help their skin penetration ability. Recently nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated for use in many fields like chemistry, biology, medicine, physics and optics. The technique used in this work for forming organic NPs (ONPs) is the application of sonic waves to an aqueous solution, known as sonochemistry. To investigate the physical penetration depth of ONPs into the human body, we first developed a novel optical technique for detecting NPs within tissues. The detection of NPs is done by the extraction and investigation of the reemitted light phase.

  1. Probing transplant and living donor candidates about their participation in organ vending.

    PubMed

    Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2010-09-01

    The selling of human organs for transplant is illegal in the United States and in most countries; however, such transactions still occur. Transplant hospitals and their personnel have multiple ethical duties, including (1) protecting the safety of their living donors and transplant recipients and (2) protecting the integrity of living donation and transplantation as clinical practices. To date, few psychosocial screening tools exist that pertain specifically to a person's risk or intent of pursuing organ vending (buying or selling). This article presents a series of transplant ethics case consultations that spawned the creation of a set of behavioral prompts for teams to probe with regard to organ vending when screening candidates about their suitability for participation as living donors or transplant recipients. PMID:20929116

  2. Research on MI in Equipoise: The Case of Living Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Zuckoff, Allan; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Residual ambivalence prior to live organ donation has been shown to predict worse physical and psychological outcomes for the donor following surgery. We are studying whether MI can help individuals who have agreed to become living organ donors to resolve residual ambivalence about their decision. In this situation, ethical practice demands that the counselor take up a stance of equipoise, equally welcoming of strengthened resolve to donate or a decision not to do so. This paper describes our adaptations of MI for this unique application. PMID:23106035

  3. A living demonstration of certified organic farming by Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...

  4. Dissolved organic matter composition drives the marine production of brominated very short-lived substances.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yina; Thornton, Daniel C O; Bianchi, Thomas S; Arnold, William A; Shields, Michael R; Chen, Jie; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A

    2015-03-17

    Brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), such as bromoform, are important trace gases for stratospheric ozone chemistry. These naturally derived trace gases are formed via bromoperoxidase-mediated halogenation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. Information on DOM type in relation to the observed BrVSLS concentrations in seawater, however, is scarce. We examined the sensitivity of BrVSLS production in relation to the presence of specific DOM moieties. A total of 28 model DOM compounds in artificial seawater were treated with vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO). Our results show a clear dependence of BrVSLS production on DOM type. In general, molecules that comprise a large fraction of the bulk DOM pool did not noticeably affect BrVSLS production. Only specific cell metabolites and humic acid appeared to significantly enhance BrVSLS production. Amino acids and lignin phenols suppressed enzyme-mediated BrVSLS production and may instead have formed halogenated nonvolatile molecules. Dibromomethane production was not observed in any experiments, suggesting it is not produced by the same pathway as the other BrVSLS. Our results suggest that regional differences in DOM composition may explain the observed BrVSLS concentration variability in the global ocean. Ultimately, BrVSLS production and concentrations are likely affected by DOM composition, reactivity, and cycling in the ocean. PMID:25723123

  5. Drumlin Farm: Resilience through Organic Systems teve Haendler owns the land and has lived

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Drumlin Farm: Resilience through Organic Systems S teve Haendler owns the land and has lived. Practices Mildred's Drumlin Farm is a Certified Naturally Grown operation, which means similar standards or arrive earlier in the season. Steve says that they have definitely seen more bugs at Mildred's Drumlin

  6. Collective decision-making and behavioral polymorphism in group living organisms

    E-print Network

    Nicolis, Stamatios C.

    Collective decision-making and behavioral polymorphism in group living organisms S.C. Nicolis a of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Heydon Laurence Building A08, 2006 NSW, Australia a r t i c l e i June 2008 Available online 3 July 2008 Keywords: Collective decision-making Behavioral polymorphism

  7. Making Nature's Wisdom Public: The Affirmation of Planet Earth as a Living Organism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael J.

    Planet Earth is a living organism that preserves and regenerates itself and shares information with humans through sensations, feelings, and actions. After early humans migrated from their tropical origins to colder climates, they developed technologies to impose their tropical memories on their new surroundings and lost touch with their ancient…

  8. What is Biology? Biology is the study of living organisms and

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    What is Biology? Biology is the study of living organisms and involves observation and analysis of the tree of life. The foundation of biology is based upon the core concepts of evolution: natural selection and speciation. The study of biology is applicable to all facets of life, helping address such major problems

  9. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  10. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  11. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  12. The Patentability of Living Organisms under 35 U.S.C. Section 101: In re Bergy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Examined is the In re Bergy decision in which a divided United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals held that a living micro-organism was patentable under section 101 of the United States Code. Differing views and problems with the decision are also discussed. (JMD)

  13. Bio-Enabled Materials Certain living organisms are remarkably adept at generating materials in complex, three-

    E-print Network

    Nair, Sankar

    , or Adsorption," Energy Environ. Sci., 4 (10) 3980 (2011).) #12;A wide range of cross-cutting bioBio-Enabled Materials Certain living organisms are remarkably adept at generating materials-made processes. For example, diatoms (a type of aquatic algae) generate microscopic glass shells, decorated

  14. Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

    PubMed Central

    Lo Cantore, Pietro; Giorgio, Annalisa; Iacobellis, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii is the main bacterial pathogen of several mushroom species. In this paper we report that strains of P. tolaasii produce volatile substances inducing in vitro mycelia growth inhibition of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. eryngii, and Agaricus bisporus and P. ostreatus basidiome tissue blocks brown discoloration. P. tolaasii strains produced the volatile ammonia but not hydrogen cyanide. Among the volatiles detected by GC–MS, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and 1-undecene were identified. The latter, when assayed individually as pure compounds, led to similar effects noticed when P. tolaasii volatiles natural blend was used on mushrooms mycelia and basidiome tissue blocks. Furthermore, the natural volatile mixture resulted toxic toward lettuce and broccoli seedling growth. In contrast, pure volatiles showed different activity according to their nature and/or doses applied. Indeed, methanethiol resulted toxic at all the doses used, while DMDS toxicity was assessed till a quantity of 1.25 ?g, below which it caused, together with 1-undecene (?10 ?g), broccoli growth increase. PMID:26500627

  15. Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii.

    PubMed

    Lo Cantore, Pietro; Giorgio, Annalisa; Iacobellis, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii is the main bacterial pathogen of several mushroom species. In this paper we report that strains of P. tolaasii produce volatile substances inducing in vitro mycelia growth inhibition of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. eryngii, and Agaricus bisporus and P. ostreatus basidiome tissue blocks brown discoloration. P. tolaasii strains produced the volatile ammonia but not hydrogen cyanide. Among the volatiles detected by GC-MS, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and 1-undecene were identified. The latter, when assayed individually as pure compounds, led to similar effects noticed when P. tolaasii volatiles natural blend was used on mushrooms mycelia and basidiome tissue blocks. Furthermore, the natural volatile mixture resulted toxic toward lettuce and broccoli seedling growth. In contrast, pure volatiles showed different activity according to their nature and/or doses applied. Indeed, methanethiol resulted toxic at all the doses used, while DMDS toxicity was assessed till a quantity of 1.25 ?g, below which it caused, together with 1-undecene (?10 ?g), broccoli growth increase. PMID:26500627

  16. Toward mass producible ordered bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Song, Hyung-Jun; Haberkorn, Niko; Cho, Younghyun; Sung, Seung Hyun; Lee, Chang Hee; Char, Kookheon; Theato, Patrick

    2012-12-13

    A strategy to fabricate nanostructured poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films for organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells by a direct transfer method from a reusable soft replica mold is presented. The flexible polyfluoropolyether (PFPE) replica mold allows low-pressure and low- temperature process condition for the successful transfer of nanostructured P3HT films onto PEDOT/PSS-coated ITO substrates. To reduce the fabrication cost of masters in large area, we employed well-ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a template. Also, we provide a method to fabricate reversed nanostructures by exploiting the self-replication of replica molds. The concept of the transfer method in low temperature with a flexible and reusable replica mold obtained from an AAO template will be a firm foundation for a low-cost fabrication process of ordered OPVs. PMID:22991077

  17. Removal of organics from offshore produced waters using nanofiltration membrane technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dyke, C.A.; Bartels, C.R. )

    1990-08-01

    The separation of oil and produced water mixtures from oil and gas producing wells has traditionally been accomplished by gravity settlers (e.g., multi-phase separators, skimmers, and flotation cells). However, current EPA regulations on the organic content of discharged produced water have reached the limits of these separation techniques. The industry is in need of new technologies to treat these waters. One such technology that the authors have found promising is organics/water separation by nanofiltration membranes.

  18. Primordial Follicle Transplantation within Designer Biomaterial Grafts Produce Live Births in a Mouse Infertility Model.

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, E; Hardy, A N; Boukaidi, S A; Woodruff, T K; Jeruss, J S; Shea, L D

    2015-01-01

    The gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation may result in premature ovarian failure in premenopausal oncology patients. Although autotransplantation of ovarian tissue has led to successful live births, reintroduction of latent malignant cells inducing relapse is a significant concern. In this report, we investigated the design of biomaterial grafts for transplantation of isolated ovarian follicles as a means to preserve fertility. Primordial and primary ovarian follicles from young female mice were extracted and encapsulated into biomaterials for subsequent transplantation into adult mice. Among the formulations tested, aggregated follicles encapsulated within fibrin had enhanced survival and integration with the host tissue following transplantation relative to the fibrin-alginate and fibrin-collagen composites. All mice transplanted with fibrin-encapsulated follicles resumed cycling, and live births were achieved only for follicles transplanted within VEGF-loaded fibrin beads. The extent to which these procedures reduce the presence of metastatic breast cancer cells among the isolated follicles was evaluated, with significantly reduced numbers of cancer cells present relative to intact ovaries. This ability to obtain live births by transplanting isolated primordial and primary follicles, while also reducing the risk of re-seeding disease relative to ovarian tissue transplantation, may ultimately provide a means to preserve fertility in premenopausal oncology patients. PMID:26633657

  19. Primordial Follicle Transplantation within Designer Biomaterial Grafts Produce Live Births in a Mouse Infertility Model

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, E.; Hardy, A. N.; Boukaidi, S. A.; Woodruff, T. K.; Jeruss, J. S.; Shea, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    The gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation may result in premature ovarian failure in premenopausal oncology patients. Although autotransplantation of ovarian tissue has led to successful live births, reintroduction of latent malignant cells inducing relapse is a significant concern. In this report, we investigated the design of biomaterial grafts for transplantation of isolated ovarian follicles as a means to preserve fertility. Primordial and primary ovarian follicles from young female mice were extracted and encapsulated into biomaterials for subsequent transplantation into adult mice. Among the formulations tested, aggregated follicles encapsulated within fibrin had enhanced survival and integration with the host tissue following transplantation relative to the fibrin-alginate and fibrin-collagen composites. All mice transplanted with fibrin-encapsulated follicles resumed cycling, and live births were achieved only for follicles transplanted within VEGF-loaded fibrin beads. The extent to which these procedures reduce the presence of metastatic breast cancer cells among the isolated follicles was evaluated, with significantly reduced numbers of cancer cells present relative to intact ovaries. This ability to obtain live births by transplanting isolated primordial and primary follicles, while also reducing the risk of re-seeding disease relative to ovarian tissue transplantation, may ultimately provide a means to preserve fertility in premenopausal oncology patients. PMID:26633657

  20. Imposing options on people in poverty: the harm of a live donor organ market.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Simon

    2014-03-01

    A prominent defence of a market in organs from living donors says that if we truly care about people in poverty, we should allow them to sell their organs. The argument is that if poor vendors would have voluntarily decided to sell their organs in a free market, then prohibiting them from selling makes them even worse off, at least from their own perspective, and that it would be unconscionably paternalistic to substitute our judgements for individuals' own judgements about what would be best for them. The author shows that this 'Laissez-Choisir Argument' for organ selling rests on a mistake. This is because the claim that it would be better for people in poverty to sell their organs if given the option is consistent with the claim that it would be even better for them to not have the option at all. The upshot is that objections to an organ market need not be at all paternalistic, since we need not accept that the absence of a market makes those in poverty any worse off, even from their own point of view. The author goes on to argue that there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for believing that people in poverty would in fact be harmed by the introduction of a market for live donor organs and that the harm constitutes sufficient grounds for prohibiting a market. PMID:22745109

  1. Biosecurity risks associated with current identification practices of producers trading live pigs at livestock sales.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2008-11-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs produced in Australia is believed to be traded at livestock sales. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with producers (106 and 30 producers, respectively), who traded pigs at livestock sales. The purpose of the study was to gather information on how producers identified their pigs in order to evaluate how these practices may impact the ability to trace pig movements in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak or food safety hazard. Results were analyzed according to herd size (0 to 150 sows, 150+ sows) and location (peri-urban, regional) as prior studies suggested a higher biosecurity risk among smaller farms and due to perceptions that peri-urban farms pose additional risk. Most producers (91.5%) had less than 150 sows and a high proportion (70.8%) resided in regional areas compared with only 29.2% residing in peri-urban areas. A higher proportion of large-scale producers identified their pigs than small-scale producers. A third of small-scale producers reported not identifying breeding stock and most did not identify progeny. The most common forms of on-farm identification used were ear tags for breeding stock and ear notches for progeny. Producers identified breeding stock to assist with mating management and genetic improvement. Ear notches were used to determine the litter of origin of progeny. All large-scale producers owned a registered swine brand and used the official body tattoo for post-farm-gate identification. However, approximately 15% of small-scale producers did not own a registered swine brand, and an additional 8% did not identify their pigs post-farm-gate. Producers were satisfied with tattoos as a methodology for post-farm-gate identification of pigs and considered other methodologies cost-prohibitive. However, variations in the maintenance of the branding equipment, the type of ink used and the time of tattoo application in relation to the animal sale were highlighted during focus group discussions. These results suggest that there is a need for education and extension activities, especially among small-scale pig producers, regarding the benefits of identifying animals on-farm. In addition, increased awareness of the traceability legislation that exists in Australia to meet the National Performance Standards for Livestock Traceability in this country is required. PMID:22444022

  2. Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

  3. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

  4. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  5. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  6. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  7. Method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism wherein a series of negative pressures are externally applied to successive length-wise sections of a lower limb of the organism. The pressures decreasing progressively with distance of said limb sections from the heart of the organism. A casing defines a chamber adapted to contain the limb of the organism and is rigidified to resist collapse upon the application of negative pressures to the interior of the chamber. Seals extend inwardly from the casing for effective engagement with the limb of the organism and, in cooperation with the limb, subdivide the chamber into a plurality of compartments each in negative pressure communicating relation with the limb.

  8. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S... March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water... Standards Directorate''. Notification should be provided to U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Center. In FR...

  9. 77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters of the United States (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard also established an approval process for ballast water management systems (77 FR 17254... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 46 CFR Part 162 RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in...

  10. Why and how to compensate living organ donors: ethical implications of the new Australian scheme.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The Australian Federal Government has announced a two-year trial scheme to compensate living organ donors. The compensation will be the equivalent of six weeks paid leave at the rate of the national minimum wage. In this article I analyse the ethics of compensating living organ donors taking the Australian scheme as a reference point. Considering the long waiting lists for organ transplantations and the related costs on the healthcare system of treating patients waiting for an organ, the 1.3 million AUD the Australian Government has committed might represent a very worthwhile investment. I argue that a scheme like the Australian one is sufficiently well designed to avoid all the ethical problems traditionally associated with attaching a monetary value to the human body or to parts of it, namely commodification, inducement, exploitation, and equality issues. Therefore, I suggest that the Australian scheme, if cost-effective, should represent a model for other countries to follow. Nonetheless, although I endorse this scheme, I will also argue that this kind of scheme raises issues of justice in regard to the distribution of organs. Thus, I propose that other policies would be needed to supplement the scheme in order to guarantee not only a higher number of organs available, but also a fair distribution. PMID:24654885

  11. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

  12. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from < 1 to 100 ?g/L, but total PAHs (the dominant compound class for most CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 ?g/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of ?g/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  13. Artificial cybernetic living individuals based on supramolecular-level organization as dispersed individuals.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    One of the most characteristic features of spontaneously originating biological systems is that their most fundamental structure and especially functioning is based on molecular-level organization. This property is particularly important when natural living individuals composed of organic compounds of carbon are compared with (hypothetical) artificial living individuals based on metals, plastic, glass, silicon, and so on, whose most basic structural and functional units appear at the supramolecular level. The cybernetic definition of a living individual I proposed previously is used in the present work. I argue that artificial, supramolecular living individuals existing self-dependently in the environment of some distant planet must have the form of dispersed individuals composed of several separate subindividuals that are integrated functionally, but not structurally. These subindividuals would be analogous to such modules of human technical civilization as machines, robots, steelworks, chemical plants, electronic factories, power stations, and mines. Such dispersed individuals would resemble colonies of social insects and moles, which are also composed of separate subindividuals (particular insects and moles) carrying out different specialized functions. PMID:21087151

  14. Oral Administration of Live Exopolysaccharide-Producing Pediococcus parvulus, but Not Purified Exopolysaccharide, Suppressed Enterobacteriaceae without Affecting Bacterial Diversity in Ceca of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Öste, Rickard; Holst, Olle; Molin, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota could have an important role in the development of diet- and lifestyle-induced diseases. It has been shown that modulation of the gut microbiota by means of probiotics and prebiotics could improve host health. An oat-based product fermented by the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing organism Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 has been reported to have a bifidogenic effect. To find out whether the effect could be attributed to the EPS or the bacterium, mice were fed a diet supplemented with 2% purified EPS or 108 CFU/g of live P. parvulus 2.6 for 6 weeks. Both supplementations altered the gut microbiota composition but in different directions. Purified EPS not only significantly lowered the microbial diversity (P < 0.001) but decreased the bifidobacterial population (P = 0.01). In contrast, the live EPS-producing bacterium P. parvulus 2.6 antagonized Enterobacteriaceae without disturbing the homeostasis of the cecal microbiota. PMID:23770909

  15. Live Births from Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Jennifer B.; Sylvester, Skylar R.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Mukai, Chinatsu; Lambo, Colleen; Flanders, James A.; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N.; Songsasen, Nucharin; Travis, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in the dog has resisted progress for decades, due to their unique reproductive physiology. This lack of progress is remarkable given the critical role ART could play in conserving endangered canid species or eradicating heritable disease through gene-editing technologies—an approach that would also advance the dog as a biomedical model. Over 350 heritable disorders/traits in dogs are homologous with human conditions, almost twice the number of any other species. Here we report the first live births from in vitro fertilized embryos in the dog. Adding to the practical significance, these embryos had also been cryopreserved. Changes in handling of both gametes enabled this progress. The medium previously used to capacitate sperm excluded magnesium because it delayed spontaneous acrosome exocytosis. We found that magnesium significantly enhanced sperm hyperactivation and ability to undergo physiologically-induced acrosome exocytosis, two functions essential to fertilize an egg. Unlike other mammals, dogs ovulate a primary oocyte, which reaches metaphase II on Days 4–5 after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We found that only on Day 6 are oocytes consistently able to be fertilized. In vitro fertilization of Day 6 oocytes with sperm capacitated in medium supplemented with magnesium resulted in high rates of embryo development (78.8%, n = 146). Intra-oviductal transfer of nineteen cryopreserved, in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived embryos resulted in seven live, healthy puppies. Development of IVF enables modern genetic approaches to be applied more efficiently in dogs, and for gamete rescue to conserve endangered canid species. PMID:26650234

  16. Metal levels in organically and conventionally produced animal and vegetable products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslanba?, Emre; Baydan, Emine

    2013-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc and iron levels were determined in organically and conventionally produced wheat, green lentils, flower honey and eggs that are supplied on different markets in Ankara, Turkey. Their toxicological and nutritional values were compared with national and international limits and literature data. The levels of cadmium and lead in conventionally and organically produced wheat, green lentils, honey and egg were below the limit of detection (LOD), whereas the level of copper was only below LOD in honey and eggs. The levels of Zn and Cu were found to be higher in conventionally produced wheat samples than organically produced ones; whereas the level of Fe in organic products was found to be higher than the conventional products. PMID:24779879

  17. Current Canadian initiatives to reimburse live organ donors for their non-medical expenses.

    PubMed

    Vlaicu, Sorina; Klarenbach, Scott; Yang, Robert C; Dempster, Todd; Garg, Amit X

    2007-01-01

    Living organ donors frequently incur non-medical expenses for travel, accommodation, prescription drugs, loss of income, and child care in conjunction with organ donation. Despite international precedent and widespread public support, Canada currently lacks a unified strategy to reimburse donors for these expenses. In 2005, we communicated with 78 individuals within the field of Canadian transplantation to identify which initiatives for reimbursement of living donors existed in each province. Saskatchewan was the only province in which public employees were granted paid leave for organ donation. Six provincial governments partially reimbursed travel and accommodation. At the federal level, other expenses could be partially reimbursed through an income tax credit, while the Employment Insurance program and the Canada Pension Plan provided funding for donors who become unemployed or develop long-term disability as a result of donation. Charities helped a limited number of patients in financial need through grants and no-interest loans, but funding was generally limited by contributions received. While reimbursing living donors for their non-medical expenses is considered just, existing programs only partially reimburse expenses and are not available in all provinces. Developing future reimbursement policies will remove a disincentive faced by some potential donors, and may increase rates of transplantation in Canada. PMID:19039887

  18. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton-proton collisions at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T. Dos Reis; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Teles, P. Rebello; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.

    2015-04-01

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6 of 8 proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 h of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of events. Limits are presented at 95 % confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass 1000 and a top squark with mass 525 are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 s and 1000. These results are the most stringent constraints on stopped particles to date.

  19. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients. 205.302 Section 205.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  20. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients. 205.302 Section 205.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  1. SYNTHESIS Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms such mobile-agent-based ecosystem service (MABES), pollination, is affected by land-use change land use, market forces and the biology of the organisms involved. Animal-mediated pollination

  2. NEW INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD: A CASE STUDY OF AN ORGANIC PRODUCER

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    and policy recommendations are made. Keywords: governance, sustainability, agri-food networks, organic foodNEW INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD: A CASE STUDY OF AN ORGANIC PRODUCER COOPERATIVE By Gill Seyfang CSERGE Working Paper EDM 04-11 #12;New Initiatives for Sustainable Food: A Case Study

  3. Distributions of short-lived radioactive nuclei produced by young embedded star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco; Holden, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver short-lived radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (? ? 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (? ? 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ?10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM {sub ?} (where 1 pM {sub ?} = 10{sup –12} M {sub ?}). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?{sub SLR} ? 1-5 × 10{sup –19} s{sup –1}. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?{sub CR} ? 10{sup –17} s{sup –1}, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).

  4. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oger, Phil M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

    2008-04-01

    X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms.

  5. Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A.; White, Kiley A.; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnès; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J.; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Petoud, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)–emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb3+ lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb3+ NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation. PMID:24108356

  6. A model for chromosome organization during the cell cycle in live E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuru; Xie, Ping; Wang, Pengye; Li, Ming; Li, Hui; Li, Wei; Dou, Shuoxing

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomal DNA is a highly compact nucleoid. The organization of this nucleoid is poorly understood due to limitations in the methods used to monitor the complexities of DNA organization in live bacteria. Here, we report that circular plasmid DNA is auto-packaged into a uniform dual-toroidal-spool conformation in response to mechanical stress stemming from sharp bending and un-winding by atomic force microscopic analysis. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon was deduced with basic physical principles to explain the auto-packaging behaviour of circular DNA. Based on our observations and previous studies, we propose a dynamic model of how chromosomal DNA in E. coli may be organized during a cell division cycle. Next, we test the model by monitoring the development of HNS clusters in live E. coli during a cell cycle. The results were in close agreement with the model. Furthermore, the model accommodates a majority of the thus-far-discovered remarkable features of nucleoids in vivo. PMID:26597953

  7. A model for chromosome organization during the cell cycle in live E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuru; Xie, Ping; Wang, Pengye; Li, Ming; Li, Hui; Li, Wei; Dou, Shuoxing

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomal DNA is a highly compact nucleoid. The organization of this nucleoid is poorly understood due to limitations in the methods used to monitor the complexities of DNA organization in live bacteria. Here, we report that circular plasmid DNA is auto-packaged into a uniform dual-toroidal-spool conformation in response to mechanical stress stemming from sharp bending and un-winding by atomic force microscopic analysis. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon was deduced with basic physical principles to explain the auto-packaging behaviour of circular DNA. Based on our observations and previous studies, we propose a dynamic model of how chromosomal DNA in E. coli may be organized during a cell division cycle. Next, we test the model by monitoring the development of HNS clusters in live E. coli during a cell cycle. The results were in close agreement with the model. Furthermore, the model accommodates a majority of the thus-far-discovered remarkable features of nucleoids in vivo. PMID:26597953

  8. Live-cell superresolution microscopy reveals the organization of RNA polymerase in the bacterial nucleoid.

    PubMed

    Stracy, Mathew; Lesterlin, Christian; Garza de Leon, Federico; Uphoff, Stephan; Zawadzki, Pawel; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

    2015-08-11

    Despite the fundamental importance of transcription, a comprehensive analysis of RNA polymerase (RNAP) behavior and its role in the nucleoid organization in vivo is lacking. Here, we used superresolution microscopy to study the localization and dynamics of the transcription machinery and DNA in live bacterial cells, at both the single-molecule and the population level. We used photoactivated single-molecule tracking to discriminate between mobile RNAPs and RNAPs specifically bound to DNA, either on promoters or transcribed genes. Mobile RNAPs can explore the whole nucleoid while searching for promoters, and spend 85% of their search time in nonspecific interactions with DNA. On the other hand, the distribution of specifically bound RNAPs shows that low levels of transcription can occur throughout the nucleoid. Further, clustering analysis and 3D structured illumination microscopy (SIM) show that dense clusters of transcribing RNAPs form almost exclusively at the nucleoid periphery. Treatment with rifampicin shows that active transcription is necessary for maintaining this spatial organization. In faster growth conditions, the fraction of transcribing RNAPs increases, as well as their clustering. Under these conditions, we observed dramatic phase separation between the densest clusters of RNAPs and the densest regions of the nucleoid. These findings show that transcription can cause spatial reorganization of the nucleoid, with movement of gene loci out of the bulk of DNA as levels of transcription increase. This work provides a global view of the organization of RNA polymerase and transcription in living cells. PMID:26224838

  9. Seaweeds live in habitats characterized by continuous, time-varying water motion. In the intertidal zone, organisms must

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    Seaweeds live in habitats characterized by continuous, time- varying water motion. In contrast, flows subtidally are more benign, and organisms, particularly seaweeds, may grow quite large and Pterygophora californica using a numerical model that approximates these seaweeds as vertically oriented

  10. Living organisms influence on environmental conditions: pH modulation by amphibian embryos versus aluminum toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Castañaga, Luis Alberto; D'Eramo, José Luis; Jourani, Victoria Platonova

    2015-11-01

    The LC10, 50 and 90/24h of aluminum for Rhinella arenarum embryos at complete operculum stage were 0.55, 0.75 and 1mgAl(3+)/L respectively. Those values did not change significantly by expanding the exposure period till 168h. The aluminum toxicity was evaluated in different pH conditions by means of a citrate buffer resulting for instance, 1mgAl(3+)/L at pH 4, 4.1, 5 and 6 in 100%, 70%, 35% and 0% of lethality respectively. As an outstanding feature, the embryos changed the pH of the maintaining media both in the case of Al(3+) or citrate buffer treatments toward neutral. 10 embryos in 40mL of AMPHITOX solution were able to increase the pH from 4.2 to 7.05, a fact related with a metabolic shift resulting in an increase in nitrogen loss as ammonia. Our study point out the natural selection of the most resistant amphibian embryos both for pH or aluminum as well as the capacity of living organisms (as a population) to alter their chemical environment toward optimal conditions for their survival. As these facts occur at early life stages, it expand the concept that living organisms at ontogenic stages are biomarker of environmental signatures of the evolutionary process (Herkovits, 2006) to a global Onto-Evo concept which imply also the feedback mechanisms from living organisms to shape environmental conditions in a way that benefits them. PMID:26126231

  11. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

  12. Organization of Risk Analysis Codes for Living Evaluations (ORACLE). [Computer system facilitation of NRC operators

    SciTech Connect

    Batt, D.L.; MacDonald, P.E.; Sattison, M.B.; Vesely, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    ORACLE (Organization of Risk Analysis Codes for Living Evaluations) is an integration concept for using risk-based information in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) applications. Portions of ORACLE are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the USNRC. The ORACLE concept consists of related databases, software, user interfaces, processes, and quality control checks allowing a wide variety of regulatory problems and activities to be adressed using current, updated PRA information. The ORACLE concept provides for smooth transitions between on code and the next without pre- or post- processing. 3 figs.

  13. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from conventionally produced milk and provide product verification. Lack of research on interactions between several influential factors and differences in trial complexity and consistency between studies (e.g., sampling period, sample size, reporting of experimental conditions) complicate data interpretation and prevent us from making unequivocal conclusions. The first part of this review provides a detailed summary of individual factors known to influence milk composition. The second part presents an overview of studies that have compared organic and conventional milk and discusses their findings within the framework of the various factors presented in part one. PMID:25497795

  14. N-Chlorotaurine, a Long-Lived Oxidant Produced by Human Leukocytes, Inactivates Shiga Toxin of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Eitzinger, Christian; Ehrlenbach, Silvia; Lindner, Herbert; Kremser, Leopold; Gottardi, Waldemar; Debabov, Dmitri; Anderson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    N-chlorotaurine (NCT), the main representative of long-lived oxidants produced by granulocytes and monocytes, is known to exert broad-spectrum microbicidal activity. Here we show that NCT directly inactivates Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), used as a model toxin secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Bacterial growth and Stx2 production were both inhibited by 2 mM NCT. The cytotoxic effect of Stx2 on Vero cells was removed by ?5.5 mM NCT. Confocal microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the binding of Stx2 to human kidney glomerular endothelial cells was inhibited, and no NCT-treated Stx2 entered the cytosol. Mass spectrometry displayed oxidation of thio groups and aromatic amino acids of Stx2 by NCT. Therefore, long-lived oxidants may act as powerful tools of innate immunity against soluble virulence factors of pathogens. Moreover, inactivation of virulence factors may contribute to therapeutic success of NCT and novel analogs, which are in development as topical antiinfectives. PMID:23139739

  15. Conflict of Interest Policies for Organizations Producing a Large Number of Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Susan L.; Holmer, Haley K.; Burda, Brittany U.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Fu, Rongwei

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. Conclusions/Significance COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines. PMID:22629391

  16. How fast do living organisms move: Maximum speeds from bacteria to elephants and whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Rospars, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Despite their variety and complexity, living organisms obey simple scaling laws due to the universality of the laws of physics. In the present paper, we study the scaling between maximum speed and size, from bacteria to the largest mammals. While the preferred speed has been widely studied in the framework of Newtonian mechanics, the maximum speed has rarely attracted the interest of physicists, despite its remarkable scaling property; it is roughly proportional to length throughout nearly the whole range of running and swimming organisms. We propose a simple order-of-magnitude interpretation of this ubiquitous relationship, based on physical properties shared by life forms of very different body structure and varying by more than 20 orders of magnitude in body mass.

  17. Comparing the microbiological status of pre- and postharvest produce from small organic production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aixia; Pahl, Donna M; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of locally, organically grown produce is increasing in popularity. Organic farms typically produce on a small scale, have limited resources, and adopt low technology harvest and postharvest handling practices. Data on the food safety risk associated with hand harvesting, field packing, and packing-house handling with minimal treatment, at this production scale, are lacking. We followed produce from small organic farms from the field through postharvest handling and packing. Pre- and postharvest produce (177 samples) and water (29 samples) were collected and analyzed quantitatively for Escherichia coli, total coliforms (TC), aerobic bacteria (APC), yeasts, molds (M), and enteric pathogens. No pathogens were recovered. E. coli was detected in 3 (3.6%) of 83 preharvest produce samples, 2 (6.3%) of 32 unwashed and 0 of 42 washed postharvest produce samples, and 10 (34.5%) of 29 water samples. No correlation was found between bacterial levels in irrigation water and those on produce. Postharvest handling without washing was a factor for APC and M counts on tomatoes, with lower frequencies postharvest. Postharvest handling with washing was a factor for leafy greens for TC counts, with higher frequencies postharvest. APC (P = 0.03) and yeast (P = 0.05) counts were higher in preharvest than in unwashed postharvest tomatoes. Washed postharvest leafy greens had higher M counts (P = 0.03) and other washed produce had higher TC counts (P = 0.01) than did their preharvest counterparts. Barriers were found to the use of sanitizer in wash water for leafy greens among small farms using organic practices. Hand harvesting and dry handling did not appear to be associated with a significant food safety risk, but washed leafy greens carried higher levels of some microbial indicators, possibly because of the lack of sanitizer in the wash water. The development of resources and materials customized for this sector of growers could enhance dissemination of information on best practices for handling of leafy greens. PMID:26038895

  18. Evidence on spouse responses to illness as a guide to understanding and studying spouse responses to living organ donation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura; Nolan, Marie; Dudley-Brown, Sharon

    2006-06-01

    Although living kidney donors receive praise from friends and coworkers for their selflessness, recent studies report that members of the immediate family may not be as supportive. Reports of conflict surrounding living organ donation include divorce between the donor and the donor's spouse. The purpose of this review of the literature is to (1) discuss the spousal role when confronted with a partner's illness, (2) explore the current research describing the spouses of patients with heart disease and cancer, various transplant recipients, and living organ donors, and (3) identify the need for future research to explore the experiences and needs of the spouses of living kidney donors. Because the attitudes of donor family members, especially spouses, may affect the decision to donate and the satisfaction with recovery from donation surgery, it is critical to know how the spouses of living kidney donors view kidney donation. This knowledge may be instrumental in promoting family harmony and donor recovery and wellness. PMID:16789700

  19. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  20. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  1. Medicinal Plants and Other Living Organisms with Antitumor Potential against Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luara de Sousa; Bastos, Katherine Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. As a result, it is often associated with a significant amount of suffering and a general decrease in the quality of life. Herbal medicines are recognized as an attractive approach to lung cancer therapy with little side effects and are a major source of new drugs. The aim of this work was to review the medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. The assays were conducted with animals and humans, and Lewis lung carcinoma was the most used experimental model. China, Japan, South Korea, and Ethiopia were the countries that most published studies of species with antitumor activity. Of the 38 plants evaluated, 27 demonstrated antitumor activity. In addition, six other living organisms were cited for antitumor activity against lung cancer. Mechanisms of action, combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, and new technologies to increase activity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment are discussed. This review was based on the NAPRALERT databank, Web of Science, and Chemical Abstracts. This work shows that natural products from plants continue to be a rich source of herbal medicines or biologically active compounds against cancer. PMID:25147575

  2. When the living and the deceased cannot agree on organ donation: a survey of US organ procurement organizations (OPOs).

    PubMed

    Chon, W J; Josephson, M A; Gordon, E J; Becker, Y T; Witkowski, P; Arwindekar, D J; Naik, A; Thistlethwaite, J R; Liao, C; Ross, L F

    2014-01-01

    The legal concept of first person authorization (FPA) is based on the principle that a decision by a person with decision-making capacity should be respected even after he or she dies. Although the transplant community largely supports this concept, its implementation has not been universal. We conducted a web-based survey of all 58 Organ Procurement Organization (OPO)executive directors in the United States to assess OPOs' procurement policies and practices in the context of family objections. All 58 respondents(100%) responded to our survey. All OPOs except one have an online donor registration website. Most OPOs(89%) (51 of 57 respondents) estimated that the frequency of family objecting to organ donation in cases of registered donors was <10%. No OPOs reported the frequency to be higher than 25%. Only 50% (27 of 54) of the OPOs have a written policy on handling family objections. Approximately 80% of the OPOs reported honoring FPA. However, in the past 5 years, 20 OPOs (35%) have not yet participated in organ procurement from a registered deceased donor over family objection. Further research to identify the barriers and possible solutions to implementing FPA is warranted. PMID:24369025

  3. The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes

    PubMed Central

    ?ak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, ?ukasz

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. PMID:25811025

  4. Blood Circulation Laboratory Investigations with Video Are Less Investigative than Instructional Blood Circulation Laboratories with Live Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Mildred A.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using…

  5. Sampling from living organisms: section 3 in Sampling and experiments with biofilms in the environment: chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms, unlike inanimate surfaces, seem to exert some control over their surface microbiota, in many cases maintaining conserved, species-specific microbial communities. Microbial ecologists seek to characterize and identify these microbes to understand the roles they are playing in the larger organism's biology.

  6. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS) Final Rule (77 FR 35268). The rulemaking... (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard is now publishing a document to advise the public that we received four... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 46 CFR Part 162 RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in...

  7. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

  8. Assessment of chronic toxicity of petroleum and produced water components to marine organisms. Final technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cherr, G.N.; Higashi, R.M.; Shenker, J.M.

    1993-05-31

    The objectives of the report were: (1) to determine the effects of produced water exposure in early life stages of marine plants and animals, at the cellular, subcellular, and physiological levels; (2) to determine the effects of produced water exposure on reproduction in marine organisms; and (3) to develop non-invasive approaches for assessing reproductive impairment. The effects of produced water (PW) was assessed on development in three ecologically and economically important species, the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), the giant kelp (macrocystis pyrifera), and tsahe California mussel (Mytilus califonrnianus). To determine the basis for effects of PW on these developing organisms, some fundamental studies were prerequisite. Furthermore, eggs and embryos from adults which were outplanted near the discharge were also studied. Finally, the biochemical response of embryos to PW was also defined.

  9. Associations of free-living bacteria and dissolved organic compounds in a plume of contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Barber, L.B., II

    1992-01-01

    Associations of free-living bacteria (FLB) and dissolved organic contaminants in a 4-km-long plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater were investigated. Abundance of FLB in the core of the plume (as delineated by maximum specific conductance) steadily decreased in the direction of flow from a point 0.25 km downgradient from the source to the toe of the plume. At 0.25 km downgradient, FLB comprised up to 31% of the total bacterial population, but constituted < 7% of the population at 2 km downgradient. Abundance of FLB correlated strongly (r = 0.80 n = 23) with total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in contaminated groundwater between 0.64 and 2.1 km downgradient, although distributions of individual contaminants such as di-, tri- and tetrachloroethene were highly variable, and their association with FLB less clear. Numbers of FLB in the downgradient portion of the plume which is contaminated with branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonate (ABS) surfactants were low (< 5??108/L) in spite of relatively high levels of DOC (up to 4 mg/L). However, abundance of FLB correlated strongly with non-surfactant DOC along vertical transects through the plume. The ratio of FLB to DOC and the ratio of FLB to attached bacteria generally decreased in the direction of flow and, consequently, with the age of the organic contaminants.

  10. The interplay of biomolecules and water at the origin of the active behavior of living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, E.; Stefanini, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Vitiello, G.

    2011-12-01

    It is shown that the main component of living matter, namely liquid water, is not an ensemble of independent molecules but an ensemble of phase correlated molecules kept in tune by an electromagnetic (e.m) field trapped in the ensemble. This field and the correlated potential govern the interaction among biomolecules suspended in water and are in turn affected by the chemical interactions of molecules. In particular, the phase of the coherent fields appears to play an important role in this dynamics. Recent experiments reported by the Montagnier group seem to corroborate this theory. Some features of the dynamics of human organisms, as reported by psychotherapy, holistic medicine and Eastern traditions, are analyzed in this frame and could find a rationale in this context.

  11. Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio

    NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times: a few days, three months, and six months after launch. Once the satellite is in its highly inclined orbit, the microbes are constantly being exposed to space's high-energy radiation while in micro-gravity. The SESLO experiment measures the microbes' population density as they consume the components of the nutrient medium; a metabolism indicator dye included in the medium changes color, enabling quantitative tracking of metabolic activity. Together, these data en-able determination of the effects of the combined exposure to space radiation and microgravity on organism growth, health and survival. The design of the spacecraft, its ability to support Astrobiology goals, and the actual spaceflight data obtained will be presented.

  12. Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Silvey, Andrea B.; Warrick, Louise H.

    2008-05-01

    Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

  13. Living paid organ transplantation results in unacceptably high recipient morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Inston, N G; Gill, D; Al-Hakim, A; Ready, A R

    2005-03-01

    The ethical debate surrounding the payment of living unrelated donors continues despite very little evidence regarding the outcome. The aim of this audit was to identify the scale of the problem and assess the results of patients undergoing these procedures. The large Indo-Asian population within our region has a high demand for renal replacement therapy and transplantation. These patients have a limited chance of receiving a transplant for several reasons and some resort to traveling abroad, against medical advice, to procure an unrelated donor kidney transplant. Following an initial audit in our region, a national audit was conducted within the UK. A total of 23 patients were identified, all of whom had done so against medical advice. Mortality from causes directly related to transplantation was high in this group (35%), as was graft loss. The overall rate of successful transplants was only 44% (overall graft loss was 56%) in the short term. The information regarding both donor and recipient, provided from the transplanting center, was inadequate in all cases. These results, which almost certainly represent an underestimate of an ongoing situation, reinforce the standpoint that organ trading is associated with unacceptable risks and poor outcomes. The basis of this trade in organs is based on monetary rather than clinical criteria and such exploitation of both donor and recipient lead us to conclude that this practice cannot be endorsed and even the most desperate dialysis patients should be reminded of the unacceptable risks involved in this practice. PMID:15848456

  14. Organ Distribution and Bone Tropism of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Living Mice.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Laura; Zoia, Luca; Violatto, Martina B; Previdi, Sara; Talamini, Laura; Sitia, Leopoldo; Nicotra, Francesco; Orlandi, Marco; Salmona, Mario; Recordati, Camilla; Bigini, Paolo; La Ferla, Barbara

    2015-09-14

    Their physicochemical properties and relatively low cost make cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) a potential candidate for future large-scale production in many fields including nanomedicine. Prior to a sustained and responsible development as theranostic agents, robust and reliable data concerning their safety, biocompatibility, and tissue distribution should be provided. In the present study, CNCs were extracted from Whatman filters functionalized with a fluorescent dye, and their interaction with living organisms has been thoroughly assessed. Our experimental evidence demonstrated that CNCs (1) are well tolerated by healthy mice after systemic injection; (2) are rapidly excreted, thus avoiding bioaccumulation in filter organs such as the kidneys and liver; (3) transiently migrate in bones; and (4) are able to penetrate in the cytoplasm of cancer cells without inducing material-related detrimental effects in terms of cell survival. Our results strongly suggest that the peculiar tropism to the bones is due to the chemical interaction between the Ca(2+) of the bone matrix and the active surface of negatively-charged CNCs. This feature, together with the ability to penetrate cancer cells, makes CNCs a potential nanodevice for theranostics in bone tumors. PMID:26226200

  15. Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jamie W.; Berube, Paul M.; Follett, Christopher L.; Waterbury, John B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a vast quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between organic and inorganic forms, directly impacting global cycles of these biologically important elements. Details regarding the chemical composition of DOM produced by marine phytoplankton are sparse, and while often assumed, it is not currently known if phylogenetically distinct groups of marine phytoplankton release characteristic suites of DOM. To investigate the relationship between specific phytoplankton groups and the DOM they release, hydrophobic phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMP) from eight axenic strains was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Identification of DOM features derived from Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Thalassiosira, and Phaeodactylum revealed DOMP to be complex and highly strain dependent. Connections between DOMP features and the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains were identified on multiple levels of phylogenetic distance, suggesting that marine phytoplankton produce DOM that in part reflects its phylogenetic origin. Chemical information regarding the size and polarity ranges of features from defined biological sources was also obtained. Our findings reveal DOMP composition to be partially conserved among related phytoplankton species, and implicate marine DOM as a potential factor influencing microbial diversity in the sea by acting as a link between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community structures. PMID:24748874

  16. Organic and inorganic composition and microbiology of produced waters from Pennsylvania shale gas wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulically fractured shales are becoming an increasingly important source of natural gas production in the United States. This process has been known to create up to 420 gallons of produced water (PW) per day, but the volume varies depending on the formation, and the characteristics of individual hydraulic fracture. PW from hydraulic fracturing of shales are comprised of injected fracturing fluids and natural formation waters in proportions that change over time. Across the state of Pennsylvania, shale gas production is booming; therefore, it is important to assess the variability in PW chemistry and microbiology across this geographical span. We quantified the inorganic and organic chemical composition and microbial communities in PW samples from 13 shale gas wells in north central Pennsylvania. Microbial abundance was generally low (66–9400 cells/mL). Non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) was high (7–31 mg/L) relative to typical shallow groundwater, and the presence of organic acid anions (e.g., acetate, formate, and pyruvate) indicated microbial activity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in four samples (?1 to 11.7 ?g/L): benzene and toluene in the Burket sample, toluene in two Marcellus samples, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in one Marcellus sample. VOCs can be either naturally occurring or from industrial activity, making the source of VOCs unclear. Despite the addition of biocides during hydraulic fracturing, H2S-producing, fermenting, and methanogenic bacteria were cultured from PW samples. The presence of culturable bacteria was not associated with salinity or location; although organic compound concentrations and time in production were correlated with microbial activity. Interestingly, we found that unlike the inorganic chemistry, PW organic chemistry and microbial viability were highly variable across the 13 wells sampled, which can have important implications for the reuse and handling of these fluids

  17. Live attenuated influenza viruses produced in a suspension process with avian AGE1.CR.pIX cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current influenza vaccines are trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated split or subunit vaccines administered intramuscularly, or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) adapted to replicate at temperatures below body temperature and administered intranasally. Both vaccines are considered safe and efficient, but due to differences in specific properties may complement each other to ensure reliable vaccine coverage. By now, licensed LAIV are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. In the near future influenza vaccines for human use will also be available from adherent MDCK or Vero cell cultures, but a scalable suspension process may facilitate production and supply with vaccines. Results We evaluated the production of cold-adapted human influenza virus strains in the duck suspension cell line AGE1.CR.pIX using a chemically-defined medium. One cold-adapted A (H1N1) and one cold-adapted B virus strain was tested, as well as the reference strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). It is shown that a medium exchange is not required for infection and that maximum virus titers are obtained for 1?×?10-6 trypsin units per cell. 1 L bioreactor cultivations showed that 4?×?106 cells/mL can be infected without a cell density effect achieving titers of 1?×?108 virions/mL after 24 h. Conclusions Overall, this study demonstrates that AGE1.CR.pIX cells support replication of LAIV strains in a chemically-defined medium using a simple process without medium exchanges. Moreover, the process is fast with peak titers obtained 24 h post infection and easily scalable to industrial volumes as neither microcarriers nor medium replacements are required. PMID:23110398

  18. Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    E-print Network

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-03-07

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

  19. Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying to jets in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in pp collisions at ?{ s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.

    2015-04-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb-1 of data collected in proton-proton collisions at ?{ s} = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

  20. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  1. Organically versus conventionally grown produce: Common production inputs, nutritional quality, and nitrogen delivery between the two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One distinguishing and over-ridding conclusion found in reviews comparing organically vs. conventionally grown produce is that variables shared alike by organic and conventional produce during production, harvest and post-harvest handling and storage were not applied. As a result, accurate and mean...

  2. A 'NanoSuit' surface shield successfully protects organisms in high vacuum: observations on living organisms in an FE-SEM.

    PubMed

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohta, Isao; Tsutsui, Takami; Matsumoto, Haruko; Shimomura, Masatsugu; Hariyama, Takahiko

    2015-03-01

    Although extremely useful for a wide range of investigations, the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) has not allowed researchers to observe living organisms. However, we have recently reported that a simple surface modification consisting of a thin extra layer, termed 'NanoSuit', can keep organisms alive in the high vacuum (10(-5) to 10(-7) Pa) of the SEM. This paper further explores the protective properties of the NanoSuit surface-shield. We found that a NanoSuit formed with the optimum concentration of Tween 20 faithfully preserves the integrity of an organism's surface without interfering with SEM imaging. We also found that electrostatic charging was absent as long as the organisms were alive, even if they had not been coated with electrically conducting materials. This result suggests that living organisms possess their own electrical conductors and/or rely on certain properties of the surface to inhibit charging. The NanoSuit seems to prolong the charge-free condition and increase survival time under vacuum. These findings should encourage the development of more sophisticated observation methods for studying living organisms in an FE-SEM. PMID:25631998

  3. ``Living polymers'' in organic solvents : stress relaxation in bicopper tetracarboxylate/tert-butyl cyclohexane solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terech, P.; Maldivi, P.; Dammer, C.

    1994-10-01

    Viscoelastic solutions of a bicopper tetracarboxylate complex in tert-butylcyclohexane have been studied by dynamic rheology in a wide range of concentrations (0.5-1.5 % volume fraction). The zero shear viscosity, the elastic modulus, the terminal stress relaxation time and the height of the high-frequency dip, in a Cole-Cole representation of the complex elastic modulus, follow scaling laws. The related exponents are discussed in the context of the physics of “living polymers” : a term used to describe worm-like species undergoing scission/recombination reactions competing mainly with the reptation motions of the chains. The current system, made up of molecular threads (17.5 Å diameter) of Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 in the apolar solvent, is representative of a “living polymer” where, instead of mechanisms involving transient star polymeric crosslinks, a reversible scission mechanism prevails. The dynamics in the high-frequency range evolves from a regime where reptation is the dominant relaxation mechanism to a cross-over regime where “breathing” fluctuations and Rouse motions become important. Large modifications of the stress relaxation function occur for more concentrated systems. The binary system is the first example of a “living polymer” in an organic solvent and exhibits elastic moduli (G ? ca. 120 Pa à ? = 1 %) which are at least 20 times larger than those found for the aqueous “living polymer” systems. Les solutions viscoélastiques d'un tétracarboxylate binucléaire de cuivre dans le tert-butylcyclohexane sont étudiées par rhéologie en mode dynamique dans une gamme étendue de concentrations (0,5 %-15,5 %). La viscosité à gradient nul, le module élastique, le temps terminal de relaxation et la hauteur du puits à haute fréquence, dans une représentation Cole-Cole du module élastique complexe, suivent des lois d'échelles. Les exposants correspondants sont discutés dans le contexte de la physique des “polymères vivants" : un terme utilisé pour décrire des espèces vermiformes subissant des réactions de scission/recombinaison en compétition principalement avec les mouvements de reptation des chaînes. Le système constitué de fils moléculaires (17,5 Å de diamètre) de Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 dans le solvant apolaire est typique de “polymères vivants” où le mécanisme de scission réversible prévaut plutôt que les mécanismes impliquant des nœuds transitoires branchés. La dynamique dans le domaine des hautes fréquences évolue d'un régime où la reptation est le mécanisme de relaxation dominant vers un régime intermédiaire où les modes de “respiration” et de Rouse deviennent importants. D'importantes modifications de la relaxation de contrainte se produisent pour les systèmes concentrés. Le système binaire est le premier exemple de “polymère vivant” en milieu organique et présente des modules élastiques (G ? ca. 120 Pa à ? = 1 %) qui sont au moins 20 fois plus grands que ceux des homologues aqueux.

  4. A time-dependent stopping problem with application to live organ transplants.

    PubMed

    David, I; Yechiali, U

    1985-01-01

    We consider a time-dependent stopping problem and its application to the decision-making process associated with transplanting a live organ. "Offers" (e.g., kidneys for transplant) become available from time to time. The values of the offers constitute a sequence of independent identically distributed positive random variables. When an offer arrives, a decision is made whether to accept it. If it is accepted, the process terminates. Otherwise, the offer is lost and the process continues until the next arrival, or until a moment when the process terminates by itself. Self-termination depends on an underlying lifetime distribution (which in the application corresponds to that of the candidate for a transplant). When the underlying process has an increasing failure rate, and the arrivals form a renewal process, we show that the control-limit type policy that maximizes the expected reward is a nonincreasing function of time. For non-homogeneous Poisson arrivals, we derive a first-order differential equation for the control-limit function. This equation is explicitly solved for the case of discrete-valued offers, homogeneous Poisson arrivals, and Gamma distributed lifetime. We use the solution to analyze a detailed numerical example based on actual kidney transplant data. PMID:10300149

  5. Imaging Mitochondrial Organization in Living Primate Oocytes and Embryos using Multiphoton Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squirrell, J. M.; Schramm, R. D.; Paprocki, A. M.; Wokosin, D. L.; Bavister, B. D.

    2003-06-01

    We employed multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) to image changes in mitochondrial distribution in living rhesus monkey embryos. This method of imaging does not impair development; thus, the same specimen can be visualized multiple times at various developmental stages. Not only does this increase the amount of information that can be gathered on a single specimen but it permits the correlation of early events with subsequent development in the same specimen. Here we demonstrate the utility of MPLSM for determining changes in mitochondrial organization at various developmental stages and show that rhesus zygotes possess a distinct accumulation of mitochondria between the pronuclei prior to syngamy. We present evidence that suggests that this pronuclear accumulation may be positively correlated with development to the blastocyst stage—in the same embryo—thereby illustrating how MPLSM can be used to correlate cellular dynamics of primate oocytes and early embryos with their developmental potential. Understanding the relationship between mitochondrial distribution and the subsequent development of mammalian embryos, particularly primates, will increase our ability to improve embryo culture technologies, including those used for human assisted reproduction.

  6. The space exposure platforms BIOPAN and EXPOSE to study living organisms in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, W.

    BIOPAN and EXPOSE are two European space exposure platforms developed for the European Space Agency by Kayser-Threde GmbH Munich Germany to offer flight opportunities to the science community of exo astrobiology research in low earth orbit Both platforms are conceived for the research on the behaviour of living organisms in the environment of space and on simulated conditions of other planets Mars The conditions for a possible transfer of life between planets can be studied Both facilities can also be used for materials and components validation and as test bed for advanced technologies envisaged for future exploration missions radio-protection miniaturized devices electronic components Since 1992 BIOPAN has flown five times aboard the Russian FOTON re-entry capsule 25 experiments in exo astrobiology radiation biology and radiation dosimetry have been conducted so far The pan-shaped experiment container BIOPAN can be installed onto the outer surface of its carrier satellite The orbital flight duration is typically two weeks The re-entry capsule with its experiments is recovered after landing and the experiment samples are returned to the ground laboratories of the scientific investigators for post-flight analysis Experiments flown so far with BIOPAN include bacterial spores mixed with Martian soil analogues to test the alleged toxicity of the Martian soil while irradiated in space by solar UV at dose and wavelength levels comparable to those on Mars experiment MARSTOX permafrost soil samples with their embedded natural ancient

  7. The influence of the pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on living organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pekaric-Nadj, N.; Lazetic, B.; Sep, D.

    1991-03-11

    The authors treated 96 patients with pseudoartroses by means of PEMF with the efficiency of 86%. They also treated 19 patients with decubitus and had improvements in all cases. In 58 PEMF treated asthma patients 80% improved. In 41 patients suffering from angina pectoris 90% reduce the need for nitroglycerine lingualetes. In order to eliminate the influence of the placebo and the sinergy, they prepared some experiments with barely and wheat seeds. All this experiments were performed several times with very similar results: Barley seeds were pretreated by PEMF for 1 hour and then planted into Petri's dish. In the stimulated dish, after 72 hours of germination there were three times more seeds with 6 roots then in the control. The embryos of the stimulated dish were stronger and longer compared to the controls. In the other experiment, fungi inoculated wheat seeds were pretreated for 4 hours by PEMF. After 72 hours of germination in a Petri's dish the disease was inhibited compared to the control dish. From all this they conclude that almost every process in a living organism is affected and might be controlled by PEMF.

  8. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  9. The Thermodynamics of the living organisms: entropy production in the cell

    E-print Network

    Gomez, Araceli Venegas

    2014-01-01

    Trying to identify the entropy production within a cell has been part of debates and studies in the last century. First the idea was to make a resemblance of a cell with a Carnot engine, which is the most thermodynamically perfect machine. This approach was clearly not the best, since the yield achieved within a cell cannot be ideal, but can we even measure it? Several models approach the living cell, since the very simple one (e.g. Prigogine model) to more elaborated proposals. The concept of entropy has been the centre of discussions within several scientific fields. To interpret how entropy is produced in the complicated system of a cell is as hard as to understand how life originated at the first place. Understanding the way a cell works is key in biology, medicine, and multiple other scientific fields. Thermodynamics is essential in multitude of processes around us. Trying to identify the entropy production within a cell has been past of debates and studies in the last century. I give here an insight of ...

  10. Molecular Crowding of Collagen: A Pathway to Produce Highly-Organized Collagenous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Nima; Karmelek, Kathryn N.; Paten, Jeffrey. A; Zareian, Ramin; DiMasi, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Collagen in vertebrate animals is often arranged in alternating lamellae or in bundles of aligned fibrils which are designed to withstand in vivo mechanical loads. The formation of these organized structures is thought to result from a complex, large-area integration of individual cell motion and locally-controlled synthesis of fibrillar arrays via cell-surface fibripositors (direct matrix printing). The difficulty of reproducing such a process in vitro has prevented tissue engineers from constructing clinically useful load-bearing connective tissue directly from collagen. However, we and others have taken the view that long-range organizational information is potentially encoded into the structure of the collagen molecule itself, allowing the control of fibril organization to extend far from cell (or bounding) surfaces. We here demonstrate a simple, fast, cell-free method capable of producing highly-organized, anistropic collagen fibrillar lamellae de novo which persist over relatively long-distances (tens to hundreds of microns). Our approach to nanoscale organizational control takes advantage of the intrinsic physiochemical properties of collagen molecules by inducing collagen association through molecular crowding and geometric confinement. To mimic biological tissues which comprise planar, aligned collagen lamellae (e.g. cornea, lamellar bone or annulus fibrosus), type I collagen was confined to a thin, planar geometry, concentrated through molecular crowding and polymerized. The resulting fibrillar lamellae show a striking resemblance to native load-bearing lamellae in that the fibrils are small, generally aligned in the plane of the confining space and change direction en masse throughout the thickness of the construct. The process of organizational control is consistent with embryonic development where the bounded planar cell sheets produced by fibroblasts suggest a similar confinement/concentration strategy. Such a simple approach to nanoscale organizational control of structure not only makes de novo tissue engineering a possibility, but also suggests a clearer pathway to organization for fibroblasts than direct matrix printing. PMID:22846420

  11. Surface enhanced Raman scattering on Tardigrada--towards monitoring and imaging molecular structures in live cryptobiotic organisms.

    PubMed

    Kneipp, Harald; Møbjerg, Nadja; Jørgensen, Aslak; Bohr, Henrik G; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Katrin

    2013-10-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans which are able to survive extreme physical and chemical conditions by entering a stress tolerant state called cryptobiosis. At present, the molecular mechanisms behind cryptobiosis are still poorly understood. We show that surface enhanced Raman scattering supported by plasmonic gold nanoparticles can measure molecular constituents and their local distribution in live tardigrades. Surface enhanced Raman signatures allow to differentiate between two species and indicate molecular structural differences between tardigrades in water and in a dry state. This opens new avenues for exploring cryptobiosis by studying molecular changes in live cryptobiotic organisms. PMID:23225705

  12. Organics Produced by Irradiation of Frozen and Liquid HCN Solutions: Implications for Chemical Evolution Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colín-García, M.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), an important precursor of organic compounds, is widely present in extraterrestrial environments. HCN is also readily synthesized in prebiotic simulation experiments. To gain insight into the radiation chemistry of one of the most important and highly versatile constituents of cometary ices, we examined the behavior of over-irradiated frozen and liquid HCN solutions under ionizing radiation. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at a dose range from 0 up to 419 kGy. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to follow the process. The analyses confirmed that gamma-ray irradiation of liquid HCN solutions generates several organic products. Many of them are essential to life; we verified the presence of carboxylic acids (some of them members of the Krebs cycle) as well as free amino acids and urea. These are the first studies to reveal the presence of these compounds in experiments performed at low temperatures and bulk irradiation. Organic material was produced even at low temperatures and low radiation doses. This work strongly supports the presumption that, as a parent molecule, HCN played a central essential role in the process of chemical evolution on early Earth, comets, and other extraterrestrial environments.

  13. Abstract--In order to understand the underlying structural and behavioral mechanisms of living organisms, scientist

    E-print Network

    Weitzenfeld, Alfredo

    simulation system. Index Terms-- robot, schema, neural, embedded, distributed I. INTRODUCTION The study (Results from Experiments with Physical Devices) New Hypotheses Figure 1. Framework for the study of livingAbstract--In order to understand the underlying structural and behavioral mechanisms of living

  14. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

    2013-12-01

    The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2?m filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10?M C6H12O6), ammonium (1?M NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1?M K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which can be linked to this bacterial production. FISH analysis showed percentage abundance of Pelagibacter ubique (SAR 11) and of Alteromonas. On-going and future work will ascertain if specific microbial communities produce CDOM more readily than others, and if these different populations produce varying fluorescence peaks, thus indicating a range of chromophoric groups being produced by bacteria. An additional suite of probes will be used for further FISH analysis to identify percentages of other populations, and seasonal/temporal variations will be investigated.

  15. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

  16. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

  17. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  18. Distribution of living benthic foraminifera off the Douro river (western Iberian margin): the importance of the terrestrial organic matter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, Jerome; Dessandier, Pierre-Antoine; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gremare, Antoine; Deflandre, Bruno; Sinnighe-Damste, Jaap

    2014-05-01

    Living (stained) benthic foraminifera assemblages and geochemical characterization of the organic matter (phytopigments, amino acids, ?13Coc, BIT) were investigated on a cross-margin transect off the Douro River (Northern Portuguese margin) in order to assess the role of the quality of organic matter on the distribution of live benthic foraminifera. For this, 5 stations ranging from 50 to 2000 m depth were collected in March 2011 about one month after the Douro River annual flood. Faunal abundances generally decrease from the coast to the slope with maximum total densities of 3051 ind./50 cm3 in the mudbelt (Q50=32µm) at 100 m and minimum density of 63 ind./50 cm3 found at 500 m water depth where grain size is coarse (Q50=190µm). Faunas of the shallow most station are dominated by Ammonia becarii, Eggerella scabra, Bulimina aculeata and Nonion scaphum while N. scaphum and to a lesser extent Uvigerina bifurcata dominate the assemblages at 100 m. The deepest stations are dominated by Uvigerina mediterranea, Hoeglundina elegans and Reophax scorpiurus. In general, live benthic foraminiferal densities are higher where the indicators of organic matter are more concentrated. However, some species appear to have strong affinities with Chl-a (e.g., N. scaphum, U. bifurcata), while others (A. becarii, E. Scabra, B. aculeata) are more abundant where labile organic matter is high as show by the EHAA/THAA amino acid ratio. The species that show a good correlation with Chl-a also show affinity with organic matter of terrestrial origin as show by the ?13Coc suggesting 1) that Chl-a measured in the coastal zone is not only marine and 2) that land plant derived organic matter could be an important source of food for marine benthic communities.

  19. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic ingredients must be calculated by: (1) Dividing the total net weight (excluding water and... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...

  20. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic ingredients must be calculated by: (1) Dividing the total net weight (excluding water and... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...

  1. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic ingredients must be calculated by: (1) Dividing the total net weight (excluding water and... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...

  2. Pecuniary and non-pecuniary incentives to increase the rate of organ donations from the living: a moral exploration.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Michael Y

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving. PMID:23908808

  3. [Water homeostasis in the living: molecular organization, osmoregulatory reflexes and evolution].

    PubMed

    Acher, R

    2002-06-01

    Human body weight is about 70% water; 55% of the water are in cells and 45% in extracellular compartments, mainly body fluids. Each compartment has its own osmoregulatory system. The mechanisms of intracellular osmoregulation likely appeared with the cell itself, i.e. in primitive prokaryotes, some 3.8 billions years ago. Osmotic stress responses observed in present-day bacteria, yeast, plant and animals cells in culture are very similar. Variations in the cell volume entail an extension or retraction of plasma membrane that activates mechanically-gated ion channels or mechanoreceptors. Some of them have been cloned from E. coli, the nematode C. elegans, the drosophila. Osmotic stress determines an intracellular cascade of transactivations, the last transcription factor binding to a Tonicity response element (TonE) of osmoprotective genes. These genes encode enzymes synthesizing compatible osmolytes that reequilibrate the osmotic pressure. Volume and osmolality of the biological fluids (le milieu intérieur) are regulated by neuroendocrine reflexes involving an afferent neural limb from baro- and osmo-receptors to hypothalamus and an efferent endocrine limb from neurosecretory cells to target cells, the hydroosmotic cells localized in osmoregulatory organs. Afferent signals trigger the biosynthesis and the processing of neurohypophyseal preprohormones in magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus. Vasopressin in mammais and vasotocin in other vertebrates, endowed with antidiuretic and antinatriuretic properties, act on hydroosmotic cells localized in the nephron collecting duct. A specific vasopressin receptor, the V2 type receptor, located in the basolateral membrane of the principal cells, is coupled with an heterotridimeric protein Gs that activates adenylate cyclase. The cAMP product, in turn, stimulates the protein kinase A (PKA). The latter mobilizes 5 effectors located in the apical membrane: 1) the water channel aquaporin 2; 2) the urea transporter UT1; 3) the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel ENaC; 4) the inward-rectifying potassium channel ROM-K1; 5) the chloride channel CFTR. Modulation of each effector is ensured by an A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). The effectors are transported from cytosol to apical membrane through transport vesicles equipped with membrane fusion proteins (such as VAMP2) that recognize specific apical membrane proteins (such as syntaxins). Water flows into principal cells from collecting duct lumen through AQP2 and flows out to interstitium through AQP3 and AQP4 and finally reachs blood circulation through AQP1 capillaries. Vasopressin orchestrates the live effectors so as to keep water and solutes reabsorptions in balance with volaemia and osmolality set points. PMID:12193876

  4. Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to Pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Hatew, Bayissa; Delessa, Tenagne; Zakin, Vered; Gollop, Natan

    2011-10-01

    Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum vN. The antimicrobial substance produced by this bacterium was designated vN-1 and exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against many important pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Erwinia amylovova. vN-1 was determined to be thermostable, insensitive to pH values ranging from 2.0 to 8.0, resistant to various organic solvents and to enzymatic inactivation. The inhibition kinetics displayed a bactericidal mode of action. This study revealed an antimicrobial substance with low molecular mass of less than 1 kDa as determined by ultrafiltration and having features not previously reported for LAB isolated from chicken intestines. The detection of this antimicrobial substance addresses an important aspect of biotechnological control agents of spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp. and promises the possibility for preservation of refrigerated poultry meat. Practical Application:? The newly characterized antimicrobial substance and designated as vN-1 may have the potential to be used in food preservation. PMID:21913924

  5. Laboratory Investigations of the Complex Refractory Organic Material Produced from Irradiation of Pluto Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sanford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Much of Pluto's surface consists of N2 ice with smaller amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Despite the low temperature (approximately 45K), chemistry can be driven in the surface ices by radiation processing such as cosmic ray bombardment. When cosmic rays strike the surface, much of their energy is dispersed in the form of secondary electrons, which in turn drive much of the resulting chemical reactions. Laboratory experiments designed to simulate the conditions on these icy bodies may provide insight into this chemistry. Significant progress has been made in the laboratory toward understanding the smaller, simple compounds produced in the solid phase by radiation processing of (N2, CH4, CO) ices (Bohn et al. 1994; Moore & Hudson 2003; Hodyss et al. 2011; Kim and Kaiser 2012). Recently Materese et al. (2014) used a variety of techniques to better characterize the refractory materials produced from the UV photo-irradiation of N2:CH4:CO ices. However, because Pluto's atmosphere is optically thick to Lyman-alpha UV radiation it is important to re-examine the results using an alternate radiation source. Our latest work has consisted of the analysis of refractory materials produced from the electron bombardment of low temperature N2(-), CH4(-), and CO(-)containing ices (100:1:1). The ice mixture was chosen to be analogous to the known surface ices on Pluto and the radiation source was chosen to mimic the secondary electrons produced by cosmic rays bombardment. The residues were studied using multiple chemical techniques including, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic residues produced in these experiments can be seen as an analog for the refractory component of the surface of Pluto, and are compared with the residues previously obtained from UV photo-irradiation. UV and near- IR spectroscopy of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon during the encounter with NASA's New Horizons spacecraft in 2015, will give the first close-up measurements of ices and their photoproducts. Laboratory measurements and experiments will provide a better context for the data returned by the spacecraft.

  6. The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which, primarily owing to milk's nutritional and antimicrobial content1 . Lactation, the synthesis and secretion of milk, is made possible by the architecture of the gland. Like other organs used for fluid transport

  7. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, L O; Ekowati, Y; Neu, T R; Kleijn, J M; Winters, H; Amy, G; Schippers, J C; Kennedy, M D

    2015-04-15

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4 ?m). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms. PMID:25682049

  8. Reimbursing Live Organ Donors for Incurred Non-Medical Expenses: A Global Perspective on Policies and Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sickand, M.; Cuerden, M. S.; Klarenbach, S. W.; Ojo, A. O.; Parikh, C. R.; Boudville, N.; Garg, A. X.

    2015-01-01

    Methods to reimburse living organ donors for the non-medical expenses they incur have been implemented in some jurisdictions and are being considered in others. A global understanding of existing legislation and programs would help decision makers implement and optimize policies and programs. We searched for and collected data from countries that practice living organ donation. We examined legislation and programs that facilitate reimbursement, focusing on policy mechanisms, eligibility criteria, program duration and types of expenses reimbursed. Of 40 countries, reimbursement is expressly legal in 16, unclear in 18, unspecified in 6 and expressly prohibited in 1. Donor reimbursement programs exist in 21 countries; 6 have been enacted in the last 5 years. Lost income is reimbursed in 17 countries, while travel, accommodation, meal and childcare costs are reimbursed in 12 to 19 countries. Ten countries have comprehensive programs, where all major cost categories are reimbursed to some extent. Out-of-country donors are reimbursed in 10 jurisdictions. Reimbursement is conditional on donor income in 7 countries, and recipient income in 2 countries. Many nations have programs that help living donors with their financial costs. These programs differ in operation and scope. Donors in other regions of the world are without support. PMID:19788503

  9. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order... by a Board of directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national basis;...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order... by a Board of directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national basis;...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order... by a Board of directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national basis;...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order... by a Board of directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national basis;...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order... by a Board of directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national basis;...

  19. Fossil identification activity Standard: Comparing fossils to each other or to living organisms reveals features of

    E-print Network

    . Icaronycteris XI6a, aka" bat" 4. Boney Fish (Knightera) XI2c, (1 piece) 5. Megalodon tooth XIa 6. Dinosaur skin imprint, (unkown) XI4a-4 7. Dinosaur foot Imprint, therapoda XI4a-1 8. Trilobite, VIIIa Form groups do you think so? 5. When do you think the animal lived? (before, after, or during the dinosaur ages

  20. Intestinal Carriage of Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms: Current Status of Surveillance Methods.

    PubMed

    Viau, Roberto; Frank, Karen M; Jacobs, Michael R; Wilson, Brigid; Kaye, Keith; Donskey, Curtis J; Perez, Federico; Endimiani, Andrea; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenemases have become a significant mechanism for broad-spectrum ?-lactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. Intestinal carriage of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) is an important source of transmission. Isolation of carriers is one strategy that can be used to limit the spread of these bacteria. In this review, we critically examine the clinical performance, advantages, and disadvantages of methods available for the detection of intestinal carriage of CPOs. Culture-based methods (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] protocols, chromogenic media, specialized agars, and double-disk synergy tests) for detecting carriage of CPOs are convenient due to their ready availability and low cost, but their limited sensitivity and long turnaround time may not always be optimal for infection control practices. Contemporary nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) such as real-time PCR, hybridization assays, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), or a combined culture and NAAT approach may provide fast results and/or added sensitivity and specificity compared with culture-based methods. Infection control practitioners and clinical microbiologists should be aware of the strengths and limitations of available methods to determine the most suitable approach for their medical facility to fit their infection control needs. PMID:26511484

  1. Carotenoid Content in Organically Produced Wheat: Relevance for Human Nutritional Health on Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Olsson, Marie E.; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 spring and winter wheat genotypes were analyzed for carotenoid content and composition. Investigated genotypes were divided into four genotype groups i.e., spelt, landraces, old cultivars and primitive wheat. The results showed a high level of variation among the genotypes in amount of carotenoids in the grain with high values (around 4 mg/Kg) especially in one of the genotypes—Öland 8. Lutein was the most common carotenoid in all the investigated genotypes, contributing 70%–90% of the carotenoids in the grain. Variation in carotenoid content and composition was found not only among genotypes, but also between genotype groups and wheat type, although there is a need to analyze more genotypes to confirm the differences found between groups and types. This study showed that 40% of the daily requirements of lutein can be achieved from the genotypes with the highest lutein content (Öland 8) produced using organic farming through the average human consumption of 200 grams of wheat per day. Furthermore, this study showed, by the use of principal component analyses, an opportunity to select genotypes combining high values of certain nutritional compounds. By a further breeding and commercial production of such genotypes, the nutritional value of wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:26540066

  2. Studies on the biology of the crisamicin-producing organism Micromonospora purpureochromogenes subsp. celinoensis

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.A. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A Micromonospora isolate, RV-101, obtained from the Red V Coconut Company in the Philippines, produces a new complex of antibiotics, the crisamicins. Using standard taxonomic methods for the genus Micromonospora, including micromorphology, growth characteristics on select media, whole cell analysis of chemical composition, and carbohydrate utilization patterns, the organism was classified as Micromonospora purpureochromogenes subsp. celinoensis. The chief character used in this classification was the production of a dark-brown diffusible pigment on media containing complex sources of nitrogen. The biosynthesis of crisamicin A was investigated by the technique of /sup 13/C acetate feeding and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. Crisamicin A was found to be synthesized from acetate via the polyketide biosynthetic pathway. In addition, the assignment of one of two possible structures, differing in the position of phenolic hydroxyl groups, and in the point of linkage between the two monomers of the molecule, was made using the labeling data. The structure determined demonstrates that crisamicin A is unique among the benzoisochromanequinone antibiotics, in that it lacks an oxygen atom at position C-8.

  3. Producing surfactant-synthesized nanomaterials in situ on a building substrate, without volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Illescas, Juan F; Mosquera, Maria J

    2012-08-01

    This article describes a sol-gel route for nanomaterials production, without volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These materials are simply obtained by mixing a silica oligomer with a non-ionic surfactant under ultrasonic agitation. The surfactant acts as sol-gel transition catalyst and also as an agent that directs the pore structure of the material, reducing capillary pressure during drying. Thus, a crack-free monolithic material is produced. We also synthesize a novel product with hydrophobic properties by adding OH terminal-polydimethylsiloxane to the starting sol. Importantly, since our synthesis does not require calcination or other additional procedures, the sol can be applied directly onto substrates, particularly the external surface of buildings. Thus, an application of these nanomaterials is to restore and to protect building substrates. Our in-depth investigation of the structure of these materials, using several techniques (physisorption, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, nuclear resonance magnetic spectroscopy), reveals that they are composed of silica particles as a result of the role played by n-octylamine. In the hybrid materials, polydimethylsiloxane acts to form bridges linking the silica particles. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of these products for consolidating one particular building stone and making it hydrophobic. PMID:22803788

  4. Characterization of a mitomycin-binding drug resistance mechanism from the producing organism, Streptomyces lavendulae.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, P J; Johnson, D A; August, P R; Liu, H W; Sherman, D H

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the diversity of mechanisms involved in cellular self-protection against the antitumor antibiotic mitomycin C (MC), DNA fragments from the producing organism (Streptomyces lavendulae) were introduced into Streptomyces lividans and transformants were selected for resistance to the drug. Subcloning of a 4.0-kb BclI fragment revealed the presence of an MC resistance determinant, mrd. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified an open reading frame consisting of 130 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 14,364. Transcriptional analysis revealed that mrd is expressed constitutively, with increased transcription in the presence of MC. Expression of mrd in Escherichia coli resulted in the synthesis of a soluble protein with an Mr of 14,400 that conferred high-level cellular resistance to MC and a series of structurally related natural products. Purified MRD was shown to function as a drug-binding protein that provides protection against cross-linking of DNA by preventing reductive activation of MC. PMID:9045843

  5. Carotenoid Content in Organically Produced Wheat: Relevance for Human Nutritional Health on Consumption.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Olsson, Marie E; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 spring and winter wheat genotypes were analyzed for carotenoid content and composition. Investigated genotypes were divided into four genotype groups i.e., spelt, landraces, old cultivars and primitive wheat. The results showed a high level of variation among the genotypes in amount of carotenoids in the grain with high values (around 4 mg/Kg) especially in one of the genotypes-Öland 8. Lutein was the most common carotenoid in all the investigated genotypes, contributing 70%-90% of the carotenoids in the grain. Variation in carotenoid content and composition was found not only among genotypes, but also between genotype groups and wheat type, although there is a need to analyze more genotypes to confirm the differences found between groups and types. This study showed that 40% of the daily requirements of lutein can be achieved from the genotypes with the highest lutein content (Öland 8) produced using organic farming through the average human consumption of 200 grams of wheat per day. Furthermore, this study showed, by the use of principal component analyses, an opportunity to select genotypes combining high values of certain nutritional compounds. By a further breeding and commercial production of such genotypes, the nutritional value of wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:26540066

  6. Biocide effects of volatile organic compounds produced by potential biocontrol rhizobacteria on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    Giorgio, Annalisa; De Stradis, Angelo; Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    Six rhizobacteria isolated from common bean and able to protect bean plants from the common bacterial blight (CBB) causal agent, were in vitro evaluated for their potential antifungal effects toward different plant pathogenic fungi, mostly soil-borne. By dual culture assays, the above bacteria resulted producing diffusible and volatile metabolites which inhibited the growth of the majority of the pathogens under study. In particular, the latter substances highly affected the mycelium growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains, one of which was selected for further studies either on mycelium or sclerotia. Gas chromatographic analysis of the bacterial volatiles led to the identification of an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Time course studies showed the modification of the VOCs profile along a period of 5 days. In order to evaluate the single detected VOC effects on fungal growth, some of the pure compounds were tested on S. sclerotiorum mycelium and their minimal inhibitory quantities were determined. Similarly, the minimal inhibitory quantities on sclerotia germination were also defined. Moreover, observations by light and transmission electron microscopes highlighted hyphae cytoplasm granulation and ultrastructural alterations at cell organelles, mostly membranes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. The membranes appeared one of the primary targets of bacterial volatiles, as confirmed by hemolytic activity observed for the majority of pure VOCs. However, of interest is the alteration observed on mitochondria as well. PMID:26500617

  7. Collapsing Aged Culture of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Produces Compound(s) Toxic to Photosynthetic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Assaf; Sendersky, Eleonora; Carmeli, Shmuel; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton mortality allows effective nutrient cycling, and thus plays a pivotal role in driving biogeochemical cycles. A growing body of literature demonstrates the involvement of regulated death programs in the abrupt collapse of phytoplankton populations, and particularly implicates processes that exhibit characteristics of metazoan programmed cell death. Here, we report that the cell-free, extracellular fluid (conditioned medium) of a collapsing aged culture of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is toxic to exponentially growing cells of this cyanobacterium, as well as to a large variety of photosynthetic organisms, but not to eubacteria. The toxic effect, which is light-dependent, involves oxidative stress, as suggested by damage alleviation by antioxidants, and the very high sensitivity of a catalase-mutant to the conditioned medium. At relatively high cell densities, S. elongatus cells survived the deleterious effect of conditioned medium in a process that required de novo protein synthesis. Application of conditioned medium from a collapsing culture caused severe pigment bleaching not only in S. elongatus cells, but also resulted in bleaching of pigments in a cell free extract. The latter observation indicates that the elicited damage is a direct effect that does not require an intact cell, and therefore, is mechanistically different from the metazoan-like programmed cell death described for phytoplankton. We suggest that S. elongatus in aged cultures are triggered to produce a toxic compound, and thus, this process may be envisaged as a novel regulated death program. PMID:24959874

  8. Micro-Radiography of Living Biological Organisms with MEDIPIX2 Detector and Application of Various Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammer, Jiri; Sopko, Vit; Jakubek, Jan; Weyda, Frantisek; Benes, Jiri; Zahorovsky, Julian

    2012-08-01

    We describe a newly developed radiographic system equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector and a micro-focus FeinFocus X-ray tube tabletop. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by the X-ray tube. The digital pixel detectors of the Medipix family represent a highly efficient type of imaging devices with high spatial resolution better than 1?m, and unlimited dynamic range allowing single particle of radiation and to determine their energies. The setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in vivo observations with various contrast agents (iodine and lanthanum nitrate). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of application of iodine and lanthanum nitrate contrast agents as tracers in various insects as model organisms. The iodine contrast agent increases the absorption of X-rays and this leads to better resolution of internal structures of biological organisms, and especially the various cavities, pores, etc. Micro-radiographic imaging helps to detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

  9. A Graphical Journey of Innovative Organic Architectures that Have Improved Our Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Nicholas A.; Brichacek, Matthew; Njardarson, Jon T.

    2010-01-01

    A new free graphical teaching tool that highlights the beautiful organic architectures of the top selling pharmaceuticals is detailed on two posters. In addition to the multitude of teaching and data-mining opportunities these posters offer, they were also created to emphasize the central role organic chemists play in the development of new…

  10. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

  11. Effect of Organic Diet Intervention on Pesticide Exposures in Young Children Living in Low-Income Urban and Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations. Results For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young children. Citation Bradman A, Quirós-Alcalá L, Castorina R, Aguilar Schall R, Camacho J, Holland NT, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. 2015. Effect of organic diet intervention on pesticide exposures in young children living in low-income urban and agricultural communities. Environ Health Perspect 123:1086–1093;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408660 PMID:25861095

  12. Novel Reporter for Faithful Monitoring of ERK2 Dynamics in Living Cells and Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Sipieter, François; Cappe, Benjamin; Gonzalez Pisfil, Mariano; Spriet, Corentin; Bodart, Jean-François; Cailliau-Maggio, Katia; Vandenabeele, Peter; Héliot, Laurent; Riquet, Franck B.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling of ERK1/2 phosphorylation from subcellular localization is essential towards the understanding of molecular mechanisms that control ERK1/2-mediated cell-fate decision. ERK1/2 non-catalytic functions and discoveries of new specific anchors responsible of the subcellular compartmentalization of ERK1/2 signaling pathway have been proposed as regulation mechanisms for which dynamic monitoring of ERK1/2 localization is necessary. However, studying the spatiotemporal features of ERK2, for instance, in different cellular processes in living cells and tissues requires a tool that can faithfully report on its subcellular distribution. We developed a novel molecular tool, ERK2-LOC, based on the T2A-mediated coexpression of strictly equimolar levels of eGFP-ERK2 and MEK1, to faithfully visualize ERK2 localization patterns. MEK1 and eGFP-ERK2 were expressed reliably and functionally both in vitro and in single living cells. We then assessed the subcellular distribution and mobility of ERK2-LOC using fluorescence microscopy in non-stimulated conditions and after activation/inhibition of the MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Finally, we used our coexpression system in Xenopus laevis embryos during the early stages of development. This is the first report on MEK1/ERK2 T2A-mediated coexpression in living embryos, and we show that there is a strong correlation between the spatiotemporal subcellular distribution of ERK2-LOC and the phosphorylation patterns of ERK1/2. Our approach can be used to study the spatiotemporal localization of ERK2 and its dynamics in a variety of processes in living cells and embryonic tissues. PMID:26517832

  13. Microbially Produced Organic Matter and Its Role in Facilitating Pu Transport in the Deep Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Zavarin, M.; Kersting, A. B.; Czerwinski, K.; Moser, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms have the potential to affect the fate and mobility of actinides in the deep vadose zone (DVZ) by metabolism (direct oxidation/reduction and changes to ecosystem redox potential), production of colloids and ligands, or by sorption (biofilms). The role of microbial communities in colloid-facilitated Pu transport is currently under investigation at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our experimental objective is to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data on the in situ role of biological organic material (DOM, POC, and EPS) on the (de)sorption of Pu at environmentally relevant concentrations. Groundwater samples were collected through vertical ventilation holes from a flooded post-test tunnel at the (NTS), where SSU rRNA gene libraries revealed a range of potential microbial physiotypes. Microbial enrichments were set up with the aim of isolating numerically significant representatives of major relevant physiotypes (e.g. aerobic heterotrophs, Mn/Fe reducers, EPS producers). NTS isolates, a well-characterized Shewanella sp.(str. CN-32), and an EPS-mutant of this strain were screened for their reactivity with Pu(IV). Organisms with both high and low (relative) Kd’s were used in sorption and cell lysis experiments. Viability experiments were conducted for all isolates in NaCl or NaCl/NaHCO3 solutions (I=0.01) for pH = 3, 5, 7, and 9. Products from cell lysis were filtered (0.22 um) or dialyzed (MW cutoff = 20,000 kD). These fractions were normalized by TOC and equilibrated with Pu to determine if Pu sorbs more strongly to either viable cells, EPS, cell membranes, or cell exudates. In our experiments, Pu(IV) sorbed most strongly to cells or cell fractions with EPS (expolysaccharide, the major biofilm component). However, cell fractions and exudates, which may become mobile when released from lysed or senescing cells, also strongly sorbed to Pu(IV). Therefore, changes in groundwater chemistry (e.g., pH or ionic strength) may have both direct chemical effects and indirect effects on Pu sorption due to changes in the stability of the microbial cells or biofilms.

  14. Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter

    E-print Network

    Becker, Jamie William

    Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a ...

  15. Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-10-01

    A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 ?F) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ? = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

  16. Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

    2005-01-01

    Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

  17. Organic Compounds Produced by Photolysis of Realistic Interstellar and Cometary Ice Analogs Containing Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Chang, Sherwood; Scharberg, Maureen A.

    1995-11-01

    The infrared (IR) spectra of ultraviolet (UV) and thermally processed, methanol-containing interstellar/ cometary ice analogs at temperatures from 12 to 300 K are presented. Infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicate that CO (carbon monoxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane), HCO (the formyl radical), H2CO (formaldehyde), CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC(=O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C(=O)NH2 (acetamide), and R-C=-N (nitriles) are formed. In addition, the organic materials remaining after photolyzed ice analogs have been warmed to room temperature contain (in rough order of decreasing abundance), (1) hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), (2) ethers, alcohols, and compounds related to polyoxymethylene {POM, ( CH2O )n}, and (3) ketones {R-C(=O)-R'} and amides {H2NC(=O)-R}. Most of the carbon in these residues is thought to come from the methanol in the original ice. Deuterium and 13C isotopic labeling demonstrates that methanol is definitely the source of carbon in HMT. High concentrations of HMT in interstellar and cometary ices could have important astrophysical consequences. The ultraviolet photolysis of HMT frozen in H2O ice readily produces the "XCN" band observed in the spectra of protostellar objects and laboratory ices, as well as other nitriles. Thus, HMT may be a precursor of XCN and a source of CN in comets and the interstellar medium. Also, HMT is known to hydrolyze under acidic conditions to yield ammonia, formaldehyde, and amino acids. Thus, HMT may be a significant source of prebiogenic compounds on asteroidal parent bodies. A potential mechanism for the radiative formation of HMT in cosmic ices is outlined.

  18. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil

    PubMed Central

    Cordovez, Viviane; Carrion, Victor J.; Etalo, Desalegn W.; Mumm, Roland; Zhu, Hua; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogs of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures. PMID:26500626

  19. Chapters 7 & 10 Bioenergetics To live, organisms must obtain energy from their environment

    E-print Network

    O'Neil, Joe

    's "energy currency", for use in building cell constituents and doing cellular work such as muscle their environment and use it to do the work of building and organizing cell components such as proteins, enzymes

  20. Progress in developing a living human tissue-engineered tri-leaflet heart valve assembled from tissue produced by the self-assembly approach.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Jean; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Gauvin, Robert; Lafrance, Hugues; Roberge, Charles J; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    The aortic heart valve is constantly subjected to pulsatile flow and pressure gradients which, associated with cardiovascular risk factors and abnormal hemodynamics (i.e. altered wall shear stress), can cause stenosis and calcification of the leaflets and result in valve malfunction and impaired circulation. Available options for valve replacement include homograft, allogenic or xenogenic graft as well as the implantation of a mechanical valve. A tissue-engineered heart valve containing living autologous cells would represent an alternative option, particularly for pediatric patients, but still needs to be developed. The present study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a living tissue sheet produced by the self-assembly method, to replace the bovine pericardium currently used for the reconstruction of a stented human heart valve. In this study, human fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of sodium ascorbate to produce tissue sheets. These sheets were superimposed to create a thick construct. Tissue pieces were cut from these constructs and assembled together on a stent, based on techniques used for commercially available replacement valves. Histology and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the fibroblasts were embedded in a dense extracellular matrix produced in vitro. The mechanical properties measured were consistent with the fact that the engineered tissue was resistant and could be cut, sutured and assembled on a wire frame typically used in bioprosthetic valve assembly. After a culture period in vitro, the construct was cohesive and did not disrupt or disassemble. The tissue engineered heart valve was stimulated in a pulsatile flow bioreactor and was able to sustain multiple duty cycles. This prototype of a tissue-engineered heart valve containing cells embedded in their own extracellular matrix and sewn on a wire frame has the potential to be strong enough to support physiological stress. The next step will be to test this valve extensively in a bioreactor and at a later date, in a large animal model in order to assess in vivo patency of the graft. PMID:24813743

  1. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients. 205.305 Section 205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients. 205.305 Section 205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. Treatment of produced waters for removal of soluble organics and toxicity reduction using the GAC-FBR process

    SciTech Connect

    Sunday, A.; Cook, J.; Rajan, R.; Hickey, R.

    1995-12-31

    Pilot studies were conducted using 550 gallon per day biological Granular Activated Carbon-Fluidized Bed Reactor (GAC-FBR) systems to treat four different produced waters obtained from on-shore and off-shore production facilities. The organic and inorganic composition of these produced waters varied greatly from site to site. Total dissolved solids ranged from 0.8% to 18.5%; BTEX concentrations varied from 470 {mu}g/L to greater than 4500 {mu}g/L. Organic carbon concentrations of up to 440 mg/L were observed. Sulfide concentrations ranged from nil to greater than 800 mg/L as S. Organic loading rates up to 86.6 kgCOD/cu.m-day were applied to the GAC-FBR. Successful treatment was achieved at hydraulic retention times as low as 7 minutes. Essentially complete removal of BTEX and total volatile hydrocarbons was demonstrated for each of the produced water samples; significant removal of non-purgable dissolved organic carbon was also observed. Overall BTEX removals of >99.9% were consistently achieved. Results from several different toxicity assays indicated that the GAC-FBR was able to achieve complete reduction of toxicity with several of the produced waters tested.

  4. Organic Tracers from Asphalt in Propolis Produced by Urban Honey Bees, Apis mellifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Raweh, Hael S.; El-Mubarak, Aarif H.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a gummy material produced by honey bees to protect their hives and currently has drawn the attention of researchers due to its broad clinical use. It has been reported, based only on observations, that honey bees also collect other non-vegetation substances such as paint or asphalt/tar to make propolis. Therefore, propolis samples were collected from bee hives in Riyadh and Al-Bahah, a natural area, Saudi Arabia to determine their compositional characteristics and possible sources of the neutral organic compounds. The samples were extracted with hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the major compounds were n-alkanes, n-alkenes, methyl n-alkanoates, long chain wax esters, triterpenoids and hopanes. The n-alkanes (ranging from C17 to C40) were significant with relative concentrations varying from 23.8 to 56.8% (mean = 44.9+9.4%) of the total extracts. Their odd carbon preference index (CPI) ranged from 3.6 to 7.7, with a maximum concentration at heptacosane indicating inputs from higher plant vegetation wax. The relative concentrations of the n-alkenes varied from 23.8 to 41.19% (mean = 35.6+5.1%), with CPI = 12.4-31.4, range from C25 to C35 and maximum at tritriacontane. Methyl n-alkanoates, ranged from C12 to C26 as acids, with concentrations from 3.11 to 33.2% (mean = 9.6+9.5%). Long chain wax esters and triterpenoids were minor. The main triterpenoids were ?- and ?-amyrins, amyrones and amyryl acetates. The presence of hopanes in some total extracts (up to 12.5%) indicated that the bees also collected petroleum derivatives from vicinal asphalt and used that as an additional ingredient to make propolis. Therefore, caution should be taken when considering the chemical compositions of propolis as potential sources of natural products for biological and pharmacological applications. Moreover, beekeepers should be aware of the proper source of propolis in the flight range of their bee colonies. PMID:26075382

  5. Organic Compounds Produced by Photolysis of Realistic Interstellar and Cometary Ice Analogs Containing Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Chang, Sherwood; Scharberg, Maureen A.

    1995-01-01

    The InfraRed (IR) spectra of UltraViolet (UV) and thermally processed, methanol-containing interstellar / cometary ice analogs at temperatures from 12 to 300 K are presented. Infrared spectroscopy, H-1 and C-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicate that CO (carbon monoxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane), HCO (the formyl radical), H2CO (formaldehyde), CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC([double bond]O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C([double bond]O)NH2 (acetamide), and R[single bond]C[triple bond]N (nitriles) are formed. In addition, the organic materials remaining after photolyzed ice analogs have been warmed to room temperature contain (in rough order of decreasing abundance), (1) hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), (2) ethers, alcohols, and compounds related to PolyOxyMethylene (POM, ([single bond]CH2O[single bond](sub n)), and (3) ketones (R[single bond]C([double bond]O)[single bond]R') and amides (H2NC([double bond]O)[single bond]R). Most of the carbon in these residues is thought to come from the methanol in the original ice. Deuterium and C-13 isotopic labeling demonstrates that methanol is definitely the source of carbon in HMT. High concentrations of HMT in interstellar and cometary ices could have important astrophysical consequences. The ultraviolet photolysis of HMT frozen in H2O ice readily produces the 'XCN' band observed in the spectra of protostellar objects and laboratory ices, as well as other nitriles. Thus, HMT may be a precursor of XCN and a source of CN in comets and the interstellar medium. Also, HMT is known to hydrolyze under acidic conditions to yield ammonia, formaldehyde, and amino acids. Thus, HMT may be a significant source of prebiogenic compounds on asteroidal parent bodies. A potential mechanism for the radiative formation of HMT in cosmic ices is outlined.

  6. Investigating the Role of Lipid Anchors in Live Cell Membrane Organization Using Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Triffo, Sara Beth

    2011-01-01

    NT?GFP or GFP? RhoA?CT indicating no energy transfer due to not show evidence of energy  transfer.   GFP fluorescence Energy Transfer  In order to examine local spatial organization, we measure the lifetime of the GFP?

  7. Narrating Lives, Narrating Faith: "Organic Hybridity" for Contemporary Christian Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Mai-Anh Le

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes that Christian Religious Education (CRE) today requires the practice of "organic hybridity" in fluid and shifting "diasporic spaces," the prerequisite for which is the recognition that "hybrid subjectivities" is characteristic of our current postmodern, postcolonial, transnational, globalized world. Toward this aim, CRE must…

  8. Metabolism reflects the cost of living of an organism, and energy is therefore thought to play an important role in shaping

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    metabolic rate (BMR) is defined as the rate of energy transformation in an endothermic organism at rest4663 Metabolism reflects the cost of living of an organism, and energy is therefore thought to play and within species. A similar variation is also found in the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of invertebrates

  9. Concentration- and chromosome-organization-dependent regulator unbinding from DNA for transcription regulation in living cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-Yen; Santiago, Ace George; Jung, Won; Krzemi?ski, ?ukasz; Yang, Feng; Martell, Danya J; Helmann, John D; Chen, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Binding and unbinding of transcription regulators at operator sites constitute a primary mechanism for gene regulation. While many cellular factors are known to regulate their binding, little is known on how cells can modulate their unbinding for regulation. Using nanometer-precision single-molecule tracking, we study the unbinding kinetics from DNA of two metal-sensing transcription regulators in living Escherichia coli cells. We find that they show unusual concentration-dependent unbinding kinetics from chromosomal recognition sites in both their apo and holo forms. Unexpectedly, their unbinding kinetics further varies with the extent of chromosome condensation, and more surprisingly, varies in opposite ways for their apo-repressor versus holo-activator forms. These findings suggest likely broadly relevant mechanisms for facile switching between transcription activation and deactivation in vivo and in coordinating transcription regulation of resistance genes with the cell cycle. PMID:26145755

  10. Improving produce safety by stabilizing chlorine in washing solutions with high organic loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for technologies to protect our nation’s food supply and support sustained growth of the produce industry has never been more urgent. The produce industry currently faces a major potential food safety problem, since the chlorine needed to prevent pathogen survival is depleted during commer...

  11. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents’ domestic violence and youths’ internalizing problems. PMID:23162370

  12. On the purposes of color for living beings: toward a theory of color organization.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic and paleontological evidence indicates that in the animal kingdom the ability to perceive colors evolved independently several times over the course of millennia. This implies a high evolutionary neural investment and suggests that color vision provides some fundamental biological benefits. What are these benefits? Why are some animals so colorful? What are the adaptive and perceptual meanings of polychromatism? We suggest that in addition to the discrimination of light and surface chromaticity, sensitivity to color contributes to the whole, the parts and the fragments of perceptual organization. New versions of neon color spreading and the watercolor illusion indicate that the visual purpose of color in humans is threefold: to inter-relate each chromatic component of an object, thus favoring the emergence of the whole; to support a part-whole organization in which components reciprocally enhance each other by amodal completion; and, paradoxically, to reveal fragments and hide the whole-that is, there is a chromatic parceling-out process of separation, division, and fragmentation of the whole. The evolution of these contributions of color to organization needs to be established, but traces of it can be found in Harlequin camouflage by animals and in the coloration of flowers. PMID:24374380

  13. Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

  14. Programmable living material containing reporter micro-organisms permits quantitative detection of oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mora, Carlos A; Herzog, Antoine F; Raso, Renzo A; Stark, Wendelin J

    2015-08-01

    The increasing molecular understanding of many diseases today permits the development of new diagnostic methods. However, few easy-to-handle and inexpensive tools exist for common diseases such as food disorders. Here we present a living material based analytical sensor (LiMBAS) containing genetically modified bacteria (Escherichia coli) immobilized and protected in a thin layer between a nanoporous and support polymer membrane for a facile quantification of disease-relevant oligosaccharides. The bacteria were engineered to fluoresce in response to the analyte to reveal its diffusion behavior when using a blue-light source and optical filter. We demonstrated that the diffusion zone diameter was related semi-logarithmically to the analyte concentration. LiMBAS could accurately quantify lactose or galactose in undiluted food samples and was able to measure food intolerance relevant concentrations in the range of 1-1000 mM requiring a sample volume of 1-10 ?L. LiMBAS was storable for at least seven days without losing functionality at 4 °C. A wide range of genetic tools for E. coli are readily available thus allowing the reprogramming of the material to serve as biosensor for other molecules. In combination with smartphones, an automated diagnostic analysis becomes feasible which would also allow untrained people to use LiMBAS. PMID:25988843

  15. Independent Synchronized Control and Visualization of Interactions between Living Cells and Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rouger, Vincent; Bordet, Guillaume; Couillault, Carole; Monneret, Serge; Mailfert, Sébastien; Ewbank, Jonathan J.; Pujol, Nathalie; Marguet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the early stages of cell-cell interactions occurring between living biological samples, imaging methods with appropriate spatiotemporal resolution are required. Among the techniques currently available, those based on optical trapping are promising. Methods to image trapped objects, however, in general suffer from a lack of three-dimensional resolution, due to technical constraints. Here, we have developed an original setup comprising two independent modules: holographic optical tweezers, which offer a versatile and precise way to move multiple objects simultaneously but independently, and a confocal microscope that provides fast three-dimensional image acquisition. The optical decoupling of these two modules through the same objective gives users the possibility to easily investigate very early steps in biological interactions. We illustrate the potential of this setup with an analysis of infection by the fungus Drechmeria coniospora of different developmental stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. This has allowed us to identify specific areas on the nematode’s surface where fungal spores adhere preferentially. We also quantified this adhesion process for different mutant nematode strains, and thereby derive insights into the host factors that mediate fungal spore adhesion. PMID:24853738

  16. Beyond Susceptible and Resistant, Part II: Treatment of Infections Due to Gram-Negative Organisms Producing Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases.

    PubMed

    Curello, Jennifer; MacDougall, Conan

    2014-07-01

    The production of ?-lactamase is the most common mechanism of resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) are capable of hydrolyzing most penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and aztreonam, but their activity is suppressed in the presence of a ?-lactamase inhibitor. Serious infections with ESBL-producing isolates are associated with high rates of mortality, making early detection and adequate medical management essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Much controversy has centered on the recommendations for testing and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility of potential ESBL-producing organisms. The latest version of the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) susceptibility reporting guidelines, published in 2010, no longer advocates for phenotypic testing of ESBL-producing isolates. From newer studies demonstrating a correlation between organism minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and clinical outcome, along with pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling demonstrating the importance of the MIC to achieving therapeutic targets, the CLSI has assigned lower susceptibility breakpoints for aztreonam and most cephalosporins. The new guidelines recommend using the lower MIC breakpoints to direct antibiotic selection. This article reviews the microbiology and epidemiology of ESBLs, the recent change in CLSI susceptibility reporting guidelines for ESBLs, and the clinical and PK/PD data supporting the relationship between in vitro susceptibility and clinical outcome. Finally, considerations for antimicrobial selection when treating patients with infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms from various sources are discussed. PMID:25309145

  17. Isotopic characterization as a screening tool in authentication of organic produce commercially available in western North America.

    PubMed

    Verenitch, Sergei; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-01-01

    The use of nitrogen stable isotopes to discriminate between conventionally and organically grown crops has been further developed in this study. Soil and irrigation water from different regions, as well as nitrogen fertilizers used, have been examined in detail to determine their effects on nitrogen isotope composition of spinach, lettuce, broccoli and tomatoes. Over 1000 samples of various types of organically and conventionally grown produce of known origin, along with the samples of nitrogen fertilizers used for their growth, have been analysed in order to assemble the datasets of crop/fertilizer correlations. The results demonstrate that the developed approach can be used as a valuable component in the verification of agricultural practices for more than 25 different types of commercially grown green produce, either organic or conventional. Over a period of two years, various organic and non-organic greens, from different stores in Seattle (WA, USA) and Victoria (BC, Canada), were collected and analysed using this methodology with the objective of determining any pattern of misrepresentation. PMID:25560176

  18. A religion for planning. As a religion which aims to organize the lives of its people, Islam must foster planning.

    PubMed

    Damad, M

    1996-01-01

    Islam is not simply a religion, but it is also a social system, a culture, and a civilization. Values, ideals, and goals are therefore inherent to Islam. Islamic legislation is comprehensive, dealing with questions of faith, worship, moral behavior, social interaction, and business dealings. Islam also includes a system of legislation, taxation, family formation, community development, social structure, and international relations. Several general precepts of Islam provide a context for the proper formation of the Muslim family in a changing society and support the principle of family planning whenever justified. As a religion which aims to organize the lives of its people, Islam must foster family planning. This paper considers some of the basic characteristics of Islam which are relevant to family planning. PMID:12347304

  19. Acoustic Observation of Living Organisms Reveals the Upper Limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Ballón, Michael; Chaigneau, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution. Methodology/Principal Findings Using routine underwater acoustic observations of the vertical distribution of marine organisms, we propose a new method that allows determination of the upper limit of the OMZ with a high precision. Applied in the eastern South-Pacific, this original sampling technique provides high-resolution information on the depth of the upper OMZ allowing documentation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (e.g., eddies and filaments) that structure the upper ocean and the marine ecosystems. We also use this information to estimate the habitable volume for the world's most exploited fish, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens). Conclusions/Significance This opportunistic method could be implemented on any vessel geared with multi-frequency echosounders to perform comprehensive high-resolution monitoring of the upper limit of the OMZ. Our approach is a novel way of studying the impact of physical processes on marine life and extracting valid information about the pelagic habitat and its spatial structure, a crucial aspect of Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the current context of climate change. PMID:20442791

  20. Analysis of glycoproteins produced by the associated gland in the olfactory organ of lungfish.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-31

    The olfactory organ of African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, contains two distinct sensory epithelia: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. These epithelia correspond to the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods, respectively. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium, which has no associated gland, the recess epithelium is equipped with associated glands. Although the glandular cells and/or the supporting cells are generally presumed to secrete proteins involved in the function of olfactory sensory epithelia, the properties of these proteins in lungfish have not been evaluated to date. In this study, we investigated the associated glands in the olfactory organ of lungfish by transmission electron microscopy and found that the glandular cells contain numerous secretory granules and secrete them from the apical membrane. In addition, we analyzed the olfactory organ by lectin histochemistry using 16 biotinylated lectins. All lectins labeled the secretory granules in the glandular cells with different staining patterns from those of the supporting cells in the lamellar olfactory epithelium or in the recess epithelium. Furthermore, lectin blotting analysis showed that multiple bands were detected by the lectins which specifically labeled the glandular epithelium of the olfactory organ. These results indicate that the secretory products of the associated glands in the recess epithelium have different properties from those of the supporting cells in the olfactory sensory epithelia and contain multiple glycoproteins with different carbohydrate moieties. PMID:23428778

  1. The O/OREOS mission: first science data from the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) payload.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Ricco, Antonio J; Agasid, Elwood; Beasley, Christopher; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Friedericks, Charles; Ghassemieh, Shakib; Henschke, Michael; Hines, John W; Kitts, Christopher; Luzzi, Ed; Ly, Diana; Mai, Nghia; Mancinelli, Rocco; McIntyre, Michael; Minelli, Giovanni; Neumann, Michael; Parra, Macarena; Piccini, Matthew; Rasay, R Mike; Ricks, Robert; Santos, Orlando; Schooley, Aaron; Squires, David; Timucin, Linda; Yost, Bruce; Young, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    We report the first telemetered spaceflight science results from the orbiting Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment, executed by one of the two 10?cm cube-format payloads aboard the 5.5?kg Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) free-flying nanosatellite. The O/OREOS spacecraft was launched successfully to a 72° inclination, 650?km Earth orbit on 19 November 2010. This satellite provides access to the radiation environment of space in relatively weak regions of Earth's protective magnetosphere as it passes close to the north and south magnetic poles; the total dose rate is about 15 times that in the orbit of the International Space Station. The SESLO experiment measures the long-term survival, germination, and growth responses, including metabolic activity, of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to the microgravity, ionizing radiation, and heavy-ion bombardment of its high-inclination orbit. Six microwells containing wild-type (168) and six more containing radiation-sensitive mutant (WN1087) strains of dried B. subtilis spores were rehydrated with nutrient medium after 14 days in space to allow the spores to germinate and grow. Similarly, the same distribution of organisms in a different set of microwells was rehydrated with nutrient medium after 97 days in space. The nutrient medium included the redox dye Alamar blue, which changes color in response to cellular metabolic activity. Three-color transmitted intensity measurements of all microwells were telemetered to Earth within days of each of the 48?h growth experiments. We report here on the evaluation and interpretation of these spaceflight data in comparison to delayed-synchronous laboratory ground control experiments. PMID:22091486

  2. The relative roles of the otolith organs and semicircular canals in producing space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Inflight and post-landing "immunity" to the "coriolis sickness susceptibility test", observed during the Skylab M131 experiment, suggests that the otolith organs play a major role in space motion sickness (SMS). This view is supported by the report that ocular counter-torsion asymmetries correlate with SMS incidence and severity. Further data indicate that sensory-motor adaptation to microgravity includes a process whereby central interpretation of otolith signals is biased from "tilt" toward translation. However, unexpected responses to linear acceleration suggest the importance of graviceptors distributed throughout the body in addition to the vestibular otolith organs. Research is needed to assess distributed graviceptor effects.

  3. Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacteria from the Poultry Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from food-borne bacteria has prompted studies on the development of approaches to utilize the profile of volatiles emitted as a way of detecting contamination. We have examined VOCs from poultry with this in mind. Patt...

  4. Grass-Based Dairy Production Provides a Viable Option for Producing Organic Milk in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More intensive use of pasture and the transition to organic production are being used to reduce production costs and increase profitability of some small dairy farms in Pennsylvania. Simulation of farm production systems, supported by case study farm data, was used to compare economic benefits and e...

  5. Characterisation of airborne particles and associated organic components produced from incense burning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Yang; Bell, Jennifer; Wenger, John; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Airborne particles generated from the burning of incense have been characterized in order to gain an insight into the possible implications for human respiratory health. Physical characterization performed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed incense particulate smoke mainly consisted of soot particles with fine and ultrafine fractions in various aggregated forms. A range of organic compounds present in incense smoke have been identified using derivatisation reactions coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 19 polar organic compounds were positively identified in the samples, including the biomass burning markers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, as well as a number of aromatic acids and phenols. Formaldehyde was among 12 carbonyl compounds detected and predominantly associated with the gas phase, whereas six different quinones were also identified in the incense particulate smoke. The nano-structured incense soot particles intermixed with organics (e.g. formaldehyde and quinones) could increase the oxidative capacity. When considering the worldwide prevalence of incense burning and resulting high respiratory exposures, the oxygenated organics identified in this study have significant human health implications, especially for susceptible populations. PMID:21769554

  6. Survival of Organic Materials in Ancient Cryovolcanically-Produced Halite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bodnar, R.; Burton, A.; Callahan, M.; Steele, A.; Sandford, S.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic evidence supports the presence of Mg-Na-K salts derived from cryovolcanism on the surface of Europa. Halite (NaCl) is effective at very long-term preservation of organic phases and structures. Collection of salt crystals from Europan plumes would provide solid inclusions of organics, potentially also biomaterials, all suitable for analysis. Two thermally-metamorphosed ordinary chondrite regolith breccias (Monahans 1998 (H5) and Zag (H3-6)) contain fluid and solid inclusion-bearing halite crystals, dated to approximately 4.5 billion years, and thus the trapped aqueous fluids and solids are at least as old. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 degrees Centigrade, and their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid occurred after that body's metamorphism ended, since heating would have dessicated the halite. O and H isotopes of the trapped fluids are consistent with mixing of asteroidal and cometary water. Cryovolcanic Origin of the Halite: We hypothesize that these meteoritic halites derive from ancient cryovolcanism based on the following points. (1) Salts crystals are observed as products of current cryovolcanism on Enceladus. (2) In-situ spacecraft analysis of some of the icy grains associated with the Enceladus salt found minor organic or siliceous components, including methane, also found in the Monahans halite. (3) Cryovolcanic fluids are observed to be in chemical disequilibrium, reflecting incomplete reactions between interior volatiles and rocky materials. The coexistence of N2 and HCN in Enceladus' cryovolcanic fluids requires that the plume consists of a mixture of materials whose sources experienced different degrees of aqueous processing, including primordial material trapped in ice that has not been in contact with liquid water. The observed mineral assemblage within the Monahans and Zag halites is also far from equilibrium. Cryovolcanoes on Ceres are a potential source of our halite, however the processes that form halite should also be operating within Europa. Dissolution of Monahans halite grains has revealed a remarkable variety of organics, which dominate the population of solid inclusions. Thermal alteration of this macromolecular carbon (measured by Raman spectroscopy) shows remarkable diversity. We have identified highly-condensed aromatics, diamond, carbonates and chloromethane. Light organic compounds like methane tend to be water soluble and require cold formation temperatures at high hydrogen fugacity - i.e. require water ice. Another indication that these halites have not been heated is that light organics readily volatilize or aromaticize into PAHs. We are currently analyzing the organics by Raman and C-XANES, and measuring the content and exploring the potential chirality of amino acids in the halite. Implications for Europa Plumes: Organic materials and structures erupted by a Europa cryovolcano should be similarly preserved within halite, and other salts, which will be a convenient form for capture and analysis, since halite will serve to encapsulate and protect the organics from spacecraft contamination. Also, being transparent at many wavelengths halite will permit analysis by spacecraft-mounted spectroscopic techniques. In addition, halite is readily dissolved, permitting further analysis of entrained organics.

  7. Simple, effective protein extraction method and proteomics analysis from polyunsaturated fatty acids-producing micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xueping; Guo, Jing; Zheng, Chuqiang; Ye, Chiming; Lu, Yinghua; Pan, Xueshan; Chen, Zhengqi; Ng, I-Son

    2015-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are valuable ingredients in the food and pharmaceutical products due to their beneficial influence on human health. Most studies paid attention on the production of PUFAs from oleaginous micro-organisms but seldom on the comparative proteomics of cells. In the study, three methods (i.e., cold shock, acetone precipitation and ethanol precipitation) for lipid removal from crude protein extracts were applied in different PUFAs-producing micro-organisms. Among the selective strains, Schizochytrium was used as an oleaginous strain with high lipid of 60.3 (w/w %) in biomass. The Mortierella alpina and Cunninghamella echinulata were chosen as the low-lipid-content strains with 25.8 (w/w %) and 21.8 (w/w %) of lipid in biomass, respectively. The cold shock resulted as the most effective method for lipid removed, thus obtained higher protein amount for Schizochytrium. Moreover, from the comparative proteomics for the three PUFAs-producing strains, it showed more significant proteins of up or down-regulation were explored under cold shock treatment. Therefore, the essential proteins (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase) and regulating proteins were observed. In conclusion, this study provides a valuable and practical approach for analysis of high PUFAs-producing strains at the proteomics level, and would further accelerate the understanding of the metabolic flux in oleaginous micro-organisms. PMID:26391510

  8. Understanding the Effects of Space Radiation on Living Organisms and its Implication for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, Jill C.; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    The planetary environment around a star will be assaulted with various amounts of radiation. including solar and ionizing radiation. The amount and type varies with the type of star, the distance from the star, time of day, and other variables. While some radiation is critical to life on Earth, especially from 400-750 nm (so-called visible and photosynthetically active radiation), the effects of ultraviolet and ionizing radiation can be hazardous and even deadly. This is because life is based on organic carbon, which is susceptible to radiation damage. Radiation regimes in our own solar system address specifically radiation in our solar system with a main sequence star. The possibility remains of planets around red dwarfs. Such stars are much smaller in mass than the Sun (between 0.5 and .08 M(sub Sun), and so their temperature and stellar luminosity are low and peaked in the red. Since red dwarfs comprise about 75% of all stars in the galaxy, the possibility of life on planets around red dwarfs has been examined.

  9. CytoViz: an artistic mapping of network measurements as living organisms in a VR application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Silva, Brenda A.; Renambot, Luc

    2007-02-01

    CytoViz is an artistic, real-time information visualization driven by statistical information gathered during gigabit network transfers to the Scalable Adaptive Graphical Environment (SAGE) at various events. Data streams are mapped to cellular organisms defining their structure and behavior as autonomous agents. Network bandwidth drives the growth of each entity and the latency defines its physics-based independent movements. The collection of entity is bound within the 3D representation of the local venue. This visual and animated metaphor allows the public to experience the complexity of high-speed network streams that are used in the scientific community. Moreover, CytoViz displays the presence of discoverable Bluetooth devices carried by nearby persons. The concept is to generate an event-specific, real-time visualization that creates informational 3D patterns based on actual local presence. The observed Bluetooth traffic is put in opposition of the wide-area networking traffic by overlaying 2D animations on top of the 3D world. Each device is mapped to an animation fading over time while displaying the name of the detected device and its unique physical address. CytoViz was publicly presented at two major international conferences in 2005 (iGrid2005 in San Diego, CA and SC05 in Seattle, WA).

  10. Automated dynamic sampling system for the on-line monitoring of biogenic emissions from living organisms.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, J; Pham-Tuan, H; Sandra, P

    2001-09-28

    An automated system for continuous on-line monitoring of biogenic emissions is presented. The system is designed in such a way that volatiles, emitted as reaction to biotic or abiotic stress, can be unequivocally elucidated. Two identical sampling units, named target and reference bulb, are therefore incorporated into the system and consecutively analyzed in monitoring experiments. A number of precautions were considered during these experiments to avoid the application of unwanted stress onto both organisms. Firstly, the system is constructed in such a way that both bulbs are continuously flushed, i.e. before, during and after analysis, with high purity air to avoid any accumulation of emitted volatiles. Moreover, the air is pre-humidified by bubbling it through water to sustain the biological samples for longer periods in the in vitro environment. Sorptive enrichment on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to trap the headspace volatiles. The hydrophobic nature of this material permitted easy removal of trapped moisture by direct flushing of the sampling cartridge with dry air before desorption. The system was used to monitor the emissions from in vitro mechanically wounded ivy (Hedera helix) and of in vitro grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) upon cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) feeding. Differences in light and dark floral emissions of jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum) were also studied. PMID:11681578

  11. Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-07-22

    Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture-mark-recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations. PMID:24920477

  12. Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross

    PubMed Central

    Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture–mark–recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations. PMID:24920477

  13. Living roots magnify the response of soil organic carbon decomposition to temperature in temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    Hill, Paul W; Garnett, Mark H; Farrar, John; Iqbal, Zafar; Khalid, Muhammad; Soleman, Nawaf; Jones, Davey L

    2015-03-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration is both a strong driver of primary productivity and widely believed to be the principal cause of recent increases in global temperature. Soils are the largest store of the world's terrestrial C. Consequently, many investigations have attempted to mechanistically understand how microbial mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC) to CO2 will be affected by projected increases in temperature. Most have attempted this in the absence of plants as the flux of CO2 from root and rhizomicrobial respiration in intact plant-soil systems confounds interpretation of measurements. We compared the effect of a small increase in temperature on respiration from soils without recent plant C with the effect on intact grass swards. We found that for 48 weeks, before acclimation occurred, an experimental 3 °C increase in sward temperature gave rise to a 50% increase in below ground respiration (ca. 0.4 kg C m(-2) ; Q10  = 3.5), whereas mineralisation of older SOC without plants increased with a Q10 of only 1.7 when subject to increases in ambient soil temperature. Subsequent (14) C dating of respired CO2 indicated that the presence of plants in swards more than doubled the effect of warming on the rate of mineralisation of SOC with an estimated mean C age of ca. 8 years or older relative to incubated soils without recent plant inputs. These results not only illustrate the formidable complexity of mechanisms controlling C fluxes in soils but also suggest that the dual biological and physical effects of CO2 on primary productivity and global temperature have the potential to synergistically increase the mineralisation of existing soil C. PMID:25351704

  14. Fluid Forces Enhance the Performance of an Aspirant Leader in Self-Organized Living Groups

    PubMed Central

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of an individual aiming at guiding a self-organized group is numerically investigated. A collective behavioural model is adopted, accounting for the mutual repulsion, attraction and orientation experienced by the individuals. Moreover, these represent a set of solid particles which are supposed to be immersed in a fictitious viscous fluid. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann and Immersed boundary methods are used to predict the fluid dynamics, whereas the effect of the hydrodynamic forces on particles is accounted for by solving the equation of the solid motion through the time discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out by involving the individuals in a dichotomous process. On the one hand, an aspirant leader (AL) additional individual is added to the system. AL is forced to move along a prescribed direction which intersects the group. On the other hand, these tend to depart from an obstacle represented by a rotating lamina which is placed in the fluid domain. A numerical campaign is carried out by varying the fluid viscosity and, as a consequence, the hydrodynamic field. Moreover, scenarios characterized by different values of the size of the group are investigated. In order to estimate the AL's performance, a proper parameter is introduced, depending on the number of individuals following AL. Present findings show that the sole collective behavioural equations are insufficient to predict the AL's performance, since the motion is drastically affected by the presence of the surrounding fluid. With respect to the existing literature, the proposed numerical model is enriched by accounting for the presence of the encompassing fluid, thus computing the hydrodynamic forces arising when the individuals move. PMID:25501965

  15. Living roots magnify the response of soil organic carbon decomposition to temperature in temperate grassland

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Paul W; Garnett, Mark H; Farrar, John; Iqbal, Zafar; Khalid, Muhammad; Soleman, Nawaf; Jones, Davey L

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is both a strong driver of primary productivity and widely believed to be the principal cause of recent increases in global temperature. Soils are the largest store of the world's terrestrial C. Consequently, many investigations have attempted to mechanistically understand how microbial mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC) to CO2 will be affected by projected increases in temperature. Most have attempted this in the absence of plants as the flux of CO2 from root and rhizomicrobial respiration in intact plant-soil systems confounds interpretation of measurements. We compared the effect of a small increase in temperature on respiration from soils without recent plant C with the effect on intact grass swards. We found that for 48 weeks, before acclimation occurred, an experimental 3 °C increase in sward temperature gave rise to a 50% increase in below ground respiration (ca. 0.4 kg C m?2; Q10 = 3.5), whereas mineralisation of older SOC without plants increased with a Q10 of only 1.7 when subject to increases in ambient soil temperature. Subsequent 14C dating of respired CO2 indicated that the presence of plants in swards more than doubled the effect of warming on the rate of mineralisation of SOC with an estimated mean C age of ca. 8 years or older relative to incubated soils without recent plant inputs. These results not only illustrate the formidable complexity of mechanisms controlling C fluxes in soils but also suggest that the dual biological and physical effects of CO2 on primary productivity and global temperature have the potential to synergistically increase the mineralisation of existing soil C. PMID:25351704

  16. XANES Analysis of Organic Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, M.; Milam, S N.; Sandford, S A.; De Gregorio, B T.; Cody, G D.; Kilcoyne, A L.

    2011-01-01

    Organic residues formed in the laboratory from the ultraviolet (UV) photo-irradiation or ion bombardment of astrophysical ice analogs have been extensively studied for the last 15 years with a broad suite of techniques, including infrared (IR) and UV spectroscopies, as well as mass spectrometry. Analyses of these materials show that they consist of complex mixtures of organic compounds stable at room temperature, mostly soluble, that have not been fully characterized. However, the hydrolysis products of these residues have been partly identified using chromatography techniques, which indicate that they contain molecular precursors of prebiotic interest such as amino acids, nitrile-bearing compounds, and amphiphilic compounds. In this study, we present the first X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy measurements of three organic residues made from the UV irradiation of ices having different starting compositions. XANES spectra confirm the presence of different chemical functions in these residues, and indicate that they are rich in nitrogenand oxygen-bearing species. These data can be compared with XANES measurements of extraterrestrial materials. Finally, this study also shows how soft X rays can alter the chemical composition of samples.

  17. The Overarching Influence of the Gut Microbiome on End-Organ Function: The Role of Live Probiotic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vitetta, Luis; Manuel, Rachel; Zhou, Joyce Yusi; Linnane, Anthony W.; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality) state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with a metabolic disease for end organs such as the kidney and liver. A profile emerges that shows that bacteria are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous and have significantly influenced the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:25244509

  18. Microbial production of glyceric acid, an organic acid that can be mass produced from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

    2009-12-01

    Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process. PMID:19837846

  19. Nature of Pre-Earthquake Phenomena and their Effects on Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Friedemann; Stolc, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Earthquakes are invariably preceded by a period when stresses increase deep in the Earth. Animals appear to be able to sense impending seismic events. During build-up of stress, electronic charge carriers are activated deep below, called positive holes. Positive holes have unusual properties: they can travel fast and far into and through the surrounding rocks. As they flow, they generate ultralow frequency electromagnetic waves. When they arrive at the Earth surface, they can ionize the air. When they flow into water, they oxidize it to hydrogen peroxides. All these physical and chemical processes can have noticeable effects on animals. Abstract Earthquakes occur when tectonic stresses build up deep in the Earth before catastrophic rupture. During the build-up of stress, processes that occur in the crustal rocks lead to the activation of highly mobile electronic charge carriers. These charge carriers are able to flow out of the stressed rock volume into surrounding rocks. Such outflow constitutes an electric current, which generates electromagnetic (EM) signals. If the outflow occurs in bursts, it will lead to short EM pulses. If the outflow is continuous, the currents may fluctuate, generating EM emissions over a wide frequency range. Only ultralow and extremely low frequency (ULF/ELF) waves travel through rock and can reach the Earth surface. The outflowing charge carriers are (i) positively charged and (ii) highly oxidizing. When they arrive at the Earth surface from below, they build up microscopic electric fields, strong enough to field-ionize air molecules. As a result, the air above the epicentral region of an impending major earthquake often becomes laden with positive airborne ions. Medical research has long shown that positive airborne ions cause changes in stress hormone levels in animals and humans. In addition to the ULF/ELF emissions, positive airborne ions can cause unusual reactions among animals. When the charge carriers flow into water, they oxidize water to hydrogen peroxide. This, plus oxidation of organic compounds, can cause behavioral changes among aquatic animals. PMID:26487415

  20. Indole trimers with antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms produced using combinatorial biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    McClay, Kevin; Mehboob, Shahila; Yu, Jerry; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Deng, Jiangping; Cook, James L; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Johnson, Michael E; Steffan, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The I100V isoform of toluene-4-monooxygenase was used to catalyze the oxidative polymerization of anthranil and various indoles under mildly acidic conditions, favoring the production of trimers. Compounds produced in sufficient yield were purified and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis, E. faecalis, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and in some cases, F. tularensis. 15 of the compounds displayed promising antibacterial activity (MIC < 5 µg/ml) against one or more of the strains tested, with the best MIC values being <0.8 µg/ml. All of these compounds had good selectivity, showing minimal cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells. The structure was solved for six of the compounds that could be crystallized, revealing that minimally two classes of indole based trimers were produced. One compound class produced was a group of substituted derivatives of the natural product 2,2-bis(3-indolyl) indoxyl. The other group of compounds identified was classified as tryptanthrin-like compounds, all having multi-ring pendant groups attached at position 11 of tryptanthrin. One compound of particular interest, SAB-J85, had a structure that suggests that any compound, with a ring structure that can be activated by an oxygenase, might serve as a substrate for combinatorial biocatalysis. PMID:26112315

  1. Fatty acid profile differs between organic and conventionally produced cow milk independent of season or milking time.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Morel, P C H; Wester, T J; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Fong, B; Shadbolt, N M; Thatcher, A; Otter, D E

    2015-03-01

    Differing amounts of fresh forage and concentrates fed, and level of input contributes to the differences reported in fatty acid (FA) composition of organic and conventionally produced cow milk. In many previous studies designed to investigate this phenomenon, comparisons were made between grazed organic cows and housed conventional cows. In the present study, we have investigated differences between organic and conventional milk produced using year-round pasture grazing, as practiced in New Zealand. The FA composition was determined in milk sampled at morning and evening milking in both spring and autumn. Samples were taken from 45 cows from the Massey University organic herd and compared with 50 cows from the corresponding conventional herd grazed and managed similarly at the same location. Forty-three out of 51 analyzed FA were influenced by season, whereas 28 were different between production systems. In addition, one-half were also different due to time of milking. Levels of linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid were higher in organic milk, whereas conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid were higher in conventional milk. The first 3 FA (linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, and CLA) were more abundant in milk harvested during autumn, and the CLA concentration was also significantly influenced by time of milking. Our results confirm reports that the FA profile is affected by season and time of milking, and we also showed an effect due to the production system, when both sets of cows were kept continuously on pasture, even after taking milking time and seasonal effect into account. PMID:25557897

  2. Organic solids produced by electrical discharge in reducing atmospheres - Tholin molecular analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Zumberge, J. E.; Sklarew, D. S.; Nagy, B.

    1981-01-01

    The complex dark brown solid of a class called tholins, produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a roughly equimolar mixture of methane and ammonia with 2.6% water vapor, is analyzed by vacuum pyrolysis followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrrole, and pyridine. This tholin is remarkably stable to 950 C. It and its degradation products are candidate constituents of planetary aerosols in the outer solar system and of the grains in the interstellar medium.

  3. Organic solids produced by electrical discharges in reducing atmospheres: Molecular analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Zumberge, J. E.; Sklarew, D.; Nagy, B.

    1978-01-01

    The complex brown polymer produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water, is analyzed by pyrolytic GC/MS. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, pyrroles, and pyridine. Similar pyrolyzates are obtained from polypeptides and polynucleotides with hydrocarbon moieties. This polymer is remarkably stable up to 950 C; its degradation products are candidate constituents of planetary aerosols in the outer solar system and the grains and gas in the interstellar medium.

  4. A one-step, solvothermal reduction method for producing reduced graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Sergey; Gilje, Scott; Wang, Kan; Tung, Vincent C; Cha, Kitty; Hall, Anthony S; Farrar, Jabari; Varshneya, Rupal; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B

    2010-07-27

    Refluxing graphene oxide (GO) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) results in deoxygenation and reduction to yield a stable colloidal dispersion. The solvothermal reduction is accompanied by a color change from light brown to black. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the product confirm the presence of single sheets of the solvothermally reduced graphene oxide (SRGO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of SRGO indicates a significant increase in intensity of the C=C bond character, while the oxygen content decreases markedly after the reduction is complete. X-ray diffraction analysis of SRGO shows a single broad peak at 26.24 degrees 2theta (3.4 A), confirming the presence of graphitic stacking of reduced sheets. SRGO sheets are redispersible in a variety of organic solvents, which may hold promise as an acceptor material for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells, or electromagnetic interference shielding applications. PMID:20586422

  5. A One-Step, Solvothermal Reduction Method for Producing Reduced Graphene Oxide Dispersions in Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sergey; Gilje, Scott; Wang, Kan; Tung, Vincent C.; Cha, Kitty; Hall, Anthony S.; Farrar, Jabari; Varshneya, Rupal; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Refluxing graphene oxide (GO) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) results in deoxygenation and reduction to yield a stable colloidal dispersion. The solvothermal reduction is accompanied by a color change from light brown to black. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the product confirm the presence of single sheets of the solvothermally reduced graphene oxide (SRGO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of SRGO indicates a significant increase in intensity of the C=C bond character, while the oxygen content decreases markedly after the reduction is complete. X-ray diffraction analysis of SRGO shows a single broad peak at 26.24° 2? (3.4 Å), confirming the presence of graphitic stacking of reduced sheets. SRGO sheets are redispersible in a variety of organic solvents, which may hold promise as an acceptor material for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells, or electromagnetic interference shielding applications. PMID:20586422

  6. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Dumesic, James A.; Simonetti, Dante A.; Kunkes, Edward L.

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  7. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

    2011-12-13

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  8. Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.

    PubMed

    Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-01-01

    1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation. PMID:25299877

  9. Producing smart sensing films by means of organic field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Manunza, Ileana; Orgiu, Emanuele; Caboni, Alessandra; Barbaro, Massimo; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    We have fabricated the first example of totally flexible field effect device for chemical detection based on an organic field effect transistor (OFET) made by pentacene films grown on flexible plastic structures. The ion sensitivity is achieved by employing a thin Mylar foil as gate dielectric. A sensitivity of the device to the pH of the electrolyte solution has been observed A similar structure can be used also for detecting mechanical deformations on flexible surfaces. Thanks to the flexibility of the substrate and the low cost of the employed technology, these devices open the way for the production of flexible chemical and strain gauge sensors that can be employed in a variety of innovative applications such as wearable electronics, e-textiles, new man-machine interfaces. PMID:17945836

  10. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  11. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2??m?h?1). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (?100?nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature. PMID:21107443

  12. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reactions of Phenols in Fog Drops and Deliquesced Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in atmospheric condensed phases (i.e., aqueous SOA) can proceed rapidly, but relatively little is known of the important aqueous SOA precursors or their reaction pathways. In our work we are studying the aqueous SOA formed from reactions of phenols (phenol, guaiacol, and syringol), benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone), and phenolic carbonyls (e.g., vanillin and syringaldehyde). These species are potentially important aqueous SOA precursors because they are released in large quantities from biomass burning, have high Henry's Law constants (KH = 103 -109 M-1 atm-1) and are rapidly oxidized. To evaluate the importance of aqueous reactions of phenols as a source of SOA, we first quantified the kinetics and SOA mass yields for 11 phenols reacting via direct photodegradation, hydroxyl radical (•OH), and with an excited organic triplet state (3C*). In the second step, which is the focus of this work, we use these laboratory results in a simple model of fog chemistry using conditions during a previously reported heavy biomass burning event in Bakersfield, CA. Our calculations indicate that under aqueous aerosol conditions (i.e., a liquid water content of 100 ?g m-3) the rate of aqueous SOA production (RSOA(aq)) from phenols is similar to the rate in the gas phase. In contrast, under fog/cloud conditions the aqueous RSOA from phenols is 10 times higher than the rate in the gas phase. In both of these cases aqueous RSOA is dominated by the oxidation of phenols by 3C*, followed by direct photodegradation of phenolic carbonyls, and then •OH oxidation. Our results suggest that aqueous oxidation of phenols is a significant source of SOA during fog events and also during times when deliquesced aerosols are present.

  13. Protective long-term antibody memory by antigen-driven and T help-dependent differentiation of long-lived memory B cells to short-lived plasma cells independent of secondary lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Ochsenbein, Adrian F.; Pinschewer, Daniel D.; Sierro, Sophie; Horvath, Edit; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2000-01-01

    Memory is a hallmark of immunity. Memory carried by antibodies is largely responsible for protection against reinfection with most known acutely lethal infectious agents and is the basis for most clinically successful vaccines. However, the nature of long-term B cell and antibody memory is still unclear. B cell memory was studied here after infection of mice with the rabies-like cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, the noncytopathic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Armstrong and WE), and after immunization with various inert viral antigens inducing naive B cells to differentiate either to plasma cells or memory B cells in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs. The results show that in contrast to very low background levels against internal viral antigens, no significant neutralizing antibody memory was observed in the absence of antigen and suggest that memory B cells (i) are long-lived in the absence of antigen, nondividing, and relatively resistant to irradiation, and (ii) must be stimulated by antigen to differentiate to short-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells, a process that is also efficient in the bone marrow and always depends on radiosensitive, specific T help. Therefore, for vaccines to induce long-term protective antibody titers, they need to repeatedly provide, or continuously maintain, antigen in minimal quantities over a prolonged time period in secondary lymphoid organs or the bone marrow for sufficient numbers of long-lived memory B cells to mature to short-lived plasma cells. PMID:11069289

  14. Protective long-term antibody memory by antigen-driven and T help-dependent differentiation of long-lived memory B cells to short-lived plasma cells independent of secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Ochsenbein, A F; Pinschewer, D D; Sierro, S; Horvath, E; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M

    2000-11-21

    Memory is a hallmark of immunity. Memory carried by antibodies is largely responsible for protection against reinfection with most known acutely lethal infectious agents and is the basis for most clinically successful vaccines. However, the nature of long-term B cell and antibody memory is still unclear. B cell memory was studied here after infection of mice with the rabies-like cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, the noncytopathic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Armstrong and WE), and after immunization with various inert viral antigens inducing naive B cells to differentiate either to plasma cells or memory B cells in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs. The results show that in contrast to very low background levels against internal viral antigens, no significant neutralizing antibody memory was observed in the absence of antigen and suggest that memory B cells (i) are long-lived in the absence of antigen, nondividing, and relatively resistant to irradiation, and (ii) must be stimulated by antigen to differentiate to short-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells, a process that is also efficient in the bone marrow and always depends on radiosensitive, specific T help. Therefore, for vaccines to induce long-term protective antibody titers, they need to repeatedly provide, or continuously maintain, antigen in minimal quantities over a prolonged time period in secondary lymphoid organs or the bone marrow for sufficient numbers of long-lived memory B cells to mature to short-lived plasma cells. PMID:11069289

  15. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  16. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines

    DOEpatents

    Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1990-04-03

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about 0.degree. C. up to about 300.degree. C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  17. Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosols Produced by Photo-Oxidation of Biomass Burning Emissions in a Smog Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desyaterik, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Robinson, A. L.; Collett, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) is essential for accurate representation of OA in air quality and climate models. Both the sources of OA and their properties and effects remain poorly understood. In particular, we still know relatively little about the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). There is growing interest in the impact of biomass burning emissions on air quality, human health, and radiative forcing. Through a series of experiments, we are working to quantify changes in the chemical composition of wood smoke particles as a result of photochemical aging under well-controlled laboratory conditions. One specific objective of this study is to identify markers for biomass burning SOA and test whether these markers can be used in atmospheric samples to quantify SOA formation from aging of biomass burning emissions. We analyzed SOA generated in a smog chamber by photooxidation of smoke produced by burning oak wood. In order to initiate photochemistry, the chamber was irradiated with UV light. Aqueous extracts of collected aerosol samples were analyzed with Electrospray Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The high mass accuracy of these measurements reduces ambiguity in the assignment of elemental compositions for observed ions. Analysis has shown that primary oak smoke aerosol includes products of the thermal decomposition of cellulose (levoglucosan, cyclotene etc.) and lignin (guaiacol and syringol derivatives, mostly aldehydes and alcohols). After 2 hours of aging at typical summertime hydroxyl radical concentrations, the aerosol mass increased 2.5 fold due to the production of secondary organic aerosol. Mass spectra of the secondary organic aerosol formed are dominated by organic nitrates (nitrophenol, nitrocresol, nitrocatechol, and nitroguaiacol) and aromatic acids (benzoic acid, mono and di-hydroxybenzoic acid). Both nitrates and acids most likely are formed due to oxidation of the lignin decomposition products (guaiacol and syringol derivatives) by reaction with OH and NO2. This research highlights the dynamic nature of fire emissions and atmospheric organic aerosols in general.

  18. Drosophila Embryos as Model to Assess Cellular and Developmental Toxicity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) in Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyin; Campo, Eva M.; Bossing, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Different toxicity tests for carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed to assess their impact on human health and on aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant life. We present a new model, the fruit fly Drosophila embryo offering the opportunity for rapid, inexpensive and detailed analysis of CNTs toxicity during embryonic development. We show that injected DiI labelled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) become incorporated into cells in early Drosophila embryos, allowing the study of the consequences of cellular uptake of CNTs on cell communication, tissue and organ formation in living embryos. Fluorescently labelled subcellular structures showed that MWCNTs remained cytoplasmic and were excluded from the nucleus. Analysis of developing ectodermal and neural stem cells in MWCNTs injected embryos revealed normal division patterns and differentiation capacity. However, an increase in cell death of ectodermal but not of neural stem cells was observed, indicating stem cell-specific vulnerability to MWCNT exposure. The ease of CNT embryo injections, the possibility of detailed morphological and genomic analysis and the low costs make Drosophila embryos a system of choice to assess potential developmental and cellular effects of CNTs and test their use in future CNT based new therapies including drug delivery. PMID:24558411

  19. A Perspective on Studying G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling with Resonance Energy Transfer Biosensors in Living Organisms.

    PubMed

    van Unen, Jakobus; Woolard, Jeanette; Rinken, Ago; Hoffmann, Carsten; Hill, Stephen J; Goedhart, Joachim; Bruchas, Michael R; Bouvier, Michel; Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J W

    2015-09-01

    The last frontier for a complete understanding of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) biology is to be able to assess GPCR activity, interactions, and signaling in vivo, in real time within biologically intact systems. This includes the ability to detect GPCR activity, trafficking, dimerization, protein-protein interactions, second messenger production, and downstream signaling events with high spatial resolution and fast kinetic readouts. Resonance energy transfer (RET)-based biosensors allow for all of these possibilities in vitro and in cell-based assays, but moving RET into intact animals has proven difficult. Here, we provide perspectives on the optimization of biosensor design, of signal detection in living organisms, and the multidisciplinary development of in vitro and cell-based assays that more appropriately reflect the physiologic situation. In short, further development of RET-based probes, optical microscopy techniques, and mouse genome editing hold great potential over the next decade to bring real-time in vivo GPCR imaging to the forefront of pharmacology. PMID:25972446

  20. Straw biochar hastens organic matter degradation and produces nutrient-rich compost.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jining; Chen, Guifa; Sun, Huifeng; Zhou, Sheng; Zou, Guoyan

    2016-01-01

    Biochar derived from wheat straw was added to pig manure in amounts equivalent to 5%, 10%, or 15% (w/w, wet weight). The ratios of NH4(+)/NO3(-) and of UV light absorption at a wavelength of 254nm (SUV254) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) indicated that compost with 10-15% biochar became more mature and more humified within 42days of composting, and the content of DOC and the concentration of NH4(+) in such compost decreased by 37.5-62.0% and 4.0-20.9%, respectively, compared to the corresponding levels in the control. Addition of biochar lowered the pH and increased electrical conductivity by 7.0-37.5% compared to the control and also increased the concentrations of water-soluble nutrients including PO4(3-) (5.6-7.4%), K(+) (14.2-58.6%), and Ca(2+) (0-12.5%). It is therefore recommended that straw biochar be added to pig manure at 10-15% by weight. PMID:26600456

  1. Method for producing fuel gas from organic material, capable of self-sustaining operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fetters, W.A.; Chittick, D.E.

    1985-07-23

    This patent discloses a form of substantially uniform-sized pellets, to produce a tar-free fuel gas. Prior to initiating operation, the lower end of the reaction chamber is filled with a charge of charcoal, forming a charcoal bed. A portion of the charcoal bed is then ignited, typically near the top, with air from the atmosphere being drawn substantially uniformly down through the reaction chamber by a pump on the outlet line leading from the reaction chamber, creating a thin pyrolysis zone near the top of the charcoal bed. The substantially uniform-size fuel pellets are added to the top of the charcoal bed, and are pyrolized as they move down through the pyrolysis zone. Since the fuel pellets are substantially uniform in size, and since the air-flow down through the chamber is substantially uniform, the temperature profile over the cross-sectional area of the pyrolysis zone is substantially uniform, and a homogeneous pyrolysis zone is created, without hot spots or channels. Such an arrangement results in self-regulating, self-sustaining operation over a relatively wide demand range, with rapid start-up and response characteristics. Air may also be directed into the reaction chamber through an inlet beneath the charcoal bed, which results in the reaction of the devolatilized charcoal to form additional fuel and an ash residue. Thus, the production and consumption of the charcoal within the apparatus may be exactly balanced.

  2. Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

    2014-05-01

    In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

  3. Effect of maternal intake of organically or conventionally produced feed on oral tolerance development in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maja Melballe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher R; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings' response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother's milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups' anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L). PMID:23581797

  4. Isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Randal; Conaway, Christopher; Saad, Nabil; Kharaka, Yousif

    2013-04-01

    Identification of fluid migration and escape from intentionally altered subsurface geologic systems, such as in hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon sequestration activities, is an important issue for environmental regulators based on the traction that the "fracking" process is gathering across the United States. Given diverse injected fluid compositions and the potential for toxic or regulated compounds to be released, one of the most important steps in the process is accurately identifying evidence of injected fluid escape during and after injection processes. An important tool in identifying differences between the natural groundwater and injected fluid is the isotopic composition of dissolved constituents including inorganic components such as Sr and carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds. Since biological processes in the mesothermal subsurface can rapidly alter the organic composition of a fluid, stable carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds (DOC) are an effective means to identify differences in the origin of two fluids, especially when coupled with inorganic compound analyses. The burgeoning field of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for isotopic analysis presents an opportunity to obtain rapid, reliable and cost-effective isotopic measurements of DOC in potentially affected groundwater for the identification of leakage or the improvement of hydrogeochemical pathway models. Here we adapt the use of the novel hyphenated TOC-CRDS carbon isotope analyzer for the analysis of DOC in produced water by wet oxidation and describe the methods to evaluate performance and obtain useful information at higher salinities. Our methods are applied to a specific field example in a CO2-enhanced EOR field in Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) as a means to demonstrate the ability to distinguish natural and injected DOC using the stable isotopic composition of the dissolved organic carbon when employing the novel TOC-CRDS instrumentation set up.

  5. Quick, Easy Method to Show Living Soil Organisms to High School or Beginning-Level College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loynachan, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The living component of soil is difficult for students to learn about and understand because students have difficulty relating to things they cannot see (beyond sight, beyond mind). Line drawings from textbooks help explain conceptual relationships but do little to stimulate an active interest in the living component of soil. Alternatively,…

  6. Evoecotoxicology: Environmental Changes and Life Features Development during the Evolutionary Process—the Record of the Past at Developmental Stages of Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    For most of evolutionary history, scientific understanding of the environment and life forms is extremely limited. In this commentary I discuss the hypothesis that ontogenetic features of living organisms can be considered biomarkers of coevolution between organisms and physicochemical agents during Earth’s history. I provide a new vision of evolution based on correlations between metabolic features and stage-dependent susceptibility of organisms to physicochemical agents with well-known environmental signatures. Thus, developmental features potentially reflect environmental changes during evolution. From this perspective, early multicellular life forms would have flourished in the anoxic Earth more than 2 billion years ago, which is at least 1.2 billion years in advance of available fossil evidence. The remarkable transition to aerobic metabolism in gastrula-stage embryos potentially reflects evolution toward tridermic organisms by 2 billion years ago. Noteworthy changes in embryonic resistance to physicochemical agents at different developmental stages that can be observed in living organisms potentially reflect the influence of environmental stress conditions during different periods of evolutionary history. Evoecotoxicology, as a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach, can enhance our understanding of evolution, including the phylogenetic significance of differences in susceptibility/resistance to physicochemical agents in different organisms. PMID:16882515

  7. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton–proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    E-print Network

    Apyan, Aram

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation ...

  8. Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed.

  9. Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, B.N.; Thompson, W.R.; Chyba, C.F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed. 56 refs.

  10. Organic samples produced by ion bombardment of ices for the EXPOSE-R2 mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, G. A.; Chaput, D.; Cottin, H.; Fernandez Cascales, L.; Palumbo, M. E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization (by UV-vis-IR spectroscopy) of a set of organic samples, stable at room temperature and above, that are part of the experiment "Photochemistry on the Space Station (PSS)" planned to be enclosed in the EXPOSE-R2 mission, which will be conducted on the EXPOSE-R facility. The core facility is placed outside the International Space Station (ISS) on the Universal Platform D (URM-D platform) of the Russian module Zvezda. The organic materials are prepared in the Catania laboratory after 200 keV He+ irradiation of icy mixtures, namely N2:CH4:CO deposited at 16 K on MgF2 windows furnished by the European Space Agency. It is widely accepted that such a kind of materials produced by energetic processing are representative of organic material in some astrophysical environments as comets. Once expelled from comets these materials are exposed to solar radiation during their interplanetary journey before they eventually land on Earth and other planetary objects where they might give a contribution to the chemical and pre-biotical evolution. In particular our residues contain different chemical groups, including triple CN bonds that are considered relevant to pre-biotic chemistry. Therefore the samples will be exposed, for several months, to the solar ultraviolet photons that are a major source of energy to initiate chemical evolution in the solar system. This will allow analysis of their destruction or modification and evaluation of their lifetime in the interplanetary medium. The samples have three different thicknesses that will allow estimation of the depth profile of destruction. This experiment overcomes the limits of ground tests which do not reproduce exactly the space parameters.

  11. Quality of soluble organic C, N, and P produced by different types and species of litter: root litter versus leaf litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In forested ecosystems, the quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) produced by freshly senesced litter may differ by litter type and species, and these differences may influence the amount of DOM that is respired versus that which may either contribute to soil organic matter accumulation or be le...

  12. WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-lived TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.

  13. Organic synthesis: the art and science of replicating the molecules of living nature and creating others like them in the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic organic chemists have the power to replicate some of the most intriguing molecules of living nature in the laboratory and apply their developed synthetic strategies and technologies to construct variations of them. Such molecules facilitate biology and medicine, as they often find uses as biological tools and drug candidates for clinical development. In addition, by employing sophisticated catalytic reactions and appropriately designed synthetic processes, they can synthesize not only the molecules of nature and their analogues, but also myriad other organic molecules for potential applications in many areas of science, technology and everyday life. After a short historical introduction, this article focuses on recent advances in the field of organic synthesis with demonstrative examples of total synthesis of complex bioactive molecules, natural or designed, from the author’s laboratories, and their impact on chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:24611027

  14. Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reaction of Phenols with an Organic Excited Triplet State and Hydroxyl Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Yu, L.; George, K.; Ruthenburg, T. C.; Dillner, A. M.; Zhang, Q.; Anastasio, C.

    2012-12-01

    Although reactions in atmospheric condensed phases can form and transform secondary organic aerosol (SOA), these reactions are not well represented in many air quality models. Previous experiments have focused on hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of low molecular weight precursors such as gyloxal and methylglyoxal. In our work we are examining aqueous SOA formed from phenols, which are emitted from biomass burning and formed from the oxidation of anthropogenic aromatics such as benzene and toluene. In this work we examine aqueous SOA production from oxidation of three phenols (phenol, guaiacol, syringol) and three benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, 1,4-hydroquinone) by hydroxyl radical (OH) and the triplet excited state of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (DMB). Our focus is on light absorption by the reaction products, which we characterized by measuring UV-Vis spectra and calculating mass absorption coefficients. To understand the elemental and molecular composition of the SOA, we also analyzed the samples with high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. Our results indicate that aqueous oxidation of phenols and benzene-diols via OH and triplet excited states efficiently produce SOA that is highly absorbing in the UV-A wavelengths, consists of both small and large molecular weight products, and is highly oxidized.

  15. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production. PMID:25990629

  16. Mycofumigation by the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Induces Bacterial Cell Death through DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Alpha, Cambria J.; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

  17. Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light emitting devices using nano-structured substrate produced by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Grover, Rakhi; Mehta, D. S.; Saxena, K.

    2015-07-01

    We report significant enhancement in light out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using a nano-structured substrate by rapid thermal processing (RTP). On the backside of the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate a thin film of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) was coated by thermal evaporation. Nano-structured films of MgF2 and ITO were then produced by RTP on both sides of the glass substrate. Bottom-emitting OLEDs were fabricated on the ITO-coated glass substrate with ?-NPD as the hole transport layer, Alq3 as the emissive layer, and LiF and aluminum as the cathode. On the backside of the glass substrate nano-structured MgF2 were fabricated by RTP. Experimental results of enhancement of electroluminescent intensity (EL) with and without nano-structured films are presented. Results of EL intensity of OLED are also compared with the uniform MgF2 film coated on the backside of the substrate. It was found that the enhancement of EL intensity is much higher in the case of nano-porous MgF2 film than in the case of uniform MgF2 coated on the backside of the glass substrate.

  18. Organic and inorganic fractions of diesel exhaust particles produce changes in mucin profile of mouse trachea explants.

    PubMed

    Seriani, Robson; Junqueira, Mara S; Toledo, Alessandra C; Corrêa, Aristides T; Silva, Luiz F F; Martins, Milton A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain organic and inorganic elements that produce damage to the respiratory epithelium. The aim of this study was to determine the mucus profile of tracheal explants exposed to either crude diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or DEP treated with nitric acid (DEP/NA), with hexane (DEP/HEX), or with methanol (DEP/MET) at concentrations of 50 and 100 ?g/ml for 30 and 60 min. Tracheal explants were subjected to morphometric analyses to study acidic (AB+), neutral (PAS+), and mixed (AB+/PAS+) mucus production and vacuolization (V). Incubation with 50 ?g/ml crude DEP resulted in a rise in acid mucus production, an increase in vacuolization at 30 min, and reduction in neutral mucus at 30 and 60 min. Tracheas exposed to DEP/MET at 50 ?g/ml for 30 or 60 min resulted in a significant decrease in neutral mucus production and an elevation in acid mucus production. DEP/HEX increased vacuolization at both 50 and 100 ?g/ml at 30 and 60 min of exposure. Treatment with 50 ?g/ml for 30 or 60 min significantly elevated mixed mucus levels. These results suggest that DEP appear to be more toxic when administered in combination with HEX or MET. DEP/MET modified the mucus profile of the epithelium, while DEP/HEX altered mucus extrusion, and these responses might be due to bioavailability of individual elements in DEP fractions. PMID:25674825

  19. Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 ?C. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

  20. Fucoidan stimulates cell division in the amebocyte-producing organ of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John T.; Belloir, Joseph A.; Beltran, Roxxana V.; Grivakis, Aris; Ransone, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult Salvador (schistosome-resistant) strain Biomphalaria glabrata snails were injected with 5 ?l of 10 mg/ml solutions of the sulfated polysaccharides ? carageenan, dextran sulfate, fucoidan, and heparin, the nonsulfated polysaccharide laminarin, and the monosaccharides L-fucose and L-galactose, and mitotic activity in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) was measured in histological sections at 24h post injection. Among the substances tested, only fucoidan induced elevated mitotic activity. Desulfated fucoidan was not mitogenic, indicating that sulfate groups are required for activity. Schistosome-susceptible M-line snails possessed minimal or no hematopoietic tissue in their APO, which did not respond to fucoidan. Immersion of juvenile Salvador snails in 1 or 10 mg/ml solutions of fucoidan for 3h did not elevate mitotic activity at 24h post immersion, suggesting that the external and digestive tract epithelia of B. glabrata are impermeable to this molecule. These results provide support for the hypothesis that fucosylated glycans on the tegument and in excretory-secretory products of sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni are in part responsible for increased mitotic activity in the APO of B. glabrata infected with this trematode or injected with its extracts. PMID:25233872

  1. 7. Modeling Evolution: Evolutionary Computation "How does evolution produce increasingly fit organisms in environments which are highly uncertain for

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Luis

    organisms in environments which are highly uncertain for individual organisms? How does an organism use its experience to modify its behavior in beneficial ways (i.e. how does it learn or `adapt under sensory guidance John Holland when he thought of Genetic Algorithms (GA's) in the 1960's. All these questions were shown

  2. Stand-off detection of plant-produced volatile organic compounds using short-range Raman LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lewis; Barnett, Cleon; Brown, Christopher; Crawford, Devron; Tumlinson, James

    2004-03-01

    Several plant species release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when under stresses such as herbivore feeding attack. The release of these plant-produced VOCs (i.e. terpenes) triggers the release of active biochemical defenses, which target the attacker. In some cases, the VOCs send cues to nearby carnivorous predators to attract them to the feeding herbivore. Volatile compounds are released both locally by damaged leaves and systemically by the rest of the plant. These compounds are released in large quantities, which facilitate detection of pests in the field by parasitoids. Detecting the plant"s VOC emissions as a function of various parameters (e.g. ambient temperature, atmospheric nitrogen levels, etc.) is essential to designing effective biological control systems. In addition these VOC releases may serve as early warning indicator of chemo-bio attacks. By combining Raman spectroscopy techniques with Laser Remote Sensing (LIDAR) systems, we are developing a Standoff detection system. Initial results indicate that is it possible to detect and differentiate between various terpenes, plant species, and other chemical compounds at distances greater than 12 meters. Currently, the system uses the 2nd harmonic of a Nd:YAG; however plans are underway to improve the Raman signal by moving the illumination wavelength into the solar-blind UV region. We report on our initial efforts of designing and characterizing this in a laboratory proof of concept system. We envision that this effort will lead to the design of a portable field-deployable system to rapidly characterize, with a high spatial resolution, large crops and other fields.

  3. Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

  4. Cellular delivery and site-specific targeting of organic fluorophores for super-resolution imaging in living cells

    E-print Network

    Uttamapinant, Chayasith

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy have pushed the spatial resolution of biological imaging down to a few nanometers. The key element to the development of such imaging modality is synthetic organic ...

  5. EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

  6. Approaches to characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamase/beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in healthy organized vis-a-vis backyard farmed pigs in India.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Mahanti, Achintya; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Sar, Tapas K; Dutta, Tapan K

    2015-12-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence and to characterize the ESBL/beta-lactamase producing-Escherichia coli in healthy pigs of organized and backyard farms in West Bengal, India. Total 200 rectal swabs were collected randomly from healthy pigs maintained in four organized farms and 10 backyard farms (n=100 each) and 76 isolates were identified as E. coli from organized (48/100, 48%) and backyard pigs (28/100, 28%). Twelve E. coli isolates (6%) in the present study were detected to possess any of the ESBL/beta-lactamase genes studied. ESBL/beta-lactamase producers were isolated with significantly more frequency from backyard pigs than the organized farm pigs (p=0.026). Six of ESBL/beta-lactamase producing isolates were phenotypically confirmed as CTX-M producers and ten of them were confirmed as TEM/SHV producers. PCR and sequencing of the amplified product from representative isolates revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-9, blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. No unique combination of the studied beta lactamase genes for organized and backyard farm pig isolates was noted. The ESBL isolates belonged to O13, O55, O133, O153, O157, O158, O166, rough and OUT serogroups. The association of heat labile toxin (elt) (p<0.0005) with organized farm isolates and heat stable toxin (estA) (p=0.0143) with backyard piggery sector was significantly higher. The ESBL/beta-lactamase producers from organized farm (Ak/Ex) and indigenous pigs (Ak/Ex/Te; Ak/CoT/G) showed a characteristic phenotypical antibiotic resistance pattern. Two pairs of isolates from organized and backyard farm pigs showed clonal relationship indicating a possible transmission between the farms which were situated adjacently. Thus the present study revealed backyard farm pigs as major source of ESBL/beta-lactamase producing-E. coli associated with STa and characteristic antibiotic resistance pattern in India. PMID:26423671

  7. Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level.1. Using the LASCA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianova, O. V.; Uianov, S. S.; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

    2011-04-01

    A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals.

  8. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level. 1. Using the LASCA method

    SciTech Connect

    Ulianova, O V; Uianov, S S; Li Pengcheng; Luo Qingming

    2011-04-30

    A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  10. A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10?µg?C?m?2?hr?1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

  11. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton–proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-04-11

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton–proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6fb?¹ of 8TeV proton–proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 h of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of 13.2+3.6–2.5 events. Limits are presented at 95 % confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass ?1000GeV and a top squark with mass ?525GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 ?s and 1000s. These results are the most stringent constraints on stopped particles to date.

  12. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton–proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-04-11

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton–proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6fb?¹ of 8TeV proton–proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 h of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of 13.2+3.6–2.5 events. Limits are presented at 95 %more »confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass ?1000GeV and a top squark with mass ?525GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 ?s and 1000s. These results are the most stringent constraints on stopped particles to date.« less

  13. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

    E-print Network

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-04-14

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6 inverse femtobarns of 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 hours of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of 13.2 +3.6 -2.5 events. Limits are presented at 95% confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass < 1000 GeV and a top squark with mass < 525 GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 microsecond and 1000 s. These results are the most stringent constraints on stopped particles to date.

  14. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    E-print Network

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas

    2015-01-01

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6 fb$^{-1}$ of 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 hours of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of $13.2^{+3.6}_{-2.5}$ events. Limits are presented at 95% confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass $\\lesssim$1000 GeV and a top squark with mass $\\lesssim$525 GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 $\\mu$s and 1000 s. These results are the most stringent c...

  15. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    PubMed

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections. PMID:21559784

  16. Living with Lupus (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Living With Lupus KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Arthritis & Rheumatologic Conditions > Living ... disease for both doctors and their patients. About Lupus A healthy immune system produces proteins called antibodies ...

  17. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E; López, Nancy I; Levin, Laura; Pettinari, M Julia

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel(T) can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34mel(T) belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The most relevant phenotypic characteristics of 34mel(T) are pectin degradation, a distinctive trait of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, and melanin production. Genes coding for three pectate lyases were detected in a cluster, unique to this microorganism, that contains all genes needed for pectin degradation. Melanin synthesis in 34mel(T) is hypothesized to occur through the homogentisate pathway, as no tyrosinases or laccases were detected and the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene is inactivated by a transposon insertion, leading to the accumulation of the melanin precursor homogentisate. Comparative genome analysis of other melanogenic Aeromonas strains revealed that this gene was inactivated by transposon insertions or point mutations, indicating that melanin biosynthesis in Aeromonas occurs through the homogentisate pathway. Horizontal gene transfer could have contributed to the adaptation of 34mel(T) to a highly polluted environment, as 13 genomic islands were identified in its genome, some of them containing genes coding for fitness-related traits. Heavy metal resistance genes were also found, along with others associated with oxidative and nitrosative stresses. These characteristics, together with melanin production and the ability to use different substrates, may explain the ability of this microorganism to live in an extremely polluted environment. PMID:26025898

  18. Living liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed “active fluid,” has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter––living liquid crystals (LLCs)––that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

  19. Living Liquid Crystals

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shuang; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles often termed active fluid has attracted enormous attention in broad scientific community because of it fundamentally non-equilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here we introduce a new class of active matter, living liquid crystals (LLCs) that combine living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of new intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (a) non-linear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by non-uniform director, (b) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (c) activity-triggered transition from a non-flowing uniform state ...

  20. Reporting a new siderophore based Ca(2+) selective chemosensor that works as a staining agent in the live organism Artemia.

    PubMed

    Raju, M; Nair, Ratish R; Raval, Ishan H; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B

    2015-10-26

    A Ca(2+)-specific chemosensor involving acyclic non-ether and non-carboxylato-type metal chelating ligands is rare. The tetradentate OONO artificial receptor, , possessing a sulfur-containing intermediate siderophore aeruginic acid, tethered to a rhodamine 6G based signalling unit in a single molecule has been synthesized. The fluoroionophore required excitation in the visible wavelength (510 nm) and showed highly selective and sensitive detection of Ca(2+) ions in 100% water solution in HEPES buffer at physiological pH (7.4). The probe , with LOD as low as 70 nM, behaves reversibly and showed nearly 17-fold enhanced selectivity for Ca(2+) over other cell abundant alkali and alkaline metal ions such as Na(+), K(+), Li(+), and Mg(2+) without any intervention. Job's plot, (1)H NMR titration and ESI-MS data provided corroborative evidence in support of 1?:?1 association between and Ca(2+). From a wide range of transition and heavy metal ions series, also binds Cu(2+). However, the use of l-cysteine removes the interference from Cu(2+) and results in highly selective detection specificity of for Ca(2+). As a reversible "off-on-off" fluorescent chemosensor, it is possible to detect Ca(2+) at as low as 5 ?M in the midgut region of the gastrointestinal tract of the live animal Artemia, a brine shrimp. PMID:26460620

  1. Subcellular Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Bivalve Modiolus Modiolus Living Along a Metal Contamination Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgurskaya, Olga V.; Kavun, Victor Ya.

    2006-03-01

    Concentration and distribution of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni among subcellular fractions (cellular membrane structures and cytosol) and Zn, Cu, Cd among cytoplasmic proteins in the kidney and digestive gland of mussel Modiolus modiolus living along a polymetallic concentration gradient were studied. It was found in the kidney of M. modiolus from contaminated sites that the Fe percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn percent increased in the cytosol compared to the kidney of the control mussel. Note kidney cytosol of M. modiolus from clean and contaminated sites sequestered major parts of Cu and Cd. In the digestive gland of M. modiolus from contaminated sites Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Cu, Pb percent increased in the cytosol compared to digestive gland of control mussel. Gel-filtration chromatography shows kidney of M. modiolus contains increased metallothionein-like protein levels irrespective of ambient dissolved metal concentrations. It was shown that the metal detoxification system in the kidney and digestive gland of M. modiolus was efficient under extremely high ambient metal levels. However, under complex environmental contamination in the kidney of M. modiolus, the metal detoxification capacity of metallothionein-like proteins was damaged.

  2. Impact of Amorphous SiO2 Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioral, and Molecular Biology Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Scotto di Vettimo, Maria Rosaria; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren; Marchesano, Valentina; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Tortiglione, Claudia; Tino, Angela

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that silica (SiO2) is not toxic. But the increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many different industrial fields has prompted the careful investigation of their toxicity in biological systems. In this report, we describe the effects elicited by SiO2NPs on animal and cell physiology. Stable and monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles, 25?nM in diameter, were administered to living Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria). The dose-related effects were defined by morphological and behavioral assays. The results revealed an all-or-nothing lethal toxicity with a rather high threshold (35?nM NPs) and a LT50 of 38?h. At sub lethal doses, the morphophysiological effects included: animal morphology alterations, paralysis of the gastric region, disorganization and depletion of tentacle specialized cells, increase of apoptotic and collapsed cells, and reduction of the epithelial cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome analysis (RNAseq) revealed 45 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in stress response and cuticle renovation. Our results show that Hydra reacts to SiO2NPs, is able to rebalance the animal homeostasis up to a relatively high doses of SiO2NPs, and that the physiological modifications are transduced to gene expression modulation. PMID:25325055

  3. Potency of Melatonin in Living Beings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donchan

    2013-01-01

    Living beings are surrounded by various changes exhibiting periodical rhythms in environment. The environmental changes are imprinted in organisms in various pattern. The phenomena are believed to match the external signal with organisms in order to increase their survival rate. The signals are categorized into circadian, seasonal, and annual cycles. Among the cycles, the circadian rhythm is regarded as the most important factor because its periodicity is in harmony with the levels of melatonin secreted from pineal gland. Melatonin is produced by the absence of light and its presence displays darkness. Melatonin plays various roles in creatures. Therefore, this review is to introduce the diverse potential ability of melatonin in manifold aspects in living organism. PMID:25949131

  4. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol in an organic residue produced by ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs.

    PubMed

    Nuevo, Michel; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Thiemann, Wolfram H-P

    2010-03-01

    More than 50 stable organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), from ground-based and onboard-satellite astronomical observations, in the gas and solid phases. Some of these organics may be prebiotic compounds that were delivered to early Earth by comets and meteorites and may have triggered the first chemical reactions involved in the origin of life. Ultraviolet irradiation of ices simulating photoprocesses of cold solid matter in astrophysical environments have shown that photochemistry can lead to the formation of amino acids and related compounds. In this work, we experimentally searched for other organic molecules of prebiotic interest, namely, oxidized acid labile compounds. In a setup that simulates conditions relevant to the ISM and Solar System icy bodies such as comets, a condensed CH(3)OH:NH(3) = 1:1 ice mixture was UV irradiated at approximately 80 K. The molecular constituents of the nonvolatile organic residue that remained at room temperature were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol were detected in this residue, as well as hydroxyacetamide, glycerolic acid, and glycerol amide. These organics are interesting target molecules to be searched for in space. Finally, tentative mechanisms of formation for these compounds under interstellar/pre-cometary conditions are proposed. PMID:20402585

  5. Comparison of Surface Water Quality and Yields from Organically and Conventionally Produced Sweet Corn Plots with Conservation and Conventional Tillage.

    PubMed

    Edgell, Joshua; Osmond, D L; Line, D E; Hoyt, G D; Grossman, J M; Larsen, E M

    2015-11-01

    Organic agricultural systems are often assumed to be more sustainable than conventional farming, yet there has been little work comparing surface water quality from organic and conventional production, especially under the same cropping sequence. Our objective was to compare nutrient and sediment losses, as well as sweet corn ( L. var. ) yield, from organic and conventional production with conventional and conservation tillage. The experiment was located in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four treatments, replicated four times, had been in place for over 18 yr and consisted of conventional tillage (chisel plow and disk) with conventional production (CT/Conven), conservation no-till with conventional production (NT/Conven), conventional tillage with organic production (CT/Org), and conservation no-till with organic production (NT/Org). Water quality (surface flow volume; nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations) and sweet corn yield data were collected in 2011 and 2012. Sediment and sediment-attached nutrient losses were influenced by tillage and cropping system in 2011, due to higher rainfall, and tillage in 2012. Soluble nutrients were affected by the nutrient source and rate, which are a function of the cropping system. Sweet corn marketable yields were greater in conventional systems due to high weed competition and reduced total nitrogen availability in organic treatments. When comparing treatment efficiency (yield kg ha /nutrient loss kg ha ), the NT/Conven treatment had the greatest sweet corn yield per unit of nutrient and sediment loss. Other treatment ratios were similar to each other; thus, it appears the most sustainably productive treatment was NT/Conven. PMID:26641338

  6. Aspects of a Distinct Cytotoxicity of Selenium Salts and Organic Selenides in Living Cells with Possible Implications for Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Estevam, Ethiene Castellucci; Witek, Karolina; Faulstich, Lisa; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Latacz, Gniewomir; Domínguez-Álvarez, Enrique; Kie?-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Demasi, Marilene; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is traditionally considered as an antioxidant element and selenium compounds are often discussed in the context of chemoprevention and therapy. Recent studies, however, have revealed a rather more colorful and diverse biological action of selenium-based compounds, including the modulation of the intracellular redox homeostasis and an often selective interference with regulatory cellular pathways. Our basic activity and mode of action studies with simple selenium and tellurium salts in different strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that such compounds are sometimes not particularly toxic on their own, yet enhance the antibacterial potential of known antibiotics, possibly via the bioreductive formation of insoluble elemental deposits. Whilst the selenium and tellurium compounds tested do not necessarily act via the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), they seem to interfere with various cellular pathways, including a possible inhibition of the proteasome and hindrance of DNA repair. Here, organic selenides are considerably more active compared to simple salts. The interference of selenium (and tellurium) compounds with multiple targets could provide new avenues for the development of effective antibiotic and anticancer agents which may go well beyond the traditional notion of selenium as a simple antioxidant. PMID:26263963

  7. Exploring the evolution of a trade-off between vigilance and foraging in group-living organisms.

    PubMed

    Olson, Randal S; Haley, Patrick B; Dyer, Fred C; Adami, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Even though grouping behaviour has been actively studied for over a century, the relative importance of the numerous proposed fitness benefits of grouping remain unclear. We use a digital model of evolving prey under simulated predation to directly explore the evolution of gregarious foraging behaviour according to one such benefit, the 'many eyes' hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, collective vigilance allows prey in large groups to detect predators more efficiently by making alarm signals or behavioural cues to each other, thereby allowing individuals within the group to spend more time foraging. Here, we find that collective vigilance is sufficient to select for gregarious foraging behaviour as long there is not a direct cost for grouping (e.g. competition for limited food resources), even when controlling for confounding factors such as the dilution effect. Furthermore, we explore the role of the genetic relatedness and reproductive strategy of the prey and find that highly related groups of prey with a semelparous reproductive strategy are the most likely to evolve gregarious foraging behaviour mediated by the benefit of vigilance. These findings, combined with earlier studies with evolving digital organisms, further sharpen our understanding of the factors favouring grouping behaviour. PMID:26473039

  8. Exploring the evolution of a trade-off between vigilance and foraging in group-living organisms

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Randal S.; Haley, Patrick B.; Dyer, Fred C.; Adami, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Even though grouping behaviour has been actively studied for over a century, the relative importance of the numerous proposed fitness benefits of grouping remain unclear. We use a digital model of evolving prey under simulated predation to directly explore the evolution of gregarious foraging behaviour according to one such benefit, the ‘many eyes’ hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, collective vigilance allows prey in large groups to detect predators more efficiently by making alarm signals or behavioural cues to each other, thereby allowing individuals within the group to spend more time foraging. Here, we find that collective vigilance is sufficient to select for gregarious foraging behaviour as long there is not a direct cost for grouping (e.g. competition for limited food resources), even when controlling for confounding factors such as the dilution effect. Furthermore, we explore the role of the genetic relatedness and reproductive strategy of the prey and find that highly related groups of prey with a semelparous reproductive strategy are the most likely to evolve gregarious foraging behaviour mediated by the benefit of vigilance. These findings, combined with earlier studies with evolving digital organisms, further sharpen our understanding of the factors favouring grouping behaviour. PMID:26473039

  9. [Investigation of Inulinase Permolecular Organization from Producers of the Genus Aspergillus by Means of Some Computing and Experimental Methods].

    PubMed

    Holyavka, M G; Artyukhov, V G; Makin, S M

    2015-01-01

    The computer model for a dimer of inulinase from Aspergillus ficuum is designed. The permolecular organization of inulinase from Aspergillus niger is experimentally investigated. The question about the role of various inulinase forms in manifestation of their functional activity is discussed. It is shown, that in the process of inulinase dimerization when contacts between monomeric forms of the enzyme are formed, a key role belongs to the nonpolar amino acid residues. PMID:26394462

  10. Creating living machines

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Roger D.; Bashir, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Development of increasingly complex integrated cellular systems will be a major challenge for the next decade and beyond, as we apply the knowledge gained from the sub-disciplines of tissue engineering, synthetic biology, micro-fabrication and nanotechnology, systems biology, and developmental biology. In this prospective, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the context of differentiating source cells from more primitive, pluripotent cells, and organizing these cells into populations of a single cell type to produce the components or building blocks of higher order systems and finally, combining multiple cell types, possibly in combination with scaffolds possessing specific physical or chemical properties, to produce greater functionality. As these “living machines” increase in capabilities, exhibit emergent behavior and potentially reveal the ability for self-assembly, self-repair, and even self-replication, questions arise regarding the ethical implications of this work. Future prospects as well as ways of addressing these complex ethical questions will be addressed. PMID:24006130

  11. Origin, transport and fate of the dissolved organic matter produced in the watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva Junior, Jomar; Soares Gonçalves Serafim, Tassiana; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Dittmar, Thorsten; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is an important river from Southeastern Brazil that flows through the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The PSR is responsible for the water supply of over 14 million of the habitants. Due the human occupation and anthropic pressure, only 8% of it is original forest cover remains in the form of small fragmented patches. The remaining of the basin is mostly covered by grasses, such as pasture and sugar cane. Isotopic studies allows the monitoring of ecosystem changes and promotes specific links between ecology, land use and biogeochemical processes. We investigated the isotopic composition of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in PSR. Our objective was to identify how extensive land use changes, from forest (C3 Plants) to pasture and sugar cane (C4 Plants), have affected river biogeochemistry of organic matter transported by PSR. Water samples were collected at 24 sites along the main channel of the PSR, 14 sites samples at the tributaries and 21 sites samples in the estuarine and marine environmental until 35km of the coast. Sampling was performed in the wet season of the 2013 and the dry season of the 2013. The fluvial and estuarine samples were processed with conventional filtration and the marine samples were processed with the cross-flow filtration. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the PPL cartridges (Styrene divinyl benzene polymer). Isotope measurements, organic carbon and nitrogen concentration were performed with a isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (Thermo Finningan). The ?13C and the ?15N values ranged from -20.0‰ and -29.0‰, and from -0.80 to 4.59 respectively, while the (C/N)a ratio varied between 8 and 41. The ?13C were depleted in 13C at the river samples from the wet season, and in the estuary and marine areas as well. The ?13C average values observed during the wet season in the PSR and in the estuarine samples are close to those recorded for the soil of the Rain Forest and mangrove species, respectively. These results suggest an input contribution of the allochthonous organic matter due to washing of the soil during the rainy season. The ?13C values found in the samples more distant from the coast showed a terrigenous organic matter input in marine environmental due the high flow. In the dry season the ?13C values showed indicated predominance of the autochthonous production. Downstream of the PSR, the ?13C and ?15N values were enriched in both seasons, showing the influence of the cover substitution from Rain Forest to pasture and sugar cane, that has more enriched values of the 13C and 15N. In conclusion, DOM transported by PSR is formed by multiple sources (a mixture of C3 and C4 plants and autochthonous production), showing that the land use in the watershed and the discharge of domestic and industrial effluents promote a qualitative change in the MOD of the water column of the river.

  12. A case study on co-exposure to a mixture of organic solvents in a Tunisian adhesive-producing company

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives to assess environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organic solvents in a glue-manufacturing company in Sfax, Tunisia. Methods Exposure of volunteer workers, in the solvented glue-work-stations, in the control laboratory and in the storage rooms of the finished products, was assessed through indoor-air and urine measurements. Informed consent of the workers was obtained. Results and discussion The exposure indexes were found with high values in the solvented workshop as well as in the control laboratory and were respectively, 8.40 and 3.12. These indexes were also correlated with hexane and toluene indoor air concentrations. As to urine, the obtained results for the 2,5-hexandione and hippuric acid, metabolites of hexane and toluene, respectively, were in accord with the indoor-air measurements, with an average of 0.46 mg/l and 1240 mg/g of creatinine. Conclusion This study assessed for the first time biological exposure to organic solvents used in Tunisian adhesive industries. Although values are likely to underestimate true exposure levels, some figures exceed European and American occupational exposure guidelines. PMID:22082240

  13. 2D Time-lapse Resistivity Monitoring of an Organic Produced Gas Plume in a Landfill using ERT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, N. D.; Mendonça, C. A.; Doherty, R.

    2014-12-01

    This project has the objective to study a landfill located on the margins of Tietê River, in São Paulo, Brazil, using the electroresistivity tomography method (ERT). Due to huge organic matter concentrations in the São Paulo Basin quaternary sediments, there is subsurface depth related biogas accumulation (CH4 and CO2), induced by anaerobic degradation of the organic matter. 2D resistivity sections were obtained from a test area since March 2012, a total of 7 databases, being the last one dated from October 2013. The studied line has the length of 56m, the electrode interval is of 2m. In addition, there are two boreholes along the line (one with 3 electrodes and the other one with 2) in order to improve data quality and precision. The boreholes also have a multi-level sampling system that indicates the fluid (gas or water) presence in relation to depth. With our results it was possible to map the gas plume position and its area of extension in the sections as it is a positive resistivity anomaly, with the gas level having approximately 5m depth. With the time-lapse analysis (Matlab script) between the obtained 2D resistivity sections from the site, it was possible to map how the biogas volume and position change in the landfill in relation to time. Our preliminary results show a preferential gas pathway through the subsurface studied area. A consistent relation between the gas depth and obtained microbiological data from archea and bacteria population was also observed.

  14. Hydrocarbons, the advanced biofuels produced by different organisms, the evidence that alkanes in petroleum can be renewable.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wen-Juan; Chi, Zhe; Ma, Zai-Chao; Zhou, Hai-Xiang; Liu, Guang-Lei; Lee, Ching-Fu; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2015-09-01

    It is generally regarded that the petroleum cannot be renewable. However, in recent years, it has been found that many marine cyanobacteria, some eubacteria, engineered Escherichia coli, some endophytic fungi, engineered yeasts, some marine yeasts, plants, and insects can synthesize hydrocarbons with different carbon lengths. If the organisms, especially some native microorganisms and engineered bacteria and yeasts, can synthesize and secret a large amount of hydrocarbons within a short period, alkanes in the petroleum can be renewable. It has been documented that there are eight pathways for hydrocarbon biosynthesis in different organisms. Unfortunately, most of native microorganisms, engineered E. coli and engineered yeasts, only synthesize a small amount of intracellular and extracellular hydrocarbons. Recently, Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum isolated from a mangrove ecosystem has been found to be able to synthesize and secret over 21.5 g/l long-chain hydrocarbons with a yield of 0.275 g/g glucose and a productivity of 0.193 g/l/h within 5 days. The yeast may have highly potential applications in alkane production. PMID:26231137

  15. Trimethylamine and Organic Matter Additions Reverse Substrate Limitation Effects on the ?13C Values of Methane Produced in Hypersaline Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Brooke E.; Beaudoin, Claire S.; Detweiler, Angela M.; Bebout, Brad M.

    2014-01-01

    Methane production has been observed in a number of hypersaline environments, and it is generally thought that this methane is produced through the use of noncompetitive substrates, such as the methylamines, dimethylsulfide and methanol. Stable isotope measurements of the produced methane have also suggested that the methanogens are operating under conditions of substrate limitation. Here, substrate limitation in gypsum-hosted endoevaporite and soft-mat hypersaline environments was investigated by the addition of trimethylamine, a noncompetitive substrate for methanogenesis, and dried microbial mat, a source of natural organic matter. The ?13C values of the methane produced after amendments were compared to those in unamended control vials. At all hypersaline sites investigated, the ?13C values of the methane produced in the amended vials were statistically lower (by 10 to 71‰) than the unamended controls, supporting the hypothesis of substrate limitation at these sites. When substrates were added to the incubation vials, the methanogens within the vials fractionated carbon isotopes to a greater degree, resulting in the production of more 13C-depleted methane. Trimethylamine-amended samples produced lower methane ?13C values than the mat-amended samples. This difference in the ?13C values between the two types of amendments could be due to differences in isotope fractionation associated with the dominant methane production pathway (or substrate used) within the vials, with trimethylamine being the main substrate used in the trimethylamine-amended vials. It is hypothesized that increased natural organic matter in the mat-amended vials would increase fermentation rates, leading to higher H2 concentrations and increased CO2/H2 methanogenesis. PMID:25239903

  16. Trimethylamine and Organic Matter Additions Reverse Substrate Limitation Effects on the ?13C Values of Methane Produced in Hypersaline Microbial Mats.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Cheryl A; Nicholson, Brooke E; Beaudoin, Claire S; Detweiler, Angela M; Bebout, Brad M

    2014-12-01

    Methane production has been observed in a number of hypersaline environments, and it is generally thought that this methane is produced through the use of noncompetitive substrates, such as the methylamines, dimethylsulfide and methanol. Stable isotope measurements of the produced methane have also suggested that the methanogens are operating under conditions of substrate limitation. Here, substrate limitation in gypsum-hosted endoevaporite and soft-mat hypersaline environments was investigated by the addition of trimethylamine, a noncompetitive substrate for methanogenesis, and dried microbial mat, a source of natural organic matter. The ?(13)C values of the methane produced after amendments were compared to those in unamended control vials. At all hypersaline sites investigated, the ?(13)C values of the methane produced in the amended vials were statistically lower (by 10 to 71‰) than the unamended controls, supporting the hypothesis of substrate limitation at these sites. When substrates were added to the incubation vials, the methanogens within the vials fractionated carbon isotopes to a greater degree, resulting in the production of more (13)C-depleted methane. Trimethylamine-amended samples produced lower methane ?(13)C values than the mat-amended samples. This difference in the ?(13)C values between the two types of amendments could be due to differences in isotope fractionation associated with the dominant methane production pathway (or substrate used) within the vials, with trimethylamine being the main substrate used in the trimethylamine-amended vials. It is hypothesized that increased natural organic matter in the mat-amended vials would increase fermentation rates, leading to higher H2 concentrations and increased CO2/H2 methanogenesis. PMID:25239903

  17. The Effects of Trimethylamine and Organic Matter Additions on the Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of Methane Produced in Hypersaline Microbial Mat Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, C. A.; Nicholson, B. E.; Beaudoin, C. S.; Detweiler, A. M.; Bebout, B.

    2014-12-01

    Methane production has been observed in a number of hypersaline environments, and it is generally thought that this methane is produced through the use of non-competitive substrates, such as the methylamines, methanol and dimethylsulfide. The stable carbon isotopic composition of the produced methane has suggested that the methanogens are operating under conditions of substrate limitation. We investigated substrate limitation in gypsum-hosted endoevaporite and soft mat hypersaline environments by the additions of trimethylamine, a non-competitive substrate for methanogenesis, and dried microbial mat, a source of natural organic matter. The ?13C values of the methane produced after amendments were compared to those in unamended control vials. At all hypersaline sites investigated, the ?13C values of the methane produced in the amended vials were statistically lower (by 10 to 71 ‰) than the unamended controls, supporting the hypothesis of substrate limitation at these sites. When substrates were added to the incubation vials, the methanogens within the vials fractionated carbon isotopes to a greater degree, resulting in the production of more 13C-depleted methane. Trimethylamine-amended samples produced lower methane ?13C values than the mat-amended samples. This difference in the ?13C values between the two types of amendments could be due to differences in isotope fractionation associated with the dominant methane production pathway (or substrate used) within the vials, with trimethylamine being the main substrate used in the trimethylamine-amended vials. We hypothesize that increased natural organic matter in the mat-amended vials would increase fermentation rates, leading to higher H2 concentrations and increased CO2/H2 methanogenesis.

  18. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    E-print Network

    Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80 lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002 Although many organic acids are made by living cells, few are produced commer- cially. Citric, gluconic

  19. The feasibility of a centralized biogas plant treating the manure produced by an organized animal farmers union in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dereli, R K; Yangin-Gomec, C; Ozabali, A; Ozturk, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and the energy recovery potential of mesophilic (30-35 °C) anaerobic digestion of animal wastes (manure) at a centralized biogas plant (CBP) for 35,000 cattle. The proposed CBP is composed of an equalization tank followed by pasteurization and 3+[1/2] modules; i.e. each module consists of four completely mixed anaerobic reactors with a capacity of treating the manure from 10,000 cattle. The effect of maize silage loading, as the co-substrate, both on biomethane production and feasibility of the system was also evaluated. Besides, the transport fuel substitutes of the produced biomethane with or without co-substrate were also investigated. Results of the proposed CBP indicated that biomethane production increased ca. 1.65 fold with co-substrate addition and pay-back periods for one module treating 10,000 cattle manure are calculated to be ca. 11 and 7.0 yr without and with silage addition, respectively. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 74 heavy goods vehicles or 1,560 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed CBP where the co-digestion of manure and maize silage is applied. PMID:22744686

  20. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  1. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  2. Nano-structured calcite produced by micro-organisms in ancient and modern loess in Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Chen, T.; Lu, H.; Wang, X.

    2005-12-01

    The results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission gun scanning microscopy (FEG-SEM) investigation show that there are calcite nano-fibers (CNFs) formed during pedogenic process. The CNFs are widely distributed in the loess and red clay samples of Caoxian, Luochuan, Lingtai, Lantian, and Xifeng profiles as well as the samples of modern surface loess soils in Chinese Loess Plateau. Diameters of all the NFCs are about 40 nm, the length of the CNFs ranges from tens nanometer to several micrometers. Elongation direction of NFCs is unusual near parallel (105)* or (115)*. Crystals of NFCs arrange as bird net like and lattice-like frameworks. X-ray EDS spectra show the weak peaks of magnesium, phosphorous, and sulfur. Our investigation indicates that CNFs are in pore space of loess and paleosol and made up most of carbonate except for caliche nodular layers. Concentration of NFCs in the loess layers are significantly higher than those of paleosol layers because of leaching of carbonate in the paleosol forming environment (warn and wet paleoclimate). The "nanobacteria-like CNFs are well crystalline calcite single crystals with smoothes surfaces. The morphologies of CNFs are very unusual and different from the calcite single crystals observed in most geological environments. The CNFs are directly related to microbial activities in both ancient and modern loess. It is proposed that the intervention of organic compounds derived from microbial activities control the formation of the calcite nano-fibers. Both morphology and bulk composition of CNFs indicate that the formation of the CNFs involves bio-organics derived from microorganisms in loess deposit environment. Formation conditions of the calcite nano-fibers may information about paleoclimate, paleo-environment and paleoecology. So, the discovery of CNFs in loess-paloesol sequences can provide a new route for reconstruct paleoclimate by oxygen and carbon isotope from the CNFs.

  3. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  4. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%-33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Zima, Tatyana; Baklanova, Natalya; Bataev, Ivan

    2013-02-15

    Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

  6. Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading. PMID:25525134

  7. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter of black waters in a highly eutrophic Chinese lake: Freshly produced from algal scums?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Niu, Cheng; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-15

    Field campaigns and an incubation experiment were conducted to evaluate the sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in black water spots in highly polluted regions of the Chinese Lake Taihu. A significant positive correlation (p<0.0001) was found between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and the CDOM absorption coefficient a(350), indicating that algae degradation was likely the primary source of CDOM in black waters. This is supported by our field results that Chl-a, a(350) and the spectral slope ratio (SR) were significantly higher in the black water samples than in the regular samples (p<0.001). Our incubation experiment further substantiated the primary significance of biological CDOM source where a(350) increased with decreasing Chl-a concentrations. After seven days' incubation, a 72.2% decrease and a 74.9% increase were recorded for Chl-a and a(350), respectively, relative to the initial values. Parallel factor analysis identified five fluorescent components. The maximal fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of tryptophan-like C1 and microbial humic-like C3 of black water samples was significantly higher than in the regular water samples (p<0.0005). This is consistent with incubation experiment results showing a rapid increase in Fmax of the two components, emphasizing the priority of the in situ biological CDOM source in black water spots. PMID:26125526

  8. Farmers' valuation of incentives to produce genetically modified organism-free milk: Insights from a discrete choice experiment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, J A; Latacz-Lohmann, U

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in a genetically modified organism (GMO)-free milk production scheme offered by some German dairy companies. The empirical analysis is based upon discrete choice experiments with 151 dairy farmers from 2 regions in Germany. A conditional logit estimation reveals a strong positive effect of the price premium on offer. Reliable feed monitoring and free technical support increase the likelihood of scheme adoption, the latter however only in farms that have been receiving technical support in other fields. By contrast, any interference with the entrepreneurial autonomy of farmers, through pre-arranged feed procurement or prescriptive advice on the part of the dairy company, lowers acceptance probabilities. Farmers' attitudes toward cultivation of genetically modified soy, their assessment of the market potential of GMO-free milk and future feed prices were found to be significant determinants of adoption, as are farmer age, educational status, and current feeding regimens. Respondents requested on average a mark-up of 0.80 eurocents per kilogram of milk to accept a contract. Comparison of the estimates for the 2 regions suggests that farmers in northern Germany are, on average, more likely to convert to genetically modified-free production; however, farmers in the south are, ceteris paribus, more responsive to an increase in the price premium offered. A latent class model reveals significant differences in the valuation of scheme attributes between 2 latent classes of adopters and nonadopters. PMID:26342979

  9. Impacts of Organic and Conventional Crop Management on Diversity and Activity of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria and Total Bacteria Are Subsidiary to Temporal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Caroline H.; Leifert, Carlo; Cummings, Stephen P.; Cooper, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    A three year field study (2007–2009) of the diversity and numbers of the total and metabolically active free-living diazotophic bacteria and total bacterial communities in organic and conventionally managed agricultural soil was conducted using the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study, in northeast England. Fertility management appeared to have little impact on both diazotrophic and total bacterial communities. However, copy numbers of the nifH gene did appear to be negatively impacted by conventional crop protection measures across all years suggesting diazotrophs may be particularly sensitive to pesticides. Impacts of crop management were greatly overshadowed by the influence of temporal effects with diazotrophic communities changing on a year by year basis and from season to season. Quantitative analyses using qPCR of each community indicated that metabolically active diazotrophs were highest in year 1 but the population significantly declined in year 2 before recovering somewhat in the final year. The total bacterial population in contrast increased significantly each year. It appeared that the dominant drivers of qualitative and quantitative changes in both communities were annual and seasonal effects. Moreover, regression analyses showed activity of both communities was significantly affected by soil temperature and climatic conditions. PMID:23285218

  10. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Xpert CARBA-R Assay for the Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms in Intensive Care Unit Patients of a Korean Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Hyoung Sun; Pinto, Naina; Jeon, Jongsoo; D'Souza, Roshan; Kim, Myung Sook; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2016-03-01

    Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) are rapidly disseminating worldwide, and their presence in tertiary care hospitals poses a significant threat to the management of nosocomial infections. There is a need to control CPO, especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, because these organisms are resistant to most ?-lactam antibiotics and are easily transmitted. At present, the identification of CPO is time-consuming; hence, this study focused on the use of the Xpert CARBA-R assay (Cepheid, USA) to determine intestinal colonization rates of CPO in patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Korea. Forty clinical stool samples were collected and inoculated both in a CARBA-R cartridge and in conventional culture plates. The CARBA-R assay required only ~one hour to screen CPO, while the time required for conventional culture was over three days. We also found that the prevalences of intestinal colonization by carbapenem-resistant organisms and Enterobacteriaceae were 17.5% (7 out of 40) and 7.5% (3 out of 40), respectively. Among the colonizing strains, three that contained carbapenemase, including Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase (KPC), and imipenem (IMP) and Verona integron-mediated metallo-?-lactamase (VIM) were found. With its convenience, the Xpert CARBA-R assay can be included in CPO surveillance strategies. PMID:26709264

  12. Ash leachates from some recent eruptions of Mount Etna (Italy) and Popocatépetl (Mexico) volcanoes and their impact on amphibian living freshwater organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addabbo, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Guidi, M.; Capitani, G.; Mantecca, P.; Zanchetta, G.

    2015-08-01

    Leaching experiments were carried out on fresh ash samples from Popocatépetl 2012, Etna 2011 and 2012 eruptions, in order to investigate the release of compounds in both double-deionised and lake (Ohrid lake, FYR of Macedonia) waters. The experiments were carried out using different grain sizes and variable time of stirring (from 30 min to 7 days). Results were discussed in the light of changing pH and release of compounds for the different leachates. In particular, Etna samples induced alkalinisation and Popocatépetl samples induced acidification of the corresponding leachates. The release of different elements does not show correlation with time of stirring, with the measured maximum concentrations reached in the first hours of washing. General inverse correlation with grain size was observed only for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, and Mn2+, while the other analysed elements show complex, scattering relationship with grain size. Geochemical modelling highlights leachates saturation only for F and Si, with Popocatépetl samples sometimes showing saturation in Fe. The analysed leachates are classified as undrinkable for humans on the basis of Italian laws, due to excess in F-, Mn2+, Fe, and SO42- (the latter only for Popocatépetl samples). Finally, the Etna 2012 and Popocatépetl leachates were used for toxicity experiments on living biota (Xenopus laevis). They are mild toxic, and no significant differences exist between the toxic profiles of the two leachates. In particular, no significant embryo mortality was observed, while even at high dilutions the leachates produced more than 20 % of malformed larvae.

  13. Service Priorities and Unmet Service Needs Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Results from a Nationwide Interview of HIV/AIDS Housing Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Carter A.; White, Angela C.; Finitsis, David; Pishori, Alefiyah; Hernandez, Dominica; Kelly, David M.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Turcios-Cotto, Viana; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Kane, Sister Ann; Lanouette, Gertrude A.

    2014-01-01

    Housing for people living with HIV/AIDS has been linked to a number of positive physical and mental health outcomes, in addition to decreased sexual and drug-related risk behavior. The current study identified service priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS, services provided by HIV/AIDS housing agencies, and unmet service needs for people living with HIV/AIDS through a nationwide telephone survey of HIV/AIDS housing agencies in the United States. Housing, alcohol/drug treatment, and mental health services were identified as the three highest priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS and assistance finding employment, dental care, vocational assistance, and mental health services were the top needs not being met. Differences by geographical region were also examined. Findings indicate that while housing affords people living with HIV/AIDS access to services, there are still areas (e.g., mental health services) where gaps in linkages to care exist. PMID:23305552

  14. Dementia and Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

  15. Learning from Live Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  16. Observations and implications of liquid-liquid phase separation at high relative humidities in secondary organic material produced by ?-pinene ozonolysis without inorganic salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Song, M.; Marcolli, C.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, P. F.; Grayson, J. W.; Geiger, F. M.; Martin, S. T.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Particles consisting of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the atmosphere. To predict the role of these particles in climate, visibility, and atmospheric chemistry, information on particle phase state (i.e. single liquid, two liquids, solid and so forth) is needed. This paper focuses on the phase state of SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced by the ozonolysis of ?-pinene. Phase transitions were investigated both in the laboratory and with a thermodynamic model over the range of < 0.5 % to 100 % relative humidity (RH) at 290 K. In the laboratory studies, a single phase was observed from 0 to 95 % RH while two liquid phases were observed above 95 % RH. For increasing RH, the mechanism of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) was spinodal decomposition. The RH range at which two liquid phases were observed did not depend on the direction of RH change. In the modelling studies at low RH values, the SOM took up hardly any water and was a single organic-rich phase. At high RH values, the SOM underwent LLPS to form an organic-rich phase and an aqueous phase, consistent with the laboratory studies. The presence of LLPS at high RH-values has consequences for the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of SOM particles. In the simulated Köhler curves for SOM particles, two local maxima are observed. Depending on the composition of the SOM, the first or second maximum can determine the critical supersaturation for activation. The presence of LLPS at high RH-values can explain inconsistencies between measured CCN properties of SOM particles and hygroscopic growth measured below water saturation.

  17. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, ?-phellandrene, ?-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi. PMID:26220851

  18. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  19. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  20. Healthy Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  1. Bachelor Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Sondra

    1974-01-01

    Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)

  2. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many of the same services available in skilled nursing, either by employing personal care staff or contracting with home health agencies and other outside professionals. Learn more about assisted living services and amenities. ...

  3. Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. ); Linkous, C.A. )

    2000-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an order of magnitude) less energy is required and that sunlight can be used directly. In the case of photoproduction of hydrogen, as compared to water splitting, feeding the anodic compartment of the PEC with an organic pollutant, instead of the usual supporting electrolyte, will bring about a substantial increase of the photocurrent at a given illumination. Thus, the replacement of the photo-oxidation of water by the photodegradation of organic waste will be accompanied by a gain in solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency and hence by a decrease in the cost of the photoproduced hydrogen. Taking into account the benefits and possible revenues obtainable by the waste degradation, this would seem to be a promising approach to the photoproduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is another waste effluent requiring extensive treatment, especially in petroleum refineries. The so-called Claus process is normally used to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. A sulfur recovery process developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described briefly in Chapter 4 by Dr. C. Linkous as a typical example of the photoproduction of hydrogen in a non oxygen-evolving system. The encouraging results obtained in these investigations of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production combined with organic waste degradation, have prompted a decision to continue the work under the new IEA Hydrogen Agreement Annex 14, Photoelectrolytic Hydrogen Production.

  4. Organ Harvesting and Transplants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

  5. These Women Make a Difference in Our Lives | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Maritta Perry Grau, Staff Writer Producing viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo studies, evaluating new technologies, organizing outreach and internal events and special programs, preparing site visit reports, helping make newcomers feel comfortable, collaborating on statistics and other projects—these are just some of the ways that the women of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research go about their everyday work lives—and in the process, make history.

  6. 42 CFR 482.92 - Condition of participation: Organ recovery and receipt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...organ receipt, and living donor organ transplantation...intended recipient. (a) Standard: Organ recovery. ...takes place. (b) Standard: Organ receipt...intended recipient (c) Standard: Living donor...

  7. R-body-producing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pond, F R; Gibson, I; Lalucat, J; Quackenbush, R L

    1989-01-01

    Until 10 years ago, R bodies were known only as diagnostic features by which endosymbionts of paramecia were identified as kappa particles. They were thought to be limited to the cytoplasm of two species in the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Now, R bodies have been found in free-living bacteria and other Paramecium species. The organisms now known to form R bodies include the cytoplasmic kappa endosymbionts of P. biaurelia and P. tetraurelia, the macronuclear kappa endosymbionts of P. caudatum, Pseudomonas avenae (a free-living plant pathogen), Pseudomonas taeniospiralis (a hydrogen-oxidizing soil microorganism), Rhodospirillum centenum (a photosynthetic bacterium), and a soil bacterium, EPS-5028, which is probably a pseudomonad. R bodies themselves fall into five distinct groups, distinguished by size, the morphology of the R-body ribbons, and the unrolling behavior of wound R bodies. In recent years, the inherent difficulties in studying the organization and assembly of R bodies by the obligate endosymbiont kappa, have been alleviated by cloning and expressing genetic determinants for these R bodies (type 51) in Escherichia coli. Type 51 R-body synthesis requires three low-molecular-mass polypeptides. One of these is modified posttranslationally, giving rise to 12 polypeptide species, which are the major structural subunits of the R body. R bodies are encoded in kappa species by extrachromosomal elements. Type 51 R bodies, produced in Caedibacter taeniospiralis, are encoded by a plasmid, whereas bacteriophage genomes probably control R-body synthesis in other kappa species. However, there is no evidence that either bacteriophages or plasmids are present in P. avenae or P. taeniospiralis. No sequence homology was detected between type 51 R-body-encoding DNA and DNA from any R-body-producing species, except C. varicaedens 1038. The evolutionary relatedness of different types of R bodies remains unknown. Images PMID:2651865

  8. Life and Liesegang: Outcrop-Scale Microbially Induced Diagenetic Structures and Geochemical Self-Organization Phenomena Produced by Oxidation of Reduced Iron.

    PubMed

    Kettler, Richard M; Loope, David B; Weber, Karrie A; Niles, Paul B

    2015-08-01

    The Kanab Wonderstone is sandstone (Shinarump Member, Chinle Formation) that is cemented and stained with iron oxide. The iron-oxide cementation and staining in these rocks have been considered examples of the Liesegang phenomenon, but we will show that they comprise a microbially induced structure. The spacing of bands of iron-oxide stain follow the Jablczynski spacing law (wherein the spacing between bands of iron-oxide stain increases as one traverses a series of bands) characteristic of Liesegang. Bands of iron-oxide cement exhibit more variable spacing and exhibit a weak but significant correlation between band thickness and distance between bands of cement. The pore-filling cement contains morphotypes that are similar in size and habit to those exhibited by microaerophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. Other disseminated iron-oxide mineralization occurs as rhombohedra interpreted to be pseudomorphs after siderite. We interpret the cement to be produced by microbially mediated oxidation of siderite (a typical early diagenetic mineral in fluvial sandstones). Iron-oxidizing bacteria colonized the redox interface between siderite-cemented sand and porous sandstone. Microbes oxidized aqueous Fe(II), generating acid that caused siderite dissolution. The iron-oxide cement is the microbial product of a geochemical drive for organization; whereas the iron-oxide stain is true Liesegang. Together, they comprise a distinctive microbially induced structure with high preservation potential. PMID:26274864

  9. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles. PMID:26014907

  10. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  11. Learn & Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burness, Patty, Ed.; Snider, William, Ed.

    Along with a companion documentary video, "Learn & Live," this resource manual focuses on innovative schools around the country that are integrating technology and involving parents, business, and the community. Ten chapters are divided into four sections. In Section 1, "Students," two chapters look at learning and assessment. The two chapters in…

  12. Monitoring the energy status of a living organism in real time More than 30 years ago Steve Busby --now a distinguished molecular biologist, but then a doctoral

    E-print Network

    Bloch had observed a strong proton NMR signal in 1946 when he put his finger into the probe coil of his NMR: this is much less sensitive than proton NMR, but nearly all 31 P nuclei in living cells occur be interesting to put some freshly prepared rabbit muscle tissue into the sampling space of an NMR spectrometer

  13. Honoring living legends.

    PubMed

    Mussivand, Tofy

    2003-06-01

    From August 17 to 19, 2001, the University of Ottawa Heart Institute hosted the 6th Symposium of the World Artificial-Organ, Immunology and Transplantation Society (WAITS 2001). During WAITS 2001 a very special session entitled "Living Legends-Lessons Learned and Future Visions" was held. This session brought together giants in the field who had pioneered organ transplantation, cardiovascular surgery, pacemakers, and artificial hearts, among many other major contributions. The purpose of the session was to both honor and learn from those who have contributed greatly to the major scientific and technological advances in our field during the twentieth century. PMID:12780514

  14. Renowned for compassionate care, St. Joseph's is one of the best academic health care organizations in Canada dedicated to helping people live to their fullest by minimizing the

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Renowned for compassionate care, St. Joseph's is one of the best academic health care organizations care, St. Joseph's is one of the best academic health care organizations in Canada dedicated to helping to the fund can be made in person to the St. Joseph's Health Care Foundation, or at www

  15. Organ Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask Selecting a Hospital Other Options to Consider Financing a Transplant Costs Social Services Funding Sources Financial ... my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs Member directory Newsroom Online ...

  16. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Extra figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05447d

  17. Living with your ileostomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your digestive system and needed surgery called an ileostomy. The surgery changed the way your body gets ... Standard ileostomy - living with; Brooke ileostomy - living with; Continent ileostomy - living with; Abdominal pouch - living with; End ileostomy - living ...

  18. Formation and reactions of negative ions relevant to chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. Cl mass spectra of organic compounds produced by F? reactions

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T. O.; Chang, C.; Cheng, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic study of the negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectra produced by the reaction of F? with a wide variety of organic compounds has been accomplished. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with a modified high pressure ion source was employed for these experiments. The F? reagent ion was generated from CF3H or NF3, typically at an ion source pressure of 100 ?m. In pure NF3, F? is the major ion formed and constitutes more than 90% of the total ion intensity. While F? is also the major primary ion formed in pure CF3H, it undergoes rapid ion-molecule reactions at elevated source pressures, yielding (HF)nF? (n = 1?3) ions, which makes CF3H less suitable as a chemical ionization reagent gas. Among the organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, phenols, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene, ethers, amines and hydrocarbons. An intense (M ? 1)? ion was observed in the F? chemical ionization mass spectra of carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Alcohols yield only (M + F)? ions upon reaction with F?. A weaker (M + F)? ion was also detected in the F? chemical ionization spectra of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and nitriles. The F? chemical ionization mass spectra of esters, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene and ethers are characterized primarily by the ions, RCOO?, X?, CN?, NO2?, and OR?, respectively. In addition, esters show a very weak (M ? 1)? ion (except formates). In the F? chemical ionization spectra of some aliphatic alkanes and o-xylene, a very weak (M + F)? ion was observed. Amines and aliphatic alkenes exhibit only insignificant fragment ions under similar conditions, while aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene are not reactive at all with the F? ion. The mechanisms of the various reactions mentioned are discussed, and several experimental complications are noted. In still other studies, the effects of varying several experimental parameters, including source pressure, relative proportions of the reagent and analyte, and other ion source parameters, on the observed chemical ionization mass spectra were also investigated. In a mixture of NF3 and n-butanol, for example, the ratio of the intensities of the ions characteristic of the alcohol to that of the (HF)nF? ion was found to decrease with increasing sample pressure, with increasing NF3 pressure, and with increasing electron energy. No significant effects on the spectra were observed to result from variation of the source repeller field or the source temperature. The addition of argon to the source as a potential moderator did not alter the F? chemical ionization spectrum significantly, but the use of oxygen appears to inhibit formation of the (HF)nF? cluster ion. The advantages of using F? as a chemical ionization reagent are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reagent ions. PMID:7428746

  19. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns activate expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, immunity and detoxification in the amebocyte-producing organ of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Loker, Eric S; Sullivan, John T

    2016-03-01

    The anterior pericardial wall of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been identified as a site of hemocyte production, hence has been named the amebocyte-producing organ (APO). A number of studies have shown that exogenous abiotic and biotic substances, including pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are able to stimulate APO mitotic activity and/or enlarge its size, implying a role for the APO in innate immunity. The molecular mechanisms underlying such responses have not yet been explored, in part due to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient APO tissue for gene expression studies. By using a modified RNA extraction technique and microarray technology, we investigated transcriptomic responses of APOs dissected from snails at 24 h post-injection with two bacterial PAMPs, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN), or with fucoidan (FCN), which may mimic fucosyl-rich glycan PAMPs on sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni. Based upon the number of genes differentially expressed, LPS exhibited the strongest activity, relative to saline-injected controls. A concurrent activation of genes involved in cell proliferation, immune response and detoxification metabolism was observed. A gene encoding checkpoint 1 kinase, a key regulator of mitosis, was highly expressed after stimulation by LPS. Also, seven different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that play an essential role in protein synthesis were found to be highly expressed. In addition to stimulating genes involved in cell proliferation, the injected substances, especially LPS, also induced expression of a number of immune-related genes including arginase, peptidoglycan recognition protein short form, tumor necrosis factor receptor, ficolin, calmodulin, bacterial permeability increasing proteins and E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Importantly, significant up-regulation was observed in four GiMAP (GTPase of immunity-associated protein) genes, a result which provides the first evidence suggesting an immune role of GiMAP in protostome animals. Moreover, altered expression of genes encoding cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, multiple drug resistance protein as well as a large number of genes encoding enzymes associated with degradation and detoxification metabolism was elicited in response to the injected substances. PMID:26592964

  20. Live attenuated oral cholera vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2006-08-01

    Live, orally administered, attenuated vaccine strains of Vibrio cholerae have many theoretical advantages over killed vaccines. A single oral inoculation could result in intestinal colonization and rapid immune responses, obviating the need for repetitive dosing. Live V. cholerae organisms can also respond to the intestinal environment and immunological exposure to in vivo expressed bacterial products, which could result in improved immunological protection against wild-type V. cholerae infection. The concern remains that live oral cholera vaccines may be less effective among partially immune individuals in cholera endemic areas as pre-existing antibodies can inhibit live organisms and decrease colonization of the gut. A number of live oral cholera vaccines have been developed to protect against cholera caused by the classical and El Tor serotypes of V. cholerae O1, including CVD 103-HgR, Peru-15 and V. cholerae 638. A number of live oral cholera vaccines have also been similarly developed to protect against cholera caused by V. cholerae O139, including CVD 112 and Bengal-15. Live, orally administered, attenuated cholera vaccines are in various stages of development and evaluation. PMID:16989629

  1. As large terrestrial organisms, it can be difficult for humans to grasp what it is like to live in the wave-swept environment

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    the question in the context of our analogy, how would the morphology of sylvan plants and animals have evolved in the wave-swept environment of a rocky shore. For example, before waves break they are often accompanied every few seconds. How are organisms designed to survive in these sorts of extreme environments? To put

  2. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  3. Differentiation of a free-living alga into forms with ecto- and endosymbiotic associations with heterotrophic organisms in a 5-year microcosm culture.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki; Fujikawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsubara, Toshiyuki; Karita, Mimi; Sano, Akiko

    2015-05-01

    The ecological mechanisms underlying the diversification of autotrophic species into endosymbiotic lifestyles and the ways in which the evolution of endosymbiotic species is ecologically and evolutionarily affected by sister lineages/lines that are adapted to extra-host environments remain unclear. In this paper, we investigated a differentiation process of algal species in which an endosymbiotic type was differentiated phenotypically from a free-living ancestral clone, by using an experimental model called the CET microcosm, which contains a green alga (Micractinium sp.), a bacterium (Escherichia coli), and a ciliate (Tetrahymena thermophila) cultured together without an external resource supply for over 5 years. We then analyzed the algal diversification process by comparing algal phenotypic properties regarding cell-aggregate formation and their effects on the survival of Tetrahymena (using a clone isolated on day 2668) in the absence of bacteria. We examined 13 Micractinium clones, including both ancestral and derived clones isolated from long-term (day 1819-1847) CET microcosm cultures. The results revealed that the free-living ancestral algal strain diversified in sympatry into an aggregate-forming type that associates with E. coli, and a non-aggregate-forming type that associates with Tetrahymena. Furthermore, a competition experiment revealed that the endosymbiotic (non-aggregate-forming) type was less adapted to the extracellular environment than the aggregate-forming type. This result suggests that severe competition with a nonendosymbiotic sister line in the extra-host environment favors the host-benefiting phenotype in an endosymbiotic line, because such symbionts can enhance the longevity of the host, thereby enabling the survival and reproduction of the symbiont within the host. PMID:25816767

  4. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  5. Use Of Low Light Image Microscopy To Monitor Genetically Engineered Bacterial Luciferase Gene Expression In Living Cells And Gene Activation Throughout The Development Of A Transgenic Organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, W. H.; Escher, Alan P.; Baga, M.; O'Kane, Dennis J.; Wampler, John E.; Koncz, C.; Schell, John D.; Szalay, A. A.

    1989-12-01

    Procaryotic and eucaryotic expression vectors which contain a marker gene for selection of transformants linked to genes encoding bacterial luciferase for detection of promoter activated gene expression in vivo were used to transform the appropriate host organisms and drug resistant colonies, cells, or calli were obtained. Bacterial luciferase expression was measured by a luminescence assay for quantitative determination of promoter activation. The cellular localization of bacteria inside the host plant cell cytoplasm was achieved in a single infected plant cell based on the light emitting ability of the genetically engineered bacteria. In addition, the bacterial luciferase marker gene fusions were used to monitor cell type, tissue, and organ specific gene expression in transgenic plants in vivo. To monitor physiological changes during ontogeny of a transformed plant, low light video microscopy, aided by real time image processing techniques developed specifically to enhance extreme low light images, was successfully applied.

  6. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  7. Direct plasma interaction with living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Gregory

    For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

  8. Cellular organization and spectral diversity of GFP-like proteins in live coral cells studied by single and multiphoton imaging and microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Anya; Cox, Guy C.; Larkum, Anthony W.

    2003-07-01

    Tissues of many marine invertebrates of class Anthozoa contain intensely fluorescent or brightly coloured pigments. These pigments belong to a family of photoactive proteins closely related to Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), and their emissions range from blue to red wavelengths. The great diversity of these pigments has only recently been realised. To investigate the role of these proteins in corals, we have performed an in vivo fluorescent pigment (FP) spectral and cellular distribution analyses in live coral cells using single and multi-photon laser scanning imaging and microspectroscopy. These analyses revealed that even single colour corals contain spectroscopically heterogeneous pigment mixtures, with 2-5 major colour types in the same area of tissue. They were typically arranged in step-wise light emission energy gradients (e.g. blue, green, yellow, red). The successive overlapping emission-excitation spectral profiles of differently coloured FPs suggested that they were suited for sequential energy coupling. Traces of red FPs (emission = 570-660 nm) were present, even in non-red corals. We confirmed that radiative energy transfer could occur between separate granules of blue and green FPs and that energy transfer was inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Multi-photon micro-spectrofluorometric analysis gave significantly improved spectral resolution by restricting FP excitation to a single point in the focal plane of the sample. Pigment heterogeneity at small scales within granules suggested that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) might be occurring, and we confirmed that this was the case. Thus, energy transfer can take place both radiatively and by FRET, probably functioning in photoprotection by dissipation of excessive solar radiation.

  9. Study on copper phthalocyanine and perylene-based ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors produced using neutral beam deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Do; Shin, Eun-Sol; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2014-04-28

    The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to the production and characterization of ambipolar, heterojunction-based organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) with a top-contact, multi-digitated, long-channel geometry. Organic thin films of n-type N,N?-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide and p-type copper phthalocyanine were successively deposited on the hydroxyl-free polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-coated SiO{sub 2} dielectrics using the NCBD method. Characterization of the morphological and structural properties of the organic active layers was performed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various device parameters such as hole- and electron-carrier mobilities, threshold voltages, and electroluminescence (EL) were derived from the fits of the observed current-voltage and current-voltage-light emission characteristics of OLEFETs. The OLEFETs demonstrated good field-effect characteristics, well-balanced ambipolarity, and substantial EL under ambient conditions. The device performance, which is strongly correlated with the surface morphology and the structural properties of the organic active layers, is discussed along with the operating conduction mechanism.

  10. In addition to efforts producing energy from more renewable sources, microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) can utilize anode respiring bacteria (ARB) to couple the oxidation of an organic

    E-print Network

    cells (MXCs) can utilize anode respiring bacteria (ARB) to couple the oxidation of an organic substrate-studied in terms of their microbiology and electrochemistry, much is still unknown about the mechanism of electron of identifying and studying novel ARB for broader MXC applications was stressed in this thesis as a potential

  11. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis and phagocytosis complexes, and also dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton complexes which generate protrusion forces involved in cell adhesion and migration. The ideas of molecular recognition and controlled interfaces between biological components provide the underlying mechanisms for biological machinery and networks [1]. Many proteins illustrate this principle by their modular organisation into domains. The juxtaposition of catalytic domains of known function and domains of interaction with different partners leads to the emergence of new biological functions. It can also create threshold mechanisms, or biological switches, by triggering the activity of a given domain only when several partners interact with the regulatory domains. Many of these interaction domains are well understood. They exist inside different proteins, in particular, in cell signaling networks, and could potentially be used as building blocks in the construction of new proteins.

  12. D-Ala-D-Ala ligases from glycopeptide antibiotic-producing organisms are highly homologous to the enterococcal vancomycin-resistance ligases VanA and VanB.

    PubMed

    Marshall, C G; Broadhead, G; Leskiw, B K; Wright, G D

    1997-06-10

    The crisis in antibiotic resistance has resulted in an increasing fear of the emergence of untreatable organisms. Resistance to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin in the enterococci, and the spread of these pathogens throughout the environment, has shown that this scenario is a matter of fact rather than fiction. The basis for vancomycin resistance is the manufacture of the depsipeptide D-Ala-D-lactate, which is incorporated into the peptidoglycan cell wall in place of the vancomycin target D-Ala-D-Ala. Pivotal to the resistance mechanism is the production of a D-Ala-D-Ala ligase capable of ester formation. Two highly efficient depsipeptide ligases have been cloned from vancomycin-resistant enterococci: VanA and VanB. These ligases show high amino acid sequence similarity to each other ( approximately 75%), but less so to other D-Ala-D-X ligases (<30%). We have cloned ddls from two glycopeptide-producing organisms, the vancomycin producer Amycolatopsis orientalis and the A47934 producer Streptomyces toyocaensis. These ligases show strong predicted amino acid homology to VanA and VanB (>60%) but not to other D-Ala-D-X ligases (<35%). The D-Ala-D-Ala ligase from S. toyocaensis shows D-Ala-D-lactate synthase activity in cell-free extracts of S. lividans transformed with the ddl gene and confirms the predicted enzymatic activity. These results imply a close evolutionary relationship between resistance mechanisms in the clinics and in drug-producing bacteria. PMID:9177243

  13. Nucleobases and Prebiotic Molecules in Organic Residues Produced from the Ultraviolet Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in NH3 and H2O+NH3 Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Milam, Stefanie N.; Sandford, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although not yet identified in the interstellar medium (ISM), N-heterocycles including nucleobases the information subunits of DNA and RNA are present in carbonaceous chondrites, which indicates that molecules of biological interest can be formed in non-terrestrial environments via abiotic pathways. Recent laboratory experiments and ab-initio calculations have already shown that the irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H2O ices leads to the formation of a suite of oxidized pyrimidine derivatives, including the nucleobase uracil. In the present work, NH3:pyrimidine and H2O:NH3:pyrimidine ice mixtures with different relative proportions were irradiated with UV photons under astrophysically relevant conditions. Liquid- and gas-chromatography analysis of the resulting organic residues has led to the detection of the nucleobases uracil and cytosine, as well as other species of prebiotic interest such as urea and small amino acids. The presence of these molecules in organic residues formed under abiotic conditions supports scenarios in which extraterrestrial organics that formed in space and were subsequently delivered to telluric planets via comets and meteorites could have contributed to the inventory of molecules that triggered the first biological reactions on their surfaces.

  14. Nucleobases and prebiotic molecules in organic residues produced from the ultraviolet photo-irradiation of pyrimidine in NH(3) and H(2)O+NH(3) ices.

    PubMed

    Nuevo, Michel; Milam, Stefanie N; Sandford, Scott A

    2012-04-01

    Although not yet identified in the interstellar medium (ISM), N-heterocycles including nucleobases-the information subunits of DNA and RNA-are present in carbonaceous chondrites, which indicates that molecules of biological interest can be formed in non-terrestrial environments via abiotic pathways. Recent laboratory experiments and ab initio calculations have already shown that the irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H(2)O ices leads to the formation of a suite of oxidized pyrimidine derivatives, including the nucleobase uracil. In the present work, NH(3):pyrimidine and H(2)O:NH(3):pyrimidine ice mixtures with different relative proportions were irradiated with UV photons under astrophysically relevant conditions. Liquid- and gas-chromatography analysis of the resulting organic residues has led to the detection of the nucleobases uracil and cytosine, as well as other species of prebiotic interest such as urea and small amino acids. The presence of these molecules in organic residues formed under abiotic conditions supports scenarios in which extraterrestrial organics that formed in space and were subsequently delivered to telluric planets via comets and meteorites could have contributed to the inventory of molecules that triggered the first biological reactions on their surfaces. PMID:22519971

  15. Technical assistance to the Ohio Department of Health. Volatile organic compound testing of blood of persons living near the Industrial Excess Landfill NPL site, Uniontown, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The Epidemiology and Medicine Branch (EMB) of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was requested by the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) to assist in evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures of persons residing near the Industrial Excess Landfill site in Uniontown, Ohio, and who had prior privately obtained tests. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate the concern that prior tests might indicate unusual VOC exposures. EMB proposed to perform an investigation that would survey the community near the landfill for self-reported diseases and health complaints and to provide some blood testing. The proposal was declined by a committee representing the affected citizens until a health assessment can be completed wherein routes of contamination from the landfill are established. The blood testing was performed on these privately evaluated people on a voluntary basis, and 13 of the 16 chose to participate. The VOC test results were within established norms for all but two participants. These two had high levels of tetrachloroethene. Also reported was the presence of a 6-carbon, 14-hydrogen compound. The level of the compound could not be quantitated because of the absence of laboratory validation standard materials.

  16. Organ Donation and Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... my body to medical science? Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Why should minorities be ... improving lives. Return to top Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Non-resident aliens can ...

  17. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  18. Towards an organic palaeosalinity proxy: the effect of salinity, growth rate and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones produced by haptophyte algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivall, David; M'Boule, Daniela; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2013-04-01

    Palaeosalinity is one of the most important oceanographic parameters which currently cannot be quantified with reasonable accuracy from sedimentary records. Schouten et al.1 established that the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between growth water and alkenones produced by the haptophyte algae Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica is salinity dependent. As such, the ?D values of alkenones recovered from sediment cores can be used to reconstruct variations in palaeo- sea surface salinity.2 However, to accurately determine absolute palaeosalinity requires a better constraining of the relationship between this hydrogen fractionation, salinity and other parameters such as growth rate and growth phase. Here, we present results from our ongoing work to constrain the relationship between the fractionation factor ?alkenone-water, salinity, growth rate and growth phase for the major alkenone-producing haptophytes. In batch cultures of different strains of the open-ocean haptophyte E. huxleyi sampled during the exponential growth phase, ?C37alkenone-growthwater increases by between 0.0022 and 0.0033 per unit increase in salinity. A similar relationship is observed in batch cultures of the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana, where ? increases with each unit of salinity by 0.0019 - slightly less than for E. huxleyi. However, absolute ?C37alkenone-growthwater values vary strongly between species suggesting that species composition has a strong impact on the ?D value of alkenones. The fractionation factor for alkenones produced by batch cultures of I. galbana is affected by growth phase: the rate of change of ?C37alkenone-growthwater with each unit of salinity decreases from 0.0019 in the exponential phase to 0.0010 during the stationary phase. We also show the effect of varying growth rate over the range 0.2-0.8 day-1 on the fractionation factor for alkenones produced by E. huxleyi grown in continuous culture. These data show that alkenone ?D can be used to reconstruct relative shifts in palaeosalinity in coastal as well as open ocean environments; however, for absolute salinity reconstructions changes in species composition, growth rate and growth phase effects will have to be constrained. References 1. Schouten, S., Ossebaar, J., Schreiber, K., Kienhuis, M. V. M., Langer, G., Benthien, A., Bijma, J. Biogeosciences 3, 113, 2006 2. van der Meer, M. T. J., Baas, M., Rijpstra, W. I. C., Marino, G., Rohling, E. J., Sinninghe Damsté, J S., Schouten, S., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 262, 594, 2007

  19. Distribution and Determinants of Cytomegalovirus Induced End Organ Disease/s among People Living with HIV/AIDS in a Poor Resource Setting: Observation from India

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Avirup; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ansari, Sabbir; Siddhanta, Sattik; Banerjee, Siwalik; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Sarkar, Rathindra Nath; Guha, Subhashish Kamal; Chakraborty, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, despite well-established anti-retroviral treatment programs, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection-related end-organ diseases (EODs) still remain a major concern resulting in exacerbation of morbidity and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients. A prospective study was designed to understand the distribution and prognosis of CMV associated EODs and to determine a standardized cut-off value for serum CMV viral load associated with the development of EODs amongst HIV/AIDS subjects. Methods In a cohort of 400 late-diagnosed HAART naïve HIV/AIDS subjects attending anti-retroviral centers of Kolkata during 2008–2014, the median duration of follow-up was 560 days, and at least 3 visits subsequent to the baseline were mandatory for eligibility. HIV-1 and CMV viral load were estimated by performing Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Results Among subjects, 40.5% (162/400) had CMV EODs which were more common at lower CD4 counts. Poor prognosis and higher death rate were associated with a low CD4 count and increased HIV-1 and CMV viral loads. Subjects having higher CD4 count responded better to therapy [for CD4 = 60–100: Risk Ratio:RR = 1.48 (95% Confidence Interval: 95%CI = 1.18–1.82) and for CD4 = 30–59: RR = 1.64 (95%CI = 1.18–2.27)]. The cut off value of the serum CMV viral load (expressed as log10DNA/ml serum) associated with the development of EODs and disseminated CMV EODs was determined as 5.4 (p<0.0001) and 6.4 (p<0.0001) respectively. These cut offs were found to have satisfactorily high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Conclusion Prognosis of CMV EOD was poor as indicated by higher death rates among subjects with lower CD4 count, and specific cut-off values were found to have useful potential for identification and treatment of CMV infected HIV/AIDS patients in due time to avoid CMV EODs among HIV/AIDS subjects. Targeted intervention programs seemed to be required urgently to make these cut-offs operational in order to minimize the burden of CMV EOD in this vulnerable population. PMID:25679798

  20. Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.

    1988-01-01

    Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

  1. Informational biopolymer structure in early living forms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayhoff, M. O.; Mclaughlin, P. J.; Barker, W. C.; Hunt, L. T.

    1972-01-01

    Some studies devoted to the search in various organisms for 'relics' of the biochemical nature of ancient organisms, preserved by the conservative nature of the evolutionary process in all living species, are reviewed. Investigations of five families of informational molecules constituting such 'relics' in very diverse organisms are reported. They include: cytochrome c, ferredoxin, trypsin, transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA), and 5S ribosomal RNA. It is shown that, even from these few informational molecules, some interesting inferences about early living organisms can be drawn.

  2. NASA LIVE Creating a Global Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes-Young, Katrina L.; Ewing, Virginia R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes NASA LIVE (Learning through Interactive Videoconferencing Experiences), a free series of videoconferencing programs produced by NASA's Langley Center for Distance Learning in Hampton, Virginia. NASA LIVE is designed for K-12 educators and students, allowing teachers and students to interact with NASA experts in a virtual…

  3. Nonequilibrium dissipation in living oocytes

    E-print Network

    Étienne Fodor; Wylie W. Ahmed; Maria Almonacid; Matthias Bussonnier; Nir S. Gov; Marie-Hélène Verlhac; Timo Betz; Paolo Visco; Frédéric van Wijland

    2015-11-03

    Living organisms are inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. We employ new developments in stochastic energetics and rely on a minimal microscopic model to predict the amount of mechanical energy dissipated by such dynamics. Our model includes complex rheological effects and nonequilibrium stochastic forces. By performing active microrheology and tracking micron-sized vesicles in the cytoplasm of living oocytes, we provide unprecedented measurements of the spectrum of dissipated energy. We show that our model is fully consistent with the experimental data, and we use it to offer predictions for the injection and dissipation energy scales involved in active fluctuations.

  4. Nonequilibrium dissipation in living oocytes

    E-print Network

    Fodor, Étienne; Almonacid, Maria; Bussonnier, Matthias; Gov, Nir S; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Betz, Timo; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms are inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. We employ new developments in stochastic energetics and rely on a minimal microscopic model to predict the amount of mechanical energy dissipated by such dynamics. Our model includes complex rheological effects and nonequilibrium stochastic forces. By performing active microrheology and tracking micron-sized vesicles in the cytoplasm of living oocytes, we provide unprecedented measurements of the spectrum of dissipated energy. We show that our model is fully consistent with the experimental data, and we use it to offer predictions for the injection and dissipation energy scales involved in active fluctuations.

  5. Controversial Fertility Treatment Resulted in Live Births

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Live Births Italian scientists used 'chromosomally abnormal' embryos to produce 6 healthy babies To use the ... 18, 2015 WEDNESDAY, Nov. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Embryos with a mix of normal and abnormal chromosomes ...

  6. Solid organic residues produced by irradiation of hydrocarbon-containing H2O and H2O/NH3 ices - Infrared spectroscopy and astronomical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1989-06-01

    Plasma-discharge irradiations were conducted for the methane clathrate expected in outer solar system satellites and cometary nuclei; also irradiated were ices prepared from other combinations of H2O with CH4, C2H6, or C2H2. Upon evaporation of the yellowish-to-tan irradiated ices, it is found that a colored solid film adheres to the walls of the reaction vessel at room temperature. These organic films are found to exhibit IR band identifiable with alkane, aldehide, alcohol, and perhaps alkene, as well as substituted aromatic functional groups. These spectra are compared with previous studies of UV- or photon-irradiated nonclathrated hydrocarbon-containing ices.

  7. Solid organic residues produced by irradiation of hydrocarbon-containing H2O and H2O/NH3 ices - Infrared spectroscopy and astronomical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma-discharge irradiations were conducted for the methane clathrate expected in outer solar system satellites and cometary nuclei; also irradiated were ices prepared from other combinations of H2O with CH4, C2H6, or C2H2. Upon evaporation of the yellowish-to-tan irradiated ices, it is found that a colored solid film adheres to the walls of the reaction vessel at room temperature. These organic films are found to exhibit IR band identifiable with alkane, aldehide, alcohol, and perhaps alkene, as well as substituted aromatic functional groups. These spectra are compared with previous studies of UV- or photon-irradiated nonclathrated hydrocarbon-containing ices.

  8. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  9. Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion equation which represents the mental dynamics. It has been demonstrated that coupled mental-motor dynamics can simulate emerging self-organization, prey-predator games, collaboration and competition, "collective brain," etc.

  10. Scientific Challenges of Producing Natural Gas from Organic-Rich Shales - From the Nano-Scale to the Reservoir Scale (Louis Néel Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, Mark D.

    2013-04-01

    In this talk I will discuss several on-going research projects with the PhD students and post-Docs in my group that are investigating the wide variety of factors affecting the success of stimulating gas production from extremely low permeability organic-rich shales. First, I will present laboratory measurements of pore structure, adsorption and nano-scale fluid transport on samples of the Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Marcellus and Horn River shale (all in North America). I will also discuss how these factors affect ultimate gas recovery. Second, I present several lines of evidence that indicate that during hydraulic fracturing stimulation of shale gas reservoirs there is pervasive slow slip occurring on pre-existing fractures and faults that are not detected by standard microseismic monitoring. I will also present laboratory and modeling studies that demonstrate why slowly slipping faults are to be expected. In many cases, slow slip on faults may be the most important process responsible for stimulating gas production in the reservoirs. Finally, I discuss our research on the viscoplastic behavior of the shales and what viscoplasticity implies for the evolution of the physical properties of the reservoir and in situ stress magnitudes.

  11. Technical Note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2015-03-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued not only about their contribution to the global methane budget but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds to be identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify the in vivo formation of methane, and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C positionally labeled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labeled methionine clearly identified the sulfur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  12. Technical note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2014-11-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued, not only about their contribution to the global methane budget, but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify in vivo formation of methane and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C-positionally labelled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labelled methionine clearly identified the sulphur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  13. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris. PMID:25280600

  14. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3-D Zr-Si Organic-Inorganic Scaffolds Produced by Two-Photon Polymerization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Koroleva, Anastasia; Deiwick, Andrea; Nguyen, Alexander; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Narayan, Roger; Timashev, Peter; Popov, Vladimir; Bagratashvili, Viktor; Chichkov, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is applied for the fabrication of 3-D Zr-Si scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Zr-Si scaffolds with 150, 200, and 250 ?m pore sizes are seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) and human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hASCs) and cultured in osteoinductive and control media for three weeks. Osteogenic differentiation of hASCs and hBMSCs and formation of bone matrix is comparatively analyzed via alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), calcium quantification, osteocalcin staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is observed that the 150 ?m pore size Zr-Si scaffolds support the strongest matrix mineralization, as confirmed by calcium deposition. Analysis of ALP activity, osteocalcin staining and SEM observations of matrix mineralization reveal that mesenchymal stem cells cultured on 3-D scaffolds without osteogenic stimulation spontaneously differentiate towards osteogenic lineage. Nanoindentation measurements show that aging of the 2PP-produced Zr-Si scaffolds in aqueous or alcohol media results in an increase in the scaffold Young’s modulus and hardness. Moreover, accelerated formation of bone matrix by hASCs is noted, when cultured on the scaffolds with lower Young’s moduli and hardness values (non aged scaffolds) compared to the cells cultured on scaffolds with higher Young’s modulus and hardness values (aged scaffolds). Presented results support the potential application of Zr-Si scaffolds for autologous bone tissue engineering. PMID:25706270

  15. A rapid and efficient method for directed screening of lipase-producing Burkholderia cepacia complex strains with organic solvent tolerance from rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhengyu; Lin, Ruifeng; Jiang, Huan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Mingzi; Huang, Jianzhong

    2009-06-01

    Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia strain is one of the most versatile biocatalysts and is used widely in many biotechnological application fields including detergent additives, the resolution of racemic compounds, etc. Based on the known whole genomic information of B. cepacia strain, both ampicillin and kanamycin were added to the TB-T medium to screen B. cepacia complex stains from rhizosphere soil samples. The selected colonies from the modified TB-T medium were then qualitatively determined the ability to produce extracellular lipase on the rhodamine B-olive oil agar plates. A total of 35 lipolytic pseudo-B. cepacia complex strains were isolated and the positive rate of lipolytic bacteria was 65%. Among them, 15 pseudo-B. cepacia complex strains showed tolerance to benzene, n-hexane and n-heptane at concentration of 10% (V/V) and were identified by the recA gene sequence. All of the 14 lipolytic bacteria were identified as B. cepacia complex strains except that the recA gene sequence of one lipolytic bacterium, strain ZMB009, was not obtained. PMID:19447345

  16. Secondary Organic Material Produced via Condensational and Coagulational Growth from ?-pinene Ozonolysis in a Flow Tube Reactor and Its Spectroscopic Analysis by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shrestha, M.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Martin, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    A flow tube reactor was developed and used to simulate secondary organic aerosol formation from ?-pinene ozonolysis under different reactant conditions. Aerosol particles generated from the reactor were collected on Teflon filters and were analyzed via a non-linear coherent vibrational spectroscopy, namely Sum Frequency Generation (SFG). The flow tube reactor has a movable injector and the longest residence time is 38 s. A temperature control box was also made to precisely control the temperature down to 0.1 °C for the flow tube reactor. The reactants were injected into the flow tube reactor in different concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 10 ppm for ?-pinene and from 0.15 to 194 ppm for ozone. The number concentrations of the particles were measured by Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and it increased from 0 to (1.3×0.02)×107 cm-3. The size distributions of the secondary organic aerosol particles were studied using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The mass concentration increased from 0 to (4.0×0.1)×105 ug m-3. Changes in the particle number concentrations and size distributions under different reaction conditions suggested that the growth mechanisms of the particles may vary at different precursor concentrations. As an example, for an ?-pinene concentration of 0.125 ppm reacted with excess ozone, the measured particle mode diameter was 35 nm and both coagulation and condensational growth were significant. When the ?-pinene concentration was increased to 10 ppm, the particle mode size increased to 245 nm and coagulation between particles became the dominant growth mechanism. These results show that the dominant particle growth mechanism can shift between condensation and coagulation, which may be useful for studying the particle growth processes and their role, if any, in determining particle properties. Particle number-diameter distributions at different residence times were also measured through the movable injector to calculate the particle growth rate. SFG analyses show that the signal increases linearly with the number of particles at low mass loadings, consistent with what is expected from SFG signal production from particles that are randomly distributed. At higher filter mass loadings of 10 and 20 ?g, the SFG intensity started to decrease, consistent with the notion that SFG probes the top surface of the SOA material following the complete coverage of the filter. The limit of detection of SFG intensity could be as low as 24 ng of mass on filter, corresponding to a calculated density of 100 to 200 particles in the laser spot. The high sensitivity and non-destructive nature of the SFG method indicates that it could be used for fast, quantitative sampling approaches, which can be coupled together with the flow tube reactor to study the SOA formation including nucleation and condensational growth processes under conditions that are difficult to sample with other non-destructive methods that require higher mass loadings.

  17. Measurements of nitrite production and nitrite-producing organisms in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2013-03-01

    Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea and assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton or heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central California Current in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), high-resolution measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process with rates of NH3 oxidation of up to 50 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- profiles supported direct rate measurements of a net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM were similar at the mesotrophic and oligotrophic stations and ranged from 150-205 d. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.

  18. Live Organisms in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlans, F. Barbara

    1972-01-01

    Reports the results of surveys of the use of animals by secondary school teachers and participants in science fairs. Recommends wider use of invertebrates and suggests sources of ideas for animal experiments. (AL)

  19. What I Need to Know about Living with Kidney Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Kidney Fund Life Options National Kidney Foundation Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... What I need to know about Living with Kidney Failure Page Content On this page: What is ...

  20. Measurement of Organic Acids Produced By The Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Simple Olefins Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) as a Function of Temperature And Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, C. J.; Bacak, A.; Leather, K. E.; McGillen, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) form an important trace component of the atmosphere and are of particular environmental interest because of their deleterious effects on air quality, their numerous (and potentially counteractive) effects on Earth’s climate system and their sophisticated semiochemical roles in the world’s ecosystems. NMHCs are also important precursors to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g. Pandis et al., 1991; Kavouras et al., 1999). The ozonolysis reactions of olefins result in complex menageries of products, of which the acids are ubiquitous. Although the gas phase acid concentrations are small, they are thought to be key species in SOA formation as a result of their low volatility (e.g., Ma et al., 2009). Despite this, the factors that control acid formation are not well understood, especially with regards to humidity and temperature. Acid yields will be measured using the newly commissioned EXTreme RAnge (EXTRA) chamber (Leather et al., 2009). EXTRA is a 125 L stainless steel chamber, which can be temperature controlled using a commercial chest freezer unit (for T ? -20 °C) or a purpose built oven for T > 25 °C. The EXTRA chamber can be operated at pressures from 10-3800 Torr and at temperatures from 180-473 K. The stainless steel chamber walls have been coated with PFA to minimize wall loss of radicals. Fans, located at both ends of the cylinder, promote rapid mixing of reactants. Six sample ports are located at either end of the chamber for connection to ADS-GC-ECD, CIMS and commercial sensors such as a Thermo Electron Corporation 49i Ozone Analyzer, an Edinburgh Instruments Gascard CO2 sensor and a Trace Analytical inc. RGA3 CO analyzer. Experiments will be performed as a function of atmospherically relevant temperatures (T= 180-300 K). The field CIMS has sub ppt(v) L.O.D.s with a sub 1 Hz time response so will enable products to be quantified at very low concentrations in real time. Acid products will be detected using both the acetate ion (Verez et al., 2008) and silicon pentafluoride ion (Huey et al., 1998) reaction schemes, both of which have been used previously in atmospheric measurements, with little interference from water vapour. References Kavouras, I.G., Mihalopoulos N., Stephanou, E.G., 1999, Environ. Sci. Technol. 33: 1028-1037. Huey, L. G., E. J. Dunlea, E. R. Lovejoy, D. R. Hanson, R.B. Norton, F.C. Fehsenfeld and C. J. Howard, 1998, J. Geophys. Res, 103(D3), 3355-3360. Leather, K.E., Mcgillen, M.R. and Percival, C.J., 2009, Submitted to PCCP. Ma, Y., Porter, R.A., Chappell, D., Russell, A.T., Marston, G., 2009,. PCCP, 21, 4184-4197. Pandis, S. N., Paulson, S.E., Seinfeld, J.H., Flagan, R.C. 1991, Atmos. Environ. A, 1991, 25, 997-1008. Veres, P., Roberts, J.M., Warneke, C., Welsh-Bon, D., Zahniser, M., Herndon, S., Fall,R., de Gouw, J., 2008, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 274, 48-55.

  1. Institutional Producers of Physics Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marianne; Watterson, Hermine M.

    In order to identify producers of physics research and to determine their relative productivity, institutional affiliations of authors as given in nine physics journals were studied. Organizations were classified and analyzed by type and geographical location, and productivity established. Findings indicate that organizations differ in their rate…

  2. Bionic organs.

    PubMed

    Galletti, P M

    1991-01-01

    When a lizard loses its tail, a new caudal appendage soon grows to replace the one that is missing. But when a human loses a kidney, severs a peripheral nerve or worse, the spinal cord, that organ is lost forever. Such at least is conventional thinking. But imagine that the victim of an industrial accident with a paralyzed hand could achieve new levels of function by inducing axonal regrowth through a synthetic nerve guidance channel; or that a Parkinsonian patient's symptoms could be relieved by implanting in his brain neural tissue encased in a selectively permeable polymer envelope; or that the inexorable progression of the vascular complications of juvenile diabetes could be stopped, even reversed, by a membrane-protected xenograft of insulin-producing tissue. This is the dream of bionic organ science. It is predicated on two lines of technological achievement: the availability of ultra-thin, biocompatible, selectively permeable polymer membranes which can protect a transplant against immune rejection while allowing solute exchange between the graft and its environment; and the synthesis of novel materials, some biostable, some bioresorbable, which can serve as scaffolding or anchor for tissue regrowth in the geometrically and chemically controlled environment of an implant. The fabrication, growth and survival of composites of living tissues with synthetic polymers, often enhanced by the incorporation of specific cell growth factors or inhibitors, has been demonstrated at the tissue culture level, and extended in vivo to experimental models of human endocrine deficiency or neurological defects. The key to progress with bioartificial organs is the confluence of knowledge ranging from materials science to cell and molecular biology to experimental surgery. Obstacles to clinical implementation of this new therapeutic concept include: large scale procurement of specific tissue structures or isolated postmitotic cells from animal sources; demonstration of safety and efficacy of spontaneously occurring, bioactive tumor cell lines; verification of long-term stability and bio-acceptance of polymer implants; and industrialization of the fabrication process to meet quality control, shelf-life and commercial distribution requirements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1816705

  3. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  4. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits.

    PubMed

    Keller, Reuben P; Lodge, David M; Finnoff, David C

    2007-01-01

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10-500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits. PMID:17190819

  5. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living

  6. Engineered biosealant producing inorganic and organic biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process that has shown its potential in remediation of a wide range of structural damages including concrete cracks. MICCP involves sequential microbiological and chemical reactions, such as urea h...

  7. Microtubule self-organization is gravity-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Papaseit, Cyril; Pochon, Nathalie; Tabony, James

    2000-01-01

    Although weightlessness is known to affect living cells, the manner by which this occurs is unknown. Some reaction-diffusion processes have been theoretically predicted as being gravity-dependent. Microtubules, a major constituent of the cellular cytoskeleton, self-organize in vitro by way of reaction-diffusion processes. To investigate how self-organization depends on gravity, microtubules were assembled under low gravity conditions produced during space flight. Contrary to the samples formed on an in-flight 1 × g centrifuge, the samples prepared in microgravity showed almost no self-organization and were locally disordered. PMID:10880562

  8. Choosing a Senior Living Community

    MedlinePLUS

    ... management Personal laundry services Social and recreational activities Checklist for Evaluating Senior Living Communities The downloadable assisted living checklist defines the typical assisted living residence and what ...

  9. Bioethics of organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate. PMID:24478386

  10. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... January - August 2015 as of 11/27/2015 Organ donation and transplantation can save lives Every ten minutes, ... in medicine and technology, and increased awareness of organ donation and transplantation, the gap between supply and demand ...

  11. Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics There are currently 122,403 ... Becoming a Donor 10 Frequently Asked Questions About Organ Donation . Find out how to become a living kidney ...

  12. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask Selecting a Hospital Other Options to Consider Financing a Transplant Costs Social Services Funding Sources Financial ... my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs Member directory Newsroom Online ...

  13. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask Selecting a Hospital Other Options to Consider Financing a Transplant Costs Social Services Funding Sources Financial ... my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs Member directory Newsroom Online ...

  14. Live, Learn and Thrive 

    E-print Network

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    stream_source_info Live, Learn and Thrive.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2898 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Live, Learn and Thrive.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Live..., Learn and Thrive RGBI team award presented at NMSU ceremony by Danielle Supercinski Rio Grande Basin Initiative (RGBI) participants received the Team Award from New Mexico State University (NMSU) on April 21, 2005, during the NMSU Live, Learn...

  15. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  16. Is It Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

  17. Living alone with dementia.

    PubMed

    Duane, Fleur; Brasher, Kathleen; Koch, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the findings of an exploratory study undertaken in 2009 into the older population who live alone with dementia, as part of a wider study into the phenomenon of living alone in older age with a cognitive impairment or early stage dementia. Interviews were undertaken with 19 older people who live alone with cognitive impairment or early stage dementia, and field notes were taken during interview visits. Throughout this paper, older people who live alone with a cognitive impairment or dementia who participated in the study will be referred to by pseudonym. Overall, the findings give insight into the lives of these people and how they remain connected to and supported by others. These findings will contribute to the knowledge of this group, which may be considered in future research and service delivery. PMID:24336667

  18. Environmental assessment requirements for live biological drugs.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Ann

    2008-02-01

    Marketing approval of biological products by the US Food and Drug Administration must comply with requirements of Code of Federal Regulations title 21 part 25, "Environmental Impact Considerations." An environmental impact statement is usually not required. Environmental assessment is required unless excluded. As naturally occurring substances, biological products qualify for categorical exclusion if manufacture and use do not significantly alter their concentration or distribution in the human environment. The manufacturing process and establishment descriptions in the license application should include enough detail to ensure that waste is controlled and inactivated. During clinical development of a live biotherapeutic product, data should be collected regarding the shedding of live organisms from treated patients. The ability of the live organism to persist in the environment should be assessed, and instructions for safe handling by health care providers and consumers should be incorporated into the package insert. PMID:18181713

  19. Improving Health Care for Assisted Living Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Mach, John R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore how medical care is delivered to older people in assisted living (AL) settings and to suggest ways for improving it. Design and Methods: We present a review of the limited research available on health care for older AL residents and on building testable models of better ways to organize primary…

  20. Good Ideas for Teaching Daily Adult Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Robert K.

    Intended for practicing Adult Basic Education teachers, this handbook provides materials for teaching specific coping skills in the area of daily adult living. Three areas of study are explored: (1) community, which includes organizations, health, nutrition, safety, money management, and media; (2) government and law, which includes citizenship,…

  1. Nanocapsules: coating for living cells.

    PubMed

    Krol, Silke; Diaspro, Alberto; Magrassi, Raffaella; Ballario, Paola; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Filetici, Patrizia; Ornaghi, Prisca; Ramoino, Paola; Gliozzi, Alessandra

    2004-03-01

    One of the most promising tools for future applications in science and medicine is the use of nanotechnologies. Especially self-assembly systems, e.g., polyelectrolyte (PE) capsules prepared by means of the layer-by-layer technique with tailored properties, fulfill the requirements for nano-organized systems in a satisfactory manner. The nano-organized shells are suitable as coating for living cells or artificial tissue to prevent immune response. With these shells, material can be delivered to predefined organs. In this paper, some preliminary results are presented, giving a broad overview over the possibilities to use nano-organized capsules. Based on the observations that the cells while duplicating break the capsule a mutant yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which express GFP-tubulin under galactose promotion, was investigated by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. The measurements reveal an increased surface charge in the region of buds developed prior encapsulation. In order to test the used PE pair for cytotoxicity, germinating conidia of the fungi Neurospora crassa were coated. The investigation with fluorescence microscopy shows a variation in the surface charge for the growing region and the conidium poles. The capsules exhibit interesting properties as valuable tool in science and a promising candidate for application in the field of medicine. PMID:15382641

  2. Ebola Virus Outbreak among Wild Chimpanzees Living in a Rain Forest of Co^te Pierre Formenty, Christophe Boesch, Monique Wyers, World Health Organization (WHO), TaiF Forest Project, and Centre

    E-print Network

    S120 Ebola Virus Outbreak among Wild Chimpanzees Living in a Rain Forest of Co^te d'Ivoire Pierre, Paris, France An outbreak of Ebola in nature is described for the first time. During a few weeks. Laboratory procedures included histology, immunohistochemistry, bacteriology, and serology. Ebola

  3. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  4. Living With Lupus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Lupus Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Lupus July 2014 Living With Lupus: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family ... If You Have Lupus? Symptom Checklist What Is Lupus? Lupus is an autoimmune (AW-toe-ih-MYOON) ...

  5. Living with uterine fibroids

    MedlinePLUS

    Learning how to manage your symptoms can make it easier to live with fibroids. Apply a hot ... relax and help relieve pain include: Muscle relaxation Deep breathing Visualization Biofeedback Yoga Some women find that ...

  6. Living with Parkinson's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... maintain the highest quality of daily living with Parkinson's disease. Performing activities that may benefit you and your symptoms – painting, tai-chi, exercise – to take charge of your life with PD. ...

  7. Living with Advanced MS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... manage the challenges they face. Planning for the future Although MS is a progressive disease for many ... and your family plan more effectively for the future. Identifying options The key message to anyone living ...

  8. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  9. The Living Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Preface; 1. The unfinished revolution; 2. Life's origins; 3. Extreme life; 4. Shaping evolution; 5. Living in the Solar System; 6. Distant worlds; 7. Are we alone?; Notes; Glossary; Reading list; Media resources; Illustration credits; Index.

  10. Living with Thrombocytopenia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Thrombocytopenia If you have thrombocytopenia, watch for any signs and symptoms of bleeding. ... Symptoms can appear suddenly or over time. Severe thrombocytopenia can cause bleeding in almost any part of ...

  11. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no cure. However, you can work with ... your doctor advises. Call your doctor if your PH symptoms worsen or change. The earlier symptoms are ...

  12. Living with Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Atherosclerosis Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  13. Visualizing a Living Building

    E-print Network

    Padget, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Triple Bottom Line thinking, an Integrated Design Process and Life Cycle Analysis. The author, a member of the design team, will focus on the variety of representation techniques used and their roles within this design process pursuing Living Building...

  14. Living with Thalassemias

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Thalassemias Survival and quality of life have improved for people who have moderate or severe thalassemias. This is because: More people are able to ...

  15. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at http://www.cdc.gov/flu Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Immunization Program. 8/7/2015.

  16. The Living Labs: Innovation in Real-Life Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Nathan; Bartle, Gamin; Romine, Martha

    2012-01-01

    The living lab (LL) is an open innovation ecosystem serving to provide opportunities for local stakeholders to practice research and to experiment with meaningful improvements for cities and other organizations. Living labs aim at involving the user as a cocreator. In this article the relationship between the LLs and a variety of stakeholders is…

  17. Mapping the Entangled Ontology of Science Teachers' Lived Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugbjerg, Peer S.; de Freitas, Elizabeth; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the bodily activity of teaching, along with the embodied aspect of lived experience, relates to science teachers' ways of dealing with bodies as living organisms which are both the subject matter as well as the site or vehicle of learning. More precisely, the following questions are pursued: (1) "In what ways…

  18. ASHRAE's Living Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Brambley, Michael R.

    2008-10-01

    ASHRAE recently remodeled its headquarters building in Atlanta with the intention of making the building a LEED Gold building. As part of that renovation the building was enhanced with additional sensors and monitoring equipment to allow it to serve as a Living Laboratory for use by members and the general public to study the detailed energy use and performance of buildings. This article provides an overview of the Living Laboratory and its capabilities.

  19. Next Generation Living 

    E-print Network

    Vaughn, Caroline Elizabeth

    2013-02-06

    GENERATION LIVING An Undergraduate Research Scholars Thesis By CAROLINE VAUGHN AND MISAEL GONZALEZ Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation...?????????????????????????????......30 2 ABSTRACT Next Generation Living (May 2013) Caroline Vaughn and Misael Gonzalez Department of Architecture Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Charles H. Culp Department of Architecture The idea...

  20. INTRODUCTION The euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus lives in estuaries and

    E-print Network

    Scott, Graham

    2450 INTRODUCTION The euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus lives in estuaries and salt been used extensively to understand fish osmoregulation (Wood and Marshall, 1994), the mechanisms for divergent physiological mechanisms of ion transport in freshwater between these two organs (Wood

  1. Assisted Living State Regulatory Review

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Periodicals State Regulatory Review Webinars Assisted Living State Regulatory Review Page Content NCAL will not be publishing ... provided on the NCAL website. Assisted Living State Regulatory Reviews 2013 Assisted Living State Regulatory Review 2012 ...

  2. INFECTIVE ORGANISMS IN THE CYTOPLASM OF AMOEBA PROTEUS

    PubMed Central

    Roth, L. E.; Daniels, E. W.

    1961-01-01

    Evidence from electron and phase microscopy is given which shows that infective organisms are present in the cytoplasm of Amoeba proteus. Vesicles containing living organisms have been observed after repeated washing and starvation of the amebae for a period of 2 weeks. Exposure to ?-radiation in conjunction with starvation, repeated washing, isolation of single amebae, refeeding with contaminant-free Tetrahymena, and clone selection has produced clones with reduced cytoplasmic infection. These findings are discussed in regard to the autoradiographic studies of other investigators on Amoeba proteus. The controversies over whether DNA and RNA are synthesized in the cytoplasm may be resolved by the finding of cytoplasmic infection. PMID:13743844

  3. Sustainable Living Guide This sustainable living guide is the product of a class project for Geography 6250 at Memorial

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    functional information on sustainable businesses, services and organizations existing around the city. SSt. John's Sustainable Living Guide #12;This sustainable living guide is the product of a class and sustainability of natural resources. It was designed by the class for the public of St. John's. We would like

  4. NMR bioreactor development for live in-situ microbial functional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Majors, Paul D.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Scholten, Johannes C.

    2008-05-01

    A live in-situ metabolomics capability was developed for prokaryotic cultures under controlled-growth conditions. Toward this goal, a radiofrequency-transparent bioreactor was developed and integrated with a commercial wide-bore nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging spectrometer and a commercial bioreactor controller. Water suppressed 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor glucose and fructose utilization and byproduct excretion by Eubacterium aggregans (an anaerobic bacterial species relevant for biofuels production) under controlled batch and continuous culture conditions. The resulting metabolite profiles (short chain organic acids and ethanol) and trends are consistent with existing knowledge of its metabolism. However, our study showed the Eubacterium aggregans produces lactate end product in significant concentrations – a result not previously reported. The advantages of live in-situ microbial metabolomics analysis and its complementariness with functional genomics / systems biology methods are discussed.

  5. NMR bioreactor development for live in-situ microbial functional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majors, Paul D.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Scholten, Johannes C. M.

    2008-05-01

    A live, in-situ metabolomics capability was developed for prokaryotic cultures under controlled growth conditions. Toward this goal, a radiofrequency-transparent bioreactor was developed and integrated with a commercial wide-bore nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging spectrometer and a commercial bioreactor controller. Water suppressed 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor glucose and fructose utilization and byproduct excretion by Eubacterium aggregans (an anaerobic bacterial species relevant for biofuel production) under controlled batch and continuous culture conditions. The resulting metabolite profiles (short chain organic acids and ethanol) and trends are consistent with existing knowledge of its metabolism. However, our study also showed that E. aggregans produces lactate end product in significant concentrations—a result not previously reported. The advantages of live in-situ microbial metabolomics analysis and its complementariness with functional genomics/systems biology methods are discussed.

  6. Using Temporal Semantics for Live Media Stream Queries

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Amarnath

    Using Temporal Semantics for Live Media Stream Queries Bin Liu1 , Amarnath Gupta2 and Ramesh Jain3 live media streams is a challenging problem that becomes an essential requirement in a growing number of applications. We address the problem of evaluating continuous queries on media streams produced by media

  7. Perceptual Organization Objective Organization

    E-print Network

    Carrasco, Marisa

    Perceptual Organization Objective Organization · Stimulus-driven · Governed by gestalt principles (proximity, similarity, good continuation, etc.) Subjective Organization · Conceptually-driven (~ attention Jonides, 1981 The Subjective Boundary Effect (SBE) Carrasco & Chang, P & P 1995 Subjective organization

  8. Effects on growth and cost of production of Arizona ash, Indian hawthorn, Southern waxmyrtle, and live oak sequentially produced in combinations of Cu-treated and non-treated 0.24 L., 2.7 L and 10.4 L or 12.7 L containers 

    E-print Network

    Obst, Steven Paul

    1998-01-01

    velutina Torr. (Arizona ash), Quercus virginians Mill. (live oak), and Rapheolepis indica Lindl. (lndian hawthorn) and two-hundred forty seedlings of Myrica cerebra L. (waxmyrtle) were grown in College Station, Texas in 0.24 L containers half...

  9. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. Photobiological Hydrogen-Producing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, M. L.; Dubini, A.; Yu, J.; Maness, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen photoproduction by micro-organisms combines the photosynthetic properties of oxygenic and non-oxygenic microbes with the activity of H{sub 2}-producing enzymes in nature: hydrogenases and nitrogenases. The overall efficiency of the process depends on the separate efficiencies of photosynthesis and enzymatic catalysis. This tutorial review discusses the biochemical pathways for H{sub 2} production in different organisms, barriers to be overcome, and possible suggestions for integrating photobiological H{sub 2} production with fermentative, anaerobic systems for a potentially more efficient process.

  11. Living My Family's Story

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Lally, Robin M.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Murekeyisoni, Christine; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on known or suggested genetic risk factors, a growing number of women now live with knowledge of a potential cancer diagnosis that may never occur. Given this, it is important to understand the meaning of living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer (1) form self-identity, (2) apply self-care strategies toward risk, and (3) describe the meaning of care through a high-risk breast program. Methods Interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology guided the qualitative research method. Women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer were recruited from a high-risk breast program. Open-ended interview questions focused on experiences living as women managing high risk for breast cancer. Consistent with hermeneutic methodology, the principal investigator led a team to analyze the interview transcripts. Results Twenty women participated in in-depth interviews. Analysis revealed that women describe their own identity based on their family story and grieve over actual and potential familial loss. This experience influences self-care strategies, including seeking care from hereditary breast cancer risk experts for early detection and prevention, as well as maintaining a connection for early treatment “when” diagnosis occurs. Conclusions Healthy women living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer are living within the context of their family cancer story, which influences how they define themselves and engage in self-care. Implications for Practice Findings present important practical, research, and policy information regarding health promotion, psychosocial assessment, and support for women living with this risk. PMID:22544165

  12. Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Living Cell Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiangling; Lv, Yifan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-06-01

    Cells as the building blocks of life determine the basic functions and properties of a living organism. Understanding the structure and components of a cell aids in the elucidation of its biological functions. Moreover, knowledge of the similarities and differences between diseased and healthy cells is essential to understanding pathological mechanisms, identifying diagnostic markers, and designing therapeutic molecules. However, monitoring the structures and activities of a living cell remains a challenging task in bioanalytical and life science research. To meet the requirements of this task, aptamers, as “chemical antibodies,” have become increasingly powerful tools for cellular analysis. This article reviews recent advances in the development of nucleic acid aptamers in the areas of cell membrane analysis, cell detection and isolation, real-time monitoring of cell secretion, and intracellular delivery and analysis with living cell models. Limitations of aptamers and possible solutions are also discussed.

  13. A highly efficient nonchemical method for isolating live nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) from soil during toxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin Woong; Moon, Jongmin; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The success of soil toxicity tests using Caenorhabditis elegans may depend in large part on recovering the organisms from the soil. However, it can be difficult to learn the International Organization for Standardization/ASTM International recovery process that uses the colloidal silica flotation method. The present study determined that a soil-agar isolation method provides a highly efficient and less technically demanding alternative to the colloidal silica flotation method. Test soil containing C. elegans was arranged on an agar plate in a donut shape, a linear shape, or a C curve; and microbial food was placed outside the soil to encourage the nematodes to leave the soil. The effects of ventilation and the presence of food on nematode recovery were tested to determine the optimal conditions for recovery. A linear arrangement of soil on an agar plate that was sprinkled with microbial food produced nearly 83% and 90% recovery of live nematodes over a 3-h and a 24-h period, respectively, without subjecting the nematodes to chemical stress. The method was tested using copper (II) chloride dihydrate, and the resulting recovery rate was comparable to that obtained using colloidal silica flotation. The soil-agar isolation method portrayed in the present study enables live nematodes to be isolated with minimal additional physicochemical stress, making it a valuable option for use in subsequent sublethal tests where live nematodes are required. PMID:25387396

  14. Information Dynamics in Living Systems: Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Living systems use information and energy to maintain stable entropy while far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The underlying first principles have not been established. Findings We propose that stable entropy in living systems, in the absence of thermodynamic equilibrium, requires an information extremum (maximum or minimum), which is invariant to first order perturbations. Proliferation and death represent key feedback mechanisms that promote stability even in a non-equilibrium state. A system moves to low or high information depending on its energy status, as the benefit of information in maintaining and increasing order is balanced against its energy cost. Prokaryotes, which lack specialized energy-producing organelles (mitochondria), are energy-limited and constrained to an information minimum. Acquisition of mitochondria is viewed as a critical evolutionary step that, by allowing eukaryotes to achieve a sufficiently high energy state, permitted a phase transition to an information maximum. This state, in contrast to the prokaryote minima, allowed evolution of complex, multicellular organisms. A special case is a malignant cell, which is modeled as a phase transition from a maximum to minimum information state. The minimum leads to a predicted power-law governing the in situ growth that is confirmed by studies measuring growth of small breast cancers. Conclusions We find living systems achieve a stable entropic state by maintaining an extreme level of information. The evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes resulted from acquisition of specialized energy organelles that allowed transition from information minima to maxima, respectively. Carcinogenesis represents a reverse transition: of an information maximum to minimum. The progressive information loss is evident in accumulating mutations, disordered morphology, and functional decline characteristics of human cancers. The findings suggest energy restriction is a critical first step that triggers the genetic mutations that drive somatic evolution of the malignant phenotype. PMID:21818295

  15. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  16. Living with Rh Incompatibility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Twitter. Living With Rh Incompatibility If you have Rh-negative blood, injections of Rh immune globulin can reduce your risk of Rh ... baby or come in contact with Rh-positive blood. If you're Rh-negative, your risk of problems from Rh incompatibility is ...

  17. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  18. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  19. Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Cystic Fibrosis If you or your child has cystic fibrosis (CF), you should learn as much as you ... about CF Care Centers, go to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's Care Center Network Web page. It's standard ...

  20. Living with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living With Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults Videos My Story Data and Statistics Research & ... following links: Newborns and Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged ... and Teenagers Young Adults Read Nancy's personal story about her son ...