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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Producing Knowledge for Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a village in Zimbabwe illustrated how collective community actions resulted in learning that enabled sustainable management of a community resource. Educators' role was helping the community ask the right questions in the process of producing useful working knowledge. (Contains 34 references.) (SK)

von Kotze, Astrid

2002-01-01

2

In living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professor Harold S. Burr of Yale University has shown that the electrical field in various living systems was related to their biological activity and state of health and was a fundamental property of biological and botanical systems. In order to study the problem of whether the geophysical environment might be influencing living systems, a statistical study was performed to see

R. Markson

1972-01-01

3

Synthetic organisms and living machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference between a non-living machine such as a vacuum cleaner and a living organism as a lion seems to be obvious.\\u000a The two types of entities differ in their material consistence, their origin, their development and their purpose. This apparently\\u000a clear-cut borderline has previously been challenged by fictitious ideas of “artificial organism” and “living machines” as\\u000a well as by

Anna Deplazes; Markus Huppenbauer

2009-01-01

4

Microholography of Living Organisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of living elementary biological structures at precisely defined instants. Discussed are sources/geometrics for x-ray holography, x-radiation interactions, factors affecting resolution, recording the hologram, high-intensity holography,…

Solem, Johndale C.; Baldwin, George C.

1982-01-01

5

Just love in live organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or,\\u000a in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged\\u000a but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit\\u000a of the concept of just

Kristin Zeiler

2009-01-01

6

Theory Z Reconsidered: Organizing The Living Dead  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rise of the zombie armies in China and South Africa (Brooks, 2006), it has become obvious that organization studies needs to re-assess the pulse- centric worldview it has commonly adopted. Whereas organizations of the living follow fairly simple, socially defined structures, zombie organization is clearly much more complex, for a number of reasons - not least due to

Alf Rehn

7

Minors as Living Solid-Organ Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past half-century, solid-organ transplantation has become standard treat- ment for a variety of diseases in children and adults. The major limitation for all transplantation is the availability of donors, and the gap between demand and supply continues to grow despite the increase in living donors. Although rare, children do serve as living donors, and these donations raise serious

Lainie Friedman Ross; J. Richard Thistlethwaite

2010-01-01

8

Live Organism Toxicity Monitoring: Signal Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Live organisms offer the opportunity to monitor water resources for toxic conditions by measuring changes in their established behavioral and physiological responses. The U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research uses fish ventilatory pattern ana...

C. C. Sarabun T. R. Shedd C. S. Hayek A. Najmi

1999-01-01

9

Optical trapping inside living organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use optical tweezers to investigate processes happening inside ving cells. In a previous study, we trapped naturally occurring lipid granules inside living yeast cells, and used them to probe the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm. However, we prefer to use probes which can be specifically attached to various organelles within the living cells in order to optically quantify the forces acting on these organelles. Therefore, we have chosen to use nanometer sized gold beads as probes. These gold beads can be conjugated and attached chemically to the organelles of interest. Only Rayleigh metallic particles can be optically trapped and for these it is the case that the larger the beads, the larger the forces which can be exerted and thus measured using optical tweezers. The gold nanoparticles are injected into the cytoplasm using micropipettes. The very rigid cell wall of the S. pombe yeast cells poses a serious obstacle to this injection. In order to be able to punch a hole in the cell, first, the cells have to be turned into protoplasts, where only a lipid bilayer separates the cytoplasm from the surrounding media. We show how to perform micropipette delivery into the protoplasts and also how the protoplasts can be ablated using the trapping laserlight. Finally, we demonstrate that we can transform the protoplasts back to normal yeast cells.

Hansen, Poul M.; Oddershede, Lene B.

2005-08-01

10

Bioluminescence imaging in living organisms.  

PubMed

Luciferase enzymes catalyze the emission of light from a substrate -- a phenomenon known as bioluminescence -- and have been employed as reporters of many biological functions. Luminescent reporters are much dimmer than fluorescent reporters, and therefore provide relatively modest spatial and temporal resolution. Yet, they are generally more sensitive and less toxic, making them particularly useful for long-term longitudinal studies of living cells, tissues and whole animals. Bioluminescence imaging has proven useful for detecting protein-protein interactions, for tracking cells in vivo, and for monitoring the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of specific genes. Recent applications have included longitudinal monitoring of tumor progression in vivo, and monitoring circadian rhythms with single-cell resolution. PMID:15722018

Welsh, David K; Kay, Steve A

2005-02-01

11

Organ Transplants from Living Donors - Halachic Aspects*  

PubMed Central

This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction.

Halperin, Mordechai

2011-01-01

12

Organ transplants from living donors - halachic aspects.  

PubMed

This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms "halacha" and "Jewish law" are defined in the introduction. PMID:23908800

Halperin, Mordechai

2011-04-30

13

Living Organisms for the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication was prepared for elementary teachers and other local personnel responsible for providing, maintaining and using living organisms to enhance elementary science programs. The manual contains a foreword, general information, and an appendix. It gives information concerning equipment and supplies, establishing and maintaining an…

Hampton, Carolyn H.; Hampton, Carol D.

14

Finding Extraterrestrial Organisms Living on Thermosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During thermal cycling, organisms could live on thermosynthesis, a theoretical mechanism applicable to the origin of life and the early evolution of biological energy conversion. All extraterrestrial ice may be a repository for frozen dead or dormant organisms from earlier stages of evolution. In the presence of a thermal gradient within the ice, organisms might still be harvesting energy from thermosynthesis. Possible habitats for thermosynthesizers can be found throughout the Solar System, particularly in the cold traps on Mercury and the Moon, convecting waters on Mars, the oceans on moons in the outer Solar System, and smaller bodies rotating in the sunlight such as cosmic dust, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. A general strategy for detecting thermosynthetic organisms on Earth is offered, and highlights of current and upcoming robotic exploratory missions relevant to the detection of thermosynthesis are reviewed.

Muller, Anthonie W. J.

2003-11-01

15

Finding extraterrestrial organisms living on thermosynthesis.  

PubMed

During thermal cycling, organisms could live on thermosynthesis, a theoretical mechanism applicable to the origin of life and the early evolution of biological energy conversion. All extraterrestrial ice may be a repository for frozen dead or dormant organisms from earlier stages of evolution. In the presence of a thermal gradient within the ice, organisms might still be harvesting energy from thermosynthesis. Possible habitats for thermosynthesizers can be found throughout the Solar System, particularly in the cold traps on Mercury and the Moon, convecting waters on Mars, the oceans on moons in the outer Solar System, and smaller bodies rotating in the sunlight such as cosmic dust, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. A general strategy for detecting thermosynthetic organisms on Earth is offered, and highlights of current and upcoming robotic exploratory missions relevant to the detection of thermosynthesis are reviewed. PMID:14678664

Muller, Anthonie W J

2003-01-01

16

Psychosocial Assessment of Living Organ Donors: Clinical and Ethical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, \\

Mary Ellen Olbrisch; Sharon M. Benedict

2001-01-01

17

Strategic Marketing Decisions for Organic Agricultural Producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of organic agricultural producers facing a strategic decision is featured. If they decide to form an organization to market their produce jointly, they will have to select a distribution channel. This case presents the demand conditions, requirements, advantages, and disadvantages of different distribution channels for organic vegetables, both on a general level and as they relate to this

Jon C. Phillips; H. Christopher Peterson

2007-01-01

18

[Basic ethical aspects of living organ donation].  

PubMed

A characteristic feature of transplanting organs from living donors is that not only patients in need for treatment but also healthy individuals are submitted to medical interventions. Ethical considerations in this field have to deal with the question of property attributes of the human body and conflicts with traditional medical principles. Altruistic organ donation, appreciated by Christianity as a sign of charity, is indeed contradictory to the classic maxim of medical ethics "primum nihil nocere, " meaning "first of all, do not harm." The autonomous choice of a potential donor has to be balanced thoroughly against his personal physical and psychological risks. Apart from organ donation with altruistic motives, commercial incentives or payment for organ donation, which are increasingly under discussion in many nations, need profound ethical reflection. Organ selling does not lead to long-term economic benefit for individual donors in developing countries and is associated with a decline in health. A market system of organ sales would foster exploitation of the poor, and it is substantially doubtful whether autonomy and self determination are valid under circumstances of poverty and coercion. Commodification of the human body risks viewing persons as marketable objects. The human body,however, is an integral element of an individual's personality and not a resource to be removed. It is therefore fundamental that the social good of altruism is preserved as the major principle in organ donation. PMID:12883802

Nagel, E; Mayer, J

2003-06-01

19

What Organisms Live in Antarctica Today?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this weeklong unit, students research how flora and fauna have adapted to thrive in Antarctica, and use their knowledge to create imaginary polar organisms. Throughout the unit, students collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain: teacher tools, which include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, teacher strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, and additional readings; a Web activity in which students investigate the living conditions in Antarctica and some of the adaptations its organisms have made; a classroom activity in which students apply what they've learned to create models of imaginary polar creatures; several readings that provide a broad perspective, including excerpts from early explorers' journals and Q&A interviews with scientists working in Antarctica and a student handout with guidance for putting together their portfolios and examples of creative final projects.

20

Taxes and Transplants: Public Policies and Live Organ Donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple model for live organ donation based on altruistic motives. Using state-level data on live kidney donations in the U.S., we estimate donor income (0.81) and donor cost (-0.47) elasticities of live kidney donations. We then use the model to simulate the effects of state income tax credits on the number of organ donors. Our results indicate

Miguel Gouveia; Pamela B. Peele

21

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton...

2010-01-01

22

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton...

2009-01-01

23

Thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and aging of living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological evolution, development, and aging of living organisms can conveniently be treated as a set of changes in various\\u000a components of living systems, i.e., their subsystems. These changes are due to thermodynamically conditioned nonspontaneous\\u000a and spontaneous processes.

G. P. Gladyshev

2011-01-01

24

Psychosocial factors in living organ donation: clinical and ethical challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living donor surgery has come to the forefront of public attention because increasing numbers of potential donors respond to the organ shortage. Because of several factors including decreased morbidity from donor surgery, online resources appealing for organs, and increased publicity about donation, new populations of unrelated donors are seeking evaluation for donor surgery. However, concern about potential coercion of vulnerable

Sheila G. Jowsey; Terry D. Schneekloth

2008-01-01

25

Psychosocial assessment of living organ donors: clinical and ethical considerations.  

PubMed

This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, "Good Samaritan" (both directed and nondirected), vendors, and organ exchangers. The primary domains to be assessed in the psychosocial evaluation are informed consent, motivation for donating and the decision-making process, adequacy of support (financial and social), behavioral and psychological health, and the donor-recipient relationship. Obstacles to the evaluation process include impression management, overt deception, minimization of behavioral risk factors, and cultural and language differences between the donor and the evaluator. Ethical concerns, such as the right to donate, donor autonomy, freedom from coercion, nonmaleficence and beneficence in donor selection, conflicts of interest, "reasonable" risks to donors, and recipient decision making are also explored. To fully evaluate living organ donation, studying psychosocial as well as medical outcomes is crucial. PMID:11357556

Olbrisch, M E; Benedict, S M; Haller, D L; Levenson, J L

2001-03-01

26

Effect of living roots on soil organic matter decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contradictory data exist in the literature about the effects of living roots on soil organic matter decom- position. Decomposition of labelled plant material is markedly lowered in the presence of cultivated plant cover or in natural grasslands, when compared to bare soil controls due to the difference of the physical environment between the plant covered soil and the fallow soil

WEIXIN CHENG; D COLEMAN

1990-01-01

27

Ethical issues in living organ donation: Donor autonomy and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite nearly 50 years of experience with living kidney donation, ethical questions about this practice continue to haunt us today. In this editorial I will address two of them: (1) Given the possibility of limited understanding and coercion, how can we be sure that a person who offers to donate an organ is acting autonomously? and (2) Do people have

Aaron Spital

2001-01-01

28

Tissue-Engineered Follicles Produce Live, Fertile Offspring  

PubMed Central

Oocytes grown in vitro are of low quality and yield few live births, thus limiting the ability to store or bank the ova of women wishing to preserve their fertility. We applied tissue engineering principles to the culture of immature mouse follicles by designing an alginate hydrogel matrix to maintain the oocyte’s 3-dimensional (3D) architecture and cell-cell interactions in vitro. A 3D culture mimics the in vivo follicle environment, and hydrogel-encapsulated follicles develop mature oocytes within the capacity for fertilization similar to that of oocytes matured in vivo. Embryos derived from cultured oocytes fertilized in vitro and transferred to pseudopregnant female mice were viable, and both male and female offspring were fertile. Our results demonstrate that alginate hydrogel-based 3D in vitro culture of follicles permits normal growth and development of follicles and oocytes. This system creates new opportunities for discovery in follicle biology and establishes a core technology for human egg banks for preservation of fertility.

Xu, Min; Kreeger, Pamela K.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

2008-01-01

29

Priming effects: interactions between living and dead organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The priming effects - increase or decrease in soil organic matter turnover (measured as changes of CO2 efflux and N mineralization) after addition of available substrates - is not an artifact of incubation studies, but is a natural process sequence in the rhizosphere and detritusphere that is induced by pulses or continuous inputs of fresh organics. Recent publications have shown that priming effect (PE) results from interactions between living (microbial biomass) and dead organic matter and commonly occurs in most plant-soil systems.. The intensity of turnover processes in such hotspots as rhizosphere and detritusphere is at least one order of magnitude higher than in the bulk soil. Various prerequisites for high-quality PE studies will be outlined: calculating the C budget; analysis of the dynamics of released CO2 and its sources; linking C and N dynamics with microbial biomass changes and enzyme activities; evaluating apparent and real PEs; and assessing PE sources as related to soil organic matter stabilization mechanisms. Approaches for identifying priming, based on the assessment of more than two C sources in CO2 and microbial biomass will be proposed. Future studies should evaluate directions and magnitude of PEs according to expected climate and land-use changes and the increased rhizodeposition under elevated CO2 as well as clarifying the ecological significance of PEs. The conclusion is that PEs - the interactions between living and dead organic matter - should be incorporated in models considering microbial biomass as an active driver of C and N turnover.

Kuzyakov, Y.

2012-04-01

30

Directed altruistic living organ donation: partial but not unfair.  

PubMed

Arguments against directed altruistic living organ donations are too weak to justify a ban. Potential donors who want to specify the non-related person or group of persons to receive their donated kidney should be accepted. The arguments against, based on considerations of motivation, fairness and (non-)anonymity (e.g. those recently cited by an advisory report of the Dutch Health Council), are presented and discussed, as well as the Dutch Government's response. Whereas the Government argues that individuals have authority with regard to the allocation of their organs, partial considerations have not been sufficiently explored. In addition, it is argued that partial relationships govern human life, are significant and should be valued highly. These relationships are at the core of accepted living kidney donation between relatives (family members, partners, friends). Respecting the particular act of living donation goes beyond respect for autonomy; it touches upon our personal and social identity. Donation, e.g. of a kidney, is not undertaken strictly for the benefit of the recipient, but also to meet the moral standards we wish to set for ourselves. This consideration, rooted in a view of moral identity, provides the basis for many forms of directed donation that are both partial and justified. If the importance of this is not recognized, social policies can be neither adequate nor effective. PMID:16459404

Hilhorst, Medard T

2005-04-01

31

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...

2010-01-01

32

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...

2009-01-01

33

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...

2013-01-01

34

Stability and Responsiveness in a Self-Organized Living Architecture  

PubMed Central

Robustness and adaptability are central to the functioning of biological systems, from gene networks to animal societies. Yet the mechanisms by which living organisms achieve both stability to perturbations and sensitivity to input are poorly understood. Here, we present an integrated study of a living architecture in which army ants interconnect their bodies to span gaps. We demonstrate that these self-assembled bridges are a highly effective means of maintaining traffic flow over unpredictable terrain. The individual-level rules responsible depend only on locally-estimated traffic intensity and the number of neighbours to which ants are attached within the structure. We employ a parameterized computational model to reveal that bridges are tuned to be maximally stable in the face of regular, periodic fluctuations in traffic. However analysis of the model also suggests that interactions among ants give rise to feedback processes that result in bridges being highly responsive to sudden interruptions in traffic. Subsequent field experiments confirm this prediction and thus the dual nature of stability and flexibility in living bridges. Our study demonstrates the importance of robust and adaptive modular architecture to efficient traffic organisation and reveals general principles regarding the regulation of form in biological self-assemblies.

Garnier, Simon; Murphy, Tucker; Lutz, Matthew; Hurme, Edward; Leblanc, Simon; Couzin, Iain D.

2013-01-01

35

Long-lived radicals produced by ?-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-lived radicals produced by ?-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1–20nmolg?1. Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to

Tetsuo Miyazaki; Akiyuki Morikawa; Jun Kumagai; Masateru Ikehata; Takao Koana; Shoshi Kikuchi

2002-01-01

36

Long-lived radicals produced by gamma-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-lived radicals produced by \\/gamma-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20nmolg-1. Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to

Tetsuo Miyazaki; Akiyuki Morikawa; Jun Kumagai; Masateru Ikehata; Takao Koana; Shoshi Kikuchi

2002-01-01

37

Ethical issues in living organ donation: donor autonomy and beyond.  

PubMed

Despite nearly 50 years of experience with living kidney donation, ethical questions about this practice continue to haunt us today. In this editorial I will address two of them: (1) Given the possibility of limited understanding and coercion, how can we be sure that a person who offers to donate an organ is acting autonomously? and (2) Do people have a right to donate? The universal requirement for informed consent is the traditional method for ensuring that a person is acting autonomously. But, while obtaining fully informed consent is desirable, it may not always be achievable or necessary. When the recipient is very dear to the potential donor, the donor may base his decision primarily on care and concern rather than on a careful weighing of risks and benefits. I will argue that consent that emanates from such deep affection should be considered just as valid as consent that is fully informed. But consent is not enough. There is no absolute right to donate an organ. If there were such a right, then some physician would be obligated to remove an offered organ upon request, regardless of the risks involved. I do not believe that physicians have such an obligation. Physicians are moral agents who are responsible for their actions and for the welfare of their patients. Therefore, while the values and goals of the potential donor should be given great weight during the decision-making process, physicians may justifiably refuse to participate in living organ donation when they believe that the risks for the donor outweigh the benefits. PMID:11431202

Spital, A

2001-07-01

38

Living Organisms Coupling to Electromagnetic Radiation Below Thermal Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation is part of the natural environment. Prior to major earthquakes the local ULF and global ELF radiation field is often markedly perturbed. This has detrimental effects on living organisms. We are studying the mechanism of these effects on the biochemical, cellular and organismal levels. The transfer of electrons along the Electron Transfer Chain (ETC) controls the universal reduction-oxidation reactions that are essential for fundamental biochemical processes in living cells. In order for these processes to work properly, the ETC has to maintain some form of synchronization, or coherence with all biochemical reactions in the living cells, including energy production, RNA transcription, and DNA replication. As a consequence of this synchronization, harmful chemical conflict between the reductive and the oxidative partial reactions can be minimized or avoided. At the same time we note that the synchronization allows for a transfer of energy, coherent or interfering, via coupling to the natural ambient EM field. Extremely weak high frequency EM fields, well below the thermal noise level, tuned in frequency to the electron spins of certain steps in the ETC, have already been shown to cause aberrant cell growth and disorientation among plants and animals with respect to the magnetic and gravity vectors. We investigate EM fields over a much wider frequency range, including ULF known to be generated deep in the Earth prior to major earthquakes locally, and ELF known to be fed by lightning discharges, traveling around the globe in the cavity formed between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. This ULF/ELF radiation can control the timing of the biochemical redox cycle and thereby have a universal effect on physiology of organisms. The timing can even have a detrimental influence, via increased oxidative damage, on the DNA replication, which controls heredity.

Stolc, Viktor; Freund, Friedemann

2013-04-01

39

Experience with an organ procurement organization-based non-directed living kidney donation programme.  

PubMed

The organ procurement organization (OPO)-based non-directed living kidney donation programme was developed to decrease wait times for kidney transplants, and to meet the community's desire for altruistic living donation. Community awareness was encouraged through information about non-directed living kidney donation on the state donor registry Web site, and through the media. The OPO received all inquiries and responded with phone calls, e-mails, printed information, medical/social history questionnaires, interviews, and referrals to the transplant centres. Kidneys were allocated according to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) wait list for the evaluating transplant centre. Between March 2002 and 23 September 2005, there were 608 inquiries to the OPO about non-directed living kidney donation. In 41 months, 20 transplants occurred with kidneys from non-directed donors. The donor registry and OPO-sponsored publicity led to 578 of the 608 inquiries and 15 of the 20 transplants. OPO screening saved transplant centre resources by ruling out 523 inquiries, referring 76 to transplant centres for complete evaluations. Optional donor/recipient meetings appeared to be beneficial to those participating. OPO-based non-directed living donor programmes can be effective and efficient. Standardization of evaluation, allocation, and follow-up will allow for better data collection and more widespread implementation. PMID:16842517

Mark, Paula J; Baker, Kristie; Aguayo, Cecile; Sorensen, John B

40

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2009-01-01

41

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

42

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

43

Organic Chemical Producers Data Base Development and Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes modification, content expansion and update activities performed on the Organic Chemical Producers Data Base (OCPDB), an EPA-owned, computerized information system containing data on chemical products and industrial production facilit...

R. Soklow

1984-01-01

44

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2012-01-01

45

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

46

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2013-01-01

47

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

48

STREPTOMYCES NODOSUS SP. N., THE AMPHOTERICIN-PRODUCING ORGANISM  

PubMed Central

Trejo, William (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and Ralph E. Bennett. Streptomyces nodosus sp. n., the amphotericin-producing organism. J. Bacteriol. 85:436–439. 1963.—Streptomyces nodosus, the amphotericin-producing organism, is described as a new species in conformity with the rules of nomenclature as applied to streptomycetes. The relationship between S. nodosus and S. rutgersensis is discussed, and the basis for separation of the species is presented. Images

Trejo, William H.; Bennett, R. E.

1963-01-01

49

Imaging of plasmonic heating in a living organism.  

PubMed

Controlling and monitoring temperature at the single cell level has become pivotal in biology and medicine. Indeed, temperature influences many intracellular processes and is also involved as an activator in novel therapies. Aiming to assist such developments, several approaches have recently been proposed to probe cell temperature in vitro. None of them have so far been extended to a living organism. Here we present the first in vivo intracellular temperature imaging. Our technique relies on measuring the fluorescence polarization anisotropy of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on a set of GFP expressing neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We demonstrate fast and noninvasive monitoring of subdegree temperature changes on a single neuron induced by local photoheating of gold nanoparticles. This simple and biocompatible technique is envisioned to benefit several fields including hyperthermia treatment, selective drug delivery, thermal regulation of gene expression and neuron laser ablation. PMID:24047507

Donner, Jon S; Thompson, Sebastian A; Alonso-Ortega, César; Morales, Jordi; Rico, Laura G; Santos, Susana I C O; Quidant, Romain

2013-09-24

50

Psychosocial factors in living organ donation: clinical and ethical challenges.  

PubMed

Living donor surgery has come to the forefront of public attention because increasing numbers of potential donors respond to the organ shortage. Because of several factors including decreased morbidity from donor surgery, online resources appealing for organs, and increased publicity about donation, new populations of unrelated donors are seeking evaluation for donor surgery. However, concern about potential coercion of vulnerable individuals, the potential for adverse psychosocial outcomes, and recent reports of donor deaths have reinvigorated discussion within the medical community about how best to assess donors. Research on the long-term quality of life outcomes for donors suggests that most donors are satisfied with their decision to donate. Small single-center studies on psychosocial outcomes have reported psychiatric sequelae after donor surgery. Little is known about the psychosocial outcomes for donors who are psychosocially excluded from donating. A multidisciplinary team approach, including social work and psychiatry evaluations, allows for the comprehensive assessment of important areas including motivation and expectations about surgery, current and past psychiatric conditions, history of substance or alcohol abuse, family support, understanding of the risks and alternatives of donor surgery for the donor and recipient, and motivation for donation including any evidence of coercion. PMID:18631877

Jowsey, Sheila G; Schneekloth, Terry D

2008-07-01

51

CHARACTERIZATION OF SHORT-LIVED INTERMEDIATES PRODUCED DURING REPLICATION OF BACULOVIRUS DNA  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In this report the short-lived DNA replication intermediates produced in both uninfected and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells were characterized. The methods used included pulse-labeling of DNA in permiabilized cells, treatment of nascent DNA with Mung bean nuclease, and electrophoresis in neutral and alkaline agarose gels. In contrast to uninfected cells that produced a population of small DNA fragments of about 200 bp, a population of heterogeneous fragments of up to 5 kb with an average size of 1 to 2 kb derived randomly from the virus genome was identified as the short-lived intermediates produced during AcMNPV replication. The intermediates likely include Okazaki fragments derived from the lagging strands in viral replication forks as well as fragments produced during the recombination-dependent replication.

Mikhailov, Victor S.; Rohrmann, George F.

2009-01-01

52

Method for net decrease of hazardous radioactive nuclear waste materials. [Thermal neutron irradiation of long-lived radionuclides to produce stable nuclides and short-lived radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

A method of decreasing the amount of relatively long lived fission products in radioactive waste materials in excess of that due to their natural radioactive decay by producing relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides from the relatively long lived fission products is described comprising the steps of: (a) separating the fission products into at least (1) physically separate groups, and (2) relatively short lived fission product radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (b) storing the relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (c) exposing at least the groups containing Kr/sup 85/, Sr/sup 90/, Zr/sup 93/, Tc/sup 99/, Pd/sup 107/, I/sup 129/, Cs/sup 135/, Sm/sup 151/ + Eu, and actinides, to a high thermal neutron flux for separate, different predetermined periods of time selected in accordance with the long lived fission product nuclide in the corresponding group for inducing predetermined transformations of the relatively long lived fission product nuclides to produce relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (d) removing each exposed group containing the produced relatively short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides from the high thermal neutron flux; (e) separating the removed group into (1) the produced short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides, and (2) a plurality of further groups having long lived fission product nuclides respectively corresponding to at least some of the long lived fission product nuclides or the groups of step (a); (f) storing the produced short lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides; (g) joining at least one of the further groups to at least one of the groups of step (a) having a corresponding long lived fission product nuclide.

Marriott, R.; Henyey, F.S.; Hochstim, A.R.

1988-01-26

53

OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum-industry problem of treating produced water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project was to maximize oxidation of hexane-extractable organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigated: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer

K. Thomas Klasson; Costas Tsouris; Sandie A. Jones; Angela B. Walker; David W. DePaoli; Sotira Yiacoumi; Viriya Vithayaveroj; Robert M. Counce; Sharon M. Robinson

2002-01-01

54

Living organ donations: a comparison between the positions of national bioethics committees.  

PubMed

Numerous documents have been published by the national bioethics committees of the European Union and Council of Europe member countries on the subject of organ transplantation. The present paper examines those that address the question of living donation with a focus on kidney grafts. Although it is not possible to ensure absolute completeness since not all the documents produced over the years are accessible and English translations are often lacking, this review covered evaluations of the most significant ones. There has been a preponderance of attention to the issue of informed consent, while the issue of donor risk has been addressed only summarily, if at all. PMID:24033999

Petrini, C

2013-09-01

55

Electrical properties of nano carbon produced from organic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, surface and electrical characteristics of carbon materials produced from organic waste were examined. First, used coffee grounds were carbonized and activated, and optimal times and temperatures of the carbonization-activation processing were examined, and Brunauer-Emmentt-Teller (BET) surface area, pore volume and pore size distributions were analyzed. Secondly, produced activated carbons were applied to the polarized electrodes in electric

D. Mishima; Y. Hamasuna; T. Kishita; D. Tashima; M. Otsubo; S. Kumagai

2011-01-01

56

Long-lived radicals produced by ?-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-lived radicals produced by /?-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20nmolg-1. Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to life conservation. Long-lived radicals are also produced by /?-irradiation of cells or protein solution. The radicals decay after death of living things or after /?-irradiation. We found that the decay dynamics in all biological systems can be expressed by the same kinetic equation of an inhomogeneous reaction.

Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Morikawa, Akiyuki; Kumagai, Jun; Ikehata, Masateru; Koana, Takao; Kikuchi, Shoshi

2002-09-01

57

Properties of short-living ball lightning produced in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental setup for highly reproducible generation of artificial ball lightnings is implemented. Thousands of floating glowing plasmoids 12-20 cm in diameter are produced. Research facilities for studying the plasmoids are developed. It is found that short-lived ball lightnings live for about 1 s and carry an electric charge. The lightnings are shown to have a complex structure: a central kernel containing a rich variety of hydrated ions and aerosol of decay products is surrounded by a thin negatively charged shell.

Egorov, A. I.; Stepanov, S. I.

2008-06-01

58

Comparison of the biosorption and desorption of hazardous organic pollutants by live and dead biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

and 2-chlorobiphenyl by living and dead cells of the fungus R. arrhizus and activated sludge was studied. A generalization concerning the relative magnitude of biosorptive uptake between live and dead biomass cannot be made using the experimental data. Uptakes by live and dead cells are similarly correlated to the octanol\\/water partition coefficient of the organic pollutants. The desorption of the

M. TSEZOS; J. P. BELL

1989-01-01

59

Artificial Cybernetic Living Individuals Based on SupraMolecular-Level Organization as Dispersed Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most characteristic features of spontaneously originating biological systems is that their most fundamental structure and especially functioning is based on molecular-level organization. This property is particularly important when natural living individuals composed of organic compounds of carbon are compared with (hypothetical) artificial living individuals based on metals, plastic, glass, silicon, and so on, whose most basic structural

Bernard Korzeniewski

2011-01-01

60

Isolation of Antibiotic-Producing Organisms from Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lab experiment in which students attempt to isolate antibiotic-producing bacteria (of the genus Streptomyces ) from soil. Even though antibiotics have gotten a bad rap in the press lately because many disease-causing organisms are multiply resistant, it is still important to discover new antibiotics. This experiment replicates the first step in the search and screen research that is currently underway in many labs worldwide. This three-part experiment has three objectives: Students will Isolate an antibiotic-producing organism from soil, determine the number of colony forming units (CFU's) per gram of soil sample, And become proficient in the following techniques: aseptic technique, dilution series and plating, plate counting, streak plating, two assay methods, simple staining, and using oil immersion microscope.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Betsy Barnard N:Barnard;Betsy ORG:West High School REV:2005-04-13 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

61

Social organization in free-living prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding units (occupants of a nest including at least one reproductive female) within two free-living populations of the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, were monitored by live-trapping at nest during two 28-h periods each week from October 1980 to March 1984. Data are presented for 281 breeding units from all seasons, at high and low population densities and during breeding and

Lowell L. Getz; Joyce E. Hofmann

1986-01-01

62

Composition of organic and conventionally produced sunflower seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to highlight the main differences between seed oils produced from conventionally cultivated\\u000a crops and organically cultivated ones and processed using mild extraction procedures. The composition and the nutritional\\u000a and health aspects of both types of sunflower seed oils were compared and were analytically tested to determine the macroscopic\\u000a differences in proximate composition, the

G. Perretti; E. Finotti; S. Adamuccio; R. Della Sera; L. Montanari

2004-01-01

63

Large-scale chromatin fibers of living cells display a discontinuous functional organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the chromatin organization of living cells with a combination of recently developed approaches for histone and DNA labeling. Nucleosomal DNA was labeled with a histone H2B-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein and the chromatin organization of living HeLa cells was analyzed by high resolution confocal microscopy. Within the perinuclear and perinucleolar regions chromatin was organized into large-scale fibers

Nicolas Sadoni; Kevin F. Sullivan; Peter Weinzierl; Ernst H. K. Stelzer; Daniele Zink

2001-01-01

64

Long-lived states of antiprotonic lithium pLi {sup +} produced in p+ Li collisions  

SciTech Connect

Antiproton capture by lithium atoms (p+Li{yields}pLi{sup +}+e) is investigated at collision energies from 0.01 to 10 eV by using a semiclassical (also know as quantum-classical hybrid) method, in which the radial distance between the antiproton and the Li{sup +} ion is treated as a classical variable, and the other degrees of freedom are described by quantum mechanics. Analyzing the wave packet of the emitted electrons and making use of the energy conservation rule enable us to calculate the state distribution of the produced antiprotonic lithium pLi{sup +} atoms and also to distinguish between the capture and ionization ({yields}p+Li{sup +}+e) channels at collisional energies above the ionization threshold. This method is tested for the capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms, which was rigorously investigated in previous quantum mechanical studies. Most of the pLi{sup +} atoms produced in p+Li are found to be sufficiently stable against Auger decays and are experimentally observable as long-lived states. The present system bears close similarities to the system of p+He(2S). It is therefore expected that long-lived antiprotonic helium pHe{sup +} atoms can be efficiently produced in the p capture by metastable He(2 {sup 3}S) atoms.

Sakimoto, Kazuhiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai 3-1-1, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2011-09-15

65

Search for a short-lived neutral particle produced in nuclear decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a search for a short-lived neutral particle phi produced in the decay of the 9.17-MeV J-italic\\/sup ..pi..\\/ = 2\\/sup +\\/ state in ¹⁴N. The experiment is sensitive to decays into an e-italic\\/sup +\\/e⁻ pair with tau\\/sub phi\\/approx. <10⁻¹¹ s. For m-italic\\/sub phi\\/ = 1.7 MeV we place a limit on the branching ratio of GAMMA\\/sub phi\\/\\/GAMMA\\/sub ..gamma..\\/<

M. J. Savage; R. D. McKeown; B. W. Filippone; L. W. Mitchell

1986-01-01

66

Heavy metal linkages with mineral, organic and living soil compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For soil ecotoxicological assessment, we can observe lethal effects (on organism as presence or absence) or sublethal effects due to bioconcentrations of contaminants in organisms. This paper deals with the analysis of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca: (i) in soils, by three chemical extraction techniques; (ii) in earthworm tissues; (iii) the relationships

Abdul Motalib M. Abdul Rida; Marcel B. Bouché

1997-01-01

67

Southwest Airlines - living total quality in a service organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundation blocks for quality in a customer service organization are management commitment, customer focus, and employee involvement; operational and administrative aspects are built on these basic issues. This article presents a detailed analysis of how a major customer service organization was built to succeed and continues to improve by applying quality management principles. The example presented is Southwest Airlines,

George P. Laszlo

1999-01-01

68

Position paper Natural living—a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses animal welfare in organic farming systems in relation to values and aims in organic farming. It sums up experiences from a 4-year interdisciplinary project. An important finding is that animal welfare is understood somewhat differently in organic farming from what is common in conventional agriculture. It is interpreted in terms of natural living, which includes the possibility

Vonne Lund

69

Natural living—a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses animal welfare in organic farming systems in relation to values and aims in organic farming. It sums up experiences from a 4-year interdisciplinary project. An important finding is that animal welfare is understood somewhat differently in organic farming from what is common in conventional agriculture. It is interpreted in terms of natural living, which includes the possibility

Vonne Lund

2006-01-01

70

Intentions of Becoming a Living Organ Donor Among Hispanics: A Theory-Based Approach Exploring Differences Between Living and Nonliving Organ Donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines perceptions concerning living (n = 1,253) and nonliving (n = 1,259) organ donation among Hispanic adults, a group considerably less likely than the general population to become donors. Measures are derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and Vested Interest Theory (Crano, 19831997). A substantial percentage of respondents reported positive attitudes and high personal stake concerning organ donation. Mean

Jason T. Siegel; Eusebio M. Alvaro; Andrew Lac; William D. Crano; Alexander Dominick

2008-01-01

71

"Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.  

PubMed

The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain. PMID:22574392

Moniruzzaman, Monir

2012-03-01

72

A similar law may govern water freezing in minerals and living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE is an interesting similarity between the freezing of water in minerals and in biological tissues. Mazur1,2 observed that many living organisms lose viability at threshold temperatures near -10 °C. After investigating this phenomenon from the point of view of possible mechanisms by which living cells suffer damage on freezing, he concluded that a key step in the freezing process

Amos Banin; Duwayne M. Anderson

1975-01-01

73

Doing harm: living organ donors, clinical research and The Tenth Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ethical difficulties of organ donation from living donors and the problem of causing harm to patients or research subjects at their request. Graham Greene explored morally similar questions in his novella, The Tenth Man.

C Elliott

1995-01-01

74

Doing harm: living organ donors, clinical research and The Tenth Man.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the ethical difficulties of organ donation from living donors and the problem of causing harm to patients or research subjects at their request. Graham Greene explored morally similar questions in his novella, The Tenth Man.

Elliott, C

1995-01-01

75

Engineered biosealant strains producing inorganic and organic biopolymers.  

PubMed

Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process that has shown its potential in remediation of a wide range of structural damages including concrete cracks. In this study, genetically engineered microorganisms, capable of producing extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) as well as inducing MICCP, were developed based on the assumption that the complex of inorganic CaCO(3) and organic EPS would provide a stronger matrix than MICCP alone as biosealant. In order to develop a recombinant biosealant microorganism, the entire Sporosarcina pasteurii urease gene sequences including ureA, ureB, ureC, ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG from plasmid pBU11 were sub-cloned into the shuttle vector, pUCP18. The newly constructed plasmid, pUBU1, was transformed into two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 8821 and PAO1, to develop recombinants capable of inducing calcite precipitation in addition to their own ability to produce EPS. Nickel-dependent urease activities were expressed from the recombinant P. aeruginosa 8821 (pUBU1) and P. aeruginosa PAO1 (pUBU1), at 99.4% and 60.9% of the S. pasteurii urease activity, respectively, in a medium containing 2mM NiCl(2). No urease activities were detected from the wild type P. aeruginosa 8821 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 under the same growth conditions. Recombinant Pseudomonas strains induced CaCO(3) precipitation at a comparable rate as S. pasteurii and scanning electron microscopy evidenced the complex of CaCO(3) crystals and EPS layers surrounding the cells. The engineered strains produced in this study are expected to serve as a valuable reference to future biosealants that could be applied in the environment. However, the pathogenic potential of P. aeruginosa, used here only as a model system to show the proof of principle, prevents the use of this recombinant organism as a biosealant. In practical applications, other recombinant organisms should be used. PMID:22789480

Bergdale, Terran E; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; Hughes, Stephen R; Zambelli, Barbara; Ciurli, Stefano; Bang, Sookie S

2012-07-10

76

Organized Living: From Cell Surfaces to Basement Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to integrin receptors initiates intracellular signaling events that are essential for the differentiation and survival of epithelial cells. However, the propagation and processing of these signals also depend on the cells acquiring an appropriate three-dimensional morphology and polarity after contact with the ECM. In fact, even if adhesion to the ECM is maintained but subsequent cellular organization and polarity are impaired, epithelial cells fail to fully differentiate and become susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. Studies using three-dimensional tissue culture models with reconstituted basement membranes not only demonstrate the central role of tissue organization for differentiation and survival, but also emphasize how acquiring this organized polarized phenotype can override a number of genetic changes that would otherwise disrupt normal tissue function.

Nancy J. Boudreau (University of California San Francisco;Department of Surgery REV)

2003-08-19

77

Some potentialities of living organisms under simulated Martian conditions.  

PubMed

Temperature, humidity, pressure, composition of the atmosphere and radiation are the main factors conditioning life on the surface of Mars. When studying the Martian ecology, one must know the total effect of these factors. One may expect that, as a result of adaptation to low temperatures, there is a corresponding shift in the temperature optimum of enzymatic activity. Dryness is the main obstacle to active life. We suggest the presence of some soil moisture and water vapour. Moreover, there can be areas of permafrost. This minimum supply of water and periodic fluctuations of humidity may create conditions for the existence of drought-resistant organisms. Decreased atmospheric pressure alone does not affect micro-organisms, plants, protozoa and even insects. Ciliates reproduce in a flowing atmosphere of pure nitrogen containing 0.0002-0.0005% oxygen as an impurity. Protozoa may also develop in an atmosphere of 98-99% carbon dioxide mixed with 1% O2. Therefore, even traces of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would be sufficient for aerobic unicellular organisms. Cells and organisms on earth have acquired various ways of protection from uv light, and therefore may increase their resistance further by adaptation or selection. The resistance of some organisms to ionizing radiation is high enough to enable them to endure hard ionizing radiation of the sun. Experiments with unicellular [correction of unicellar] organisms show that the effect of short wave uv radiation depends on the intensity of visible light, long-wave solar uv radiation, temperatures, cell repair processes, and the state of cell components, i.e. whether the cell was frozen, dried or hydrated. PMID:12206179

Lozina-Lozinsky, L K; Bychenkova, V N; Zaar, E I; Levin, V L; Rumyantseva, V M

1971-01-01

78

77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...allowable concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters...

2012-06-13

79

77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S....

2012-06-08

80

In vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites of living organisms by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry. PMID:23811725

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

2013-01-01

81

In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

2013-07-01

82

Iron carbide nanoparticles produced by laser ablation in organic solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ablation of iron in an organic solvent (pentane, hexane, or decane) was performed using an air-tight cell to produce iron carbide nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectra of the nanoparticles were obtained at room temperature. They revealed that the nanoparticles consisted of two paramagnetic components and magnetic components. The two paramagnetic components were a high-spin Fe(II) species and an amorphous iron carbide containing a large amount of carbon. Whereas the magnetic components measured at room temperature exhibited superparamagnetism, those measured at low temperature were fitted by a combination of four sextets, which were assigned to Fe7 C 3. The Fe7 C 3 yield was higher in higher molecular weight solvents. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the samples showed that the nanoparticles were spherical with diameters in the range 10-100 nm.

Matsue, T.; Yamada, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.

2012-03-01

83

Half-lives of several states in isotopes produced in the SF of ^252Cf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Half-lives (T_1/2) of 15 states in isotopes produced in the SF of ^252Cf have been determined using a new technique. The ^252Cf source was placed inside the Gammasphere, and triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. The half-lives and quadrupole deformations of ^104Zr, ^152Ce, and ^158Sm are determined for the first time. Except for ^102Sr, ^104Zr(?_2=0.45(4)) and ^158Sm(?_2=0.46(5)) are the most deformed among medium and heavy nuclei. Large deformation could have its origin in the high spin down-sloping orbitals near Z=38,40,62 and N=40,64,96. These large prolate deformations at ^104Zr and ^158Sm are confirmed by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations carried out in the present work. Further, an excited rotational band including seven new ? transitions in ^97Sr was also identified. The band head energy of the 829.8 keV state in ^97Sr has an half-life of 265(27) nsec.

Hwang, J. K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Fong, D.; Beyer, C. J.; Gore, P. M.; Jones, E. F.; Teran, E.; Oberacker, V. E.; Umar, A. S.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Zhu, S. J.; Wu, S. C.; Lee, I. Y.; Fallon, P.; Stoyer, M. A.; Asztalos, S. J.; Ginter, T. N.; Cole, J. D.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Donangelo, R.

2003-10-01

84

Living Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... Living Donation Costs Insurance Legislation Living Donation Living organ donation dates back to 1954, when a kidney from ... a deceased donor. To learn more about living organ donation, choose an option below: Facts Types Being a ...

85

Visualizing protein partnerships in living cells and organisms  

PubMed Central

Summary In recent years, scientists have expanded their focus from cataloging genes to characterizing the multiple states of their translated products. One anticipated result is a dynamic map of the protein association networks and activities that occur within the cellular environment. While in vitro-derived network maps can illustrate which of a multitude of possible protein-protein associations could exist, they supply a falsely static picture lacking the subtleties of subcellular location (where) or cellular state (when). Generating protein association network maps that are informed by both subcellular location and cell state requires novel approaches that accurately characterize the state of protein associations in living cells and provide precise spatiotemporal resolution. In this review, we highlight recent advances in visualizing protein associations and networks under increasingly native conditions. These advances include second generation protein complementation assays (PCAs), chemical and photo-crosslinking techniques, and proximity-induced ligation approaches. The advances described focus on background reduction, signal optimization, rapid and reversible reporter assembly, decreased cytotoxicity, and minimal functional perturbation. Key breakthroughs have addressed many challenges and should expand the repertoire of tools useful for generating maps of protein interactions resolved in both time and space.

Lowder, Melissa A.; Appelbaum, Jacob S.; Hobert, Elissa M.; Schepartz, Alanna

2011-01-01

86

Reciprocal adjustments between landforms and living organisms: Extended geomorphic evolutionary insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst biological organisms adapt to the environment, earth surface processes and landforms evolve as a result of physicochemical processes, and as the result of the activity of certain living organisms defined as ‘ecosystem engineers’. The importance of long- and short-term impacts on geomorphic structures and processes by ecosystem engineers appears to be underestimated. Recent recognition of complex abiotic–biotic feedbacks in

D. Corenblit; A. M. Gurnell; J. Steiger; E. Tabacchi

2008-01-01

87

Living donor liver transplantation for children with liver failure and concurrent multiple organ system failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver transplantation for pediatric patients in liver failure and multiple organ system failure (MOSF) often results in poor patient survival. Progression of organ failure occurs while awaiting a cadaveric allograft. Therefore, we considered living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in this critically ill group of children and report our initial results with comparison to a similar group who received cadaveric donation

Cara L. Mack; Mario Ferrario; Michael Abecassis; Peter F. Whitington; Riccardo A. Superina; Estella M. Alonso

2001-01-01

88

Estimating Service Lives of Organic Vapor Cartridges III: Multiple Vapors at All Humidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A published model for estimating service lives of organic vapor (OV) air-purifying respirator cartridges has been extended to include multiple organic vapors at all humidities. Equilibria among the OVs are calculated using Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory, whereas the effects of adsorbed water are considered as due to micropore volume exclusion. Solubilities of OVs in water must also be taken into

Gerry O. Wood; Jay L. Snyder

2007-01-01

89

A Conceptual Model of the System for Online Maintenance of a Living Organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a conceptual model of the system for online tracking and tuning a living organism (e.g., the human body) to insure that each physiological process of the organism runs within its recommended boundaries at all times. The system includes a Biofeedback Module, a Biological Module, an Adjusting Module, and a Recommender Module. The conception exploits an interdisciplinary approach.

Yevgeniya Kovalchuk

90

Islamic sunni mainstream opinions on compensation to unrelated live organ donors.  

PubMed

This article focuses on contemporary Islamic attitudes towards the question of compensation to a non-relative live organ donor. This article presents the history of the debate on organ transplantation in Islam since the 1950s and the key ethical questions. It continues by presenting the opinions of the mainstream ulema such as Tantawi and Qaradawi. The article ends with a conclusion that there must be no compensation made to a non-related live organ donor, not even a symbolic gift of honor (ikramiyya). PMID:23908804

Natour, Ahmad; Fishman, Shammai

2011-04-30

91

Fundamental Limitation on Applicability of Statistical Methods to Study of Living Organisms and Other Complex Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A living organism is a complex system whose state is characterized by extremely large number of variables that far exceeds the number of individual organisms that can be experimentally studied. Since the relations between these variables and even their identities are largely unknown, the applicability of statistical methods of inference to the outcome of experiments in biomedical sciences is severely limited. Far from being a purely theoretical issue, this explains the recently proposed "Truth Wears Off" effect and sets a fundamental limitation on the applicability of machine-like approaches to the study of living organisms.

Rabin, Yitzhak

2011-07-01

92

Massachusetts General Physicians Organization's Quality Incentive Program Produces Encouraging Results.  

PubMed

Physicians are increasingly becoming salaried employees of hospitals or large physician groups. Yet few published reports have evaluated provider-driven quality incentive programs for salaried physicians. In 2006 the Massachusetts General Physicians Organization began a quality incentive program for its salaried physicians. Eligible physicians were given performance targets for three quality measures every six months. The incentive payments could be as much as 2 percent of a physician's annual income. Over thirteen six-month terms, the program used 130 different quality measures. Although quality-of-care improvements and cost reductions were difficult to calculate, anecdotal evidence points to multiple successes. For example, the program helped physicians meet many federal health information technology meaningful-use criteria and produced $15.5 million in incentive payments. The program also facilitated the adoption of an electronic health record, improved hand hygiene compliance, increased efficiency in radiology and the cancer center, and decreased emergency department use. The program demonstrated that even small incentives tied to carefully structured metrics, priority setting, and clear communication can help change salaried physicians' behavior in ways that improve the quality and safety of health care and ease the physicians' sense of administrative burden. PMID:24101064

Torchiana, David F; Colton, Deborah G; Rao, Sandhya K; Lenz, Sarah K; Meyer, Gregg S; Ferris, Timothy G

2013-10-01

93

Measurement method of activation cross-sections of reactions producing short-lived nuclei with 14 MeV neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for obtaining reliable activation cross-sections in the neutron energy range between 13.4 and 14.9MeV for the reactions producing short-lived nuclei with half-lives between 0.5 and 30min. We noted neutron irradiation fields and measured induced activities, including (1) the contribution of scattered low-energy neutrons, (2) the fluctuation of the neutron fluence rate during the irradiation, (3) the

K. Kawade; H. Sakane; Y. Kasugai; M. Shibata; T. Iida; A. Takahashi; T. Fukahori

2003-01-01

94

Incorporation of penicillin-producing fungi into living materials to provide chemically active and antibiotic-releasing surfaces.  

PubMed

Living materials: artificial biological niches are loaded with the penicillin-producing mold Penicillium chrysogenum. This living material consumes food through a nanoporous top layer and releases the antibiotic on-site. No reloading of the active compound is needed. Gram-positive bacteria were efficiently killed if nearby, whereas Gram-negative bacteria (control experiment, not sensitive to penicillin) were not affected. PMID:23044633

Gerber, Lukas C; Koehler, Fabian M; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

2012-10-09

95

Probing transplant and living donor candidates about their participation in organ vending.  

PubMed

The selling of human organs for transplant is illegal in the United States and in most countries; however, such transactions still occur. Transplant hospitals and their personnel have multiple ethical duties, including (1) protecting the safety of their living donors and transplant recipients and (2) protecting the integrity of living donation and transplantation as clinical practices. To date, few psychosocial screening tools exist that pertain specifically to a person's risk or intent of pursuing organ vending (buying or selling). This article presents a series of transplant ethics case consultations that spawned the creation of a set of behavioral prompts for teams to probe with regard to organ vending when screening candidates about their suitability for participation as living donors or transplant recipients. PMID:20929116

Bramstedt, Katrina A

2010-09-01

96

Androcoll-E large selects a subset of live stallion spermatozoa capable of producing ROS.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to elucidate if SLC after 24 h storage selects the subpopulation of spermatozoa that better withstands osmotic shock. To test this hypothesis, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)) production of uncentrifuged (UC) and single layer centrifugation (SLC) - selected spermatozoa were analyzed following SLC after storage of the semen. An aliquot of the extended ejaculate (100×10(6) spermatozoa/mL) was centrifuged through a single layer of a silane-coated silica based colloid formulation optimized for equine spermatozoa (Androcoll-E large, SLU, Sweden) and the rest was used as control. UC and SLC-sperm samples were subjected to osmotic challenges (75 and 900 mOsm) with a subsequent return to isosmolarity (300 mOsm) using Biggers-Whitten-Whittingham (BWW) medium. Viability and MMP decreased after the different osmotic stress in UC and SLC spermatozoa, and return to isosmolarity did not reverse these effects. O(2)(·-) production was enhanced after SLC in all osmolarities tested. Interestingly, the percentage of living spermatozoa showing O(2)(·-) production was increased after 900 mOsm stress in UC spermatozoa, this increase being more evident in SLC spermatozoa. Returning spermatozoa to 300 mOsm enhanced this percentage in UC viable cells but not in SLC spermatozoa. The scenario observed for UC spermatozoa shows that O(2)(·-) is produced in response to isolated hyperosmolarities and subsequent osmotic excursions. As the viability, MMP and cell volume remained the same between SLC and UC spermatozoa, we conclude that Androcoll-E large is likely selecting a higher percentage of physiologically O(2)(·-) producing spermatozoa. PMID:22534021

Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Gallardo-Bolaños, J M; Peña, F J; Johannisson, A; Morrell, J M

2012-04-04

97

Explaining the Choice of Organic Produce: Cosmetic Defects, Prices, and Consumer Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice between organic and conventional produce was estimated empirically using a two-equation probit model. Data were collected in-store on cosmetic defects, produce prices, and consumers' demographic and economic traits. Store choice displayed a significant impact on the probability of purchasing organic produce. Shoppers at the specialty grocer were sensitive to price differences between organic and conventional items. Households with

Gary D. Thompson; Julia Kidwell

1998-01-01

98

Single-molecule microscopy reveals membrane microdomain organization of cells in a living vertebrate.  

PubMed

It has been possible for several years to study the dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins by single-molecule microscopy, but until now this technology has been applied only to individual cells in culture. In this study, it was extended to stem cells and living vertebrate organisms. As a molecule of interest we used yellow fluorescent protein fused to the human H-Ras membrane anchor, which has been shown to serve as a model for proteins anchored in the plasma membrane. We used a wide-field fluorescence microscopy setup to visualize individual molecules in a zebrafish cell line (ZF4) and in primary embryonic stem cells. A total-internal-reflection microscopy setup was used for imaging in living organisms, in particular in epidermal cells in the skin of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos. Our results demonstrate the occurrence of membrane microdomains in which the diffusion of membrane proteins in a living organism is confined. This membrane organization differed significantly from that observed in cultured cells, illustrating the relevance of performing single-molecule microscopy in living organisms. PMID:19686669

Schaaf, Marcel J M; Koopmans, Wiepke J A; Meckel, Tobias; van Noort, John; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Schmidt, Thomas S; Spaink, Herman P

2009-08-19

99

A living demonstration of certified organic farming by Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...

100

On the Testing Maturity of Software Producing Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data from a study of the current state of practice of software testing. Test managers from twelve different software organizations were interviewed. The in- terviews focused on the amount of resources spent on test- ing, how the testing is conducted, and the knowledge of the personnel in the test organizations. The data indicate that the overall test

Mats Grindal; Jeff Offutt; Jonas Mellin

2006-01-01

101

Nanoscale Organization of Multiple GPI-Anchored Proteins in Living Cell Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched “rafts” have long been proposed as platforms for the sorting of specific membrane components including glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), however, their existence and physical properties have been controversial. Here, we investigate the size of lipid-dependent organization of GPI-APs in live cells, using homo and hetero-FRET-based experiments, combined with theoretical modeling. These studies reveal an unexpected organization wherein cell

Pranav Sharma; Rajat Varma; R. C Sarasij; Ira; Karine Gousset; G Krishnamoorthy; Madan Rao; Satyajit Mayor

2004-01-01

102

Single-Molecule Microscopy Reveals Membrane Microdomain Organization of Cells in a Living Vertebrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been possible for several years to study the dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins by single-molecule microscopy, but until now this technology has been applied only to individual cells in culture. In this study, it was extended to stem cells and living vertebrate organisms. As a molecule of interest we used yellow fluorescent protein fused to the human H-Ras

Marcel J. M. Schaaf; Wiepke J. A. Koopmans; Tobias Meckel; John van Noort; B. Ewa Snaar-Jagalska; Thomas S. Schmidt; Herman P. Spaink

2009-01-01

103

[Structure, methodology and ethics of German commissions on living organ donation].  

PubMed

Living organ donation is a medically established and morally acceptable method of transplantation. According to German Transplantation Law, an expert review by a local "Commission on Living Donation" (Lebendspendekommission, LSK) is required before transplantation. The legal task of this review is to ensure a voluntary decision by the donor and to rule out illegal trading of organs. Results from a national survey among all LSKs show that the process of review and assessment varies considerably among German LSKs. Most of them carry out a compulsory hearing of every potential donor, but this is omitted by some LSKs in a number of cases. Only 60% of all LSKs feel confident to determine donors' free will and protect their self-determination. Only 33% claim to be able to recognise illegal trading of organs. The LSKs even disagree on the exact borderline between legal incentives and illegal commerce. An expansion of living donation by financial incentives, pool-donation or crossover donation is supported only by a minority of German LSKs. The article argues in favour of establishing national standards for the process of LSK-reviews in order to foster procedural ethics and trustworthiness in the field of living organ donation. PMID:16755426

Sievers, K; Neitzke, G

2006-06-01

104

The space exposure platforms BIOPAN and EXPOSE to study living organisms in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

BIOPAN and EXPOSE are two European space exposure platforms developed for the European Space Agency by Kayser-Threde GmbH Munich Germany to offer flight opportunities to the science community of exo astrobiology research in low earth orbit Both platforms are conceived for the research on the behaviour of living organisms in the environment of space and on simulated conditions of other

W. Schulte

2006-01-01

105

Making Nature's Wisdom Public: The Affirmation of Planet Earth as a Living Organism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Planet Earth is a living organism that preserves and regenerates itself and shares information with humans through sensations, feelings, and actions. After early humans migrated from their tropical origins to colder climates, they developed technologies to impose their tropical memories on their new surroundings and lost touch with their ancient…

Cohen, Michael J.

106

PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION BY FREE-LIVING ORGANISMS: APPLICATIONS OF A SIGMOIDAL MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of contaminants by free-living organisms has traditionally been de- termined with permutations of the deterministic model: Ct = Ce(1 - e -kt). However, studies uti- lizing a variety of species and exposure scenarios now suggest that significant deviations may occur from this classic form. In many cases noted to date, these deviations have involved a sigmoidal pat- tern

I. Lehr Brisbin; Michael C. Newman; Susan G. McDowell; Eric L. Peters

1990-01-01

107

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103...organization currently registered with the Oregon or Washington State Departments of Agriculture, or such certifying...

2013-01-01

108

Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Separating Organics from Produced Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of polar organic compounds typical of water contaminants (organic acids, alcohols, and aromatic compounds) associated with oil and gas production was measured between water and nine hydrophobic, room?temperature ionic liquids. The ionic liquids used in this study were 1?butyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?hexyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?octyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?butyl?3?methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?butyl?1?methyl?pyrrolidinium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, tributyltetradecylphosphonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate. Sensitivity

J. McFarlane; W. B. Ridenour; H. Luo; R. D. Hunt; D. W. DePaoli; R. X. Ren

2005-01-01

109

Missed opportunities for religious organizations to support people living with HIV/AIDS: findings from Tanzania.  

PubMed

Religious beliefs play an important role in the lives of Tanzanians, but little is known about the influence of religion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study shares perspectives of PLWHA and identifies opportunities for religious organizations to support the psychological well-being of this group. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 through semistructured interviews with 36 clients (8 Muslims and 28 Christians) receiving free antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Arusha, Tanzania. Swahili-speaking interviewers asked about participation in religion, change in religious engagement since HIV diagnosis, and what role faith plays in living with HIV and taking ARVs. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Atlas t.i. The findings revealed that patients' personal faith positively influenced their experiences living with HIV, but that religious organizations had neutral or negative influences. On the positive side, prayer gave hope to live with HIV, and religious faith increased after diagnosis. Some respondents said that prayer supported their adherence to medications. On the other hand, few disclosed their HIV status in their religious communities, expressing fear of stigma. Most had heard that prayer can cure HIV, and two expected to be cured. While it was common to hear messages about HIV prevention from churches or mosques, few had heard messages about living with HIV. The findings point to missed opportunities by religious organizations to support PLWHA, particularly the need to ensure that messages about HIV are not stigmatizing; share information about HIV treatment; introduce role models of PLWHA; and emphasize that prayers and medical care go hand-in-hand. PMID:19335171

Watt, Melissa H; Maman, Suzanne; Jacobson, Mark; Laiser, John; John, Muze

2009-05-01

110

Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?  

PubMed

Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ?50 ?m were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event. PMID:23614690

First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

2013-04-24

111

Surface enhanced Raman scattering on Tardigrada - towards monitoring and imaging molecular structures in live cryptobiotic organisms.  

PubMed

Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans which are able to survive extreme physical and chemical conditions by entering a stress tolerant state called cryptobiosis. At present, the molecular mechanisms behind cryptobiosis are still poorly understood. We show that surface enhanced Raman scattering supported by plasmonic gold nanoparticles can measure molecular constituents and their local distribution in live tardigrades. Surface enhanced Raman signatures allow to differentiate between two species and indicate molecular structural differences between tardigrades in water and in a dry state. This opens new avenues for exploring cryptobiosis by studying molecular changes in live cryptobiotic organisms. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:23225705

Kneipp, Harald; Møbjerg, Nadja; Jørgensen, Aslak; Bohr, Henrik G; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Katrin

2012-12-07

112

Method of producing metal-filled organic coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is directed to a coating method. In the preferred practice of this invention, the method includes the steps of selecting a ferrous substrate, such as steel sheet preferably containing a first coating having certain corrosion resistant and adhesion-promoting characteristics, applying thereto an outer coating of an organic resin containing a particulate metal selected from the group consisting of

R. G. Hart; H. E. Townsend

1985-01-01

113

Market Assessment and Development for Organically Grown Produce in Armenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently it could have been said that organic farming was an intermittent technique limited to only a few countries. However, in the last few years a boom was emerged which has led to a drastically different situation when this technique is widely used in almost all the countries and is currently flourishing. Armenia is not exclusion in this regard.

Vardan E. Urutyan

2007-01-01

114

Carbohydrates in phytoplankton and freshly produced dissolved organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four taxonomically-diverse, phytoplankton cultures (Phaeocystis sp., Emiliania huxleyi, Synechococcus bacillaris, Skeletonema costatum) were grown in batch culture for 14 days, and the particulate and high-molecular-weight dissolved components of the cultures were harvested by tangential-flow ultrafiltration for bulk and molecular-level carbohydrate analyses. Bulk carbohydrates and neutral aldoses accounted for an average of 37% and 20%, respectively, of the particulate organic carbon

Andrew Biersmith; Ronald Benner

1998-01-01

115

Postharvest quality of integrated and organically produced apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple cv. ‘Jonagold’ fruit were picked in three different regions of Belgium. In each region one organic and one integrated orchard with identical climatic and soil characteristics was sampled. Fruit were stored in air and under CA conditions (1% O2, 2.5% CO2) at 1°C for 6 months. The acoustic stiffness, firmness, soluble solids contents, acid and sugar contents, and the

E. Róth; A. Berna; K. Beullens; S. Yarramraju; J. Lammertyn; A. Schenk; B. Nicolaï

2007-01-01

116

77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...collection approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS)...

2012-09-10

117

Immobilization of long-lived radionuclides in carbon matrices produced with the use of polyimide binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Conditions for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides Tc, ¹²I and ²¹Am in carbon matrices were investigated by using their chemical analogs. Stable isotopes of rhenium, iodine and europium were used as chemical analogs of Tc, ¹²I and ²¹Am, respectively. It is shown that the carbon matrices incorporating the above elements can

Murat Abdulakhatov; Sergey Bartenev; Nikolai Firsin; Mikhail Zykov; Mikhail Goikhman; Alexander Gribanov; Valery Novikov; John Krasznail

2007-01-01

118

Long-lived plasmoids produced in humid air as analogues of ball lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an experimental study of long-lived plasmoids, analogues of ball lightning, are presented. The study focuses\\u000a mainly on the establishment of the conditions for the prolonged existence of plasmoids in the atmosphere. Experimental setup\\u000a is described and the observation data displayed in the form of photographic pictures.

A. I. Egorov; S. I. Stepanov

2002-01-01

119

Chromosome Organization by a Nucleoid-Associated Protein in Live Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial chromosomes are confined in submicrometer-sized nucleoids. Chromosome organization is facilitated by nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), but the mechanisms of action remain elusive. In this work, we used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, in combination with a chromosome-conformation capture assay, to study the distributions of major NAPs in live Escherichia coli cells. Four NAPs---HU, Fis, IHF, and StpA---were largely scattered throughout the nucleoid.

Wenqin Wang; Gene-Wei Li; Chongyi Chen; X. Sunney Xie; Xiaowei Zhuang

2011-01-01

120

Applicability of radiosurgery with heavy ion beams to inactivate specific organs in living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was the aim of the study to test the applicability of radiosurgery in inactivating a specific organ through local irradiation with heavy ion beams. Silkworms were exposed to whole-body or local irradiation with carbon ion beams (12C5+, 18.3 MeV\\/u, range=1.1 mm). After irradiation at the wandering stage, no significant differences were observed regarding either survival or cocoon quality between

Zhen-Li Tu; Yasuhiko Kobayashi; Kenji Kiguchi; Hiroshi Watanabe

2002-01-01

121

Microbiological evaluation of fresh-cut organic vegetables produced in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the microbiological quality of fresh-cut organic vegetables produced in Zambia. Fresh-cut organic mixed vegetables and green beans produced in Zambia were analysed for aerobic plate counts, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast and mould counts. The study included 160 samples for most of the

Kabwit Nguz; John Shindano; Simbarashe Samapundo; André Huyghebaert

2005-01-01

122

Short-lived organic trace gases in the UT/LS: Results from recent field campaigns.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere can be impacted by delivery of reactive trace gases that are variable in composition and depend on source emissions and transport pathway and time. Because surface emissions include gases with a range of chemical lifetimes, and because different source emissions (e.g. marine boundary layer, anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning) can have different chemical signatures, the composition of the organic trace gases that are found in the UT/LS region have the potential to provide diagnostic information on air mass sources and transport time scales. Further, the role of short-lived organic halogen gases in the UT/LS has been highlighted as a major uncertainty for defining the reactive halogen budget and the chemical boundary conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. Recent campaigns in the tropics (TC-4 and AVE missions) and in the extra-tropics (START08) have included the measurement of trace gases from whole air sampling and analysis on the NASA WB-57 or NSF Gulfstream V aircraft. Measurements of a range of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, organic nitrates, and sulfur species were made to examine the role of short-lived organic gases in the UT/LS. This presentation will highlight different aspects of these measurements that deal with transport pathways, transport rates, and halogen budgets.

Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Pan, L.; Bowman, K. P.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.

2008-12-01

123

Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks.  

PubMed

We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)-emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb(3+) lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb(3+) NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation. PMID:24108356

Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A; White, Kiley A; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnès; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J; Rosi, Nathaniel L; Petoud, Stéphane

2013-10-09

124

Protein organic chemistry and applications for labeling and engineering in live-cell systems.  

PubMed

The modification of proteins with synthetic probes is a powerful means of elucidating and engineering the functions of proteins both in vitro and in live cells or in vivo. Herein we review recent progress in chemistry-based protein modification methods and their application in protein engineering, with particular emphasis on the following four strategies: 1) the bioconjugation reactions of amino acids on the surfaces of natural proteins, mainly applied in test-tube settings; 2) the bioorthogonal reactions of proteins with non-natural functional groups; 3) the coupling of recognition and reactive sites using an enzyme or short peptide tag-probe pair for labeling natural amino acids; and 4) ligand-directed labeling chemistries for the selective labeling of endogenous proteins in living systems. Overall, these techniques represent a useful set of tools for application in chemical biology, with the methods 2-4 in particular being applicable to crude (living) habitats. Although still in its infancy, the use of organic chemistry for the manipulation of endogenous proteins, with subsequent applications in living systems, represents a worthy challenge for many chemists. PMID:23426903

Takaoka, Yousuke; Ojida, Akio; Hamachi, Itaru

2013-02-20

125

Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms.

Oger, Phil M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

2008-04-01

126

Cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus increases the fitness of the producer organism in low-potassium environments.  

PubMed

Cereulide, produced by certain Bacillus cereus strains, is a lipophilic cyclic peptide of 1152 Da that binds K(+) ions with high specificity and affinity. It is toxic to humans, but its role for the producer organism is not known. We report here that cereulide operates for B. cereus to scavenge potassium when the environment is growth limiting for this ion. Cereulide-producing B. cereus showed higher maximal growth rates (µ(max)) than cereulide non-producing B. cereus in K(+)-deficient medium (K(+) concentration ~1 mM). The cereulide-producing strains grew faster in K(+)-deficient than in K(+)-rich medium with or without added cereulide. Cereulide non-producing B. cereus neither increased µ(max) in K(+)-deficient medium compared with K(+)-rich medium, nor benefited from added cereulide. Cereulide-producing strains outcompeted GFP-labelled Bacillus thuringiensis in potassium-deficient (K(+) concentration ~1 mM) but not in potassium-rich (K(+) concentration ~30 mM) medium. Exposure to 2 µM cereulide in potassium-free medium lacking an energy source caused, within seconds, a major efflux of cellular K(+) from B. cereus not producing cereulide as well as from Bacillus subtilis. Cereulide depleted the cereulide non-producing B. cereus and B. subtilis cells of a major part of their K(+) stores, but did not affect cereulide-producing B. cereus strains. Externally added 6-10 µM cereulide triggered the generation of biofilms and pellicles by B. cereus. The results indicate that both endogenous and externally accessible cereulide supports the fitness of cereulide-producing B. cereus in environments where the potassium concentration is low. PMID:22241046

Ekman, Jaakko V; Kruglov, Alexey; Andersson, Maria A; Mikkola, Raimo; Raulio, Mari; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2012-01-12

127

Comparison of the virulence of exopolysaccharide-producing Prevotella intermedia to exopolysaccharide non-producing periodontopathic organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence in the literature suggests that exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacterial cells are essential for the expression of virulence in these organisms. Secreted EPSs form the framework in which microbial biofilms are built. Methods This study evaluates the role of EPS in Prevotella intermedia for the expression of virulence. This evaluation was accomplished by comparing EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 with non-producing P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains ATCC 33277, 381 and W83 for their ability to induce abscess formation in mice and evade phagocytosis. Results EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 induced highly noticeable abscess lesions in mice at 107 colony-forming units (CFU). In comparison, P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, 381 and W83, which all lacked the ability to produce viscous materials, required 100-fold more bacteria (109 CFU) in order to induce detectable abscess lesions in mice. Regarding antiphagocytic activity, P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 were rarely internalized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but other strains were readily engulfed and detected in the phagosomes of these phagocytes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the production of EPS by P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 could contribute to the pathogenicity of this organism by conferring their ability to evade the host's innate defence response.

2011-01-01

128

Certified organic agriculture in Mexico: Market connections and certification practices in large and small producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which certification is based upon extensive document review, group inspections, and assessment of on-farm capacity to produce organic

Laura Gómez Tovar; Lauren Martin; Manuel Angel Gómez Cruz; Tad Mutersbaugh

2005-01-01

129

Commercial living non-related organ transplantation: a viewpoint from a developed country.  

PubMed

In developed countries, the use of living unrelated donors is restricted to purely altruistic donors who have a close and emotional relationship with the recipients. By law, commercial transplantation is illegal. Increasing shortness of donors, the excellent results of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors as well as the very low risk for the donor has been used as an argument for paid organ donation. Arguments in favour are the relief of donor-organ shortage, short waiting times for renal transplantation, economic benefits for the donor as well as the economic benefits for society by reducing the costs of dialysis by more transplants. Major arguments against are exploitation of the donor, coercion, and a growing black market. Despite the fact that different societies have different norms or reproaches that we are failing our patients and accept the death of thousands, kidney trade has created an environment of corruption and commercialisation, which brings even the cadaver transplant program into disrepute. However, denying the existence of paid organ donation does not contribute to solve the problem. A public discussion about consequences of changing ethics and human rights, rather than pragmatic solutions, is needed. PMID:16810510

Hoyer, Peter F

2006-06-30

130

The ABC of ABCS: a phylogenetic and functional classification of ABC systems in living organisms.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the most abundant superfamilies of proteins. They are involved not only in the transport of a wide variety of substances, but also in many cellular processes and in their regulation. In this paper, we made a comparative analysis of the properties of ABC systems and we provide a phylogenetic and functional classification. This analysis will be helpful to accurately annotate ABC systems discovered during the sequencing of the genome of living organisms and to identify the partners of the ABC ATPases. PMID:11421270

Dassa, E; Bouige, P

131

Oral administration of live exopolysaccharide-producing Pediococcus parvulus, but not purified exopolysaccharide, suppressed Enterobacteriaceae without affecting bacterial diversity in ceca of mice.  

PubMed

Growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota could have an important role in the development of diet- and lifestyle-induced diseases. It has been shown that modulation of the gut microbiota by means of probiotics and prebiotics could improve host health. An oat-based product fermented by the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing organism Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 has been reported to have a bifidogenic effect. To find out whether the effect could be attributed to the EPS or the bacterium, mice were fed a diet supplemented with 2% purified EPS or 10(8) CFU/g of live P. parvulus 2.6 for 6 weeks. Both supplementations altered the gut microbiota composition but in different directions. Purified EPS not only significantly lowered the microbial diversity (P < 0.001) but decreased the bifidobacterial population (P = 0.01). In contrast, the live EPS-producing bacterium P. parvulus 2.6 antagonized Enterobacteriaceae without disturbing the homeostasis of the cecal microbiota. PMID:23770909

Lindström, Cecilia; Xu, Jie; Oste, Rickard; Holst, Olle; Molin, Göran

2013-06-14

132

Do organisms living around hydrothermal vent sites contain specific metallothioneins? The case of the genus Bathymodiolus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusual characteristics of the hydrothermal vent environment (high pressure and metal concentrations, low pH, etc.) leads us to wonder how species living in this particular biotope have adjusted to these severe living conditions. To investigate the consequences of high metal concentrations, filter-feeding organisms are commonly used in ecotoxicological studies. Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins conserved throughout the animal kingdom and

Yann Hardivillier; Vincent Leignel; Françoise Denis; Gabriel Uguen; Richard Cosson; Marc Laulier

2004-01-01

133

Yields of short-lived fission products produced following 235U(nth,f)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of 235U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10 000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study.

Tipnis, S. V.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Schier, W. A.; Seabury, E. H.; England, T. R.

1998-08-01

134

Growth, Development, Reproduction, Physiological and Behavioural Studies on Living Organisms, Human Adults and Children Exposed to Radiation from Video Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating voltage of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V\\/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were obtained

A. M. Laverdure; J. Surbeck; M. O. North; J. Tritto

2001-01-01

135

Growth, Development, Reproduction, Physiological and Behavioural Studies on Living Organisms, Human Adults and Children Exposed to Radiation from Video Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating volt age of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V\\/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were

A. M. Laverdure; J. Surbeck; M. O. North; J. Trittoa

2001-01-01

136

Health status and resonance in a model for living organisms under periodic stress and healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the dynamic model for failures to a living organism under periodic stress and study how the health status of the organism evolves. It is found that without healing, the average fraction of intact cells decays either stepwise to zero or to a constant value far from zero, depending on the peak value of the periodic stress. As the parameter measuring the healing probability is raised from zero, the fraction exhibits oscillating behavior, reminiscent of periodic synchronization. The power spectrum at the stress frequency at first increases with the healing parameter, then decreases, which may be called healing resonance. We also study the time evolution of the system in the case that the healing parameter varies periodically with time and observe a transition from the unhealthy state to the healthy one as the healing frequency increases. This suggests how to adjust the frequency of medical treatment to the optimum.

Yoon, B.-G.; Choi, J.; Choi, M. Y.; Fortin, J.-Y.

2006-03-01

137

Determining the service lives of organic-vapor respirator cartridges for nitroglycerin under workplace conditions.  

PubMed

Results of a field study that estimated the service lives of several different brands of organic-vapor respirator cartridges for nitroglycerin are presented. Respirator carbon tubes (RCTs) were used to sample in a workplace where gun powder was manufactured and where nitroglycerin levels varied from approximately 0.1-0.7 mg/m3. Tenax adsorbent tubes were used to monitor for nitroglycerin upstream and downstream of RCTs and were subsequently analyzed by a gas-chromatography method. A series of 10 trials failed to find evidence of nitroglycerin breakthrough. Estimates of the minimum service lives of respirator cartridges varied from 7-81 hours for nitroglycerin levels of 1.0 mg/m3, 10 times the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Level. One trial specifically examined the potential of nitroglycerin to prematurely break through a cartridge due to bed migration, and results failed to indicate this as a potential problem. A field validation of the Tenax adsorbent tube method for nitroglycerin monitoring resulted in an accuracy of +/- 77-88% at the 95% confidence level. An unexpected finding was that up to 10% of the ambient nitroglycerin collected was adsorbed to an aerosol. This finding led to the recommendation that the addition of a prefilter to an organic vapor cartridge may be required when using air-purifying respirators to protect workers from some nitroglycerin exposures. PMID:8213486

Cohen, H J

1993-08-01

138

Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic

Andreas F. Haas; Craig E. Nelson; Linda Wegley Kelly; Craig A. Carlson; Forest Rohwer; James J. Leichter; Alex Wyatt; Jennifer E. Smith

2011-01-01

139

Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

Ando, Shin'ichiro; Profumo, Stefano [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Beacom, John F [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rainwater, David, E-mail: ando@tapir.caltech.edu, E-mail: beacom@mps.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: profumo@caltech.edu, E-mail: rain@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

2008-04-15

140

Removal of 4Nonylphenol by Carbonaceous Materials Produced from Cottonseed Shell as Organic By-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of organic by-products has attracted much interest. In this paper, techniques for producing carbonaceous adsorbents from an organic by-product and the application to removal of endocrine disruptors are described. Cottonseed shell as an organic by-product was carbonized at 873 K, and the cottonseed shell char was then activated in a rotary kiln with steam at 1123 K for

Ikuo ABE; Takahiro TABUCHI; Osamu SHINOHARA; Satoshi IWASAKI; Naohito KAWASAKI; Seiki TANADA

141

Influence of organically or conventionally produced wheat on health, performance and mycotoxin residues in tissues and bile of growing pigs.  

PubMed

From 1999-2001 three different varieties of wheat [Contur (susceptible to Fusarium), Batis and Petrus (less susceptible to Fusarium)] were cultivated under organic and conventional conditions in order to determine mycotoxin burden. Soil quality, preceding crop and weather conditions were comparable in the different production systems. The wheat batches were analysed for moulds, and the contents of zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Feeding trials were carried out with growing pigs (n = 96; average initial live weight 22.2 +/- 1.5 kg [mean +/- SD]) to examine a possible influence on the animal performance and on mycotoxin residues. The data recorded were clinical conditions, performance, biochemical and hematological data. Residues of ZEN, alpha- and beta-zearalenol (ZEL) and of DON were determined in bile, liver and muscle after slaughtering. Conventionally cultivated wheat was more frequently contaminated with Fusarium and contained more frequently ZEN and DON in higher concentrations than the organically produced wheat. Hematological and biochemical parameters of pigs fed with organically cultivated diets were not different from those of conventionally fed pigs. Pigs fed with organically produced wheat showed a slightly higher daily weight gain, but a lower carcass yield than the conventionally fed animals. The highest residues of DON and total-ZEN (ZEN + alpha-ZEL + beta-ZEL) were found in bile. Bile samples of organically fed pigs contained lower concentrations of total-ZEN than those of conventionally fed pigs. Altogether, these data suggest that wheat from an organic farming does not have higher mycotoxin-contamination than wheat from the conventional farming system. PMID:16119076

Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Ritzmann, Mathias; Hoffmann, Peter; Dempfle, Leo; Bauer, Johann

2005-06-01

142

Milk production correlates negatively with plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) during the early fetal period in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to establish possible factors affecting plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations during early pregnancy in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses. Blood samples were obtained on days 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 of gestation from 80 lactating cows in two herds carrying live fetuses. Radioimmunoassay systems were used to determine PAG (RIA-497 and RIA-706) and

F. López-Gatius; J. M. Garbayo; P. Santolaria; J Yániz; A. Ayad; N. M. de Sousa; J. F. Beckers

2007-01-01

143

Blood Circulation Laboratory Investigations with Video Are Less Investigative than Instructional Blood Circulation Laboratories with Live Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using…

Hoover, Mildred A.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

144

Probing the plasma membrane organization in living cells by spot variation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

While intrinsic Brownian agitation within a lipid bilayer does homogenize the molecular distribution, the extremely diverse composition of the plasma membrane, in contrast, favors the development of inhomogeneity due to the propensity of such a system to minimize its total free energy. Precisely, deciphering such inhomogeneous organization with appropriate spatiotemporal resolution remains, however, a challenge. In accordance with its ability to accurately measure diffusion parameters, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been developed in association with innovative experimental strategies to monitor modes of molecular lateral confinement within the plasma membrane of living cells. Here, we describe a method, namely spot variation FCS (svFCS), to decipher the dynamics of the plasma membrane organization. The method is based on questioning the relationship between the diffusion time ?(d) and the squared waist of observation w(2). Theoretical models have been developed to predict how geometrical constraints such as the presence of adjacent or isolated domains affect the svFCS observations. These investigations have allowed significant progress in the characterization of cell membrane lateral organization at the suboptical level, and have provided, for instance, compelling evidence for the in vivo existence of raft nanodomains. PMID:23280115

Billaudeau, Cyrille; Mailfert, Sébastien; Trombik, Tomasz; Bertaux, Nicolas; Rouger, Vincent; Hamon, Yannick; He, Hai-Tao; Marguet, Didier

2013-01-01

145

Resolution Doubling in Live, Multicellular Organisms via Multifocal Structured Illumination Microscopy  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate 3D super-resolution in live multicellular organisms using structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Sparse multifocal illumination patterns generated by a digital micromirror device (DMD) let us physically reject out-of-focus light, enabling 3D subdiffractive imaging in samples 8-fold thicker than previously demonstrated with SIM. We imaged a variety of samples at one 2D image per second, at resolutions down to 145 nm laterally and 400 nm axially. In addition to dual-labeled, whole fixed cells, we imaged GFP-labeled microtubules in live transgenic zebrafish embryos at depths greater than 45 ?m. We also captured dynamic changes in the zebrafish lateral line primordium and observed the interactions between myosin IIA and F-actin in cells encapsulated within collagen gels, obtaining two-color 4D super-resolution datasets spanning tens of time points and minutes without apparent phototoxicity. Our method uses commercially available parts and open-source software and is simpler than existing SIM implementations, allowing easy integration with widefield microscopes.

York, Andrew G.; Parekh, Sapun H.; Nogare, Damian Dalle; Fischer, Robert S.; Temprine, Kelsey; Mione, Marina; Chitnis, Ajay B.; Combs, Christian A.; Shroff, Hari

2012-01-01

146

The interplay of biomolecules and water at the origin of the active behavior of living organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the main component of living matter, namely liquid water, is not an ensemble of independent molecules but an ensemble of phase correlated molecules kept in tune by an electromagnetic (e.m) field trapped in the ensemble. This field and the correlated potential govern the interaction among biomolecules suspended in water and are in turn affected by the chemical interactions of molecules. In particular, the phase of the coherent fields appears to play an important role in this dynamics. Recent experiments reported by the Montagnier group seem to corroborate this theory. Some features of the dynamics of human organisms, as reported by psychotherapy, holistic medicine and Eastern traditions, are analyzed in this frame and could find a rationale in this context.

Del Giudice, E.; Stefanini, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Vitiello, G.

2011-12-01

147

An autonomous DNA nanomachine maps spatiotemporal pH changes in a multicellular living organism.  

PubMed

Structural DNA nanotechnology seeks to build synthetic molecular machinery from DNA. DNA nanomachines are artificially designed assemblies that switch between defined conformations in response to an external cue. Though it has proved possible to create DNA machines and rudimentary walkers, the function of such autonomous DNA-based molecular devices has not yet been achieved inside living organisms. Here we demonstrate the operation of a pH-triggered DNA nanomachine inside the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The nanomachine uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer to effectively map spatiotemporal pH changes associated with endocytosis in wild type as well as mutant worms, demonstrating autonomous function within the organismal milieu in a variety of genetic backgrounds. From this first demonstration of the independent functionality of a DNA nanomachine in vivo, we observe that rationally designed DNA-based molecular devices retain their in vitro functionality with quantitative precision. This positions DNA nanodevices as exciting and powerful tools to interrogate complex biological phenomena. PMID:21654640

Surana, Sunaina; Bhat, Jaffar M; Koushika, Sandhya P; Krishnan, Yamuna

2011-06-07

148

Optimizing DNA staining by Hoechst 33342 for assessment of chromatin organization in living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest for applications of fluorescence measurements to studies on many physiological mechanisms in living cells. However, few studies have taken advantage of DNA quantification by fluorometry for dynamic assessment of chromatin organization. This type of approach involves both optimal conditions for DNA staining and the use of several investigation methods such as flow cytometry, image cytometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy and spectral imaging. In this context, this report describes a stoichiometric method for nuclear DNA specific staining, using bisbenzimidazole Hoechst 33342 associated with verapamil, a calcium membrane channel blocker. This method makes it possible to follow variations of nuclear DNA content in cells that are maintained alive.

Paillasson, Sylvain; Robert-Nicoud, Michel; Ronot, Xavier

1995-02-01

149

N-Chlorotaurine, a Long-Lived Oxidant Produced by Human Leukocytes, Inactivates Shiga Toxin of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

N-chlorotaurine (NCT), the main representative of long-lived oxidants produced by granulocytes and monocytes, is known to exert broad-spectrum microbicidal activity. Here we show that NCT directly inactivates Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), used as a model toxin secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Bacterial growth and Stx2 production were both inhibited by 2 mM NCT. The cytotoxic effect of Stx2 on Vero cells was removed by ?5.5 mM NCT. Confocal microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the binding of Stx2 to human kidney glomerular endothelial cells was inhibited, and no NCT-treated Stx2 entered the cytosol. Mass spectrometry displayed oxidation of thio groups and aromatic amino acids of Stx2 by NCT. Therefore, long-lived oxidants may act as powerful tools of innate immunity against soluble virulence factors of pathogens. Moreover, inactivation of virulence factors may contribute to therapeutic success of NCT and novel analogs, which are in development as topical antiinfectives.

Eitzinger, Christian; Ehrlenbach, Silvia; Lindner, Herbert; Kremser, Leopold; Gottardi, Waldemar; Debabov, Dmitri; Anderson, Mark

2012-01-01

150

A synergic simulation-optimization approach for analyzing biomolecular dynamics in living organisms.  

PubMed

A synergic duo simulation-optimization approach was developed and implemented to study protein-substrate dynamics and binding kinetics in living organisms. The forward problem is a system of several coupled nonlinear partial differential equations which, with a given set of kinetics and diffusion parameters, can provide not only the commonly used bleached area-averaged time series in fluorescence microscopy experiments but more informative full biomolecular/drug space-time series and can be successfully used to study dynamics of both Dirac and Gaussian fluorescence-labeled biomacromolecules in vivo. The incomplete Cholesky preconditioner was coupled with the finite difference discretization scheme and an adaptive time-stepping strategy to solve the forward problem. The proposed approach was validated with analytical as well as reference solutions and used to simulate dynamics of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor (GFP-GR) in mouse cancer cell during a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiment. Model analysis indicates that the commonly practiced bleach spot-averaged time series is not an efficient approach to extract physiological information from the fluorescence microscopy protocols. It was recommended that experimental biophysicists should use full space-time series, resulting from experimental protocols, to study dynamics of biomacromolecules and drugs in living organisms. It was also concluded that in parameterization of biological mass transfer processes, setting the norm of the gradient of the penalty function at the solution to zero is not an efficient stopping rule to end the inverse algorithm. Theoreticians should use multi-criteria stopping rules to quantify model parameters by optimization. PMID:21106190

Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush

2010-11-23

151

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2013-01-01

152

Aquaporins are multifunctional water and solute transporters highly divergent in living organisms.  

PubMed

Aquaporins (AQPs) are ubiquitous membrane proteins whose identification, pioneered by Peter Agre's team in the early nineties, provided a molecular basis for transmembrane water transport, which was previously thought to occur only by free diffusion. AQPs are members of the Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) family and often referred to as water channels. In mammals and plants they are present in almost all organs and tissues and their function is mostly associated to water molecule movement. However, recent studies have pointed out a wider range of substrates for these proteins as well as complex regulation levels and pathways. Although their relative abundance in plants and mammals makes it difficult to investigate the role of a particular AQP, the use of knock-out and mutagenesis techniques is now bringing important clues regarding the direct implication of specific AQPs in animal pathologies or plant deficiencies. The present paper gives an overview about AQP structure, function and regulation in a broad range of living organisms. Emphasis will be given on plant AQPs where the high number and diversity of these transport proteins, together with some emerging aspects of their functionalities, make them behave more like multifunctional, highly adapted channels rather than simple water pores. PMID:19327343

Gomes, D; Agasse, A; Thiébaud, P; Delrot, S; Gerós, H; Chaumont, F

2009-03-25

153

Alternative Trade Organization and Subjective Quality of Life: The Case of Latin American Coffee Producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative trade organization (ATO) is one where philosophies of social justice and\\/or environmental well-being preside over mission-based marketing transactions. The primary mission of such organizations is to develop equal partnerships among members of a marketing channel—the producers, retailers, and consumers. The present research uses data from one such ATO, TransFair USA, to examine the impact of Fair Trade marketing

Stephanie Geiger-Oneto; Eric J. Arnould

2011-01-01

154

Organic Acids and Volatile Organic Compounds Produced During Traditional and Starter Culture Fermentation of Bushera, a Ugandan Fermented Cereal Beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum MINF99, Weissella confusa MINF8, Lactobacillus plantarum MINF277, Lactobacillus brevis MINF226, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei MINF98) were used to ferment Bushera during fermentation (96 h). Organic acids and volatile compounds produced during starter and natural fermentation were investigated. Microbial counts, pH, and sugars were also determined. LAB counts increased from 5.87 ±

C. M. B. K. Muyanja; J. A. Narvhus; T. Langsrud

2012-01-01

155

Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Incentives to Increase the Rate of Organ Donations from the Living: A Moral Exploration  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving.

Barilan, Michael Y.

2011-01-01

156

Report on the Organic and Natural Industry: Market Opportunities for Producer and Retail Cooperatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research on the organic and natural industry, and the findings of the retail food co-op and producer cooperative sectors about the challenges and opportunities in this market, point to exciting possibilities that can become realities if these cooperat...

2006-01-01

157

Genome sequence of the cellulosome-producing mesophilic organism Clostridium cellulovorans 743B.  

PubMed

Clostridium cellulovorans 743B was isolated from a wood chip pile and is an anaerobic and mesophilic spore-forming bacterium. This organism degrades native substrates in soft biomass such as corn fiber and rice straw efficiently by producing an extracellular enzyme complex called the cellulosome. Here we report the genome sequence of C. cellulovorans 743B. PMID:19948806

Tamaru, Yutaka; Miyake, Hideo; Kuroda, Kouichi; Nakanishi, Akihito; Kawade, Yujiro; Yamamoto, Kousuke; Uemura, Masaaki; Fujita, Yasuhiro; Doi, Roy H; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2009-11-30

158

Crop and Livestock Production on Beef and Hog Producing Midwestern Organic Farms: 1977 and 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sample of organic farms for this study was drawn from a survey which identified over 250 farmers in the western Corn Belt who do not use standard commercial fertilizers or pesticides and who primarily produce field crops, generally in association with...

G. Shearer D. H. Kohl D. Wanner G. Kuepper S. Sweeney

1979-01-01

159

Evaluation of the Micronutrient Composition of Plant Foods Produced by Organic and Conventional Agricultural Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980–2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar,

Duncan Hunter; Meika Foster; Jennifer O. McArthur; Rachel Ojha; Peter Petocz; Samir Samman

2011-01-01

160

ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC MARKETING DECISIONS FOR ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a business strategy case study of a group of agricultural producers. One aspect of their strategic decision is whether or not to establish a firm to market their organic vegetables jointly. Another aspect of the decision is which distribution channel to pursue. Data for the paper were obtained from multiple sources, including trade journals, academic journals, and

H. Christopher Peterson; Jon C. Phillips

2003-01-01

161

Heavy metal contents of organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples from Kayseri, Turkey.  

PubMed

Organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples bought at organic markets in Kayseri, Turkey have been analyzed for their trace element contents. In the determinations, flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) was used. This pilot study is the first to be performed for organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples from Kayseri, Turkey. The copper, iron, manganese, and zinc concentrations were found to be 1.6-15.5, 10.3-144, 23.0-211, and 23.3-91.6 ?g/g, respectively. The cobalt, lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations in all analyzed organic fruit samples were below the quantification limits of FAAS. SRM 1570A spinach leaves and SRM 1515 apple leaves were used to check the accuracy of the procedure. The results for the dried fruit samples found in this work were compared with the values from some studies from the world. The results found in the presented work may also be useful for future studies about organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples. PMID:22736211

Soylak, Mustafa; Cihan, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Erkan

2012-06-27

162

Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.  

PubMed

The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2011-07-01

163

Destruction of the Biosphere as the Result of Negative Influences of Different Factors on Living Organisms and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Microorganisms, plants and animals play an important role in the ecological balance and in the formation of the climate on\\u000a the planet. Physical, chemical and biological factors can influence living organisms negatively. It is well known that artificially\\u000a created viruses and pathogenic bacteria can cause large epidemics, infecting extensive regions. Genetically modified organisms\\u000a (GMOs), obtained by using of imperfect methods,

Irina Ermakova

164

Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Gallinarum isolated from eggs produced in conventional or organic farms in South Korea.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis in eggs in South Korea, we conducted a microbiological survey of commercially available eggs produced in conventional or organic farms during the period from 2010 to 2012. The contents of 7,000 raw shell eggs (6,000 of conventional and 1,000 of organic origin) were examined to evaluate the extent and type of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. A total of 26 salmonellae (7.4% of all pooled samples) were isolated from 350 homogenized pools, each containing the contents from 20 eggs. An unexpected and particularly surprising finding was that all the Salmonella isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Gallinarum. Salmonella Gallinarum was more common in eggs from organic farms: 10 of 50 egg pools (20.0%) from organic and 16 of 300 egg pools (5.3%) from conventional farms tested positive for Salmonella Gallinarum. However, organic and conventional isolates showed similar antimicrobial susceptibilities. All the isolates and a vaccine strain, SG 9R, which has been widely used in South Korea, were further characterized using the automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) system, DiversiLab, to ascertain the molecular subtypes and to identify differences from the vaccine strain. The rep-PCR identified 2 distinct clusters among the 26 Salmonella Gallinarum isolates with a greater than 96% similarity index. These were clearly differentiated from the vaccine strain, SG 9R, with which there was a less than 86% similarity index. We found there was low genetic heterogeneity among isolates within each cluster and were able to distinguish wild type strains from the live vaccine strain (SG 9R) using the DiversiLab system. PMID:24046429

Lee, Soo-Kyoung; Chon, Jung-Whan; Song, Kwang-Young; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Moon, Jin-San; Seo, Kun-Ho

2013-10-01

165

Imaging mitochondrial organization in living primate oocytes and embryos using multiphoton microscopy.  

PubMed

We employed multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) to image changes in mitochondrial distribution in living rhesus monkey embryos. This method of imaging does not impair development; thus, the same specimen can be visualized multiple times at various developmental stages. Not only does this increase the amount of information that can be gathered on a single specimen but it permits the correlation of early events with subsequent development in the same specimen. Here we demonstrate the utility of MPLSM for determining changes in mitochondrial organization at various developmental stages and show that rhesus zygotes possess a distinct accumulation of mitochondria between the pronuclei prior to syngamy. We present evidence that suggests that this pronuclear accumulation may be positively correlated with development to the blastocyst stage-in the same embryo-thereby illustrating how MPLSM can be used to correlate cellular dynamics of primate oocytes and early embryos with their developmental potential. Understanding the relationship between mitochondrial distribution and the subsequent development of mammalian embryos, particularly primates, will increase our ability to improve embryo culture technologies, including those used for human assisted reproduction. PMID:12807671

Squirrell, J M; Schramm, R D; Paprocki, A M; Wokosin, D L; Bavister, B D

2003-06-01

166

Surfomics: Shaving live organisms for a fast proteomic identification of surface proteins.  

PubMed

Surface proteins play a critical role in the interaction between cells and their environment, as they take part in processes like signaling, adhesion, transport, etc. In pathogenic microorganisms, they can also participate in virulence or cytotoxicity. As these proteins have the highest chances to be recognized by the immune system, they are often the targets for the discovery of new vaccines. In addition, they can serve for the development of serological-based tools to diagnose infectious diseases. First-generation proteomic strategies for the identification of surface proteins rely on the biochemical fractionation and/or enrichment of this group of molecules or organelles containing them. However, in the last years, a novel second-generation approach has been developed, consisting of the digestion of live, intact cells with proteases, so that surface-exposed moieties (i.e. the "surfome" of a cell) are "shaved" and analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Here we review such a strategy, firstly set up and developed in Gram-positive bacteria, and further applied to Gram-negative bacteria, unicellular fungi, and also pluricellular organisms. We also discuss the advantages and inconvenients of the approach, and the still unresolved question about the intriguing presence of proteins predicted as cytoplasmic in the surfomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics. PMID:23624344

Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J

2013-04-26

167

The influence of the pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on living organisms  

SciTech Connect

The authors treated 96 patients with pseudoartroses by means of PEMF with the efficiency of 86%. They also treated 19 patients with decubitus and had improvements in all cases. In 58 PEMF treated asthma patients 80% improved. In 41 patients suffering from angina pectoris 90% reduce the need for nitroglycerine lingualetes. In order to eliminate the influence of the placebo and the sinergy, they prepared some experiments with barely and wheat seeds. All this experiments were performed several times with very similar results: Barley seeds were pretreated by PEMF for 1 hour and then planted into Petri's dish. In the stimulated dish, after 72 hours of germination there were three times more seeds with 6 roots then in the control. The embryos of the stimulated dish were stronger and longer compared to the controls. In the other experiment, fungi inoculated wheat seeds were pretreated for 4 hours by PEMF. After 72 hours of germination in a Petri's dish the disease was inhibited compared to the control dish. From all this they conclude that almost every process in a living organism is affected and might be controlled by PEMF.

Pekaric-Nadj, N.; Lazetic, B.; Sep, D.

1991-03-11

168

Molecular characterization of contaminating infectious anemia virus of chickens in live commercial vaccines produced in the 1990s.  

PubMed

The presence of infectious chicken anemia virus (CAV) was detected in a previous study by nested-PCR as a contaminant in seven commercial vaccines, produced in the 1990s by three different manufacturers, prepared against the most relevant virus etiologies. In order to phylogenetically characterize the genome and compare it to CAV isolates from Brazil and other parts of the world, sequences of approximately 675 bp of the gene encoding the hypervariable region of VP1 protein of three CAV vaccine contaminant strains were studied. The CAV genome in contaminated vaccines showed high similarity (> 98.9%) with the Brazilian BR91/99 and Argentinian ArgA001028 (> 99%) strains. However, the comparison with the Cuxhaven-1 vaccine strain showed a lower identity of between 96.8% and 97.7%, and comparing it with the CAV26P4 vaccine strain showed an identity between 97.2% and 98.2%; both are available in Brazil. Such differences might be relevant for the highly conserved CAV genome. CAV contaminants were positioned in the same genetic group (clusters) with the Brazilian strain BR91/99 and Argentinian strain ArgA001028. Results indicated that the contamination of live vaccines by CAV may have influenced CAV epidemiology in the Brazilian and Argentinian poultry industry. PMID:23678724

Marin, S Y G; Barrios, P R; Rios, R L; Resende, M; Resende, J S; Santos, B M; Martinsa, N R S

2013-03-01

169

Oral immunization of mice with a live recombinant Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strain that produces the cholera toxin B subunit.  

PubMed Central

The 70-kilobase pYV plasmid of Yersinia enterocolitica encodes a set of proteins called Yops that are produced during infection. To use Y. enterocolitica as a live carrier to present the cholera toxin B (CT-B) subunit to the immune system, we constructed an operon fusion between ctxB and the yop51 gene. This operon fusion was either cloned on an RSF1010-derived plasmid or integrated into the pYV plasmid itself. In Y. enterocolitica, both constructions directed the synthesis of free CT-B only under conditions of Yops production, i.e., at 37 degrees C in a medium deprived of Ca2+. Bacteria containing both types of recombinant plasmids were given orally to mice. A serum antibody response against CT-B was detected in both cases. A secretory immunoglobulin A activity specific to CT-B was also observed in the intestinal secretions. According to immunoblot analysis, the serum antibody response was only directed against the polymeric form of the B subunit. The ctxB gene was also inserted in frame within yop51, giving a chimeric Yop51-CT-B protein that was secreted into the surrounding medium. In this case, however, no antibody response was observed after oral inoculation of mice. This lack of response probably results from the inability of the hybrid protein to assemble into the polymeric form of the B subunit. Images

Sory, M P; Hermand, P; Vaerman, J P; Cornelis, G R

1990-01-01

170

A statistical analogy between collapse of solids and death of living organisms: Proposal for a ‘law of life’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this paper we present a statistical analogy between the collapse of solids and living organisms; in particular we deduce a statistical law governing their probability of death. We have derived such a law coupling the widely used Weibull Statistics, developed for describing the distribution of the strength of solids, with a general model for ontogenetic growth recently proposed

Nicola M. Pugno

2007-01-01

171

Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.  

PubMed

Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h?¹ dm?²), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h?¹) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L?¹ h?¹ dm?²). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial dynamics and biogeochemical parameters (i.e., DOC and oxygen availability, bacterial abundance and metabolism) in coral reef communities. PMID:22125645

Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

2011-11-18

172

Value-added granulated organic fertilizer and process for producing the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A value-added granulated organic fertilizer produced from poultry litter and biosolids using agglomeration techniques with a pin mixer. The granulated organic fertilizer includes granules biosolids, a nitrification inhibitor, such as dicyandiamide, and a binding agent, such as lignosulfonate, urea formaldehyde, or water. The nitrogen concentration of the granulated organic fertilizer is increased by being fortified with urea. The poultry litter and biosolids formulated into the granulated organic fertilizer aid in flowability, storage, and spreading, while value-added plant nutrient ingredients provide an environmentally safer fertilizer than fresh poultry litter, municipal biosolids and/or many commercially available products commonly used in urban and agricultural systems. The binding agents change the fertilizer granule water soluble phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations and reduce fines and dust. The nitrification inhibitor reduces nitrogen losses via leaching and denitrification, while biosolids decrease water soluble and total phosphorus concentrations in runoff water for environmental protection.

2011-11-22

173

Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils.  

PubMed

Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ? 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms. PMID:21131514

Orr, Caroline H; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M; Cummings, Stephen P

2010-12-03

174

Diversity and Activity of Free-Living Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Total Bacteria in Organic and Conventionally Managed Soils ? †  

PubMed Central

Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ? 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms.

Orr, Caroline H.; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M.; Cummings, Stephen P.

2011-01-01

175

Hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured light-emitting diodes produced using photocurable polymer blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the form of a one-dimensional array of microstripes emitting at 370 nm were fabricated from AlInGaN inorganic semiconductor. These microlight sources were then used to ``directly write'' microstructures in photocurable blends of organic light-emitting polymers (LEPs) spin coated onto the LED surface. In this way, thin microstripes of LEP as narrow as 50 ?m have been fabricated and integrated with the micro-LEDs. These ``self-aligned'' polymer microstripes serve as wavelength downconverters under further excitation by the UV micro-LEDs, producing hybrid inorganic/organic microstructured LEDs.

Gu, E.; Zhang, H. X.; Sun, H. D.; Dawson, M. D.; Mackintosh, A. R.; Kuehne, A. J. C.; Pethrick, R. A.; Belton, C.; Bradley, D. D. C.

2007-01-01

176

Levels and profiles of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants in surface soils from Shanxi province, China.  

PubMed

Six species of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutions comprised of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene in soils collected from Shanxi province, China were determined. The sum toxic equivalent ranged from 0.14 to 2.20 with an average of 0.94 pg TEQ/g. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans contributed the most toxic proportion to the total toxic equivalent. CB-126 was the most toxic contributor to polychlorinated biphenyls. CN66/67 and CN73 are the dominant toxic congeners to polychlorinated naphthalenes. From the patterns, it was speculated that thermal related industries were possible sources of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutions. PMID:21442208

Liu, G R; Cai, M W; Zheng, M H; Nie, Z Q; Liu, W B; Lv, P; Su, G J; Gao, L R; Xiao, K

2011-03-27

177

CARS microscopy for the monitoring of fat deposition mechanisms in a living organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce near-infrared Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy as a method for the monitoring of fat deposition in a living organism by directly probing the CH2 vibration of the lipids without the need for staining or labeling. This study nicely brings forward all the advantages of the technique: deep probe depth, low excitation powers, high 3-dimensional resolution, and visualization without the interference of exogenous label molecules, or fixation and staining procedures. Differences in fat deposition during the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were evaluated quantitatively from the CARS microscopy images, showing that the technique can be used to study mechanisms that regulate lipid storage. Beside the wild type nematode, the feeding-deficient mutant pha-3 was studied. It was shown that the embryonal accumulation of energy stores is enough for the development of a full-sized pre-adult larva, being possible also for the mutant. However, the volume density of lipid stores at the fourth and last pre-adult development stage seems to determine its adult body size. Whereas the wild type larva maintains its size when becoming adult, though at the cost of reduced lipid density, the feeding deficient mutant instead has to reduce its body size in order to reach the same volume density of lipid stores. Both strains start off their adult life with a volume fraction of lipid stores corresponding to 6-7%; the wild type with a radius of 24+/-2 µm and the pha-3 mutant with a significantly smaller radius of 16+/-3 ?m.

Enejder, Annika; Hellerer, Thomas; Hillertz, Per; Brackmann, Christian; Axäng, Claes; Pilon, Marc

2006-03-01

178

Commercial living non-related organ transplantation: a viewpoint from a developed country  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developed countries, the use of living unrelated donors is restricted to purely altruistic donors who have a close and emotional relationship with the recipients. By law, commercial transplantation is illegal. Increasing shortness of donors, the excellent results of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors as well as the very low risk for the donor has been used

Peter F. Hoyer

2006-01-01

179

Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization  

SciTech Connect

Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

Silvey, Andrea B. [Quality Improvement, Health Services Advisory Group, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Warrick, Louise H. [Healthcare Consultant, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: lwarrick@cox.net

2008-05-01

180

Fermentative metabolism to produce hydrogen gas and organic compounds in a cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non nitrogen-fixing and filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis NIES-46 produced hydrogen gas, ethanol, and low molecular organic acids auto-fermentatively under dark and anaerobic conditions. The fermentative productivity was enhanced by incubating the cyanobacterium under nitrogen-starved conditions. Cell-free extracts of the cyanobacterium catalyzed hydrogen production by the addition of acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate. Pyruvate-degrading and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were observed in

Katsuhiro Aoyama; Ieaki Uemura; Jun Miyake; Yasuo Asada

1997-01-01

181

Characterization and treatment of dissolved organic matter from oilfield produced waters.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been studied intensively in streams, lakes and oceans due to its role in the global carbon cycle and because it is a precursor of carcinogenic disinfection by-products in drinking water; however, relatively little research has been conducted on DOM in oilfield produced waters. In this study, recovery of DOM from two oilfield produced waters was relatively low (~34%), possibly due to the presence of high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A van Krevelen diagram of the extracted DOM suggested the presence of high concentrations of lipids, lignin, and proteins, but low concentrations of condensed hydrocarbons. Most of the compounds in the oilfield DOM contained sulfur in their structures. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated the presence of methyl groups, amides, carboxylic acids, and aromatic compounds, which is in agreement with results of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) analysis. Qualitatively, DOM in oilfield produced waters is similar to that reported in oceans and freshwater, except that it contains much more sulfur and is less aromatic. Treatment studies conducted in a fluidized bed reactor suggested that volatilization of organics may be a more important mechanism of DOM removal than microbial degradation. PMID:22459974

Wang, Xiaojing; Goual, Lamia; Colberg, Patricia J S

2012-03-07

182

Beta-decay half-lives of neutron rich Cu and Ni isotopes produced by thermal fission of (sup 235)U and (sup 239)Pu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The half-lives of very neutron rich isotopes of Ni and Cu have been measured. The isotopes are produced in very asymmetric thermal fission of (sup 235)U and (sup 239)Pu at the I.L.L. high flux reactor. They are separated by means of the Lohengrin spectrom...

M. Bernas J. L. Sida J. P. Bocquet H. Faust R. Brissot

1989-01-01

183

Lively Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2002-01-01

184

Signing cards, saving lives: an evaluation of the worksite organ donation promotion project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desperate need for organ donors in the United States could be filled if every person eligible became an organ donor. Unfortunately, few organ donation campaigns exist, and fewer still have been evaluated empirically. This study has two objectives: to describe a worksite organ donation campaign and test campaign effects, and to test the Model of Behavioral Willingness to Donate

Susan Morgan; Jenny Miller; Lily Arasaratnam

2002-01-01

185

Exchange of organic radicals with organo-cobalt complexes formed in the living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate.  

PubMed

Exchange of organic radicals between solution and organo-cobalt complexes is experimentally observed and the reaction pathway is probed through DFT calculations. Cyanoisopropyl radicals from AIBN (2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile) enter solutions of cobalt(II) tetramesityl porphyrin ((TMP)Co(II)*, 1) and vinyl acetate (VAc) in benzene and react to produce transient hydride (TMP)Co-H and radicals (*CH(OAc)CH2C(CH3)2CN (R1*)) that proceed on to form organo-cobalt complexes (TMP)Co-CH(OAc)CH3 (4, Co-R2) and (TMP)Co-CH(OAc)CH2C(CH3)2CN (3, Co-R1), respectively. Rate constants for cyanoisopropyl radical addition with vinyl acetate and hydrogen atom transfer to (TMP)Co(II)* are reported through kinetic studies for the formation and transformation of organo-cobalt species in this system. Rate constants for near-degenerate exchanges of radicals in solution with organo-cobalt complexes are deduced from (1)H NMR studies and kinetic modeling. DFT computations revealed formation of an unsymmetrical adduct of (TMP)Co-CH(OAc)CH3 (4) with *CH(OAc)CH3 (R2*) and support an associative pathway for radical interchange through a three-centered three-electron transition state [R...Co...R]. Associative radical interchange of the latent radical groups in organo-cobalt porphyrin complexes with freely diffusing radicals in solution that is observed in this system provides a pathway for mediation of living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate. PMID:18781751

Li, Shan; de Bruin, Bas; Peng, Chi-How; Fryd, Michael; Wayland, Bradford B

2008-09-10

186

Living-related liver transplantation in children: The ‘Parisian’ strategy to safely increase organ availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the authors was to report their experience with living related liver transplantation (LRLT) in children, particularly focusing on the safety of the two-center “Parisian’ strategy.Methods: The records of donors and recipients of 26 pediatric living-related donor liver transplantations performed between November 1994 and March 1998 were reviewed retrospectively. Donors were assessed 1 year after transplantation for

Y Révillon; J. L Michel; F Lacaille; F Sauvat; O Farges; J Belghiti; A Rengeval; P Jouvet; N Sayegh; S Sarnacki; D Jan

1999-01-01

187

Public events and the organization of autobiographical memory: An overview of the living?in?history project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we summarize a cross?national research programme, the Living?in?History Project, investigating the impact of war, terrorism and natural disaster on the organization of autobiographical memory. More specifically, the aims of this project were: (a) to develop a method for assessing the impact of public events on autobiographical memory; (b) to determine whether there are systemic group differences in

Norman R. Brown; Peter J. Lee

2010-01-01

188

Multidrug-resistant organisms in a community living facility: tracking patient interactions and time spent in common areas.  

PubMed

Contact precautions in community living facilities (CLF) are used to reduce the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). However, this policy does not address the contamination of shared spaces, devices (eg, wheelchairs), and interactions with other patients. Using a real-time surveillance system, this study examines the time MDRO-positive patients spend interacting with others in communal areas. The findings from this study may be used to tailor MDRO policies and practices to the specific needs of CLF. PMID:22245245

Bowen, Mary Elizabeth; Craighead, Jeffrey D; Klanchar, S Angelina; Nieves-Garcia, Veronica

2012-01-13

189

A statistical analogy between collapse of solids and death of living organisms: proposal for a 'law of life'.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a statistical analogy between the collapse of solids and living organisms; in particular we deduce a statistical law governing their probability of death. We have derived such a law coupling the widely used Weibull Statistics, developed for describing the distribution of the strength of solids, with a general model for ontogenetic growth recently proposed in literature. The main idea presented in this paper is that cracks can propagate in solids and cause their failure as sick cells in living organisms can cause their death. Making a rough analogy, living organisms are found to behave as "growing" mechanical components under cyclic, i.e., fatigue, loadings and composed by a dynamic evolutionary material that, as an ineluctable fate, deteriorates. The implications on biological scaling laws are discussed. As an example, we apply such a Dynamic Weibull Statistics to large data collections on human deaths due to cancer of various types recorded in Italy: a significant agreement is observed. PMID:17331664

Pugno, Nicola M

2007-02-28

190

Implementation intention versus monetary incentive comparing the effects of interventions to promote the purchase of organically produced food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present field experiment investigates the effects of three interventions on the enactment of the goal intention to test organically produced food offered by a local bio-shop. Study participants were 320 German University students who normally did not purchase organically produced food. The three interventions consist in a monetary incentive, the stimulation to form a specific plan when to act

Sebastian Bamberg

2002-01-01

191

Systematic Position and Variation of the Organism Producing Bruneomycin an Antitumor Antibiotic (Sistematicheskoe Polozhenie i Iamenchivost Produtsenta Protivoopukhlovogo Antibiotika Bruneomitsina).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The antibiotic bruneomycin, close to streptomycin, has been separated from the cultural solution of the strain 471/63. This organism producing the antibiotic is a variety of Act. albus and has been named Act. albus var. bruneomycin. The organism producing...

E. S. Kudrina O. L. Olkhovatova L. I. Muraveva G. G. Gauze

1971-01-01

192

Molecular Crowding of Collagen: A Pathway to Produce Highly-Organized Collagenous Structures  

PubMed Central

Collagen in vertebrate animals is often arranged in alternating lamellae or in bundles of aligned fibrils which are designed to withstand in vivo mechanical loads. The formation of these organized structures is thought to result from a complex, large-area integration of individual cell motion and locally-controlled synthesis of fibrillar arrays via cell-surface fibripositors (direct matrix printing). The difficulty of reproducing such a process in vitro has prevented tissue engineers from constructing clinically useful load-bearing connective tissue directly from collagen. However, we and others have taken the view that long-range organizational information is potentially encoded into the structure of the collagen molecule itself, allowing the control of fibril organization to extend far from cell (or bounding) surfaces. We here demonstrate a simple, fast, cell-free method capable of producing highly-organized, anistropic collagen fibrillar lamellae de novo which persist over relatively long-distances (tens to hundreds of microns). Our approach to nanoscale organizational control takes advantage of the intrinsic physiochemical properties of collagen molecules by inducing collagen association through molecular crowding and geometric confinement. To mimic biological tissues which comprise planar, aligned collagen lamellae (e.g. cornea, lamellar bone or annulus fibrosus), type I collagen was confined to a thin, planar geometry, concentrated through molecular crowding and polymerized. The resulting fibrillar lamellae show a striking resemblance to native load-bearing lamellae in that the fibrils are small, generally aligned in the plane of the confining space and change direction en masse throughout the thickness of the construct. The process of organizational control is consistent with embryonic development where the bounded planar cell sheets produced by fibroblasts suggest a similar confinement/concentration strategy. Such a simple approach to nanoscale organizational control of structure not only makes de novo tissue engineering a possibility, but also suggests a clearer pathway to organization for fibroblasts than direct matrix printing.

Saeidi, Nima; Karmelek, Kathryn N.; Paten, Jeffrey. A; Zareian, Ramin; DiMasi, Elaine

2013-01-01

193

Molecular crowding of collagen: a pathway to produce highly-organized collagenous structures.  

PubMed

Collagen in vertebrate animals is often arranged in alternating lamellae or in bundles of aligned fibrils which are designed to withstand in vivo mechanical loads. The formation of these organized structures is thought to result from a complex, large-area integration of individual cell motion and locally-controlled synthesis of fibrillar arrays via cell-surface fibripositors (direct matrix printing). The difficulty of reproducing such a process in vitro has prevented tissue engineers from constructing clinically useful load-bearing connective tissue directly from collagen. However, we and others have taken the view that long-range organizational information is potentially encoded into the structure of the collagen molecule itself, allowing the control of fibril organization to extend far from cell (or bounding) surfaces. We here demonstrate a simple, fast, cell-free method capable of producing highly-organized, anistropic collagen fibrillar lamellae de novo which persist over relatively long-distances (tens to hundreds of microns). Our approach to nanoscale organizational control takes advantage of the intrinsic physiochemical properties of collagen molecules by inducing collagen association through molecular crowding and geometric confinement. To mimic biological tissues which comprise planar, aligned collagen lamellae (e.g. cornea, lamellar bone or annulus fibrosus), type I collagen was confined to a thin, planar geometry, concentrated through molecular crowding and polymerized. The resulting fibrillar lamellae show a striking resemblance to native load-bearing lamellae in that the fibrils are small, generally aligned in the plane of the confining space and change direction en masse throughout the thickness of the construct. The process of organizational control is consistent with embryonic development where the bounded planar cell sheets produced by fibroblasts suggest a similar confinement/concentration strategy. Such a simple approach to nanoscale organizational control of structure not only makes de novo tissue engineering a possibility, but also suggests a clearer pathway to organization for fibroblasts than direct matrix printing. PMID:22846420

Saeidi, Nima; Karmelek, Kathryn P; Paten, Jeffrey A; Zareian, Ramin; DiMasi, Elaine; Ruberti, Jeffrey W

2012-07-29

194

Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for CBNG producers, and no previous studies of organic compounds in CBNG produced water have been published. Organic compounds identified in the produced water samples included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, various non-aromatic compounds, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are probably coal-derived. PAHs represented the group of organic compounds most commonly observed. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged up to 23 ??g/L. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 18 to <0.01 ??g/L. Temporal variability of organic compound concentrations was documented, as two wells with relatively high organic compound contents in produced water in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002. In many areas, including the PRB, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in produced water are also likely present in drinking water supplied from wells in the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are potentially toxic, but at the levels measured in these samples are unlikely to have acute health effects. The human health effects of low-level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water are currently unknown. Continuing studies will evaluate possible toxic effects from low level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water supplies.

Orem, W. H.; Tatu, C. A.; Lerch, H. E.; Rice, C. A.; Bartos, T. T.; Bates, A. L.; Tewalt, S.; Corum, M. D.

2007-01-01

195

Shielding with Martian snow: suitable temperature and water vapor for possible living organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic favorable conditions on Mars may exist at the Polar Regions during local spring, when elevated temperature and water ice on the surface is present. Based on our previous works, ideal microhabitats could be present at the Dark Dune Spots, where thin H2 O and the topmost mineral layer provide shielding against UV radiation. Here we outline two recently implemented new elements of our model. 1. A heat insulator layer may form inside wintertime H2 O frost, if a fraction of it accumulated as snowflakes, as Phoenix lander observed it. In springtime H2 O molecules sublime away at the "warmest" part of the snow layer: at the bottom where insolation heated grains are present. These vapor molecules diffuse through the snow and freeze at the coldest upper part. This process enlarges vapor filled voids at the bottom, and produces a closed frost layer above, serving as heat insulator and maintaining elevated vapor concentration below. 2. Another new element is to decrease the long-term damage against solar particle events and galactic cosmic rays. This ionizing radiation could sterilize the upper meter of the Martian surface in long term, but organisms with periodic biogenic activity could repair the damage, except if very long inactive phases separate the active periods. Because of the climatic changes on Mars, the distribution of ice coverage at the Polar Region changes, and may result periods when all year long water ice layer exists. During this case phases with photosynthetic activity are missing, but the accumulated ice on the surface lowers the cumulative radiation damage.

Horvath, Andras; Berczi, Szaniszlo; Kereszturi, Akos; Pocs, Tamas; Sik, Andras; Szathmary, Eors

196

Short-lived organic trace gases in the UT/LS: Results from recent field campaigns. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research campaigns in the tropics (TC-4 and AVE missions) and in the extra-tropics (START08) have included the measurement of trace gases from whole air sampling on the NASA WB-57 or NSF Gulfstream V aircraft. Measurements of a range of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, organic nitrates, and sulfur species were made during these missions to examine the role of short-lived organic gases in the UT/LS. The trace gas composition of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region depends on emission sources, transport pathways, mixing rates and photochemical processing time. Because surface emissions include gases with a range of chemical lifetimes, and because different source emissions (e.g. marine boundary layer, anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning) can have different chemical signatures, the composition of the organic trace gases that are found in the UT/LS region have the potential to provide diagnostic information on air mass sources and transport time scales. Also, measurement of short-lived organic halogen gases in the UT/LS during these missions provides data to define the reactive halogen budget and the chemical boundary conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. This presentation will highlight different aspects of these measurements that deal with transport pathways, transport rates, and halogen budgets.

Atlas, E. L.; Pan, L.; Schauffler, S.; Bowman, K. P.; Blake, D. R.; Meinardi, S.; Stone, D.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.

2009-12-01

197

Distribution of uranium in human organs of an urban Indian population and its relationship with clearance half-lives  

SciTech Connect

This organ burdens of uranium were estimated for an urban Indian (Bombay) population living in a normal background environment, using the technique of neutron activation analysis, in combination with post-irradiation chemical separation. The total organ burdens were: skeleton > muscle > soft tissue > lungs > kidney > liver > heart. A comparison was made between the observed organ burdens of uranium for skeleton, kidney, and muscle with those obtained by applying the metabolic model of uranium as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to its daily intake by urban population. The observed organ burdens for kidney and muscle were found to be 4 and 70 times higher than the derived burden values; however, the two estimates were similar in the case of skeleton. This observation indicated that the clearance half-lives for uranium present in kidney and muscle tissue are likely to be longer than those reported by ICRP. For skeleton, however, the clearance half-life reported by the ICRP appeared to be reasonable. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

Dang, H.S.; Pullat, V.R.; Sharma, R.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

1995-03-01

198

The Functional Composition of Living Machines as a Design Principle for Artificial Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

How similar are the engineering principles of artificial and natural machines? One way to approach this question is to compare in detail the basic functional components of living cells and human-made machines. Here, we provide some basic material for such a comparison, based on the analysis of functions for a few thousand protein molecules, the most versatile functional components of

Christos A. Ouzounis; Alfonso Valencia; Javier Tamames; Peer Bork; Chris Sander

1995-01-01

199

Organics Produced by Irradiation of Frozen and Liquid HCN Solutions: Implications for Chemical Evolution Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), an important precursor of organic compounds, is widely present in extraterrestrial environments. HCN is also readily synthesized in prebiotic simulation experiments. To gain insight into the radiation chemistry of one of the most important and highly versatile constituents of cometary ices, we examined the behavior of over-irradiated frozen and liquid HCN solutions under ionizing radiation. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at a dose range from 0 up to 419 kGy. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to follow the process. The analyses confirmed that gamma-ray irradiation of liquid HCN solutions generates several organic products. Many of them are essential to life; we verified the presence of carboxylic acids (some of them members of the Krebs cycle) as well as free amino acids and urea. These are the first studies to reveal the presence of these compounds in experiments performed at low temperatures and bulk irradiation. Organic material was produced even at low temperatures and low radiation doses. This work strongly supports the presumption that, as a parent molecule, HCN played a central essential role in the process of chemical evolution on early Earth, comets, and other extraterrestrial environments.

Colín-García, M.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

2009-04-01

200

Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite organic/inorganic hybrid materials using living cationic polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel chlorosilyl functional initiators have been prepared and applied for the first time in the living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). Well-defined polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying mono-, di-, and trichlorosilyl head-group, and a tert-chloro end-group were synthesized using newly designed silyl-functional initiators in conjunction with TiCl4 in Hex:MeCl (60:40, v:v) at -80°C. End-group analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy verified the product structure and the survival of the Si-Cl head-groups during the polymerization. The chlorosilyl functional initiators and chlorosilyl functional PIBs have been employed for the synthesis of PIB brushes on planar silicate substrates by the "grafting from" and "grafting to" techniques. Structurally well-defined polymer/inorganic nanocomposites were prepared by surface-initiated living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). The living cationic polymerization of IB was initiated from initiators self-assembled on the surface of silica nanoparticles in the presence of additional soluble "free initiator" with TiCl4 in hexanes/CH3Cl (60/40, v/v) at -80°C. The polymerization displayed the diagnostic criteria for living cationic polymerization and provided densely grafted polymers of controlled molecular weight with an approximate graft density of 3.3 chains/nm 2. The surface-initiated polymerization of IB without added "free initiator" also yielded grafted polymer chains with good molecular weight control and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/M n). A series of novel hybrid poly(styryl-POSS), poly(isobutylene- b-(styryl-POSS)), and poly(isobutylene-b-(styryl-POSS)- b-isobutylene) are synthesized and characterized. Living cationic polymerization of styryl-POSS macromer was carried out using the 1-chloro-1-(4-methyphenyl)ethane (p-MeStCl)/TiCl4/MeChx:CH3Cl (60:40, v:v)/-80°C system in the presence of DTBP. Using these conditions, we have synthesized AB diblock, and ABA linear triblock copolymers containing polyisobutylene (PIB)-based rubbery mid block (B) with amorphous glassy poly(styryl-POSS) end blocks (A) by living cationic polymerization using sequential monomer addition. Well-defined PIB-b-P(styryl-POSS) and PIB- b-P(styryl-POSS)-b-PIB have been successfully prepared. The styryl-POSS based hybrid polymers were characterized by thermogravimetry and GPC measurements. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Kim, Iljin

201

Occurrence of type A trichothecenes in conventionally and organically produced oats and oat products.  

PubMed

Among cereals, oats are known to be very frequently contaminated with type A trichothecenes and so they can play a major role in the exposition of the consumer to these mycotoxins. Seventy representative oat samples of both conventional and organic production were drawn at mills and at wholesale stage according to Commissions Regulation (EC) No 401/2006 and analyzed for nine type A trichothecenes by LC-MS/MS. High contamination rates were found for most of the toxins in conventional as well as in organic products (e. g. 100% for T-2 toxin or 99% for HT-2 toxin). The mean concentration of T-2/HT-2 (sum of the toxins) was 17 +/- 18 microg/kg (mean +/- SD) in all samples, 27 +/- 21 microg/kg in conventional, and 7.6 +/- 4.6 microg/kg in organic products, respectively. The highest T-2/HT-2 level has been determined in conventionally produced oat flakes (85 microg/kg). The mean level of T-2 tetraol (9.5 +/- 7.7 microg/kg) in all samples was found to be even higher than that of T-2 (5.1 +/- 6.0 microg/kg), whereas levels of T-2 triol, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol were considerably lower. For oats and oat products from organic farming contamination levels of T-2, HT-2, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, and neosolaniol were significantly lower. The results are discussed with respect to possible health risks for the consumer. PMID:18030660

Gottschalk, Christoph; Barthel, Jörg; Engelhardt, Gabriele; Bauer, Johann; Meyer, Karsten

2007-12-01

202

Search for stopped long-lived particles produced in pp collisions at sqrt {s} = {{7TeV}}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search has been performed for long-lived particles that have stopped in the CMS detector, during 7 TeV proton-proton operations of the CERN LHC. The existence of such particles could be inferred from observation of their decays when there were no proton-proton collisions in the CMS detector, namely during gaps between LHC beam crossings. Using a data set in which CMS recorded an integrated luminosity of 4.0 fb-1, and a search interval corresponding to 246 hours of trigger live time, 12 events are observed, with a mean background prediction of 8.6 ± 2.4 events. Limits are presented at 95% confidence level on long-lived gluino and stop production, over 13 orders of magnitude of particle lifetime. Assuming the "cloud model" of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass below 640 GeV and a stop with mass below 340 GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 10 ?s and 1000 s.

Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, S.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.

2012-08-01

203

The Role of Religious and Social Organizations in the Lives of Disadvantaged Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether participation in religious or other social organizations can help offset the negative effects of growing up in a disadvantaged environment. Using the National Survey of Families and Households, we collect measures of disadvantage as well as parental involvement with religious and other social organizations when the youth were ages 3 to 19 and we observe their

Rajeev Dehejia; Thomas DeLeiere; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Joshua Mitchell

2007-01-01

204

A Graphical Journey of Innovative Organic Architectures that Have Improved Our Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new free graphical teaching tool that highlights the beautiful organic architectures of the top selling pharmaceuticals is detailed on two posters. In addition to the multitude of teaching and data-mining opportunities these posters offer, they were also created to emphasize the central role organic chemists play in the development of new…

McGrath, Nicholas A.; Brichacek, Matthew; Njardarson, Jon T.

2010-01-01

205

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,â or âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),â or that...

2013-01-01

206

Modulation of volatile organic compound formation in the Mycodiesel-producing endophyte Hypoxylon sp. CI-4.  

PubMed

An endophytic Hypoxylon sp. (strain CI-4) producing a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,8-cineole, 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene and cyclohexane, 1,2,4-tris(methylene), was selected as a candidate for the modulation of VOC production. This was done in order to learn if the production of these and other VOCs can be affected by using agents that may modulate the epigenetics of the fungus. Many of the VOCs made by this organism are of interest because of their high energy densities and thus the potential they might have as Mycodiesel fuels. Strain CI-4 was exposed to the epigenetic modulators suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a histone deacetylase) and 5-azacytidine (AZA, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor). After these treatments the organism displayed striking cultural changes, including variations in pigmentation, growth rates and odour, in addition to significant differences in the bioactivities of the VOCs. The resulting variants were designated CI4-B, CI4-AZA and CI4-SAHA. GC/MS analyses of the VOCs produced by the variants showed considerable variation, with the emergence of several compounds not previously observed in the wild-type, particularly an array of tentatively identified terpenes such as ?-thujene, sabinene, ?-terpinene, ?-terpinolene and ?-selinene, in addition to several primary and secondary alkanes, alkenes, organic acids and derivatives of benzene. Proton transfer reaction mass spectroscopic analyses showed a marked increase in the ratio of ethanol (mass 47) to the total mass of all other ionizable VOCs, from ~0.6 in the untreated strain CI-4 to ~0.8 in CI-4 grown in the presence of AZA. Strain CI4-B was created by exposure of the fungus to 100 µM SAHA; upon removal of the epigenetic modulator from the culture medium, it did not revert to the wild-type phenotype. Results of this study have implications for understanding why there may be a wide range of VOCs found in various isolates of this fungus in nature. PMID:22096148

Ul-Hassan, Syed Riyaz; Strobel, Gary A; Booth, Eric; Knighton, Berk; Floerchinger, Cody; Sears, Joe

2011-11-17

207

Microbiologically produced carboxylic acids used as building blocks in organic synthesis.  

PubMed

Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building blocks. Thereby, our biotechnological goal was the development of process fundamentals regarding the variable use of renewable raw materials, the development of a multi purpose bioreactor and application of a pilot plant with standard equipment for organic acid production to minimize the technological effort. Furthermore the development of new product isolation procedures, with the aim of direct product recovery, capture of products or single step operation, was necessary. The application of robust and approved microorganisms, also genetically modified, capable of using a wide range of substrates as well as producing a large spectrum of products, was of special importance. Microbiologically produced acids, like 2-oxo-glutaric acid and 2-oxo-D-gluconic acid, are useful educts for the chemical synthesis of hydrophilic triazines, spiro-connected heterocycles, benzotriazines, and pyranoic amino acids. The chiral intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, (2R,3S)-isocitric acid, is another promising compound. For the first time our process provides large quantities of enantiopure trimethyl (2R,3S)-isocitrate which was used in subsequent chemical transformations to provide new chiral entities for further usage in total synthesis and pharmaceutical research.Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building blocks. Thereby, our biotechnological goal was the development of process fundamentals regarding the variable use of renewable raw materials, the development of a multi purpose bioreactor and application of a pilot plant with standard equipment for organic acid production to minimize the technological effort. Furthermore the development of new product isolation procedures, with the aim of direct product recovery, capture of products or single step operation, was necessary. The application of robust and approved microorganisms, also genetically modified, capable of using a wide range of substrates as well as producing a large spectrum of products, was of special importance. Microbiologically produced acids, like 2-oxo-glutaric acid and 2-oxo-D-gluconic acid, are useful educts for the chemical synthesis of hydrophilic triazines, spiro-connected heterocycles, benzotriazines, and pyranoic amino acids. The chiral intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, (2R,3S)-isocitric acid, is another promising compound. For the first time our process provides large quantities of enantiopure trimethyl (2R,3S)-isocitrate which was used in subsequent chemical transformations to provide new chiral entities for further usage in total synthesis and pharmaceutical research. PMID:23080261

Aurich, Andreas; Specht, Robert; Müller, Roland A; Stottmeister, Ulrich; Yovkova, Venelina; Otto, Christina; Holz, Martina; Barth, Gerold; Heretsch, Philipp; Thomas, Franziska A; Sicker, Dieter; Giannis, Athanassios

2012-01-01

208

Non-conventional measurement techniques for the determination of some long-lived radionuclides produced ion nuclear fuel: Literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a literature survey of nonradiometric analytical techniques for the determination of long lived radionuclides are described. The methods which were considered are accelerator mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis was commonly used for the determination of I-129 and Np-237 in environmental samples. Inductively coupled mass spectrometry seems likely to become the method of choice for the determination of Tc-99, Np-237, and Pu isotopes. The methods are discussed and the chemical separation methods are described.

Rosenberg, R. J.

1992-04-01

209

Organized living: formation mechanisms and functions of plasma membrane domains in yeast.  

PubMed

Plasma membrane proteins and lipids organize into lateral domains of specific composition. Domain formation is achieved by a combination of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions, membrane-binding protein scaffolds and protein fences. The resulting domains function in membrane protein turnover and homeostasis, as well as in cell signaling. We review the mechanisms generating plasma membrane domains and the functional consequences of this organization, focusing on recent findings from research on the yeast model system. PMID:22245053

Zió?kowska, Natasza E; Christiano, Romain; Walther, Tobias C

2012-01-12

210

Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite organic\\/inorganic hybrid materials using living cationic polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of novel chlorosilyl functional initiators have been prepared and applied for the first time in the living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). Well-defined polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying mono-, di-, and trichlorosilyl head-group, and a tert-chloro end-group were synthesized using newly designed silyl-functional initiators in conjunction with TiCl4 in Hex:MeCl (60:40, v:v) at -80°C. End-group analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy

Iljin Kim

2004-01-01

211

Usefulness of Organic Acid Produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on Neutralization of Alkaline Wastewater  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

2012-01-01

212

Usefulness of organic acid produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on neutralization of alkaline wastewater.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry. PMID:22666107

Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

2012-04-30

213

Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to Pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms.  

PubMed

Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum vN. The antimicrobial substance produced by this bacterium was designated vN-1 and exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against many important pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Erwinia amylovova. vN-1 was determined to be thermostable, insensitive to pH values ranging from 2.0 to 8.0, resistant to various organic solvents and to enzymatic inactivation. The inhibition kinetics displayed a bactericidal mode of action. This study revealed an antimicrobial substance with low molecular mass of less than 1 kDa as determined by ultrafiltration and having features not previously reported for LAB isolated from chicken intestines. The detection of this antimicrobial substance addresses an important aspect of biotechnological control agents of spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp. and promises the possibility for preservation of refrigerated poultry meat. Practical Application:? The newly characterized antimicrobial substance and designated as vN-1 may have the potential to be used in food preservation. PMID:21913924

Hatew, Bayissa; Delessa, Tenagne; Zakin, Vered; Gollop, Natan

2011-09-13

214

A study on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by tropical ascomycetous yeasts.  

PubMed

As a part of a program aiming at the selection of strains which might be of interest as sources of natural flavouring molecules, the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by 98 ascomycetous yeast strains (representative of 40 species belonging to 12 genera) isolated from tropical environments was investigated. Volatiles produced were sampled by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the compounds were analysed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The VOCs produced were found to be alcohols (amyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol), aldehydes (2-methyl-2-hexenal and 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-2-hexenal) and esters (ethyl isobutyrate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl isovalerate, isoamyl propionate and phenylmethyl acetate). Differences in VOC profiles were used to cluster the yeast strains into 25 VOC phenotypes. The different frequency of VOC phenotypes in three specific habitats was correlated to the divergent environmental conditions, possibly affecting the selection of specific yeasts. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study reveals the potentiality of ascomycetous yeasts isolated from tropical environments as a promising source of VOCs relevant in food and fragrance industry. PMID:14574107

Buzzini, Pietro; Martini, Alessandro; Cappelli, Francesco; Pagnoni, Ugo Maria; Davoli, Paolo

2003-01-01

215

Characterization of some efficient cellulase producing bacteria isolated from paper mill sludges and organic fertilizers.  

PubMed

The wide variety of bacteria in the environment permits screening for more efficient cellulases to help overcome current challenges in biofuel production. This study focuses on the isolation of efficient cellulase producing bacteria found in organic fertilizers and paper mill sludges which can be considered for use in large scale biorefining. Pure isolate cultures were screened for cellulase activity. Six isolates: S1, S2, S3, S4, E2, and E4, produced halos greater in diameter than the positive control (Cellulomonas xylanilytica), suggesting high cellulase activities. A portion of the 16S rDNA genes of cellulase positive isolates were amplified and sequenced, then BLASTed to determine likely genera. Phylogenetic analysis revealed genera belonging to two major Phyla of Gram positive bacteria: Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. All isolates were tested for the visible degradation of filter paper; only isolates E2 and E4 (Paenibacillus species) were observed to completely break down filter paper within 72 and 96 h incubation, respectively, under limited oxygen condition. Thus E2 and E4 were selected for the FP assay for quantification of total cellulase activities. It was shown that 1% (w/v) CMC could induce total cellulase activities of 1652.2±61.5 and 1456.5±30.7 ?M of glucose equivalents for E2 and E4, respectively. CMC could induce cellulase activities 8 and 5.6X greater than FP, therefore CMC represented a good inducing substrate for cellulase production. The genus Paenibacillus are known to contain some excellent cellulase producing strains, E2 and E4 displayed superior cellulase activities and represent excellent candidates for further cellulase analysis and characterization. PMID:21969070

Maki, Miranda L; Broere, Michael; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng

2011-04-19

216

Visualizing digestive organ morphology and function using differential fatty acid metabolism in live zebrafish.  

PubMed

Lipids are essential for cellular function as sources of fuel, critical signaling molecules and membrane components. Deficiencies in lipid processing and transport underlie many metabolic diseases. To better understand metabolic function as it relates to disease etiology, a whole animal approach is advantageous, one in which multiple organs and cell types can be assessed simultaneously in vivo. Towards this end, we have developed an assay to visualize fatty acid (FA) metabolism in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). The method utilizes egg yolk liposomes to deliver different chain length FA analogs (BODIPY-FL) to six day-old larvae. Following liposome incubation, larvae accumulate the analogs throughout their digestive organs, providing a comprehensive readout of organ structure and physiology. Using this assay we have observed that different chain length FAs are differentially transported and metabolized by the larval digestive system. We show that this assay can also reveal structural and metabolic defects in digestive mutants. Because this labeling technique can be used to investigate digestive organ morphology and function, we foresee its application in diverse studies of organ development and physiology. PMID:21968100

Carten, Juliana Debrito; Bradford, Mary Katherine; Farber, Steven Arthur

2011-09-21

217

Price Premiums Hold on as U.S. Organic Produce Market Expands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh fruits and vegetables have long been an important component of the organic food sector. Price premiums for organic products have contributed to growth in certified organic farmland and, ultimately, market expansion. This report examines trends in organic prices and market margins for broc- coli, carrots, and mesclun mix. The data show that, while organic wholesale price premiums for mesclun

Lydia Oberholtzer; Carolyn Dimitri; Catherine Greene

218

Determination and localization of oil components in living benthic organisms by fluorescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microspectrofluorometric measurements are made to determine uptake and distribution of oil in marine organisms after exposure to crude oil. Equipment combining fluorescence microscopy with spectral analysis of the fluorescence emission is described. After contamination with oil, the intestine content of Lumbricillus lineatus, Nereis diversicolor and Anaitides mucosa shows a fluorescence emission at long wavelengths with a maximum at about 550 nm; this is in contrast to the fluorescence emission of these organisms without oil contamination. There is evidence that aromatic hydrocarbons are metabolized in the intestine of the worms studied.

Zeeck, E.

1980-03-01

219

Comparison of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in organically and conventionally produced beers sold on the Belgian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beer was chosen as a cereal-derived and homogeneous product for a comparison of organic and conventional production methods in terms of mycotoxin contamination levels. Ochratoxin A (OTA, a storage mycotoxin) and deoxynivalenol (DON, a field mycotoxin) were assessed by HPLC in organically and conventionally produced beers sold in Belgium. Immunoaffinity column (OchraTest® and DONPrep®) purification was used prior to HPLC

M. Anselme; E. K. Tangni; L. Pussemier; J.-C. Motte; F. Van Hove; Y.-J. Schneider; C. Van Peteghem; Y. Larondelle

2006-01-01

220

Food system orientation and quality perception among consumers and producers of organic food in Hedmark County, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the potentials of organic agriculture, it is important to know how consumers, as well as producers, relate to food quality and food system issues. A consumer survey from the Hamar region in Southern Norway provided information on a number of these issues, and a rapid food system appraisal and a seminar revealed concerns among organic farmers in the

Hanne Torjusen; Geir Lieblein; Margareta Wandel; Charles A Francis

2001-01-01

221

Price Premiums Hold on as U.S. Organic Produce Market Expands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fresh fruits and vegetables have long been an important component of the organic food sector. Price premiums for organic products have contributed to growth in certified organic farmland and, ultimately, market expansion. This report examines trends in or...

L. Oberholtzer C. Dimitri C. Greene

2005-01-01

222

Cell electrospinning highly concentrated cellular suspensions containing primary living organisms into cell-bearing threads and scaffolds.  

PubMed

Aims: We recently pioneered the cell electrospinning of living cells as viable biological threads and scaffolds. In that study, we demonstrated the process with an immortalized human brain astrocytoma (1321N1, European Collection of Cell Cultures) cell line at a cell concentration of 10(6) cells/ml. The next stage was to demonstrate the ability to cell electrospin primary living cells at cell concentrations of 10(7) cells/ml (the highest-ever cell concentration threaded by any threading methodology). Furthermore, the post-threaded cells needed their viability assessed over a long period of time by way of flow cytometry, which accurately assesses the viable cell populations. Materials & methods: In this work, we employ primary porcine vascular and rabbit aorta smooth-muscle cells prepared as cellular suspensions at cell concentrations of 10(7) cells/ml. The cell electrospinning device employs a coaxial needle arrangement that enables the flow of either highly concentrated cellular suspension in the inner needle while the outer needle accommodates the flow of a viscoelasticity medical-grade polydimethylsiloxane medium. Cell viability was assessed over a long timeframe by way of flow cytometry in comparison with controls. Results & discussion: The work reported here demonstrates the ability to cell electrospin primary living organisms as highly concentrated cellular suspensions. The viable population of cells post-cell electrospinning are significant and remain viable over both the short and long term, as assessed by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Our work elucidates the ability to cell electrospin primary cells as highly concentrated cellular suspensions. The post-cell electrospun organisms are viable over long periods of time, demonstrating a significant active cell population when compared with controls. PMID:17716138

Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Irvine, Scott; McEwan, Jean R

2007-08-01

223

Activation cross-section measurements for producing short-lived nuclei with 14 MeV neutrons—Ge, Pd, Yb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activation cross sections for 70Ge(n,p)70Ga, 74Ge(n,p)74Ga, 108Pd(n,p)108Rh, 110Pd(n,?)107Ru, and 174Yb(n,p)174Tm reactions producing short-lived nuclei with half-lives of several minutes were measured in the energy between 13.5 and 14.8 MeV using activation technique in this work. All cross-section values were relatively obtained on the basis of the standard cross section of 93Nb(n,2n)92Nb or 27Al(n,?)24Na, and the neutron energies were measured by the method of cross-sectional ratios for 90Zr(n,2n)89Zr to 93Nb(n,2n)92Nb reactions. Careful attention on corrections was paid to neutron irradiation and induced activities measurement. The measured results were discussed and compared with the previous works.

Lan, Chang-Lin; Fang, Kai-Hong; Xu, Xiao-San; Wang, Qi; Kong, Xiang-Zhong; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li

2008-07-01

224

Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel technique for sorting and identification of single biological cells and food-borne bacteria based on laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). With this technique, biological cells of different physiological states in a sample chamber were identified by their Raman spectral signatures and then they were selectively manipulated into a clean collection chamber with optical tweezers through a microchannel. As an example, we sorted the live and dead yeast cells into the collection chamber and validated this with a standard staining technique. We also demonstrated that bacteria existing in spoiled foods could be discriminated from a variety of food particles based on their characteristic Raman spectra and then isolated with laser manipulation. This label-free LTRS sorting technique may find broad applications in microbiology and rapid examination of food-borne diseases.

Xie, Changan; Chen, De; Li, Yong-Qing

2005-07-01

225

The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano: A new model organism for ageing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the several elements and causes of ageing, diverse model organisms and methodologies are required. The most frequently used models are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and rodents. All have their advantages and disadvantages and allow studying particular aspects of the ageing process. During the last few years, several ageing studies focussed on stem cells and their role

Stijn Mouton; Maxime Willems; Bart P. Braeckman; Bernhard Egger; Peter Ladurner; Lukas Schärer; Gaetan Borgonie

2009-01-01

226

Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

227

Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

Allometric equations are often used to extrapolate traits in animals for which only body mass estimates are known, such as dinosaurs. One important decision can be whether these equations should be based on mammal, bird or reptile data. To address whether this choice will have a relevant influence on reconstructions, we compared allometric equations for birds and mammals from the literature to those for reptiles derived from both published and hitherto unpublished data. Organs studied included the heart, kidneys, liver and gut, as well as gut contents. While the available data indicate that gut content mass does not differ between the clades, the organ masses for reptiles are generally lower than those for mammals and birds. In particular, gut tissue mass is significantly lower in reptiles. When applying the results in the reconstruction of a sauropod dinosaur, the estimated volume of the coelomic cavity greatly exceeds the estimated volume of the combined organ masses, irrespective of the allometric equation used. Therefore, substantial deviation of sauropod organ allometry from that of the extant vertebrates can be allowed conceptually. Extrapolations of retention times from estimated gut contents mass and food intake do not suggest digestive constraints on sauropod dinosaur body size.

Franz, Ragna; Hummel, Jurgen; Kienzle, Ellen; Kolle, Petra; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Clauss, Marcus

2009-01-01

228

Narrating Lives, Narrating Faith: "Organic Hybridity" for Contemporary Christian Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article proposes that Christian Religious Education (CRE) today requires the practice of "organic hybridity" in fluid and shifting "diasporic spaces," the prerequisite for which is the recognition that "hybrid subjectivities" is characteristic of our current postmodern, postcolonial, transnational, globalized world. Toward this aim, CRE must…

Tran, Mai-Anh Le

2010-01-01

229

Zn\\/Pb-tolerant lichens with higher content of secondary metabolites produce less phytochelatins than specimens living in unpolluted habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many lichens can cope with heavy-metal stress, however, the mechanisms of lichen tolerance are still not fully understood. Some lichen secondary metabolites (depsides and depsidones), produced in lichens by the fungal symbiont and accumulated on the outer surface of its hyphae, are supposed to play an important role in the extracellular immoblilization of heavy metals. Lichen photobionts (algal partners in

B. Pawlik-Skowro?ska; M. Ba?kor

2011-01-01

230

Comprehensive quality assessment of municipal organic waste composts produced by different preparation methods.  

PubMed

In the first part of this work, the effect of municipal organic waste (MOW) composts on plant growth was evaluated in a greenhouse trial. The treatments included soil amended with 14 different composts (prepared by shredding, adding wood shavings, cocomposting with biosolids or vermicomposting), an inorganically fertilized soil, and a control soil. All of the treatments significantly increased plant growth compared to the control, and yields of three of the amended treatments were as high as that of the inorganic fertilizer treatment. When comparing differently prepared composts to the conventional compost, it was found that cocomposting MOW with biosolids was the method which most positively influenced yields (26-41% yield increases). In the second part of this work, we evaluated the effects of the different preparation methods on compost quality, using a multivariate approach. Three main quality aspects were considered collectively in a principal component analysis: organic matter and nutrient concentrations, degradability and capacity to mineralize these nutrients, and plant growth. The model was restricted to the first and second components (PC1 and PC1) which accounted for 94% of data variance. On the resulting factorial plane, four groups were distinguished. Each of the groups was compared to the reference compost to determine quality increases or decreases. Based on this analysis, it was found that cocomposting MOW with biosolids produced the highest quality products (higher total nutrient and OM concentration, nutrient mineralization potential, and plant growth). Addition of wood shavings increased OM concentration, but reduced quality in terms of the other aspects studied. Shredding was only effective to increase product quality when it was not combined with other methods, whereas vermicomposting only increased quality when MOW was not mixed with biosolids. PMID:21288708

Tognetti, C; Mazzarino, M J; Laos, F

2011-02-01

231

Acoustic Observation of Living Organisms Reveals the Upper Limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution.Methodology\\/Principal

Arnaud Bertrand; Michael Ballón; Alexis Chaigneau

2010-01-01

232

An Automatic GLPC Apparatus for the Analysis of Organic Compounds Labeled with Short-Lived Radioisotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined gas-liquid chromatograph, effluent counter, effluent flow-meter, and automatic data collection device is described which can be used for the analysis and assay of gas mixtures containing isotopes of short half-life. The data are collected in a form compatible for computer correction and evaluation. An example using C-containing compounds is given. The device is useful for research with organic

M. J. Welch; R. Withnell; A. P. Wolf

1969-01-01

233

Long-Lived Plasma Cells and Memory B Cells Produce Pathogenic Anti-GAD65 Autoantibodies in Stiff Person Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by sudden cramps and spasms. High titers of enzyme-inhibiting IgG autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) are a hallmark of SPS, implicating an autoimmune component in the pathology of the syndrome. Studying the B cell compartment and the anti-GAD65 B cell response in two monozygotic twins suffering from SPS, who were treated with the B cell-depleting monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, we found that the humoral autoimmune response in SPS is composed of a rituximab-sensitive part that is rapidly cleared after treatment, and a rituximab-resistant component, which persists and acts as a reservoir for autoantibodies inhibiting GAD65 enzyme activity. Our data show that these potentially pathogenic anti-GAD65 autoantibodies are secreted by long-lived plasma cells, which may either be persistent or develop from rituximab-resistant memory B lymphocytes. Both subsets represent only a fraction of anti-GAD65 autoantibody secreting cells. Therefore, the identification and targeting of this compartment is a key factor for successful treatment planning of SPS and of similar autoimmune diseases.

Rizzi, Marta; Knoth, Rolf; Hampe, Christiane S.; Lorenz, Peter; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Lemercier, Brigitte; Venhoff, Nils; Ferrera, Francesca; Salzer, Ulrich; Thiesen, Hans-Jurgen; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Walker, Ulrich A.; Eibel, Hermann

2010-01-01

234

Emission characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants from iron ore sintering process in China.  

PubMed

Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (Unintentional POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were investigated in four typical iron ore sintering plants in China. The emission factors and annual mass releases of the Unintentional POPs were calculated. The results indicated that PCDFs contributed more than 60% to the overall toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values, while the contribution of the dl-PCBs is relatively low, and only in the range of 8-9%. The dominant congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contributing most to the total TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCB-126. With regard to the TEQ contributions, the most abundant homologues were PeCDFs and HxCDD/Fs, followed by PeCDDs and non-ortho dl-PCB, whereas HpCDD/Fs, OCDD/Fs and mono-ortho dl-PCBs almost made no contributions. Due to the massive use of recycled waste in the feeding materials, the average emission factor of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of the four plants was 3.95 ?g WHO-TEQ ton(-1). Based on the results, the annual release of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in 2007-2009 were estimated to be 2070 g, 2212 g, and 2307 gWHO-TEQ, respectively. PMID:22727897

Tian, Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2012-06-22

235

A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres.  

PubMed

Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO(2)-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering. PMID:22992681

Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F

2012-10-21

236

Four-dimensional imaging of E. coli nucleoid organization and dynamics in living cells.  

PubMed

Visualization of living E. coli nucleoids, defined by HupA-mCherry, reveals a discrete, dynamic helical ellipsoid. Three basic features emerge. (1) Nucleoid density coalesces into longitudinal bundles, giving a stiff, low-DNA-density ellipsoid. (2) This ellipsoid is radially confined within the cell cylinder. Radial confinement gives helical shape and directs global nucleoid dynamics, including sister segregation. (3) Longitudinal density waves flux back and forth along the nucleoid, with 5%-10% of density shifting within 5 s, enhancing internal nucleoid mobility. Furthermore, sisters separate end-to-end in sequential discontinuous pulses, each elongating the nucleoid by 5%-15%. Pulses occur at 20 min intervals, at defined cell-cycle times. This progression includes sequential installation and release of programmed tethers, implying cyclic accumulation and relief of intranucleoid mechanical stress. These effects could comprise a chromosome-based cell-cycle engine. Overall, the presented results suggest a general conceptual framework for bacterial nucleoid morphogenesis and dynamics. PMID:23623305

Fisher, Jay K; Bourniquel, Aude; Witz, Guillaume; Weiner, Beth; Prentiss, Mara; Kleckner, Nancy

2013-04-25

237

Poreforming bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria and self-protection mechanisms of producer organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteinaceous antimicrobial compounds are produced by a diversity of species ranging from bacteria to humans. This review focuses on the mode of action of pore-forming bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanism of action of specific immunity proteins, which protect the producer strains from the lethal action of their own products (producer self-protection), are also discussed.

Tjakko Abee

1995-01-01

238

Acoustic Observation of Living Organisms Reveals the Upper Limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone  

PubMed Central

Background Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution. Methodology/Principal Findings Using routine underwater acoustic observations of the vertical distribution of marine organisms, we propose a new method that allows determination of the upper limit of the OMZ with a high precision. Applied in the eastern South-Pacific, this original sampling technique provides high-resolution information on the depth of the upper OMZ allowing documentation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (e.g., eddies and filaments) that structure the upper ocean and the marine ecosystems. We also use this information to estimate the habitable volume for the world's most exploited fish, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens). Conclusions/Significance This opportunistic method could be implemented on any vessel geared with multi-frequency echosounders to perform comprehensive high-resolution monitoring of the upper limit of the OMZ. Our approach is a novel way of studying the impact of physical processes on marine life and extracting valid information about the pelagic habitat and its spatial structure, a crucial aspect of Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the current context of climate change.

Bertrand, Arnaud; Ballon, Michael; Chaigneau, Alexis

2010-01-01

239

Microbially Produced Organic Matter and Its Role in Facilitating Pu Transport in the Deep Vadose Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms have the potential to affect the fate and mobility of actinides in the deep vadose zone (DVZ) by metabolism (direct oxidation/reduction and changes to ecosystem redox potential), production of colloids and ligands, or by sorption (biofilms). The role of microbial communities in colloid-facilitated Pu transport is currently under investigation at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our experimental objective is to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data on the in situ role of biological organic material (DOM, POC, and EPS) on the (de)sorption of Pu at environmentally relevant concentrations. Groundwater samples were collected through vertical ventilation holes from a flooded post-test tunnel at the (NTS), where SSU rRNA gene libraries revealed a range of potential microbial physiotypes. Microbial enrichments were set up with the aim of isolating numerically significant representatives of major relevant physiotypes (e.g. aerobic heterotrophs, Mn/Fe reducers, EPS producers). NTS isolates, a well-characterized Shewanella sp.(str. CN-32), and an EPS-mutant of this strain were screened for their reactivity with Pu(IV). Organisms with both high and low (relative) Kd’s were used in sorption and cell lysis experiments. Viability experiments were conducted for all isolates in NaCl or NaCl/NaHCO3 solutions (I=0.01) for pH = 3, 5, 7, and 9. Products from cell lysis were filtered (0.22 um) or dialyzed (MW cutoff = 20,000 kD). These fractions were normalized by TOC and equilibrated with Pu to determine if Pu sorbs more strongly to either viable cells, EPS, cell membranes, or cell exudates. In our experiments, Pu(IV) sorbed most strongly to cells or cell fractions with EPS (expolysaccharide, the major biofilm component). However, cell fractions and exudates, which may become mobile when released from lysed or senescing cells, also strongly sorbed to Pu(IV). Therefore, changes in groundwater chemistry (e.g., pH or ionic strength) may have both direct chemical effects and indirect effects on Pu sorption due to changes in the stability of the microbial cells or biofilms.

Fisher, J. C.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Zavarin, M.; Kersting, A. B.; Czerwinski, K.; Moser, D. P.

2010-12-01

240

Long-lived photoexcited states in polydiacetylenes with different molecular and supramolecular organization  

SciTech Connect

With the aim of determining the importance of the molecular and supramolecular organization on the excited states of polydiacetylenes, we have studied the photoinduced absorption spectra of the red form of poly[1,6-bis(3,6-didodecyl-N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne] (polyDCHD-S) and the results compared with those of the blue form of the same polymer. An interpretation of the data is given in terms of both the conjugation length and the interbackbone separation also in relation to the photoinduced absorption spectra of both blue and red forms of poly[1,6-bis(N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne] (polyDCHD), which does not carry the alkyl substituents on the carbazolyl side groups. Information on the above properties is derived from the analysis of the absorption and Raman spectra of this class of polydiacetylenes. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Comoretto, D.; Moggio, I.; Cuniberti, C.; Dellepiane, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Giardini, M.E. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica A. Volta, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Borghesi, A. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Modena, via Campi 213/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

1997-10-01

241

Living in history: how war, terrorism, and natural disaster affect the organization of autobiographical memory.  

PubMed

Memories of war, terrorism, and natural disaster play a critical role in the construction of group identity and the persistence of group conflict. Here, we argue that personal memory and knowledge of the collective past become entwined only when public events have a direct, forceful, and prolonged impact on a population. Support for this position comes from a cross-national study in which participants thought aloud as they dated mundane autobiographical events. We found that Bosnians often mentioned their civil war and that Izmit Turks made frequent reference to the 1999 earthquake in their country. In contrast, public events were rarely mentioned by Serbs, Montenegrins, Ankara Turks, Canadians, Danes, or Israelis. Surprisingly, historical references were absent from (post-September 11) protocols collected in New York City and elsewhere in the United States. Taken together, these findings indicate that it is personal significance, not historical importance, that determines whether public events play a role in organizing autobiographical memory. PMID:19298262

Brown, Norman R; Lee, Peter J; Krslak, Mirna; Conrad, Frederick G; G B Hansen, Tia; Havelka, Jelena; Reddon, John R

2009-03-09

242

Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

2005-01-01

243

Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

2005-01-01

244

Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit  

PubMed Central

Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells.

Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

2011-01-01

245

A comparison of the nutritional value and food safety of organically and conventionally produced wheat flours.  

PubMed

Growing interest in organic agriculture has prompted this study aiming to evaluate nutritional content of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional production systems. Obtained results showed that organic samples had significantly lower protein content and lower levels of Ca, Mn and Fe compared to conventional samples. Protein digestibility and levels of K, Zn and Mo were significantly higher in organic than in conventional wheat flours. Regarding undesirable metals, significantly higher levels of As and Cd were found in conventional compared to organic wheat flours. Although the mean concentrations of zearalenone and ochratoxin A were higher in conventional than in organic flours, this difference was not significant. This study revealed that organic agriculture has the potential to yield products with some relevant improvements in terms of high quality proteins and microelements contents, while the reduction in contamination with toxic elements and mycotoxins may be accomplished. PMID:24054276

Vr?ek, Ivana Vinkovi?; Cepo, Dubravka Vitali; Raši?, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja; Zuntar, Irena; Boji?, Mirza; Mendaš, Gordana; Medi?-Šari?, Marica

2013-08-14

246

Automated dynamic sampling system for the on-line monitoring of biogenic emissions from living organisms.  

PubMed

An automated system for continuous on-line monitoring of biogenic emissions is presented. The system is designed in such a way that volatiles, emitted as reaction to biotic or abiotic stress, can be unequivocally elucidated. Two identical sampling units, named target and reference bulb, are therefore incorporated into the system and consecutively analyzed in monitoring experiments. A number of precautions were considered during these experiments to avoid the application of unwanted stress onto both organisms. Firstly, the system is constructed in such a way that both bulbs are continuously flushed, i.e. before, during and after analysis, with high purity air to avoid any accumulation of emitted volatiles. Moreover, the air is pre-humidified by bubbling it through water to sustain the biological samples for longer periods in the in vitro environment. Sorptive enrichment on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to trap the headspace volatiles. The hydrophobic nature of this material permitted easy removal of trapped moisture by direct flushing of the sampling cartridge with dry air before desorption. The system was used to monitor the emissions from in vitro mechanically wounded ivy (Hedera helix) and of in vitro grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) upon cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) feeding. Differences in light and dark floral emissions of jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum) were also studied. PMID:11681578

Vercammen, J; Pham-Tuan, H; Sandra, P

2001-09-28

247

CytoViz: an artistic mapping of network measurements as living organisms in a VR application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CytoViz is an artistic, real-time information visualization driven by statistical information gathered during gigabit network transfers to the Scalable Adaptive Graphical Environment (SAGE) at various events. Data streams are mapped to cellular organisms defining their structure and behavior as autonomous agents. Network bandwidth drives the growth of each entity and the latency defines its physics-based independent movements. The collection of entity is bound within the 3D representation of the local venue. This visual and animated metaphor allows the public to experience the complexity of high-speed network streams that are used in the scientific community. Moreover, CytoViz displays the presence of discoverable Bluetooth devices carried by nearby persons. The concept is to generate an event-specific, real-time visualization that creates informational 3D patterns based on actual local presence. The observed Bluetooth traffic is put in opposition of the wide-area networking traffic by overlaying 2D animations on top of the 3D world. Each device is mapped to an animation fading over time while displaying the name of the detected device and its unique physical address. CytoViz was publicly presented at two major international conferences in 2005 (iGrid2005 in San Diego, CA and SC05 in Seattle, WA).

López Silva, Brenda A.; Renambot, Luc

2007-02-01

248

Do rBST-Free and Organic Milk Stigmatize Conventionally Produced Milk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producers are continually seeking to differentiate their products in the marketplace. A common approach is via labeling where differences in production methods are marketed. Yet, positive labeling for the new product has the potential to stigmatize the conventionally produced product by highlighting perceived problems with the product. The net economic result can be negative to producers as the conventional product

Christopher Kanter; Kent D. Messer; Harry M. Kaiser

2008-01-01

249

Infection of Semen-Producing Organs by SIV during the Acute and Chronic Stages of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough indirect evidence suggests the male genital tract as a possible source of persistent HIV shedding in semen during antiretroviral therapy, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to the difficulty of sampling semen-producing organs in HIV+ asymptomatic individuals.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing a range of molecular and cell biological techniques, this study investigates SIV infection within reproductive organs of macaques during the acute

Anna Le Tortorec; Roger Le Grand; Hélène Denis; Anne-Pascale Satie; Karim Mannioui; Pierre Roques; Anne Maillard; Sylvanne Daniels; Bernard Jégou; Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford; Peter Sommer

2008-01-01

250

Photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of oilfield produced wastewater containing refractory organic pollutants in the presence of high concentration of chloride ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility study of the application of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of high saline produced water containing refractory organic pollutants was investigated in the slurry photoelectrocatalytic reactor with nanometer TiO2 particle prepared with sol–gel method using the acetic acid as hydrolytic catalyst. The efficiency of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of produced water was determined with both COD removal from the tested wastewater

Guiying Li; Taicheng An; Jiaxin Chen; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu; Fanzhong Chen; Shanqing Zhang; Huijun Zhao

2006-01-01

251

Screening and identification of a novel organic solvent-stable lipase producer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain named DS9 excreting organic solvent-stable lipase was screened and later identified asBacillus subtilis based on its phenotypes, biochemical test, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain DS9 grows well on the medium with 10% (v\\/v)\\u000a organic solvent with log P values equal to or above 2.5. The organic solvent-tolerant lipase excreted by strain DS9 had a\\u000a wider tolerance for

Shu Liu; Yaowei Fang; Weifeng Xu; Mingsheng Lu; Shujun Wang; Li Chen

2009-01-01

252

The legislation on living organ donation in Western Europe: legal and ethical analysis and impact on clinical practice.  

PubMed

In Europe there are various directives on living organ donation (LOD) that are applied differently in member countries. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to identify the most relevant normative differences among the countries of Western Europe, and (2) to evaluate the evolution of LOD data in these countries. We performed comparative analysis of national legislations to identify the most significant common and different regulatory elements that were evaluated subsequently from an ethical-legal point of view. For data analysis on LOD, we used the EULOD database of donations in Europe. Relevant legislative differences emerged among European countries. Through legal and ethical analysis, it has possible to delineate two legal guidelines: on the one hand, based primarily on informed consent applying the principle of individual autonomy, and on the other hand, informed consent associated with legal and medical criteria. From 1992 to 2009, countries with standards based primarily on individual informed consent showed an increase in LOD from 5.5% to 25.3%, which was greater than those in countries that had additional legal requirements, namely, from 1.6% to 16.0.%. The distinct transpositions of the European Directives among singles countries related to LOD are based essentially only on the request for informed consent or for additional medical and legal requirements. The former practices which increases LOD, can facilitate "organ tourism." PMID:24033994

Midolo, E; Minacori, R; Panocchia, N; Sacchini, D; Silvestri, P; Di Pietro, M L; Spagnolo, A G

2013-09-01

253

A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods.  

PubMed

Given the significant increase in consumer interest in organic food products, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic produce. Studies comparing foods derived from organic and conventional growing systems were assessed for three key areas: nutritional value, sensory quality, and food safety. It is evident from this assessment that there are few well-controlled studies that are capable of making a valid comparison. With the possible exception of nitrate content, there is no strong evidence that organic and conventional foods differ in concentrations of various nutrients. Considerations of the impact of organic growing systems on nutrient bioavailability and nonnutrient components have received little attention and are important directions for future research. While there are reports indicating that organic and conventional fruits and vegetables may differ on a variety of sensory qualities, the findings are inconsistent. In future studies, the possibility that typical organic distribution or harvesting systems may deliver products differing in freshness or maturity should be evaluated. There is no evidence that organic foods may be more susceptible to microbiological contamination than conventional foods. While it is likely that organically grown foods are lower in pesticide residues, there has been very little documentation of residue levels. PMID:11833635

Bourn, Diane; Prescott, John

2002-01-01

254

Consumer response to functional foods produced by conventional, organic, or genetic manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agro-food industry is developing a “second generation” of genetically modified (GM) foods that can offer functional health benefits to consumers. Many consumers, however, are turning to organic foods in order to avoid GM foods. This report attempts to differentiate consumer valuation of functional health properties in conventional, organic, and GM foods. A representative sample of 1,008 Canadian household food

Bruno Larue; Gale E. West; Carole Gendron; Rémy Lambert

2004-01-01

255

ORGANIC VS. CONVENTIONALLY GROWN PRODUCE; QUALITY DIFFERENCES AND GUIDELINES FOR COMPARISON STUDIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic and conventional fruits and vegetables contain compounds with important human health promoting effects. Whether fruits and vegetables grown via organic versus conventional production systems are superior in taste and nutrition, at present, is difficult to say with complete certainty. To as...

256

Energy Use in Organic, Green and Conventional Pear Producing Systems—Cases from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy consumption between the production of certified organic pear, green food certified pear, and conventional pear in two areas in China. Data were collected from interviews with farmers during 2007 and 2008. Energy inputs were significantly higher in organic systems compared with conventional and green systems. Fertilizer was

Yuexian Liu; Vibeke Langer; Henning Høgh-Jensen; Henrik Egelyng

2010-01-01

257

Effect of organic compounds on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of sea spray aerosol produced by bubble bursting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean comprises over 70% of the surface of the earth and thus sea spray aerosols generated by wave processes represent a critical component of our climate system. The manner in which different complex oceanic mixtures of organic species and inorganic salts are distributed between individual particles in sea spray directly determines which particles will effectively form cloud nuclei. Controlled laboratory experiments were undertaken to better understand the full range of particle properties produced by bubbling solutions composed of simplistic model organic species, oleic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), mixed with NaCl to more complex artificial seawater mixed with complex organic mixtures produced by common oceanic microorganisms. Simple mixtures of NaCl and oleic acid or SDS had a significant effect on CCN activity, even in relatively small amounts. However, an artificial seawater (ASW) solution containing microorganisms, the common cyanobacteria ( Synechococcus ) and DMS-producing green algae ( Ostreococcus ), produced particles containing ˜34 times more carbon than the particles produced from pure ASW, yet no significant change was observed in the overall CCN activity. We hypothesize that these microorganisms produce diverse mixtures of organic species with a wide range of properties that produced offsetting effects, leading to no net change in the overall average measured hygroscopicity of the collection of sea spray particles. Based on these observations, changes in CCN activity due to "bloom" conditions would be predicted to lead to small changes in the average CCN activity, and thus have a negligible impact on cloud formation. However, each sea spray particle will contain a broad spectrum of different species, and thus further studies are needed of the CCN activity of individual sea spray particles and biological processes under a wide range of controllable conditions.

Moore, Meagan J. K.; Furutani, Hiroshi; Roberts, Gregory C.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Palenik, Brian; Prather, Kimberly A.

2011-12-01

258

[Streptomyces sp. 17, an organism producing oligomycin SC-iI (culture characteristics and antibiotic biological properties)].  

PubMed

Under the screening programme for organisms producing substances with hypolipidemic and antifungal activity Streptomyces sp. 17 was isolated. The taxonomic properties of the strain were investigated. Active compounds, i.e. oligomycin A and oligomycin SC-II were isolated from a complex biosynthetic product. Oligomycin A showed high antifungal activity whereas oligomycin SC-II had also moderate antibacterial activity. PMID:23350188

Bibikova, M V; Grammatikova, N E; Spiridonova, I A; Danilenko, A N; Katlinski?, A V

2012-01-01

259

Influence of Aliphatic Organic Acids and Metal Ions on Numbers of Local Lesions Produced by a Tobacco Necrosis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Many aliphatic organic acids, when sprayed on the leaves of bean plants, decreased the numbers of local lesions produced following inoculation with a tobacco necrosis virus. Citric and succinic acids were effective only when applied before or during the period of virus establishment. The inhibitory effect of these acids could be annulled by certain metal nitrates. The susceptibility of

R. E. F. Matthews; C. H. Proctor

1956-01-01

260

Gold-195m, a new generator-produced short-lived radionuclide for sequential assessment of ventricular performance by first pass radionuclide angiocardiography. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of performing rapid sequential first pass radionuclide angiocardiography using a new short-lived radiotracer, gold-195m (/sup 195//sup m/Au) half-life 30.5 seconds) was evaluated. This radionuclide emits a 262 keV gamma ray and is the daughter of mercury-195 (/sup 195//sup m/Hg) (half-life 41.6 hours). The prototype table top /sup 195//sup m/Hg//sup 195//sup m/Au generator produced 20 to 25 mCi of /sup 195//sup m/Au in 2 ml of eluate (yield of 40 percent). Four dogs each had 15 to 20 sequential first pass studies performed with /sup 195//sup m/Hg at 3 to 10 minute intervals using a computerized multicrystal gamma camera. During the left ventricular phase, 160,000 to 190,000 counts/s were acquired. The end-diastolic left ventricular region of interest contained 3000 to 6000 counts (background- and decay-corrected). Multiple reproducible values for left ventricular ejection fraction were obtained during stable conditions. During infusion of isoproterenol, rapid increase of left ventricular ejection fraction was demonstrated. Excellent agreement was observed between studies performed with technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99//sup m/Tc-DTPA) and /sup 195//sup m/Au. This new short-lived radiotracer makes possible rapid sequential assessments of ventricular function at greatly reduced patient exposure to radiation.

Wackers, F.J.; Giles, R.W.; Hoffer, P.B.; Lange, R.C.; Berger, H.J.; Zaret, B.L.

1982-07-01

261

Improving produce safety by stabilizing chlorine in washing solutions with high organic loads  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The need for technologies to protect our nation’s food supply and support sustained growth of the produce industry has never been more urgent. The produce industry currently faces a major potential food safety problem, since the chlorine needed to prevent pathogen survival is depleted during commer...

262

[Using compost of agricultural solid waste to produce organic-inorganic compound fertilizer].  

PubMed

Techniques of compound fertilizer production from solid waste compost were studied. Different ratio of water moisture, proportion between organic and inorganic and infection of different granularity to the effect of granulation is separately determined through experiments at the pilot scale in the field. The optimal parameters of the techniques are determined. The moisture content is 35%-40%; the rate of organic matter is 80%-90%; granularity is 20 mu. According the data of the organism's concentration, height and weight in crop, the crop was fertilized compound fertilizer is batter than chemical fertilizer. And the ability of increasing the production of the compound fertilizer was testified. PMID:16881331

Yang, Bo-jing; Wang, Hong-tao

2006-07-01

263

Live births from isolated primary/early secondary follicles following a multistep culture without organ culture in mice.  

PubMed

Although the ovary has a large store of germ cells, most of them do not reach mature stages. If a culture system could be developed from early growing follicles to mature oocytes, it would be useful for biological research as well as for reproductive medicine. This study was conducted to establish a multistep culture system from isolated early growing follicles to mature oocytes using a mouse model. Early growing follicles with diameters of 60-95 ?m corresponding to primary and early secondary follicles were isolated from 6-day-old mice and classified into three groups by diameter. These follicles contained oocytes with diameters of ~45 ?m and one or a few layered granulosa cells on the basal lamina. Embedding in collagen gel was followed by first-step culture. After 9-day culture, the growing follicles were transferred onto collagen-coated membrane in the second step. At day 17 of the culture series, the oocyte-granulosa cell complexes were subjected to in vitro maturation. Around 90% of the oocytes in follicles surviving at day 17 resumed second meiosis (metaphase II oocytes: 49.0-58.7%), regardless of the size when the follicle culture started. To assess developmental competence to live birth, the eggs were used for IVF and implantation in pseudopregnant mice. We successfully obtained two live offspring that produced next generations after puberty. We thus conclude that the culture system reported here was able to induce the growth of small follicles and the resultant mature oocytes were able to develop into normal mice. PMID:23613617

Mochida, Nahoko; Akatani-Hasegawa, Akiko; Saka, Kayo; Ogino, Mai; Hosoda, Yoko; Wada, Ryu; Sawai, Hideaki; Shibahara, Hiroaki

2013-06-14

264

Effect of consumption of organically and conventionally produced apples on antioxidant activity and DNA damage in humans.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to compare the effects on antioxidant activity and on DNA damage of organic and conventionally produced apples grown under controlled conditions in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Six healthy volunteers consumed either organically or conventionally grown apples (Golden Delicious, 1000 g) from two neighboring commercial farms in a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over study. The average content of total identified and quantified polyphenols in the organically and conventionally produced apples was 308 and 321 microg/g fresh weight, respectively. No statistically significant differences in the sum of phenolic compounds or in either of the polyphenol classes were found between the agricultural methods. Consumption of neither organically nor conventionally grown apples caused any changes in antioxidant capacity of low-density lipoproteins (lag time test), endogenous DNA strand breaks, Fpg protein-sensitive sites, or capacity to protect DNA against damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. However, a statistically significant decrease in the levels of endonuclease III sensitive sites and an increased capacity to protect DNA against damage induced by iron chloride were determined 24 h after consumption in both groups of either organic or conventionally grown apples, indicating the similar antigenotoxic potential of both organically and conventionally grown apples. PMID:17696483

Briviba, Karlis; Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Watzl, Bernhard; Weibel, Franco P; Bub, Achim

2007-08-16

265

Possibilities of Use of Home Produced Catalysts for Wet Catalytic Oxidation of Organic Matter in Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The initial catalytic activity of a number of national product catalysts was studied with respect to various typical organic pollutants, e.g., phenol, acrylonitrile, acrolein, batanone, acetic acid, benzidine acetate, paranitrophenol, and pyridine, and fa...

H. K. Yuan L. Zhong Z. Q. Bo J. Y. Ying W. D. Qin

1981-01-01

266

Differentiation of organically and conventionally produced milk by stable isotope and fatty acid analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing sales of organic milk mean intensified tests for authenticity are required. In addition to comprehensive documentation,\\u000a analytical methods to identify organic milk, and thus to differentiate it from conventional milk, are needed for consumer\\u000a protection. Because the composition of milk is fundamentally dependent on the feeding of the cows, thirty-five samples from\\u000a both production systems in Germany, including farm

Joachim Molkentin; Anette Giesemann

2007-01-01

267

When Organ Donation from Living Donors Serves as the Main Source of Organ Procurement: A Critical Examination of the Ethical and Legal Challenges to Turkey's Recent Efforts to Overcome Organ Shortage.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that Turkey has implemented a number of legislative and regulatory efforts to increase cadaveric donations, live donors still serve as the main source of organ procurement in this country. To address this problem, Turkey's regulatory authorities have sought to increase the number of brain death declarations. A new regulation issued in 2012 repeats the criteria for brain death that were first issued in 1993. This paper argues that these efforts are far from adequate owing to a number of complicated, ethical, and legal challenges that must be addressed to increase cadaveric organ donations. After examining these factors, which are completely neglected in current policies, we conclude that Turkey needs a realistic ethically justifiable organ procurement policy that must be supported by a framework of patient rights to implement the concept of patient autonomy and respect for human dignity in health care services as the primary goal. PMID:23953519

Sert, G; Guven, T; Gorkey, S

268

A Survey of Hydrogen Producing Photosynthetic Organisms in Tropical and Subtropical Marine Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is concerned with the concept of converting solar radiation into a usable fuel, or other product, via a biological conversion system. The study examines the feasibility of exploiting the natural hydrogen gas producing capability of marine pho...

A. Mitsui

1976-01-01

269

Organic Solids Produced by Electrical Discharges in Reducing Atmospheres: Molecular Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complex brown polymer produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water, is analyzed by pyrolytic GC/MS. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic and aromatic ...

B. N. Khare C. Sagan J. E. Zumberge D. Sklarew B. Nagy

1978-01-01

270

Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds.  

PubMed

The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

Stevenson, Louise M; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M

2013-09-23

271

Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles.

Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

2013-01-01

272

Concentrations of organic wood preservatives in wood chips produced from wood wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the concentrations of wood preservatives in the wood chips produced in wood-waste processing facilities in 1988, 1998–1999, and 2001–2002. Among the wood preservatives used in the past in Japan, halophenols, including PCP, chlordane, and chlorpyrifos, had comparatively high detection rates and high average concentrations in the wood chips produced in 2001–2002. Aldrin and endrin were rarely detected, and

Yasundo Kurata; Yoichi Watanabe; Yusaku Ono; Kiyoshi Kawamura

2005-01-01

273

Optical control and study of biological processes at the single-cell level in a live organism.  

PubMed

Living organisms are made of cells that are capable of responding to external signals by modifying their internal state and subsequently their external environment. Revealing and understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of these complex interaction networks is the subject of a field known as systems biology. To investigate these interactions (a necessary step before understanding or modelling them) one needs to develop means to control or interfere spatially and temporally with these processes and to monitor their response on a fast timescale (< minute) and with single-cell resolution. In 2012, an EMBO workshop on 'single-cell physiology' (organized by some of us) was held in Paris to discuss those issues in the light of recent developments that allow for precise spatio-temporal perturbations and observations. This review will be largely based on the investigations reported there. We will first present a non-exhaustive list of examples of cellular interactions and developmental pathways that could benefit from these new approaches. We will review some of the novel tools that have been developed for the observation of cellular activity and then discuss the recent breakthroughs in optical super-resolution microscopy that allow for optical observations beyond the diffraction limit. We will review the various means to photo-control the activity of biomolecules, which allow for local perturbations of physiological processes. We will end up this review with a report on the current status of optogenetics: the use of photo-sensitive DNA-encoded proteins as sensitive reporters and efficient actuators to perturb and monitor physiological processes. PMID:23764902

Feng, Zhiping; Zhang, Weiting; Xu, Jianmin; Gauron, Carole; Ducos, Bertrand; Vriz, Sophie; Volovitch, Michel; Jullien, Ludovic; Weiss, Shimon; Bensimon, David

2013-06-14

274

Gut microbiota as a candidate for lifespan extension: an ecological/evolutionary perspective targeted on living organisms as metaorganisms.  

PubMed

An emerging central concept in evolutionary biology suggests that symbiosis is a universal characteristic of living organisms that can help in understanding complex traits and phenotypes. During evolution, an integrative circuitry fundamental for survival has been established between commensal gut microbiota and host. On the basis of recent knowledge in worms, flies, and humans, an important role of the gut microbiota in aging and longevity is emerging. The complex bacterial community that populates the gut and that represents an evolutionary adapted ecosystem correlated with nutrition appears to limit the accumulation of pathobionts and infections in all taxa, being able of affecting the efficiency of the host immune system and exerting systemic metabolic effects. There is an urgent need to disentangle the underpinning molecular mechanisms, which could shed light on the basic mechanisms of aging in an ecological perspective. Thus, it appears possible to extend healthy aging and lifespan by targeting the host as a metaorganism by manipulating the complex symbiotic ecosystem of gut microbiota, as well as other possible ecosystems of the body. PMID:21814818

Ottaviani, E; Ventura, N; Mandrioli, M; Candela, M; Franchini, A; Franceschi, C

2011-08-04

275

A Quantitative Index of Sociality and Its Application to Group-Living Spiders and Other Social Organisms  

PubMed Central

Species are often classified in discrete categories, such as solitary, subsocial, social and eusocial based on broad qualitative features of their social systems. Often, however, species fall between categories or species within a category may differ from one another in ways that beg for a quantitative measure of their sociality level. Here, we propose such a quantitative measure in the form of an index that is based on three fundamental features of a social system: (1) the fraction of the life cycle that individuals remain in their social group, (2) the proportion of nests in a population that contain multiple vs. solitary individuals and (3) the proportion of adult members of a group that do not reproduce, but contribute to communal activities. These are measures that should be quantifiable in most social systems, with the first two reflecting the tendencies of individuals to live in groups as a result of philopatry, grouping tendencies and intraspecific tolerance, and the third potentially reflecting the tendencies of individuals to exhibit reproductive altruism. We argue that this index can serve not only as a way of ranking species along a sociality scale, but also as a means of determining how level of sociality correlates with other aspects of the biology of a group of organisms. We illustrate the calculation of this index for the cooperative social spiders and the African mole-rats and use it to analyse how sex ratios and interfemale spacing correlate with level of sociality in spider species in the genus Anelosimus.

Aviles, Leticia; Harwood, Gyan; Koenig, W

2012-01-01

276

A Quantitative Index of Sociality and Its Application to Group-Living Spiders and Other Social Organisms.  

PubMed

Species are often classified in discrete categories, such as solitary, subsocial, social and eusocial based on broad qualitative features of their social systems. Often, however, species fall between categories or species within a category may differ from one another in ways that beg for a quantitative measure of their sociality level. Here, we propose such a quantitative measure in the form of an index that is based on three fundamental features of a social system: (1) the fraction of the life cycle that individuals remain in their social group, (2) the proportion of nests in a population that contain multiple vs. solitary individuals and (3) the proportion of adult members of a group that do not reproduce, but contribute to communal activities. These are measures that should be quantifiable in most social systems, with the first two reflecting the tendencies of individuals to live in groups as a result of philopatry, grouping tendencies and intraspecific tolerance, and the third potentially reflecting the tendencies of individuals to exhibit reproductive altruism. We argue that this index can serve not only as a way of ranking species along a sociality scale, but also as a means of determining how level of sociality correlates with other aspects of the biology of a group of organisms. We illustrate the calculation of this index for the cooperative social spiders and the African mole-rats and use it to analyse how sex ratios and interfemale spacing correlate with level of sociality in spider species in the genus Anelosimus. PMID:23335829

Avilés, Leticia; Harwood, Gyan; Koenig, W

2012-11-19

277

[The levels of stable organic pollutants in the breast milk of women living in the Irkutsk region].  

PubMed

The concentrations of stable organic chlorine pollutants (SOCP) in the breast milk of women living in Irkutsk, Baikalsk, and the settlement of Kachug are lower than those in the increased SOCP-burdened areas of the Irkutsk Region (the town of Usolye-Sibirskoye, settlements on the shore of the Baikal Lake) and comparable with those in Russia and industrially developed countries of the world. The content of SOPC is much lower than those in the developing countries where this pesticide continues to be applied. The breast milk levels of OCP, TEQ (polychlorinated dibento-para-dioxines and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in all towns and individual indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Irkutsk significantly decreased as compared with those in the 1980s. However, in Kachug and Baikalsk, the concentrations of PCB practically unchanged and the level of some congeners increased. The absence of changes in the content of PCB in Kachug and Baikalsk may be associated with no decrease in environmental pollution in the Irkutsk Region. Altered breast concentrations of SOCPs caused a reduction in their intake in babies. PMID:20373711

Mamontova, E A; Tarasova, E N; Kuz'min, M I; Maklakhlan, M S; Papke, O; Mamontov, A A

278

Living in living cities.  

PubMed

Abstract This article presents an overview of current and potential applications of living technology to some urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, and solutions involving living technology are reviewed. A methodology for developing living technology is mentioned, and supraoptimal public transportation systems are used as a case study to illustrate the benefits of urban living technology. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed. PMID:23834590

Gershenson, Carlos

2013-07-08

279

Process and installation for simultaneously producing compost and biogas from organic waste  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the simultaneous treatment of solid or semi-solid organic waste and liquid organic waste with a view to the simultaneous production of compost and biogas, wherein the liquid organic waste is subjected to a liquid-solid separation. The liquid phase from this separation is subjected to anaerobic fermentation in at least one closed digester, the solid phase from the liquid-solid separation is mixed with the solid or semi-solid organic waste, and the resulting mixture is subjected to aerobic fermentation at the periphery of the digester and in contact therewith. Mud, clarified liquid and gas are respectively discharged from the digester whereas compost from the aerobic fermentation of the solid or semi-solid waste is recovered at the periphery of the digester wherein the digester is characterized by two superimposed compartments, an upper compartment at low pressure and a lower compartment at high pressure, the compartments communicating together through at least one lateral pipe and through a central siphon. A means is provided for lowering the pressure of the lower compartment when the liquid reaches a predetermined level therein. An installation is described for the simultaneous treatment of solid or semi-solid organic waste and liquid waste with a view to the simultaneous production of compost and biogas. This comprises: means for separating the liquid organic waste into a solid phase and a liquid phase; at least one closed digester; means for introducing the liquid phase into the digester; means for mixing the solid phase with the solid or semi-solid waste; means for bringing the resulting mixture to the periphery of the digester in contact therewith; and means for discharging respectively from the digester the gas which is formed therein by anaerobic fermentation and the sludges which are deposited therein.

Lebesgue, Y.; Zeana, A.

1986-12-30

280

Infection of Semen-Producing Organs by SIV during the Acute and Chronic Stages of the Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Although indirect evidence suggests the male genital tract as a possible source of persistent HIV shedding in semen during antiretroviral therapy, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to the difficulty of sampling semen-producing organs in HIV+ asymptomatic individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a range of molecular and cell biological techniques, this study investigates SIV infection within reproductive organs of macaques during the acute and chronic stages of the disease. We demonstrate for the first time the presence of SIV in the testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles as early as 14 days post-inoculation. This infection persists throughout the chronic stage and positively correlates with blood viremia. The prostate and seminal vesicles appear to be the most efficiently infected reproductive organs, followed by the epididymides and testes. Within the male genital tract, mostly T lymphocytes and a small number of germ cells harbour SIV antigens and RNA. In contrast to the other organs studied, the testis does not display an immune response to the infection. Testosteronemia is transiently increased during the early phase of the infection but spermatogenesis remains unaffected. Conclusions/Significance The present study reveals that SIV infection of the macaque male genital tract is an early event and that semen-producing organs display differential infection levels and immune responses. These results help elucidate the origin of HIV in semen and constitute an essential base to improving the design of antiretroviral therapies to eradicate virus from semen.

Le Tortorec, Anna; Le Grand, Roger; Denis, Helene; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mannioui, Karim; Roques, Pierre; Maillard, Anne; Daniels, Sylvanne; Jegou, Bernard; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie

2008-01-01

281

Einfluss von lebenden Mulchen auf die Begleitflora und die Weizenerträge unter Bedingungen des Ökolandbaus Impact of living mulches on weeds and yield of winter wheat in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the success of no-tillage in organic farming, new tools have to be developed to control weeds. One possible strategy could be sowing the main crop into an earlier established living mulch of easily controllable cover crops. Field trials were carried out in the Swiss midlands to investigate the impact of different legume cover crops on weed populations and grain

J. Hiltbrunner; M. Liedgens; P. Stamp; B. Streit

282

Risk Assessment for Invasive Species Produces Net Bioeconomic Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce

Reuben P. Keller; David M. Lodge; David C. Finnoff

2007-01-01

283

Contaminants in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database has been compiled with the levels of important contaminants (mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides) measured from 2002 to 2005 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in Belgium according to the organic and conventional farming systems. Assuming no further change in contaminant levels during cereal processing and during the preparation of foodstuffs, conservative intakes are estimated for the consumers

P. Harcz; L. De Temmerman; S. De Voghel; N. Waegeneers; O. Wilmart; V. Vromman; J.-F. Schmit; E. Moons; C. Van Peteghem; S. De Saeger; Y.-J. Schneider; Y. Larondelle; L. Pussemier

2007-01-01

284

Grass-Based Dairy Production Provides a Viable Option for Producing Organic Milk in Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More intensive use of pasture and the transition to organic production are being used to reduce production costs and increase profitability of some small dairy farms in Pennsylvania. Simulation of farm production systems, supported by case study farm data, was used to compare economic benefits and e...

285

Leukocyte interleukins induce cultured endothelial cells to produce a highly organized, glycosaminoglycan-rich pericellular matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here that interleukins have a dramatic effect on extracellular matrix production by cultured endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells incubated with growth media conditioned by lectin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes undergo marked changes in cell shape and elaborate a highly organized extracel- lular material that is not detectable in untreated cultures. This material has the following

R. Montesano; A. MOSSAZ; J.-E. RYSER; L. ORCI; P. VASSALLI

1984-01-01

286

Sensitivity of Narrative Organization Measures Using Narrative Retells Produced by Young School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of children's productions of oral narratives provides a rich description of children's oral language skills. However, measures of narrative organization can be directly affected by both developmental and task-based performance constraints which can make a measure insensitive and inappropriate for a particular population and/or sampling…

Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

2010-01-01

287

Livestock Production on Beef and Hog Producing Organic Farms in the Midwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of a two-year comparative study of crop production as an index to total farm productivity on midwestern organic farms vs. conventional mixed grain-livestock farms. Such information is helpful in assessing the effect of reducing the us...

G. Shearer D. Wanner G. Kuepper S. Sweeney W. Lockeretz

1980-01-01

288

Influence of plastic cover on fruit-quality and monilia laxa infestations with organically produced apricots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the years 2005 to 2007 a plastic cover was tested in a testing area planted with apricots and operated according to the regulations for organic production. Compared to the untreated control, fruit below the plastic cover showed decreased coloration. Monilia laxa infestations below the plastic cover could not be fully prevented, but were reduced considerably also by copper applications

L. Wurm; W. Urschler

289

Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacteria from the Poultry Processing Environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from food-borne bacteria has prompted studies on the development of approaches to utilize the profile of volatiles emitted as a way of detecting contamination. We have examined VOCs from poultry with this in mind. Patt...

290

Chemical safety of conventionally and organically produced foodstuffs: a tentative comparison under Belgian conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper goes through the chemical risks able to affect the organic and the conventional agro-food products. For each type of contaminant a tentative assessment has been made in considering not only the levels of exposure but also the toxicological data when available. When comparing both production systems with regards to food safety, it appears that, for the well-known toxicants

Luc Pussemier; Yvan Larondelle; Carlos Van Peteghem

291

Contaminants in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Belgium.  

PubMed

A database has been compiled with the levels of important contaminants (mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides) measured from 2002 to 2005 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in Belgium according to the organic and conventional farming systems. Assuming no further change in contaminant levels during cereal processing and during the preparation of foodstuffs, conservative intakes are estimated for the consumers of cereal-based products such as flour, bread, breakfast cereals, dough and pastry. The results show that for the consumer of organic foodstuffs, estimated daily intakes are 0.56 microg deoxynivalenol (DON), 0.03 microg zearalenone (ZEA), 0.19 microg Cd, 0.28 microg Pb and 0.0006 microg Hg kg(-1) body weight, taking into account the average contaminant levels in unprocessed grains and the average cereal products consumptions in Belgium. For the consumers of conventional foodstuffs, the corresponding estimated daily intakes are 0.99 microg DON, 0.06 microg ZEA, 0.17 microg Cd, 0.12 microg Pb and 0.0007 microg Hg kg(-1) body weight. In addition, it appears that for the consumers of conventional products, intakes of some post-harvest insecticides have to be taken into account (0.11 microg chlorpyriphos-methyl, 0.2 microg dichlorvos and 0.24 microg pirimiphos-methyl kg(-1) bw). When expressed as a percentage of the tolerable/acceptable daily intake (TDI/ADI), it seems that the corresponding estimated (conservative) intakes are the highest for DON (56% for organic and 99% for conventional cereal products), ZEA (16% for organic and 32% for conventional cereal products), and Cd (19% for organic and 17% for conventional cereal products), all other estimated intakes of contaminants (including pesticides) being lower than 10% of the TDI/ADI. PMID:17613056

Harcz, P; De Temmerman, L; De Voghel, S; Waegeneers, N; Wilmart, O; Vromman, V; Schmit, J-F; Moons, E; Van Peteghem, C; De Saeger, S; Schneider, Y-J; Larondelle, Y; Pussemier, L

2007-07-01

292

Characterization of organic aerosol produced during pulverized coal combustion in a drop tube furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled bench scale pulverized coal combustion studies were performed that demonstrate that inorganic particles play a critical role as carrier of organic species. Two commonly-used aerosol mass spectrometry techniques have been applied to characterize fine particle formation during coal combustion. It was found that the organic species in coal combustion aerosols have similar mass spectra as those from biomass combustion. Ambient measurements in Shanghai, China confirm the presence of these species in approximately 36~42% of the sampled particles. With the absence of major biomass sources in the Shanghai area, it is suggested that coal combustion may be the main source of these particles. This work indicates there is a significant potential for incorrect apportionment of coal combustion particles to biomass burning sources using widely adopted mass spectrometry techniques.

Wang, X.; Williams, B. J.; Wang, X.; Tang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Kong, L.; Yang, X.; Biswas, P.

2013-02-01

293

Living Drugs for Gastrointestinal Diseases: The Case for Probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpathogenic micro-organisms may contain or produce molecules of potential therapeutic interest. This led to the concept of using ingested living micro-organisms to produce and transport these molecules to targets in the proximal or distal intestine. Several characteristics of this pharmacological approach are very original: potential for in vivo production of active molecules, for targeting immune cells, for presenting immunogenic molecules

Philippe Marteau

2006-01-01

294

Producing Public Voice: Resource Mobilization and Media Access in the National Organization for Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the resource mobilization and media access of the National Organization for Women (NOW). Using data from NOW's archive and from a content analysis of the New York Times, it tracks NOW's 1966–1980 media access. Two factors were key to NOW's media access. First, NOW mobilized the material resources—money, skills, technology, labor, and especially information—needed to serve as

Bernadette Barker-Plummer

2002-01-01

295

Interferon Messenger RNA is Produced Constitutively in the Organs of Normal Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of RNA blot hybridization with DNA or RNA probes of high specific activity has shown that interferon (IFN)-alpha mRNA is present constitutively in the spleen, kidney, liver, and peripheral blood leukocytes of normal individuals. A single band (≈ 1.2 kilobases) was detected in poly(A)+ RNA isolated from human organs. This RNA hybridized specifically to human IFN-alpha 1 DNA

Michael G. Tovey; Michel Streuli; Ion Gresser; Jean Gugenheim; Brigitte Blanchard; Jacqueline Guymarho; Francoise Vignaux; Michelle Gigou

1987-01-01

296

High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced by ozonation of limonene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the ozone-initiated oxidation of limonene is characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion modes. The mass spectra reveal a large number of both monomeric (m\\/z o 300) and oligomeric (m\\/z 4 300) condensed products of oxidation. A combination of high resolving power (m\\/Dm B 60

Maggie L. Walser; Yury Dessiaterik; Julia Laskin; Alexander Laskin; Sergey A. Nizkorodov

2008-01-01

297

Shewanella putrefaciens produces an Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligand during anaerobic respiration on insoluble Fe(III) oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of Fe(III) reduction was investigated using voltammetric techniques in anaerobic incubations of Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 supplemented with Fe(III) citrate or a suite of Fe(III) oxides as terminal electron acceptor. Results indicate that organic complexes of Fe(III) are produced during the reduction of Fe(III) at rates that correlate with the reactivity of the Fe(III) phase and bacterial cell

Martial Taillefert; Jordon S. Beckler; Elizabeth Carey; Justin L. Burns; Christine M. Fennessey; Thomas J. DiChristina

2007-01-01

298

Organic and inorganic analysis of constituents in water produced during in situ combustion experiments for the recovery of tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of waters produced during in situ combustion of a tar sand deposit near Vernal, Utah, is presented. The water samples were collected during two different field experiments. Analysis of the inorganic constituents by standard methods indicated that ammonium, sulfate, and chloride were the predominant ions. Fractions of the organic material, defined as acid and base extracts, were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl ether. Gravimetrically, the acid extracts comprised more than 70 percent of the extractable organic material. Identification of the components in the acid extracts was accomplished by using combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) after methylation with diazomethane. The base extracts were found to be more complex and could not be studied directly with GC-MS. Of the major organic compounds identified, carboxylic acids, particularly acetic acid, were found to be the most abundant. Phenols, lactones, and pyridines were also identified. 6 refs.

Barbour, F.A.; Guffey, F.D.

1980-01-01

299

Microbial Production of Glyceric Acid, an Organic Acid That Can Be Mass Produced from Glycerol ? †  

PubMed Central

Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process.

Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

2009-01-01

300

Synthesis and Characterization of Organic Impurities in Bortezomib Anhydride Produced by a Convergent Technology  

PubMed Central

A profile of impurities in bortezomib anhydride, produced by a recently developed convergent technology, has been characterized. HPLC-MS analysis of the drug essence revealed three impurities: an epimer of bortezomib, resulting from partial racemization of l-phenylalanine’s stereogenic center during the chemical synthesis, and two epimeric products of oxidative degradation of bortezomib, in which boron is replaced by the OH group. The impurities were obtained by chemical synthesis and characterized by physical methods.

Ivanov, Andrey S.; Shishkov, Sergey V.; Zhalnina, Anna A.

2012-01-01

301

Estuarine Primary Producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine primary producers exist in a very large variety of sizes and shapes and live in many different habitats (Sand-Jensen\\u000a and Borum 1991, Hemminga and Duarte 2000). It may therefore seem almost unmanageable to build an overview and to formulate\\u000a general relationships between organism size, shape and habitat on the one hand and functional properties of species and plant

Kaj Sand-Jensen; Søren Laurentius Nielsen

302

Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes  

PubMed Central

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25–1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r2 = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r2 = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 ?m between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation.

TARTAROTTI, BARBARA; BAFFICO, GUSTAVO; TEMPORETTI, PEDRO; ZAGARESE, HORACIO E.

2011-01-01

303

Production and purification of organic reagents labeled with radioisotopes produced by an accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the production of nine typical organic analytical reagents labeled with11C,13N and18F by irradiation with charged particles and bremsstrahlung and the purification of labeled compounds with HPLC and sublimation.\\u000a As a result, we found that six reagents, ?-naphthol, ?-naphthol, quinoline, ?-nitroso-?-naphthol, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and\\u000a 1,10-phenanthroline H2O could be labeled with11C by bombarding a mixture of each reagent and boron with

K. Shikano; K. Masumoto; T. Ohtsuki; M. Katoh

1999-01-01

304

Quick, Easy Method to Show Living Soil Organisms to High School or Beginning-Level College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The living component of soil is difficult for students to learn about and understand because students have difficulty relating to things they cannot see (beyond sight, beyond mind). Line drawings from textbooks help explain conceptual relationships but do little to stimulate an active interest in the living component of soil. Alternatively,…

Loynachan, Thomas E.

2006-01-01

305

Quick, Easy Method to Show Living Soil Organisms to High School or Beginning-Level College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The living component of soil is difficult for students to learn about and understand because students have difficulty relating to things they cannot see (beyond sight, beyond mind). Line drawings from textbooks help explain conceptual relationships but do little to stimulate an active interest in the living component of soil. Alternatively,…

Loynachan, Thomas E.

2006-01-01

306

Living Non-Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fill out your worksheet as you learn more about living and non-living things. 1. First take this pretest to test your knowledge of living and non living things.Beginning Quiz 2. So, you know what is alive and what is not. But why are those things alive or not? Read the information on this site to learn the 7 characteristics that make things ...

Benson, Mrs.

2010-02-23

307

Silk fibers and silk-producing organs of Harpactea rubicunda (C. L. Koch 1838) (Araneae, Dysderidae).  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the silk spinning apparatus and silks of Harpactea rubicunda spiders. Three types of silk secretions that are produced by three kinds of silk spinning glands (ampullate, piriform, and pseudaciniform) and released through three types of spigots, were confirmed for both adult and juvenile spiders. Silk secretions for the construction of spider webs for shelter or retreat are produced by the pseudaciniform silk glands. Silk secretions that are released from spigots in the course of web construction are not processed by the legs during the subsequent process of hardening. Pairs of nanofibril bundles seemed to be part of the basic microarchitecture of the web silk fibers as revealed by AFM. These fiber bundles frequently not only overlap one another, but occasionally also interweave. This structural variability may strengthen the spider web. High-resolution AFM scans of individual nanofibrils show a distinctly segmented nanostructure. Each globular segment is ?30-40 nm long along the longitudinal axis of the fiber, and resembles a nanosegment of artificial fibroin described by Perez-Rigueiro et al. (2007). PMID:23034869

Hajer, Jaromír; Malý, Jan; Reháková, Dana

2012-10-04

308

Organic phase synthesis of ethyl oleate using lipases produced by solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

This paper reports a study of the enzymatic esterification of oleic acid and ethanol. The reaction was catalyzed by lipases produced by solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Olive oil and perlite were used as an inducer and inert support, respectively. Synthesis of ethyl oleate was carried out in a 10-mL batch reactor with magnetic stirring. The effects of substrate ratios, biocatalyst concentration, and temperature on the reaction rate and conversion efficiency were evaluated. The highest reaction rate (1.64 mmol/L min) was reached with an oleic acid/ethanol mol ratio of 1:5 (oleic acid 50 mM:ethanol 250 mM) and 1 g of biocatalyst. Conversions approaching 100% were obtained after 60 min of reaction at 45 degrees C with n-hexane as a solvent. The initial reaction rate increased proportionally with respect to biocatalyst concentration, which suggests that the reaction rate was not controlled by mass transfer. The biocatalyst retained more than 80% of its catalytic activity after 7 months of storage at 4 degrees C. The results demonstrate that the biocatalyst produced by Rhizopus sp. in solid-state fermentation can be successfully used for ethyl oleate synthesis over short reaction periods under conditions when ethanol is in excess. PMID:18392560

Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; García, Hugo Sergio; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

2008-04-05

309

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13

310

Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation  

PubMed Central

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2??m?h?1). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (?100?nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

2011-01-01

311

Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation  

SciTech Connect

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

2011-07-01

312

Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation.  

PubMed

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2? ?m ?h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (?100? nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature. PMID:21107443

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

2010-11-25

313

/sup 195m/Au, a new generator-produced short-lived radionuclide for sequential assessment of ventricular performance by first pass radionuclide angiocardiography  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of performing rapid sequential first pass radionuclide angiocardiography using a new short-lived radiotracer, (/sup 195/mAu) half-life 30.5 seconds) was evaluated. This radionuclide emits a 262 keV gamma ray and is the daughter of (/sup 195/mHg) (half-life 41.6 hours). The prototype tabletop /sup 195/mHg//sup 195/mAu generator produced 20 to 25 mCi of /sup 195/mAu in 2 ml of eluate (yield of 40 percent). The breakthrough of /sup 195/mHg in the eluate was 0.02 percent of the amount of /sup 195/mHg in the generator. The eluate contained 20 microCi of /sup 195/mHg per study, resulting in an estimated human radiation dose of 0.007 rad/study to the whole body and 0.34 rad/study to the kidney. Four dogs each had 15 to 20 sequential first pass studies performed with /sup 1195/mHg at 3 to 10 minute intervals using a computerized multicrystal gamma camera. During the left ventricular phase, 160,000 to 190,000 counts/s were acquired. The end-diastolic left ventricular region of interest contained 3,000 to 6,000 counts (background- and decay-corrected). Multiple reproducible values for left ventricular ejection fraction were obtained during stable conditions. The mean (+/- standard deviation) interstudy variability was 4 +/- 2 percent. During infusion of isoproterenol, rapid increase of left ventricular ejection fraction was demonstrated. Excellent agreement was observed between studies performed with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) and /sup 195/mAu. The mean interstudy difference was 4 +/- 3 percent. Thus, sufficiently high yield and dose are obtained from the /sup 195/mHg//sup 195/mAu generator for reliable high count rate first pass determination of left ventricular ejection fraction. This new short-lived radiotracer makes possible rapid sequential assessments of ventricular function at greatly reduced patient exposure to radiation.

Wackers, F.J.; Giles, R.W.; Hoffer, P.B.; Lange, R.C.; Berger, H.J.; Zaret, B.L.

1982-07-01

314

High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced by Ozonation of Limonene  

SciTech Connect

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from the ozone-initiated oxidation of limonene are characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in both the positive and negative ion modes. The mass spectra reveal a large number of both monomeric (m/z < 300) and oligomeric (m/z > 300) products of oxidation. A combination of high resolving power (m/?m ~60,000) and Kendrick mass defect analysis makes it possible to unambiguously determine the composition for hundreds of individual compounds in SOA samples. Van Krevelen analysis shows that the SOA compounds are heavily oxidized, with average O:C ratios of 0.43 and 0.50 determined from the positive and negative ion mode spectra, respectively. An extended reaction mechanism for the formation of the first generation SOA molecular components is proposed. The mechanism includes known isomerization and addition reactions of the carbonyl oxide intermediates generated during the ozonation of limonene, and numerous isomerization pathways for alkoxy radicals resulting from the decomposition of unstable carbonyl oxides. The isomerization reactions yield numerous products with a progressively increasing number of alcohol and carbonyl groups, whereas C-C bond scission reactions in alkoxy radicals shorten the carbon chain. Together these reactions yield a large number of isomeric products with broadly distributed masses. A qualitative agreement is found between the number and degree of oxidation of the predicted and measured reaction products in the monomer range.

Walser, Maggie L.; Dessiaterik, Yury; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Serguei

2008-02-08

315

Volatile organic compounds produced by the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10  

PubMed Central

Summary Xanthomonas campestris is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causes many diseases of agricultural relevance. Volatiles were shown to be important in inter- and intraorganismic attraction and defense reactions. Recently it became apparent that also bacteria emit a plethora of volatiles, which influence other organisms such as invertebrates, plants and fungi. As a first step to study volatile-based bacterial–plant interactions, the emission profile of Xanthomonas c. pv. vesicatoria 85-10 was determined by using GC/MS and PTR–MS techniques. More than 50 compounds were emitted by this species, the majority comprising ketones and methylketones. The structure of the dominant compound, 10-methylundecan-2-one, was assigned on the basis of its analytical data, obtained by GC/MS and verified by comparison of these data with those of a synthetic reference sample. Application of commercially available decan-2-one, undecan-2-one, dodecan-2-one, and the newly synthesized 10-methylundecan-2-one in bi-partite Petri dish bioassays revealed growth promotions in low quantities (0.01 to 10 ?mol), whereas decan-2-one at 100 ?mol caused growth inhibitions of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Volatile emission profiles of the bacteria were different for growth on media (nutrient broth) with or without glucose.

Weise, Teresa; Kai, Marco; Gummesson, Anja; Troeger, Armin; von Reuss, Stephan; Piepenborn, Silvia; Kosterka, Francine; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf; Francke, Wittko

2012-01-01

316

Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacteria Using HS-SPME-GC-MS.  

PubMed

The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a tool for bacterial identification is reported. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to the analysis of bacterial VOCs with the aim of determining the impact of experimental parameters on the generated VOC profiles. The effect of culture medium, SPME fiber type and GC column were fully evaluated with the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus aureus. Multivariate analysis, including cluster analysis and principal component analysis, was applied to VOC data to determine whether the parameters under investigation significantly affected bacterial VOC profiles. Culture medium, and to a lesser extent, SPME fiber type, were found to significantly alter detected bacterial VOC profiles. The detected VOCs varied little with the polarity of the GC column. The results indicate that the generated bacterial VOC profiles need careful evaluation if they are to be used for clinical diagnostics. The whole process is limited by the need to grow the bacteria in broth (18 h) before extraction and analysis (63 min). PMID:23661670

Tait, Emma; Perry, John D; Stanforth, Stephen P; Dean, John R

2013-05-01

317

Responsive hydrogels produced via organic sol-gel chemistry for cell culture applications.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the synthesis of novel environmentally responsive polyurea hydrogel networks prepared via organic sol-gel chemistry and demonstrate that the networks can stabilize pH while releasing glucose both in simple aqueous media and in mammalian cell culture settings. Hydrogel formulations have been developed based on the combination of an aliphatic triisocyanate with pH-insensitive amine functional polyether and pH-sensitive poly(ethyleneimine) segments in a minimally toxic solvent suitable for the sol-gel reaction. The polyether component of the polyurea network is sufficiently hydrophilic to give rise to some level of swelling independent of environmental pH, while the poly(ethyleneimine) component contains tertiary amine groups providing pH sensitivity to the network in the form of enhanced swelling and release under acidic conditions. The reaction of these materials to form a network is rapid and requires no catalyst. The resultant material exhibits the desired pH-responsive swelling behavior and demonstrates its ability to simultaneously neutralize lactic acid and release glucose in both cell-free culture media and mammalian cell culture, with no detectable evidence of cytotoxicity or changes in cell behavior, in the case of either SA-13 human hybridomas or mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, pH is observed to have a clear effect on the rate at which glucose is released from the hydrogel network. Such characteristics promise to maintain a favorable cell culture environment in the absence of human intervention. PMID:22561670

Patil, Smruti; Chaudhury, Pulkit; Clarizia, Lisa; McDonald, Melisenda; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Gaines, Peter; Schmidt, Daniel F

2012-05-03

318

In-Situ Cold Temperature XRD of Calcium Phosphate Produced From Organic Phosphoric Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we synthesized calcium phosphate from an organic phosphoric acid, diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and calcium hydroxide solution. The reaction involves a sol-gel process with a whitish gel formed. In-situ XRD analysis was then performed on the sample from room temperature to -140° C. At room the XRD diffractogram shows the sample as an amorphous material and as the temperature was further lowered sharp peaks begins to form indicating that the material had becomes crystalline. The peaks were identified to be that calcium hydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) and this indicates that there is no hydroxyl group removal during the cooling process. The relative crystallinity values obtained for the different cooling temperatures show a slow exponential increase on the initial cooling of 0 to -100° C and at further cooling temperatures resulted fast and linear process. Also unlike the in-situ XRD analysis performs at high temperature no phase transformation occurred at this low temperature.

Yusoff, M. S. Meor; Paulus, Wilfred; Muslimin, Masliana

2010-01-01

319

Role of free-living and particle-attached bacteria in the recycling and export of organic material in the Hudson Bay system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates, for the first time, the role of free-living and particle-attached bacteria in the sinking export and recycling of organic matter in the Hudson Bay system (i.e. Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin), a large subarctic estuarine system. During the late summers of 2005 and 2006, the abundance, cell size, nucleic acid content, and sinking velocity of free-living and particle-attached bacteria were studied simultaneously, using a new approach that combines the settling column method with flow cytometry. Biomass, production, and respiration of both types of bacteria were estimated using published models. Our results showed that particle-attached bacteria were, on average, twice as large as and contained 1.3 times more nucleic acid than free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria also sank faster than predicted by Stoke's Law, with estimated sinking velocities comparable to those of chlorophyll a biomass and protist cells. Each individual cell of the particle-attached bacterial community had high carbon demand, but their low abundances (< 3% of total bacterial numbers) resulted in low total carbon demand. Therefore, the main contributors to POC recycling were found to be free-living bacteria using the non-sinking dissolved organic material, which is released from particles due to the hydrolytic activity of particle-attached bacteria.

Lapoussière, Amandine; Michel, Christine; Starr, Michel; Gosselin, Michel; Poulin, Michel

2011-12-01

320

Are living beings in the state of self-organized criticality? A new interpretation of data on work incapacity due to low back pain.  

PubMed

Using data published elsewhere I demonstrate in this paper that the frequency distribution of the duration of work incapacity from low back pain follows a power law. Power laws are not common in medicine and the question arises why we can find one here. The peculiarity of the data considered here is that they embrace not only the passive reaction but also the whole spectrum of possible active responses of a living being to a disturbance. For the duration of sick leave due to low back pain is not only influenced by the defect a person is affected by, but even more dependent on how he or she copes with it. Coping comprises a broad range of possibilities from denial of the disability to its aggravation, from therapy to malingering. In contrast to the scientific ideal none of these faculties has been excluded in the data used here. They concern the whole living being. Power laws are typical for systems in the state of self-organized criticality. The system involved in the case of low back pain is the whole living human being with all its possibilities to react and to respond. Thus, my findings support empirically the hypothesis that living beings are in the state of self-organized criticality. PMID:14975523

Schmid, L

2004-01-01

321

Preharvest evaluation of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organic and conventional produce grown by Minnesota farmers.  

PubMed

Microbiological analyses of fresh fruits and vegetables produced by organic and conventional farmers in Minnesota were conducted to determine the coliform count and the prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7. A total of 476 and 129 produce samples were collected from 32 organic and 8 conventional farms, respectively. The samples included tomatoes, leafy greens, lettuce, green peppers, cabbage, cucumbers, broccoli, strawberries, apples, and seven other types of produce. The numbers of fruits and vegetables was influenced by their availability at participating farms and varied from 11 strawberry samples to 108 tomato samples. Among the organic farms, eight were certified by accredited agencies and the rest reported the use of organic practices. All organic farms used aged or composted animal manure as fertilizer. The average coliform counts in both organic and conventional produce were 2.9 log most probable number per g. The percentages of E. coli-positive samples in conventional and organic produce were 1.6 and 9.7%, respectively. However, the E. coli prevalence in certified organic produce was 4.3%, a level not statistically different from that in conventional samples. Organic lettuce had the largest prevalence of E. coli (22.4%) compared with other produce types. Organic samples from farms that used manure or compost aged less than 12 months had a prevalence of E. coli 19 times greater than that of farms that used older materials. Serotype O157:H7 was not detected in any produce samples, but Salmonella was isolated from one organic lettuce and one organic green pepper. These results provide the first microbiological assessment of organic fruits and vegetables at the farm level. PMID:15151224

Mukherjee, Avik; Speh, Dorinda; Dyck, Elizabeth; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

2004-05-01

322

Optimal testing of the live organ donor for blood-borne viral pathogens: the report of a consensus conference.  

PubMed

In 2011, live donor transmission events involving Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prompted consideration of changing the process of live donor testing and evaluation in the United States. Following CDC recommendations for screening all live donors with nucleic acid testing for HIV, HCV and Hepatitis B (HBV), a consensus conference was convened to evaluate this recommendation. Workgroups focused on determining whether there was an evidence based rationale for identifying live donors at increased risk for HIV, HBV and HCV, testing options and timing for diagnosing these infections in potential donors and consent issues specific to potential increased risk donor utilization. Strategies for donor assessment were proposed. Based on review of the limited available evidence as well as guidance documents and policies currently in place in the United States and other countries, the conference participants recommended that HIV, HBV and HCV NAT should not be required for live donor evaluation; the optimal timing of live donor testing for these blood borne pathogens has not been determined. PMID:23601095

Blumberg, E A; Ison, M G; Pruett, T L; Segev, D L

2013-04-19

323

High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced by ozonation of limonene.  

PubMed

Chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the ozone-initiated oxidation of limonene is characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion modes. The mass spectra reveal a large number of both monomeric (m/z < 300) and oligomeric (m/z > 300) condensed products of oxidation. A combination of high resolving power (m/Deltam approximately 60,000) and Kendrick mass defect analysis makes it possible to unambiguously determine the molecular composition of hundreds of individual compounds in SOA samples. Van Krevelen analysis shows that the SOA compounds are heavily oxidized, with average O : C ratios of 0.43 and 0.50 determined from the positive and negative ion mode spectra, respectively. A possible reaction mechanism for the formation of the first generation SOA molecular components is considered. The discussed mechanism includes known isomerization and addition reactions of the carbonyl oxide intermediates generated during the ozonation of limonene. In addition, it includes isomerization and decomposition pathways for alkoxy radicals resulting from unimolecular decomposition of carbonyl oxides that have been disregarded by previous studies. The isomerization reactions yield numerous products with a progressively increasing number of alcohol and carbonyl groups, whereas C-C bond scission reactions in alkoxy radicals shorten the carbon chain. Together these reactions yield a large number of isomeric products with broadly distributed masses. A qualitative agreement is found between the number and degree of oxidation of the predicted and measured reaction products in the monomer product range. PMID:18259641

Walser, Maggie L; Desyaterik, Yury; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

2007-12-10

324

[Analysis of modern views on the migration of polymeric substances from the packaging into the drinking water during storage and their influence on living organisms].  

PubMed

The materials in this work are focused on analysis of current ideas regarding migration of polymeric substances from packaging materials to the drinking water during storage and transport. Recently, a large number of studies was devoted to the negative effects of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) on living organisms. A lot of evidence of their harmful effects has been accumulated. Negative effects of phthalates and BPA on the reproductive, endocrine and nervous systems have been proved. PMID:24003693

Ivanov, A V; Davletova, N Kh; Tafeeva, E A

325

Living Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.

326

BIOCHEMISTRY: Zooming Into Live Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. High-resolution optical imaging is providing real-time data on molecular processes in live cells. As reported by Westphal et al., optical techniques are now producing image sequences in which the dynamics of molecules or supramolecular assemblies are recorded with nanometer-scale accuracy in real time. By opening a window to molecular-scale processes, the techniques promise to elucidate many aspects of cell organization.

Fabien Pinaud (Université Pierre et Marie Curie; Laboratoire Kastler Brossel;Physics and Biology Department); Maxime Dahan (Université Pierre et Marie Curie; Laboratoire Kastler Brossel;Physics and Biology Department)

2008-04-11

327

Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of orange ( Citrus sinensis (l.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) juice produced under organic and integrated farming system in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organically and integrated produced orange (Citrus sinensis (l.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) fruits were assayed in terms of fruit characteristics and juice phytochemicals over a period of two years. Fruit size and juice volume were higher under organic farming system. There were not any significant differences concerning either the carbohydrates’ or organic acids’ concentrations of the juice. Similar results were obtained

Peter A. Roussos

2011-01-01

328

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES AND THE FATE OF LIVING TUBERCLE BACILLI IN THE ORGANS OF TUBERCULOUS RABBITS.  

PubMed

It has been found that although there is some parallelism between the quantity of tubercle bacilli demonstrable histologically and the number of colonies that can be isolated from a given tissue, the culture method is far the more efficient in indicating quantitative relations. Tubercle bacilli were not perceived in the organs of rabbits 1 day after infection with the modified BCG although as many as 1,500 colonies were isolated from one of them. This may be solely because it is difficult to see widely dispersed single minute acid-fast rods in the diffuse infiltrations of mononuclears with their hyperchromatic nuclei and sparse cytoplasm. Later, with the formation of tubercle, the parallelism is much closer. The culture method gives evidence concerning the number of living tubercle bacilli in the tissue. The significance of the accumulation of acid-fast particles in the tissues has been discussed. It has been seen that from the beginning this accumulation is greater in the Kupffer cells of the liver, in the macrophages of the spleen and in the reticular cells of the bone marrow than within the mononuclears of the lung, the organ where the bacilli grow with the greatest rapidity and are destroyed with the greatest difficulty. Acid-fast particles are more prominent with the bovine than with the human bacillus or the BCG, the microorganism that is destroyed with the greatest difficulty thus leaving more incompletely digested bacillary debris at a given time within the cells. Thus it seems permissible to conclude from the presence of acid-fast material that some tubercle bacilli are undergoing destruction even 24 hours after infection. The initial accumulation of polynuclear leucocytes corresponds with the subsequent severity of the infection. Despite the greater primary localization of bacilli in the liver, this initial inflammatory reaction with all three infections is much greater in the lung than in the liver. In each organ it is more intense with the bovine than with the less virulent strains. The multiplication of the bacillus and its accumulation within large mononuclear and young epithelioid cells is accompanied by an intense formation of new mononuclears by mitosis. The more rapid the growth of the bacillus, the more conspicuous the regeneration of these cells. Thus with all strains mitosis is more intense in the more susceptible organ, as in the lung compared with the liver; with the most virulent strain the most extensive and diffuse accumulation of these new cells corresponds with the greater rise in the numbers of bovine bacilli after the lag of the 1st week. With the maturation of the epithelioid cells and the formation of tubercles the bacilli have already been greatly reduced numerically and the speed of this process diminishes with the virulence of the three strains used. The faster the development of tubercle the faster the destruction of the bacillus and the earlier the resorption of the tubercle. Tubercle bacilli never accumulate in such large numbers in the mononuclears of the liver as they do in the lung. Though at first the tubercles in the liver may be more numerous than those in the lung they never attain the same size. The formation of new mononuclears by mitosis is restricted and Langhans' giant cells appear very early (1st and 2nd weeks). In the lung, giant cells are not found until much later with the BCG and the human bacillus (4th week); they were not noted in the interstitial tubercles with the bovine type, but the extension of these tubercles was accompanied by an unabated mitosis of mononuclears until the death of the animal. The liver tubercles are resorbed early even with the bovine infection. Associated with these histological differences are the slow initial growth and the early and complete destruction of the tubercle bacilli even of bovine type in the liver, and the more rapid initial growth in the lung, with the later destruction of the BCG and the human bacillus and the unabated growth of the bovine bacillus. Similar differences were observed between the splenic pulp and corpuscle. I

Lurie, M B

1932-01-01

329

Spatial organization, group living and ecological correlates in low-density populations of Eurasian badgers, Meles meles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Territoriality and group living are described in a low-density population of Eurasian badgers, Meles meles L., by studying the patterns of spatial grouping and territory marking, as well as the differences between individuals in some of their characteristics (body condition and dispersal) and in their space use (seasonally, periods of activity and interaction between pairs of individuals) under

Eloy Revilla; Francisco Palomares

2002-01-01

330

Isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of fluid migration and escape from intentionally altered subsurface geologic systems, such as in hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon sequestration activities, is an important issue for environmental regulators based on the traction that the "fracking" process is gathering across the United States. Given diverse injected fluid compositions and the potential for toxic or regulated compounds to be released, one of the most important steps in the process is accurately identifying evidence of injected fluid escape during and after injection processes. An important tool in identifying differences between the natural groundwater and injected fluid is the isotopic composition of dissolved constituents including inorganic components such as Sr and carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds. Since biological processes in the mesothermal subsurface can rapidly alter the organic composition of a fluid, stable carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds (DOC) are an effective means to identify differences in the origin of two fluids, especially when coupled with inorganic compound analyses. The burgeoning field of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for isotopic analysis presents an opportunity to obtain rapid, reliable and cost-effective isotopic measurements of DOC in potentially affected groundwater for the identification of leakage or the improvement of hydrogeochemical pathway models. Here we adapt the use of the novel hyphenated TOC-CRDS carbon isotope analyzer for the analysis of DOC in produced water by wet oxidation and describe the methods to evaluate performance and obtain useful information at higher salinities. Our methods are applied to a specific field example in a CO2-enhanced EOR field in Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) as a means to demonstrate the ability to distinguish natural and injected DOC using the stable isotopic composition of the dissolved organic carbon when employing the novel TOC-CRDS instrumentation set up.

Thomas, Randal; Conaway, Christopher; Saad, Nabil; Kharaka, Yousif

2013-04-01

331

The study of organic removal efficiency and halophilic bacterial mixed liquor characteristics in a membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline produced water at varying organic loading rates.  

PubMed

In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water - at varying organic loading rates (OLR) from 0.3 to 2.6kgCODm(-3)d(-1) - were considered. The oil and grease (O&G) and COD removal efficiency were 95-99% and 83-93%, respectively with only transient O&G (mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and soluble microbial products accumulation being observed. With increasing OLR, in the range 0.9-2.6kgCODm(-3)d(-1), as a result of change in both extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and zeta potential, bioflocculating ability improved but the compressibility of the flocs decreased resulting in the occurrence of EPS bulking at the highest OLR studied. The latter resulted in a change in the rheology of the mixed liquor from Newtonian to non-Newtonian and the occurrence of significant membrane fouling. PMID:24140854

Abdollahzadeh Sharghi, Elham; Bonakdarpour, Babak

2013-10-02

332

Opinions of professional buyers toward organic produce: A case study of mid-Atlantic market for fresh tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of professional tomato buyers indicated that handlers and nonhandlers of organic tomatoes had common perceptions of the organic market and its limitations. Both groups identified the following factors as constraining the organic market: low demands by consumers and retailers, uncertainties about organic labeling, short supplies of organics, and the discard rate of organics. However, handlers and nonhandlers differed

Biing-Hwan Lin; Steven Payson; Jane Wertz

1996-01-01

333

Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system  

SciTech Connect

The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed. 56 refs.

Khare, B.N.; Thompson, W.R.; Chyba, C.F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E.T.

1989-01-01

334

From microbial biomass compounds to non-living soil organic matter - Microbial biomass as a significant source for soil organic matter formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter is one of the most important pools of the global carbon cycle. Recently, it has been suggested that microbial biomass is a significant source for the formation of refractory organic matter. We tested the relevance of this source by incubation of soil with 13C-labeled Escherichia coli cells. We traced the labeled carbon in fatty acids and amino

A. Miltner; R. Kindler; C. Hoffmann-Jäniche; B. Schmidt-Brücken; M. Kästner

2009-01-01

335

Nuclear organization studied with the help of a hypotonic shift: its use permits hydrophilic molecules to enter into living cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A new procedure for introduction of hydrophilic molecules into living cells based on efficient uptake of these molecules into\\u000a the cells during hypotonic treatment is presented and its use is demonstrated by a variety of applications. Experiments with\\u000a cultured vertebrate and Drosophila cells and various animal tissues demonstrated that the increase in cell membrane permeability under hypotonic conditions\\u000a is

K. Koberna; D. Stan?k; J. Malínský; M. Eltsov; A. Pliss; V. ?trnáctá; Š. Cermanová; I. Raška

1999-01-01

336

The effect of organic matter on CCN properties of particles produced in laboratory simulations of bubble bursting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we measure the submicron size distributions and cloud condensation nucleus properties of aerosol particles produced from a laboratory system that simulates particle formation from bubble bursting. The experimental method consists of a plunging water jet into a stainless steel tank filled with 10 L of artificial seawater, with and without added organic compounds. The tank is equipped with a water pump that can be set at variable speeds. Preliminary results from size distribution measurements agree with previous studies, in that the number concentration and size of particles produced depend on the water jet flux. Observations of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity are also affected by the water pump speed. The CCN activity of artificial seawater, at a salinity of 35‰ and with no added organic compounds, is similar to that of pure sodium chloride. Addition of as much as 1 g/L of D-mannitol does not considerably alter the particle size distribution, nor does it alter the observed CCN activity. Addition of less than 5 mg/L of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate leads to shifts in size distribution roughly similar to those from published results, in which other methods of simulating bubble bursting were used. The growing use of experimental methods for the reproduction of bubble bursting in aerosol laboratories gives us reason to explore possible differences in the properties of particles generated from similar systems. Comparisons between observations from the above-mentioned 10-L tank and those from a larger tank filled with approximately 100 L of identical artificial seawater will also be presented.

King, S.; Rosenoern, T.; Nilsson, D.; Bilde, M.

2010-12-01

337

Rapid analysis of organic farming insecticides in soil and produce using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method for the analysis of three ecological insecticides, namely azadyrachtin, spinosad (sum of spinosyn A and spinosyn D) and rotenone, in produce and soil samples is presented. Investigated compounds are one of the most significant insecticides authorized for organic farming crop protection in many countries. Extraction of the pesticides from plant and soil matrices was performed by using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. The method entailed a single extraction of the investigated compounds with acidified acetonitrile followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup step prior to the final determination by reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Validation studies were carried out on cabbage, tomato and soil samples. Recoveries of the spiked samples were in the range between 67% and 108%, depending on the matrix and the spiking level. Relative standard deviations for all matrix-compound combinations did not exceed 12%. The limits of quantification were < or = 0.01 mg kg(-1) in all cases, except for azadirachtin. The developed method was applied to the analysis of real samples originating from organic farming production. PMID:19579019

Drozdzy?ski, Dariusz; Kowalska, Jolanta

2009-07-05

338

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Assisted Living Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... t need round-the-clock nursing care. Assisted living facilities provide an alternative. Assisted living is for ...

339

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Printer Friendly Download Reader Online Chat Assisted Living Assisted living facilities offer a housing alternative for ... to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ...

340

WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-lived TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.

Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

2011-12-01

341

Living Things and their Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn how to tell the difference between living and non-living organisms and their habitats. Our class has just learned about living things and their habitats. Use this webquest to create your own living things and their habitats. Remember a living thing: Grows Moves Reproduces A Habitat is a place (home) for living things. A habitat provides four important things: 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Space 4. Water Now you get to decide ...

D., Mrs.

2006-10-11

342

Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India.  

PubMed

We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. PMID:22717641

Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2012-06-18

343

The living company.  

PubMed

What can explain the longevity gap between a company that survives for centuries--the Swedish company Stora, for example, which is more than 700 years old--and the average corporation, which does not last 20 years? A team at Royal Dutch/Shell Group explored that question. Arie de Geus, a retired Shell executive, writes about the team's findings and describes what he calls living companies-organizations that have beaten the high mortality rate of the average corporation. Many companies die young, de Geus argues, because their policies and practices are based too heavily on the thinking and language of economics. Their managers focus on producing goods and services and forget that the organization is a community of human beings that is in business--any business--to stay alive. In contrast, managers of living companies consider themselves to be stewards of a long-standing enterprise. Their priorities reflect their commitment to the organization's long-term survival in an unpredictable world. Like careful gardeners, they encourage growth and renewal without endangering the plant they are tending. They value profits the same way most people value oxygen: as necessary for life but not the purpose of it. They scuttle assets when necessary to make a dramatic change in the business portfolio. And they constantly search for new ideas. These managers also focus on developing people. They create opportunities for employees to learn from one another. Such organizations are suited for survival in a world in which success depends on the ability to learn, to adapt, and to evolve. PMID:10165449

de Geus, A

344

Gene transfer device utilizing micron-spiked electrodes produced by the self-organization phenomenon of Fe-alloy.  

PubMed

In the diffusional phase transformation of two-phase alloys, the new phase precipitates form the matrix phase at specific temperatures, followed by the formation of a mixed microstructure comprising the precipitate and the matrix. It has been found that by specific chemical-etching treatment, the precipitate in Fe-25Cr-6Ni alloy projects substantially and clusters at the surface. The configuration of the precipitate has an extremely high aspect ratio: it is several microns in width and several tens of microns in length (known as micron-spiked). This study targets the development of a gene transfer device with a micro-spike produced based on the self-organization phenomenon of the Fe-25Cr-6Ni alloy. With this spike-projected device, we tried to efficiently transfer plasmid DNA into adherent cells by electric pulse-triggered gene transfer using a plasmid-loaded electrode (electroporation-based reverse transfection). The spiked structure was applied to a substrate of the device to allow efficient gene transfer into adherent cells, although the general substrate was flat and had a smooth surface. The results suggest that this unique spike-projected device has potential applications in gene transfer devices for the analysis of the human genome in the post-genome period. PMID:18584085

Miyano, Naoki; Inoue, Yuuki; Teramura, Yuji; Fujii, Keisuke; Tsumori, Fujio; Iwata, Hiroo; Kotera, Hidetoshi

2008-05-15

345

Characterization of oligomers from methylglyoxal under dark conditions: a pathway to produce secondary organic aerosol through cloud processing during nighttime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous-phase oligomer formation from methylglyoxal, a major atmospheric photooxidation product, has been investigated in a simulated cloud matrix under dark conditions. The aim of this study was to explore an additional pathway producing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through cloud processes without participation of photochemistry during nighttime. Indeed, atmospheric models still underestimate SOA formation, as field measurements have revealed more SOA than predicted. Soluble oligomers (n = 1-8) formed in the course of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation and acid-catalyzed hydration followed by acetal formation have been detected and characterized by positive and negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Aldol condensation proved to be a favorable mechanism under simulated cloud conditions, while hydration/acetal formation was found to strongly depend on the pH of the system and only occurred at a pH<3.5. No evidence was found for formation of organosulfates. The aldol oligomer series starts with a ?-hydroxy ketone via aldol condensation, where oligomers are formed by multiple additions of C3H4O2 units (72 Da) to the parent ?-hydroxy ketone. Ion trap mass spectrometry experiments were performed to structurally characterize the major oligomer species. A mechanistic pathway for the growth of oligomers under cloud conditions and in the absence of UV-light and OH radicals, which could substantially enhance in-cloud SOA yields, is proposed here for the first time.

Yasmeen, F.; Sauret, N.; Gal, J.-F.; Maria, P.-C.; Massi, L.; Maenhaut, W.; Claeys, M.

2010-04-01

346

Concentrations, profiles, and emission factors of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants in fly ash from coking processes.  

PubMed

The coking process has been found to be an important source of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs). However, the concentrations, profiles, and emission factors of UP-POPs in fly ash from coke plants have not been studied. In this study, six UP-POPs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz)) were identified and quantified in fly ash from eight coke plants. The average concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and "dioxin-like" PCBs were 1.5, 2.26, and 0.26pgTEQg(-1), respectively, and the average concentrations of the PCNs, HxCBz, and PeCBz were 256, 290, and 146pgg(-1), respectively. The proportion each homolog contributed to the total concentration of the PCDFs, PCBs, and PCNs decreased with increasing chlorination level. The PCDFs contributed the biggest proportion of the total UP-POPs toxic equivalents (TEQs), and the average emission factors in fly ash were 10.5, 17.3, and 1.82ngTEQt(-1) for the PCDDs, PCDFs, and "dioxin-like" PCBs, respectively, and 1792, 2028, and 1025ngt(-1) for the PCNs, HxCBz, and PeCBz, respectively. These data are essential for establishing an integrated UP-POP release inventory. PMID:23973475

Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Cai, Zongwei; Zheng, Minghui

2013-08-04

347

Long term effective half-lives for lead-210 and polonium-210 in selected organs of the male rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ²¹°Pb on the effective half life of ²¹°Po ; in various organs of the male rat was investigated. Male rats were injected with ; an equilibrium solution of RaDEF. Rats were sacrificed over 140 days post ; injection and skull, femur, spine, kidney, gonads, spleen, liver, lungs, blood, ; and heart removed, weighed, and analyzed for their

E. Torvik; E. Pfitzer; J. G. Kereiakes; R. Blanchard

1974-01-01

348

Frequency and Characteristics of Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Organisms in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the frequency of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms, various bacteria producing ESBL, antibiotic susceptibility of these organisms, and the risk factors associated with these infections in a neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital in North India. Of the 150 neonates enrolled in the study, 47 culture-positive neonates were included in the study cohort and were divided into two groups: ESBL-positive (8 neonates) and ESBL-negative (39 neonates) cohorts. Various organisms were isolated from 72 culture samples in these 47 neonates. Of these, 10 culture samples grew ESBL-positive organisms and 62 samples grew ESBL-negative organisms. The frequency of ESBL-producing organisms was found to be 5.3%. ESBL infection incidence densities were found to be 3.4 per 1000 patient-days. Klebsiella (60%) was the most common organism producing ESBL followed by Escherichia coli (30%) and Pseudomonas (10%). Eighty percent of the ESBL-producing organisms were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam. Risk factors found significant by univariate analysis (P < 0.05) were preterm, low birthweight, perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, anaemia, metabolic acidosis, prolonged mechanical ventilation (>7 days), length of hospitalization, length of level 3 stay, prior antibiotic use, central venous catheter duration, peripherally inserted central venous catheter duration, and total parenteral nutrition duration. Factors that retained significance in the logistic regression model were duration of hospital stay (adjusted OR: 0.958, CI: 0.920–0.997, and P value = 0.037) and gestational age (adjusted OR: 1.39, CI: 1.037–1.865, and P value = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two groups.

Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Bahl, Dheeraj; Kaur, Nirmaljit; Maria, Arti; Dubey, Nand Kishore

2013-01-01

349

Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

Siegel, D. C.; Congleton, J. L.

1997-01-01

350

Involvement of surface polysaccharides in the organic acid resistance of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

PubMed

In general, wild Escherichia coli strains can grow effectively under moderately acidic organic acid-rich conditions. We found that the Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 NGY9 grows more quickly than a K-12 strain in Luria-Bertani (LB)-2-morpholinoethanesulphonic acid (MES) broth supplemented with acetic acid (pH 5.4). Hypothesizing that the resistance of STEC O157:H7 to acetic acid is as a result of a mechanism(s) other than those known, we screened for STEC mutants sensitive to acetic acid. NGY9 was subjected to mini-Tn5 mutagenesis and, from 50,000 colonies, five mutants that showed a clear acetic acid-sensitive phenotype were isolated. The insertion of mini-Tn5 in three mutants occurred at the fcl, wecA (rfe) and wecB (rffE) genes and caused loss of surface O-polysaccharide, loss of both O-polysaccharide and enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) and loss of ECA respectively. The other two mutants showed inactivation of the waaG (rfaG) gene but at different positions that caused a deep rough mutant with loss of the outer core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as phenotypic loss of O-polysaccharide and ECA. With the introduction of plasmids carrying the fcl, wecA, wecB and waaG genes, respectively, all mutants were complemented in their production of O-polysaccharide and ECA, and normal growth was restored in organic acid-rich culture conditions. We also found that the growth of Salmonella LPS mutants Ra, Rb1, Rc, Rd1, Rd2 and Re was suppressed in the presence of acetic acid compared with that of the parents. These results suggest that the full expression of LPS (including O-polysaccharide) and ECA is indispensable to the resistance against acetic acid and other short chain fatty acids in STEC O157:H7 and Salmonella. To the best of our knowledge, this is a newly identified physiological role for O-polysaccharide and ECA as well as an acid resistance mechanism. PMID:11929520

Barua, Soumitra; Yamashino, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Tadao; Yokoyama, Keiko; Torii, Keizo; Ohta, Michio

2002-02-01

351

The Concept of Animal Welfare at the Interface between Producers and Scientists: The Example of Organic Pig Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health,\\u000a ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes—besides traditional\\u000a terms of animal welfare—‘regeneration’ and ‘naturalness’. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use\\u000a complex parameters, include natural behaviour and

Christine Leeb

2011-01-01

352

Stand-off detection of plant-produced volatile organic compounds using short-range Raman LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several plant species release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when under stresses such as herbivore feeding attack. The release of these plant-produced VOCs (i.e. terpenes) triggers the release of active biochemical defenses, which target the attacker. In some cases, the VOCs send cues to nearby carnivorous predators to attract them to the feeding herbivore. Volatile compounds are released both locally by damaged leaves and systemically by the rest of the plant. These compounds are released in large quantities, which facilitate detection of pests in the field by parasitoids. Detecting the plant"s VOC emissions as a function of various parameters (e.g. ambient temperature, atmospheric nitrogen levels, etc.) is essential to designing effective biological control systems. In addition these VOC releases may serve as early warning indicator of chemo-bio attacks. By combining Raman spectroscopy techniques with Laser Remote Sensing (LIDAR) systems, we are developing a Standoff detection system. Initial results indicate that is it possible to detect and differentiate between various terpenes, plant species, and other chemical compounds at distances greater than 12 meters. Currently, the system uses the 2nd harmonic of a Nd:YAG; however plans are underway to improve the Raman signal by moving the illumination wavelength into the solar-blind UV region. We report on our initial efforts of designing and characterizing this in a laboratory proof of concept system. We envision that this effort will lead to the design of a portable field-deployable system to rapidly characterize, with a high spatial resolution, large crops and other fields.

Johnson, Lewis; Barnett, Cleon; Brown, Christopher; Crawford, Devron; Tumlinson, James

2004-03-01

353

Characterizations of arsenic-doped zinc oxide films produced by atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

p-type ZnO films were prepared by atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique using arsine (AsH3) as the doping source. The electrical and optical properties of arsenic-doped ZnO (ZnO:As) films fabricated at 450-600 °C with various AsH3 flow rates ranging from 8 to 21.34 ?mol/min were analyzed and compared. Hall measurements indicate that stable p-type ZnO films with hole concentrations varying from 7.2 × 1015 to 5.8 × 1018 cm-3 could be obtained. Besides, low temperature (17 K) photoluminescence spectra of all ZnO:As films also demonstrate the dominance of the line related to the neutral acceptor-bound exciton. Moreover, the elemental identity and chemical bonding information for ZnO:As films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the results obtained, the effects of doping conditions on the mechanism responsible for the p-type conduction were studied. Conclusively, a simple technique to fabricate good-quality p-type ZnO films has been recognized in this work. Depositing the film at 550 °C with an AsH3 flow rate of 13.72 ?mol/min is appropriate for producing hole concentrations on the order of 1017 cm-3 for it. Ultimately, by increasing the AsH3 flow rate to 21.34 ?mol/min for doping and depositing the film at 600 °C, ZnO:As films with a hole concentration over 5 × 1018 cm-3 together with a mobility of 1.93 cm2V-1 s-1 and a resistivity of 0.494 ohm-cm can be achieved.

Weng, Li-Wei; Uen, Wu-Yih; Lan, Shan-Ming; Liao, Sen-Mao; Yang, Tsun-Neng; Wu, Chih-Hung; Hong, Hwe-Fen; Ma, Wei-Yang; Shen, Chin-Chang

2013-07-01

354

High throughput and wide field of view EUV microscope for blur-free one-shot imaging of living organisms.  

PubMed

We present and demonstrate the use of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope that was developed in-house. Images are acquired using Bragg reflection multilayer optics and a laser-produced plasma light source. The upper-limit spatial resolution of the EUV microscope is 130 nm with a 10 ns exposure time and 250 x 250 microm(2) field of view. Resolution is superior to that of visible microscopes with the same size of field of view, and the exposure time is short enough to observe fine structures in-vivo. Observation of the cerebral cortex of a mouse is demonstrated. PMID:20389741

Ejima, Takeo; Ishida, Fumihiko; Murata, Hiromichi; Toyoda, Mitsunori; Harada, Tetsuo; Tsuru, Toshihide; Hatano, Tadashi; Yanagihara, Mihiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Mizutani, Haruo

2010-03-29

355

Organic triplet sensitizer library derived from a single chromophore (BODIPY) with long-lived triplet excited state for triplet-triplet annihilation based upconversion.  

PubMed

Triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) based upconversions are attractive as a result of their readily tunable excitation/emission wavelength, low excitation power density, and high upconversion quantum yield. For TTA upconversion, triplet sensitizers and acceptors are combined to harvest the irradiation energy and to acquire emission at higher energy through triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) and TTA processes. Currently the triplet sensitizers are limited to the phosphorescent transition metal complexes, for which the tuning of UV-vis absorption and T(1) excited state energy level is difficult. Herein for the first time we proposed a library of organic triplet sensitizers based on a single chromophore of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY). The organic sensitizers show intense UV-vis absorptions at 510-629 nm (? up to 180,000 M(-1) cm(-1)). Long-lived triplet excited state (?(T) up to 66.3 ?s) is populated upon excitation of the sensitizers, proved by nanosecond time-resolved transient difference absorption spectra and DFT calculations. With perylene or 1-chloro-9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (1CBPEA) as the triplet acceptors, significant upconversion (?(UC) up to 6.1%) was observed for solution samples and polymer films, and the anti-Stokes shift was up to 0.56 eV. Our results pave the way for the design of organic triplet sensitizers and their applications in photovoltaics and upconversions, etc. PMID:21786760

Wu, Wanhua; Guo, Huimin; Wu, Wenting; Ji, Shaomin; Zhao, Jianzhang

2011-08-09

356

Nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to determine the growing regimen of some organic and nonorganic supermarket produce from New Zealand.  

PubMed

An isotopic study was performed on nine varieties of organically and conventionally grown vegetables from an organic food market and a chain supermarket in New Zealand. The main aim of the study was to assess the applicability of stable nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to differentiate between organic and conventional growing conditions of various vegetable types sampled directly off supermarket shelves. This could be further used as the basis of a simple authentication tool to detect noncompliant organic farming practices and false labeling of organic produce. In this study, nitrogen isotopes are found to be an excellent way of identifying faster growing organic vegetables (maturity time to harvest of <80 days), as these vegetables tend to be significantly more enriched in (15)N than conventionally grown vegetables and natural soil N. For slower growing organic produce (maturity time to harvest of >80 days), more information would be required to understand isotopic variations and fractionation effects between vegetables and soil over time as the technique does not discriminate organic from conventional regimens for these vegetables with as much certainty. PMID:18489112

Rogers, Karyne M

2008-05-20

357

Organic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

2007-12-07

358

Matching Organs  

MedlinePLUS

... Donor Organs With Transplant Candidates When a deceased organ donor is identified, a transplant coordinator from an organ ... transplant candidate, you are registered on the national organ transplant waiting list. A living donor may also be identified and evaluated for living ...

359

Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level.1. Using the LASCA method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals.

Ulianova, O. V.; Uianov, S. S.; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

2011-04-01

360

Biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats  

SciTech Connect

The biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin were determined in R-Amsterdam rats and in homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary central diabetes insipidus. It was found that the biological half-lives of (/sup 3/H)LVP and (/sup 3/H)dDAVP in the Brattleboro rats did not differ significantly from that found in the control R-Amsterdam rats. The half-life of (/sup 3/H)dDAVP proved longer than that of (/sup 3/H)LVP in all three groups of animals. In the case of (/sup 3/H)LVP the highest radioactivities were observed in the neurohypophyses, adenohypophyses, and kidneys of both the R-Amsterdam and Brattleboro rats. The accumulation of tritiated material was higher in the small intestine of the Brattleboro rats than in that of the R-Amsterdam animals. In all three groups of rats, (/sup 3/H)dDAVP was accumulated to the greatest extent in the kidney and the small intestine. The kidney and small intestine contained less radioactivity in homozygous Brattleboro rats than in the controls. There was only a slight radioactivity accumulation in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. From the results it was concluded that the decrease in the rate of enzymatic decomposition may play a role in the increased duration of antidiuretic action of dDAVP. The results have led to the conclusion that the accelerated elimination of vasopressin and its pathologic organ accumulation are probably not involved in the water metabolism disturbance of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus.

Janaky, T.; Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.A.

1982-01-01

361

Aromatic Organic Laser Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the program was to produce coherent stimulated emission in the blue-green region in a purely organic dopant and host system. The theoretical analysis indicates that the short lived four-level fluorescent compounds are the most suitable mate...

D. L. Stockman

1965-01-01

362

Living Well  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: Parkinson's Disease > Living Well Text Size Living Well While living with PD can be challenging there is hope. Hope in the fact, that there ... healthy diet How to navigate daily activities of living like grooming and sleeping. Ways to make your ...

363

The Living Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is home to vast numbers of organisms, and even small sections of earth teem with a diverse array of life. This Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the world beneath our feet through the lens of soil biologists and ecologists. The first website (1) provides information about the activities of a Natural Environment Research Council-supported research program "on the biological diversity of soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes." The second site (2) contains information about several research projects of the Ecology of Soil Organisms Theme Group at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Theme Group studies "soil organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem level, to ultimately increase understanding of the role of soil organisms." The third site (3) contains a list of publications spanning the past fifteen years from members of the Soil Ecology Group at the University of Jyv'skyl". The site also provides basic information about group members, and concise descriptions of current research projects. From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the fourth website (4) contains an online version of the _Soil Biology Primer_, "an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms." The online version of the Primer contains the entire text of the original published version, but is missing some useful soil organism images. The fifth site (5) links to sixteen movies relating to different aspects of soil biology such as nematodes, mites, springtails, and protozoa. The movies were all produced by Dr. Thomas E. Loynachan, a Professor of Agronomy and Microbiology at Iowa State University. Finally, Soils Are Alive (6) was developed by Professor Lyn Abbot of the University of Western Australia and Jen Slater, a qualified secondary school science teacher. This website contains informative, concise sections addressing Soil Biology, Biological Processes, Living Components, and Ecosystem Management.

364

Cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions off C, Al, SiO2, Si and Au producing relatively short-lived radionuclides at neutron energies between 70 and 160 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study was made to measure many cross sections for relevant neutron-induced reactions. This study was motivated by the need to better understand cosmic ray interactions with extraterrestrial materials. The major constituents of meteorites and lunar rocks include oxygen, silicon, and aluminum. The primary aim was to measure cross sections for neutron-induced reactions producing long-lived radionuclides (e.g. 14C) and stable isotopes (e.g. Ne isotopes) but the irradiation conditions allowed cross sections for many reactions producing relatively short-lived radionuclides (e.g. 22Na) to be well measured. Monitor foils used in the irradiations included C, Al, and Au. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced by bombarding Be targets with 80, 120 and 160 MeV proton beams at iThemba LABS, South Africa. Two identical target stacks were irradiated in beam lines at 0° and 16° to the incident proton beam direction. The yield at an unique neutron energy was obtained by subtracting the yield measured at 16° (after suitable normalization) from that measured at 0°. The cross sections for the following reactions: 27Al(n,x)22,24Na; natC(n,x)7Be; 197Au(n,x)194,196Au; SiO2(n,x)22Na and natSi(n,x)24Na are reported.

Sisterson, Janet M.

2007-08-01

365

Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer  

PubMed Central

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach ‘special advice’ for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed the threshold limit value of the mixture (P > 1 = 0.2375), the expected personal exposure after adjusting for the assigned protection factor for the respirators in use would be considerably lower (P > 1 = 0.0161). Thus, our findings suggested that the COSHH essentials model worked reasonably well for the volatile organic chemicals at the plant. However, it was difficult to override the reproductive hazard even though it was meant to be possible in principle. Further, it became apparent that an input of existing controls, which is not possible in the web-based model, may have allowed the model be more widely applicable. The experience of using the web-based COSHH Essentials model generated some suggestions to provide a more user-friendly tool to the model users who do not have expertise in occupational hygiene.

Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

2011-01-01

366

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

367

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

368

Cypress Surrogate Mother Produces Haploid Progeny From Alien Pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most living organisms reproduce sexually, some have developed a uniparental reproduction where the embryo usually derives from the female parent. A unique case of paternal apomixis in plants has been recently reported in Cupressus dupreziana, an endangered Mediterranean conifer. This species produces unreduced pollen that develop into all-paternal embryos within the seed tissues. We analyzed seedlings produced by open-pollinated

Christian Pichot; Benjamin Liens; Juana L. Rivera Nava; Julien B. Bachelier; Mohamed El Maataoui

2008-01-01

369

Microbiological quality of organic vegetables produced in soil treated with different types of manure and mineral fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to evaluate microbiological quality of horticultural crops grown organically. Three species of vegetables were used, lettuce (Lactuva sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) and spinach (Tetragonia expansa), grown organically, in fertile soil. Six different treatments were applied: mineral fertilizer, chicken, cow, and pig manure, chicken litter and cow manure, in association with a liquid foliar biofertilizer. These crops

Débora Cabral Machado; Carla Marques Maia; Isabel Dias Carvalho; Natan Fontoura da Silva; Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borge André; Álvaro Bisol Serafini

2006-01-01

370

Photochemically produced secondary organic aerosol and ozone in the Houston Ship Channel during TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organic particulate matter measured using the aerosol mass spectrometer has been deconvolved into multiple organic components using positive matrix factorization techniques including hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). The correlation between OOA and Ox (Ox = NO2 + O3) will be explored. The ratio of SOA production to ozone production should depend on the VOC composition since they are both photochemical processes. VOC emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and Galveston Bay area are diverse: urban, marine diesel, petrochemical, industrial. This analysis will challenge the understanding of SOA production in the context of urban emissions. Organic aerosol can be further oxidized in the atmosphere. One product of that oxidation which may represent a particle to gas process is formic acid. The processes contributing to gas phase production will be evaluated and upper limits for the potential heterogenous production will be presented.

Herndon, S.; Onasch, T.; Allan, J.; Wood, E.; Zahniser, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Lerner, B.; Welshbon, D.; Gillman, J.; Sommariva, R.; Roberts, J.; Aikin, K.; Brewer, A.; Tucker, S.; Bates, T.; Quinn, P.; Kuster, B.; Williams, E.; Kroll, J.

2007-12-01

371

Nosocomial blood stream infection in intensive care units at Assiut University Hospitals (Upper Egypt) with special reference to extended spectrum ?-lactamase producing organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: This study investigated the nosocomial blood stream infection (BSI) in the adult ICUs in Assiut university hospitals to evaluate the rate of infection in different ICUs, causative microorganisms, antimicrobial resistance, outcome of infection, risk factors, prevalence of extended spectrum B-lactamase producing organisms and molecular typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to highlight the role of environment as a potential source

Shaaban H Ahmed; Enas A Daef; Mohammed S Badary; Mohammed A Mahmoud; Alaa A Abd-Elsayed

2009-01-01

372

Detection of live Salmonella sp. cells in produce by a TaqMan-based quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR targeting invA mRNA.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica contamination in foods is a significant concern for public health. When DNA detection methods are used for analysis of foods, one of the major concerns is false-positive results from the detection of dead cells. To circumvent this crucial issue, a TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay with an RNA internal control was developed. invA RNA standards were used to determine the detection limit of this assay as well as to determine invA mRNA levels in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase cells. This assay has a detection limit of 40 copies of invA mRNA per reaction. The levels of invA mRNA in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase S. enterica cells was approximately 1 copy per 3 CFU, 1 copy per CFU, and 4 copies per 10(3) CFU, respectively. Spinach, tomatoes, jalapeno peppers, and serrano peppers were artificially contaminated with four different Salmonella serovars at levels of 10(5) and less than 10 CFU. These foods were analyzed with qRT-PCR and with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method (W. A. Andrews and T. S. Hammack, in G. J. Jackson et al., ed., Bacteriological analytical manual online, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/ approximately ebam/bam-5.html, 2007). Comparable results were obtained by both methods. Only live Salmonella cells could be detected by this qRT-PCR assay, thus avoiding the dangers of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of the PCR) were also ruled out through the use of an RNA internal control. This assay allows for the fast and accurate detection of viable Salmonella spp. in spinach, tomatoes, and in both jalapeno and serrano peppers. PMID:19376910

González-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S; Russell, Mindi; Jacobson, Andrew P; De Jesús, Antonio J; Brown, Eric W; Lampel, Keith A

2009-04-17

373

The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.  

PubMed

In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections. PMID:21559784

Leeb, Christine

2011-05-11

374

Characterization of microbial content of organic and conventional produce in Maryland relative to production practices and inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Production inputs/practices such as soil amendments, water quality, animal intrusion, and human activity can influence microbial quality of fresh produce. Limited data on production practices relative to microbial/pathogen content of fresh produce are currently available for either org...

375

Living Vs. Non-Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fill out your worksheet as you learn more about living and non-living things. 1. First mouse over the objects to see some of the characteristics of living and non living things.Living Nonliving Characteristics 2. So, you know what is alive and what is not. But why are those things alive or not? Read the information on this site to learn the 7 characteristics that make things ...

Benson, Carrie

2012-10-08

376

Three-year comparison of the polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in organically and conventionally produced apples ( Malus domestica Bork. Cultivar 'Golden Delicious').  

PubMed

The present study was performed to evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of apples (cv. ;Golden Delicious') grown under defined organic and conventional conditions. Apples were harvested at five comparable commercial farms over the course of three years (2004-2006). In 2005 and 2006 the antioxidant capacity was 15% higher (p < 0.05) in organically produced apples than in conventionally produced fruits. In 2005 significantly higher polyphenol concentrations were found in the organically grown apples. In 2004 and 2006 no significant differences were observed (2004, 304 +/- 68 microg/g organic vs 284 +/- 69 microg/g conventional, p = 0.18; 2005, 302 +/- 58 micro/g organic vs 253 +/- 41 microg/g conventional, p = 0.002; 2006, 402 +/- 100 microg/g organic vs 365 +/- 58 microg/g conventional, p = 0.17). Year-to-year variations in the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol content of up to 20% were more significant than the production method found within one year. Finally, flavanols and flavonols were major determinants of the antioxidant capacities in these apples. Overall, the production method had a smaller impact on the variation in the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of apples than the yearly climate. PMID:19388640

Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Weibel, Franco P; Bub, Achim; Watzl, Bernhard

2009-06-10

377

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

378

Hybrid organic–inorganic compounds doped with terbium carboxyl complexes produced in situ via a sol–gel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ synthesis of terbium carboxyl complexes in an organic–inorganic hybrid matrix by a sol–gel process has been proposed. The formation of terbium carboxyl complexes in the hybrid matrix is confirmed by the luminescence spectra and IR spectra. It is observed that the location at the amino group in aminobenzoic acid has a large effect on the luminescence properties and

Yunhui Li; Hongjie Zhang; Huanrong Li; Jun Lin; Yingning Yu; Quingguo Meng

2002-01-01

379

A rapid technique for producing silver-stained nucleolus organizer regions and trypsin-Giemsa bands on human chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid technique is described whereby the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) of human chromosomes can be differentially stained with silver. This staining is followed by trypsin-Giemsa banding on the same metaphase chromosomes. The metaphases simultaneously exhibit silverstained NORs and G bands, allowing for the unequivocal identification of all chromosomes and greatly facilitating studies involving the NOR-bearing acrocentrics.

W. Mike Howell; D. Ann Black

1978-01-01

380

Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change.  

PubMed

Many ecosystem services are delivered by organisms that depend on habitats that are segregated spatially or temporally from the location where services are provided. Management of mobile organisms contributing to ecosystem services requires consideration not only of the local scale where services are delivered, but also the distribution of resources at the landscape scale, and the foraging ranges and dispersal movements of the mobile agents. We develop a conceptual model for exploring how one such mobile-agent-based ecosystem service (MABES), pollination, is affected by land-use change, and then generalize the model to other MABES. The model includes interactions and feedbacks among policies affecting land use, market forces and the biology of the organisms involved. Animal-mediated pollination contributes to the production of goods of value to humans such as crops; it also bolsters reproduction of wild plants on which other services or service-providing organisms depend. About one-third of crop production depends on animal pollinators, while 60-90% of plant species require an animal pollinator. The sensitivity of mobile organisms to ecological factors that operate across spatial scales makes the services provided by a given community of mobile agents highly contextual. Services vary, depending on the spatial and temporal distribution of resources surrounding the site, and on biotic interactions occurring locally, such as competition among pollinators for resources, and among plants for pollinators. The value of the resulting goods or services may feed back via market-based forces to influence land-use policies, which in turn influence land management practices that alter local habitat conditions and landscape structure. Developing conceptual models for MABES aids in identifying knowledge gaps, determining research priorities, and targeting interventions that can be applied in an adaptive management context. PMID:17355569

Kremen, Claire; Williams, Neal M; Aizen, Marcelo A; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Minckley, Robert; Packer, Laurence; Potts, Simon G; Roulston, T'ai; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Vázquez, Diego P; Winfree, Rachael; Adams, Laurie; Crone, Elizabeth E; Greenleaf, Sarah S; Keitt, Timothy H; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Regetz, James; Ricketts, Taylor H

2007-04-01

381

Long-range prospects for solar-derived fuels. [Gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels produced from organic wastes and biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-range prospect for the use of solar energy through photosynthesis to produce solid, liquid, and gaseous fuel seems reasonably well assured. The technology for such fuels is already well developed. Their extensive use awaits a favorable price level for delivered biomass and a major shift in agricultural and silvacultural practice through which energy crops become comparable in value to

1976-01-01

382

Active living for assisted living  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a growing need for assistance among our aging population, assisted-living facilities have been designed to fill the widening chasm between community living and nursing care. Although sedentary behavior has been linked to functional limitations and disability, no comprehensive information exists about the social and physical environments and the programming available to promote physical activity in assisted living.

Shannon L Mihalko; Katie L Wickley

2003-01-01

383

Current Concepts in Antimicrobial Therapy Against Resistant Gram-Negative Organisms: Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae, Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The development of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens has been progressive and relentless. Pathogens of particular concern include extended-spectrum ?-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Classic agents used to treat these pathogens have become outdated. Of the few new drugs available, many have already become targets for bacterial mechanisms of resistance. This review describes the current approach to infections due to these resistant organisms and elaborates on the available treatment options.

Kanj, Souha S.; Kanafani, Zeina A.

2011-01-01

384

Emergence of DHA1-Producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian Region: Genetic Organization of the ampC and ampR Genes Originating from Morganella morganii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C -lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the blaDHA-1 genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the

Charlotte Verdet; Yahia Benzerara; Valerie Gautier; Olivier Adam; Zahia Ould-Hocine; Guillaume Arlet

2006-01-01

385

Secondary organic aerosol produced from aircraft emissions at the Atlanta Airport: An advanced diagnostic investigation using process analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to investigate the impacts of aircraft emissions from the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport have previously shown aircraft emissions increased total daily PM2.5 concentrations by up to 9.4% (0.94 ?g m-3) with overall impacts varying by modeled grid resolution. However, those results also indicated that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in the airport grid cell were reduced due to aircraft emissions at coarser grid resolutions (36-km and 12-km) but not at a finer resolution (4-km). To investigate this anomaly, this study instruments the CMAQ model with process analysis, an advanced diagnostic modeling tool, and focuses on changes to SOA concentrations due to aircraft emissions in the grid cells containing the Atlanta airport at grid resolutions of 36-km, 12-km, and 4-km. Model results indicated aircraft emissions reduced hourly anthropogenic and biogenic SOA concentrations at the 36-km and 12-km grid resolutions by up to 6.2% (0.052 ?g m-3) by removing nitrate, hydroxyl, and hydroperoxy radicals through chemistry. At the 4-km resolution, however, hourly modeled SOA concentrations increased (primarily due to changes in biogenic SOA) by up to 11.5% (0.081 ?g m-3) due to primary organic aerosol emissions from aircraft, with the additional organic mass shifting partitioning of SOA semi-volatile gas phase species into the particle phase.

Woody, Matthew C.; Arunachalam, Saravanan

2013-11-01

386

Organics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)|

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

1978-01-01

387

Antimould activity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria: identification of a mixture of organic acids produced by Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough lactic acid bacteria, cultivated in wheat flour hydrolysate, produced antimould compounds. The antimould activity\\u000a varied greatly among the strains and was mainly detected within obligately heterofermentative Lactobacillus spp. Among these, Lb. sanfrancisco CB1 had the largest spectrum. It inhibited moulds related to bread spoilage such as Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monilia. A mixture of acetic, caproic, formic, propionic, butyric

A. Corsetti; M. Gobbetti; J. Rossi; P. Damiani

1998-01-01

388

Positive Autoregulation and Signaling Properties of Pyoluteorin, an Antibiotic Produced by the Biological Control Organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere bacterium, produces a suite of secondary metabolites that are toxic to seed- and root-rotting plant pathogens. Among these are the polyketide compounds pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. We provide evidence that pyoluteorin production is influenced by positive autoregulation. Addition of pyoluteorin to liquid cultures of Pf-5 enhanced pyoluteorin production. In addition, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol mutually inhibit one another's production in Pf-5. For pyoluteorin, both positive autoregulation and negative influences on production by 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol were demonstrated at the transcriptional level by measuring activity from transcriptional fusions of an ice nucleation reporter gene (inaZ) to three separate pyoluteorin biosynthetic genes. The occurrence of pyoluteorin autoregulation in the rhizosphere was assessed on cucumber seedlings in pasteurized soil with cross-feeding experiments. In the rhizosphere, expression of a pyoluteorin biosynthesis gene by a pyoluteorin-deficient mutant of Pf-5 was enhanced by pyoluteorin produced by coinoculated cells of Pf-5. These data establish that the polyketide pyoluteorin is an autoregulatory compound and functions as a signal molecule influencing the spectrum of secondary metabolites produced by the bacterial cell.

Brodhagen, Marion; Henkels, Marcella D.; Loper, Joyce E.

2004-01-01

389

The third chains of living organisms--a trail of glycobiology that started from the third floor of building 4 in NIH.  

PubMed

Application of a finger-printing method to the analysis of human milk oligosaccharides led to the finding that several oligosaccharides were missing in the milk of non-secretor or Lewis-negative individuals. This finding helped us in opening the door of elucidating the enzymatic basis of blood types in human. Based on these successful studies, a strategy to establish reliable techniques to elucidate the structures and functions of the N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins was devised. It was to contrive enzymatic and chemical means to release quantitatively the N-linked sugar chains as oligosaccharides, and finger-print them by using appropriate methods to demonstrate the sugar pattern of a glycoprotein. These methods enabled us to determine that the N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins can be classified into three subgroups: high mannose-type, complex-type, and hybrid-type. By comparative studies of the sugar patterns of a glycoprotein produced by different organs and different animals, occurrences of organ- and species-specific glycosylation were found in many glycoproteins. By comparative studies of the glycosylation patterns of the subunits constructing human chorionic gonadotropin and other glycoproteins, occurrence of site-directed N-glycosylation was also found, indicating that the processing and maturation of the N-linked sugar chains of a glycoprotein might be controlled by the structure of polypeptide moiety. Furthermore, these methods enabled us to elucidate the structural alteration of the sugar chains of a glycoprotein induced by diseased state of the producing cells, such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignancy. Recent studies of glycoproteins in the brain-nervous system through aging revealed that N-glycosylation of P(0) in the rat spinal cord is induced by aging. Therefore, glycobiology is expanding tremendously into fields such as pathological and gerontological research. PMID:15158661

Kobata, Akira

2004-06-15

390

A case study on co-exposure to a mixture of organic solvents in a Tunisian adhesive-producing company  

PubMed Central

Objectives to assess environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organic solvents in a glue-manufacturing company in Sfax, Tunisia. Methods Exposure of volunteer workers, in the solvented glue-work-stations, in the control laboratory and in the storage rooms of the finished products, was assessed through indoor-air and urine measurements. Informed consent of the workers was obtained. Results and discussion The exposure indexes were found with high values in the solvented workshop as well as in the control laboratory and were respectively, 8.40 and 3.12. These indexes were also correlated with hexane and toluene indoor air concentrations. As to urine, the obtained results for the 2,5-hexandione and hippuric acid, metabolites of hexane and toluene, respectively, were in accord with the indoor-air measurements, with an average of 0.46 mg/l and 1240 mg/g of creatinine. Conclusion This study assessed for the first time biological exposure to organic solvents used in Tunisian adhesive industries. Although values are likely to underestimate true exposure levels, some figures exceed European and American occupational exposure guidelines.

2011-01-01

391

Organic \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents for the first time a 4-bit microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) phase shifter fabricated on, integrated, and packaged into an organic flexible low-permittivity material. A microstrip switched-line phase shifter has been optimized at 14 GHz for small size and excellent performance. In addition, the MEMS phase shifter was packaged in an all-organic flexible low-permittivity liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) package. The

Nickolas Kingsley; John Papapolymerou

2006-01-01

392

Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

2010-12-01

393

Fusicoccin-induced catalase inhibitor is produced independently of H+-ATPase activation and behaves as an organic acid.  

PubMed

The phytotoxin fusicoccin (FC) was found to induce an increase in apoplastic H?O? content in Arabidopsis thaliana cells, apparently linked to the presence of an as yet unidentified catalase inhibitor detectable even in the external medium of FC-treated cells. This study, aimed to further characterize the inhibitor's features, shows that (1) FC-induced H?O? accumulation increases as a function of FC concentration and correlates to the amount of inhibitor released at apoplastic level. The pattern of H+ efflux, conversely, does not fit with that of these two parameters, suggesting that neither the production nor the release of the catalase inhibitor is linked to the main role of FC in activating the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase; (2) treatment with 10 µM erythrosine B (EB) early and totally inhibits net H+ and K+ fluxes across the PM, indicative of the H+ pump activity; nevertheless, also in these conditions a huge FC-induced H?O? accumulation occurs, confirming that this effect is not related to the FC-induced PM H+-ATPase activation; (3) the inhibitor's release increases with time in all conditions tested and is markedly affected by extracellular pH (a higher pH value being associated to a larger efflux), in agreement with a weak acid release; and (4) the inhibitor can be almost completely recovered in a CH?C?-soluble fraction extracted from the incubation medium by sequential acid-base partitioning which contains nearly all of the organic acids released. These final results strongly suggest that the metabolite responsible for the FC-induced catalase inhibition belongs to the organic acid class. PMID:21320127

Beffagna, Nicoletta; Riva, Marzia Alessandra

2011-03-09

394

Role of glycosylation and deglycosylation in biosynthesis of and resistance to oleandomycin in the producer organism, Streptomyces antibioticus.  

PubMed Central

Cell extracts of Streptomyces antibioticus, an oleandomycin producer, can inactivate oleandomycin in the presence of UDP-glucose. The inactivation can be detected through the loss of biological activity or by alteration in the chromatographic mobility of the antibiotic. This enzyme activity also inactivates other macrolides (rosaramicin, methymycin, and lankamycin) which contain a free 2'-OH group in a monosaccharide linked to the lactone ring (with the exception of erythromycin), but not those which contain a disaccharide (tylosin, spiramycin, carbomycin, josamycin, niddamycin, and relomycin). Interestingly, the culture supernatant contains another enzyme activity capable of reactivating the glycosylated oleandomycin and regenerating the biological activity through the release of a glucose molecule. It is proposed that these two enzyme activities could be an integral part of the oleandomycin biosynthetic pathway. Images

Vilches, C; Hernandez, C; Mendez, C; Salas, J A

1992-01-01

395

Role of glycosylation and deglycosylation in biosynthesis of and resistance to oleandomycin in the producer organism, Streptomyces antibioticus.  

PubMed

Cell extracts of Streptomyces antibioticus, an oleandomycin producer, can inactivate oleandomycin in the presence of UDP-glucose. The inactivation can be detected through the loss of biological activity or by alteration in the chromatographic mobility of the antibiotic. This enzyme activity also inactivates other macrolides (rosaramicin, methymycin, and lankamycin) which contain a free 2'-OH group in a monosaccharide linked to the lactone ring (with the exception of erythromycin), but not those which contain a disaccharide (tylosin, spiramycin, carbomycin, josamycin, niddamycin, and relomycin). Interestingly, the culture supernatant contains another enzyme activity capable of reactivating the glycosylated oleandomycin and regenerating the biological activity through the release of a glucose molecule. It is proposed that these two enzyme activities could be an integral part of the oleandomycin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:1530845

Vilches, C; Hernandez, C; Mendez, C; Salas, J A

1992-01-01

396

Independent Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program designed to teach daily living skills to high school students of varying abilities is described. Teaching methods emphasize resource person, field trips, and actual experience; objectives are set in the areas of business, home economics, and social studies to enable students to live responsibly after high school. (AJ)

Atwood, Glenna

1974-01-01

397

Bridging nonliving and living matter.  

PubMed

Assembling non-biological materials (geomaterials) into a proto-organism constitutes a bridge between nonliving and living matter. In this article we present a simple step-by-step route to assemble a proto-organism. Many pictures have been proposed to describe this transition within the origins-of-life and artificial life communities, and more recently alternative pictures have been emerging from advances in nanoscience and biotechnology. The proposed proto-organism lends itself to both traditions and defines a new picture based on a simple idea: Given a set of required functionalities, minimize the physicochemical structures that support these functionalities, and make sure that all structures self-assemble and mutually enhance each other's existence. The result is the first concrete, rational design of a simple physicochemical system that integrates the key functionalities in a thermodynamically favorable manner as a lipid aggregate integrates proto-genes and a proto-metabolism. Under external pumping of free energy, the metabolic processes produce the required building blocks, and only specific gene sequences enhance the metabolic kinetics sufficiently for the whole system to survive. We propose an experimental implementation of the proto-organism with a discussion of our experimental results, together with relevant results produced by other experimental groups, and we specify what is still missing experimentally. Identifying the missing steps is just as important as providing the road map for the transition. We derive the kinetic and thermodynamic conditions of each of the proto-organism subsystems together with relevant theoretical and computational results about these subsystems. We present and discuss detailed 3D simulations of the lipid aggregation processes. From the reaction kinetics we derive analytical aggregate size distributions, and derive key properties of the metabolic efficiency and stability. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the ligation directed self-replication of the proto-genes is discussed, and we summarize the full life cycle of the proto-organism by comparing size, replication time, and energy with the biomass efficiency of contemporary unicells. Finally, we also compare our proto-organism picture with existing origins-of-life and protocell pictures. By assembling one possible bridge between nonliving and living matter we hope to provide a piece in the ancient puzzle about who we are and where we come from. PMID:14556688

Rasmussen, Steen; Chen, Liaohai; Nilsson, Martin; Abe, Shigeaki

2003-01-01

398

Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Schultz, Ms.

2007-11-05

399

Medicago truncatula increases its iron-uptake mechanisms in response to volatile organic compounds produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti.  

PubMed

Medicago truncatula represents a model plant species for understanding legume-bacteria interactions. M. truncatula roots form a specific root-nodule symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation generates high iron (Fe) demands for bacterial nitrogenase holoenzyme and plant leghemoglobin proteins. Leguminous plants acquire Fe via "Strategy I," which includes mechanisms such as rhizosphere acidification and enhanced ferric reductase activity. In the present work, we analyzed the effect of S. meliloti volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the Fe-uptake mechanisms of M. truncatula seedlings under Fe-deficient and Fe-rich conditions. Axenic cultures showed that both plant and bacterium modified VOC synthesis in the presence of the respective symbiotic partner. Importantly, in both Fe-rich and -deficient experiments, bacterial VOCs increased the generation of plant biomass, rhizosphere acidification, ferric reductase activity, and chlorophyll content in plants. On the basis of our results, we propose that M. truncatula perceives its symbiont through VOC emissions, and in response, increases Fe-uptake mechanisms to facilitate symbiosis. PMID:23564626

Del Carmen Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes I; Santoyo, Gustavo; Farías-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

2013-04-07

400

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments—nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed.

Zima, Tatyana; Baklanova, Natalya; Bataev, Ivan

2013-02-01

401

Lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of triricinolein in organic solvent to produce 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to find the optimal parameters for lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of triricinolein to produce 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein. Four different immobilized lipases were tested, Candida antarctica type B (CALB), Rhizomucor miehei (RML), Pseudomonas cepacia (PCL), and Penicillium roquefortii (PRL). n-Hexane and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) were examined as reaction media at three different water activities (a(w)), 0.11, 0.53, and 0.97. The consumption of triricinolein and the formation of 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein, methyl ricinoleate, and ricinoleic acid were followed for up to 48 h. PRL gave the highest yield of 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein. Moreover, this lipase showed the highest specificity for the studied reaction, i.e., high selectivity for the reaction with triricinolein but low for 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein. Recoveries of 93 and 88% DAG were obtained using PRL in DIPE at a(w) of 0.11 and 0.53, respectively. Further, NMR studies showed that a higher purity of the 1,2(2,3)-isomer vs. the 1,3-isomer was achieved at higher a(w) (88% at a(w) = 0.53), compared to lower a(w) (71% at a(w) = 0.11). The DAG obtained was acylated by the DAG acyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, this enzymatic product is a useful enzyme substrate for lipid biosynthesis. Accordingly, the use of PRL in DIPE at a(w) 0.53 is considered optimal for the synthesis of 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein from triricinolein. PMID:14733366

Turner, Charlotta; He, Xiaohua; Nguyen, Tasha; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Wong, Rosalind Y; Lundin, Robert E; Harden, Leslie; McKeon, Thomas

2003-11-01

402

Genomic organization and molecular analysis of virulent bacteriophage 2972 infecting an exopolysaccharide-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strain.  

PubMed

The Streptococcus thermophilus virulent pac-type phage 2972 was isolated from a yogurt made in France in 1999. It is a representative of several phages that have emerged with the industrial use of the exopolysaccharide-producing S. thermophilus strain RD534. The genome of phage 2972 has 34,704 bp with an overall G+C content of 40.15%, making it the shortest S. thermophilus phage genome analyzed so far. Forty-four open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins of 40 or more amino acids were identified, and bioinformatic analyses led to the assignment of putative functions to 23 ORFs. Comparative genomic analysis of phage 2972 with the six other sequenced S. thermophilus phage genomes confirmed that the replication module is conserved and that cos- and pac-type phages have distinct structural and packaging genes. Two group I introns were identified in the genome of 2972. They interrupted the genes coding for the putative endolysin and the terminase large subunit. Phage mRNA splicing was demonstrated for both introns, and the secondary structures were predicted. Eight structural proteins were also identified by N-terminal sequencing and/or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Detailed analysis of the putative minor tail proteins ORF19 and ORF21 as well as the putative receptor-binding protein ORF20 showed the following interesting features: (i) ORF19 is a hybrid protein, because it displays significant identity with both pac- and cos-type phages; (ii) ORF20 is unique; and (iii) a protein similar to ORF21 of 2972 was also found in the structure of the cos-type phage DT1, indicating that this structural protein is present in both S. thermophilus phage groups. The implications of these findings for phage classification are discussed. PMID:16000821

Lévesque, Céline; Duplessis, Martin; Labonté, Jessica; Labrie, Steve; Fremaux, Christophe; Tremblay, Denise; Moineau, Sylvain

2005-07-01

403

Is it living or non living?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once completed, students will have a deeper understanding of what is living and non living. Students will be able to identify the characteristics of non living and living things and will be able to classify them in an environment. Take this pretest to test your knowlege of living and non living things.Beginning Quiz Read this to learn more about living and non living things.Living vs Non Living Things Living things need 7 characteristics of life. Click on this link to learn more about what they are.7 Characteristics of Living Things Living and non living things have different characteristics. Look ...

Aitken, Miss

2009-04-17

404

Orca Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

405

Living or Nonliving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

2011-01-01

406

Dementia and Assisted Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living set- tings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the Journals of Gerontology, and The Gerontologist. We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and reviewed them. Results: The article describes

Joan Hyde; Rosa Perez; Brent Forester

2007-01-01

407

Living Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Living Library, a series of video documents concerned with environmental management, has been used on Texas Tech campus and has been aired commercially to disseminate park and recreation philosophies of notable, contemporary leaders in the field. (MB)|

Mertes, J. D.; And Others

1971-01-01

408

Living Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

Mules, B. R.

1976-01-01

409

Living Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)|

Mules, B. R.

1976-01-01

410

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... of residences participating in the research have lower fees and half have higher fees. The rental rate includes the base rent and service fees charged by the assisted living community. While 86. ...

411

organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic com- ponents: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness com- ponents drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ-soma

RICHARD E. MICHOD

412

Volcano Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcano Live contains maps of volcanoes from around the world, a kids' page that provides volcano education links for teachers and students, a volcano glossary, volcano news, links to live video cams of volcanoes, geography and volcano information of countries around the world, and video clips of active volcanoes. There is also information for travelling to volcanoes, a volcano photo section, a section on the destruction of Pompeii, a volcanology section, and volcano safety rules.

Seach, John

413

Insights into cell membrane microdomain organization from live cell single particle tracking of the IgE high affinity receptor Fc?RI of mast cells.  

PubMed

Current models propose that the plasma membrane of animal cells is composed of heterogeneous and dynamic microdomains known variously as cytoskeletal corrals, lipid rafts and protein islands. Much of the experimental evidence for these membrane compartments is indirect. Recently, live cell single particle tracking studies using quantum dot-labeled IgE bound to its high affinity receptor Fc?RI, provided direct evidence for the confinement of receptors within micrometer-scale cytoskeletal corrals. In this study, we show that an innovative time-series analysis of single particle tracking data for the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, on mast cells provides substantial quantitative information about the submicrometer organization of the membrane. The analysis focuses on the probability distribution function of the lengths of the jumps in the positions of the quantum dots labeling individual IgE Fc?RI complexes between frames in movies of their motion. Our results demonstrate the presence, within the micrometer-scale cytoskeletal corrals, of smaller subdomains that provide an additional level of receptor confinement. There is no characteristic size for these subdomains; their size varies smoothly from a few tens of nanometers to a over a hundred nanometers. In QD-IGE labeled unstimulated cells, jumps of less than 70 nm predominate over longer jumps. Addition of multivalent antigen to crosslink the QD-IgE-Fc?RI complexes causes a rapid slowing of receptor motion followed by a long tail of mostly jumps less than 70 nm. The reduced receptor mobility likely reflects both the membrane heterogeneity revealed by the confined motion of the monomeric receptor complexes and the antigen-induced cross linking of these complexes into dimers and higher oligomers. In both cases, the probability distribution of the jump lengths is well fit, from 10 nm to over 100 nm, by a novel power law. The fit for short jumps suggests that the motion of the quantum dots can be modeled as diffusion in a fractal space of dimension less than two. PMID:22733211

Espinoza, Flor A; Wester, Michael J; Oliver, Janet M; Wilson, Bridget S; Andrews, Nicholas L; Lidke, Diane S; Steinberg, Stanly L

2012-06-26

414

Looking for practical tools to achieve next-future applicability of dark fermentation to produce bio-hydrogen from organic materials in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors.  

PubMed

This study aimed at finding applicable tools for favouring dark fermentation application in full-scale biogas plants in the next future. Firstly, the focus was obtaining mixed microbial cultures from natural sources (soil-inocula and anaerobically digested materials), able to efficiently produce bio-hydrogen by dark fermentation. Batch reactors with proper substrate (1 gL(glucose)(-1)) and metabolites concentrations, allowed high H(2) yields (2.8 ± 0.66 mol H(2)mol(glucose)(-1)), comparable to pure microbial cultures achievements. The application of this methodology to four organic substrates, of possible interest for full-scale plants, showed promising and repeatable bio-H(2) potential (BHP=202 ± 3 NL(H2)kg(VS)(-1)) from organic fraction of municipal source-separated waste (OFMSW). Nevertheless, the fermentation in a lab-scale CSTR (nowadays the most diffused typology of biogas-plant) of a concentrated organic mixture of OFMSW (126 g(TS)L(-1)) resulted in only 30% of its BHP, showing that further improvements are still needed for future full-scale applications of dark fermentation. PMID:21704518

Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Lonati, S; Malagutti, L; Oberti, R; Adani, F

2011-06-24

415

Living and Non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is intended to help students understand the difference between living and non-living things by teaching them the characteristics of living things. Introduction: We know what living things are, right? People are living things, aren't they? Can you think of any other living things? How do you know they are living? Task: If you were asked to explain what the difference between living and non-living things, how would you? This ...

Davies, Mrs.

2010-02-11

416

Positive Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.

417

HIV Transmitted from a Living Organ Donor - New York City, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 60, No. 10, March 18, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Routine screening of organ donors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has made transmission of HIV through organ transplantation rare in the United States. However, despite routine screening, transmission of HIV can be an uncommon complicatio...

2011-01-01

418

Interpersonal and Inter?organizational Networks in the Performing Arts: The Case of Project?Based Organizations in the Live Music Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of the paper is to contribute to the literature on project?based organizations (PBOs), concerning how temporary organizations are nested in an organizational setting that involves interpersonal and inter?organizational networks. Special attention is paid to the performing arts. A PBO is defined here as an organization that uses a one?shot method of organizing transactions, created by the ability

Silvia R. Sedita

2008-01-01

419

Motivational interaction between living systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of motivation applies not only to animal organisms, but also to other levels of living systems as well. Indeed, any two living systems, such as a psychologist and a pigeon or a business firm and an employee, may be seen as interacting in order to motivate each other. Motivational influence, far from being unidirectional as it is often

1989-01-01

420

Do Living Wage Policies Diffuse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research note examines the conditions under which large U.S. cities pass living wage laws. It updates the only published article on the subject with new data and improved analytic meth- ods. First, it shows that poverty, privatization, and the density of community organizations are associated with policy passage. Second, it provides new quantitative evidence that the living wage movement

ISAAC MARTIN

2006-01-01

421

CBER Foreign Regulators Seminar (Live)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... The live seminar is generally open only to staff from foreign pharmaceutical regulatory (government) authorities at the request of their organizations. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

422

Innovative Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Innovative Lives Web Site is offered by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and the Smithsonian Institution. "Innovative Lives counters commonly held stereotypes about inventors by featuring speakers with diverse backgrounds," such as Dr. Patricia Bath, an African-American woman who invented the Laserphaco Probe for the treatment of cataracts and founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Over thirty inventors are featured on the site, which gives excellent information about each, telling of their lives and what they have accomplished. Although it is intended for kids, the site will be of interest to anyone looking to learn about many of the most important and unknown contributors to the scientific world.

2002-01-01

423

[Living better or living longer].  

PubMed

It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious organization such as the World Health Organization. Assurance of sufficient care to protect health would be a more realistic goal than the illusory "health for all". Future gains in mortality control will be made primarily in endogenous diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease that prolong life in the retirement years rather than in youth. Thorny moral and economic questions will ensue as health care for the elderly becomes more expensive and as the population ages. Contrary to a widely held belief, aging of the population is due to fertility decline rather than mortality decline. By the year 2000, health care in France may consume a larger part of household income than food. Sterilization of individuals with hereditary diseases, the influence of health care on the balance of payments, and the funding of social security systems are among the issues that will become more pressing in the future. PMID:3427520

Sauvy, A

424

Organ Harvesting and Transplants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

2010-01-01

425

Independent Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

1994-01-01

426

Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

2009-01-01

427

Living Nanomachines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication

M.-F. Carlier; E. Helfer; R. Wade; F. Haraux

2009-01-01

428

Living History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

Walsh, Mark

2005-01-01

429

Emergence of DHA-1-Producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian Region: Genetic Organization of the ampC and ampR Genes Originating from Morganella morganii  

PubMed Central

Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C ?-lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the blaDHA-1 genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the Morganella morganii-derived genomic region containing blaDHA-1 was inserted in an entire complex sul1-type integron, including a region common to In6-In7 (CR1), as previously described in a blaDHA-1-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis KF92 isolate from Saudi Arabia in 1992. Different gene cassette arrays were characterized in each of these integrons. In two of them, an additional 10-kb fragment was inserted between the CR1 and the M. morganii-derived region and was similar to the sap (ABC transporter family) and psp (phage shock protein) operons originated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The length of the M. morganii region was variable, suggesting that several independent recombination events have occurred and that open reading frame orf513 encodes a recombinase involved in the mobilization of the resistance genes. The genetic organization of blaDHA-1 was identical in the eight other isolates. This structure is likely derived from a complex integron following the insertion of IS26, leading to the deletion of the first part of integron. The horizontal transfer of one plasmid carrying that truncated integron was shown for seven of these isolates.

Verdet, Charlotte; Benzerara, Yahia; Gautier, Valerie; Adam, Olivier; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Arlet, Guillaume

2006-01-01

430

Living and non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things often rely on non-living things to accomplish daily tasks. Living things have several characteristics that non-living things do not, such as the ability to move, eat, breathe, and reproduce. Living things and non-living things can interact even though they do not have the same characteristics.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

431

Positioning the products of synthetic biology at the borderline between living and non-living matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference between a non-living machine such as a vacuum cleaner and a living organism as a lion seems to be obvious. The two types of entities differ in their material consistence, their origin, their development and their purpose. This apparently clear-cut borderline has previously been challenged by fictitious ideas of ''artificial organism'' and ''living machines'' as well as by

Anna Deplazes; Markus Huppenbauer

432

The Uses and Consequences of Literacy in the Daily Lives of Ordinary People: From an Evaluation of Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To evaluate the Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ), an organization whose aim is to achieve universal literacy in Zimbabwe, a study interviewed officials at ALOZ, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and other institutions involved in literacy development; reviewed relevant literature and documents;…

Bhola, H. S.

433

Saving Lives Branch by Branch: The Effectiveness of Driver Licensing Bureau Campaigns to Promote Organ Donor Registry Sign-Ups to African Americans in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

African Americans are disproportionately represented on the national waiting list for organ transplantation. Promoting organ donor registries is one way to improve the possibility that those on the waiting list can receive a life saving transplant. Driver licensing bureaus have been suggested as an efficient site for campaigns aimed at increasing state-based registry sign-ups. Previous research has suggested these campaigns

Tyler R. Harrison; Susan E. Morgan; Andy J. King; Elizabeth A. Williams

2011-01-01

434

Application of living ionic polymerizations to the design of AB-type comb-like copolymers of various topologies and organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living anionic and cationic polymerizations have been combined to prepare various types of comb-like copolymers composed of\\u000a polystyrene (PS) and polyisoprene (PI) blocks, with a precisely controlled architecture. According to the relative placement\\u000a of these elementary building blocks, combs with randomly distributed PS and PI or with poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock branches (I &II, respectively) can be prepared. The reaction procedure initially

David Lanson; Fumi Ariura; Michel Schappacher; Redouane Borsali; Alain Deffieux

2007-01-01

435

The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

2002-01-01

436

Living with your ileostomy  

MedlinePLUS

... ileostomy - living with; Continent ileostomy - living with; Abdominal pouch - living with; End ileostomy - living with; Ostomy - living ... Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You will need to learn ...

437

Soil organic matter contribution to the NW Mediterranean (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BIT (Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether) index has recently been introduced as a proxy for soil organic matter input and is based on the relative abundance of non-isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) derived from organisms living in terrestrial environments versus a structurally related isoprenoid GDGT ``crenarchaeol'' produced by marine Crenarchaeota (Hopmans et al., 2004). In this study, detailed spatial

J. Kim; R. Buscail; J. Blokker; P. Kerhervé; S. Schouten; W. Ludwig; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté

2009-01-01

438

EDUCAUSE Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people know about EDUCAUSE and their work in promoting information technology across higher education, and the EDUCAUSE Live! series fits quite nicely into that mission. Each program in the series consists of an hour-long interactive web seminar, and visitors can interact directly with the host and guests. It is important to register early for each seminar, as they can be quite popular. On the site, visitors can sign up to learn about upcoming programs, and they can also read brief summaries of those events in the near future.

439

Characterization of non-photochemically formed oligomers from methylglyoxal: a pathway to produce secondary organic aerosol through cloud processing during night-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous-phase oligomer formation from methylglyoxal, a major atmospheric photooxidation product, has been investigated in a simulated cloud matrix under dark conditions. The aim of this study was to explore an additional path producing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through cloud processes without photochemistry during night-time. Indeed, atmospheric models still underestimate SOA formation, as field measurements have revealed more SOA than predicted. Soluble oligomers (n=1-8) formed in the course of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation and acid-catalyzed hydration followed by acetal formation have been detected and characterized by positive and negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Aldol condensation proved to be a favorable mechanism under simulated cloud conditions, while hydration/acetal formation was found to strongly depend on the pH of the system. The aldol oligomer series starts with a ?-hydroxy ketone via aldol condensation, where oligomers are formed by multiple additions of C3H4O2 units (72 Da) to the parent ?-hydroxy ketone. Ion trap mass spectrometry experiments were performed to structurally characterize the major oligomer species. A mechanistic pathway for the growth of oligomers under cloud conditions and in the absence of UV-light and OH radicals, which could substantially enhance in-cloud SOA yields, is proposed here for the first time.

Yasmeen, F.; Sauret, N.; Gal, J. F.; Maria, P.-C.; Massi, L.; Maenhaut, W.; Claeys, M.

2009-10-01

440

The hydrogen-bonded dianion of vitamin K1 produced in aqueous-organic solutions exists in equilibrium with its hydrogen-bonded semiquinone anion radical.  

PubMed

When the quinone, vitamin K1 (VK1), is electrochemically reduced in aqueous-acetonitrile solutions (CH3CN with 7.22 M H2O), it undergoes a two-electron reduction to form the dianion that is hydrogen-bonded with water [VK1(H2O)y(2–)]. EPR and voltammetry experiments have shown that the persistent existence of the semiquinone anion radical (also hydrogen-bonded with water) [VK1(H2O)x(–•)] in aqueous or organic–aqueous solutions is a result of VK1(H2O)y(2–) undergoing a net homogeneous electron transfer reaction (comproportionation) with VK1, and not via direct one-electron reduction of VK1. When 1 mM solutions of VK1 were electrochemically reduced by two electrons in aqueous-acetonitrile solutions, quantitative EPR experiments indicated that the amount of VK1(H2O)x(–•) produced was up to approximately 35% of all the reduced species. In situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR experiments on sequentially one- and two-electron bulk reduced solutions of VK1 (showing strong absorbances at 1664, 1598, and 1298 cm(–1)) in CH3CN containing <0.05 M H2O led to the detection of VK1(–•) with strong absorbances at 1710, 1703, 1593, 1559, 1492, and 1466 cm(–1) and VK1(H2O)y(2–) with strong absorbances at 1372 and 1342 cm(–1). PMID:23398469

Lim, Zhen Hui; Chng, Elaine Lay Khim; Hui, Yanlan; Webster, Richard D

2013-02-19