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1

[ESBL producing organisms].  

PubMed

The isolation frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms, especially CTX-M-15 producing Escherichia coli, is increasing worldwide. The predominant ESBL producing E. coli epidemic clone in humans is O25b: H4-ST131. ESBL producers are isolated not only from infected patients but also healthy humans, domestic animals, foods and the environment. However few E.coli ST131 clone are isolated from domestic animals or foods. Futhermore CTX-M-1 or CTX-M-9 is the predominant subgroups found in human whereas the CTX-M-2 subgroup is the predominant ESBL isolated from non-human samples. Accordingly, there is no direct evidence of spread of ESBL producers between humans and domestic animals or foods. PMID:22413528

Ishii, Yoshikazu

2012-02-01

2

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

SciTech Connect

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30

3

What Organisms Live in Antarctica?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these activities students will discover the characteristics that enable Antarctica's many life forms to live in this continent of extreme cold, wind, and extended periods of light and darkness. In this weeklong unit, students research how flora and fauna have adapted to thrive in Antarctica, and use their knowledge to create imaginary polar organisms. Throughout this module, students collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain a Web activity in which students investigate the living conditions in Antarctica and some of the adaptations its organisms have made, a classroom activity in which students apply what they have learned to create models of imaginary polar creatures, several readings that provide a broad perspective, including excerpts from early explorers' journals, and question and answer interviews with scientists working in Antarctica. Teacher tools include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, teacher strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, a student handout with guidance for putting together their portfolios and examples of creative final projects, and additional readings.

4

Ecotoxicology: Nanoparticle Reactivity and Living Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is a major source of innovation with important economic consequences. However, the potential risks for health and the environment have raised questions on national, European, and international levels. Past experience of sanitary, technological, and environmental risks has shown that it is not a good policy to attempt to deal with them after the fact. It is thus crucial to assess the risks as early on as possible. A particular problem is the potential dissmination of mass produced man-made nanoparticles into the environment [1, 2]. Nanomaterials represent a particular hazard for humans due to their ability to penetrate and subsequently damage living organisms [3]. Indeed, the data available at the present time shows that some nanomaterials, especially insoluble particles, can cross biological barriers and distribute themselves within living organisms.

Auffan, Mélanie; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Thill, Antoine; Mouchet, Florence; Carrière, Marie; Gauthier, Laury; Achouak, Wafa; Rose, Jérôme; Wiesner, Mark R.; Bottero, Jean-Yves

5

[Are liquid crystals living organisms?].  

PubMed

In 1888 the Austrian botanist F. Reinitzer made the observation that the solid compound cholesteryl-benzoate changes - when melting at 145.5 oC - into a cloudy liquid, that however, turns into a clear liquid at 178.5 oC and higher temperatures. The cloudy liquid seemed to be doubly refracting. Soon a number of these so-called 'liquid crystals' were discovered; in 1908 D. Vorländer, professor of organic chemistry at Halle, described more than 250 of these substances. It was O. Lehmann, professor of physics at Aachen (1885), Dresden (1888) and Karlsruhe (1889), who immediately after Reinitzer's observation began a systematic study of these liquid crystals. In The Netherlands the Amsterdam professor of physican chemistry H. W. Bakhuis Roozeboom was interested in liquid crystals, in particular because of their place in his phase system. F.M. Jaeger, at that time teaching chemistry in a secondary school in Zaandam (near Amsterdam) and working as an unpaid university lecturer at the Amsterdam university (by recommendation of Bakhuis Roozeboom), investigated liquid crystals (1906), as did a number of doctoral students (A.C. de Kock, 1903; A. Prins, 1907). At the university of Utrecht L.S. Ornstein, professor of physics, gave the study of liquid crystals a prominent place in his research programme. The discovery of liquid crystals, which seemed to be able to grow, move, divide, copulate, and so on, led to a discussion on the nature of these substances. Time and again Lehmann called them 'apparently living crystals', although without considering them as 'real living beings'. In his book Flüssige Kristalle und die Theorien des Lebens (1906), Lehmann proved to be an obvious adherent of the monistic views of the biologist E. Haeckel. Haeckel considered the existence of liquid crystals as proof of the unity between the inorganic and the organic world that he believed in so strongly. In his last book, Kristallseelen. Studien über das Anorganische Leben (1917), he considered liquid crystals a real form of life, as did F. Rinne, professor of mineralogy and petrography, as late as in the nineteen thirties. PMID:11625121

Snelders, H A

1997-01-01

6

Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms  

DOEpatents

Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

Wong; Pak C. (Richland, WA), Wong; Kwong K. (Sugar Land, TX), Foote; Harlan P. (Richland, WA)

2006-06-06

7

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum and AmpC ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and in people living and/or working on organic broiler farms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum and AmpC ?-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC)-producing Escherichia coli among broilers, and humans living and/or working on organic broiler farms; further characterise isolates; and compare these results with those from conventional farms. In the Netherlands, only 9 certified organic broiler farms were present. On 8 of these farms, 60 throat swabs and 20 cloacal swabs were taken per farm for MRSA and ESBL/AmpC-E. coli detection, respectively, at an average age of both 34 (T1) and 68 (T2) days. Faecal swabs and questionnaires were returned by 27 out of 36 humans. For selected ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolates, phylogenetic groups, ?-lactamase genes, plasmid families, and sequence types were determined. MRSA was not detected in broiler and human samples. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from broilers on 7/8 farms at T1 and on all farms at T2. Furthermore, 3 farmers at T1, and 2 farmers and 1 family member at T2 were positive. Genes found in broilers and humans were almost exclusively blaCTX-M-1 and blaCMY-2. Given the high overall human ESBL/AmpC-prevalence (18.5%), which is similar to conventional farms, contact with live broilers is assumed a risk factor for carriage. Farm and sample-level prevalence at T1 are consistent with those from conventional farms. At T2, just before slaughter, sample-level prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-E. coli appears to have decreased (94.3% vs. 80%), which could have important consequences for contamination of retail meat. PMID:25582613

Huijbers, Patricia M C; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Haenen, Anja P J; Florijn, Alice; Hengeveld, Paul D; van Duijkeren, Engeline

2015-03-23

8

Ion produced cometary organic crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For several years many experimental results have been obtained on the chemical and physical changes induced by ion and electron irradiation of materials with a view to their Astrophysical relevance. Among the studied effects, one of particular interest is the formation of an organic refractory residue left over after ion irradiation and warming-up at room temperature. We call this residue IPHAC (ion produced hydrogenated amorphous carbon). Although 'in situ' infrared spectroscopy points out the formation of new molecular species during bombardment at low temperature, it is not clear if IPHAC is already formed or if its formation is triggered by temperature increase during warming-up of the irradiated target. Since Raman Spectroscopy is a technique particularly suitable for the analysis of carbonaceous materials, we have thought and build-up an experimental apparatus to obtain Raman Spectra of frozen hydrocarbons during ion irradiation. The present experimental results point out clearly to the formation of IPHAC already at low T and low energy deposition (approximately equal to a few eV/C-atom).

Baratta, G. Antonio; Strazzulla, G.

1992-01-01

9

Living Organisms for the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication was prepared for elementary teachers and other local personnel responsible for providing, maintaining and using living organisms to enhance elementary science programs. The manual contains a foreword, general information, and an appendix. It gives information concerning equipment and supplies, establishing and maintaining an…

Hampton, Carolyn H.; Hampton, Carol D.

10

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section 1205.341... Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer...

2010-01-01

11

Form, function, and evolution of living organisms.  

PubMed

Despite the vast diversity of sizes and shapes of living organisms, life's organization across scales exhibits remarkable commonalities, most notably through the approximate validity of Kleiber's law, the power law scaling of metabolic rates with the mass of an organism. Here, we present a derivation of Kleiber's law that is independent of the specificity of the myriads of organism species. Specifically, we account for the distinct geometries of trees and mammals as well as deviations from the pure power law behavior of Kleiber's law, and predict the possibility of life forms with geometries intermediate between trees and mammals. We also make several predictions in excellent accord with empirical data. Our theory relates the separate evolutionary histories of plants and animals through the fundamental physics underlying their distinct overall forms and physiologies. PMID:24550479

Banavar, Jayanth R; Cooke, Todd J; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

2014-03-01

12

Evolution of temporal order in living organisms  

PubMed Central

Circadian clocks are believed to have evolved in parallel with the geological history of the earth, and have since been fine-tuned under selection pressures imposed by cyclic factors in the environment. These clocks regulate a wide variety of behavioral and metabolic processes in many life forms. They enhance the fitness of organisms by improving their ability to efficiently anticipate periodic events in their external environments, especially periodic changes in light, temperature and humidity. Circadian clocks provide fitness advantage even to organisms living under constant conditions, such as those prevailing in the depth of oceans or in subterranean caves, perhaps by coordinating several metabolic processes in the internal milieu. Although the issue of adaptive significance of circadian rhythms has always remained central to circadian biology research, it has never been subjected to systematic and rigorous empirical validation. A few studies carried out on free-living animals under field conditions and simulated periodic and aperiodic conditions of the laboratory suggest that circadian rhythms are of adaptive value to their owners. However, most of these studies suffer from a number of drawbacks such as lack of population-level replication, lack of true controls and lack of adequate control on the genetic composition of the populations, which in many ways limits the potential insights gained from the studies. The present review is an effort to critically discuss studies that directly or indirectly touch upon the issue of adaptive significance of circadian rhythms and highlight some shortcomings that should be avoided while designing future experiments. PMID:15869714

Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

2005-01-01

13

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2012-01-01

14

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2011-01-01

15

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2010-01-01

16

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2014-01-01

17

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2013-01-01

18

BIOGLYPHS: A Living Collaboration with Bioluminescent Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BIOGLYPHS is an art and science collaboration initiated by members of the Center for Biofilm Engineering and the Montana State University School of Art. This website features two BIOGLYPHS exhibitions of living bioluminescent paintings that were created by teams of student and staff artists, scientists and engineers in 2002. The site includes a gallery of BIOGLYPH paintings, information about collaborators, comments from the guest book, and links to media coverage and related web pages.

Art, Msu-Bozeman S.; Engineering, Center F.

19

Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations.  

PubMed

This report analyzes the life span of Ig-containing cells (IgCC) in different sites of antibody production. The experimental approach was based upon the observations that most IgCC are derived from proliferating precursors while IgCC themselves are mainly nondividing end cells. Rats were given a continuous infusion of [3H] thymidine via an osmotic pump inserted in the peritoneal cavity. At intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 10 days after starting infusions, tissues were taken and analyzed by a combination of immunohistology and autoradiography to identify the proportions of IgCC which had gone through S phase of the cell cycle during the period of infusion. After 3 days infusion the median and (range) percent-labeled IgCC in the medullary cords of mesenteric and cervical lymph nodes and the red pulp of the spleen were, respectively, 88 (81-90), 75 (66-77) and 88 (82-93). Conversely that for IgCC in bone marrow was only 13 (11-17) and that in the lamina propria of the jejunum 47 (33-68). The rate of increase in labeling of bone marrow IgCC with length of infusion was approximately linear. Extrapolation of this slope suggests that bone marrow IgCC have a life span in excess of 3 weeks. The slopes of increase in IgCC labeled with time for lymph nodes and spleen were clearly biphasic suggesting that while most IgCC in these tissues have a life span of less than 3 days, there is also a minor population of long-lived IgCC. The lamina propria appears to have approximately equal proportions of long and short-lived IgCC. The life span of IgCC, with the exception of IgMCC, appears to be a feature of the site of antibody production rather than the Ig class produced. Almost all IgM-containing cells were found to be short lived. PMID:3490389

Ho, F; Lortan, J E; MacLennan, I C; Khan, M

1986-10-01

20

X-ray microscopy of live biological micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time, compact x-ray microscopy has the potential to benefit many scientific fields, including microbiology, pharmacology, organic chemistry, and physics. Single frame x-ray micro-radiography, produced by a compact, solid-state laser plasma source, allows scientists to use x-ray emission for elemental analysis, and to observe biological specimens in their natural state. In this study, x-ray images of mouse kidney tissue, live bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia, and the bacteria's interaction with the antibiotic gentamicin, are examined using x-ray microscopy. For the purposes of comparing between confocal microscopy and x-ray microscopy, we introduced to our work the technique of gold labeling. Indirect immunofluorescence staining and immuno-gold labeling were applied on human lymphocytes and human tumor cells. Differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) showed the lymphocyte body and nucleus, as did x-ray microscopy. However, the high resolution of x-ray microscopy allows us to differentiate between the gold particles bound to the antibodies and the free gold. A compact, tabletop Nd: glass laser is used in this study to produce x-rays from an Yttrium target. An atomic force microscope is used to scan the x-ray images from the developed photo-resist. The use of compact, tabletop laser plasma sources, in conjunction with x-ray microscopy, is a new technique that has great potential as a flexible, user-friendly scientific research tool.

Raja Al-Ani, Ma'an Nassar

21

Shrinky Dink microbes! icrobes are living organisms smaller  

E-print Network

Shrinky Dink microbes! M icrobes are living organisms smaller than your eyes can see in Yellowstone National Park. Scientists at Montana State University (MSU) are researching how microbes from. Some kinds of microbes, called extremophiles, thrive in places that are freezing, super hot, deep

Maxwell, Bruce D.

22

Effect of living roots on soil organic matter decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contradictory data exist in the literature about the effects of living roots on soil organic matter decom- position. Decomposition of labelled plant material is markedly lowered in the presence of cultivated plant cover or in natural grasslands, when compared to bare soil controls due to the difference of the physical environment between the plant covered soil and the fallow soil

WEIXIN CHENG; D COLEMAN

1990-01-01

23

Active organization of membrane constituents in living cells.  

PubMed

A search for organizing principles underlying molecular patterning at the cell surface and its regulation over different scales is necessary. This is important for understanding how the cell builds membrane bound organelles that emanate from it and for how the cell interacts with its physical and chemical milieu. This requires a broad framework to rationalize the mass of accumulated data about the spatial localization and dynamics of its constituents, and their physical and chemical environment. Lateral heterogeneities in the organization of membrane components of a living cell appear to be a hallmark of how a cell addresses sorting and signaling functions. Here we explore two classes of mechanisms of segregation of membrane components in the plasma membrane. We suggest that viewing the membrane as a passive, thermally equilibrated system is unlikely to provide an adequate framework to understand the mechanisms of membrane component segregation in vivo. Instead the surface of living cells behaves as an active membrane composite. PMID:24975942

Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

2014-08-01

24

Respiratory Chains in the Last Common Ancestor of Living Organisms Jose Castresana,1  

E-print Network

Respiratory Chains in the Last Common Ancestor of Living Organisms Jose Castresana,1 David Moreira2, and polysulfide reductase. These proteins can be assigned to the last common an- cestor of living organisms common ancestor of living organisms was not a simple organism in its energetic metabolism. Rather, it may

Castresana, Jose

25

Real-Time X-Ray ?-IMAGING of Living Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an X-ray ?-radiographic system developed for dynamic high spatial resolution imaging of living small animals. Our system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the hybrid single photon counting silicon pixel detector Medipix2 (matrix 256 × 256 sq. pixels of 55 ?m pitch). As soft tissue exhibits low contrast in classical absorption radiography, we exploit a new method of phase-enhanced imaging. Picture quality is further improved by statistical data analysis and extended calibration of individual pixel's response. Computing tomography provides 3D images of studied samples from radiographic projections. For 3D reconstruction of measured objects we use iterative algorithms which are advantageous for low statistics data, low or incomplete number of projections and complex physical model. This diagnostic system allows real-time observation of inner processes in living organisms and dynamic diagnose of living animals for biological studies. The obtained results and real-time stream video capability is demonstrated on samples of a mouse and living worm, caterpillar, etc.

Dammer, Jiri; Holy, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jakubek, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vavrik, Daniel; Hanus, Robert; Weyda, Frantisek

2008-06-01

26

Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices  

SciTech Connect

The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.

Schmieder, R.W.

1995-07-01

27

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

28

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

29

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

30

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

31

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

32

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

33

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

34

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

35

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

36

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

37

GUIDELINES AND ACCEPTABLE POSTHARVEST PRACTICES FOR ORGANICALLY GROWN PRODUCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic foods are produced using agricultural practices that emphasize renewable resources and conservation of soil and water. Horticultural crops are grown and processed without synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, ingredients and processing aids. Crops or ingredients derived from genetic engineeri...

38

Living Organ Donation: An Ethical Evolution or Evolution of Ethics?  

PubMed Central

The disparity between available and needed organs is rapidly increasing, and the number of patients dying while still on the waiting list is growing exponentially. As a partial solution to this disparity, living unrelated transplantation is being performed more frequently, and some have proposed providing financial incentives to donors. The aim of this discussion is to illustrate that with an ever-increasing number of living unrelated transplantations, society and the transplant community should adopt a more active role in developing specific strategies to scrutinize the process. The current paper will also examine the viewpoint that medical ethics is not separable from the prevailing needs of society and involves a constant balancing of often opposing goods. Issues surrounding living unrelated donor transplantation illustrate ethics as a dynamically evolving field, which is often influenced by necessity and which evolves with progression of science and society. As part of this evolution, it is the collective responsibility of society and the transplant community to devise safeguards to guarantee adherence to basic principles of ethics and to avoid “situational ethics.” PMID:25013566

Ghahramani, N.

2010-01-01

39

Alaskan Direct-Market Consumers: Perception of Organic Produce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of organic produce among Alaskan direct-market patrons (N = 417) was examined in a mailed survey. Response rate was 80%. Responsefrequency was tabulated, and relationships were delineated using chi-square analysis. Healthfulness of the food supply was a concern, despite a perception that quality and healthfulness of thefood supply had improved since 1987. These attributes were also important infresh produce

R. B. Swanson; C. E. Lewis

1993-01-01

40

Living Organisms Coupling to Electromagnetic Radiation Below Thermal Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation is part of the natural environment. Prior to major earthquakes the local ULF and global ELF radiation field is often markedly perturbed. This has detrimental effects on living organisms. We are studying the mechanism of these effects on the biochemical, cellular and organismal levels. The transfer of electrons along the Electron Transfer Chain (ETC) controls the universal reduction-oxidation reactions that are essential for fundamental biochemical processes in living cells. In order for these processes to work properly, the ETC has to maintain some form of synchronization, or coherence with all biochemical reactions in the living cells, including energy production, RNA transcription, and DNA replication. As a consequence of this synchronization, harmful chemical conflict between the reductive and the oxidative partial reactions can be minimized or avoided. At the same time we note that the synchronization allows for a transfer of energy, coherent or interfering, via coupling to the natural ambient EM field. Extremely weak high frequency EM fields, well below the thermal noise level, tuned in frequency to the electron spins of certain steps in the ETC, have already been shown to cause aberrant cell growth and disorientation among plants and animals with respect to the magnetic and gravity vectors. We investigate EM fields over a much wider frequency range, including ULF known to be generated deep in the Earth prior to major earthquakes locally, and ELF known to be fed by lightning discharges, traveling around the globe in the cavity formed between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. This ULF/ELF radiation can control the timing of the biochemical redox cycle and thereby have a universal effect on physiology of organisms. The timing can even have a detrimental influence, via increased oxidative damage, on the DNA replication, which controls heredity.

Stolc, Viktor; Freund, Friedemann

2013-04-01

41

Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

2014-10-28

42

THE REVISED ORGANIC CHEMICAL PRODUCERS DATA BASE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the revised Organic Chemical Producers Data Base (OCPDB), an automated chemical information system developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Improvements have been made in two ways: (1) expansion of the data base to include more chemicals...

43

Organic compounds in produced waters from shale gas wells.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis is reported of the organic composition of produced water samples from typical shale gas wells in the Marcellus (PA), Eagle Ford (TX), and Barnett (NM) formations. The quality of shale gas produced (and frac flowback) waters is a current environmental concern and disposal problem for producers. Re-use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing is being encouraged; however, knowledge of the organic impurities is important in determining the method of treatment. The metal content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Mineral elements are expected depending on the reservoir geology and salts used in hydraulic fracturing; however, significant levels of other transition metals and heavier main group elements are observed. The presence of scaling elements (Ca and Ba) is related to the pH of the water rather than total dissolved solids (TDS). Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the chloroform extracts of the produced water samples, a plethora of organic compounds were identified. In each water sample, the majority of organics are saturated (aliphatic), and only a small fraction comes under aromatic, resin, and asphaltene categories. Unlike coalbed methane produced water it appears that shale oil/gas produced water does not contain significant quantities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons reducing the potential health hazard. Marcellus and Barnett produced waters contain predominantly C6-C16 hydrocarbons, while the Eagle Ford produced water shows the highest concentration in the C17-C30 range. The structures of the saturated hydrocarbons identified generally follows the trend of linear > branched > cyclic. Heterocyclic compounds are identified with the largest fraction being fatty alcohols, esters, and ethers. However, the presence of various fatty acid phthalate esters in the Barnett and Marcellus produced waters can be related to their use in drilling fluids and breaker additives rather than their presence in connate fluids. Halogen containing compounds are found in each of the water samples, and although the fluorocarbon compounds identified are used as tracers, the presence of chlorocarbons and organobromides formed as a consequence of using chlorine containing oxidants (to remove bacteria from source water), suggests that industry should concentrate on non-chemical treatments of frac and produced waters. PMID:25162586

Maguire-Boyle, Samuel J; Barron, Andrew R

2014-10-01

44

Long-lived states of antiprotonic lithium p¯Li + produced in p¯+ Li collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antiproton capture by lithium atoms (p¯+Li?p¯Li++e) is investigated at collision energies from 0.01 to 10 eV by using a semiclassical (also know as quantum-classical hybrid) method, in which the radial distance between the antiproton and the Li+ ion is treated as a classical variable, and the other degrees of freedom are described by quantum mechanics. Analyzing the wave packet of the emitted electrons and making use of the energy conservation rule enable us to calculate the state distribution of the produced antiprotonic lithium p¯Li+ atoms and also to distinguish between the capture and ionization (?p¯+Li++e) channels at collisional energies above the ionization threshold. This method is tested for the capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms, which was rigorously investigated in previous quantum mechanical studies. Most of the p¯Li+ atoms produced in p¯+Li are found to be sufficiently stable against Auger decays and are experimentally observable as long-lived states. The present system bears close similarities to the system of p¯+He(2S). It is therefore expected that long-lived antiprotonic helium p¯He+ atoms can be efficiently produced in the p¯ capture by metastable He(23S) atoms.

Sakimoto, Kazuhiro

2011-09-01

45

Long-lived states of antiprotonic lithium pLi {sup +} produced in p+ Li collisions  

SciTech Connect

Antiproton capture by lithium atoms (p+Li{yields}pLi{sup +}+e) is investigated at collision energies from 0.01 to 10 eV by using a semiclassical (also know as quantum-classical hybrid) method, in which the radial distance between the antiproton and the Li{sup +} ion is treated as a classical variable, and the other degrees of freedom are described by quantum mechanics. Analyzing the wave packet of the emitted electrons and making use of the energy conservation rule enable us to calculate the state distribution of the produced antiprotonic lithium pLi{sup +} atoms and also to distinguish between the capture and ionization ({yields}p+Li{sup +}+e) channels at collisional energies above the ionization threshold. This method is tested for the capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms, which was rigorously investigated in previous quantum mechanical studies. Most of the pLi{sup +} atoms produced in p+Li are found to be sufficiently stable against Auger decays and are experimentally observable as long-lived states. The present system bears close similarities to the system of p+He(2S). It is therefore expected that long-lived antiprotonic helium pHe{sup +} atoms can be efficiently produced in the p capture by metastable He(2 {sup 3}S) atoms.

Sakimoto, Kazuhiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai 3-1-1, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2011-09-15

46

Social organization in free-living prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding units (occupants of a nest including at least one reproductive female) within two free-living populations of the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, were monitored by live-trapping at nest during two 28-h periods each week from October 1980 to March 1984. Data are presented for 281 breeding units from all seasons, at high and low population densities and during breeding and

Lowell L. Getz; Joyce E. Hofmann

1986-01-01

47

Demographic consequences of adaptive growth and the ramifications for conservation of long-lived organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how organisms respond to human impacts is increasingly challenging biologists. Short-lived organisms can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental hazards, but only recently have long-lived organisms been shown to adapt to human impacts. Changes in any life-history trait, such as individual growth rates, may affect demographic model predictions and reliability of elasticity analyses that are often used to help

Ricky-John Spencer; Fredric J. Janzen

2010-01-01

48

Self-organization and entropy reduction in a living cell  

PubMed Central

In this paper we discuss the entropy and information aspects of a living cell. Particular attention is paid to the information gain on assembling and maintaining a living state. Numerical estimates of the information and entropy reduction are given and discussed in the context of the cell’s metabolic activity. We discuss a solution to an apparent paradox that there is less information content in DNA than in the proteins that are assembled based on the genetic code encrypted in DNA. When energy input required for protein synthesis is accounted for, the paradox is clearly resolved. Finally, differences between biological information and instruction are discussed. PMID:23159919

Davies, Paul C.W.; Rieper, Elisabeth; Tuszynski, Jack A.

2012-01-01

49

Microbial sucrose isomerases: producing organisms, genes and enzymes.  

PubMed

Sucrose isomerase (SI) activity is used industrially for the conversion of sucrose into isomers, particularly isomaltulose or trehalulose, which have properties advantageous over sucrose for some food uses. All of the known microbial SIs are TIM barrel proteins that convert sucrose without need for any cofactors, with varying kinetics and product specificities. The current analysis was undertaken to bridge key gaps between the information in patents and scientific publications about the microbes and enzymes useful for sucrose isomer production. This analysis shows that microbial SIs can be considered in 5 structural classes with corresponding functional distinctions that broadly align with the taxonomic differences between producing organisms. The most widely used bacterial strain for industrial production of isomaltulose, widely referred to as "Protaminobacter rubrum" CBS 574.77, is identified as Serratia plymuthica. The strain producing the most structurally divergent SI, with a high product specificity for trehalulose, widely referred to as "Pseudomonas mesoacidophila" MX-45, is identified as Rhizobium sp. Each tested SI-producer is shown to have a single SI gene and enzyme, so the properties reported previously for the isolated proteins can reasonably be associated with the products of the genes subsequently cloned from the same isolates and SI classes. Some natural isolates with potent SI activity do not catabolize the isomer under usual production conditions. The results indicate that their industrial potential may be further enhanced by selection for variants that do not catabolize the sucrose substrate. PMID:22133441

Goulter, Ken C; Hashimi, Saeed M; Birch, Robert G

2012-01-01

50

Volatile organic compounds of polyethylene vinyl acetate plastic are toxic to living organisms.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products readily evaporate; as a result, hazardous gases enter the ecosystem, and cause cancer in humans and other animals. Polyethylene vinyl acetate (PEVA) plastic has recently become a popular alternative to PVC since it is chlorine-free. In order to determine whether PEVA is harmful to humans, this research employed the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a model to compare their oxygen intakes while they were exposed to the original stock solutions of PEVA, PVC or distilled water at a different length of time for one day, four days or eight days. During the exposure periods, the oxygen intakes in both PEVA and PVC groups were much higher than in the distilled water group, indicating that VOCs in both PEVA and PVC were toxins that stressed L. variegatus. Furthermore, none of the worms fully recovered during the24-hr recovery period. Additionally, the L. variegatus did not clump together tightly after four or eight days' exposure to either of the two types of plastic solutions, which meant that both PEVA and PVC negatively affected the social behaviors of these blackworms. The LD50 tests also supported the observations above. For the first time, our results have shown that PEVA plastic has adverse effects on living organisms, and therefore it is not a safe alternative to PVC. Further studies should identify specific compounds causing the adverse effects, and determine whether toxic effect occurs in more complex organisms, especially humans. PMID:25242410

Meng, Tingzhu Teresa

2014-01-01

51

Introducing Incentives in the Market for Live and Cadaveric Organ Donations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the introduction of monetary incentives in the market for live and cadaveric organ donations. We show that monetary incentives would increase the supply of organs for transplant sufficiently to eliminate the very large queues in organ markets, and the suffering and deaths of many of those waiting, without increasing the total cost of transplant surgery by more than

Gary Stanley Becker; Julio Jorge Elías

2007-01-01

52

Harvesting the living?: separating "brain death" and organ transplantation.  

PubMed

The chronic shortage of transplantable organs has reached critical proportions. In the wake of this crisis, some bioethicists have argued that there is sufficient public support to expand organ recovery through use of neocortical criteria of death or even pre-mortem organ retrieval. I present a typology of ways in which data gathered from the public can be misread or selectively used by bioethicists in service of an ideological or policy agenda, resulting in bad policy and bad ethics. Such risks should lead us to look at alternatives for increasing organ supplies short of expanding or abandoning the dead donor rule. The chronic problem of organ scarcity should prompt bioethicists to engage in constructive dialogue about the relation of the social sciences and bioethics, to examine the social malleability of the definition of death, and to revisit the question of the priority of organ transplants in the overall package of healthcare benefits provided to most, but not all, citizens. PMID:15497228

Campbell, Courtney S

2004-09-01

53

Engineered biosealant strains producing inorganic and organic biopolymers.  

PubMed

Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process that has shown its potential in remediation of a wide range of structural damages including concrete cracks. In this study, genetically engineered microorganisms, capable of producing extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) as well as inducing MICCP, were developed based on the assumption that the complex of inorganic CaCO(3) and organic EPS would provide a stronger matrix than MICCP alone as biosealant. In order to develop a recombinant biosealant microorganism, the entire Sporosarcina pasteurii urease gene sequences including ureA, ureB, ureC, ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG from plasmid pBU11 were sub-cloned into the shuttle vector, pUCP18. The newly constructed plasmid, pUBU1, was transformed into two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 8821 and PAO1, to develop recombinants capable of inducing calcite precipitation in addition to their own ability to produce EPS. Nickel-dependent urease activities were expressed from the recombinant P. aeruginosa 8821 (pUBU1) and P. aeruginosa PAO1 (pUBU1), at 99.4% and 60.9% of the S. pasteurii urease activity, respectively, in a medium containing 2mM NiCl(2). No urease activities were detected from the wild type P. aeruginosa 8821 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 under the same growth conditions. Recombinant Pseudomonas strains induced CaCO(3) precipitation at a comparable rate as S. pasteurii and scanning electron microscopy evidenced the complex of CaCO(3) crystals and EPS layers surrounding the cells. The engineered strains produced in this study are expected to serve as a valuable reference to future biosealants that could be applied in the environment. However, the pathogenic potential of P. aeruginosa, used here only as a model system to show the proof of principle, prevents the use of this recombinant organism as a biosealant. In practical applications, other recombinant organisms should be used. PMID:22789480

Bergdale, Terran E; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; Hughes, Stephen R; Zambelli, Barbara; Ciurli, Stefano; Bang, Sookie S

2012-10-31

54

Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids  

SciTech Connect

Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-05-06

55

Flares Producing Well-organized Post-flare Arcades (Slinkies) Have Early Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploding loop systems producing X-ray flares often, but not always, bifurcate into a long-living, well-organized system of multi-threaded loop arcades resembling solenoidal slinkies. The physical conditions that cause or prevent this process are not known. To address this problem, we examined most of the major (X-class) flares that occurred during the last decade and found that the flares that bifurcate into long-living slinky arcades have different signatures than those that do not "produce" such structures. The most striking difference is that, in all cases of slinky formation, GOES high energy proton flux becomes significantly enhanced 10-24 hr before the flare occurs. No such effect was found prior to the "non-slinky" flares. This fact may be associated with the difference between energy production by a given active region and the amount of energy required to bring the entire system into the form of well-organized, self-similar loop arcades. As an example illustrating the process of post-flare slinky formation, we present observations taken with the Hinode satellite, in several wavelengths, showing a time sequence of pre-flare and flare activity, followed by the formation of dynamically stable, well-organized structures. One of the important features revealed is that post-flare coronal slinky formation is preceded by scale invariant structure formation in the underlying chromosphere/transition region. We suggest that the observed regularities can be understood within the framework of self-organized critical dynamics characterized by scale invariant structure formation with critical parameters largely determined by energy saturation level. The observed regularities per se may serve as a long-term precursor of strong flares and may help to study predictability of system behavior.

Ryutova, M. P.; Frank, Z.; Hagenaar, H.; Berger, T.

2011-06-01

56

77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S....

2012-06-08

57

77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...allowable concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters...

2012-06-13

58

"Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.  

PubMed

The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain. PMID:22574392

Moniruzzaman, Monir

2012-03-01

59

In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

2013-07-01

60

Organized Living: From Cell Surfaces to Basement Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to integrin receptors initiates intracellular signaling events that are essential for the differentiation and survival of epithelial cells. However, the propagation and processing of these signals also depend on the cells acquiring an appropriate three-dimensional morphology and polarity after contact with the ECM. In fact, even if adhesion to the ECM is maintained but subsequent cellular organization and polarity are impaired, epithelial cells fail to fully differentiate and become susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. Studies using three-dimensional tissue culture models with reconstituted basement membranes not only demonstrate the central role of tissue organization for differentiation and survival, but also emphasize how acquiring this organized polarized phenotype can override a number of genetic changes that would otherwise disrupt normal tissue function.

Nancy J. Boudreau (University of California San Francisco; Department of Surgery REV)

2003-08-19

61

Some potentialities of living organisms under simulated Martian conditions.  

PubMed

Temperature, humidity, pressure, composition of the atmosphere and radiation are the main factors conditioning life on the surface of Mars. When studying the Martian ecology, one must know the total effect of these factors. One may expect that, as a result of adaptation to low temperatures, there is a corresponding shift in the temperature optimum of enzymatic activity. Dryness is the main obstacle to active life. We suggest the presence of some soil moisture and water vapour. Moreover, there can be areas of permafrost. This minimum supply of water and periodic fluctuations of humidity may create conditions for the existence of drought-resistant organisms. Decreased atmospheric pressure alone does not affect micro-organisms, plants, protozoa and even insects. Ciliates reproduce in a flowing atmosphere of pure nitrogen containing 0.0002-0.0005% oxygen as an impurity. Protozoa may also develop in an atmosphere of 98-99% carbon dioxide mixed with 1% O2. Therefore, even traces of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would be sufficient for aerobic unicellular organisms. Cells and organisms on earth have acquired various ways of protection from uv light, and therefore may increase their resistance further by adaptation or selection. The resistance of some organisms to ionizing radiation is high enough to enable them to endure hard ionizing radiation of the sun. Experiments with unicellular [correction of unicellar] organisms show that the effect of short wave uv radiation depends on the intensity of visible light, long-wave solar uv radiation, temperatures, cell repair processes, and the state of cell components, i.e. whether the cell was frozen, dried or hydrated. PMID:12206179

Lozina-Lozinsky, L K; Bychenkova, V N; Zaar, E I; Levin, V L; Rumyantseva, V M

1971-01-01

62

Attitude of Personnel in Hospital Cadaveric Organ Transplant-Related Units Faced with Living Kidney Donation in a Hospital with a Living Kidney Donor Transplantation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The attitude of health care personnel is fundamental for the procurement of organs, especially when they are based in transplant-related services. The objective of this study is to assess the attitude of hospital personnel in transplant-related services toward living kidney donation in a hospital with a cadaveric and living solid organ transplant program. Materials and Methods: A random sample

A. Ríos; P. Ramírez; L. Martínez; J. A. García; M. J. Montoya; D. Lucas; P. Parrilla

2008-01-01

63

Organized cell swimming motions in Bacillus subtilis colonies: patterns of short-lived whirls and jets.  

PubMed

The swimming motions of cells within Bacillus subtilis colonies, as well as the associated fluid flows, were analyzed from video films produced during colony growth and expansion on wet agar surfaces. Individual cells in very wet dense populations moved at rates between 76 and 116 microm/s. Swimming cells were organized into patterns of whirls, each approximately 1,000 microm2, and jets of about 95 by 12 microm. Whirls and jets were short-lived, lasting only about 0.25 s. Patterns within given areas constantly repeated with a periodicity of approximately 1 s. Whirls of a given direction became disorganized and then re-formed, usually into whirls moving in the opposite direction. Pattern elements were also organized with respect to one another in the colony. Neighboring whirls usually turned in opposite directions. This correlation decreased as a function of distance between whirls. Fluid flows associated with whirls and jets were measured by observing the movement of marker latex spheres added to colonies. The average velocity of markers traveling in whirls was 19 microm/s, whereas those traveling in jets moved at 27 microm/s. The paths followed by markers were aligned with the direction of cell motion, suggesting that cells create flows moving with them into whirls and along jets. When colonies became dry, swimming motions ceased except in regions close to the periphery and in isolated islands where cells traveled in slow whirls at about 4 microm/s. The addition of water resulted in immediate though transient rapid swimming (> 80 microm/s) in characteristic whirl and jet patterns. The rate of swimming decreased to 13 microm/s within 2 min, however, as the water diffused into the agar. Organized swimming patterns were nevertheless preserved throughout this period. These findings show that cell swimming in colonies is highly organized. PMID:9882676

Mendelson, N H; Bourque, A; Wilkening, K; Anderson, K R; Watkins, J C

1999-01-01

64

Explaining the Choice of Organic Produce: Cosmetic Defects, Prices, and Consumer Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice between organic and conventional produce was estimated empirically using a two-equation probit model. Data were collected in-store on cosmetic defects, produce prices, and consumers' demographic and economic traits. Store choice displayed a significant impact on the probability of purchasing organic produce. Shoppers at the specialty grocer were sensitive to price differences between organic and conventional items. Households with

Gary D. Thompson; Julia Kidwell

1998-01-01

65

Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach  

PubMed Central

Intermolecular interactions within living organisms have been found to occur not as individual independent events but as a part of a collective array of interconnected events. The problem of the emergence of this collective dynamics and of the correlated biocommunication therefore arises. In the present paper we review the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of microscopic units (atoms/molecules) has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field. Experimental corroboration of this scheme is presented. Some consequences for future biological developments are discussed. PMID:24288611

Bischof, Marco; Del Giudice, Emilio

2013-01-01

66

Quantum Mechanics Action of ELF Electromagnetic Fields on Living Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is presently an intense discussion if extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure has consequences for human health. This include exposure to structures and appliances from this range of frequency in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Biological effects of such exposures have been noted frequently, although the implications for specific health effects is not that clear. The basic interactions mechanisms between such fields and living matter is unknown. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested, although none is convincingly supported by experimental data. Various cellular components, processes, and systems can be affected by EMF exposure. Since it is unlikely that EMF can induce DNA damage directly, most studies have examined EMF effects on the cell membrane level, general and specific gene expression, and signal transduction pathways. Even more, a large number of studies have been performed regarding cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, metabolism, and various physiological characteristics of cells. The aim of this letter is present the hypothesis of a possible quantum mechanic effect generated by the exposure of ELF EMF, an event which is compatible with the multitude of effects observed after exposure. Based on an extensive literature review, we suggest that ELF EMF exposure is able to perform such activation restructuring the electronic level of occupancy of free radicals in molecules interacting with DNA structures.

Godina-Nava, J. J.

2010-10-01

67

Living Light: http://w w w .lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/organism/photo.html  

E-print Network

Living Light: http://w w w .lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/organism/photo.html #12;Activity Each group an animal want to locate others of its same kind? Why would it use light for this? http://w w w .lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/organism/photo.edu/labs/ruby/pictures/research/index.html #12;Beroe forskalii http://w w w .lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/organism/photo.html #12;Deiopea http://w w

Rose, Michael R.

68

77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...less than 0.1 organisms per milliliter for organisms between 10 and 50 microns in minimum dimension. Alternative 5--Sterilization: Alternative 5 would require the removal or inactivation of all living membrane-bound organisms (including...

2012-03-23

69

The nutritional relationship linking sulfur to nitrogen in living organisms.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) coexist in the biosphere as free elements or in the form of simple inorganic NO3- and SO4(2-) oxyanions, which must be reduced before undergoing anabolic processes leading to the production of methionine (Met) and other S-containing molecules. Both N and S pathways are tightly regulated in plant tissues so as to maintain S:N ratios ranging from 1:20 to 1:35. As a result, plant products do not adequately fulfill human tissue requirements, whose mean S:N ratios amount to 1:14.5. The evolutionary patterns of total body N (TBN) and of total body S (TBS) offer from birth to death sex- and age-related specificities well identified by the serial measurement of plasma transthyretin (TTR). Met is regarded as the most limiting of all indispensable amino acids (IAAs) because of its participation in a myriad of molecular, structural, and metabolic activities of survival importance. Met homeostasis is regulated by subtle competitive interactions between transsulfuration and remethylation pathways of homocysteine (Hcy) and by the actual level of TBN reserves working as a direct sensor of cystathionine-beta-synthase activity. Under steady-state conditions, the dietary intake of SO4(2-) is essentially equal to total sulfaturia. The recommended dietary allowances for both S-containing AAs allotted to replace the minimal obligatory losses resulting from endogenous catabolism is largely covered by Western customary diets. By contrast, strict vegans and low-income populations living in plant-eating countries incur the risk of chronic N and Met dietary deficiencies causing undesirable hyperhomocysteinemia best explained by the downsizing of their TBN resources and documented by declining TTR plasma values. PMID:16702334

Ingenbleek, Yves

2006-06-01

70

Development of a Reverse Genetics System to Produce Live, Attenuated Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Vaccine Candidates  

E-print Network

1 Development of a Reverse Genetics System to Produce Live, Attenuated Infectious Salmon Anemia Grant Number: NA03NMF4270132 March 29, 2006 Abstract Infectious salmon anemia (ISA), induced by the viral causative agent infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), has had a large, negative economic impact

71

The Patentability of Living Organisms under 35 U.S.C. Section 101: In re Bergy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined is the In re Bergy decision in which a divided United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals held that a living micro-organism was patentable under section 101 of the United States Code. Differing views and problems with the decision are also discussed. (JMD)

Harvard Law Review, 1978

1978-01-01

72

PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION BY FREE-LIVING ORGANISMS: APPLICATIONS OF A SIGMOIDAL MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of contaminants by free-living organisms has traditionally been de- termined with permutations of the deterministic model: Ct = Ce(1 - e -kt). However, studies uti- lizing a variety of species and exposure scenarios now suggest that significant deviations may occur from this classic form. In many cases noted to date, these deviations have involved a sigmoidal pat- tern

I. Lehr Brisbin; Michael C. Newman; Susan G. McDowell; Eric L. Peters

1990-01-01

73

Enantiomeric separation of complex organic molecules produced from irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs by ultraviolet (UV) light followed by warm up in the laboratory leads to the formation of complex organic molecules, stable at room temperature. Hydrolysis of the room temperature residue releases amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. These amino acids exist in two different forms (L and D), but proteins encountered in living beings consist exclusively of L enantiomers. The origin of this property, called homochirality, is still unknown. Amino acids can be detected and quantified by chemical techniques such as chiral gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enantiomers of chiral organics are also known to interact selectively with circularly polarized light (CPL), leading to a selective production or destruction of the final compounds. This paper describes how we settled an experiment where amino acids are formed by irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs with ultraviolet (UV) CPL, produced by a synchrotron radiation beamline, which allowed us to quantify the effect of such polarized light on the production of amino acids. These results can be compared to the enantiomeric excesses measured in primitive meteorites such as Murchison.

Nuevo, M.; Meierhenrich, U. J.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Dartois, E.; Deboffle, D.; Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Bredehöft, J.-H.; Nahon, L.

74

Analysis of alternative marketing organizations for improving rice producer income  

E-print Network

and chemicals. American Grain Association markets soybeans. American Growers Transport Company transports fertilizer. American Rice, Inc, markets rice. Mermentau Grain Corporation owns barge loading facilities. Recently, ARI has acquired the assets... Purposes and tunctions of the American Group of Rice Cooperatives at the Time of Organization, . . . . . . American Rice Growers Cooperative Association. . . . . . . . American Rice Growers Exchange. American Grain Association. American Growers...

Guillot, Patrick Dale

2012-06-07

75

Missed opportunities for religious organizations to support people living with HIV/AIDS: findings from Tanzania.  

PubMed

Religious beliefs play an important role in the lives of Tanzanians, but little is known about the influence of religion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study shares perspectives of PLWHA and identifies opportunities for religious organizations to support the psychological well-being of this group. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 through semistructured interviews with 36 clients (8 Muslims and 28 Christians) receiving free antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Arusha, Tanzania. Swahili-speaking interviewers asked about participation in religion, change in religious engagement since HIV diagnosis, and what role faith plays in living with HIV and taking ARVs. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Atlas t.i. The findings revealed that patients' personal faith positively influenced their experiences living with HIV, but that religious organizations had neutral or negative influences. On the positive side, prayer gave hope to live with HIV, and religious faith increased after diagnosis. Some respondents said that prayer supported their adherence to medications. On the other hand, few disclosed their HIV status in their religious communities, expressing fear of stigma. Most had heard that prayer can cure HIV, and two expected to be cured. While it was common to hear messages about HIV prevention from churches or mosques, few had heard messages about living with HIV. The findings point to missed opportunities by religious organizations to support PLWHA, particularly the need to ensure that messages about HIV are not stigmatizing; share information about HIV treatment; introduce role models of PLWHA; and emphasize that prayers and medical care go hand-in-hand. PMID:19335171

Watt, Melissa H; Maman, Suzanne; Jacobson, Mark; Laiser, John; John, Muze

2009-05-01

76

Imposing options on people in poverty: the harm of a live donor organ market.  

PubMed

A prominent defence of a market in organs from living donors says that if we truly care about people in poverty, we should allow them to sell their organs. The argument is that if poor vendors would have voluntarily decided to sell their organs in a free market, then prohibiting them from selling makes them even worse off, at least from their own perspective, and that it would be unconscionably paternalistic to substitute our judgements for individuals' own judgements about what would be best for them. The author shows that this 'Laissez-Choisir Argument' for organ selling rests on a mistake. This is because the claim that it would be better for people in poverty to sell their organs if given the option is consistent with the claim that it would be even better for them to not have the option at all. The upshot is that objections to an organ market need not be at all paternalistic, since we need not accept that the absence of a market makes those in poverty any worse off, even from their own point of view. The author goes on to argue that there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for believing that people in poverty would in fact be harmed by the introduction of a market for live donor organs and that the harm constitutes sufficient grounds for prohibiting a market. PMID:22745109

Rippon, Simon

2014-03-01

77

77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...collection approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS)...

2012-09-10

78

MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER Black beans #1 class produced  

E-print Network

CROPS ON ORGANIC DRY BEANS #12;2010 2011 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Clover Radish/ha Oilseed radish `Groundhog' 12 kg/ha Rye `Wheeler' 100-125 kg/ha No cover #12;DRY BEAN VARIETIES Black COVER CROP BIOMASS 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 KBS SOF Drybiomass(lbs/A) Clover Radish Rye

79

Volatile organic compounds produced during irradiation of mail.  

PubMed

In 2001, Bacillus anthracis spores were delivered through the United States postal system in a series of bioterrorist acts. Controls proposed for this threat included sanitization with high-energy electrons. Solid phase microextraction was used with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for field sampling and analysis of volatile compounds apparently produced from polymeric materials such as cellulose and plastics, immediately following processing of mail at a commercial irradiation facility. Solid phase microextraction and direct sampling of air into a cryogenically cooled temperature programmable inlet were used in the laboratory for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of air in contact with irradiated mail, envelopes only (packaged identically to mail), and air inside irradiated plastic mail packaging bags (with neither mail nor envelopes). Irradiated mail or envelope systems produced hydrocarbons such as propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, methylpentanes, and benzene; and oxygen-containing compounds such as acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, furan, 2-methylfuran, methanol, acetone, 2-butanone, and ethanol. In addition to hydrocarbons, methyl and ethyl nitrate were detected in irradiated bags that contained only air, suggesting reactive nitrogen species formed from air irradiation reacted with hydroxy-containing compounds to give nitro esters. The similarities of volatile compounds in irradiated systems containing paper to those observed by researchers studying cellulose pyrolysis suggests common depolymerization and degradation mechanisms in each case. These similarities should guide additional work to examine irradiated mail for chemical compounds not detectable by methods used here. PMID:12688843

Smith, Philip A; Sheely, Michael V; Hakspiel, Shelly J; Miller, Stephen

2003-01-01

80

Long lived protection against pneumonic tularemia is correlated with cellular immunity in peripheral, not pulmonary, organs  

PubMed Central

Protection against the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis within weeks of vaccination is thought to involve both cellular and humoral immune responses. However, the relative roles for cellular and humoral immunity in long lived protection against virulent F. tularensis are not well established. Here, we dissected the correlates of immunity to pulmonary infection with virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 in mice challenged 30 and 90 days after subcutaneous vaccination with LVS. Regardless of the time of challenge, LVS vaccination protected approximately 90% of SchuS4 infected animals. Surprisingly, control of bacterial replication in the lung during the first 7 days of infection was not required for survival of SchuS4 infection in vaccinated mice. Control and survival of virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 infection within 30 days of vaccination was associated with high titers of SchuS4 agglutinating antibodies, and IFN-? production by multiple cell types in both the lung and spleen. In contrast, survival of SchuS4 infection 90 days after vaccination was correlated only with IFN-? producing splenocytes and activated T cells in the spleen. Together these data demonstrate that functional agglutinating antibodies and strong mucosal immunity are correlated with early control of pulmonary infections with virulent F. tularensis. However, early mucosal immunity may not be required to survive F. tularensis infection. Instead, survival of SchuS4 infection at extended time points after immunization was only associated with production of IFN-? and activation of T cells in peripheral organs. PMID:20688042

Anderson, Rebecca V.; Crane, Deborah D.; Bosio, Catharine M.

2010-01-01

81

Being Sherlock Holmes: the Internet as a tool for assessing live organ donors.  

PubMed

Donor advocacy is a critical feature of live donor transplantation. Donor Advocates and Donor Advocate Teams (DAT) are now routine to the practice of live donor evaluation in the USA. Multidisciplinary in nature, DATs gather both medical and psychosocial information about potential live organ donors and then render a decision as to whether or not these individuals are suitable to participate. Because of the critical ethical and psychosocial concerns about live donation, thorough donor evaluations are essential. Additionally, the information gathered must be accurate, and this requires honest disclosure by the donor candidate. In this paper, we describe how DATs can use various forms of free, public content available on the Internet to aid live donor assessments. In this way, the DAT assumes somewhat of an investigative role; however, this is ethically justified in light of the DAT duty to protect the donor. The protective effect can also spread to the transplant program, in general, when inappropriate donors are excluded from the donation process. PMID:19210684

Bramstedt, Katrina A; Katznelson, Steven

2009-01-01

82

Sustainability assessment through analogical models: The approach of aerobic living-organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most part of scientific discoveries of human being borrow ideas and inspiration from nature. This point gives the rationale of the sustainability assessment approach presented here and based on the aerobic living organism (ALO) already developed by the author, which funds on the basic assumption that it is reasonable and effective to refer to the analogy between an system organized by human (say, manufacturing system, enterprise, etc.) for several decision-making scopes. The critical review of the ALO conceptual model already developed is here discussed through an example of an Italian small enterprise manufacturing metal components for civil furniture to assess its feasibility for sustainability appraisal.

Dassisti, Michele

2014-10-01

83

Positron emission tomography for measurement of copper fluxes in live organisms.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential nutrient for the physiology of live organisms, but excessive copper can be harmful. Copper radioisotopes are used for measurement of copper fluxes in live organisms using a radioactivity assay of body fluids or whole-body positron emission tomography (PET). Hybrid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is a versatile tool for real-time measurement of copper fluxes combining the high sensitivity and quantification capability of PET and the superior spatial resolution of CT for anatomic localization of radioactive tracer activity. Kinetic analysis of copper metabolism in the liver and extrahepatic tissues of Atp7b(-/-) knockout mice, a mouse model of Wilson's disease, demonstrated the feasibility of measuring copper fluxes in live organisms with PET/CT using copper-64 chloride ((64) CuCl2 ) as a radioactive tracer ((64) CuCl2 -PET/CT). (64) CuCl2 -PET/CT holds potential as a useful tool for the diagnosis of inherited and acquired human copper metabolism disorders and for monitoring the effects of copper-modulating therapy. PMID:24628290

Peng, Fangyu

2014-05-01

84

Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.  

PubMed

Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

2011-12-01

85

Biosecurity risks associated with current identification practices of producers trading live pigs at livestock sales.  

PubMed

Approximately 5% of pigs produced in Australia is believed to be traded at livestock sales. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with producers (106 and 30 producers, respectively), who traded pigs at livestock sales. The purpose of the study was to gather information on how producers identified their pigs in order to evaluate how these practices may impact the ability to trace pig movements in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak or food safety hazard. Results were analyzed according to herd size (0 to 150 sows, 150+ sows) and location (peri-urban, regional) as prior studies suggested a higher biosecurity risk among smaller farms and due to perceptions that peri-urban farms pose additional risk. Most producers (91.5%) had less than 150 sows and a high proportion (70.8%) resided in regional areas compared with only 29.2% residing in peri-urban areas. A higher proportion of large-scale producers identified their pigs than small-scale producers. A third of small-scale producers reported not identifying breeding stock and most did not identify progeny. The most common forms of on-farm identification used were ear tags for breeding stock and ear notches for progeny. Producers identified breeding stock to assist with mating management and genetic improvement. Ear notches were used to determine the litter of origin of progeny. All large-scale producers owned a registered swine brand and used the official body tattoo for post-farm-gate identification. However, approximately 15% of small-scale producers did not own a registered swine brand, and an additional 8% did not identify their pigs post-farm-gate. Producers were satisfied with tattoos as a methodology for post-farm-gate identification of pigs and considered other methodologies cost-prohibitive. However, variations in the maintenance of the branding equipment, the type of ink used and the time of tattoo application in relation to the animal sale were highlighted during focus group discussions. These results suggest that there is a need for education and extension activities, especially among small-scale pig producers, regarding the benefits of identifying animals on-farm. In addition, increased awareness of the traceability legislation that exists in Australia to meet the National Performance Standards for Livestock Traceability in this country is required. PMID:22444022

Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

2008-11-01

86

Comparison of the virulence of exopolysaccharide-producing Prevotella intermedia to exopolysaccharide non-producing periodontopathic organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence in the literature suggests that exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacterial cells are essential for the expression of virulence in these organisms. Secreted EPSs form the framework in which microbial biofilms are built. Methods This study evaluates the role of EPS in Prevotella intermedia for the expression of virulence. This evaluation was accomplished by comparing EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 with non-producing P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains ATCC 33277, 381 and W83 for their ability to induce abscess formation in mice and evade phagocytosis. Results EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 induced highly noticeable abscess lesions in mice at 107 colony-forming units (CFU). In comparison, P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, 381 and W83, which all lacked the ability to produce viscous materials, required 100-fold more bacteria (109 CFU) in order to induce detectable abscess lesions in mice. Regarding antiphagocytic activity, P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 were rarely internalized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but other strains were readily engulfed and detected in the phagosomes of these phagocytes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the production of EPS by P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 could contribute to the pathogenicity of this organism by conferring their ability to evade the host's innate defence response. PMID:21864411

2011-01-01

87

Discovery of a free-living chlorophyll d-producing cyanobacterium with a hybrid proteobacterial  

E-print Network

of a strain of Chl d-producing cyanobacteria from the Salton Sea, a moderately hypersaline (41­45 g liter 1, the Salton Sea is eutrophic, because nearly all of its inflow is derived from agricultural and municipal

Oregon, University of

88

The percentage of living bacterial cells related to organic carbon release from senescent oceanic phytoplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria recycle vast amounts of organic carbon, playing key biogeochemical and ecological roles in the ocean. Bacterioplankton dynamics are expected to be dependent on phytoplankton primary production, but there is a high diversity of processes (e.g., sloppy feeding, cell exudation, viral lysis) involved in the transfer of primary production to dissolved organic carbon available to bacteria. Here, we show the percentage of living heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean in relation to phytoplankton extracellular carbon release (PER). PER represents the fraction of primary production released as dissolved organic carbon. PER variability was explained by phytoplankton cell death, with communities experiencing higher phytoplankton cell mortality showing a larger proportion of phytoplankton extracellular carbon release. Both PER and the percentage of dead phytoplankton cells increased from eutrophic to oligotrophic waters, while abundance of heterotrophic bacteria was highest in the intermediate waters. The percentage of living heterotrophic bacterial cells (range: 60-95%) increased with increasing phytoplankton extracellular carbon release from productive to oligotrophic waters in the subtropical NE Atlantic. The lower PERs, observed at the upwelling waters, have resulted in a decrease in the flux of phytoplankton dissolved organic carbon (DOC) per bacterial cell. The results highlight phytoplankton cell death as a process influencing the flow of dissolved photosynthetic carbon in this region of the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean, and suggest a close coupling between the fraction of primary production released and heterotrophic bacterial cell survival.

Lasternas, S.; Agustí, S.

2014-11-01

89

Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant.  

PubMed

In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

Iijima, Yoko

2014-01-01

90

Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant  

PubMed Central

In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

Iijima, Yoko

2014-01-01

91

Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks  

PubMed Central

We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)–emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb3+ lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb3+ NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation. PMID:24108356

Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A.; White, Kiley A.; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnès; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J.; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Petoud, Stéphane

2013-01-01

92

Symbiotic association between hoopoes and antibiotic-producing bacteria that live in their uropygial gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. It has been recently showed that one bacterial strain isolated from the uropygial gland of a nes- tling hoopoe Upupa epops produced antimicrobial peptides active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria. These bacteria might thus mediate antimicrobial properties of the uropygial secretions as a consequence of the symbiotic association with hoopoes. 2. We study antimicrobial properties of

J. J. Soler; M. Martín-Vivaldi; M. Ruiz-Rodríguez; E. Valdivia; A. M. Martín-Platero; M. Martínez-Bueno; J. M. Peralta-Sánchez; M. Méndez

2008-01-01

93

Spray deposition of live cells throughout the electrospinning process produces nanofibrous three-dimensional tissue scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Compared with traditional in-vitro cell culture materials, three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds provide a superior environment for promoting cell functions. Since nanofibrous scaffolds have nanometer pore sizes, cells are unable to penetrate on their own, so must be incorporated into the scaffold during fabrication to ensure proper cell distribution. In this study, biodegradable and cytocompatible poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanofibers were produced using an electrospinning process. As a model cell line, fibroblasts were periodically sprayed from a pump-action spray bottle onto the developing scaffold. The viability of cells before and after spraying, and also after incorporation into the scaffold, was compared. Results indicated that cell spraying and the scaffold fabrication process did not significantly reduce cell viability. These findings, thus, contribute to the understanding of how to produce more physiological relevant cell-seeded nanofibrous scaffolds, an important element for the future of nanotechnology and tissue engineering. PMID:21698076

Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

2011-01-01

94

Chalcedony (a crystalline variety of silica): biogenic origin in electric organs from living Psammobatis extenta (family Rajidae).  

PubMed

The electric organs of electric fish have been used extensively for the study of peripheral cholinergic synapses. Aluminum and silicon have been observed in the electrocytes of Psammobatis extenta, a fish belonging to the family Rajidae, using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectrometry. Based on this evidence, the presence of silica minerals has been documented by means of mineralogical techniques. Electric organ cryostat sections and subcellular fractions were observed using a Leica DMLP mineralogical microscope. The shape, size and color, among other properties, were analyzed in plane-polarized light, while birefringence and the extinction angle, which allow for mineral identification, were observed through crossed-polarized illumination. The distribution of chalcedony, an oxide silicon mineral, in the sections and all the fractions of the electric organ was recorded. X-ray diffraction analysis of the electric organ segments showed a similar result, with a low-quartz variety. Chalcedony precipitation occurred at a specific pH (7-8) and oxidation potential (Eh; 0.0 to -0.2). This observation supports the important role played by pH and Eh conditions in silica precipitation in electrocytes, as has been reported in geological environments. It is possible that silica formation and silica degradation in electric organs are also related to the enzymes, silicatein and silicase, that direct the polymerization and depolymerization of amorphous silica in sponges. Carbonic anhydrases (silicase) are involved in physiological pH regulation. Crystallization of chalcedony via spiral growth from a partially polymerized fluid is consistent with processes known to occur in organic systems. This is the first time that a biogenically produced crystalline mineral phase (i.e., chalcedony) has been observed in the electrocytes and cholinergic nerves from living electric fish. PMID:17933544

Prado Figueroa, María; Barrera, Facundo; Cesaretti, Nora N

2008-10-01

95

Commercial living non-related organ transplantation: a viewpoint from a developed country.  

PubMed

In developed countries, the use of living unrelated donors is restricted to purely altruistic donors who have a close and emotional relationship with the recipients. By law, commercial transplantation is illegal. Increasing shortness of donors, the excellent results of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors as well as the very low risk for the donor has been used as an argument for paid organ donation. Arguments in favour are the relief of donor-organ shortage, short waiting times for renal transplantation, economic benefits for the donor as well as the economic benefits for society by reducing the costs of dialysis by more transplants. Major arguments against are exploitation of the donor, coercion, and a growing black market. Despite the fact that different societies have different norms or reproaches that we are failing our patients and accept the death of thousands, kidney trade has created an environment of corruption and commercialisation, which brings even the cadaver transplant program into disrepute. However, denying the existence of paid organ donation does not contribute to solve the problem. A public discussion about consequences of changing ethics and human rights, rather than pragmatic solutions, is needed. PMID:16810510

Hoyer, Peter F

2006-10-01

96

The ABC of ABCS: a phylogenetic and functional classification of ABC systems in living organisms.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the most abundant superfamilies of proteins. They are involved not only in the transport of a wide variety of substances, but also in many cellular processes and in their regulation. In this paper, we made a comparative analysis of the properties of ABC systems and we provide a phylogenetic and functional classification. This analysis will be helpful to accurately annotate ABC systems discovered during the sequencing of the genome of living organisms and to identify the partners of the ABC ATPases. PMID:11421270

Dassa, E; Bouige, P

2001-01-01

97

Treatment of infections with ESBL-producing organisms: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility surveillance investigations have demonstrated an increased incidence of ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli. Case cohort studies have suggested clinical relevance associated with ESBL- producing Enterobacteriaciae infection. Yet, current laboratory reporting guidelines classify a large percentage of these organisms in the susceptible category. The regulatory agencies Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (formly NCCLS) and EUCAST, which oversee these guidelines are in the process

D. Andes; W. A. Craig

2005-01-01

98

Medicinal Plants and Other Living Organisms with Antitumor Potential against Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. As a result, it is often associated with a significant amount of suffering and a general decrease in the quality of life. Herbal medicines are recognized as an attractive approach to lung cancer therapy with little side effects and are a major source of new drugs. The aim of this work was to review the medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. The assays were conducted with animals and humans, and Lewis lung carcinoma was the most used experimental model. China, Japan, South Korea, and Ethiopia were the countries that most published studies of species with antitumor activity. Of the 38 plants evaluated, 27 demonstrated antitumor activity. In addition, six other living organisms were cited for antitumor activity against lung cancer. Mechanisms of action, combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, and new technologies to increase activity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment are discussed. This review was based on the NAPRALERT databank, Web of Science, and Chemical Abstracts. This work shows that natural products from plants continue to be a rich source of herbal medicines or biologically active compounds against cancer. PMID:25147575

Monteiro, Luara de Sousa; Bastos, Katherine Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

2014-01-01

99

Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in free-living small mammals in Europe and Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Few data are available on the occurrence of chlamydial infections in wild small mammals. We investigated the significance of free-living small mammals as reservoirs or transmission hosts for microorganisms of the phylum/class Chlamydiae. We obtained 3,664 tissue samples from 911 animals in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Afghanistan. Samples included internal organs (n = 3,652) and feces (n = 12) from 679 rodents (order Rodentia) and 232 insectivores (order Soricomorpha) and were tested by three TaqMan® real-time PCRs specific for members of the family Chlamydiaceae and selected Chlamydia-like organisms such as Parachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp. Only one of 911 (0.11%) animals exhibited a questionable positive result by Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR. Five of 911 animals were positive by specific real-time PCR for Parachlamydia spp. but could not be confirmed by quantitative PCR targeting the Parachlamydia acanthamoebae secY gene (secY qPCR). One of 746 animals (0.13%) was positive by real-time PCR for Waddlia chondrophila. This result was confirmed by Waddlia secY qPCR. This is the first detection of Chlamydia-like organisms in small wildlife in Switzerland. Considering previous negative results for Chlamydiaceae in wild ruminant species from Switzerland, these data suggest that wild small mammals are unlikely to be important carriers or transport hosts for Chamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms. PMID:24484495

Stephan, Sarah; Guerra, Diogo; Pospischil, Andreas; Hilbe, Monika; Weissenböck, Herbert; Novotný, Ladislav; Greub, Gilbert; Croxatto, Antony; Teifke, Jens Peter; Ulrich, Rainer G; Schlegel, Mathias; Ruhl, Silke; Schotte, Ulrich; Binder, Alfred; Sauer, Sabine; Borel, Nicole

2014-04-01

100

Blood Circulation Laboratory Investigations with Video Are Less Investigative than Instructional Blood Circulation Laboratories with Live Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using…

Hoover, Mildred A.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

101

Conflict of Interest Policies for Organizations Producing a Large Number of Clinical Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. Conclusions/Significance COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines. PMID:22629391

Norris, Susan L.; Holmer, Haley K.; Burda, Brittany U.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Fu, Rongwei

2012-01-01

102

Associations of free-living bacteria and dissolved organic compounds in a plume of contaminated groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Associations of free-living bacteria (FLB) and dissolved organic contaminants in a 4-km-long plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater were investigated. Abundance of FLB in the core of the plume (as delineated by maximum specific conductance) steadily decreased in the direction of flow from a point 0.25 km downgradient from the source to the toe of the plume. At 0.25 km downgradient, FLB comprised up to 31% of the total bacterial population, but constituted < 7% of the population at 2 km downgradient. Abundance of FLB correlated strongly (r = 0.80 n = 23) with total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in contaminated groundwater between 0.64 and 2.1 km downgradient, although distributions of individual contaminants such as di-, tri- and tetrachloroethene were highly variable, and their association with FLB less clear. Numbers of FLB in the downgradient portion of the plume which is contaminated with branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonate (ABS) surfactants were low (< 5??108/L) in spite of relatively high levels of DOC (up to 4 mg/L). However, abundance of FLB correlated strongly with non-surfactant DOC along vertical transects through the plume. The ratio of FLB to DOC and the ratio of FLB to attached bacteria generally decreased in the direction of flow and, consequently, with the age of the organic contaminants.

Harvey, R.W.; Barber, L.B., II

1992-01-01

103

The genomic tree of living organisms based on a fractal model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulation of complete genome sequences of living organisms creates new possibilities to discuss the phylogenetic relationships at the genomic level. In the present Letter, a fractal model is proposed to simulate a kind of visual representation of complete genome. The estimated parameters in the fractal model is used to define the genetic distance between two organisms. Because we take into account all genome content including both coding and non-coding regions, the phylogenetic tree from such an analysis leads to alternate classification of genomes that is called a genomic tree. This method of phylogenetic analysis does not require sequence alignment of homologous genes and relies instead on our fractal analysis, so it can avoid artefacts associated with sequence alignment. The similarity in related organisms based on the fractal model of the complete genome is global. Our result from such an analysis of more than 50 genomes indicates that lateral gene transfer must have been very common in the early history of life and thus constitutes a major source of variations in a substantial proportion of prokaryotic genome.

Yu, Zu-Guo; Anh, Vo; Lau, Ka-Sing; Chu, Ka-Hou

2003-10-01

104

Kinesin-1 structural organization and conformational changes revealed by FRET stoichiometry in live cells  

PubMed Central

Kinesin motor proteins drive the transport of cellular cargoes along microtubule tracks. How motor protein activity is controlled in cells is unresolved, but it is likely coupled to changes in protein conformation and cargo association. By applying the quantitative method fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) stoichiometry to fluorescent protein (FP)–labeled kinesin heavy chain (KHC) and kinesin light chain (KLC) subunits in live cells, we studied the overall structural organization and conformation of Kinesin-1 in the active and inactive states. Inactive Kinesin-1 molecules are folded and autoinhibited such that the KHC tail blocks the initial interaction of the KHC motor with the microtubule. In addition, in the inactive state, the KHC motor domains are pushed apart by the KLC subunit. Thus, FRET stoichiometry reveals conformational changes of a protein complex in live cells. For Kinesin-1, activation requires a global conformational change that separates the KHC motor and tail domains and a local conformational change that moves the KHC motor domains closer together. PMID:17200416

Cai, Dawen; Hoppe, Adam D.; Swanson, Joel A.; Verhey, Kristen J.

2007-01-01

105

Optimizing DNA staining by Hoechst 33342 for assessment of chromatin organization in living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest for applications of fluorescence measurements to studies on many physiological mechanisms in living cells. However, few studies have taken advantage of DNA quantification by fluorometry for dynamic assessment of chromatin organization. This type of approach involves both optimal conditions for DNA staining and the use of several investigation methods such as flow cytometry, image cytometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy and spectral imaging. In this context, this report describes a stoichiometric method for nuclear DNA specific staining, using bisbenzimidazole Hoechst 33342 associated with verapamil, a calcium membrane channel blocker. This method makes it possible to follow variations of nuclear DNA content in cells that are maintained alive.

Paillasson, Sylvain; Robert-Nicoud, Michel; Ronot, Xavier

1995-02-01

106

Effect of flagellates on free-living bacterial abundance in an organically contaminated aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known about the role of protists in the saturated subsurface. Porous media microcosms containing bacteria and protists, were used to determine whether flagellates from an organically contaminated aquifer could substantively affect the number of free- living bacteria (FLB). When flagellates were present, the 3-40% maximum breakthrough of fluorescent y labelled FLB injected into the microcosms was much lower than the 60-130% observed for killed controls Grazing and clearance rates (3-27 FLB flag-1 h-1 and 12-23 nI flag-1 h-1, respectively) calculated from the data were in the range reported for flagellates in other aqueous environments. The data provide evidence that flagellate bacterivory is an important control on groundwater FLB populations.

Kinner, N.E.; Harvey, R.W.; Kazmierkiewicz-Tabaka, M.

1997-01-01

107

The interplay of biomolecules and water at the origin of the active behavior of living organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the main component of living matter, namely liquid water, is not an ensemble of independent molecules but an ensemble of phase correlated molecules kept in tune by an electromagnetic (e.m) field trapped in the ensemble. This field and the correlated potential govern the interaction among biomolecules suspended in water and are in turn affected by the chemical interactions of molecules. In particular, the phase of the coherent fields appears to play an important role in this dynamics. Recent experiments reported by the Montagnier group seem to corroborate this theory. Some features of the dynamics of human organisms, as reported by psychotherapy, holistic medicine and Eastern traditions, are analyzed in this frame and could find a rationale in this context.

Del Giudice, E.; Stefanini, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Vitiello, G.

2011-12-01

108

Wettability-Regulated Extracellular Electron Transfer from the Living Organism of Shewanella loihica PV-4.  

PubMed

C-type cytochromes located on the outer membrane (OMCs) of genus Shewanella act as the main redox-active species to mediate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from the inside of the outer membrane to the external environment: the central challenge that must be met for successful EET. The redox states of OMCs play a crucial role in dictating the rate and extent of EET. Here, we report that the surface wettability of the electrodes strongly influences the EET activity of living organisms of Shewanella loihica PV-4 at a fixed external potential: the EET activity on a hydrophilic electrode is more than five times higher than that on a hydrophobic one. We propose that the redox state of OMCs varies significantly at electrodes with different wettability, resulting in different EET activities. PMID:25470810

Ding, Chun-Mei; Lv, Mei-Ling; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Huan

2015-01-26

109

Assessing the research use and needs of organizations promoting healthy living for adults with disabilities.  

PubMed

The uptake of research in community-based organizations (CBOs) is low and still unknown in CBOs that promote active and healthy living in adults with a disability. Using the knowledge to action framework, the objectives of this study were to determine if a gap exists regarding the use of research in CBOs, to learn about the preferred method to receive/read research evidence and to identify the barriers and facilitators of research use. Sixty-two employees of CBOs answered an online questionnaire. A research use gap was found as only 53 % of employees indicated they often or always use research. Conferences, emails and short research summaries were the favoured method of receiving/reading research information. Education, time and financial resources were important barriers to research use, while attitudes, intentions and self-efficacy were facilitators. More efforts are needed to develop tools to help CBOs use research. PMID:24653779

Sweet, Shane N; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Bourne, Chris; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin

2014-03-01

110

Challenges to the involvement of people living with HIV in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations in Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

The Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS Principle (GIPA) has been a core commitment for many people involved in the community-based HIV/AIDS movement. GIPA refers to the inclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS in service delivery and decision-making processes that affect their lives. Despite its central importance to the movement, it has received little attention in the academic literature. Drawing on focus group discussions among staff members and volunteers of AIDS service organizations, activists, and community members, we explore challenges to the implementation of the GIPA principle in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations in Ontario, Canada. Our findings reveal ways in which implementing GIPA has become more complicated over recent years. Challenges relating to health, stigma and disclosure, evolving HIV/AIDS organizations, and GIPA-related tensions are identified. This paper considers our findings in light of previous research, and suggests some implications for practice. PMID:23724932

Cain, Roy; Collins, Evan; Bereket, Tarik; George, Clemon; Jackson, Randy; Li, Alan; Prentice, Tracey; Travers, Robb

2014-02-01

111

Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

2008-01-01

112

Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times: a few days, three months, and six months after launch. Once the satellite is in its highly inclined orbit, the microbes are constantly being exposed to space's high-energy radiation while in micro-gravity. The SESLO experiment measures the microbes' population density as they consume the components of the nutrient medium; a metabolism indicator dye included in the medium changes color, enabling quantitative tracking of metabolic activity. Together, these data en-able determination of the effects of the combined exposure to space radiation and microgravity on organism growth, health and survival. The design of the spacecraft, its ability to support Astrobiology goals, and the actual spaceflight data obtained will be presented.

Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio

113

Living Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organisms move. They act. Their actions may be inimical to man's best interests. They inspire fear, dread, even terror. From time immemorial, humans have viewed with alarm, nay, with horror, the evil that lurks inside living consciousness.

Merlin X. Houdini

1977-01-01

114

Assessment of chronic toxicity of petroleum and produced water components to marine organisms. Final technical summary  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report were: (1) to determine the effects of produced water exposure in early life stages of marine plants and animals, at the cellular, subcellular, and physiological levels; (2) to determine the effects of produced water exposure on reproduction in marine organisms; and (3) to develop non-invasive approaches for assessing reproductive impairment. The effects of produced water (PW) was assessed on development in three ecologically and economically important species, the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), the giant kelp (macrocystis pyrifera), and tsahe California mussel (Mytilus califonrnianus). To determine the basis for effects of PW on these developing organisms, some fundamental studies were prerequisite. Furthermore, eggs and embryos from adults which were outplanted near the discharge were also studied. Finally, the biochemical response of embryos to PW was also defined.

Cherr, G.N.; Higashi, R.M.; Shenker, J.M.

1993-05-31

115

Laboratory and field evaluation of a pretreatment system for removing organics from produced water.  

PubMed

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. This "produced water" is characterized by saline water containing a variety of pollutants, including water soluble and immiscible organics and many inorganic species. To reuse produced water, removal of both the inorganic dissolved solids and organic compounds is necessary. In this research, the effectiveness of a pretreatment system consisting of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption followed by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was evaluated for simultaneous removal of carboxylates and hazardous substances, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from saline-produced water. A laboratory-scale MBR, operated at a 9.6-hour hydraulic residence time, degraded 92% of the carboxylates present in synthetic produced water. When BTEX was introduced simultaneously to the MBR system with the carboxylates, the system achieved 80 to 95% removal of BTEX via biodegradation. These results suggest that simultaneous biodegradation of both BTEX and carboxylate constituents found in produced water is possible. A field test conducted at a produced water disposal facility in Farmington, New Mexico confirmed the laboratory-scale results for the MBR and demonstrated enhanced removal of BTEX using a treatment train consisting of SMZ columns followed by the MBR. While most of the BTEX constituents of the produced water adsorbed onto the SMZ adsorption system, approximately 95% of the BTEX that penetrated the SMZ and entered the MBR was biodegraded in the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (influent concentrations of 120 to 170 mg/L) ranged from 91 to 100%, and total organic carbon (influent concentrations as high as 580 mg/L) ranged from 74 to 92%, respectively. Organic removal in the MBR was accomplished at a low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. While the transmembrane pressure during the laboratory-scale tests was well-controlled, it rose substantially during the field test, where no pH control was implemented. The results suggest that pretreatment with an SMZ/MBR system can provide substantial removal of organic compounds present in produced water, a necessary first step for many water-reuse applications. PMID:22073732

Kwon, Soondong; Sullivan, Enid J; Katz, Lynn E; Bowman, Robert S; Kinney, Kerry A

2011-09-01

116

Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.  

PubMed

The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2011-07-01

117

Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.  

PubMed

Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013. PMID:25064352

Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

2014-09-01

118

Organic salt-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite to produce high-quality graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain ordinary organic salts, such as edetate disodium, sodium tartrate, potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate were found to have universal and efficient assistant effect for liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite in common organic solvents to produce pristine graphene. Up to 123 times enhanced exfoliation efficiency was observed when sodium citrate was introduced into an exfoliation system consisting of natural graphite powder and dimethyl sulfoxide. TEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, EDX, TGA, and FTIR analysis showed graphite was successfully exfoliated into single or few-layer graphene nanosheets which were free of defects and oxides. The method is simple, effective, safe and economical.

Du, Wencheng; Lu, Jie; Sun, Peipei; Zhu, Yinyan; Jiang, Xiaoqing

2013-05-01

119

Destruction of the Biosphere as the Result of Negative Influences of Different Factors on Living Organisms and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Microorganisms, plants and animals play an important role in the ecological balance and in the formation of the climate on\\u000a the planet. Physical, chemical and biological factors can influence living organisms negatively. It is well known that artificially\\u000a created viruses and pathogenic bacteria can cause large epidemics, infecting extensive regions. Genetically modified organisms\\u000a (GMOs), obtained by using of imperfect methods,

Irina Ermakova

120

Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils.  

PubMed

Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ? 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms. PMID:21131514

Orr, Caroline H; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M; Cummings, Stephen P

2011-02-01

121

Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization  

SciTech Connect

Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

Silvey, Andrea B. [Quality Improvement, Health Services Advisory Group, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Warrick, Louise H. [Healthcare Consultant, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: lwarrick@cox.net

2008-05-01

122

The influence of the pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on living organisms  

SciTech Connect

The authors treated 96 patients with pseudoartroses by means of PEMF with the efficiency of 86%. They also treated 19 patients with decubitus and had improvements in all cases. In 58 PEMF treated asthma patients 80% improved. In 41 patients suffering from angina pectoris 90% reduce the need for nitroglycerine lingualetes. In order to eliminate the influence of the placebo and the sinergy, they prepared some experiments with barely and wheat seeds. All this experiments were performed several times with very similar results: Barley seeds were pretreated by PEMF for 1 hour and then planted into Petri's dish. In the stimulated dish, after 72 hours of germination there were three times more seeds with 6 roots then in the control. The embryos of the stimulated dish were stronger and longer compared to the controls. In the other experiment, fungi inoculated wheat seeds were pretreated for 4 hours by PEMF. After 72 hours of germination in a Petri's dish the disease was inhibited compared to the control dish. From all this they conclude that almost every process in a living organism is affected and might be controlled by PEMF.

Pekaric-Nadj, N.; Lazetic, B.; Sep, D.

1991-03-11

123

Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.  

PubMed

Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

2014-12-15

124

Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter.  

PubMed

Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a vast quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between organic and inorganic forms, directly impacting global cycles of these biologically important elements. Details regarding the chemical composition of DOM produced by marine phytoplankton are sparse, and while often assumed, it is not currently known if phylogenetically distinct groups of marine phytoplankton release characteristic suites of DOM. To investigate the relationship between specific phytoplankton groups and the DOM they release, hydrophobic phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMP) from eight axenic strains was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Identification of DOM features derived from Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Thalassiosira, and Phaeodactylum revealed DOMP to be complex and highly strain dependent. Connections between DOMP features and the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains were identified on multiple levels of phylogenetic distance, suggesting that marine phytoplankton produce DOM that in part reflects its phylogenetic origin. Chemical information regarding the size and polarity ranges of features from defined biological sources was also obtained. Our findings reveal DOMP composition to be partially conserved among related phytoplankton species, and implicate marine DOM as a potential factor influencing microbial diversity in the sea by acting as a link between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community structures. PMID:24748874

Becker, Jamie W; Berube, Paul M; Follett, Christopher L; Waterbury, John B; Chisholm, Sallie W; Delong, Edward F; Repeta, Daniel J

2014-01-01

125

Blood circulation laboratory investigations with video are less investigative than instructional blood circulation laboratories with live organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using microscopes (128 students) and 5 classes using digital video (131 students) to compare blood transport among invertebrates, fish, and humans. The "What Is Happening in this Class?" (WIHIC) questionnaire was used for assessment of microscope and video groups to detect students' perception of their learning environment following these teaching interventions. The use of microscopes had a clear effect on the perception of the investigative aspects of the learning environment that was not detected with the video treatment. Findings suggest that video should not replace investigations with live organisms.

Ms. Mildred A. Hoover (Curtin Univ Technol)

2007-07-26

126

Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes  

PubMed Central

In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

2014-01-01

127

From microbial biomass compounds to non-living soil organic matter - Microbial biomass as a significant source for soil organic matter formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter is one of the most important pools of the global carbon cycle. Recently, it has been suggested that microbial biomass is a significant source for the formation of refractory organic matter. We tested the relevance of this source by incubation of soil with 13C-labeled Escherichia coli cells. We traced the labeled carbon in fatty acids and amino acids, both in the microbial biomass and in the bulk soil. We also localized cells and their debris by scanning electron microscopy. Although we could not detect any living cells after 100 days, about 50% of the carbon remained in the soil after 224 days. The amount of label in the fatty acids indicated that microbial lipids were degraded faster than the bulk microbial biomass. Their labeling pattern showed that they were redistributed from E. coli to the microbial food web and from the living biomass to non-living soil organic matter. In contrast, the label in the total amino acids did not decrease significantly during incubation. Proteins are thus surprisingly stable in soil, but they also shifted from microbial biomass to non-living soil organic matter. The scanning electron micrographs showed only isolated intact microbial cells in our soil, but patches of organic material of unknown origin which are about 20 - 50 nm2 in size were quite abundant. Dying microbial cells therefore are a significant carbon source for the formation of refractory organic material, but the morphology of the cells changes during degradation, as cell structures cannot be found frequently in soils.

Miltner, A.; Kindler, R.; Hoffmann-Jäniche, C.; Schmidt-Brücken, B.; Kästner, M.

2009-04-01

128

Surface enhanced Raman scattering on Tardigrada--towards monitoring and imaging molecular structures in live cryptobiotic organisms.  

PubMed

Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans which are able to survive extreme physical and chemical conditions by entering a stress tolerant state called cryptobiosis. At present, the molecular mechanisms behind cryptobiosis are still poorly understood. We show that surface enhanced Raman scattering supported by plasmonic gold nanoparticles can measure molecular constituents and their local distribution in live tardigrades. Surface enhanced Raman signatures allow to differentiate between two species and indicate molecular structural differences between tardigrades in water and in a dry state. This opens new avenues for exploring cryptobiosis by studying molecular changes in live cryptobiotic organisms. PMID:23225705

Kneipp, Harald; Møbjerg, Nadja; Jørgensen, Aslak; Bohr, Henrik G; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Katrin

2013-10-01

129

Organic and Inorganic Species in CBM Produced Water: Implications for Water Management Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal-bed methane (CBM) wells currently produce close to one billion bbl of water annually and deliver about 8% of total natural gas in the USA. The salinity of this produced water generally is lower than that of water from conventional petroleum wells; salinity commonly is 1,000-20,000 mg/L, but ranges from 200 to 150,000 mg/L TDS. Most CBM wells produce Na-HCO3-Cl type water that is low in trace metals and has no reported NORMs. This water generally has no oil and grease and has relatively low (2-10 mg/L) dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but its organic composition has not been characterized in detail. The water is disposed of by injection into saline aquifers, through evaporation and/or percolation in disposal pits, road spreading, and surface discharge. Water that has low (<1,000 mg/L TDS) salinity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is considered acceptable for irrigation, surface discharge and for injection into freshwater aquifers. Because groundwater associated with coal, especially with lignite and subbituminous coal, is known to contain a variety of toxic or potentially toxic organics, including hydroxyphenols and PAHs, the organic and inorganic compositions of CBM waters should be systematically characterized and their potential for harm to human health, crops and the environment carefully evaluated prior to its addition to existing water supplies. As an alternative to costly disposal, lower salinity produced water from high-yield CBM wells is being considered for reclamation. The treated water would be a valuable new water resource, especially in the arid western USA. The feasibility and cost of reclaiming produced water to meet irrigation, industrial and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study. The estimated treatment cost was high at about 0.39/bbl (3,000/acre-ft) for potable water, but would be substantially lower and competitive for irrigation and industrial uses in some arid regions of the USA.

Kharaka, Y. K.; Rice, C. A.

2003-12-01

130

CARS microscopy for the monitoring of fat deposition mechanisms in a living organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce near-infrared Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy as a method for the monitoring of fat deposition in a living organism by directly probing the CH II vibration of the lipids without the need for staining or labeling. This study nicely brings forward all the advantages of the technique: deep probe depth, low excitation powers, high 3-dimensional resolution, and visualization without the interference of exogenous label molecules, or fixation and staining procedures. Differences in fat deposition during the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were evaluated quantitatively from the CARS microscopy images, showing that the technique can be used to study mechanisms that regulate lipid storage. Beside the wild type nematode, the feeding-deficient mutant pha-3 was studied. It was shown that the embryonal accumulation of energy stores is enough for the development of a full-sized pre-adult larva, being possible also for the mutant. However, the volume density of lipid stores at the fourth and last pre-adult development stage seems to determine its adult body size. Whereas the wild type larva maintains its size when becoming adult, though at the cost of reduced lipid density, the feeding deficient mutant instead has to reduce its body size in order to reach the same volume density of lipid stores. Both strains start off their adult life with a volume fraction of lipid stores corresponding to 6-7%; the wild type with a radius of 24+/-2 µm and the pha-3 mutant with a significantly smaller radius of 16+/-3 ?m.

Enejder, Annika; Hellerer, Thomas; Hillertz, Per; Brackmann, Christian; Axäng, Claes; Pilon, Marc

2006-02-01

131

Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects  

PubMed Central

Nanosizing effects of materials on biological organisms was investigated by biochemical cell functional tests, cell proliferation and animal implantation testing. The increase in specific surface area causes the enhancement of ionic dissolution and serious toxicity for soluble, stimulative materials. This effect originates solely from materials and enhances the same functions as those in a macroscopic size as a catalyst. There are other effects that become prominent, especially for non-soluble, biocompatible materials such as Ti. Particle size dependence showed the critical size for the transition of behaviour is at approximately 100??m, 10??m and 200?nm. This effect has its origin in the biological interaction process between both particles and cells/tissue. Expression of superoxide anions, cytokines tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? from neutrophils was increased with the decrease in particle size and especially pronounced below 10??m, inducing phagocytosis to cells and inflammation of tissue, although inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis showed no dissolution from Ti particles. Below 200?nm, stimulus decreases, then particles invade into the internal body through the respiratory or digestive systems and diffuse inside the body. Although macroscopic hydroxyapatite, which exhibits excellent osteoconductivity, is not replaced with natural bone, nanoapatite composites induce both phagocytosis of composites by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts when implanted in bone defects. The progress of this bioreaction results in the conversion of functions to bone substitution. Although macroscopic graphite is non-cell adhesive, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cell adhesive. The adsorption of proteins and nano-meshwork structure contribute to the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and restricts reaction to the size-sensitive phagocytosis. Materials larger than cell size, approximately 10??m, behave inertly, but those smaller become biointeractive and induce the intrinsic functions of living organisms. This bioreaction process causes the conversion of functions such as from biocompatibility to stimulus in Ti-abraded particles, from non-bone substitutional to bone substitutional in nanoapatite and from non-cell adhesive to cell adhesive CNTs. The insensitive nature permits nanoparticles that are less than 200?nm to slip through body defence systems and invade directly into the internal body. PMID:19364724

Watari, Fumio; Takashi, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Abe, Shigeaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Tohji, Kazuyuki

2009-01-01

132

College Students' Attitudes towards Living Organisms: The Influence of Experience and Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the attitude variations between students who had direct experiences with another living thing and those who did not. All students who had direct experiences with another living thing showed a higher mean value in all the attitude categories that showed more concern for another species. Confirms the importance of students having direct…

Yore, Lola Boeck; Boyer, Stan

1997-01-01

133

Lively Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2002-01-01

134

Bacterial mutagenicity of pyrolysis tars produced from chloro-organic fuels.  

PubMed Central

Droplets of toluene and three chlorinated organics, ortho-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, were pyrolyzed in pure nitrogen. The composition and bacterial mutagenicity of the product tars were measured. The presence of organic chlorine was found to affect both pyrolysis product tar composition and total tar mutagenicity. Pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine produced tars whose bacterial mutagenicity was found to be largely due to the presence of cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Small amounts of chlorine in the fuel (i.e., Cl/H molar ratios of less than 0.3) enhanced the formation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including cyclopenta[cd]pyrene) and increased tar mutagenicity. Larger amounts of organic chlorine (Cl/H ratios of between 0.3 and 0.6) resulted in significant yields of mono- and dichlorinated aromatics and higher levels of tar mutagenicity, which could not be accounted for by the presence of mutagens produced by pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine. Furthermore, unlike tars containing little or no chlorine, tars containing aryl chlorine were more mutagenic in the absence of added enzymes (intended to mimic in vivo mammalian metabolism) than in their presence. We hypothesize that at least one of the chlorinated aromatic products is strongly mutagenic. Two specific conditions that gave notably different results were a) the low-temperature (i.e., below 1400 K) pyrolysis of ortho-dichlorobenzene, which produced tri- and tetrachlorinated biphenyls almost exclusively; and b) the chlorine-rich pyrolysis of trichloroethylene, during which mostly perchloroaromatics were formed. Neither of these tars was found to mutate bacteria. PMID:8187720

Mulholland, J A; Sarofim, A F; Longwell, J P; Lafleur, A L; Thilly, W G

1994-01-01

135

Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

2011-09-01

136

Ingestion of Salmonella enterica Serotype Poona by a Free-Living Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Protection against Inactivation by Produce Sanitizers  

PubMed Central

Free-living nematodes are known to ingest food-borne pathogens and may serve as vectors to contaminate preharvest fruits and vegetables. Caenorhabditis elegans was selected as a model to study the effectiveness of sanitizers in killing Salmonella enterica serotype Poona ingested by free-living nematodes. Aqueous suspensions of adult worms that had fed on S. enterica serotype Poona were treated with produce sanitizers. Treatment with 20 ?g of free chlorine/ml significantly (? = 0.05) reduced the population of S. enterica serotype Poona compared to results for treating worms with water (control). However, there was no significant difference in the number of S. enterica serotype Poona cells surviving treatments with 20 to 500 ?g of chlorine/ml, suggesting that reductions caused by treatment with 20 ?g of chlorine/ml resulted from inactivation of S. enterica serotype Poona on the surface of C. elegans but not cells protected by the worm cuticle after ingestion. Treatment with Sanova (850 or 1,200 ?g/ml), an acidified sodium chlorite sanitizer, caused reductions of 5.74 and 6.34 log10 CFU/worm, respectively, compared to reductions from treating worms with water. Treatment with 20 or 40 ?g of Tsunami 200/ml, a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer, resulted in reductions of 4.83 and 5.34 log10 CFU/worm, respectively, compared to numbers detected on or in worms treated with water. Among the organic acids evaluated at a concentration of 2%, acetic acid was the least effective in killing S. enterica serotype Poona and lactic acid was the most effective. Treatment with up to 500 ?g of chlorine/ml, 1% hydrogen peroxide, 2,550 ?g of Sanova/ml, 40 ?g of Tsunami 200/ml, or 2% acetic, citric, or lactic acid had no effect on the viability or reproductive behavior of C. elegans. Treatments were also applied to cantaloupe rind and lettuce inoculated with S. enterica serotype Poona or C. elegans that had ingested S. enterica serotype Poona. Protection of ingested S. enterica serotype Poona against sanitizers applied to cantaloupe was not evident; however, ingestion afforded protection of the pathogen on lettuce. These results indicate that S. enterica serotype Poona ingested by C. elegans may be protected against treatment with chlorine and other sanitizers, although the basis for this protection remains unclear. PMID:12839787

Caldwell, Krishaun N.; Adler, Barbara B.; Anderson, Gary L.; Williams, Phillip L.; Beuchat, Larry R.

2003-01-01

137

Distribution of living benthic foraminifera off the Douro river (western Iberian margin): the importance of the terrestrial organic matter.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living (stained) benthic foraminifera assemblages and geochemical characterization of the organic matter (phytopigments, amino acids, ?13Coc, BIT) were investigated on a cross-margin transect off the Douro River (Northern Portuguese margin) in order to assess the role of the quality of organic matter on the distribution of live benthic foraminifera. For this, 5 stations ranging from 50 to 2000 m depth were collected in March 2011 about one month after the Douro River annual flood. Faunal abundances generally decrease from the coast to the slope with maximum total densities of 3051 ind./50 cm3 in the mudbelt (Q50=32µm) at 100 m and minimum density of 63 ind./50 cm3 found at 500 m water depth where grain size is coarse (Q50=190µm). Faunas of the shallow most station are dominated by Ammonia becarii, Eggerella scabra, Bulimina aculeata and Nonion scaphum while N. scaphum and to a lesser extent Uvigerina bifurcata dominate the assemblages at 100 m. The deepest stations are dominated by Uvigerina mediterranea, Hoeglundina elegans and Reophax scorpiurus. In general, live benthic foraminiferal densities are higher where the indicators of organic matter are more concentrated. However, some species appear to have strong affinities with Chl-a (e.g., N. scaphum, U. bifurcata), while others (A. becarii, E. Scabra, B. aculeata) are more abundant where labile organic matter is high as show by the EHAA/THAA amino acid ratio. The species that show a good correlation with Chl-a also show affinity with organic matter of terrestrial origin as show by the ?13Coc suggesting 1) that Chl-a measured in the coastal zone is not only marine and 2) that land plant derived organic matter could be an important source of food for marine benthic communities.

Bonnin, Jerome; Dessandier, Pierre-Antoine; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gremare, Antoine; Deflandre, Bruno; Sinnighe-Damste, Jaap

2014-05-01

138

Gut microbiota as a candidate for lifespan extension: an ecological\\/evolutionary perspective targeted on living organisms as metaorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging central concept in evolutionary biology suggests that symbiosis is a universal characteristic of living organisms\\u000a that can help in understanding complex traits and phenotypes. During evolution, an integrative circuitry fundamental for survival\\u000a has been established between commensal gut microbiota and host. On the basis of recent knowledge in worms, flies, and humans,\\u000a an important role of the gut

E. Ottaviani; N. Ventura; M. Mandrioli; M. Candela; A. Franchini; C. Franceschi

139

Living with HIV infection: Perceptions of patients with access to care at a non?governmental organization in Chennai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through interviews, we examined explanatory frameworks of living with HIV infection among 50 HIV?positive individuals (23 women, 27 men) receiving care at a non?governmental organization in Chennai, India. Results were analysed according to three sets of issues, all of which were found to differ by gender: causal beliefs about HIV, impact of HIV, and care\\/treatment of HIV. HIV?positive participants attributed

Nalini Tarakeshwar; A. K. Krishnan; Sethulakshmi Johnson; Suniti Solomon; Kathleen Sikkema; Michael Merson

2006-01-01

140

75 FR 873 - Extramural Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...partnership with the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) established the National...officially partnered with 299 living transplant programs throughout the United States...Applications are filed through the transplant centers and reviewed by a...

2010-01-06

141

Distribution of uranium in human organs of an urban Indian population and its relationship with clearance half-lives  

SciTech Connect

This organ burdens of uranium were estimated for an urban Indian (Bombay) population living in a normal background environment, using the technique of neutron activation analysis, in combination with post-irradiation chemical separation. The total organ burdens were: skeleton > muscle > soft tissue > lungs > kidney > liver > heart. A comparison was made between the observed organ burdens of uranium for skeleton, kidney, and muscle with those obtained by applying the metabolic model of uranium as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to its daily intake by urban population. The observed organ burdens for kidney and muscle were found to be 4 and 70 times higher than the derived burden values; however, the two estimates were similar in the case of skeleton. This observation indicated that the clearance half-lives for uranium present in kidney and muscle tissue are likely to be longer than those reported by ICRP. For skeleton, however, the clearance half-life reported by the ICRP appeared to be reasonable. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

Dang, H.S.; Pullat, V.R.; Sharma, R.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

1995-03-01

142

Distribution of uranium in human organs of an urban Indian population and its relationship with clearance half-lives.  

PubMed

This organ burdens of uranium were estimated for an urban Indian (Bombay) population living in a normal background environment, using the technique of neutron activation analysis, in combination with post-irradiation chemical separation. The total organ burdens were: skeleton > muscle > soft tissue > lungs > kidney > liver > heart. A comparison was made between the observed organ burdens of uranium for skeleton, kidney, and muscle with those obtained by applying the metabolic model of uranium as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to its daily intake by urban population. The observed organ burdens for kidney and muscle were found to be 4 and 70 times higher than the derived burden values; however, the two estimates were similar in the case of skeleton. This observation indicated that the clearance half-lives for uranium present in kidney and muscle tissue are likely to be longer than those reported by ICRP. For skeleton, however, the clearance half-life reported by the ICRP appeared to be reasonable. PMID:7860303

Dang, H S; Pullat, V R; Sharma, R C

1995-03-01

143

Sister chromatid exchange induced by short-lived monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells  

SciTech Connect

To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced short-lived lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.

Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.

1982-01-01

144

Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05). Most respondents, 303 (79.1%), were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation. PMID:24434412

Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

2014-01-01

145

Fossil identification activity Standard: Comparing fossils to each other or to living organisms reveals features of  

E-print Network

Fossil identification activity Grade: 4th Standard: Comparing fossils to each other or to living. Instructions: This activity requires the fossil kit from the CSM museum. Create 8 stations, each station having one of the fossils from the list and a question sheet described below. Stations 1. Hesperocyon sp. XI6

146

Frontispiece: Wettability-Regulated Extracellular Electron Transfer from the Living Organism of Shewanella loihica PV-4.  

PubMed

Electron Transfer Extracellular electron transfer from living microbes can be regulated by altering the surface wettability of the electrode. In their Communication on page?1446?ff., H. Liu, Y. Zhu, et?al. report that the electron transfer activity on a hydrophilic electrode is more than five times higher than that on a hydrophobic one. PMID:25612176

Ding, Chun-Mei; Lv, Mei-Ling; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Huan

2015-01-26

147

Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans growth from conidia and mycelial extension by bacterially produced volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

The recently identified causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been implicated in the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its initial documentation in 2006 (Frick et al. in Science 329:679-682, 2010). In an effort to identify potential biological and chemical control options for WNS, 6 previously described bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were screened for anti-P. destructans activity. The compounds include decanal; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; nonanal; benzothiazole; benzaldehyde; andN,N-dimethyloctylamine. P. destructans conidia and mycelial plugs were exposed to the VOCs in a closed air space at 15 and 4 °C and then evaluated for growth inhibition. All VOCs inhibited growth from conidia as well as inhibiting radial mycelial extension, with the greatest effect at 4 °C. Studies of the ecology of fungistatic soils and the natural abundance of the fungistatic VOCs present in these environments suggest a synergistic activity of select VOCs may occur. The evaluation of formulations of two or three VOCs at equivalent concentrations was supportive of synergistic activity in several cases. The identification of bacterially produced VOCs with anti-P. destructans activity indicates disease-suppressive and fungistatic soils as a potentially significant reservoir of biological and chemical control options for WNS and provides wildlife management personnel with tools to combat this devastating disease. PMID:24190516

Cornelison, Christopher T; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney; Crow, Sidney A

2014-02-01

148

Usefulness of Organic Acid Produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on Neutralization of Alkaline Wastewater  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry. PMID:22666107

Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

2012-01-01

149

Laboratory Investigations of Complex Refractory Organic Material Produced from Irradiation of Pluto Ice Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of Pluto’s surface consists of N2 ice with smaller amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Despite the low temperature 45K), chemistry can be driven in the surface ices by radiation processing such as cosmic ray bombardment. When cosmic rays strike the surface, much of their energy is dispersed in the form of secondary electrons, which in turn drive much of the resulting chemical reactions. Laboratory experiments designed to simulate the conditions on these icy bodies may provide insight into this chemistry. Significant progress has been made in the laboratory toward understanding the smaller, simple compounds produced in the solid phase by radiation processing of (N2, CH4, CO) ices (Bohn et al. 1994; Moore & Hudson 2003; Hodyss et al. 2011; Kim and Kaiser 2012). Recently Materese et al. (2014) used a variety of techniques to better characterize the refractory materials produced from the UV photo-irradiation of N2:CH4:CO ices. However, because Pluto’s atmosphere is optically thick to Lyman-? UV radiation it is important to re-examine the results using an alternate radiation source. Our latest work has consisted of the analysis of refractory materials produced from the electron bombardment of low-temperature N2-, CH4-, and CO-containing ices (100:1:1). The ice mixture was chosen to be analogous to the known surface ices on Pluto and the radiation source was chosen to mimic the secondary electrons produced by cosmic rays bombardment. The residues were studied using multiple chemical techniques including, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic residues produced in these experiments can be seen as an analog for the refractory component of the surface of Pluto, and are compared with the residues previously obtained from UV photo-irradiation. UV and near-IR spectroscopy of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon during the encounter with NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft in 2015, will give the first close-up measurements of ices and their photoproducts. Laboratory measurements and experiments will provide a better context for the data returned by the spacecraft.

Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

2014-11-01

150

Characterization of some efficient cellulase producing bacteria isolated from paper mill sludges and organic fertilizers  

PubMed Central

The wide variety of bacteria in the environment permits screening for more efficient cellulases to help overcome current challenges in biofuel production. This study focuses on the isolation of efficient cellulase producing bacteria found in organic fertilizers and paper mill sludges which can be considered for use in large scale biorefining. Pure isolate cultures were screened for cellulase activity. Six isolates: S1, S2, S3, S4, E2, and E4, produced halos greater in diameter than the positive control (Cellulomonas xylanilytica), suggesting high cellulase activities. A portion of the 16S rDNA genes of cellulase positive isolates were amplified and sequenced, then BLASTed to determine likely genera. Phylogenetic analysis revealed genera belonging to two major Phyla of Gram positive bacteria: Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. All isolates were tested for the visible degradation of filter paper; only isolates E2 and E4 (Paenibacillus species) were observed to completely break down filter paper within 72 and 96 h incubation, respectively, under limited oxygen condition. Thus E2 and E4 were selected for the FP assay for quantification of total cellulase activities. It was shown that 1% (w/v) CMC could induce total cellulase activities of 1652.2±61.5 and 1456.5±30.7 ?M of glucose equivalents for E2 and E4, respectively. CMC could induce cellulase activities 8 and 5.6X greater than FP, therefore CMC represented a good inducing substrate for cellulase production. The genus Paenibacillus are known to contain some excellent cellulase producing strains, E2 and E4 displayed superior cellulase activities and represent excellent candidates for further cellulase analysis and characterization. PMID:21969070

Maki, Miranda L; Broere, Michael; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng

2011-01-01

151

Characterization of some efficient cellulase producing bacteria isolated from paper mill sludges and organic fertilizers.  

PubMed

The wide variety of bacteria in the environment permits screening for more efficient cellulases to help overcome current challenges in biofuel production. This study focuses on the isolation of efficient cellulase producing bacteria found in organic fertilizers and paper mill sludges which can be considered for use in large scale biorefining. Pure isolate cultures were screened for cellulase activity. Six isolates: S1, S2, S3, S4, E2, and E4, produced halos greater in diameter than the positive control (Cellulomonas xylanilytica), suggesting high cellulase activities. A portion of the 16S rDNA genes of cellulase positive isolates were amplified and sequenced, then BLASTed to determine likely genera. Phylogenetic analysis revealed genera belonging to two major Phyla of Gram positive bacteria: Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. All isolates were tested for the visible degradation of filter paper; only isolates E2 and E4 (Paenibacillus species) were observed to completely break down filter paper within 72 and 96 h incubation, respectively, under limited oxygen condition. Thus E2 and E4 were selected for the FP assay for quantification of total cellulase activities. It was shown that 1% (w/v) CMC could induce total cellulase activities of 1652.2±61.5 and 1456.5±30.7 ?M of glucose equivalents for E2 and E4, respectively. CMC could induce cellulase activities 8 and 5.6X greater than FP, therefore CMC represented a good inducing substrate for cellulase production. The genus Paenibacillus are known to contain some excellent cellulase producing strains, E2 and E4 displayed superior cellulase activities and represent excellent candidates for further cellulase analysis and characterization. PMID:21969070

Maki, Miranda L; Broere, Michael; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng

2011-01-01

152

Micro-Radiography of Living Biological Organisms with MEDIPIX2 Detector and Application of Various Contrast Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a newly developed radiographic system equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector and a micro-focus FeinFocus X-ray tube tabletop. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by the X-ray tube. The digital pixel detectors of the Medipix family represent a highly efficient type of imaging devices with high spatial resolution better than 1?m, and unlimited dynamic range allowing single particle of radiation and to determine their energies. The setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in vivo observations with various contrast agents (iodine and lanthanum nitrate). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of application of iodine and lanthanum nitrate contrast agents as tracers in various insects as model organisms. The iodine contrast agent increases the absorption of X-rays and this leads to better resolution of internal structures of biological organisms, and especially the various cavities, pores, etc. Micro-radiographic imaging helps to detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

Dammer, Jiri; Sopko, Vit; Jakubek, Jan; Weyda, Frantisek; Benes, Jiri; Zahorovsky, Julian

2012-08-01

153

A Graphical Journey of Innovative Organic Architectures that Have Improved Our Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new free graphical teaching tool that highlights the beautiful organic architectures of the top selling pharmaceuticals is detailed on two posters. In addition to the multitude of teaching and data-mining opportunities these posters offer, they were also created to emphasize the central role organic chemists play in the development of new…

McGrath, Nicholas A.; Brichacek, Matthew; Njardarson, Jon T.

2010-01-01

154

Synergistic activity of biocides and antibiotics on resistant bacteria from organically produced foods.  

PubMed

Synergism between biocides and antibiotics was investigated in 20 biocide and antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that were previously isolated from organically produced foods, according to their antimicrobial resistance profiles. Most of the antibiotic/biocide combinations yielded synergistic interactions, reducing the inhibitory concentrations of biocides and antibiotics by 4- to 16-fold. Among enterococci, synergism with biocides was detected for amoxicillin (AM), cefuroxime (CX), erythromycin (EM), ciprofloxacin (CP), and trimethoprim/sulphametoxazol (T/S). Among staphylococci, interactions were synergistic (AM) and either synergistic or indifferent (CX and EM, depending on biocide). Among the three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains included in the study, the combinations of methicillin and triclosan or hexachlorophene acted synergistically in all strains, but interactions were either synergistic or indifferent for the other biocides, depending on the strain. All combinations tested were synergistic for Lactobacillus (AM, CX, EM, and CP) and Micrococcus (AM, EM). In Salmonella, interactions were indifferent (AM, CX, EM, and CP) or synergistic (T/S). Synergism with biocides was also detected in Klebsiella isolates (AM, CX, and T/S), Enterobacter sp. (AM, CX, EM, and T/S), Pantoea (AM, CX, EM, CP, and T/S), and Chryseobacterium sp. (EM). These results suggest that combinations of biocides and antibiotics may open new possibilities to combat antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24660956

Fernández Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Gadea, Rebeca; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Ortega, Elena

2014-10-01

155

Emission characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants from iron ore sintering process in China.  

PubMed

Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (Unintentional POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were investigated in four typical iron ore sintering plants in China. The emission factors and annual mass releases of the Unintentional POPs were calculated. The results indicated that PCDFs contributed more than 60% to the overall toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values, while the contribution of the dl-PCBs is relatively low, and only in the range of 8-9%. The dominant congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contributing most to the total TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCB-126. With regard to the TEQ contributions, the most abundant homologues were PeCDFs and HxCDD/Fs, followed by PeCDDs and non-ortho dl-PCB, whereas HpCDD/Fs, OCDD/Fs and mono-ortho dl-PCBs almost made no contributions. Due to the massive use of recycled waste in the feeding materials, the average emission factor of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of the four plants was 3.95 ?g WHO-TEQ ton(-1). Based on the results, the annual release of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in 2007-2009 were estimated to be 2070 g, 2212 g, and 2307 gWHO-TEQ, respectively. PMID:22727897

Tian, Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2012-10-01

156

Collapsing Aged Culture of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Produces Compound(s) Toxic to Photosynthetic Organisms  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton mortality allows effective nutrient cycling, and thus plays a pivotal role in driving biogeochemical cycles. A growing body of literature demonstrates the involvement of regulated death programs in the abrupt collapse of phytoplankton populations, and particularly implicates processes that exhibit characteristics of metazoan programmed cell death. Here, we report that the cell-free, extracellular fluid (conditioned medium) of a collapsing aged culture of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is toxic to exponentially growing cells of this cyanobacterium, as well as to a large variety of photosynthetic organisms, but not to eubacteria. The toxic effect, which is light-dependent, involves oxidative stress, as suggested by damage alleviation by antioxidants, and the very high sensitivity of a catalase-mutant to the conditioned medium. At relatively high cell densities, S. elongatus cells survived the deleterious effect of conditioned medium in a process that required de novo protein synthesis. Application of conditioned medium from a collapsing culture caused severe pigment bleaching not only in S. elongatus cells, but also resulted in bleaching of pigments in a cell free extract. The latter observation indicates that the elicited damage is a direct effect that does not require an intact cell, and therefore, is mechanistically different from the metazoan-like programmed cell death described for phytoplankton. We suggest that S. elongatus in aged cultures are triggered to produce a toxic compound, and thus, this process may be envisaged as a novel regulated death program. PMID:24959874

Cohen, Assaf; Sendersky, Eleonora; Carmeli, Shmuel; Schwarz, Rakefet

2014-01-01

157

Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

158

Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

Allometric equations are often used to extrapolate traits in animals for which only body mass estimates are known, such as dinosaurs. One important decision can be whether these equations should be based on mammal, bird or reptile data. To address whether this choice will have a relevant influence on reconstructions, we compared allometric equations for birds and mammals from the literature to those for reptiles derived from both published and hitherto unpublished data. Organs studied included the heart, kidneys, liver and gut, as well as gut contents. While the available data indicate that gut content mass does not differ between the clades, the organ masses for reptiles are generally lower than those for mammals and birds. In particular, gut tissue mass is significantly lower in reptiles. When applying the results in the reconstruction of a sauropod dinosaur, the estimated volume of the coelomic cavity greatly exceeds the estimated volume of the combined organ masses, irrespective of the allometric equation used. Therefore, substantial deviation of sauropod organ allometry from that of the extant vertebrates can be allowed conceptually. Extrapolations of retention times from estimated gut contents mass and food intake do not suggest digestive constraints on sauropod dinosaur body size. PMID:19324837

Franz, Ragna; Hummel, Jürgen; Kienzle, Ellen; Kölle, Petra; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Clauss, Marcus

2009-01-01

159

Living organ procurement from the mentally incompetent: the need for more appropriate guidelines.  

PubMed

With the case of Belgium as a negative example, this paper will evaluate the legitimacy of using mentally incompetents as organ sources. The first section examines the underlying moral dilemma that results from the necessity of balancing the principle of respect for persons with the obligation to help people in desperate need. We argue for the rejection of a radical utilitarian approach but also question the appropriateness of a categorical prohibition. Section two aims to strike a fair balance between the competing interests at stake and to define the conditions under which organ harvest from mentally incompetents might be morally acceptable. To this end, we morally assess the main requirements that have been put forward to allow organ removal from incompetent donors. We conclude that the current Belgian legislation is far too permissive and that national regulations that do not permit the harvest of non-regenerable organs from mentally incompetents in exceptional circumstances are too restrictive. On the basis of this discussion, we propose a number of guiding principles for decision-making in this area. PMID:22762369

Van Assche, Kristof; Genicot, Gilles; Sterckx, Sigrid

2014-03-01

160

Narrating Lives, Narrating Faith: "Organic Hybridity" for Contemporary Christian Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes that Christian Religious Education (CRE) today requires the practice of "organic hybridity" in fluid and shifting "diasporic spaces," the prerequisite for which is the recognition that "hybrid subjectivities" is characteristic of our current postmodern, postcolonial, transnational, globalized world. Toward this aim, CRE must…

Tran, Mai-Anh Le

2010-01-01

161

Microbially Produced Organic Matter and Its Role in Facilitating Pu Transport in the Deep Vadose Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms have the potential to affect the fate and mobility of actinides in the deep vadose zone (DVZ) by metabolism (direct oxidation/reduction and changes to ecosystem redox potential), production of colloids and ligands, or by sorption (biofilms). The role of microbial communities in colloid-facilitated Pu transport is currently under investigation at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our experimental objective is to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data on the in situ role of biological organic material (DOM, POC, and EPS) on the (de)sorption of Pu at environmentally relevant concentrations. Groundwater samples were collected through vertical ventilation holes from a flooded post-test tunnel at the (NTS), where SSU rRNA gene libraries revealed a range of potential microbial physiotypes. Microbial enrichments were set up with the aim of isolating numerically significant representatives of major relevant physiotypes (e.g. aerobic heterotrophs, Mn/Fe reducers, EPS producers). NTS isolates, a well-characterized Shewanella sp.(str. CN-32), and an EPS-mutant of this strain were screened for their reactivity with Pu(IV). Organisms with both high and low (relative) Kd’s were used in sorption and cell lysis experiments. Viability experiments were conducted for all isolates in NaCl or NaCl/NaHCO3 solutions (I=0.01) for pH = 3, 5, 7, and 9. Products from cell lysis were filtered (0.22 um) or dialyzed (MW cutoff = 20,000 kD). These fractions were normalized by TOC and equilibrated with Pu to determine if Pu sorbs more strongly to either viable cells, EPS, cell membranes, or cell exudates. In our experiments, Pu(IV) sorbed most strongly to cells or cell fractions with EPS (expolysaccharide, the major biofilm component). However, cell fractions and exudates, which may become mobile when released from lysed or senescing cells, also strongly sorbed to Pu(IV). Therefore, changes in groundwater chemistry (e.g., pH or ionic strength) may have both direct chemical effects and indirect effects on Pu sorption due to changes in the stability of the microbial cells or biofilms.

Fisher, J. C.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Zavarin, M.; Kersting, A. B.; Czerwinski, K.; Moser, D. P.

2010-12-01

162

Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

2005-01-01

163

A taxonomic study to establish the relationship between exopolysaccharide-producing bacterial strains living in diverse hypersaline habitats.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to identify exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria gathered from 18 hypersaline habitats. Phenotypic studies performed with 134 isolates revealed the majority of them to be Gram-negative rods with respiratory metabolism, belonging to the genus Halomonas. A numerical analysis of the 114 phenotypic data showed that at an 80% similarity level most of the strains (121) could be grouped into six phenotypic groups. Phenon A included 25 new isolates and the reference strain of Halomonas eurihalina, and phenon B was formed by 77 new isolates and Halomonas maura. Phenon C was also related to H. maura although to a lesser extent than strains in group B. Three phena (D, E, and F) could not be grouped with any of the reference strains and may represent new taxa; their G + C contents and DNA-DNA hybridization data corroborated this hypothesis. Results of this work proved that the most abundant halophilic species EPS producer in hypersaline habitats was H. maura, followed by H. eurihalina. PMID:15060730

Martínez-Cánovas, Maria José; Quesada, Emilia; Martínez-Checa, Fernando; Béjar, Victoria

2004-05-01

164

Infection of Semen-Producing Organs by SIV during the Acute and Chronic Stages of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough indirect evidence suggests the male genital tract as a possible source of persistent HIV shedding in semen during antiretroviral therapy, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to the difficulty of sampling semen-producing organs in HIV+ asymptomatic individuals.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing a range of molecular and cell biological techniques, this study investigates SIV infection within reproductive organs of macaques during the acute

Anna Le Tortorec; Roger Le Grand; Hélène Denis; Anne-Pascale Satie; Karim Mannioui; Pierre Roques; Anne Maillard; Sylvanne Daniels; Bernard Jégou; Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford; Peter Sommer

2008-01-01

165

Elemental, isotopic, and structural changes in Tagish Lake insoluble organic matter produced by parent body processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we present the results of a multitechnique study of the bulk properties of insoluble organic material (IOM) from the Tagish Lake meteorite, including four lithologies that have undergone different degrees of aqueous alteration. The IOM C contents of all four lithologies are very uniform and comprise about half the bulk C and N contents of the lithologies. However, the bulk IOM elemental and isotopic compositions vary significantly. In particular, there is a correlated decrease in bulk IOM H/C ratios and ?D values with increasing degree of alteration—the IOM in the least altered lithology is intermediate between CM and CR IOM, while that in the more altered lithologies resembles the very aromatic IOM in mildly metamorphosed CV and CO chondrites, and heated CMs. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, C X-ray absorption near-edge (XANES), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirm and quantitate this transformation from CR-like, relatively aliphatic IOM functional group chemistry to a highly aromatic one. The transformation is almost certainly thermally driven, and probably occurred under hydrothermal conditions. The lack of a paramagnetic shift in 13C NMR spectra and 1s-?* exciton in the C-XANES spectra, both typically seen in metamorphosed chondrites, shows that the temperatures were lower and/or the timescales were shorter than experienced by even the least metamorphosed type 3 chondrites. Two endmember models were considered to quantitatively account for the changes in IOM functional group chemistry, but the one in which the transformations involved quantitative conversion of aliphatic material to aromatic material was the more successful. It seems likely that similar processes were involved in producing the diversity of IOM compositions and functional group chemistries among CR, CM, and CI chondrites. If correct, CRs experienced the lowest temperatures, while CM and CI chondrites experienced similar more elevated temperatures. This ordering is inconsistent with alteration temperatures based on mineralogy and O isotopes.

Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Cody, G. D.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Herd, C. D. K.

2014-04-01

166

Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit  

PubMed Central

Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells. PMID:21927514

Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

2011-01-01

167

On the purposes of color for living beings: toward a theory of color organization.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic and paleontological evidence indicates that in the animal kingdom the ability to perceive colors evolved independently several times over the course of millennia. This implies a high evolutionary neural investment and suggests that color vision provides some fundamental biological benefits. What are these benefits? Why are some animals so colorful? What are the adaptive and perceptual meanings of polychromatism? We suggest that in addition to the discrimination of light and surface chromaticity, sensitivity to color contributes to the whole, the parts and the fragments of perceptual organization. New versions of neon color spreading and the watercolor illusion indicate that the visual purpose of color in humans is threefold: to inter-relate each chromatic component of an object, thus favoring the emergence of the whole; to support a part-whole organization in which components reciprocally enhance each other by amodal completion; and, paradoxically, to reveal fragments and hide the whole-that is, there is a chromatic parceling-out process of separation, division, and fragmentation of the whole. The evolution of these contributions of color to organization needs to be established, but traces of it can be found in Harlequin camouflage by animals and in the coloration of flowers. PMID:24374380

Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

2015-01-01

168

Low-cost optical components based on organic-inorganic hybrids produced using direct UV writing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, direct UV-laser writing was used to produce channel waveguides and diffraction gratings on thin films of siliceous-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials. The optical quality of the films surface was studied by light scattering measurements. The produced Y-power splitters, optical filters and Fabry-Perot cavities were experimentally characterized for propagation in the near infrared spectral region.

R. A. S. Ferreira; C. Vicente; L. R. Xavier; V. Fernandes; L. D. Carlos; P. S. Andre?; E. Pecoraro; V. De Zea Bermudez; P. Monteiro; P. V. S. Marques

2010-01-01

169

Four-dimensional imaging of E. coli nucleoid organization and dynamics in living cells.  

PubMed

Visualization of living E. coli nucleoids, defined by HupA-mCherry, reveals a discrete, dynamic helical ellipsoid. Three basic features emerge. (1) Nucleoid density coalesces into longitudinal bundles, giving a stiff, low-DNA-density ellipsoid. (2) This ellipsoid is radially confined within the cell cylinder. Radial confinement gives helical shape and directs global nucleoid dynamics, including sister segregation. (3) Longitudinal density waves flux back and forth along the nucleoid, with 5%-10% of density shifting within 5 s, enhancing internal nucleoid mobility. Furthermore, sisters separate end-to-end in sequential discontinuous pulses, each elongating the nucleoid by 5%-15%. Pulses occur at 20 min intervals, at defined cell-cycle times. This progression includes sequential installation and release of programmed tethers, implying cyclic accumulation and relief of intranucleoid mechanical stress. These effects could comprise a chromosome-based cell-cycle engine. Overall, the presented results suggest a general conceptual framework for bacterial nucleoid morphogenesis and dynamics. PMID:23623305

Fisher, Jay K; Bourniquel, Aude; Witz, Guillaume; Weiner, Beth; Prentiss, Mara; Kleckner, Nancy

2013-05-01

170

Heterogeneous nano metal-organic framework fluorescence probe for highly selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide in living cells.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been regarded as the third important gaseous signaling molecule involved in human physiological and pathological processes. Due to the high reactive and diffusible properties of H2S, real-time detection of H2S fluctuations in living biological specimens is crucial. Here, we present a Cu(II)-metalated 3D porous nanoscale metal-organic framework (nano-MOF) {CuL[AlOH]2}n (PAC; H6L = meso-tetrakis(4-carboxylphenyl)porphyrin) and successfully employ this nano-MOF as a novel heterogeneous fluorescence probe for H2S detection. As far as we know, nano-MOFs have never been used as selective fluorescence probes for H2S detection. On the basis of the advantages of nano-MOF materials, this biocompatible nano-MOF probe exhibits rapid response, excellent selectivity, and hypotoxicity in in situ detection of H2S and represents the most sensitive fluorescence probe for selective H2S detection under physiological pH. In addition, confocal imaging was achieved successfully in living cells. PMID:25342497

Ma, Yu; Su, Hao; Kuang, Xuan; Li, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Tang, Bo

2014-11-18

171

Acoustic Observation of Living Organisms Reveals the Upper Limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone  

PubMed Central

Background Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution. Methodology/Principal Findings Using routine underwater acoustic observations of the vertical distribution of marine organisms, we propose a new method that allows determination of the upper limit of the OMZ with a high precision. Applied in the eastern South-Pacific, this original sampling technique provides high-resolution information on the depth of the upper OMZ allowing documentation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (e.g., eddies and filaments) that structure the upper ocean and the marine ecosystems. We also use this information to estimate the habitable volume for the world's most exploited fish, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens). Conclusions/Significance This opportunistic method could be implemented on any vessel geared with multi-frequency echosounders to perform comprehensive high-resolution monitoring of the upper limit of the OMZ. Our approach is a novel way of studying the impact of physical processes on marine life and extracting valid information about the pelagic habitat and its spatial structure, a crucial aspect of Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the current context of climate change. PMID:20442791

Bertrand, Arnaud; Ballón, Michael; Chaigneau, Alexis

2010-01-01

172

Laser-Assisted In Vitro Fertilization Facilitates Fertilization of Vitrified-Warmed C57BL/6 Mouse Oocytes with Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa, Producing Live Pups  

PubMed Central

The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups. The ability to cryopreserve mouse gametes for LAIVF may facilitate management of large-scale transgenic mouse production facilities. PMID:24618785

Woods, Stephanie E.; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G.; García, Alexis

2014-01-01

173

Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization facilitates fertilization of vitrified-warmed C57BL/6 mouse oocytes with fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups.  

PubMed

The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups. The ability to cryopreserve mouse gametes for LAIVF may facilitate management of large-scale transgenic mouse production facilities. PMID:24618785

Woods, Stephanie E; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

2014-01-01

174

Optical reflectance and transmittance of photonic polycrystalline structures from living organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scales from specific weevils, longhorns and butterflies have been shown to internally contain a photonic structure that can be described as the agglomeration of photonic crystallites. Usually, the same local photonic structure is found in all crystallites, with different orientations. This distribution is investigated by analysing a large amount of fractured scales. The visual effects produced by fractioning the photonic-crystal into the aggregation of reoriented photonic crystallites can be, for increasing disorder, (1) the loss of iridescence and the loss of metallicity for diffuse coloration, (2) the loss of coloration.

Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Bay, Annick; Colomer, Jean-François; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Simonis, Priscilla

2012-10-01

175

Organic Compounds Produced by Photolysis of Realistic Interstellar and Cometary Ice Analogs Containing Methanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The InfraRed (IR) spectra of UltraViolet (UV) and thermally processed, methanol-containing interstellar / cometary ice analogs at temperatures from 12 to 300 K are presented. Infrared spectroscopy, H-1 and C-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicate that CO (carbon monoxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane), HCO (the formyl radical), H2CO (formaldehyde), CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC([double bond]O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C([double bond]O)NH2 (acetamide), and R[single bond]C[triple bond]N (nitriles) are formed. In addition, the organic materials remaining after photolyzed ice analogs have been warmed to room temperature contain (in rough order of decreasing abundance), (1) hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), (2) ethers, alcohols, and compounds related to PolyOxyMethylene (POM, ([single bond]CH2O[single bond](sub n)), and (3) ketones (R[single bond]C([double bond]O)[single bond]R') and amides (H2NC([double bond]O)[single bond]R). Most of the carbon in these residues is thought to come from the methanol in the original ice. Deuterium and C-13 isotopic labeling demonstrates that methanol is definitely the source of carbon in HMT. High concentrations of HMT in interstellar and cometary ices could have important astrophysical consequences. The ultraviolet photolysis of HMT frozen in H2O ice readily produces the 'XCN' band observed in the spectra of protostellar objects and laboratory ices, as well as other nitriles. Thus, HMT may be a precursor of XCN and a source of CN in comets and the interstellar medium. Also, HMT is known to hydrolyze under acidic conditions to yield ammonia, formaldehyde, and amino acids. Thus, HMT may be a significant source of prebiogenic compounds on asteroidal parent bodies. A potential mechanism for the radiative formation of HMT in cosmic ices is outlined.

Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Chang, Sherwood; Scharberg, Maureen A.

1995-01-01

176

Marine cyanobacteria --tiny ocean plants that produce oxy-gen and make organic carbon using sunlight and carbon di-  

E-print Network

PROBLEM Marine cyanobacteria -- tiny ocean plants that produce oxy- gen and make organic carbon with wild strains of the cyanobacteria, and used metagenomic analysis to gain more information about in marine ecosys- tems and as such, could add to our understanding of the im- portance of cyanobacteria

Entekhabi, Dara

177

The effect of organic matter on CCN properties of particles produced in laboratory simulations of bubble bursting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we measure the submicron size distributions and cloud condensation nucleus properties of aerosol particles produced from a laboratory system that simulates particle formation from bubble bursting. The experimental method consists of a plunging water jet into a stainless steel tank filled with 10 L of artificial seawater, with and without added organic compounds. The tank is equipped

S. King; T. Rosenoern; D. Nilsson; M. Bilde

2010-01-01

178

The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire  

E-print Network

The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which lactational involution12­15 . Remarkably, the mammary gland maintains its ability to perform this dramatic development of the mammary gland are dictated by signalling between several cell types, integrated dynami

Nelson, Celeste M.

179

Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy of secondary organic material produced by condensational growth from ?-pinene ozonolysis.  

PubMed

Secondary organic material (SOM) was produced in a flow tube from ?-pinene ozonolysis, and collected particles were analyzed spectroscopically via a nonlinear coherent vibrational spectroscopic technique, namely sum frequency generation (SFG). The SOM precursor ?-pinene was injected into the flow tube reactor at concentrations ranging from 0.125 ± 0.01 ppm to 100 ± 3 ppm. The oxidant ozone was varied from 0.15 ± 0.02 to 194 ± 2 ppm. The residence time was 38 ± 1 s. The integrated particle number concentrations, studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), varied from no particles produced up to (1.26 ± 0.02) × 10(7) cm(-3) for the matrix of reaction conditions. The mode diameters of the aerosols increased from 7.7 nm (geometric standard deviation (gsd), 1.0) all the way to 333.8 nm (gsd, 1.9). The corresponding volume concentrations were as high as (3.0 ± 0.1) × 10(14) nm(3) cm(-3). The size distributions indicated access to different particle growth stages, namely condensation, coagulation, or combination of both, depending on reaction conditions. For filter collection and subsequent spectral analysis, reaction conditions were selected that gave a mode diameter of 63 ± 3 nm and 93 ± 3 nm, respectively, and an associated mass concentration of 12 ± 2 ?g m(-3) and (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10(3) ?g m(-3) for an assumed density of 1200 kg m(-3). Teflon filters loaded with 24 ng to 20 ?g of SOM were analyzed by SFG. The SFG spectra obtained from particles formed under condensational and coagulative growth conditions were found to be quite similar, indicating that the distribution of SFG-active C-H oscillators is similar for particles prepared under both conditions. The spectral features of these flow-tube particles agreed with those prepared in an earlier study that employed the Harvard Environmental Chamber. The SFG intensity was found to increase linearly with the number of particles, consistent with what is expected from SFG signal production from particles, while it decreased at higher mass loadings of 10 and 20 ?g, consistent with the notion that SFG probes the top surface of the SOM material following the complete coverage of the filter. The linear increase in SFG intensity with particle density also supports the notion that the average number of SFG active oscillators per particle is constant for a given particle size, that the particles are present on the collection filters in a random array, and that the particles are not coalesced. The limit of detection of SFG intensity was established as 24 ng of mass on the filter, corresponding to a calculated density of about 100 particles in the laser spot. As established herein, the technique is applicable for detecting low particle number or mass concentrations in ambient air. The related implication is that SFG is useful for short collection times and would therefore provide increased temporal resolution in a locally evolving atmospheric environment. PMID:23876044

Shrestha, Mona; Zhang, Yue; Ebben, Carlena J; Martin, Scot T; Geiger, Franz M

2013-09-01

180

Risk Assessment for Invasive Species Produces Net Bioeconomic Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce

Reuben P. Keller; David M. Lodge; David C. Finnoff

2007-01-01

181

Energy Use in Organic, Green and Conventional Pear Producing Systems—Cases from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy consumption between the production of certified organic pear, green food certified pear, and conventional pear in two areas in China. Data were collected from interviews with farmers during 2007 and 2008. Energy inputs were significantly higher in organic systems compared with conventional and green systems. Fertilizer was

Yuexian Liu; Vibeke Langer; Henning Høgh-Jensen; Henrik Egelyng

2010-01-01

182

Isolation and screening of a novel extracellular organic solvent-stable protease producer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using enrichment procedures, 68 organic solvent tolerant strains were screened from sea mud samples. Twelve of these strains demonstrated high protease activity on skim-milk agar. Among them, the DS11 isolate was selected based on the stability of its proteolytic enzyme in the presence of various organic solvents and later identified as Bacillus sphaericus by morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and 16S

Yaowei Fang; Shu Liu; Shujun Wang; Mingsheng Lv

2009-01-01

183

The O/OREOS mission: first science data from the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) payload.  

PubMed

We report the first telemetered spaceflight science results from the orbiting Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment, executed by one of the two 10?cm cube-format payloads aboard the 5.5?kg Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) free-flying nanosatellite. The O/OREOS spacecraft was launched successfully to a 72° inclination, 650?km Earth orbit on 19 November 2010. This satellite provides access to the radiation environment of space in relatively weak regions of Earth's protective magnetosphere as it passes close to the north and south magnetic poles; the total dose rate is about 15 times that in the orbit of the International Space Station. The SESLO experiment measures the long-term survival, germination, and growth responses, including metabolic activity, of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to the microgravity, ionizing radiation, and heavy-ion bombardment of its high-inclination orbit. Six microwells containing wild-type (168) and six more containing radiation-sensitive mutant (WN1087) strains of dried B. subtilis spores were rehydrated with nutrient medium after 14 days in space to allow the spores to germinate and grow. Similarly, the same distribution of organisms in a different set of microwells was rehydrated with nutrient medium after 97 days in space. The nutrient medium included the redox dye Alamar blue, which changes color in response to cellular metabolic activity. Three-color transmitted intensity measurements of all microwells were telemetered to Earth within days of each of the 48?h growth experiments. We report here on the evaluation and interpretation of these spaceflight data in comparison to delayed-synchronous laboratory ground control experiments. PMID:22091486

Nicholson, Wayne L; Ricco, Antonio J; Agasid, Elwood; Beasley, Christopher; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Friedericks, Charles; Ghassemieh, Shakib; Henschke, Michael; Hines, John W; Kitts, Christopher; Luzzi, Ed; Ly, Diana; Mai, Nghia; Mancinelli, Rocco; McIntyre, Michael; Minelli, Giovanni; Neumann, Michael; Parra, Macarena; Piccini, Matthew; Rasay, R Mike; Ricks, Robert; Santos, Orlando; Schooley, Aaron; Squires, David; Timucin, Linda; Yost, Bruce; Young, Anthony

2011-12-01

184

Efficient and extremely long-lived organic light-emitting diodes based on dinaphthylperylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a synergistic effect of a lifetime-extending light-emitting-layer (LEL) additive and improved electron injection and transport in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Previously reported di(2-naphthyl)perylene (DNP) serves as the LEL additive capable of extending the operating lifetime of OLEDs by over two orders of magnitude. Using 2-phenyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (PADN) as an electron-transport layer (ETL) and a separate layer of 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) as an electron-injection layer (EIL) significantly improves electron delivery into the charge recombination zone relative to traditional ETL made of tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum (Alq). This ETL?EIL combination not only results in approximately seven times lower electric field in the ETL and, thus, lower drive voltage and higher efficiency devices, but can also increase device lifetime substantially. In a representative device containing a red-emitting LEL dopant [Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage 1931 2° color chromaticity coordinates (CIEx ,y) of 0.65, 0.35], the external quantum efficiency, electroluminescence yield, drive voltage, and operating half-life (t50) can reach 5.8%, 6.5cd/A, 4.5V, and ˜1000000h, respectively, all at 20mA/cm2 current density.

Jarikov, Viktor V.; Kondakov, Denis Y.; Brown, Christopher T.

2007-11-01

185

Engineered nanomaterials in soil: Problems in assessing their effect on living organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on the occurrence and potential effects of nanomaterials (NMs) in the environment are analyzed. Mechanisms of action of some of the well-known nanotechnological products on test cultures are discussed. Attention is focused on the problems of determination of the ecotoxicity of NMs in soils in relation to their instability and variability in the environmental conditions. Our data indicate that the effect of the interactions between the nanoparticles should be taken into consideration in econanotoxicological studies. The formation of aggregates at high concentrations of nanoparticles and an increase in the content of free nanoparticles upon dilution largely explain the inverted dose-response ratio, or the U-shaped curve describing this relationship in the analysis of dispersed systems. Problems in the development of an assessment system for the effect of NMs on environments, including soils, are also discussed. Presently, there are no standards for assessing NMs, and approved Russian and international procedures for checking the sensitivity of standardized test organisms are used. However, the imperfection of the approaches to the analysis of NMs toxicity gives no ground for hampering the development of nanotechnologies for nature conservation purposes.

Terekhova, V. A.; Gladkova, M. M.

2013-12-01

186

Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross.  

PubMed

Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture-mark-recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations. PMID:24920477

Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

2014-07-22

187

FISH SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY PREDICTION MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS THAT PRODUCE NARCOSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

A model based on partition coefficient was developed for predicting subchronic toxicities of selected chemicals to fish. Early life stage tests were conducted under flow-through conditions using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test organisms. Embryos, larvae and juvenile...

188

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF CANCER RATES IN PRIMARY ORGANIC CHEMICAL-PRODUCING COUNTIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The study is designed to determine whether there is an association between cancer mortality and the production of environmental carcinogens. Mortality rates of counties containing organic chemical production facilities are compared to rates of control counties. Twelve different c...

189

Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

2013-01-01

190

Living roots magnify the response of soil organic carbon decomposition to temperature in temperate grassland.  

PubMed

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration is both a strong driver of primary productivity and widely believed to be the principal cause of recent increases in global temperature. Soils are the largest store of the world's terrestrial C. Consequently, many investigations have attempted to mechanistically understand how microbial mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC) to CO2 will be affected by projected increases in temperature. Most have attempted this in the absence of plants as the flux of CO2 from root and rhizomicrobial respiration in intact plant-soil systems confounds interpretation of measurements. We compared the effect of a small increase in temperature on respiration from soils without recent plant C with the effect on intact grass swards. We found that for 48 weeks, before acclimation occurred, an experimental 3 °C increase in sward temperature gave rise to a 50% increase in below ground respiration (ca. 0.4 kg C m(-2) ; Q10  = 3.5), whereas mineralisation of older SOC without plants increased with a Q10 of only 1.7 when subject to increases in ambient soil temperature. Subsequent (14) C dating of respired CO2 indicated that the presence of plants in swards more than doubled the effect of warming on the rate of mineralisation of SOC with an estimated mean C age of ca. 8 years or older relative to incubated soils without recent plant inputs. These results not only illustrate the formidable complexity of mechanisms controlling C fluxes in soils but also suggest that the dual biological and physical effects of CO2 on primary productivity and global temperature have the potential to synergistically increase the mineralisation of existing soil C. PMID:25351704

Hill, Paul W; Garnett, Mark H; Farrar, John; Iqbal, Zafar; Khalid, Muhammad; Soleman, Nawaf; Jones, Davey L

2015-03-01

191

Fluid Forces Enhance the Performance of an Aspirant Leader in Self-Organized Living Groups  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the performance of an individual aiming at guiding a self-organized group is numerically investigated. A collective behavioural model is adopted, accounting for the mutual repulsion, attraction and orientation experienced by the individuals. Moreover, these represent a set of solid particles which are supposed to be immersed in a fictitious viscous fluid. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann and Immersed boundary methods are used to predict the fluid dynamics, whereas the effect of the hydrodynamic forces on particles is accounted for by solving the equation of the solid motion through the time discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out by involving the individuals in a dichotomous process. On the one hand, an aspirant leader (AL) additional individual is added to the system. AL is forced to move along a prescribed direction which intersects the group. On the other hand, these tend to depart from an obstacle represented by a rotating lamina which is placed in the fluid domain. A numerical campaign is carried out by varying the fluid viscosity and, as a consequence, the hydrodynamic field. Moreover, scenarios characterized by different values of the size of the group are investigated. In order to estimate the AL's performance, a proper parameter is introduced, depending on the number of individuals following AL. Present findings show that the sole collective behavioural equations are insufficient to predict the AL's performance, since the motion is drastically affected by the presence of the surrounding fluid. With respect to the existing literature, the proposed numerical model is enriched by accounting for the presence of the encompassing fluid, thus computing the hydrodynamic forces arising when the individuals move. PMID:25501965

De Rosis, Alessandro

2014-01-01

192

Beyond Susceptible and Resistant, Part II: Treatment of Infections Due to Gram-Negative Organisms Producing Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases  

PubMed Central

The production of ?-lactamase is the most common mechanism of resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) are capable of hydrolyzing most penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and aztreonam, but their activity is suppressed in the presence of a ?-lactamase inhibitor. Serious infections with ESBL-producing isolates are associated with high rates of mortality, making early detection and adequate medical management essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Much controversy has centered on the recommendations for testing and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility of potential ESBL-producing organisms. The latest version of the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) susceptibility reporting guidelines, published in 2010, no longer advocates for phenotypic testing of ESBL-producing isolates. From newer studies demonstrating a correlation between organism minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and clinical outcome, along with pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling demonstrating the importance of the MIC to achieving therapeutic targets, the CLSI has assigned lower susceptibility breakpoints for aztreonam and most cephalosporins. The new guidelines recommend using the lower MIC breakpoints to direct antibiotic selection. This article reviews the microbiology and epidemiology of ESBLs, the recent change in CLSI susceptibility reporting guidelines for ESBLs, and the clinical and PK/PD data supporting the relationship between in vitro susceptibility and clinical outcome. Finally, considerations for antimicrobial selection when treating patients with infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms from various sources are discussed. PMID:25309145

Curello, Jennifer

2014-01-01

193

Progress of organic matter degradation and maturity of compost produced in a large-scale composting facility.  

PubMed

To monitor the progress of organic matter degradation in a large-scale composting facility, the percentage of organic matter degradation was determined by measuring CO(2) evolution during recomposting of compost samples withdrawn from the facility. The percentage of organic matter degradation was calculated as the ratio of the amount of CO(2) evolved from compost raw material to that evolved from each sample during recomposting in the laboratory composting apparatus. It was assumed that the difference in the cumulative emission of CO(2) between the compost raw material and a sample corresponds to the amount of CO( 2) evolved from the sample in the composting facility. Using this method, the changes in organic matter degradation during composting in practical large-scale composting facilities were estimated and it was found that the percentage of organic matter degradation increased more vigorously in the earlier stages than in the later stages of composting. The percentage of organic matter degradation finally reached 78 and 55% for the compost produced from garbage-animal manure mixture and distillery waste (shochu residue), respectively. It was thus ascertained that organic matter degradation progressed well in both composting facilities. Furthermore, by performing a plant growth assay, it was observed that the compost products of both the facilities did not inhibit seed germination and thus were useful in promoting plant growth. PMID:21216925

Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Marui, Taketoshi

2011-06-01

194

The overarching influence of the gut microbiome on end-organ function: the role of live probiotic cultures.  

PubMed

At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality) state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with a metabolic disease for end organs such as the kidney and liver. A profile emerges that shows that bacteria are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous and have significantly influenced the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:25244509

Vitetta, Luis; Manuel, Rachel; Zhou, Joyce Yusi; Linnane, Anthony W; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

2014-01-01

195

The Overarching Influence of the Gut Microbiome on End-Organ Function: The Role of Live Probiotic Cultures  

PubMed Central

At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality) state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with a metabolic disease for end organs such as the kidney and liver. A profile emerges that shows that bacteria are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous and have significantly influenced the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:25244509

Vitetta, Luis; Manuel, Rachel; Zhou, Joyce Yusi; Linnane, Anthony W.; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

2014-01-01

196

New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems.  

PubMed

An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language. PMID:25292274

De Pascale, Adele

2014-01-01

197

Analysis of glycoproteins produced by the associated gland in the olfactory organ of lungfish.  

PubMed

The olfactory organ of African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, contains two distinct sensory epithelia: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. These epithelia correspond to the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods, respectively. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium, which has no associated gland, the recess epithelium is equipped with associated glands. Although the glandular cells and/or the supporting cells are generally presumed to secrete proteins involved in the function of olfactory sensory epithelia, the properties of these proteins in lungfish have not been evaluated to date. In this study, we investigated the associated glands in the olfactory organ of lungfish by transmission electron microscopy and found that the glandular cells contain numerous secretory granules and secrete them from the apical membrane. In addition, we analyzed the olfactory organ by lectin histochemistry using 16 biotinylated lectins. All lectins labeled the secretory granules in the glandular cells with different staining patterns from those of the supporting cells in the lamellar olfactory epithelium or in the recess epithelium. Furthermore, lectin blotting analysis showed that multiple bands were detected by the lectins which specifically labeled the glandular epithelium of the olfactory organ. These results indicate that the secretory products of the associated glands in the recess epithelium have different properties from those of the supporting cells in the olfactory sensory epithelia and contain multiple glycoproteins with different carbohydrate moieties. PMID:23428778

Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

2013-07-31

198

Living Drugs for Gastrointestinal Diseases: The Case for Probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpathogenic micro-organisms may contain or produce molecules of potential therapeutic interest. This led to the concept of using ingested living micro-organisms to produce and transport these molecules to targets in the proximal or distal intestine. Several characteristics of this pharmacological approach are very original: potential for in vivo production of active molecules, for targeting immune cells, for presenting immunogenic molecules

Philippe Marteau

2006-01-01

199

Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacteria from the Poultry Processing Environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from food-borne bacteria has prompted studies on the development of approaches to utilize the profile of volatiles emitted as a way of detecting contamination. We have examined VOCs from poultry with this in mind. Patt...

200

An organic surface modifier to produce a high work function transparent electrode for high performance polymer solar cells.  

PubMed

Modification of an ITO electrode with small-molecule organic surface modifier, 4-chloro-benzoic acid (CBA), via a simple spin-coating method produces a high-work-function electrode with high transparency and a hydrophobic surface. As an alternative to PEDOT:PSS, CBA modification achieves efficiency enhancement up to 8.5%, which is attributed to enhanced light absorption within the active layer and smooth hole transport from the active layer to the anode. PMID:25515353

Choi, Hyosung; Kim, Hak-Beom; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J

2015-02-01

201

Shewanella putrefaciens produces an Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligand during anaerobic respiration on insoluble Fe(III) oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of Fe(III) reduction was investigated using voltammetric techniques in anaerobic incubations of Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 supplemented with Fe(III) citrate or a suite of Fe(III) oxides as terminal electron acceptor. Results indicate that organic complexes of Fe(III) are produced during the reduction of Fe(III) at rates that correlate with the reactivity of the Fe(III) phase and bacterial cell

Martial Taillefert; Jordon S. Beckler; Elizabeth Carey; Justin L. Burns; Christine M. Fennessey; Thomas J. DiChristina

2007-01-01

202

High-Critical-Temperature Sm and Nd-Based Superconductors Produced by Metal Organic Deposition Using Trifluoroacetates and Pentafluoropropionates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting films for wire, tape, and microwave filter applications require a high critical temperature (Tc) and current density (Jc). Therefore, superconducting systems based on La, Nd, and Sm produced by low-cost non-vacuum metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) are eagerly awaited. These systems are reported to have excellent Tc values of over 94 K, but esterification between trifluoroacetates and methanol

Takeshi Araki; Izumi Hirabayashi

2005-01-01

203

Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa: Role of Producers' Organizations in the Delivery of  

E-print Network

in the Delivery of Sustainable Agricultural Extension Services Guy Faure (CIRAD Montpellier France), Paul Kleene management. With the gradual withdrawal of Government from extension services delivery, a stimulating context exists for reviewing approaches and systems of support delivery facilities for producers. In response

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Intense THz radiation produced in organic salt crystals for high-field applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic stilbazolium salt crystals pumped by intense, ultrashort mid-infrared laser have been investigated for efficient THz generation by optical rectification. In this paper we present our latest results in view of the generation of single-cycle and high-field THz transient in the THz gap (0.1-10 THz). The organic rectifiers like DAST, OH1 and DSTMS combine extremely large optical susceptibility with excellent velocity matching between the infrared pump and the THz radiation. Our simple collinear conversion scheme provides THz beams with excellent focusing properties and single cycle electric field larger than 1.5 MV/cm and magnetic field strength beyond 0.5 Tesla. The source can potentially cover the full THz gap at field strength which is barely provided by other THz sources. The THz pulse is carrier-envelope phase stable and the polarity of the field can be easily inverted.

Vicario, C.; Ruchert, C.; Hauri, C. P.

2013-03-01

205

Optical control and study of biological processes at the single-cell level in a live organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living organisms are made of cells that are capable of responding to external signals by modifying their internal state and subsequently their external environment. Revealing and understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of these complex interaction networks is the subject of a field known as systems biology. To investigate these interactions (a necessary step before understanding or modelling them) one needs to develop means to control or interfere spatially and temporally with these processes and to monitor their response on a fast timescale (< minute) and with single-cell resolution. In 2012, an EMBO workshop on ‘single-cell physiology’ (organized by some of us) was held in Paris to discuss those issues in the light of recent developments that allow for precise spatio-temporal perturbations and observations. This review will be largely based on the investigations reported there. We will first present a non-exhaustive list of examples of cellular interactions and developmental pathways that could benefit from these new approaches. We will review some of the novel tools that have been developed for the observation of cellular activity and then discuss the recent breakthroughs in optical super-resolution microscopy that allow for optical observations beyond the diffraction limit. We will review the various means to photo-control the activity of biomolecules, which allow for local perturbations of physiological processes. We will end up this review with a report on the current status of optogenetics: the use of photo-sensitive DNA-encoded proteins as sensitive reporters and efficient actuators to perturb and monitor physiological processes.

Feng, Zhiping; Zhang, Weiting; Xu, Jianmin; Gauron, Carole; Ducos, Bertrand; Vriz, Sophie; Volovitch, Michel; Jullien, Ludovic; Weiss, Shimon; Bensimon, David

2013-07-01

206

XANES Analysis of Organic Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organic residues formed in the laboratory from the ultraviolet (UV) photo-irradiation or ion bombardment of astrophysical ice analogs have been extensively studied for the last 15 years with a broad suite of techniques, including infrared (IR) and UV spectroscopies, as well as mass spectrometry. Analyses of these materials show that they consist of complex mixtures of organic compounds stable at room temperature, mostly soluble, that have not been fully characterized. However, the hydrolysis products of these residues have been partly identified using chromatography techniques, which indicate that they contain molecular precursors of prebiotic interest such as amino acids, nitrile-bearing compounds, and amphiphilic compounds. In this study, we present the first X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy measurements of three organic residues made from the UV irradiation of ices having different starting compositions. XANES spectra confirm the presence of different chemical functions in these residues, and indicate that they are rich in nitrogenand oxygen-bearing species. These data can be compared with XANES measurements of extraterrestrial materials. Finally, this study also shows how soft X rays can alter the chemical composition of samples.

Nuevo, M.; Milam, S N.; Sandford, S A.; De Gregorio, B T.; Cody, G D.; Kilcoyne, A L.

2011-01-01

207

Drosophila Embryos as Model to Assess Cellular and Developmental Toxicity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) in Living Organisms  

PubMed Central

Different toxicity tests for carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed to assess their impact on human health and on aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant life. We present a new model, the fruit fly Drosophila embryo offering the opportunity for rapid, inexpensive and detailed analysis of CNTs toxicity during embryonic development. We show that injected DiI labelled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) become incorporated into cells in early Drosophila embryos, allowing the study of the consequences of cellular uptake of CNTs on cell communication, tissue and organ formation in living embryos. Fluorescently labelled subcellular structures showed that MWCNTs remained cytoplasmic and were excluded from the nucleus. Analysis of developing ectodermal and neural stem cells in MWCNTs injected embryos revealed normal division patterns and differentiation capacity. However, an increase in cell death of ectodermal but not of neural stem cells was observed, indicating stem cell-specific vulnerability to MWCNT exposure. The ease of CNT embryo injections, the possibility of detailed morphological and genomic analysis and the low costs make Drosophila embryos a system of choice to assess potential developmental and cellular effects of CNTs and test their use in future CNT based new therapies including drug delivery. PMID:24558411

Liu, Boyin; Campo, Eva M.; Bossing, Torsten

2014-01-01

208

Short-lived charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves short-lived charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes.

Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H.; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R.; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan

2014-07-01

209

A Quantitative Index of Sociality and Its Application to Group-Living Spiders and Other Social Organisms.  

PubMed

Species are often classified in discrete categories, such as solitary, subsocial, social and eusocial based on broad qualitative features of their social systems. Often, however, species fall between categories or species within a category may differ from one another in ways that beg for a quantitative measure of their sociality level. Here, we propose such a quantitative measure in the form of an index that is based on three fundamental features of a social system: (1) the fraction of the life cycle that individuals remain in their social group, (2) the proportion of nests in a population that contain multiple vs. solitary individuals and (3) the proportion of adult members of a group that do not reproduce, but contribute to communal activities. These are measures that should be quantifiable in most social systems, with the first two reflecting the tendencies of individuals to live in groups as a result of philopatry, grouping tendencies and intraspecific tolerance, and the third potentially reflecting the tendencies of individuals to exhibit reproductive altruism. We argue that this index can serve not only as a way of ranking species along a sociality scale, but also as a means of determining how level of sociality correlates with other aspects of the biology of a group of organisms. We illustrate the calculation of this index for the cooperative social spiders and the African mole-rats and use it to analyse how sex ratios and interfemale spacing correlate with level of sociality in spider species in the genus Anelosimus. PMID:23335829

Avilés, Leticia; Harwood, Gyan; Koenig, W

2012-12-01

210

Microbial production of glyceric acid, an organic acid that can be mass produced from glycerol.  

PubMed

Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process. PMID:19837846

Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

2009-12-01

211

Organization of LIving Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on ecology includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

212

Organic solids produced by electrical discharges in reducing atmospheres: Molecular analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex brown polymer produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water, is analyzed by pyrolytic GC/MS. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, pyrroles, and pyridine. Similar pyrolyzates are obtained from polypeptides and polynucleotides with hydrocarbon moieties. This polymer is remarkably stable up to 950 C; its degradation products are candidate constituents of planetary aerosols in the outer solar system and the grains and gas in the interstellar medium.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Zumberge, J. E.; Sklarew, D.; Nagy, B.

1978-01-01

213

Silk fibers and silk-producing organs of Harpactea rubicunda (C. L. Koch 1838) (Araneae, Dysderidae).  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the silk spinning apparatus and silks of Harpactea rubicunda spiders. Three types of silk secretions that are produced by three kinds of silk spinning glands (ampullate, piriform, and pseudaciniform) and released through three types of spigots, were confirmed for both adult and juvenile spiders. Silk secretions for the construction of spider webs for shelter or retreat are produced by the pseudaciniform silk glands. Silk secretions that are released from spigots in the course of web construction are not processed by the legs during the subsequent process of hardening. Pairs of nanofibril bundles seemed to be part of the basic microarchitecture of the web silk fibers as revealed by AFM. These fiber bundles frequently not only overlap one another, but occasionally also interweave. This structural variability may strengthen the spider web. High-resolution AFM scans of individual nanofibrils show a distinctly segmented nanostructure. Each globular segment is ?30-40 nm long along the longitudinal axis of the fiber, and resembles a nanosegment of artificial fibroin described by Perez-Rigueiro et al. (2007). PMID:23034869

Hajer, Jaromír; Malý, Jan; Reháková, Dana

2013-01-01

214

Organic phase synthesis of ethyl oleate using lipases produced by solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

This paper reports a study of the enzymatic esterification of oleic acid and ethanol. The reaction was catalyzed by lipases produced by solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Olive oil and perlite were used as an inducer and inert support, respectively. Synthesis of ethyl oleate was carried out in a 10-mL batch reactor with magnetic stirring. The effects of substrate ratios, biocatalyst concentration, and temperature on the reaction rate and conversion efficiency were evaluated. The highest reaction rate (1.64 mmol/L min) was reached with an oleic acid/ethanol mol ratio of 1:5 (oleic acid 50 mM:ethanol 250 mM) and 1 g of biocatalyst. Conversions approaching 100% were obtained after 60 min of reaction at 45 degrees C with n-hexane as a solvent. The initial reaction rate increased proportionally with respect to biocatalyst concentration, which suggests that the reaction rate was not controlled by mass transfer. The biocatalyst retained more than 80% of its catalytic activity after 7 months of storage at 4 degrees C. The results demonstrate that the biocatalyst produced by Rhizopus sp. in solid-state fermentation can be successfully used for ethyl oleate synthesis over short reaction periods under conditions when ethanol is in excess. PMID:18392560

Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; García, Hugo Sergio; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

2008-12-01

215

A One-Step, Solvothermal Reduction Method for Producing Reduced Graphene Oxide Dispersions in Organic Solvents  

PubMed Central

Refluxing graphene oxide (GO) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) results in deoxygenation and reduction to yield a stable colloidal dispersion. The solvothermal reduction is accompanied by a color change from light brown to black. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the product confirm the presence of single sheets of the solvothermally reduced graphene oxide (SRGO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of SRGO indicates a significant increase in intensity of the C=C bond character, while the oxygen content decreases markedly after the reduction is complete. X-ray diffraction analysis of SRGO shows a single broad peak at 26.24° 2? (3.4 Å), confirming the presence of graphitic stacking of reduced sheets. SRGO sheets are redispersible in a variety of organic solvents, which may hold promise as an acceptor material for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells, or electromagnetic interference shielding applications. PMID:20586422

Dubin, Sergey; Gilje, Scott; Wang, Kan; Tung, Vincent C.; Cha, Kitty; Hall, Anthony S.; Farrar, Jabari; Varshneya, Rupal; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B.

2014-01-01

216

Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.  

PubMed

Abstract 1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation. PMID:25299877

Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

2014-12-01

217

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13

218

Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation.  

PubMed

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2? ?m ?h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (?100? nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature. PMID:21107443

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

2011-04-01

219

Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation  

SciTech Connect

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

2011-07-01

220

Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

1988-04-04

221

Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about 0.degree. C. up to about 300.degree. C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

1990-04-03

222

Leaf Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor fall activity, learners find out what living in or under a layer of leaves is like. Learners will discover that animals that live in leaf litter use different senses to find prey, avoid predators, and to navigate through the litter. Learners role play predator and prey—the "prey" hides in a large pile of leaves, and the "predator" tries to "strike" by reaching straight into the leaf pile to grab the "prey." Learners also consider what body adaptations help organisms that spend part of their life under the leaves.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

223

Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes  

PubMed Central

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25–1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r2 = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r2 = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 ?m between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

TARTAROTTI, BARBARA; BAFFICO, GUSTAVO; TEMPORETTI, PEDRO; ZAGARESE, HORACIO E.

2011-01-01

224

Volatile organic compounds produced by the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10  

PubMed Central

Summary Xanthomonas campestris is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causes many diseases of agricultural relevance. Volatiles were shown to be important in inter- and intraorganismic attraction and defense reactions. Recently it became apparent that also bacteria emit a plethora of volatiles, which influence other organisms such as invertebrates, plants and fungi. As a first step to study volatile-based bacterial–plant interactions, the emission profile of Xanthomonas c. pv. vesicatoria 85-10 was determined by using GC/MS and PTR–MS techniques. More than 50 compounds were emitted by this species, the majority comprising ketones and methylketones. The structure of the dominant compound, 10-methylundecan-2-one, was assigned on the basis of its analytical data, obtained by GC/MS and verified by comparison of these data with those of a synthetic reference sample. Application of commercially available decan-2-one, undecan-2-one, dodecan-2-one, and the newly synthesized 10-methylundecan-2-one in bi-partite Petri dish bioassays revealed growth promotions in low quantities (0.01 to 10 ?mol), whereas decan-2-one at 100 ?mol caused growth inhibitions of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Volatile emission profiles of the bacteria were different for growth on media (nutrient broth) with or without glucose. PMID:22563356

Weise, Teresa; Kai, Marco; Gummesson, Anja; Troeger, Armin; von Reuß, Stephan; Piepenborn, Silvia; Kosterka, Francine; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf; Francke, Wittko

2012-01-01

225

High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced by Ozonation of Limonene  

SciTech Connect

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from the ozone-initiated oxidation of limonene are characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in both the positive and negative ion modes. The mass spectra reveal a large number of both monomeric (m/z < 300) and oligomeric (m/z > 300) products of oxidation. A combination of high resolving power (m/?m ~60,000) and Kendrick mass defect analysis makes it possible to unambiguously determine the composition for hundreds of individual compounds in SOA samples. Van Krevelen analysis shows that the SOA compounds are heavily oxidized, with average O:C ratios of 0.43 and 0.50 determined from the positive and negative ion mode spectra, respectively. An extended reaction mechanism for the formation of the first generation SOA molecular components is proposed. The mechanism includes known isomerization and addition reactions of the carbonyl oxide intermediates generated during the ozonation of limonene, and numerous isomerization pathways for alkoxy radicals resulting from the decomposition of unstable carbonyl oxides. The isomerization reactions yield numerous products with a progressively increasing number of alcohol and carbonyl groups, whereas C-C bond scission reactions in alkoxy radicals shorten the carbon chain. Together these reactions yield a large number of isomeric products with broadly distributed masses. A qualitative agreement is found between the number and degree of oxidation of the predicted and measured reaction products in the monomer range.

Walser, Maggie L.; Dessiaterik, Yury; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Serguei

2008-02-08

226

Quick, Easy Method to Show Living Soil Organisms to High School or Beginning-Level College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The living component of soil is difficult for students to learn about and understand because students have difficulty relating to things they cannot see (beyond sight, beyond mind). Line drawings from textbooks help explain conceptual relationships but do little to stimulate an active interest in the living component of soil. Alternatively,…

Loynachan, Thomas E.

2006-01-01

227

A general strategy for developing cell-permeable photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes for live-cell super-resolution imaging.  

PubMed

Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) achieves super-resolution imaging beyond the diffraction limit but critically relies on the use of photo-modulatable fluorescent probes. Here we report a general strategy for constructing cell-permeable photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes for live-cell SMLM by exploiting the remarkable cytosolic delivery ability of a cell-penetrating peptide (rR)3R2. We develop photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes consisting of a (rR)3R2 peptide coupled to a cell-impermeable organic fluorophore and a recognition unit. Our results indicate that these organic probes are not only cell permeable but can also specifically and directly label endogenous targeted proteins. Using the probes, we obtain super-resolution images of lysosomes and endogenous F-actin under physiological conditions. We resolve the dynamics of F-actin with 10?s temporal resolution in live cells and discern fine F-actin structures with diameters of ~80?nm. These results open up new avenues in the design of fluorescent probes for live-cell super-resolution imaging. PMID:25410769

Pan, Deng; Hu, Zhe; Qiu, Fengwu; Huang, Zhen-Li; Ma, Yilong; Wang, Yina; Qin, Lingsong; Zhang, Zhihong; Zeng, Shaoqun; Zhang, Yu-Hui

2014-01-01

228

[Treatment of oilfield produced water by biological methods-constructed wetland process and degradation characteristics of organic substances].  

PubMed

Hydrolysis acidification-aerobic-constructed wetland process and hydrolysis acidification-constructed wetland were used to treat oilfield produced water after the pretreatment of oil separation-coagulation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to study the degradation characteristics of organic substances during the treatment process. The results showed that COD and ammonia nitrogen of both the two process effluents were below 80 mg/L and 15 mg/L, respectively, when HRT was 20 h for hydrolysis acidification, 10 h for aeration and 2 d for constructed wetlands or when HRT was 20 h for hydrolysis acidification and 4 d for constructed wetland. The results of GC-MS analysis showed that biodegradability of the oil produced water was significantly improved in hydrolysis acidification. Substantial removal of benzene compounds was achieved in aerobic and constructed wetland. PMID:20391699

Huang, Xiang-feng; Shen, Jie; Wen, Yue; Liu, Jia; Lu, Li-jun; Zhou, Qi

2010-02-01

229

Method for producing fuel gas from organic material, capable of self-sustaining operation  

SciTech Connect

This patent discloses a form of substantially uniform-sized pellets, to produce a tar-free fuel gas. Prior to initiating operation, the lower end of the reaction chamber is filled with a charge of charcoal, forming a charcoal bed. A portion of the charcoal bed is then ignited, typically near the top, with air from the atmosphere being drawn substantially uniformly down through the reaction chamber by a pump on the outlet line leading from the reaction chamber, creating a thin pyrolysis zone near the top of the charcoal bed. The substantially uniform-size fuel pellets are added to the top of the charcoal bed, and are pyrolized as they move down through the pyrolysis zone. Since the fuel pellets are substantially uniform in size, and since the air-flow down through the chamber is substantially uniform, the temperature profile over the cross-sectional area of the pyrolysis zone is substantially uniform, and a homogeneous pyrolysis zone is created, without hot spots or channels. Such an arrangement results in self-regulating, self-sustaining operation over a relatively wide demand range, with rapid start-up and response characteristics. Air may also be directed into the reaction chamber through an inlet beneath the charcoal bed, which results in the reaction of the devolatilized charcoal to form additional fuel and an ash residue. Thus, the production and consumption of the charcoal within the apparatus may be exactly balanced.

Fetters, W.A.; Chittick, D.E.

1985-07-23

230

Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

2014-05-01

231

Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.  

PubMed

Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition. PMID:23721965

Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Molina-Jiménez, Tania

2013-09-01

232

Live foraminiferal faunas from a 2800 m deep lower canyon station from the Bay of Biscay: Faunal response to focusing of refractory organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2800 m deep station was sampled on three occasions, in January 1999, June 1999 and April 2000, in the lower part of Cap-Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay). This area is characterised by a rapid accumulation of fine-grained sediments and by important inputs of reworked organic matter in an intermediate state of decay. Diagenetic reactions within the sediment follow the well-established depth sequence resulting from the oxidation of organic deposits by different electron acceptors. At our station, live benthic foraminiferal faunas differ strongly from faunas previously collected at nearby open slope sites at a comparable water depth. Spectacularly high densities of deep infaunal species are observed in the deeper parts of the sediment for all three sampling periods. In our opinion, these high deep infaunal densities are a direct response to the massive flux of partially degraded organic matter, which is slowly introduced into the deeper parts of the sediment, where it induces a rather stable succession of redox gradients. Melonis barleeanus lives in the dysoxic part of the sediment whereas Globobulimina affinis appears preferentially close to the zero oxygen boundary. Both taxa occupy niches where the highest content of Mn (III, IV)-oxides and -oxihydroxides and Fe (III)-oxides are recorded. The fact that most of the geochemical reactions within the sediment are directly or indirectly catalysed by heterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic bacterial consortia could suggest that deep infaunal foraminifera may be highly specialised protozoans able to feed on, or live in symbiosis with these prokaryotic communities.

Fontanier, C.; Jorissen, F. J.; Chaillou, G.; Anschutz, P.; Grémare, A.; Griveaud, C.

2005-07-01

233

Quantum mechanical modeling of self-assembly and photoinduced electron transfer in PNA-based artificial living organisms.  

PubMed

In order to support the creation of both artificial living organisms in the USA LANL "Protocell Assembly" project and programmable nano-biorobots in the EU "Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution" project, we used quantum mechanical (QM), density functional theory (DFT), the semiempirical PM3 method, and molecular mechanics (MM) software to investigate various complex photosynthetic systems based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in a water environment. Quantum mechanical DFT PBEPBE simulations, including electron correlations, confirm that water molecules that surround all the photosynthetic complex of the LANL protoorganism are main constructing factors and stabilize this system consisting of: PNA fragment attached by covalent bond sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule, lipid precursor molecule and fragment of lipid molecules mono layer. The absorption spectrum shift to the red wavelengths in the complex artificial protocell photosynthetic center might be used as the measure of the complexity of this system. The electron pi-pi* transitions in the first and third excited states are from HOMO and HOMO-1 located on the conjugated water molecules and sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the LUMO of the lipid precursor molecule as calculated using the time dependent (TD) PBEPBE/6-31G model. Electron charge tunneling in the first and third excited states should induce metabolic photodissociation of the lipid precursor molecule because of localization of the transferred electron cloud on the head (waste) of the lipid precursor molecule. TD electron correlation PBEPBE/6-31G calculations show that in the different energies of excitation, the charge transfer tunneling is from sensitizer to lipid precursor and cytosine molecules. One should note that in a water solvent, the electron charge transfer pi-pi* transition in the fifth and sixth excited state is from the HOMO and HOMO-1 located on the sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the LUMO+2 located on the cytosine-PNA fragment molecule. Investigation results indicate that strong back electron tunneling from the sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the cytosine molecule in the LANL artificial photosynthetic system exists. PMID:16736752

Tamulis, A; Tamulis, V; Graja, A

2006-04-01

234

Living Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.

235

Isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of fluid migration and escape from intentionally altered subsurface geologic systems, such as in hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon sequestration activities, is an important issue for environmental regulators based on the traction that the "fracking" process is gathering across the United States. Given diverse injected fluid compositions and the potential for toxic or regulated compounds to be released, one of the most important steps in the process is accurately identifying evidence of injected fluid escape during and after injection processes. An important tool in identifying differences between the natural groundwater and injected fluid is the isotopic composition of dissolved constituents including inorganic components such as Sr and carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds. Since biological processes in the mesothermal subsurface can rapidly alter the organic composition of a fluid, stable carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds (DOC) are an effective means to identify differences in the origin of two fluids, especially when coupled with inorganic compound analyses. The burgeoning field of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for isotopic analysis presents an opportunity to obtain rapid, reliable and cost-effective isotopic measurements of DOC in potentially affected groundwater for the identification of leakage or the improvement of hydrogeochemical pathway models. Here we adapt the use of the novel hyphenated TOC-CRDS carbon isotope analyzer for the analysis of DOC in produced water by wet oxidation and describe the methods to evaluate performance and obtain useful information at higher salinities. Our methods are applied to a specific field example in a CO2-enhanced EOR field in Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) as a means to demonstrate the ability to distinguish natural and injected DOC using the stable isotopic composition of the dissolved organic carbon when employing the novel TOC-CRDS instrumentation set up.

Thomas, Randal; Conaway, Christopher; Saad, Nabil; Kharaka, Yousif

2013-04-01

236

The study of organic removal efficiency and halophilic bacterial mixed liquor characteristics in a membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline produced water at varying organic loading rates.  

PubMed

In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water - at varying organic loading rates (OLR) from 0.3 to 2.6 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) - were considered. The oil and grease (O&G) and COD removal efficiency were 95-99% and 83-93%, respectively with only transient O&G (mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and soluble microbial products accumulation being observed. With increasing OLR, in the range 0.9-2.6 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), as a result of change in both extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and zeta potential, bioflocculating ability improved but the compressibility of the flocs decreased resulting in the occurrence of EPS bulking at the highest OLR studied. The latter resulted in a change in the rheology of the mixed liquor from Newtonian to non-Newtonian and the occurrence of significant membrane fouling. PMID:24140854

Sharghi, Elham Abdollahzadeh; Bonakdarpour, Babak

2013-12-01

237

Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system  

SciTech Connect

The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed. 56 refs.

Khare, B.N.; Thompson, W.R.; Chyba, C.F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E.T.

1989-01-01

238

[Rifampicin use for potency stabilization in Rif(r) mutants of Streptomyces recifensis subsp. lyticus, an organism producing lytic enzymes].  

PubMed

Rif(r) mutants 1P-92 and 2P-15 were isolated as a result of selection of Streptomyces recifensis subsp. lyticus, an organism producing lytic enzymes. The effect of rifampicin on the biosynthetic potency of the mutants was studied. When added to the medium for cultivation of Rif(r) mutants 1P-92 and 2P-15 in the optimal concentrations (7.5 and 10.0 mcg/ml respectively), the antibiotic showed stabilizing effect on their potency in successive subcultures and recovered the initial potency of the old laboratory strains. Preliminary cultivation of strain 2P-15 after its storage for 6 years at a temperature of -20 degrees C made it possible to increase the efficiency of the initial potency recovery in the analytical selection. PMID:15285405

Zhernosekova, I V; Vinnikov, A I

2004-01-01

239

Molecules in Living Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the difference between molecules in living systems and inanimate objects. In living systems, atoms and molecules are organized to a much greater degree and provide the structure of the organism. Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are also discussed.

2012-06-19

240

The effect of organic matter on CCN properties of particles produced in laboratory simulations of bubble bursting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we measure the submicron size distributions and cloud condensation nucleus properties of aerosol particles produced from a laboratory system that simulates particle formation from bubble bursting. The experimental method consists of a plunging water jet into a stainless steel tank filled with 10 L of artificial seawater, with and without added organic compounds. The tank is equipped with a water pump that can be set at variable speeds. Preliminary results from size distribution measurements agree with previous studies, in that the number concentration and size of particles produced depend on the water jet flux. Observations of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity are also affected by the water pump speed. The CCN activity of artificial seawater, at a salinity of 35‰ and with no added organic compounds, is similar to that of pure sodium chloride. Addition of as much as 1 g/L of D-mannitol does not considerably alter the particle size distribution, nor does it alter the observed CCN activity. Addition of less than 5 mg/L of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate leads to shifts in size distribution roughly similar to those from published results, in which other methods of simulating bubble bursting were used. The growing use of experimental methods for the reproduction of bubble bursting in aerosol laboratories gives us reason to explore possible differences in the properties of particles generated from similar systems. Comparisons between observations from the above-mentioned 10-L tank and those from a larger tank filled with approximately 100 L of identical artificial seawater will also be presented.

King, S.; Rosenoern, T.; Nilsson, D.; Bilde, M.

2010-12-01

241

Evidence for dissolved organic matter as the primary source and sink of photochemically produced hydroxyl radical in arctic surface waters.  

PubMed

Hydroxyl radical (?OH) is an indiscriminate oxidant that reacts at near-diffusion-controlled rates with organic carbon. Thus, while ?OH is expected to be an important oxidant of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and other recalcitrant compounds, the role of ?OH in the oxidation of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems is not well known due to the poorly constrained sources and sinks of ?OH, especially in pristine (unpolluted) natural waters. We measured the rates of ?OH formation and quenching across a range of surface waters in the Arctic varying in concentrations of expected sources and sinks of ?OH. Photochemical formation of ?OH was observed in all waters tested, with rates of formation ranging from 2.6 ± 0.6 to 900 ± 100 × 10(-12) M s(-1). Steady-state concentrations ranged from 2 ± 1 to 290 ± 60 × 10(-17) M, and overlapped with previously reported values in surface waters. While iron-mediated photo-Fenton reactions likely contributed to the observed ?OH production, several lines of evidence suggest that DOM was the primary source and sink of photochemically produced ?OH in pristine arctic surface waters. DOM from first-order or headwater streams was more efficient in producing ?OH than what has previously been reported for DOM, and ?OH formation decreased with increasing residence time of DOM in sunlit surface waters. Despite the ubiquitous formation of ?OH in arctic surface waters observed in this study, photochemical ?OH formation was estimated to contribute ?4% to the observed photo-oxidation of DOM; however, key uncertainties in this estimate must be addressed before ruling out the role of ?OH in the oxidation of DOM in these waters. PMID:24556650

Page, Sarah E; Logan, J Robert; Cory, Rose M; McNeill, Kristopher

2014-04-01

242

Organic synthesis: the art and science of replicating the molecules of living nature and creating others like them in the laboratory  

PubMed Central

Synthetic organic chemists have the power to replicate some of the most intriguing molecules of living nature in the laboratory and apply their developed synthetic strategies and technologies to construct variations of them. Such molecules facilitate biology and medicine, as they often find uses as biological tools and drug candidates for clinical development. In addition, by employing sophisticated catalytic reactions and appropriately designed synthetic processes, they can synthesize not only the molecules of nature and their analogues, but also myriad other organic molecules for potential applications in many areas of science, technology and everyday life. After a short historical introduction, this article focuses on recent advances in the field of organic synthesis with demonstrative examples of total synthesis of complex bioactive molecules, natural or designed, from the author’s laboratories, and their impact on chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:24611027

Nicolaou, K. C.

2014-01-01

243

Automated three-dimensional detection and classification of living organisms using digital holographic microscopy with partial spatial coherent source: application to the monitoring of drinking water resources.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope working with partially coherent spatial illumination for an automated detection and classification of living organisms. A robust automatic method based on the computation of propagating matrices is proposed to detect the 3D position of organisms. We apply this procedure to the evaluation of drinking water resources by developing a classification process to identify parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia cysts among two other similar organisms. By selecting textural features from the quantitative optical phase instead of morphological ones, a robust classifier is built to propose a new method for the unambiguous detection of Giardia lamblia cyst that present a critical contamination risk. PMID:23292424

El Mallahi, Ahmed; Minetti, Christophe; Dubois, Frank

2013-01-01

244

Living fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major emerging fields of research of the beginning of this century concerns living fluids. By "living fluids", we mean two major categories of complex fluids: (i) fluids which are essential to life, like blood, and (ii) active fluids made of particles that are able to propel themselves in the suspending fluid by converting a form of their energy into mechanical motion. Studies on active fluids have known a considerable interest since the last decade. Blood might be viewed as an old topic, but the progresses in experimental techniques, analytical concepts and numerics, have contributed nowadays to a dramatic renewal of the interest in this field, with a great potential towards understanding physical and mechanical factors in cardiovascular diseases. These fields have considerably strengthened interdisciplinary research. The series of reviews of this dossier focus on the tremendous recent progress achieved in research on living fluids both from the experimental and theoretical points of views. These reviews present also the major open issues, making of this dossier a unique guide for future research in these fields. This project grew up thanks to the international summer school that we organized on the topic "living fluids" at the IES (Institut d'études scientifiques) of Cargèse (Corsica) in 2012.

Misbah, Chaouqi; Wagner, Christian

2013-06-01

245

Viscoelastic Retraction of Single Living Stress Fibers and Its Impact on Cell Shape, Cytoskeletal Organization, and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics  

E-print Network

Viscoelastic Retraction of Single Living Stress Fibers and Its Impact on Cell Shape, Cytoskeletal cultured on stiff ECM substrates can tolerate disruption of multiple stress fibers with negligible overall, Massachusetts; y Department of Physics, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University

Kumar, Sanjay

246

Characterization of an organism that produces type E botulinal toxin but which resembles Clostridium butyricum from the feces of an infant with type E botulism.  

PubMed Central

The apparent causative organism from the only reported case of type E infant botulism was isolated and characterized. Except for its ability to produce type E botulinal toxin, this organism (strain 5262) would be unquestionably identified as Clostridium butyricum. This is the second time an organism resembling a defined Clostridium species other than a member of the C. botulinum group has been implicated in infant botulism. PMID:3517043

McCroskey, L M; Hatheway, C L; Fenicia, L; Pasolini, B; Aureli, P

1986-01-01

247

Cross-Infection of Solid Organ Transplant Recipients by a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate Producing the OXA-48 Carbapenemase, Likely Derived from a Multiorgan Donor  

PubMed Central

We describe two cases of bacteremic infections caused by a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase that occurred in two solid organ transplant (liver and kidney) recipients, which was apparently transmitted with the allografts. This finding underscores the risk of donor-derived infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients and emphasizes the need for rapid screening of organ donors for carriage of similar pathogens. PMID:24759725

Giani, Tommaso; Conte, Viola; Mandalà, Salvatore; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Luzzaro, Francesco; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Grossi, Paolo

2014-01-01

248

WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-lived TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.

Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

2011-12-01

249

Living Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about daily rhythms (on page 17 of the PDF), learners will explore circadian patterns in humans, animals and plants. They will observe that some behaviors and functions of living organisms vary predictably every 24 hours and many regular functions are governed by internal "clocks," which run independently but are cued or reset by the environment. Groups of learners can conduct one of four (or more) body clock investigations: body temperature, animal behavior, bean leaf, and alertness/heart rate. Materials required for each group will vary, depending on the investigation(s) being conducted. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

250

EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

251

Cellular delivery and site-specific targeting of organic fluorophores for super-resolution imaging in living cells  

E-print Network

Recent advances in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy have pushed the spatial resolution of biological imaging down to a few nanometers. The key element to the development of such imaging modality is synthetic organic ...

Uttamapinant, Chayasith

2013-01-01

252

Fractionation and identification of organic nitrogen species from bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was performed at 500 degrees C and a sweeping gas flow rate of 300 cm(3)/min in a drop tube furnace. Liquid fraction (i.e., bio-oil) from the sewage sludge pyrolysis was separated by silica-gel column chromatography (SGCC) with different solvents, including mixed solvents, as eluants. A series of alkanenitriles (C(13)-C(18)), oleamide, alkenenitrile, fatty acid amides and aromatic nitrogen species were fractionated from the bio-oil by SGCC and analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Most of the GC/MS-detectable organic nitrogen species (ONSs) are lactams, amides and N-heterocyclic compounds, among which acetamide is the most abundant. N-heterocyclics with 1-3 rings, including pyrrole, pyridine, indole, benzoimidazole, carbazole, norharman and harman, were observed. The lactams detected include pyrrolidin-2-one, succinimide, phathalimide, glutarimide, piperidin-2-one and 3-isobutylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, all of which should be formed via decarboxylation and cyclization of gamma- and delta-amino acids. Such a procedure provides an effective approach to fractionation and identification of ONSs from bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge. PMID:20488694

Cao, Jing-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Morishita, Kayoko; Wei, Xian-Yong; Takarada, Takayuki

2010-10-01

253

Fucoidan stimulates cell division in the amebocyte-producing organ of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Adult Salvador (schistosome-resistant) strain Biomphalaria glabrata snails were injected with 5?l of 10mg/ml solutions of the sulfated polysaccharides ? carageenan, dextran sulfate, fucoidan, and heparin, the nonsulfated polysaccharide laminarin, and the monosaccharides L-fucose and L-galactose, and mitotic activity in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) was measured in histological sections at 24h post injection. Among the substances tested, only fucoidan induced elevated mitotic activity. Desulfated fucoidan was not mitogenic, indicating that sulfate groups are required for activity. Schistosome-susceptible M-line snails possessed minimal or no hematopoietic tissue in their APO, which did not respond to fucoidan. Immersion of juvenile Salvador snails in 1 or 10mg/ml solutions of fucoidan for 3h did not elevate mitotic activity at 24h post immersion, suggesting that the external and digestive tract epithelia of B. glabrata are impermeable to this molecule. These results provide support for the hypothesis that fucosylated glycans on the tegument and in excretory-secretory products of sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni are in part responsible for increased mitotic activity in the APO of B. glabrata infected with this trematode or injected with its extracts. PMID:25233872

Sullivan, John T; Belloir, Joseph A; Beltran, Roxxana V; Grivakis, Aris; Ransone, Kathryn A

2014-11-01

254

Mycofumigation by the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Induces Bacterial Cell Death through DNA Damage.  

PubMed

Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

Alpha, Cambria J; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Strobel, Scott A

2015-02-01

255

Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.  

PubMed

Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 ?g/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed. PMID:23202571

Smoli?ski, Adam; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

2013-01-01

256

Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 ?C. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

2012-09-01

257

Innate and adaptive cellular immunity in flavivirus-naïve human recipients of a live-attenuated dengue serotype 3 vaccine produced in Vero cells (VDV3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

VDV3, a clonal derivative of the Mahidol live-attenuated dengue 3 vaccine was prepared in Vero cells. Despite satisfactory preclinical evaluation, VDV3 was reactogenic in humans. We explored whether immunological mechanisms contributed to this outcome by monitoring innate and adaptive cellular immune responses for 28 days after vaccination. While no variations were seen in serum IL12 or TNF? levels, a high

Violette Sanchez; Sophie Gimenez; Brian Tomlinson; Paul K. S. Chan; G. Neil Thomas; Remi Forrat; Laurent Chambonneau; Florence Deauvieau; Jean Lang; Bruno Guy

2006-01-01

258

Frequency and Characteristics of Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Organisms in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the frequency of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms, various bacteria producing ESBL, antibiotic susceptibility of these organisms, and the risk factors associated with these infections in a neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital in North India. Of the 150 neonates enrolled in the study, 47 culture-positive neonates were included in the study cohort and were divided into two groups: ESBL-positive (8 neonates) and ESBL-negative (39 neonates) cohorts. Various organisms were isolated from 72 culture samples in these 47 neonates. Of these, 10 culture samples grew ESBL-positive organisms and 62 samples grew ESBL-negative organisms. The frequency of ESBL-producing organisms was found to be 5.3%. ESBL infection incidence densities were found to be 3.4 per 1000 patient-days. Klebsiella (60%) was the most common organism producing ESBL followed by Escherichia coli (30%) and Pseudomonas (10%). Eighty percent of the ESBL-producing organisms were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam. Risk factors found significant by univariate analysis (P < 0.05) were preterm, low birthweight, perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, anaemia, metabolic acidosis, prolonged mechanical ventilation (>7 days), length of hospitalization, length of level 3 stay, prior antibiotic use, central venous catheter duration, peripherally inserted central venous catheter duration, and total parenteral nutrition duration. Factors that retained significance in the logistic regression model were duration of hospital stay (adjusted OR: 0.958, CI: 0.920–0.997, and P value = 0.037) and gestational age (adjusted OR: 1.39, CI: 1.037–1.865, and P value = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two groups. PMID:24175299

Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Bahl, Dheeraj; Kaur, Nirmaljit; Maria, Arti; Dubey, Nand Kishore

2013-01-01

259

Freezing of living cells  

SciTech Connect

It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.

1985-01-01

260

Characterization of a new organization of the plantaricin locus in the inducible bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum J23 of grape must origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum J23 was previously characterized as a bacteriocin-producer-strain when it was cocultured with other lactic acid bacteria.\\u000a In this work, the genetic organization of the pln locus in the J23 strain was studied and compared with those of previously described L. plantarum C11, WCFS1 and NC8 strains. A new organization of the plantaricin locus was detected in the J23

Beatriz Rojo-Bezares; Yolanda Sáenz; Laura Navarro; Rufino Jiménez-Díaz; Myriam Zarazaga; Fernanda Ruiz-Larrea; Carmen Torres

2008-01-01

261

Stand-off detection of plant-produced volatile organic compounds using short-range Raman LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several plant species release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when under stresses such as herbivore feeding attack. The release of these plant-produced VOCs (i.e. terpenes) triggers the release of active biochemical defenses, which target the attacker. In some cases, the VOCs send cues to nearby carnivorous predators to attract them to the feeding herbivore. Volatile compounds are released both locally by damaged leaves and systemically by the rest of the plant. These compounds are released in large quantities, which facilitate detection of pests in the field by parasitoids. Detecting the plant"s VOC emissions as a function of various parameters (e.g. ambient temperature, atmospheric nitrogen levels, etc.) is essential to designing effective biological control systems. In addition these VOC releases may serve as early warning indicator of chemo-bio attacks. By combining Raman spectroscopy techniques with Laser Remote Sensing (LIDAR) systems, we are developing a Standoff detection system. Initial results indicate that is it possible to detect and differentiate between various terpenes, plant species, and other chemical compounds at distances greater than 12 meters. Currently, the system uses the 2nd harmonic of a Nd:YAG; however plans are underway to improve the Raman signal by moving the illumination wavelength into the solar-blind UV region. We report on our initial efforts of designing and characterizing this in a laboratory proof of concept system. We envision that this effort will lead to the design of a portable field-deployable system to rapidly characterize, with a high spatial resolution, large crops and other fields.

Johnson, Lewis; Barnett, Cleon; Brown, Christopher; Crawford, Devron; Tumlinson, James

2004-03-01

262

A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10¿µg¿C¿m-2¿hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

263

Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

1997-01-01

264

Intestinal transplantation: living related  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent

Stephen G Pollard

265

Bayesian Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Reveals hIAPP-Induced Plasma Membrane Domain Organization in Live Cells  

PubMed Central

Amyloid fibril deposition of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in pancreatic islet cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes. A growing number of studies suggest that small peptide aggregates are cytotoxic via their interaction with the plasma membrane, which leads to membrane permeabilization or disruption. A recent study using imaging total internal reflection-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (ITIR-FCS) showed that monomeric hIAPP induced the formation of cellular plasma membrane microdomains containing dense lipids, in addition to the modulation of membrane fluidity. However, the spatial organization of microdomains and their temporal evolution were only partially characterized due to limitations in the conventional analysis and interpretation of imaging FCS datasets. Here, we apply a previously developed Bayesian analysis procedure to ITIR-FCS data to resolve hIAPP-induced microdomain spatial organization and temporal dynamics. Our analysis enables the visualization of the temporal evolution of multiple diffusing species in the spatially heterogeneous cell membrane, lending support to the carpet model for the association mode of hIAPP aggregates with the plasma membrane. The presented Bayesian analysis procedure provides an automated and general approach to unbiased model-based interpretation of imaging FCS data, with broad applicability to resolving the heterogeneous spatial-temporal organization of biological membrane systems. PMID:24411251

Guo, Syuan-Ming; Bag, Nirmalya; Mishra, Aseem; Wohland, Thorsten; Bathe, Mark

2014-01-01

266

Differential stimulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 by live and killed Helicobacter pylori in vitro and association of IL-12 production with gamma interferon-producing T cells in the human gastric mucosa.  

PubMed Central

The objective of these experiments was to examine the ability of Helicobacter pylori to stimulate interleukin-10 (IL-10) or IL-12 and select for either Th1 or Th2 cells. Gastric biopsy specimens were collected from patients who were categorized with respect to the presence of H. pylori and gastric disease as well as their age, gender, medications, and other factors. As Th1 and Th2 cells are selected by IL-12 and IL-10, respectively, biopsy specimens were screened for mRNA and protein for these cytokines. Although mRNA for IL-12 and IL-10 was detected in biopsy specimens obtained from both infected and uninfected patients, IL-12 protein predominated. Levels of IL-10 and IL-12 in gastric tissue did not change in response to infection. Moreover, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing T cells were found in both the infected and the uninfected gastric mucosa. Stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes from either infected or uninfected donors with various concentrations of live or killed H. pylori induced immunoreactive IL-12 and IL-10. After stimulation with live H. pylori, IL-12 levels increased more than 30-fold, whereas IL-10 levels increased only 2- to 5-fold, compared to cells stimulated with medium alone. Interestingly, killed H. pylori induced significantly more IL-10 (P < 0.05) than live H. pylori, while recombinant urease only induced IL-10. These results demonstrate that live H. pylori selectively stimulates the induction of IL-12 and Th1 cells that produce IFN-gamma, whereas preparations used in oral vaccines induce more IL-10 and may favor Th2 cell responses. PMID:9317031

Haeberle, H A; Kubin, M; Bamford, K B; Garofalo, R; Graham, D Y; El-Zaatari, F; Karttunen, R; Crowe, S E; Reyes, V E; Ernst, P B

1997-01-01

267

Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level.1. Using the LASCA method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals.

Ulianova, O. V.; Uianov, S. S.; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

2011-04-01

268

Impact of Amorphous SiO2 Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioral, and Molecular Biology Implications  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that silica (SiO2) is not toxic. But the increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many different industrial fields has prompted the careful investigation of their toxicity in biological systems. In this report, we describe the effects elicited by SiO2NPs on animal and cell physiology. Stable and monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles, 25?nM in diameter, were administered to living Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria). The dose-related effects were defined by morphological and behavioral assays. The results revealed an all-or-nothing lethal toxicity with a rather high threshold (35?nM NPs) and a LT50 of 38?h. At sub lethal doses, the morphophysiological effects included: animal morphology alterations, paralysis of the gastric region, disorganization and depletion of tentacle specialized cells, increase of apoptotic and collapsed cells, and reduction of the epithelial cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome analysis (RNAseq) revealed 45 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in stress response and cuticle renovation. Our results show that Hydra reacts to SiO2NPs, is able to rebalance the animal homeostasis up to a relatively high doses of SiO2NPs, and that the physiological modifications are transduced to gene expression modulation. PMID:25325055

Ambrosone, Alfredo; Scotto di Vettimo, Maria Rosaria; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren; Marchesano, Valentina; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Tortiglione, Claudia; Tino, Angela

2014-01-01

269

Subcellular Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Bivalve Modiolus Modiolus Living Along a Metal Contamination Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentration and distribution of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni among subcellular fractions (cellular membrane structures and cytosol) and Zn, Cu, Cd among cytoplasmic proteins in the kidney and digestive gland of mussel Modiolus modiolus living along a polymetallic concentration gradient were studied. It was found in the kidney of M. modiolus from contaminated sites that the Fe percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn percent increased in the cytosol compared to the kidney of the control mussel. Note kidney cytosol of M. modiolus from clean and contaminated sites sequestered major parts of Cu and Cd. In the digestive gland of M. modiolus from contaminated sites Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Cu, Pb percent increased in the cytosol compared to digestive gland of control mussel. Gel-filtration chromatography shows kidney of M. modiolus contains increased metallothionein-like protein levels irrespective of ambient dissolved metal concentrations. It was shown that the metal detoxification system in the kidney and digestive gland of M. modiolus was efficient under extremely high ambient metal levels. However, under complex environmental contamination in the kidney of M. modiolus, the metal detoxification capacity of metallothionein-like proteins was damaged.

Podgurskaya, Olga V.; Kavun, Victor Ya.

2006-03-01

270

Outcome of Cephalosporin Treatment for Serious Infections Due to Apparently Susceptible Organisms Producing Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamases: Implications for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) hydrolyze cephalosporin antibiotics, some ESBL- producing organisms are not resistant to all cephalosporins when tested in vitro. Some authors have suggested that screening klebsiellae or Escherichia coli for ESBL production is not clinically necessary, and when most recently surveyed the majority of American clinical microbiology laboratories did not make efforts to detect ESBLs. We performed a

DAVID L. PATERSON; WEN-CHIEN KO; ANNE VON GOTTBERG; JOSE MARIA CASELLAS; LUTFIYE MULAZIMOGLU; KEITH P. KLUGMAN; ROBERT A. BONOMO; LOUIS B. RICE; JOSEPH G. MCCORMACK; VICTOR L. YU

271

The Living Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is home to vast numbers of organisms, and even small sections of earth teem with a diverse array of life. This Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the world beneath our feet through the lens of soil biologists and ecologists. The first website (1) provides information about the activities of a Natural Environment Research Council-supported research program "on the biological diversity of soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes." The second site (2) contains information about several research projects of the Ecology of Soil Organisms Theme Group at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Theme Group studies "soil organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem level, to ultimately increase understanding of the role of soil organisms." The third site (3) contains a list of publications spanning the past fifteen years from members of the Soil Ecology Group at the University of Jyv'skyl". The site also provides basic information about group members, and concise descriptions of current research projects. From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the fourth website (4) contains an online version of the _Soil Biology Primer_, "an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms." The online version of the Primer contains the entire text of the original published version, but is missing some useful soil organism images. The fifth site (5) links to sixteen movies relating to different aspects of soil biology such as nematodes, mites, springtails, and protozoa. The movies were all produced by Dr. Thomas E. Loynachan, a Professor of Agronomy and Microbiology at Iowa State University. Finally, Soils Are Alive (6) was developed by Professor Lyn Abbot of the University of Western Australia and Jen Slater, a qualified secondary school science teacher. This website contains informative, concise sections addressing Soil Biology, Biological Processes, Living Components, and Ecosystem Management.

272

Producer-Researcher Interactions in On-Farm Research: A Case Study on Developing a Certified Organic Research Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer demand for organic products has created a need for certified organic research sites. Our objective is to discuss the lessons learned from evaluating alternate cropping systems to estab- lish a certified site in western Iowa. Oat (Avena sativa L.), 'Kelson' snail medic (Medicago scutelata (L.) Mill.) or 'Polygraze' burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.), triticale (3Triticosecale spp.), sweet corn

Douglas L. Karlen; Cynthia A. Cambardella; Carolee T. Bull; Craig A. Chase; Lance R. Gibson; Kathleen Delate

273

Microbiological quality of organic vegetables produced in soil treated with different types of manure and mineral fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to evaluate microbiological quality of horticultural crops grown organically. Three species of vegetables were used, lettuce (Lactuva sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) and spinach (Tetragonia expansa), grown organically, in fertile soil. Six different treatments were applied: mineral fertilizer, chicken, cow, and pig manure, chicken litter and cow manure, in association with a liquid foliar biofertilizer. These crops

Débora Cabral Machado; Carla Marques Maia; Isabel Dias Carvalho; Natan Fontoura da Silva; Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borge André; Álvaro Bisol Serafini

2006-01-01

274

Three-year comparison of the polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in organically and conventionally produced apples ( Malus domestica Bork. Cultivar 'Golden Delicious').  

PubMed

The present study was performed to evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of apples (cv. ;Golden Delicious') grown under defined organic and conventional conditions. Apples were harvested at five comparable commercial farms over the course of three years (2004-2006). In 2005 and 2006 the antioxidant capacity was 15% higher (p < 0.05) in organically produced apples than in conventionally produced fruits. In 2005 significantly higher polyphenol concentrations were found in the organically grown apples. In 2004 and 2006 no significant differences were observed (2004, 304 +/- 68 microg/g organic vs 284 +/- 69 microg/g conventional, p = 0.18; 2005, 302 +/- 58 micro/g organic vs 253 +/- 41 microg/g conventional, p = 0.002; 2006, 402 +/- 100 microg/g organic vs 365 +/- 58 microg/g conventional, p = 0.17). Year-to-year variations in the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol content of up to 20% were more significant than the production method found within one year. Finally, flavanols and flavonols were major determinants of the antioxidant capacities in these apples. Overall, the production method had a smaller impact on the variation in the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of apples than the yearly climate. PMID:19388640

Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Weibel, Franco P; Bub, Achim; Watzl, Bernhard

2009-06-10

275

Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV  

E-print Network

A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6 fb$^{-1}$ of 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 hours of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of $13.2^{+3.6}_{-2.5}$ events. Limits are presented at 95% confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass $\\lesssim$1000 GeV and a top squark with mass $\\lesssim$525 GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 $\\mu$s and 1000 s. These results are the most stringent c...

Khachatryan, Vardan; CMS Collaboration; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri

2015-01-01

276

The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.  

PubMed

In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections. PMID:21559784

Leeb, Christine

2011-06-01

277

Detection of Live Salmonella sp. Cells in Produce by a TaqMan-Based Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR Targeting invA mRNA? †  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica contamination in foods is a significant concern for public health. When DNA detection methods are used for analysis of foods, one of the major concerns is false-positive results from the detection of dead cells. To circumvent this crucial issue, a TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay with an RNA internal control was developed. invA RNA standards were used to determine the detection limit of this assay as well as to determine invA mRNA levels in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase cells. This assay has a detection limit of 40 copies of invA mRNA per reaction. The levels of invA mRNA in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase S. enterica cells was approximately 1 copy per 3 CFU, 1 copy per CFU, and 4 copies per 103 CFU, respectively. Spinach, tomatoes, jalapeno peppers, and serrano peppers were artificially contaminated with four different Salmonella serovars at levels of 105 and less than 10 CFU. These foods were analyzed with qRT-PCR and with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method (W. A. Andrews and T. S. Hammack, in G. J. Jackson et al., ed., Bacteriological analytical manual online, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/?ebam/bam-5.html, 2007). Comparable results were obtained by both methods. Only live Salmonella cells could be detected by this qRT-PCR assay, thus avoiding the dangers of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of the PCR) were also ruled out through the use of an RNA internal control. This assay allows for the fast and accurate detection of viable Salmonella spp. in spinach, tomatoes, and in both jalapeno and serrano peppers. PMID:19376910

González-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S.; Russell, Mindi; Jacobson, Andrew P.; De Jesús, Antonio J.; Brown, Eric W.; Lampel, Keith A.

2009-01-01

278

Grape Vine Waste and Giant Reed Biomass Composts as Peat and Mineral Fertilizer Substitutes for Producing Organic Tomato Transplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop and determine the efficacy of composts as growing and fertilization media in the production of organic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) transplants. The use of composts was researched for organic tomato transplant production. Pre-germinated tomato seeds were planted in substrates of different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60% and 100%) of either grape vine-pruning residue or giant reed-biomass

I. K. Kritsotakis; E. M. Kabourakis

2011-01-01

279

Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol in an organic residue produced by ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs.  

PubMed

More than 50 stable organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), from ground-based and onboard-satellite astronomical observations, in the gas and solid phases. Some of these organics may be prebiotic compounds that were delivered to early Earth by comets and meteorites and may have triggered the first chemical reactions involved in the origin of life. Ultraviolet irradiation of ices simulating photoprocesses of cold solid matter in astrophysical environments have shown that photochemistry can lead to the formation of amino acids and related compounds. In this work, we experimentally searched for other organic molecules of prebiotic interest, namely, oxidized acid labile compounds. In a setup that simulates conditions relevant to the ISM and Solar System icy bodies such as comets, a condensed CH(3)OH:NH(3) = 1:1 ice mixture was UV irradiated at approximately 80 K. The molecular constituents of the nonvolatile organic residue that remained at room temperature were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol were detected in this residue, as well as hydroxyacetamide, glycerolic acid, and glycerol amide. These organics are interesting target molecules to be searched for in space. Finally, tentative mechanisms of formation for these compounds under interstellar/pre-cometary conditions are proposed. PMID:20402585

Nuevo, Michel; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Thiemann, Wolfram H-P

2010-03-01

280

The incorporation of an organically modified layered silicate in monolithic polymeric matrices produced using hot melt extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body of work described in this research paper outlines the use of nanoclay particles as a novel filler material in a hot melt extruded monolithic polymer matrix for oral drug delivery. Several batches of matrix material were prepared with Carvedilol used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. An organically modified layered silicate was used as the filler material at various

John G. Lyons; Harshad Holehonnur; Declan M. Devine; James E. Kennedy; Luke M. Geever; Paul Blackie; Clement L. Higginbotham

2007-01-01

281

Mayan Q'eqchi spice producers and international organic certification regulations : gaps in farmer participation and applicability of international regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ForesTrade, Inc. is an international trading company that has been developing a program for the commercialization of organic spices in Coban, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala for over four years. The focus of this program is to provide traditional subsistence farmers with a secure market so that the sale of their products will increase their economic security. By certifying these products as

Michaelyn M. Bachuber

2002-01-01

282

Self-sufficiency of motor fuels on organic farms – Evaluation of systems based on fuels produced in industrial-scale plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to evaluate systems for making organic farms self-sufficient in bio-based fuels. The energy efficiency and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas produced by processing raw material from the farm in industrial-scale plants were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Eventual constraints when implementing the systems in

P.-A. Hansson; A. Baky; S. Ahlgren; S. Bernesson; Å. Nordberg; O. Norén; O. Pettersson

2007-01-01

283

Creating living machines  

PubMed Central

Development of increasingly complex integrated cellular systems will be a major challenge for the next decade and beyond, as we apply the knowledge gained from the sub-disciplines of tissue engineering, synthetic biology, micro-fabrication and nanotechnology, systems biology, and developmental biology. In this prospective, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the context of differentiating source cells from more primitive, pluripotent cells, and organizing these cells into populations of a single cell type to produce the components or building blocks of higher order systems and finally, combining multiple cell types, possibly in combination with scaffolds possessing specific physical or chemical properties, to produce greater functionality. As these “living machines” increase in capabilities, exhibit emergent behavior and potentially reveal the ability for self-assembly, self-repair, and even self-replication, questions arise regarding the ethical implications of this work. Future prospects as well as ways of addressing these complex ethical questions will be addressed. PMID:24006130

Kamm, Roger D.; Bashir, Rashid

2015-01-01

284

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

285

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Chat Assisted Living Assisted living facilities offer a housing alternative for older adults who may need help ... part of a retirement community, nursing home, senior housing complex, or may stand-alone. Licensing requirements for ...

286

Living Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... donors and transplant candidates Paired donation or paired exchange involves two pairs of living kidney donors and ... trans- plants are made possible. This type of exchange often involves multiple living kidney donor/transplant candidate ...

287

Transient retrograde amnesia associated with impaired naming of living categories.  

PubMed

A ease of pure retrograde amnesia following mild head injury is reported. The patient, who also showed a deficit in verbal fluency and a living/non-living dissociation in naming during the amnesic period, recovered progressively in about ten days post-trauma. Both a psychogenic and an organic origin could be taken into account. A mechanism (no matter if psychogenic or organic) can be hypothesized, which produces a functional inhibition also involving performances that are unlikely to be affected by psychological factors. PMID:9533997

Papagno, C

1998-02-01

288

Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle.  

PubMed

The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading. PMID:25525134

Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; O'Hara, Amanda J

2015-01-01

289

Engineering living functional materials.  

PubMed

Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

2015-01-16

290

A case study on co-exposure to a mixture of organic solvents in a Tunisian adhesive-producing company  

PubMed Central

Objectives to assess environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organic solvents in a glue-manufacturing company in Sfax, Tunisia. Methods Exposure of volunteer workers, in the solvented glue-work-stations, in the control laboratory and in the storage rooms of the finished products, was assessed through indoor-air and urine measurements. Informed consent of the workers was obtained. Results and discussion The exposure indexes were found with high values in the solvented workshop as well as in the control laboratory and were respectively, 8.40 and 3.12. These indexes were also correlated with hexane and toluene indoor air concentrations. As to urine, the obtained results for the 2,5-hexandione and hippuric acid, metabolites of hexane and toluene, respectively, were in accord with the indoor-air measurements, with an average of 0.46 mg/l and 1240 mg/g of creatinine. Conclusion This study assessed for the first time biological exposure to organic solvents used in Tunisian adhesive industries. Although values are likely to underestimate true exposure levels, some figures exceed European and American occupational exposure guidelines. PMID:22082240

2011-01-01

291

Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

2010-12-01

292

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

Zima, Tatyana, E-mail: Zima@solid.nsc.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Baklanova, Natalya [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Bataev, Ivan [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15

293

Study of the micro-organisms associated with the fermented bread (khamir) produced from sorghum in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Traditional bread (khamir) was made from sorghum flour of two local varieties, Bayadh and Hamra. The bread was prepared by mixing the sorghum flour with water and spices (onion, garlic, lemon juice and fenugreek) in a 1:0.8 (w/w) ratio and fermented for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Two other fermentations were carried out using an inoculum from the previous fermentation. The micro-organisms were isolated from different plates and identified using different characterization systems. Both total bacterial populations and lactic acid bacteria increased with fermentation time and reached the highest number at 16 h (first fermentation) and at 8 h (second and third fermentation). The content of lactic acid was increased with time to reach 1.2%, but the increase was higher for the second and third fermentations (1.6% each). The pH dropped with time from 6.77 to 4.35 in the first fermentation and from 6.65 to 4.18, and 6.57-3.93, in the second and third fermentations, respectively. The microorganisms, which were isolated and characterized during the 24 h fermentation, included: bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lact. lactis subsp. lactis, Lact. cellobiosus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Kl. pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Ent. sakazakii, Serratia marcescens and Ser. odourifera), moulds (Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Aspergillus niger, Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp. and Mucor sp.) and yeasts (Candida parapsilosis, C. orvegnsis and Rhodotorula glutinis). PMID:10063620

Gassem, M A

1999-02-01

294

The lobster mandibular organ produces soluble and membrane-bound forms of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase  

PubMed Central

In a previous study [Li, Wagner, Friesen and Borst (2003) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 134, 147–155], we showed that the MO (mandibular organ) of the lobster Homarus americanus has high levels of HMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) and that most (approx. 75%) of the enzyme activity is soluble. In the present study, we report the biochemical and molecular characteristics of this enzyme. HMGR had two forms in the MO: a more abundant soluble form (66 kDa) and a less abundant membrane-bound form (72 kDa). Two cDNAs for HMGR were isolated from the MO. A 2.6-kb cDNA encoded HMGR1, a 599-amino-acid protein (63 kDa), and a 3.2-kb cDNA encoded HMGR2, a 655-amino-acid protein (69 kDa). These two cDNAs had identical 3?-ends and appeared to be products of a single gene. The deduced amino acid sequences of these two proteins revealed a high degree of similarity to other class I HMGRs. Hydropathy plots indicated that the N-terminus of HMGR1 lacked a transmembrane region and HMGR2 had a single transmembrane segment. Recombinant HMGR1 expressed in Sf9 insect cells was soluble and had kinetic characteristics similar to native HMGR from the MO. Treatment with phosphatase did not affect HMGR activity, consistent with the observation that neither HMGR1 nor HMGR2 has a serine at position 490 or 546, the position of a conserved phosphorylation site found in class I HMGR from higher eukaryotes. Other lobster tissues (i.e. midgut, brain and muscles) had low HMGR activities and mRNA levels. MO with higher HMGR activities had higher HMGR mRNA levels, implying that HMGR is regulated, in part, at the transcription level. PMID:15086315

2004-01-01

295

Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater on soil quality, soil-borne pathogens, and living organisms: case study of the vicinity of El Hajeb (Tunisia).  

PubMed

Medium (i.e. 15 years) and long-term (i.e. 20 years) impact of irrigation using secondary-treated municipal wastewater (TWW) was assessed on two agricultural soil samples, denoted by E and G, respectively, in the vicinity of El Hajeb region (Southern Tunisia). Soil pH, electrical conductivity particle size grading, potential risk of salinity, water holding capacity and chemical composition, as well as organic matter content, pathogenic microorganisms and heavy metal concentrations in the TWW-irrigated (E and G) and rainwater-irrigated (T) soils at various depths, were monitored and compared during a 5-year experiment. Our study showed that bacterial abundance is higher in sandy-clayey soil, which has an enhanced ability to retain moisture and nutrients. The high level of bacterial flora in TWW-irrigated soils was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated (r = ~0.5) with the high level of OM. Avoidance assays have been used to assess toxic effects generated by hazards in soils. The earthworms gradually avoided the soils from the surface (20 cm) to the depth (60 cm) of the G transect and then the E transect, preferring the T transect. The same behaviour was observed for springtails, but they seem to be less sensitive to the living conditions in transects G and E than the earthworms. The avoidance response test of Eisenia andrei was statistically correlated with soil layers at the sampling sites. However, the avoidance response test of Folsomia candida was positively correlated with silt-clay content (+0.744*) and was negatively correlated with sand content (-0.744*). PMID:24362513

Hentati, Olfa; Chaker, Sana; Wali, Ahmed; Ayoub, Tarek; Ksibi, Mohamed

2014-05-01

296

Service Priorities and Unmet Service Needs Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Results from a Nationwide Interview of HIV/AIDS Housing Organizations  

PubMed Central

Housing for people living with HIV/AIDS has been linked to a number of positive physical and mental health outcomes, in addition to decreased sexual and drug-related risk behavior. The current study identified service priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS, services provided by HIV/AIDS housing agencies, and unmet service needs for people living with HIV/AIDS through a nationwide telephone survey of HIV/AIDS housing agencies in the United States. Housing, alcohol/drug treatment, and mental health services were identified as the three highest priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS and assistance finding employment, dental care, vocational assistance, and mental health services were the top needs not being met. Differences by geographical region were also examined. Findings indicate that while housing affords people living with HIV/AIDS access to services, there are still areas (e.g., mental health services) where gaps in linkages to care exist. PMID:23305552

Lennon, Carter A.; White, Angela C.; Finitsis, David; Pishori, Alefiyah; Hernandez, Dominica; Kelly, David M.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Turcios-Cotto, Viana; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Kane, Sister Ann; Lanouette, Gertrude A.

2014-01-01

297

Glow: Living Lights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48-page Teacher's Guide accompanies the "Glow: Living Lights" exhibit at the San Diego Natural History Museum. In PDF format, the guide contains 12 lesson plans that explore the chemical compounds and adaptations of bioluminescence, symbiosis, fireflies and other "glowing" terrestrial animals, dinoflagellates, ocean submersibles, blue vs. bright red light, the organization of life, defense, mating, and predator/prey mechanisms of bioluminescent organisms, human applications, and potential research and careers in science.

2009-07-28

298

Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Ms. Schultz

2007-11-05

299

Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced from new Brazilian varieties planted in the Northeast Region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The phenolic compounds, organic acids and the antioxidant activity were determined for grape juice samples from new Brazilian varieties grown in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The results showed that the Brazilian grape juices have high antioxidant activity, which was significantly correlated with the phenolic compounds catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The produced juice samples showed higher concentrations of trans-resveratrol than those observed in juices made from different varieties of grapes from traditional growing regions. Organic acids concentrations were similar to those of juices produced from other classical varieties. It was demonstrated that it is possible to prepare juices from grapes of new varieties grown in the Northeast of Brazil containing a high content of bioactive compounds and typical characteristics of the tropical viticulture practised in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley. PMID:24837926

Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Silani, Igor de Souza Veras; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

2014-10-15

300

What Lives Here  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners explore an aquatic site such as a pond, lake, stream, river or seashore to find and investigate plants and animals that live in water. Learners use dip nets to scoop up as many different organisms as they can for observation. This is a great introduction to the life of aquatic systems.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

301

Orca Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

302

Learning from Live Theater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

2015-01-01

303

Living Landscape Australian Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to the 10 episodes of "The Living Landscape â an Australian Ecosystems Series" produced by Gulliver Media and Education Queensland. This series previously aired on ABC TV in the "For Schools" slot. The episodes run between 15 minutes and 22 minutes each. Still images from the series are also available for download.

304

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... of residences participating in the research have lower fees and half have higher fees. The rental rate includes the base rent and service fees charged by the assisted living community. While 86. ...

305

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

306

Organ Harvesting and Transplants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

2010-01-01

307

Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an order of magnitude) less energy is required and that sunlight can be used directly. In the case of photoproduction of hydrogen, as compared to water splitting, feeding the anodic compartment of the PEC with an organic pollutant, instead of the usual supporting electrolyte, will bring about a substantial increase of the photocurrent at a given illumination. Thus, the replacement of the photo-oxidation of water by the photodegradation of organic waste will be accompanied by a gain in solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency and hence by a decrease in the cost of the photoproduced hydrogen. Taking into account the benefits and possible revenues obtainable by the waste degradation, this would seem to be a promising approach to the photoproduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is another waste effluent requiring extensive treatment, especially in petroleum refineries. The so-called Claus process is normally used to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. A sulfur recovery process developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described briefly in Chapter 4 by Dr. C. Linkous as a typical example of the photoproduction of hydrogen in a non oxygen-evolving system. The encouraging results obtained in these investigations of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production combined with organic waste degradation, have prompted a decision to continue the work under the new IEA Hydrogen Agreement Annex 14, Photoelectrolytic Hydrogen Production.

Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))

2000-01-01

308

Color tunable organic light-emitting devices with external quantum efficiency over 20% based on strongly luminescent gold(III) complexes having long-lived emissive excited states.  

PubMed

Gold(III) complexes supported by C-deprotonated fluorene-C^N^C ligands having high emission quantum yield up to 0.61 and long-lived emissive excited states are used as yellow emitters in color tunable PLEDs and OLEDs. High EQEs of 13.16% and 22.02% are achieved in the best PLED and OLED, respectively. PMID:24497411

Cheng, Gang; Chan, Kaai Tung; To, Wai-Pong; Che, Chi-Ming

2014-04-23

309

Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy

310

Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

2009-01-01

311

The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

312

Bioluminescence: Living Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent creatures and the underwater world in which they live. Using shoeboxes and black paint, students are directed to build a deep-sea model and inhabit it with fish made out of black construction paper. Students then use the model to describe how organisms use bioluminescence and learn about its use as camouflage. In addition to a detailed protocol, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessments and links to additional information.

Xpeditions, National G.

313

Microbial Colony in U.S. Suggests Life Could Live on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News explores the possibility that methanogens, which derive their energy from geothermal hydrogen and produce methane as a byproduct, could survive on Mars. These microscopic organisms live in hydrothermal waters 200 meters below the surface, a condition that may mimic those found on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa.

Roach, John; News, National G.

314

Living Technology: Exploiting Life's Principles in Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of living technologythat is, technology that is based on the powerful core features of lifeis explained and illustrated with examples from artificial life software, reconfigurable and evolvable hardware, autonomously self-reproducing robots, chemical protocells, and hybrid electronic-chemical systems. We define primary (secondary) living technology according as key material components and core systems are not (are) derived from living organisms.

Mark A. Bedau; John S. McCaskill; Norman H. Packard; Steen Rasmussen

2010-01-01

315

Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Extra figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05447d

Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

2015-01-01

316

Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells.  

PubMed

MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. PMID:25514895

Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

2015-01-22

317

Polyethylenimine Aqueous Solution: A Low-Cost and Environmentally Friendly Formulation to Produce Low-Work-Function Electrodes for Efficient Easy-to-Fabricate Organic Solar Cells.  

PubMed

Polyethylenimine (PEI) has been widely used to produce low-work-function electrodes. Generally, PEI modification is prepared by spin coating from 2-methoxyethanol solution. In this work, we explore the method for PEI modification on indium tin oxide (ITO) by dipping the ITO sample into PEI aqueous solution for organic solar cells. The PEI prepared in this method could reduce the work function of ITO as effectively as PEI prepared by spin coating from 2-methoxyethanol solution. H2O as the processing solvent is more environmentally friendly and much cheaper compared to the 2-methoxyethanol solvent. The dipping method is also compatible with large-area samples. With low-work-function ITO treated by the dipping method, solar cells with a simple structure of glass/ITO/PEI(dipping)/P3HT:ICBA/PEDOT:PSS(vacuum-free processing) display a high open-circuit voltage of 0.86 ± 0.01, a high fill factor of 66 ± 2%, and power conversion efficiency of 4.4 ± 0.3% under 100 mW/cm(2) illumination. PMID:25479413

Min, Xue; Jiang, Fangyuan; Qin, Fei; Li, Zaifang; Tong, Jinhui; Xiong, Sixing; Meng, Wei; Zhou, Yinhua

2014-12-24

318

Carbon isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have adapted the Picarro iTOC CRDS isotope analyzer for analysis of produced water brines via wet chemical persulfate oxidation. In particular, we developed strategies and techniques for overcoming the limitation imposed by low oxidation efficiencies due to the chloride ion interference with persulfate oxidation. These techniques are important for understanding the origin of dissolved organic carbon in subsurface fluids from oilfields, as a tracer of fracking fluids in groundwater, and in interpreting changes in groundwater DOC as a result of microbial activity including oil biodegradation or microbially enhanced oil recovery. We describe the limitations of this new instrument for the analysis of DOC in brines including sample requirements, matrix effects, and the effect of DOC composition on reaction efficiency and isotopic measurements. We compare strategies including anion exchange cartridges, persulfate reactant concentrations, and reaction time. The CRDS analysis of DOC in brines is a useful tool for understanding the origin and fate of DOC and is a potentially powerful tool to identifiy evidence of contamination due to hydrofracturing chemicals that have a distinctive carbon isotopic signature relative to natural brine.

Thomas, B.; Conaway, C.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Saad, N.

2012-12-01

319

Self-organized ultrathin FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on rippled alumina surfaces.  

PubMed

Ultradense macroscopic arrays of ferromagnetic alloy nanowires exhibit unique properties that make them attractive both for basic physics studies and for prospective nanodevice applications in various areas. We report here on the production of self-organized equiatomic FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on alumina nanoripple patterns at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 600 °C. This study demonstrates that periodically aligned FePt nanowires with tunable size (?10-20 nm width and ?0.5-10 nm height) can be successfully grown as a consequence of shadowing effects and low mobility of Fe and Pt on the rippled alumina surface. Moreover, the structure and magnetic properties of the FePt nanowires, which undergo a phase transition from a disordered A1 (soft) structure to a partially ordered L10 (hard) structure, can be modified upon annealing. We show that this behavior can be further exploited to change the effective uniaxial anisotropy of the system, which is determined by a strong interplay between the shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of the nanowires. PMID:25504082

Garel, Mathieu; Babonneau, David; Boulle, Alexandre; Pailloux, Frédéric; Coati, Alessandro; Garreau, Yves; Ramos, Aline Y; Tolentino, Hélio C N

2015-01-01

320

Self-organized ultrathin FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on rippled alumina surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultradense macroscopic arrays of ferromagnetic alloy nanowires exhibit unique properties that make them attractive both for basic physics studies and for prospective nanodevice applications in various areas. We report here on the production of self-organized equiatomic FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on alumina nanoripple patterns at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 600 °C. This study demonstrates that periodically aligned FePt nanowires with tunable size (~10-20 nm width and ~0.5-10 nm height) can be successfully grown as a consequence of shadowing effects and low mobility of Fe and Pt on the rippled alumina surface. Moreover, the structure and magnetic properties of the FePt nanowires, which undergo a phase transition from a disordered A1 (soft) structure to a partially ordered L10 (hard) structure, can be modified upon annealing. We show that this behavior can be further exploited to change the effective uniaxial anisotropy of the system, which is determined by a strong interplay between the shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of the nanowires.

Garel, Mathieu; Babonneau, David; Boulle, Alexandre; Pailloux, Frédéric; Coati, Alessandro; Garreau, Yves; Ramos, Aline Y.; Tolentino, Hélio C. N.

2015-01-01

321

Estuary Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.

322

UNM Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you can't make it to the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, why not tune in to their events online? This is now possible, courtesy of the UNM Live website. The function of this site is to bring "educational resources to a wider audience", and their focus is quite catholic, with talks on student aid, podcasts on anthropology, and so on. Visitors can learn about the initiative via the "About UNM Live" section of the site, and for more general information, they can look over the "What is a podcast? How do I subscribe?" area. First-time visitors should start by listening to Professor Jerry Shea talk about the Swahili terms "Sasa" and "Zamani" for a good introduction to the site. The social networking media options are quite easy to use, and visitors can recommend various media clips and programs to friends and others. Also, visitors can use the "Categories" area to look for materials related to campus life, arts, business, education, and current affairs.

323

Uncommon Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Uncommon Lives series on the National Archives of Australia website takes an approach to Australian history that not only encompasses the well-known history-makers, but also lesser known people's role in shaping Australian history. One of the stated goals of the Uncommon Lives series is to show how amateur historians and researchers alike can use the archives to find biographical resources. There are five stories the visitor can discover by simply clicking on the image of the person or people next to the brief description of their story including, "Muslim Journeys", "Charles and Ruth Lane Poole", "Jessie Street", "Wolf Klaphake", and "Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda". By clicking on any choice, visitors will find each story divided into subsections. Explanatory text accompanies the thumbnails of each image and these can be expanded into a high quality image by clicking on them. Each of these stories provides a unique and compelling look into Australian history. For instance in Wolf Klaphake's story you can listen to or read the transcript of segments of the ABC radio play "A Doubtful Character" which is about Klaphake's life and in Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda's story, you can view the actual court records of his case, which was the first for an Aboriginal Australian in the High Court.

2007-01-01

324

American Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as part of the American Culture studies program at Washington University, the American Lives Project is "a new resource for cultural inquiry that allows users to build connections and identify differences between materials." The project brings together oral histories, historical documents, artifacts, sound, and visual media into an online collection that serves as a model for others seeking to do such work. This particular project documents student activism at Washington University from 1964 to 1972. First-time visitors should look at the About area to learn about the design team, the goals of the project, and the technical aspects of this work. Moving on, visitors can click on the How to Use tab for information about examining the collection. Visitors will find protest banners, letters, handouts, photographs by student groups, and links to related media. Also, visitors can create their own curated collections via the My Objects area, which is a great way to highlight items of personal interest. [KMG

325

London Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"London Lives: Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis" is a project with the goal of "assessing the role of plebeians in the evolution of social practices in the modern metropolis." In other words, the website aims to make accessible the records of non-elite individuals in order to show how those users of particular social institutions charities, the penal system, and others shaped their development. Visitors can choose "Browse Documents" to see the types of documents available, such as "Parish Archives", "Criminal Records", and "Coroners' Records". The "City of London Coroners" records from the 1780s include an inquest into a suspicious death, with no less than a dozen interviews with people who knew the man who died, and one of whom attested to him being "a little touched in the head". The "Additional Datasets" link contains 16 other datasets, including one of boys recruited to serve at sea for the Marine Society.

326

Live Your Life Well  

MedlinePLUS

... Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven tools can ... build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's ...

327

Formation and reactions of negative ions relevant to chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. Cl mass spectra of organic compounds produced by F? reactions  

PubMed Central

A systematic study of the negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectra produced by the reaction of F? with a wide variety of organic compounds has been accomplished. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with a modified high pressure ion source was employed for these experiments. The F? reagent ion was generated from CF3H or NF3, typically at an ion source pressure of 100 ?m. In pure NF3, F? is the major ion formed and constitutes more than 90% of the total ion intensity. While F? is also the major primary ion formed in pure CF3H, it undergoes rapid ion-molecule reactions at elevated source pressures, yielding (HF)nF? (n = 1?3) ions, which makes CF3H less suitable as a chemical ionization reagent gas. Among the organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, phenols, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene, ethers, amines and hydrocarbons. An intense (M ? 1)? ion was observed in the F? chemical ionization mass spectra of carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Alcohols yield only (M + F)? ions upon reaction with F?. A weaker (M + F)? ion was also detected in the F? chemical ionization spectra of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and nitriles. The F? chemical ionization mass spectra of esters, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene and ethers are characterized primarily by the ions, RCOO?, X?, CN?, NO2?, and OR?, respectively. In addition, esters show a very weak (M ? 1)? ion (except formates). In the F? chemical ionization spectra of some aliphatic alkanes and o-xylene, a very weak (M + F)? ion was observed. Amines and aliphatic alkenes exhibit only insignificant fragment ions under similar conditions, while aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene are not reactive at all with the F? ion. The mechanisms of the various reactions mentioned are discussed, and several experimental complications are noted. In still other studies, the effects of varying several experimental parameters, including source pressure, relative proportions of the reagent and analyte, and other ion source parameters, on the observed chemical ionization mass spectra were also investigated. In a mixture of NF3 and n-butanol, for example, the ratio of the intensities of the ions characteristic of the alcohol to that of the (HF)nF? ion was found to decrease with increasing sample pressure, with increasing NF3 pressure, and with increasing electron energy. No significant effects on the spectra were observed to result from variation of the source repeller field or the source temperature. The addition of argon to the source as a potential moderator did not alter the F? chemical ionization spectrum significantly, but the use of oxygen appears to inhibit formation of the (HF)nF? cluster ion. The advantages of using F? as a chemical ionization reagent are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reagent ions. PMID:7428746

Tiernan, T. O.; Chang, C.; Cheng, C. C.

1980-01-01

328

[Occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensal organisms among schoolchildren living in a 'landless farm workers' settlement in Campo Florido, Minas Gerais, State Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensal organisms among children attending a school located in a settlement of 'landless farm workers' in Campo Florido, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coproparasitological analyses performed on 72 school children revealed 59.7% positivity and 4 types of protozoa and 5 types of helminths were identified. It can be concluded that it is necessary to monitor the health conditions of this population. PMID:12715070

Ferreira, Patricia; Lima, Marcelo Ribeiro; Oliveira, Francielle Batista; Pereira, Maria Letícia Moreira; Ramos, Leila Bitar Moukachar; Marçal, Maria das Graças; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2003-01-01

329

Live foraminiferal faunas from a 2800 m deep lower canyon station from the Bay of Biscay: Faunal response to focusing of refractory organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2800m deep station was sampled on three occasions, in January 1999, June 1999 and April 2000, in the lower part of Cap-Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay). This area is characterised by a rapid accumulation of fine-grained sediments and by important inputs of reworked organic matter in an intermediate state of decay. Diagenetic reactions within the sediment follow the well-established

C. Fontanier; F. J. Jorissen; G. Chaillou; P. Anschutz; A. Grémare; C. Griveaud

2005-01-01

330

ISS Live!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

2013-01-01

331

Biosolids are the solids produced during municipal wastewater treatment. Composts are made from a variety of organic materials, including both urban and agriculture  

E-print Network

ISSUE Biosolids are the solids produced during municipal wastewater treatment. Composts are made and compost users need information on the product's proper use, safety, and benefits. Furthermore, biosolids and compost producers need up-to-date information on making and marketing their products, as well

Collins, Gary S.

332

Performance and carcass quality of fully or partly outdoor reared pigs in organic production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor rearing of finishers can be considered a relevant option in organic pig production. The performance and carcass characteristics of 245 organically produced and free-range born crossbred pigs allocated to five treatments were compared. The five treatments were: transfer to a barn with free access to feed (1) at weaning and until slaughter, (2) at a live weight of 40

Karin Strudsholm; John E. Hermansen

2005-01-01

333

Periodic Table Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Periodic Table Live!, produced by the Division of Chemical Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, allows users "to explore a broad range of information about the elements, their reactions, their properties, their structures and their histories." After selecting an element from the periodic table, users can access a myriad of information divided into three sections: Description, Physical, and Atomic. Students can view short videos of many of the elements' reactions with air, water, acids, and bases. The website is equipped with a helpful glossary and images of the elements, scientists, and other related items.

334

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

335

Two studies evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of a live, attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine (SC602) and excretion of vaccine organisms in North American volunteers.  

PubMed

We report the first community-based evaluation of Shigella flexneri 2a strain SC602, a live, oral vaccine strain attenuated by deletion of the icsA (virG) plasmid virulence gene, given at 10(4) CFU. The primary objectives of this trial were to determine the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine and to determine the duration of colonization. Four of 34 volunteers experienced transient fevers, and three reported diarrhea during the first 3 days of the study. Half of the volunteers mounted a positive serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) response to S. flexneri lipopolysaccharide. All but one of the volunteers excreted the vaccine in their stools for 1 to 33 days, and this excretion was often intermittent. Data from the community-based study were supplemented with an inpatient trial in which three volunteers received 10(3) and nine received 10(4) CFU. All volunteers who received 10(3) CFU excreted SC602 and had an IgA antibody-secreting cell response. Two of these had a serum IgA response. Six of the nine volunteers who received 10(4) CFU excreted SC602. One vaccinee had a transient fever and two met the definition of diarrhea. Six volunteers that received 10(4) CFU had an antibody-secreting cell response, and four had a serum IgA response. SC602 has now been tested at 10(4) CFU in a total of 58 volunteers. The cumulative results of these clinical trials, reported here and previously (Coster et al., Infect. Immun. 67:3437-3443, 1999), have demonstrated that SC602 is a substantially attenuated candidate vaccine that can evoke protection against the most severe symptoms of shigellosis in a stringent human challenge model of disease. PMID:14742537

Katz, David E; Coster, Trinka S; Wolf, Marcia K; Trespalacios, Fernando C; Cohen, Dani; Robins, Guy; Hartman, Antoinette B; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Taylor, David N; Hale, Thomas L

2004-02-01

336

Two Studies Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Live, Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine (SC602) and Excretion of Vaccine Organisms in North American Volunteers  

PubMed Central

We report the first community-based evaluation of Shigella flexneri 2a strain SC602, a live, oral vaccine strain attenuated by deletion of the icsA (virG) plasmid virulence gene, given at 104 CFU. The primary objectives of this trial were to determine the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine and to determine the duration of colonization. Four of 34 volunteers experienced transient fevers, and three reported diarrhea during the first 3 days of the study. Half of the volunteers mounted a positive serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) response to S. flexneri lipopolysaccharide. All but one of the volunteers excreted the vaccine in their stools for 1 to 33 days, and this excretion was often intermittent. Data from the community-based study were supplemented with an inpatient trial in which three volunteers received 103 and nine received 104 CFU. All volunteers who received 103 CFU excreted SC602 and had an IgA antibody-secreting cell response. Two of these had a serum IgA response. Six of the nine volunteers who received 104 CFU excreted SC602. One vaccinee had a transient fever and two met the definition of diarrhea. Six volunteers that received 104 CFU had an antibody-secreting cell response, and four had a serum IgA response. SC602 has now been tested at 104 CFU in a total of 58 volunteers. The cumulative results of these clinical trials, reported here and previously (Coster et al., Infect. Immun. 67:3437-3443, 1999), have demonstrated that SC602 is a substantially attenuated candidate vaccine that can evoke protection against the most severe symptoms of shigellosis in a stringent human challenge model of disease. PMID:14742537

Katz, David E.; Coster, Trinka S.; Wolf, Marcia K.; Trespalacios, Fernando C.; Cohen, Dani; Robins, Guy; Hartman, Antoinette B.; Venkatesan, Malabi M.; Taylor, David N.; Hale, Thomas L.

2004-01-01

337

Direct plasma interaction with living tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

Fridman, Gregory

338

Living Nanomachines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis and phagocytosis complexes, and also dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton complexes which generate protrusion forces involved in cell adhesion and migration. The ideas of molecular recognition and controlled interfaces between biological components provide the underlying mechanisms for biological machinery and networks [1]. Many proteins illustrate this principle by their modular organisation into domains. The juxtaposition of catalytic domains of known function and domains of interaction with different partners leads to the emergence of new biological functions. It can also create threshold mechanisms, or biological switches, by triggering the activity of a given domain only when several partners interact with the regulatory domains. Many of these interaction domains are well understood. They exist inside different proteins, in particular, in cell signaling networks, and could potentially be used as building blocks in the construction of new proteins.

Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

339

Detection of persistent organic compounds from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) and their degradation by manganese peroxidase and laccase producing bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) retains dark black colour with complex persistent organic pollutants even after anaerobic treatment. The specific ratio (4:3:1:1) of Proteus mirabilis (FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (FJ581031) decolourised BMDS up to 76% within 192 hr along with degradation of persistent organic compounds in presence of glucose (1%) and peptone (0.1%). The colour removal ability was noted due to ligninolytic enzyme activity. Where the maximum manganese peroxidase was 1.93 U ml(-1) and laccase activity equalled 0.84 U ml(-1). The gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the direct correlation between colourant and persistent organic pollutants due to simultaneous reduction of colour and pollutants present in BMDS. The seed germination test showed reduction of 75% toxicity after bacterial treatment process. PMID:24640253

Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

2013-07-01

340

Concise reviews: in vitro-produced pancreas organogenesis models in three dimensions: self-organization from few stem cells or progenitors.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional models of organ biogenesis have recently flourished. They promote a balance between stem/progenitor cell expansion and differentiation without the constraints of flat tissue culture vessels, allowing for autonomous self-organization of cells. Such models allow the formation of miniature organs in a dish and are emerging for the pancreas, starting from embryonic progenitors and adult cells. This review focuses on the currently available systems and how these allow new types of questions to be addressed. We discuss the expected advancements including their potential to study human pancreas development and function as well as to develop diabetes models and therapeutic cells. Stem Cells 2015;33:8-14. PMID:25185771

Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Grapin-Botton, Anne

2015-01-01

341

Visualization and quantitative analysis of G protein-coupled receptor-?-arrestin interaction in single cells and specific organs of living mice using split luciferase complementation.  

PubMed

Methods used to assess the efficacy of potentially therapeutic reagents for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been developed. Previously, we demonstrated sensitive detection of the interaction of GPCRs and ?-arrestin2 (ARRB2) using 96-well microtiter plates and a bioluminescence microscope based on split click beetle luciferase complementation. Herein, using firefly luciferase emitting longer wavelength light, we demonstrate quantitative analysis of the interaction of ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), a kind of GPCR, and ARRB2 in a 96-well plate assay with single-cell imaging. Additionally, we showed bioluminescence in vivo imaging of the ADRB2-ARRB2 interaction in two systems: cell implantation and hydrodynamic tail vein (HTV) methods. Specifically, in the HTV method, the luminescence signal from the liver upon stimulation of an agonist for ADRB2 was obtained in the intact systems of mice. The results demonstrate that this method enables noninvasive screening of the efficacy of chemicals at the specific organ in in vivo testing. This in vivo system can contribute to effective evaluation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and expedite the development of new drugs for GPCRs. PMID:22364396

Takakura, Hideo; Hattori, Mitsuru; Takeuchi, Masaki; Ozawa, Takeaki

2012-05-18

342

Study on copper phthalocyanine and perylene-based ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors produced using neutral beam deposition method  

SciTech Connect

The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to the production and characterization of ambipolar, heterojunction-based organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) with a top-contact, multi-digitated, long-channel geometry. Organic thin films of n-type N,N?-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide and p-type copper phthalocyanine were successively deposited on the hydroxyl-free polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-coated SiO{sub 2} dielectrics using the NCBD method. Characterization of the morphological and structural properties of the organic active layers was performed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various device parameters such as hole- and electron-carrier mobilities, threshold voltages, and electroluminescence (EL) were derived from the fits of the observed current-voltage and current-voltage-light emission characteristics of OLEFETs. The OLEFETs demonstrated good field-effect characteristics, well-balanced ambipolarity, and substantial EL under ambient conditions. The device performance, which is strongly correlated with the surface morphology and the structural properties of the organic active layers, is discussed along with the operating conduction mechanism.

Kim, Dae-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Do; Shin, Eun-Sol; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Choi, Jong-Ho, E-mail: jhc@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-28

343

Bacterial infections of free-living amoebae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living amoebae are a diverse group of ubiquitous unicellular organisms, some of which cause severe central nervous system infections and keratitis. However, the focus of research has shifted from the direct pathogenic effects of free-living amoebae towards their role as carriers of pathogenic bacteria. Large outbreaks of legionellosis with numerous fatal cases, both in hospitals and in the community, appear

Jadwiga Winiecka-Krusnell; Ewert Linder

2001-01-01

344

Announcing the PHYSICS OF LIVING CELLS  

E-print Network

Organization Membrane Dynamics in Living Fruit Fly Embryos Optical Trapping & Fluorescence ImagingMPull: Single-Molecule Pull-Down Single-Molecule FIONA Single-Molecule FRET Super-Resolution Fluorescence

Ha, Taekjip

345

Proteases released in organ culture by acute dermal inflammatory lesions produced in vivo in rabbit skin by sulfur mustard: Hydrolysis of synthetic peptide substrates for trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these studies was to identify some of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes associated with the development and healing of acute inflammatory lesions. Lesions were produced in the skin of rabbits by the topical application of the military vesicant, sulfur mustard (SM). Full-thickness, 1-cm2 central biopsies of the lesions were organ-cultured for one to three days, and the culture

Kazuyuki Higuchi; Akira Kajiki; Masahiro Nakamura; Susumu Harada; Peggy J. Pula; Alan L. Scott; Arthur M. Dannenberg

1988-01-01

346

Assisted Living Community Profile  

MedlinePLUS

... of all residents live in small communities. 2 Fee Structures - The costs for assisted living residences vary ... inclusive rate model, and 17 percent use a fee-for-service model. 1 Services - Assisted living residences ...

347

Creak: The Last Living Terror Bird  

E-print Network

that sustains the formulation of a kinetic narrative, the reality of live motion produced by a sculptural structure. I see "Creak: The Last Living Terror Bird" as a natural marriage between my previous sculpted animal forms and my desire to create movement...

McGee, Jeffrey Robert

2009-06-02

348

NASA LIVE Creating a Global Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes NASA LIVE (Learning through Interactive Videoconferencing Experiences), a free series of videoconferencing programs produced by NASA's Langley Center for Distance Learning in Hampton, Virginia. NASA LIVE is designed for K-12 educators and students, allowing teachers and students to interact with NASA experts in a virtual…

Townes-Young, Katrina L.; Ewing, Virginia R.

2005-01-01

349

The worm that lived  

PubMed Central

Organisms age because of the “selection shadow”—the decline of the force of natural selection with age. Seemingly straightforward corollary of this theory is the Medawar-Williams prediction, which maintains that increased extrinsic (non-aging) mortality will result in the evolution of accelerated aging and decreased longevity. Despite its centrality to modern thinking about the ultimate causes of aging, this prediction ignores the fact that mortality is often a non-random process depending on individual condition. Increased condition-dependent mortality inescapably results in increased selection for resistance against the agent of mortality. Provided that resistance to various stressors is commonly associated with increased longevity, the evolutionary outcome is no longer certain. We recently documented this experimentally by showing that populations of Caenorhabditis remanei evolved to live shorter under high extrinsic mortality, but only when mortality was applied haphazardly. On the contrary, when extrinsic mortality was caused by heat-shock, populations experiencing the same rate of increased mortality evolved greater longevities, notwithstanding increased “selection shadow.” Intriguingly, stress-resistant and long-lived worms were also more fecund. We discuss these results in the light of recent theoretical developments, such as condition-environment interactions and hyperfunction theory of aging. PMID:24778930

Chen, Hwei-yen; Maklakov, Alexei A

2013-01-01

350

Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion equation which represents the mental dynamics. It has been demonstrated that coupled mental-motor dynamics can simulate emerging self-organization, prey-predator games, collaboration and competition, "collective brain," etc.

Zak, M.

1999-01-01

351

Distribution of trichothecene and zearalenone producing Fusarium species in grain of different cereal species and cultivars grown under organic farming conditions in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Fusarium infection level, DNA quantity of the Fusarium poae, F. sporotrichioides, F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. equiseti as well as deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN ) and T-2 toxin (T-2) content were investigated in grain from cultivars of different cereal species grown on organic farming sites during 2005-2006. The Fusarium infection level was examined by agar plating of single grains, Fusarium spp. DNA content was determined by real-time PCR and the mycotoxins were analyzed by ELISA. Almost all cereal grain samples grown under organic conditions were infected by Fusarium spp. The grains of winter cereals were less infected with Fusarium compared with those of spring cereals. The presence of F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. sporotrichioides, F. poae, F. langsethiae in cereal grain depended on the environmental conditions during the experimental years. Higher Fusarium species diversity was found in 2005 when the conditions were more favourable for Fusarium infection in cereal grain, whereas F. poae and F. langsethiae were prevalent in cereal grain in 2006. F. langsethiae, identified in Lithuania for the first time, was more frequent in spring cereals than in winter cereals. Almost all grain samples were found to be contaminated with DON, ZEN, T-2 at low concentrations; however, it is known that the action of toxins at low concentrations is slow, the adverse effects are evidenced only after some time and in different forms, which poses a serious risk to human and animal health. PMID:20684484

Suproniene, Skaidre; Justesen, Annemarie; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Mankeviciene, Audrone; Dabkevicius, Zenonas; Semaskiene, Roma; Leistrumaite, Alge

2010-06-01

352

Towards an organic palaeosalinity proxy: the effect of salinity, growth rate and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones produced by haptophyte algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeosalinity is one of the most important oceanographic parameters which currently cannot be quantified with reasonable accuracy from sedimentary records. Schouten et al.1 established that the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between growth water and alkenones produced by the haptophyte algae Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica is salinity dependent. As such, the ?D values of alkenones recovered from sediment cores can be used to reconstruct variations in palaeo- sea surface salinity.2 However, to accurately determine absolute palaeosalinity requires a better constraining of the relationship between this hydrogen fractionation, salinity and other parameters such as growth rate and growth phase. Here, we present results from our ongoing work to constrain the relationship between the fractionation factor ?alkenone-water, salinity, growth rate and growth phase for the major alkenone-producing haptophytes. In batch cultures of different strains of the open-ocean haptophyte E. huxleyi sampled during the exponential growth phase, ?C37alkenone-growthwater increases by between 0.0022 and 0.0033 per unit increase in salinity. A similar relationship is observed in batch cultures of the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana, where ? increases with each unit of salinity by 0.0019 - slightly less than for E. huxleyi. However, absolute ?C37alkenone-growthwater values vary strongly between species suggesting that species composition has a strong impact on the ?D value of alkenones. The fractionation factor for alkenones produced by batch cultures of I. galbana is affected by growth phase: the rate of change of ?C37alkenone-growthwater with each unit of salinity decreases from 0.0019 in the exponential phase to 0.0010 during the stationary phase. We also show the effect of varying growth rate over the range 0.2-0.8 day-1 on the fractionation factor for alkenones produced by E. huxleyi grown in continuous culture. These data show that alkenone ?D can be used to reconstruct relative shifts in palaeosalinity in coastal as well as open ocean environments; however, for absolute salinity reconstructions changes in species composition, growth rate and growth phase effects will have to be constrained. References 1. Schouten, S., Ossebaar, J., Schreiber, K., Kienhuis, M. V. M., Langer, G., Benthien, A., Bijma, J. Biogeosciences 3, 113, 2006 2. van der Meer, M. T. J., Baas, M., Rijpstra, W. I. C., Marino, G., Rohling, E. J., Sinninghe Damsté, J S., Schouten, S., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 262, 594, 2007

Chivall, David; M'Boule, Daniela; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

2013-04-01

353

Live attenuated influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

Cold-adapted Ann Arbor based live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been available in the USA since 2003. The vaccine is efficacious against influenza infection. Features of LAIV include: easy administration suitable for mass immunization, cross-reactivity to drifted strains for broader coverage, and establishment of herd immunity for control of influenza spread. Annual seasonal LAIV now contains four strains against influenza A H1N1, H3N2, influenza B-Victoria, and B-Yamagata lineages that are co-circulating in humans. LAIV played a significant role in protecting the public from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and has been evaluated for pandemic preparedness. Pandemic vaccines including influenza H2, H5, H6, H7, and H9 subtypes have been produced and evaluated in preclinical and small-scale phase I clinical studies. This review summarizes the current status and perspectives of seasonal and pandemic LAIV. PMID:25059893

Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

2015-01-01

354

Technical note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued, not only about their contribution to the global methane budget, but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify in vivo formation of methane and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C-positionally labelled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labelled methionine clearly identified the sulphur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

2014-11-01

355

High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina  

SciTech Connect

We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

2014-03-01

356

Solid organic residues produced by irradiation of hydrocarbon-containing H2O and H2O/NH3 ices - Infrared spectroscopy and astronomical implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma-discharge irradiations were conducted for the methane clathrate expected in outer solar system satellites and cometary nuclei; also irradiated were ices prepared from other combinations of H2O with CH4, C2H6, or C2H2. Upon evaporation of the yellowish-to-tan irradiated ices, it is found that a colored solid film adheres to the walls of the reaction vessel at room temperature. These organic films are found to exhibit IR band identifiable with alkane, aldehide, alcohol, and perhaps alkene, as well as substituted aromatic functional groups. These spectra are compared with previous studies of UV- or photon-irradiated nonclathrated hydrocarbon-containing ices.

Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.

1989-01-01

357

Live Organisms in High School Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of surveys of the use of animals by secondary school teachers and participants in science fairs. Recommends wider use of invertebrates and suggests sources of ideas for animal experiments. (AL)

Orlans, F. Barbara

1972-01-01

358

DNA Patents Create Monopolies on Living Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused position statement from the Council for Responsible Genetics reflects on how patenting of life forms should be considered unethical because: it fosters biopiracy of indigenous resources, turns life forms into commodities to be used for profit, hinders the free-flow of scientific research, and destroys economic sustainability of developing nations.

Council for Responsible Genetics (;)

2000-04-01

359

Project Produce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this science- and social studies-integrated lesson, students researched the produce found at their local grocery store. The class learned the difference between fruits and vegetables and learned the origins of various "exotic" food items. Students also interviewed local gardeners and prepared ethnic foods in the classroom.

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

360

Project Produce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

361

Producer Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article written for children, this reading explains the role of plants as producers. It is written at a grade 4-5 reading level, and it is a good supplement to the evidence that students can observe and record through experimentation with photosynthesis.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

362

3D Hierarchical Rutile TiO2 and Metal-free Organic Sensitizer Producing Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 8.6% Conversion Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of `next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously.

Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

2014-08-01

363

3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 and metal-free organic sensitizer producing dye-sensitized solar cells 8.6% conversion efficiency.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of 'next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously. PMID:25167837

Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

2014-01-01

364

Emission Rates of Volatile Organic Compounds Released from Newly Produced Household Furniture Products Using a Large-Scale Chamber Testing Method  

PubMed Central

The emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured to investigate the emission characteristics of five types of common furniture products using a 5?m3 size chamber at 25°C and 50% humidity. The results indicated that toluene and ?-pinene are the most dominant components. The emission rates of individual components decreased constantly through time, approaching the equilibrium emission level. The relative ordering of their emission rates, if assessed in terms of total VOC (TVOC), can be arranged as follows: dining table > sofa > desk chair > bedside table > cabinet. If the emission rates of VOCs are examined between different chemical groups, they can also be arranged in the following order: aromatic (AR) > terpenes (TER) > carbonyl (CBN) > others > paraffin (PR) > olefin (HOL) > halogenated paraffin (HPR). In addition, if emission strengths are compared between coated and uncoated furniture, there is no significant difference in terms of emission magnitude. Our results indicate that the emission characteristics of VOC are greatly distinguished between different furniture products in terms of relative dominance between different chemicals. PMID:22125421

Ho, Duy Xuan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ryeul Sohn, Jong; Hee Oh, Youn; Ahn, Ji-Won

2011-01-01

365

Scientific Challenges of Producing Natural Gas from Organic-Rich Shales - From the Nano-Scale to the Reservoir Scale (Louis Néel Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I will discuss several on-going research projects with the PhD students and post-Docs in my group that are investigating the wide variety of factors affecting the success of stimulating gas production from extremely low permeability organic-rich shales. First, I will present laboratory measurements of pore structure, adsorption and nano-scale fluid transport on samples of the Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Marcellus and Horn River shale (all in North America). I will also discuss how these factors affect ultimate gas recovery. Second, I present several lines of evidence that indicate that during hydraulic fracturing stimulation of shale gas reservoirs there is pervasive slow slip occurring on pre-existing fractures and faults that are not detected by standard microseismic monitoring. I will also present laboratory and modeling studies that demonstrate why slowly slipping faults are to be expected. In many cases, slow slip on faults may be the most important process responsible for stimulating gas production in the reservoirs. Finally, I discuss our research on the viscoplastic behavior of the shales and what viscoplasticity implies for the evolution of the physical properties of the reservoir and in situ stress magnitudes.

Zoback, Mark D.

2013-04-01

366

Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

Schubert, Wayne W.

1988-01-01

367

Secondary Organic Material Produced via Condensational and Coagulational Growth from ?-pinene Ozonolysis in a Flow Tube Reactor and Its Spectroscopic Analysis by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flow tube reactor was developed and used to simulate secondary organic aerosol formation from ?-pinene ozonolysis under different reactant conditions. Aerosol particles generated from the reactor were collected on Teflon filters and were analyzed via a non-linear coherent vibrational spectroscopy, namely Sum Frequency Generation (SFG). The flow tube reactor has a movable injector and the longest residence time is 38 s. A temperature control box was also made to precisely control the temperature down to 0.1 °C for the flow tube reactor. The reactants were injected into the flow tube reactor in different concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 10 ppm for ?-pinene and from 0.15 to 194 ppm for ozone. The number concentrations of the particles were measured by Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and it increased from 0 to (1.3×0.02)×107 cm-3. The size distributions of the secondary organic aerosol particles were studied using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The mass concentration increased from 0 to (4.0×0.1)×105 ug m-3. Changes in the particle number concentrations and size distributions under different reaction conditions suggested that the growth mechanisms of the particles may vary at different precursor concentrations. As an example, for an ?-pinene concentration of 0.125 ppm reacted with excess ozone, the measured particle mode diameter was 35 nm and both coagulation and condensational growth were significant. When the ?-pinene concentration was increased to 10 ppm, the particle mode size increased to 245 nm and coagulation between particles became the dominant growth mechanism. These results show that the dominant particle growth mechanism can shift between condensation and coagulation, which may be useful for studying the particle growth processes and their role, if any, in determining particle properties. Particle number-diameter distributions at different residence times were also measured through the movable injector to calculate the particle growth rate. SFG analyses show that the signal increases linearly with the number of particles at low mass loadings, consistent with what is expected from SFG signal production from particles that are randomly distributed. At higher filter mass loadings of 10 and 20 ?g, the SFG intensity started to decrease, consistent with the notion that SFG probes the top surface of the SOA material following the complete coverage of the filter. The limit of detection of SFG intensity could be as low as 24 ng of mass on filter, corresponding to a calculated density of 100 to 200 particles in the laser spot. The high sensitivity and non-destructive nature of the SFG method indicates that it could be used for fast, quantitative sampling approaches, which can be coupled together with the flow tube reactor to study the SOA formation including nucleation and condensational growth processes under conditions that are difficult to sample with other non-destructive methods that require higher mass loadings.

Zhang, Y.; Shrestha, M.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Martin, S. T.

2013-12-01

368

Measurements of nitrite production and nitrite-producing organisms in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central California Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea and assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton or heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central California Current in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), high-resolution measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process with rates of NH3 oxidation of up to 50 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- profiles supported direct rate measurements of a net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM were similar at the mesotrophic and oligotrophic stations and ranged from 150-205 d. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.

Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

2013-03-01

369

Living with Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... raquo More Top Stories State of Tobacco Control - Michigan is Failing to Save Lives January 21, 2015 ... January 21, 2015 State of Tobacco Control - Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio & Tennessee Fail to Save Lives January 21, ...

370

Living with Sarcoidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: Next >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 10/15/2014 June 14, 2013 Sarcoidosis Clinical ...

371

Selling organs for transplantation.  

PubMed

The need for transplant organs has far outstripped the supply of available cadaveric organs. Hundreds of people on waiting lists, who could be saved by transplantation, die each year. This severe shortage has justified the extension of transplantation to the use of living donors, but there are still not enough organs to meet the need. This paper discusses the justification for changing policies in order to encourage organ donation. It presents reasons for allowing payments to be made to families that donate cadaveric organs. It also presents reasons for allowing payments to be made to living donors, and guidelines for how an ideal policy could be structured. PMID:15365591

Burrows, Lewis

2004-09-01

372

Pipedreams Live! The Nationally Syndicated Radio Program About the  

E-print Network

Pipedreams Live! The Nationally Syndicated Radio Program About the Organ Comes to Bales April 9, the nationally syndicated radio program about the organ, to the Bales Organ Recital Hall at KU. His special nationally distributed weekly radio program exploring the art of the pipe organ. #12;

373

High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background There is little information on nasopharyngeal (NP) flora or bacteremia in HIV-infected children. Our aim was to describe the organisms and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children enrolled in a prospective study comparing daily and three times weekly trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and isoniazid (INH) or placebo prophylaxis. Methods NP swabs were taken at baseline from HIV-infected children enrolled in the study. Standard microbiological techniques were used. Children were grouped according to previous or current exposure to TMP-SMX and whether enrolled to the study during a period of hospitalization. Blood culture results were also recorded within 12 months of baseline. Results Two hundred and three children, median age 1.8 (Interquartile [IQ]: 0.7–4) years had NP swabs submitted for culture. One hundred and eighty-four (90.7%) had either stage B or C HIV disease. One hundred and forty-one (69.8%) were receiving TMP-SMX and 19 (9.4%) were on antiretroviral therapy. The majority, 168 (82%) had a history of hospitalization and 91 (44.8%) were enrolled during a period of hospitalization. Thirty-two subjects (16.2%) died within 12 months of study entry. One hundred and eighty-one potential pathogens were found in 167 children. The most commonly isolated organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (48: 22.2%), Gram-negative respiratory organisms (Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) (47: 21.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (44: 20.4%), Enterobacteriaceae 32 (14.8%) and Pseudomonas 5 (2.3%). Resistance to TMP-SMX occurred in > 80% of pathogens except for M. catarrhalis (2: 18.2% of tested organisms). TMP-SMX resistance tended to be higher in those receiving it at baseline (p = 0.065). Carriage of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was significantly associated with being on TMP-SMX at baseline (p = 0.002). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to penicillin were determined for 18 S. pneumoniae isolates: 7 (38.9%) were fully sensitive (MIC ? 0.06 ?g/ml), 9 (50%) had intermediate resistance (MIC 0.12 – 1 ?g/ml) and 2 (11.1%) had high level resistance (MIC ?2 ?g/ml). Fifty percent of Enterobacteriaceae produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (resistant to third generation cephalosporins) and 56% were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-seven percent of S. aureus were MRSA. Carriage of resistant organisms was not associated with hospitalization. On multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for colonization with Enterobacteriaceae were age ? one year (Odds ratio 4.4; 95% Confidence Interval 1.9–10.9; p = 0.0008) and CDC stage C disease (Odds ratio 3.6; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5–8.6; p = 0.005) Nineteen (9.4%) subjects had 23 episodes of bacteremia. Enterobacteriaceae were most commonly isolated (13 of 25 isolates), of which 6 (46%) produced ESBL and were resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion HIV-infected children are colonized with potential pathogens, most of which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. TMP-SMX resistance is extremely common. Antibiotic resistance is widespread in colonizing organisms and those causing invasive disease. Antibiotic recommendations should take cognizance of resistance patterns. Antibiotics appropriate for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA should be used for severely ill HIV-infected children in our region. Further study of antibiotic resistance patterns in HIV-infected children from other areas is needed. PMID:18380900

Cotton, Mark F; Wasserman, Elizabeth; Smit, Juanita; Whitelaw, Andrew; Zar, Heather J

2008-01-01

374

Institutional Producers of Physics Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to identify producers of physics research and to determine their relative productivity, institutional affiliations of authors as given in nine physics journals were studied. Organizations were classified and analyzed by type and geographical location, and productivity established. Findings indicate that organizations differ in their rate…

Cooper, Marianne; Watterson, Hermine M.

375

Assignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data  

E-print Network

before the oil embargo of the 1970s, save the first 22 entries with > yearoil[1:22,1]. Do the same? 3. Recall the data on the global consumption of oil. Download these data into R using the command > oil.txt") (a) To examine worldwide oil consumption

Watkins, Joseph C.

376

Treatment of hypersaline produced water employing a moderately halophilic bacterial consortium in a membrane bioreactor: effect of salt concentration on organic removal performance, mixed liquor characteristics and membrane fouling.  

PubMed

In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a moderately halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water containing 100-250 g L(-1) NaCl were considered. The COD and oil and grease (O&G) removal efficiencies in the range 81.6-94.6% and 84.8-94.0% respectively and MBR effluent turbidity lower than 2NTU were achieved. There was no pronounced membrane fouling at any salt concentration. O&G accumulation (less than 11% of the influent O&G) occurred in the mixed liquor at all salt concentrations, but biodegradation was identified as the major organic removal mechanism. With increasing salt concentration, initially increase in SVI and later formation of oil/biomass bodies took place but due to the presence of the membrane biomass washout did not occur. The mixed liquor was pseudoplastic and the apparent viscosity and flow behavior index generally increased with salt concentration. PMID:24859212

Abdollahzadeh Sharghi, Elham; Bonakdarpour, Babak; Pakzadeh, Mehrzad

2014-07-01

377

Family planning saves lives.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) saves lives through planned management of pregnancy. Healthy mothers produce healthy infants. Maternal mortality in developing countries was estimated in 1990 at 500,000 and infant and child mortality at 14 million. Empirical evidence shows that spacing births 2 years apart reduces the risk of infant mortality. FP also gives women the option of avoiding unwanted pregnancy, dangerous illegal abortions, and unhealthy childbearing conditions. The issues of infant and child survival maternal survival, the interaction between maternal and child health (MCH), program costs, and suggested actions are each discussed separately. Child deaths are mainly attributed to respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which are complicated by malnutrition: 23,000 child deaths/day in developing countries. Prevention is possible through breast feeding, immunization, adequate nutrition and hygiene, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing. Birth spacing is possible through prolonged breast feeding and/or use of oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the IUD, condoms, and sterilization. The primary causes of maternal mortality are induced abortion (19%), toxemia (17%), hemorrhage (28%), infection (11%), obstructed labor (11%), and other 15%). The risks are related to a woman's health status and prior pregnancies and the quality and availability of prenatal and delivery care. The relationship between repeated childbearing and breast feeding and women's nutritional status is still being researched. Mortality in developing countries is due to more pregnancies and less access to medical care; advances in technology permit women to plan healthy reproductive lives. The Safe Motherhood Initiative is at work to remedy this situation. Childbearing is safer when women are aged 18-35 years, have fewer than 5 births, space births every 3 years, and do not have existing health problems. FP is cost-effective. The World Bank estimates that an increase in funding to US$10.50/capita would reduce maternal mortality by 50% and reduce infant mortality. Effective programs are characterized by 1) integrated MCH and FP programs, 2) expanded, quality services, 3) community-based distribution, 4) availability from all sectors, public and private, 5) IEC, 6) cultural sensitivity, 7) promotion of full breast feeding, and 8) AIDS education, information, and testing. PMID:12317826

1992-12-01

378

Living Things and Where They Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on living things and their habitats includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

379

Characteristics of Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to an internet program that is all about life. Just what is life? This seems like a strange question. We all know what is meant by the word \\"life\\". But how do we define it? Are all living things alike? In this internet program, you will watch several short movies and some slides. After you see each movie and slide, you will write something about the movie and slide. Our learning goal is to make a list of the traits that all living things have in common. Get out a pencil and a piece of paper. We are off on a great adventure to learn about living things! This first movie is called, \\"Is It Alive?\\" It will help you begin thinking about living things and what they all have in common. Write on your paper: \\"Living Things\\". As you watch this movie, write the names of the things that you think are alive. Copy the ...

Richard S. Melenson

2005-11-21

380

Improving Health Care for Assisted Living Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore how medical care is delivered to older people in assisted living (AL) settings and to suggest ways for improving it. Design and Methods: We present a review of the limited research available on health care for older AL residents and on building testable models of better ways to organize primary…

Kane, Robert L.; Mach, John R., Jr.

2007-01-01

381

Visualization of gene activity in living cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatin structure is thought to play a critical role in gene expression. Using the lac operator\\/repressor system and two colour variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP), we developed a system to visualize a gene and its protein product directly in living cells, allowing us to examine the spatial organization and timing of gene expression in vivo. Dynamic morphological changes in

Toshiro Tsukamoto; Noriyo Hashiguchi; Susan M. Janicki; Tudorita Tumbar; Andrew S. Belmont; David L. Spector

2000-01-01

382

Living things and non-living things interact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things and non-living things interact on a daily basis. The man is a human, a living thing. The corn crop and grass are also living things. The soil that the grass and corn crops are rooted in is a non-living thing.

Ken Hammond (USDA-ARS;)

2006-05-23

383

Living wall: programmable wallpaper for interactive spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Living Wall project explores the construction and application of interactive wallpaper. Using conductive, resistive, and magnetic paints we produced wallpaper that enables us to create dynamic, reconfigurable, programmable spaces. The wallpaper consists of circuitry that is painted onto a sheet of paper and a set of electronic modules that are attached to it with magnets. The wallpaper can be

Leah Buechley; David Mellis; Hannah Perner-Wilson; Emily Lovell; Bonifaz Kaufmann

2010-01-01

384

Living with Polycythemia Vera  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. Living With Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera (PV) develops very slowly. It may not cause signs or symptoms for years. If you have PV, the sooner it's diagnosed, the sooner your doctor ...

385

Living with Fanconi Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... Rate This Content: Next >> November 1, 2011 Fanconi Anemia Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

386

Living with Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

387

Living with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

388

Living with Hemochromatosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Hemochromatosis The outlook for people who have hemochromatosis largely ... do to help you. Screening Family Members for Hemochromatosis Parents, grandparents, brothers and sisters, and children (blood ...

389

Tips for Healthy Living  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hemochromatosis (Iron Storage Disease) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Tips for Healthy Living If you have hemochromatosis, there is much you can do to make ...

390

Healthy Living after Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce your risk of having another stroke. Find tips for shopping, how ... you reduce your risk of stroke. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

391

Living with Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...

392

Living with Atherosclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Atherosclerosis Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths ... Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 10/14/2014 August 4, 2014 Atherosclerosis Clinical ...

393

Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

Ettinger, Andreas

2014-01-01

394

Feel Younger, Live Longer?  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Transcript Feeling younger may actually help you live longer, according to a new study. Nearly 6,500 people -- 52 years and older -- were asked how old they felt. About 70 percent of the adults ...

395

The Living Cosmos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. The unfinished revolution; 2. Life's origins; 3. Extreme life; 4. Shaping evolution; 5. Living in the Solar System; 6. Distant worlds; 7. Are we alone?; Notes; Glossary; Reading list; Media resources; Illustration credits; Index.

Impey, Chris

2011-06-01

396

On the true role of oxygen free radicals in the living state, aging, and degenerative disorders.  

PubMed

Oxyradicals are generally considered harmful byproducts of oxidative metabolism, causing molecular damage in living systems. They are implicated in various processes such as mutagenesis, aging, and series of pathological events. Although all this may be justified, evidence is accumulating that it is an oversimplified view of the real situation. We can assume nowadays that the living state of cells and organisms implicitly requires the production of oxyradicals. This idea is supported by experimental facts and arguments as follows. (1) Complete inhibition of the oxyradical production by KCN (or by any block of respiration) kills the living organisms much before the energy reserves would be exhausted. (2) Construction of the supramolecular organization of the cells (especially of their membranous compounds) requires the cross-linking effect of oxyradicals, particularly that of OH* radicals. (3) Blast type cells produce much fewer oxyradicals than do differentiated ones, and interventions increasing the production of OH* radicals induce differentiation of various lines of leukemic (HL-60 and K562) and normal (fibroblasts, chondroblasts, etc.) cells, while SOD expression increases greatly. (4) It is reasonable to assume that the continuous flux of OH* radicals is prerequisite to maintenance of constant electron delocalization on the proteins, which is a semiconductive phenomenon suggested in 1941 by Szent-Györgyi, but it has never been proven experimentally. It is theoretically possible to describe the function of the synapses as that of a single p-n-p transistor, assuming that the free radical flux maintains electron movements on the subsynaptic structures, while the actual membrane potential is governing the electron flux. This theoretical approach may open completely new possibilities for our understanding of the normal functions of living organisms, such as basic memory mechanisms in brain cells, their aging processes, and therapeutic approaches to many degenerative disorders, such as various types of dementia. PMID:11795510

Nagy, I Z

2001-04-01

397

The Living Labs: Innovation in Real-Life Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The living lab (LL) is an open innovation ecosystem serving to provide opportunities for local stakeholders to practice research and to experiment with meaningful improvements for cities and other organizations. Living labs aim at involving the user as a cocreator. In this article the relationship between the LLs and a variety of stakeholders is…

Hawk, Nathan; Bartle, Gamin; Romine, Martha

2012-01-01

398

Method for producing monodisperse aerosols  

DOEpatents

An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

1990-01-01

399

Anti-CD14 Monoclonal Antibodies Inhibit the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin10 by Human Monocytes Stimulated with Killed and Live Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, we have shown that intact, heat-killed, gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and gram-positive bacteria (GPB) can stimulate the production of various proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by human monocytes stimulated by intact heat-killed or live Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus

A. MARCELINE VAN FURTH; ELS M. VERHARD-SEIJMONSBERGEN; JAN A. M. LANGERMANS; JAAP T. VAN DISSEL; RALPH VAN FURTH

1999-01-01

400

Transient Retrograde Amnesia Associated with Impaired Naming of Living Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ease of pure retrograde amnesia following mild head injury is reported. The patient, who also showed a deficit in verbal fluency and a living\\/non-living dissociation in naming during the amnesic period, recovered progressively in about ten days post-trauma. Both a psychogenic and an organic origin could be taken into account. A mechanism (no matter if psychogenic or organic) can

Costanza Papagno

1998-01-01

401

Live long and prosper? Sharks, sturgeons, and lifestyles that are  

E-print Network

). Produce relatively small number of young, with relatively high survival rate Livebearers: can take 6-22 months for gestation We now know that sharks are slow-growing and long-lived Spiny dogfish: rarely > 1.2 m, but regularly as old as 70-80 yr; females mature at age 35 Leopard shark mature at age 17, live

Limburg, Karin E.

402

FROM MATHEMATICS FOR LIVING TO LIVING FOR MATHEMATICS  

E-print Network

FROM MATHEMATICS FOR LIVING TO LIVING FOR MATHEMATICS George Malaty, University of Joensuu, Finland "Life is good for only two things, discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics". Siméon Poisson (1781-1840) Mathematics for living and living for mathematics are related to the goals of mathematics

Spagnolo, Filippo

403

Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

None

1993-08-01

404

Living-Cell Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment. PMID:19413510

Yarmush, Martin L.; King, Kevin R.

2011-01-01

405

Living in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

406

Calit2: Live Webcasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) conducts research on the scientific and technological components needed to "extend the reach of the Internet throughout the physical world." (See also report on Mathematics, Engineering and Technology, March 15, 2002) This section of the Institute website features live webcasts and video footage of guest speakers who visited the Institute. Topics range from robot design to Internet plagues, and from Telematics to the Internet marketplace. Upcoming live webcasts for May 2005 will address Non-Magnetic Data Storage Principles, Potential and Problems; Quantum Codes: Constructions and Parameters; and Biotechnology Entrepreneurship.

407

Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Living Cell Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cells as the building blocks of life determine the basic functions and properties of a living organism. Understanding the structure and components of a cell aids in the elucidation of its biological functions. Moreover, knowledge of the similarities and differences between diseased and healthy cells is essential to understanding pathological mechanisms, identifying diagnostic markers, and designing therapeutic molecules. However, monitoring the structures and activities of a living cell remains a challenging task in bioanalytical and life science research. To meet the requirements of this task, aptamers, as “chemical antibodies,” have become increasingly powerful tools for cellular analysis. This article reviews recent advances in the development of nucleic acid aptamers in the areas of cell membrane analysis, cell detection and isolation, real-time monitoring of cell secretion, and intracellular delivery and analysis with living cell models. Limitations of aptamers and possible solutions are also discussed.

Xiong, Xiangling; Lv, Yifan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

2014-06-01

408

Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.  

PubMed

The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. PMID:25052215

Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

2014-11-01

409

Outcomes and Costs of Community Living: Semi-Independent Living and Fully Staffed Group Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a matched-groups design, costs and quality of life outcomes for adults with intellectual disabilities with relatively low support needs were compared between those in fully staffed group homes (n = 35) and in semi-independent living (n = 35). Data were collected on participant characteristics, setting organization, various lifestyle outcomes,…

Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan; Romeo, Renee; Robertson, Janet; Meek, Andrea; Emerson, Eric; Knapp, Martin

2008-01-01

410

Features and ethical considerations associated with living kidney and liver transplantations in South Korea.  

PubMed

When the Organ Transplantation Act came into effect in 2000 in South Korea, living organ donations were legalized and the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) had a duty to approve the application of donation. The number of living organ donors has increased and the waiting time of recipients has been steady or decreased. The Organ Transplantation Act mainly focuses on the informed consent process of donations, so unrelated directed donations are permitted unless there is a suspicion of organ trafficking. But the annual reports show that directed donations of unrelated and related donors may have an ethical concern about organ sales. The donations of family members show another ethical concern. The numbers of ABO-incompatible transplantations have steadily increased since 2008, and lineal descendants, including minors, comprised 61% of living liver donors in 2012. Addressing the unethical practices without inhibiting living organ donations is the current task in South Korea. Private agencies have actively operated the living organ donations programs. The web-based computerized organ exchange program has been cooperatively run by hospital-based organizations. The strict legal regulations that could decrease living organ donations are hard to adopt. In the current situation, the functions of the official system need to be more developed. A national organ exchange program run by KONOS could be an option which could reduce ABO-incompatible transplantations and relieve the ethical concern of organ sales in unrelated directed donations. PMID:25498104

Kim, J H

2014-12-01

411

Challenges in Organ Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty. PMID:23908807

Beyar, Rafael

2011-01-01

412

A highly efficient nonchemical method for isolating live nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) from soil during toxicity assays.  

PubMed

The success of soil toxicity tests using Caenorhabditis elegans may depend in large part on recovering the organisms from the soil. However, it can be difficult to learn the International Organization for Standardization/ASTM International recovery process that uses the colloidal silica flotation method. The present study determined that a soil-agar isolation method provides a highly efficient and less technically demanding alternative to the colloidal silica flotation method. Test soil containing C. elegans was arranged on an agar plate in a donut shape, a linear shape, or a C curve; and microbial food was placed outside the soil to encourage the nematodes to leave the soil. The effects of ventilation and the presence of food on nematode recovery were tested to determine the optimal conditions for recovery. A linear arrangement of soil on an agar plate that was sprinkled with microbial food produced nearly 83% and 90% recovery of live nematodes over a 3-h and a 24-h period, respectively, without subjecting the nematodes to chemical stress. The method was tested using copper (II) chloride dihydrate, and the resulting recovery rate was comparable to that obtained using colloidal silica flotation. The soil-agar isolation method portrayed in the present study enables live nematodes to be isolated with minimal additional physicochemical stress, making it a valuable option for use in subsequent sublethal tests where live nematodes are required. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:208-213. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25387396

Kim, Shin Woong; Moon, Jongmin; An, Youn-Joo

2015-01-01

413

Solar System Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

Walker, John

2011-05-27

414

Science Oxford Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first things visitors will see when visiting the Science Oxford Live website are a few shots from the Wildlife Photographer of the Year exhibit that will soon be at the brick and mortar location of Science Oxford Live. It's hard to decide which is cuter: the hippo, the monkey, or the giraffe's tail. Visitors will certainly want to check out the video podcasts available through iTunes, and even may even subscribe to the podcasts to receive the latest episodes. These webcasts, found under the Watch Us tab, are recordings of live events that took place at Science Oxford Live. They cover topics such as Parkinson's disease, the sleep versus wake balance, the science and history of chocolate, the curse of consciousness, and how "doctors and other health professionals sometimes do more harm than good to patients, despite acting with the best of intentions." The Discovery Zone is a place for kids which is best experienced in person, but online it still has valuable lessons to teach, and it's worth a look.

2012-02-10

415

Living Through A Drought  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will practice map-reading skills by using a drought map of Afghanistan from the 'Afghanistan: Land in Crisis' site. Students will learn how to recognize drought, where drought can occur, and how drought affects the people who live in those places.

416

Active Living by Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Members of the public health community and those from the world of urban planning have teamed up to create the Active Living By Design program, and by extension, this fine website. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and an academic home at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, the program was created â??to increase physical activity through community design, public policies and communications strategies.â? On the siteâ??s homepage, visitors can browse through sections that include information on â??Active Living Essentialsâ?, â??Active Living Programsâ?, and â??Active Living Resourcesâ?. The â??Essentialsâ? section is a good place to start as visitors can learn about the organizationâ??s major fields, which include information on the links between physical activity, urban design, and health. Visitors who are looking to learn about the specific â??on the groundâ? programs will want to look over the â??Community Partnershipsâ? area, as it contains information on initiatives in Chicago, Nashville, Orlando, and Cleveland.

417

Living with Cystic Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Cystic Fibrosis If you or your child has cystic fibrosis (CF), you should learn as much as you ... information about CF Care Centers, go to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's Care Center Network Web page. It's standard ...

418

From liveness to promptness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Liveness temporal properties state that something “good” eventually happens, e.g., every request is eventually granted. In Linear Temporal Logic (LTL), there is no a priori bound on the “wait time” for an eventuality to be fulfilled. Th at is, F? asserts that ? holds eventually, but there is no bound on the time when ? will hold. This is

Orna Kupferman; Nir Piterman; Moshe Y. Vardi

2009-01-01

419

Design for Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

Rosenblum, Todd

2011-01-01

420

Living with Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

Living with Parkinson’s “Parkinson’s is a part of my life, but it is not life itself.” --David, 56, three years after diagnosis While your journey with Parkinson’s is different from anyone else's, from age of ...

421

The Living Periodic Table  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

2005-01-01

422

Adults Living with OI  

MedlinePLUS

Adults Living with OI Write to us with your suggestions for what we should include on this page; your input will help guide ... Doctor Talking with your Orthopedist Vertebral Compression Fractures OI and Osteoporosis Can't find the information you' ...

423

The Living History Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1881, one Diedrich Wessels left Germany and came to America in order to seek a better life. Not an uncommon story for many immigrants from Europe at that most propitious moment, but his legacy certainly lives on in an interesting fashion. Upon his death, it was revealed that Wessels left a condition in his will that â??a certain amount of land and capital should be set aside to establish the Wessels Living History Farm.â? His will was done, and today, this farm still stands in York, Nebraska as a testament to his life and to the importance of family farms. There are a couple of great features right off the bat on the siteâ??s homepage, which contains a reading by Poet Laureate Ted Kooser and a film that documents a modern corn harvest. This is just the beginning, however, as the site also contains sections that also offer insights into the lives of farmers in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1930s. Each of these areas contains brief topical essays on elements of farming such as plowing and fertilizing, coupled with interviews with farmers about some of the technological changes that were underway in each decade. For those who would like a first-hand view of the farm, this is also covered on the site by a series of live web cams that look onto various parts of the grounds.

424

Living Systems Energy Module  

SciTech Connect

The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

NONE

1995-09-26

425

Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes a successful model for implementing educational teleconferencing, the Geriatric Live Interactive Teleconferencing program at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU). As a vehicle for continuing professional education, teleconferencing can transmit the latest information to large numbers of health professionals in a variety of…

Parham, Iris A.; Wood, Joan

1985-01-01

426

New Lives of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

Day, Christopher

2012-01-01

427

How College Shapes Lives  

E-print Network

of a Liberal Arts Education ­ Howard Gardner 64 Higher Education and the Opportunity Gap ­ Isabel Sawhill 68How College Shapes Lives: Understanding the Issues Trends in Higher Education Series Sandy Baum Charles Kurose Jennifer Ma October 2013 #12;Part 1: Individual and Societal Benefits2 HOW COLLEGE SHAPES

Rohs, Remo

428

You Live, You Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

Biesta, Gert

2008-01-01

429

Living Things: Habitats & Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Text and photographs regarding habitats, populations and communities, biomes, niches and ecosystems in general with numerous links to lessons, activities, and organizations on specific subtopics in ecology.

2009-01-01

430

Living-donor liver transplantation: current perspective.  

PubMed

The disparity between the number of available deceased liver donors and the number of patients awaiting transplantation continues to be an ongoing issue predisposing to death on the liver transplant waiting list. Deceased donor shortage strategies including the use of extended donor-criteria deceased donor grafts, split liver transplants, and organs harvested after cardiac death have fallen short of organ demand. Efforts to raise donor awareness are ongoing, but the course has been arduous to date. Living donor transplantation is a means to access an unlimited donor organ supply and offers potential advantages to deceased donation. Donor safety remains paramount demanding improvements and innovations in both the donor and recipient operations to ensure superior outcomes. The specialty operation is best preformed at centers with specific expertise and shuttling of select patients to these centers supported by third party payers is critical. Training future surgeons at centers with this specific experience can help disseminate this technology to improve local availability. Ongoing research in immunosuppression minimization, withdrawal and tolerance induction may make living donation a desired first-line operation rather than a necessary albeit less-desirable option. This chapter summarizes the progress of living liver donation and its potential applications. PMID:23397534

Lobritto, Steven; Kato, Tomoaki; Emond, Jean

2012-11-01

431

Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae.  

PubMed

Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human "Troy," and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens. PMID:15084508

Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

2004-04-01

432

The Living Edens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is the homepage of the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) The Living Edens. This natural history series introduces viewers to isolated, undisturbed corners of the world. The Living Edens companion Web sites hold many resources for teachers. Each program has a listing of resources that enhance the content that was provided in the program. Classroom activities and guides are provided for each area. Teachers from around the country collaborated to create fun and interesting guides for all teachers. Regions covered include: Anamalai in India, Bhutan, Borneo, Canyonlands in Utah, Costa Rica, Denali in Alaska, Etosha Pan in Namibia, Glacier Bay in Alaska, Kakadu in Northern Territory, Australia, Kamchatka in northeastern Russia, Madagascar, Manu in Peru, Namib in southwestern Africa, Ngorongoro in Tanzania, Palau in Micronesia, Patagonia in Argentina, South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean, Tasmania in Australia, and Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.

433

Living in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Living in Space Web site allows kids of all ages the opportunity to learn how astronauts cope with zero gravity conditions in space. Everything from eating, dressing, working, and having fun is explained through descriptions, photographs, movies, audio files, and more. Other interesting items are also available, such as the interactive daily timeline of an astronaut's activities and several other links to fun pages.

2002-01-01

434

Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of the live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), based on the cold-adapted (ca), attenuated ca A\\/Ann Arbor\\/6\\/60 and ca B\\/Ann Arbor\\/1\\/66 backbones, has spanned several decades. The vaccine contains three vaccine strains, two attenuated influenza\\u000a A strains and one attenuated influenza B strain; these vaccine strains are genetic reassortants, each harboring two gene segments\\u000a from the currently circulating wild

Harry Greenberg; George Kemble

435

Soil as Living Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute radio program, a soil scientist introduces listeners to reasons why soil is crucial to the planet. The scientist lists functions of soil that include nutrient cycling and water filtration, and he also uses living skin as an analogy for soil. The program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2006-06-26

436

Living Bay Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning resources about oysters and current issues in Chesapeake Bay. Students learn about oyster anatomy, ballast water, invasive species and more through online puzzles. Teachers can download 10 multidisciplinary lesson plans about oyster biology and fishery issues. Links to web resources on the Bay, oysters, plankton and biofilms. Also available: day programs with hands-on and shipboard activities for at-risk students and others at Living Classrooms Foundation facilities in Maryland and New Jersey.

437

KARMA\\/live  

Microsoft Academic Search

KARMA is a procedural instrument, driving a syn-esthetic audiovisual environment. The piece comes alive via 6 humanoid 3D figures, suspended in zero gravity. They are convulsing and drifting, seemingly with no means of escape, displaying a familiar yet ambiguous sense of human life, resulting in an indefinite dance of the almost living dead. Their movements evoke a synchronized, drone-like sound-scape,