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1

Living and Non Living Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Core Curriculum Standard II: Students will understand that organisms depend on living and non living things within their environment. Introduction At the end of this assignment you should know the difference between a living and a non living organism and understand the effect a new environment (both living and non living things) can have on a living organism and the effect that living organism can have on the environment. ...

Ms. Henrie

2009-11-18

2

Cryopreservation of Living Organs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

3

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

DOEpatents

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30

4

What Organisms Live in Antarctica?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these activities students will discover the characteristics that enable Antarctica's many life forms to live in this continent of extreme cold, wind, and extended periods of light and darkness. In this weeklong unit, students research how flora and fauna have adapted to thrive in Antarctica, and use their knowledge to create imaginary polar organisms. Throughout this module, students collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain a Web activity in which students investigate the living conditions in Antarctica and some of the adaptations its organisms have made, a classroom activity in which students apply what they have learned to create models of imaginary polar creatures, several readings that provide a broad perspective, including excerpts from early explorers' journals, and question and answer interviews with scientists working in Antarctica. Teacher tools include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, teacher strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, a student handout with guidance for putting together their portfolios and examples of creative final projects, and additional readings.

5

Gender imbalance in living organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organ donation has developed into an important therapeutic option in transplantation medicine. However, there are some\\u000a medico-ethical problems that come along with the increasing reliance on this organ source. One of these concerns is based\\u000a on the observation that many more women than men function as living organ donors. Whereas discrimination and differential\\u000a access have been extensively discussed in

Nikola Biller-Andorno

2002-01-01

6

Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms  

DOEpatents

Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

Wong; Pak C. (Richland, WA), Wong; Kwong K. (Sugar Land, TX), Foote; Harlan P. (Richland, WA)

2006-06-06

7

Producing a Live HDTV Program from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By the year 2000, NASA had flown HDTV camcorders on three Space Shuttle missions: STS-95, STS-93 and STS-99. All three flights of these camcorders were accomplished with cooperation from the Japanese space agency (then known as NASDA and now known as JAXA). The cameras were large broadcast-standard cameras provided by NASDA and flight certified by both NASA and NASDA. The high-definition video shot during these missions was spectacular. Waiting for the return of the tapes to Earth emphasized the next logical step: finding a way to downlink the HDTV live from space. Both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) programs were interested in live HDTV from space, but neither had the resources to fully fund the technology. Technically, downlinking from the ISS was the most effective approach. Only when the Japanese broadcaster NHK and the Japanese space agency expressed interest in covering a Japanese astronaut's journey to the ISS did the project become possible. Together, JAXA and NHK offered equipment, technology, and funding toward the project. In return, NHK asked for a live HDTV downlink during one of its broadcast programs. NASA and the ISS Program sought a US partner to broadcast a live HDTV program and approached the Discovery Channel. The Discovery Channel had proposed a live HDTV project in response to NASA's previous call for offers. The Discovery Channel agreed to provide addItional resources. With the final partner in place, the project was under way. Engineers in the Avionics Systems Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) had already studied the various options for downlinking HDTV from the ISS. They concluded that the easiest way was to compress the HDTV so that the resulting data stream would "look" like a payload data stream. The flight system would consist of a professional HDTV camcorder with live HD-SDI output, an HDTV MPEG-2 encoder, and a packetizer/protocol converter.

Grubbs, Rodney; Fontanot, Carlos; Hames, Kevin

2007-01-01

8

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum and AmpC ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and in people living and/or working on organic broiler farms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum and AmpC ?-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC)-producing Escherichia coli among broilers, and humans living and/or working on organic broiler farms; further characterise isolates; and compare these results with those from conventional farms. In the Netherlands, only 9 certified organic broiler farms were present. On 8 of these farms, 60 throat swabs and 20 cloacal swabs were taken per farm for MRSA and ESBL/AmpC-E. coli detection, respectively, at an average age of both 34 (T1) and 68 (T2) days. Faecal swabs and questionnaires were returned by 27 out of 36 humans. For selected ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolates, phylogenetic groups, ?-lactamase genes, plasmid families, and sequence types were determined. MRSA was not detected in broiler and human samples. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from broilers on 7/8 farms at T1 and on all farms at T2. Furthermore, 3 farmers at T1, and 2 farmers and 1 family member at T2 were positive. Genes found in broilers and humans were almost exclusively blaCTX-M-1 and blaCMY-2. Given the high overall human ESBL/AmpC-prevalence (18.5%), which is similar to conventional farms, contact with live broilers is assumed a risk factor for carriage. Farm and sample-level prevalence at T1 are consistent with those from conventional farms. At T2, just before slaughter, sample-level prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-E. coli appears to have decreased (94.3% vs. 80%), which could have important consequences for contamination of retail meat. PMID:25582613

Huijbers, Patricia M C; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Haenen, Anja P J; Florijn, Alice; Hengeveld, Paul D; van Duijkeren, Engeline

2015-03-23

9

Ion produced cometary organic crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For several years many experimental results have been obtained on the chemical and physical changes induced by ion and electron irradiation of materials with a view to their Astrophysical relevance. Among the studied effects, one of particular interest is the formation of an organic refractory residue left over after ion irradiation and warming-up at room temperature. We call this residue IPHAC (ion produced hydrogenated amorphous carbon). Although 'in situ' infrared spectroscopy points out the formation of new molecular species during bombardment at low temperature, it is not clear if IPHAC is already formed or if its formation is triggered by temperature increase during warming-up of the irradiated target. Since Raman Spectroscopy is a technique particularly suitable for the analysis of carbonaceous materials, we have thought and build-up an experimental apparatus to obtain Raman Spectra of frozen hydrocarbons during ion irradiation. The present experimental results point out clearly to the formation of IPHAC already at low T and low energy deposition (approximately equal to a few eV/C-atom).

Baratta, G. Antonio; Strazzulla, G.

1992-01-01

10

Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects*  

PubMed Central

This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction. PMID:23908800

Halperin, Mordechai

2011-01-01

11

Strategic Marketing Decisions for Organic Agricultural Producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of organic agricultural producers facing a strategic decision is featured. If they decide to form an organization to market their produce jointly, they will have to select a distribution channel. This case presents the demand conditions, requirements, advantages, and disadvantages of different distribution channels for organic vegetables, both on a general level and as they relate to this

Jon C. Phillips; H. Christopher Peterson

2007-01-01

12

Living Organisms for the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication was prepared for elementary teachers and other local personnel responsible for providing, maintaining and using living organisms to enhance elementary science programs. The manual contains a foreword, general information, and an appendix. It gives information concerning equipment and supplies, establishing and maintaining an…

Hampton, Carolyn H.; Hampton, Carol D.

13

Psychosocial Assessment of Living Organ Donors: Clinical and Ethical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, \\

Mary Ellen Olbrisch; Sharon M. Benedict

2001-01-01

14

[Distant mental influence on living organisms].  

PubMed

This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand. PMID:24502184

Bonilla, Ernesto

2013-12-01

15

Vitamin C content of organically grown produce  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organically grown produce is the fastest growing sector of fresh market sales in the U.S. While accounting for only 3% of total produce sales, it is growing by 20% per year. There has been much debate over the relative health merits of organically grown fruits and vegetables. Most consumers believ...

16

Finding extraterrestrial organisms living on thermosynthesis.  

PubMed

During thermal cycling, organisms could live on thermosynthesis, a theoretical mechanism applicable to the origin of life and the early evolution of biological energy conversion. All extraterrestrial ice may be a repository for frozen dead or dormant organisms from earlier stages of evolution. In the presence of a thermal gradient within the ice, organisms might still be harvesting energy from thermosynthesis. Possible habitats for thermosynthesizers can be found throughout the Solar System, particularly in the cold traps on Mercury and the Moon, convecting waters on Mars, the oceans on moons in the outer Solar System, and smaller bodies rotating in the sunlight such as cosmic dust, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. A general strategy for detecting thermosynthetic organisms on Earth is offered, and highlights of current and upcoming robotic exploratory missions relevant to the detection of thermosynthesis are reviewed. PMID:14678664

Muller, Anthonie W J

2003-01-01

17

Self-organized criticality in living systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest that ensembles of self-replicating entities such as biological systems naturally evolve to a self-organized critical state in which fluctuations, as well as waiting times between phase transitions (“epochs”), are distributed according to a {1}/{f ?} power law. Such distributions can explain observed frequency distributions in extinction events as well as fractal population structures, and support the punctuated equilibrium picture of evolution. We demonstrate these concepts by analyzing a population of coexisting self-replicating strings (segments of computer code) subject to mutation and survival of the fittest, which constitutes an artificial living system.

Adami, C.

1995-02-01

18

Evolution of temporal order in living organisms  

PubMed Central

Circadian clocks are believed to have evolved in parallel with the geological history of the earth, and have since been fine-tuned under selection pressures imposed by cyclic factors in the environment. These clocks regulate a wide variety of behavioral and metabolic processes in many life forms. They enhance the fitness of organisms by improving their ability to efficiently anticipate periodic events in their external environments, especially periodic changes in light, temperature and humidity. Circadian clocks provide fitness advantage even to organisms living under constant conditions, such as those prevailing in the depth of oceans or in subterranean caves, perhaps by coordinating several metabolic processes in the internal milieu. Although the issue of adaptive significance of circadian rhythms has always remained central to circadian biology research, it has never been subjected to systematic and rigorous empirical validation. A few studies carried out on free-living animals under field conditions and simulated periodic and aperiodic conditions of the laboratory suggest that circadian rhythms are of adaptive value to their owners. However, most of these studies suffer from a number of drawbacks such as lack of population-level replication, lack of true controls and lack of adequate control on the genetic composition of the populations, which in many ways limits the potential insights gained from the studies. The present review is an effort to critically discuss studies that directly or indirectly touch upon the issue of adaptive significance of circadian rhythms and highlight some shortcomings that should be avoided while designing future experiments. PMID:15869714

Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

2005-01-01

19

Toward Quantum Superposition of Living Organisms  

E-print Network

The most striking feature of quantum mechanics is the existence of superposition states, where an object appears to be in different situations at the same time. The existence of such states has been tested with small objects, like atoms, ions, electrons and photons, and even with molecules. More recently, it has been possible to create superpositions of collections of photons, atoms, or Cooper pairs. Current progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow us to create superpositions of even larger objects, like micro-sized mirrors or cantilevers, and thus to test quantum mechanical phenomena at larger scales. Here we propose a method to cool down and create quantum superpositions of the motion of sub-wavelength, arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects trapped inside a high--finesse cavity at a very low pressure. Our method is ideally suited for the smallest living organisms, such as viruses, which survive under low vacuum pressures, and optically behave as dielectric objects. This opens up the possibility of testing the quantum nature of living organisms by creating quantum superposition states in very much the same spirit as the original Schr\\"odinger's cat "gedanken" paradigm. We anticipate our essay to be a starting point to experimentally address fundamental questions, such as the role of life and consciousness in quantum mechanics.

Oriol Romero-Isart; Mathieu L. Juan; Romain Quidant; J. Ignacio Cirac

2010-03-11

20

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2012-01-01

21

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2010-01-01

22

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2013-01-01

23

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2014-01-01

24

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules...Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced pears...

2011-01-01

25

ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARD ORGANIC PRODUCE PURCHASE LIKELIHOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demographically determines: which consumers are currently buying organic produce; consumer comparisons of organic and conventional produce; and consumer purchase likelihood of higher-priced organic produce. Data were collected from a Delaware consumer survey, dealing with fresh produce and food safety. Multinomial and ordered logit models were developed to generate marginal effects of age, gender, education, and income. Increasing age,

Patrick J. Byrne; Ulrich C. Toensmeyer; Carl L. German; H. Reed Muller

1991-01-01

26

BIOGLYPHS: A Living Collaboration with Bioluminescent Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BIOGLYPHS is an art and science collaboration initiated by members of the Center for Biofilm Engineering and the Montana State University School of Art. This website features two BIOGLYPHS exhibitions of living bioluminescent paintings that were created by teams of student and staff artists, scientists and engineers in 2002. The site includes a gallery of BIOGLYPH paintings, information about collaborators, comments from the guest book, and links to media coverage and related web pages.

MSU-Bozeman School of Art

27

Evolution of temporal order in living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian clocks are believed to have evolved in parallel with the geological history of the earth, and have since been fine-tuned under selection pressures imposed by cyclic factors in the environment. These clocks regulate a wide variety of behavioral and metabolic processes in many life forms. They enhance the fitness of organisms by improving their ability to efficiently anticipate periodic

Dhanashree A Paranjpe; Vijay Kumar Sharma

2005-01-01

28

X-ray microscopy of live biological micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time, compact x-ray microscopy has the potential to benefit many scientific fields, including microbiology, pharmacology, organic chemistry, and physics. Single frame x-ray micro-radiography, produced by a compact, solid-state laser plasma source, allows scientists to use x-ray emission for elemental analysis, and to observe biological specimens in their natural state. In this study, x-ray images of mouse kidney tissue, live bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia, and the bacteria's interaction with the antibiotic gentamicin, are examined using x-ray microscopy. For the purposes of comparing between confocal microscopy and x-ray microscopy, we introduced to our work the technique of gold labeling. Indirect immunofluorescence staining and immuno-gold labeling were applied on human lymphocytes and human tumor cells. Differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) showed the lymphocyte body and nucleus, as did x-ray microscopy. However, the high resolution of x-ray microscopy allows us to differentiate between the gold particles bound to the antibodies and the free gold. A compact, tabletop Nd: glass laser is used in this study to produce x-rays from an Yttrium target. An atomic force microscope is used to scan the x-ray images from the developed photo-resist. The use of compact, tabletop laser plasma sources, in conjunction with x-ray microscopy, is a new technique that has great potential as a flexible, user-friendly scientific research tool.

Raja Al-Ani, Ma'an Nassar

29

Tissue-Engineered Follicles Produce Live, Fertile Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oocytes grown in vitro are of low quality and yield few live births, thus limiting the ability to store or bank the ova of women wishing to preserve their fertility. We applied tissue engineering principles to the culture of immature mouse follicles by designing an alginate hydrogel matrix to maintain the oocyte's 3- dimensional (3D) architecture and cell-cell interactions in

Min Xu; Pamela K. Kreeger; Lonnie D. Shea; Teresa K. Woodruff

2006-01-01

30

Stabilizing synthetic data in the DNA of living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data-encoding synthetic DNA, inserted into the genome of a living organism, is thought to be more robust than the current\\u000a media. Because the living genome is duplicated and copied into new generations, one of the merits of using DNA material is\\u000a long-term data storage within heritable media. A disadvantage of this approach is that encoded data can be unexpectedly broken

Nozomu Yachie; Yoshiaki Ohashi; Masaru Tomita

2008-01-01

31

Investigating Biological Classification: Organization of All Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will investigate the organization of all living things through and learn how to classify through process of classifying their own shoes. Students will complete the classification of a Jaguar and write their own pneumonic device to remember the order of biological classification. (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species)

Lindsey Oliver, Fridley Middle School, Fridley, MN

32

Ethical issues in living organ donation: Donor autonomy and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite nearly 50 years of experience with living kidney donation, ethical questions about this practice continue to haunt us today. In this editorial I will address two of them: (1) Given the possibility of limited understanding and coercion, how can we be sure that a person who offers to donate an organ is acting autonomously? and (2) Do people have

Aaron Spital

2001-01-01

33

INTRODUCTION Most living organisms possess an endogenous circadian clock  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Most living organisms possess an endogenous circadian clock that runs, in constant the endogenous clock to a 24-hour period, or, stated otherwise, set the phase of the clock daily to solar time) comprise two subsets of cells that express the products of the period (per) and timeless (tim) genes

Rouyer, Francois

34

D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

Fujii, Noriko

2002-04-01

35

Honeycomblike architecture produced by living bacteria, Gluconacetobacter xylinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial cellulose (BC)-producing bacterium, Gluconacetobacter xylinus (ATCC53582), was found to move along linear microgrooves of a stripe-patterned cellulosic scaffold. On the basis of this finding, fabrication of honeycomb-patterned BC was attempted by controlling the bacterial movement using a agarose film scaffold with honeycomb-patterned grooves (concave type). The patterned agarose film was prepared by three steps. The first was transcription of

Yasumitsu Uraki; Junji Nemoto; Hiroyuki Otsuka; Yutaka Tamai; Junji Sugiyama; Takao Kishimoto; Makoto Ubukata; Hiroshi Yabu; Masaru Tanaka; Masatsugu Shimomura

2007-01-01

36

Androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells produce live transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Haploids and double haploids are important resources for studying recessive traits and have large impacts on crop breeding, but natural haploids are rare in animals. Mammalian haploids are restricted to germline cells and are occasionally found in tumours with massive chromosome loss. Recent success in establishing haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells in medaka fish and mice raised the possibility of using engineered mammalian haploid cells in genetic studies. However, the availability and functional characterization of mammalian haploid ES cells are still limited. Here we show that mouse androgenetic haploid ES (ahES) cell lines can be established by transferring sperm into an enucleated oocyte. The ahES cells maintain haploidy and stable growth over 30?passages, express pluripotent markers, possess the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo, and contribute to germlines of chimaeras when injected into blastocysts. Although epigenetically distinct from sperm cells, the ahES cells can produce viable and fertile progenies after intracytoplasmic injection into mature oocytes. The oocyte-injection procedure can also produce viable transgenic mice from genetically engineered ahES cells. Our findings show the developmental pluripotency of androgenentic haploids and provide a new tool to quickly produce genetic models for recessive traits. They may also shed new light on assisted reproduction. PMID:23023130

Li, Wei; Shuai, Ling; Wan, Haifeng; Dong, Mingzhu; Wang, Meng; Sang, Lisi; Feng, Chunjing; Luo, Guan-Zheng; Li, Tianda; Li, Xin; Wang, Libin; Zheng, Qin-Yuan; Sheng, Chao; Wu, Hua-Jun; Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Lei; Wang, Liu; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Yang; Zhou, Qi

2012-10-18

37

Living and deceased organ donation should be financially neutral acts.  

PubMed

The supply of organs-particularly kidneys-donated by living and deceased donors falls short of the number of patients added annually to transplant waiting lists in the United States. To remedy this problem, a number of prominent physicians, ethicists, economists and others have mounted a campaign to suspend the prohibitions in the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) on the buying and selling of organs. The argument that providing financial benefits would incentivize enough people to part with a kidney (or a portion of a liver) to clear the waiting lists is flawed. This commentary marshals arguments against the claim that the shortage of donor organs would best be overcome by providing financial incentives for donation. We can increase the number of organs available for transplantation by removing all financial disincentives that deter unpaid living or deceased kidney donation. These disincentives include a range of burdens, such as the costs of travel and lodging for medical evaluation and surgery, lost wages, and the expense of dependent care during the period of organ removal and recuperation. Organ donation should remain an act that is financially neutral for donors, neither imposing financial burdens nor enriching them monetarily. PMID:25833381

Delmonico, F L; Martin, D; Domínguez-Gil, B; Muller, E; Jha, V; Levin, A; Danovitch, G M; Capron, A M

2015-05-01

38

Directed Altruistic Living Organ Donation: Partial but not Unfair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments against directed altruistic living organ donation are too weak to justify a ban. Potential donors who want to specify the non-related person or group of persons to receive their donated kidney should be accepted. The arguments against, based on considerations of motivation, fairness and (non-)anonymity (e.g. those recently cited by an advisory report of the Dutch Health Council), are

Medard T. Hilhorst

2005-01-01

39

Respiratory Chains in the Last Common Ancestor of Living Organisms Jose Castresana,1  

E-print Network

Respiratory Chains in the Last Common Ancestor of Living Organisms Jose Castresana,1 David Moreira2 common ancestor of living organisms was not a simple organism in its energetic metabolism. Rather, it may common an- cestor of living organisms (or last universal ancestor). Several works have discussed the DNA

Castresana, Jose

40

Real-Time X-Ray ?-IMAGING of Living Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an X-ray ?-radiographic system developed for dynamic high spatial resolution imaging of living small animals. Our system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the hybrid single photon counting silicon pixel detector Medipix2 (matrix 256 × 256 sq. pixels of 55 ?m pitch). As soft tissue exhibits low contrast in classical absorption radiography, we exploit a new method of phase-enhanced imaging. Picture quality is further improved by statistical data analysis and extended calibration of individual pixel's response. Computing tomography provides 3D images of studied samples from radiographic projections. For 3D reconstruction of measured objects we use iterative algorithms which are advantageous for low statistics data, low or incomplete number of projections and complex physical model. This diagnostic system allows real-time observation of inner processes in living organisms and dynamic diagnose of living animals for biological studies. The obtained results and real-time stream video capability is demonstrated on samples of a mouse and living worm, caterpillar, etc.

Dammer, Jiri; Holy, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jakubek, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vavrik, Daniel; Hanus, Robert; Weyda, Frantisek

2008-06-01

41

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

42

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

43

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

44

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

45

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

46

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

47

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2011-01-01

48

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

49

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

50

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2010-01-01

51

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2013-01-01

52

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2012-01-01

53

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

54

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2010-01-01

55

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2014-01-01

56

GUIDELINES AND ACCEPTABLE POSTHARVEST PRACTICES FOR ORGANICALLY GROWN PRODUCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic foods are produced using agricultural practices that emphasize renewable resources and conservation of soil and water. Horticultural crops are grown and processed without synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, ingredients and processing aids. Crops or ingredients derived from genetic engineeri...

57

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

58

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

59

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

60

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

61

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

62

Nutritional and antibacterial treatments of live food organisms : the influence on survival,  

E-print Network

Nutritional and antibacterial treatments of live food organisms : the influence on survival, growth-Pée-sur-Nivelle, F 64310 Ascain Summary After ingestion of nutrients and/or antibacterial drug, live food organisms the live food organisms had not been enriched, survival on day 45 was between 5 and 14 p. 100, and the mean

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

75 FR 873 - Extramural Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...expenses related to live organ donation. The existing...expenses incurred by living organ donors. HRSA wishes...living donations of their organs. For example, if the...email to the Division of Transplantation at the address listed...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On September 14,...

2010-01-06

64

MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER Black beans #1 class produced  

E-print Network

#12;MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER ¢ Black beans #1 class produced ¢ Need to maximize Lansing, MI) ¢ Split plot design Main plot= Cover crop (4) Sub-plot= Bean variety (4) IMPACT OF COVER CROPS ON ORGANIC DRY BEANS #12;2010 2011 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Clover Radish

65

Stability and Responsiveness in a Self-Organized Living Architecture  

PubMed Central

Robustness and adaptability are central to the functioning of biological systems, from gene networks to animal societies. Yet the mechanisms by which living organisms achieve both stability to perturbations and sensitivity to input are poorly understood. Here, we present an integrated study of a living architecture in which army ants interconnect their bodies to span gaps. We demonstrate that these self-assembled bridges are a highly effective means of maintaining traffic flow over unpredictable terrain. The individual-level rules responsible depend only on locally-estimated traffic intensity and the number of neighbours to which ants are attached within the structure. We employ a parameterized computational model to reveal that bridges are tuned to be maximally stable in the face of regular, periodic fluctuations in traffic. However analysis of the model also suggests that interactions among ants give rise to feedback processes that result in bridges being highly responsive to sudden interruptions in traffic. Subsequent field experiments confirm this prediction and thus the dual nature of stability and flexibility in living bridges. Our study demonstrates the importance of robust and adaptive modular architecture to efficient traffic organisation and reveals general principles regarding the regulation of form in biological self-assemblies. PMID:23555219

Garnier, Simon; Murphy, Tucker; Lutz, Matthew; Hurme, Edward; Leblanc, Simon; Couzin, Iain D.

2013-01-01

66

Development of the National Living Donor Assistance Center: reducing financial disincentives to living organ donation  

PubMed Central

Over the years, the transplant community has worked to advance the care of living organ donors; however, barriers remain, including the nonmedical expenses incurred by living donors. A new center, funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), was established to operate a nationwide system to remove these financial disincentives. The HRSA grant was awarded to an academic institution and the daily operations are managed by a transplant professional society. Expenses are reimbursed prospectively for financially needy living donors. Combining the legislative authority and economic resources of the federal government, the research experience of an academic institution, and the management know-how of a professional society has proven to be successful. To date, the center has received 3918 applications submitted by 199 different transplant centers and receives about 80 applications per month. On average, a donor spends $2767 for their travel expenses to the transplant center. Of the 3918 applications that have been submitted, 1941 of those applicants (50%) have completed their donor surgery. PMID:24598569

Warren, Patricia H.; Gifford, Kimberly A.; Hong, Barry A.; Merion, Robert M.; Ojo, Akinlolu O.

2015-01-01

67

Experience with an organ procurement organization-based non-directed living kidney donation programme.  

PubMed

The organ procurement organization (OPO)-based non-directed living kidney donation programme was developed to decrease wait times for kidney transplants, and to meet the community's desire for altruistic living donation. Community awareness was encouraged through information about non-directed living kidney donation on the state donor registry Web site, and through the media. The OPO received all inquiries and responded with phone calls, e-mails, printed information, medical/social history questionnaires, interviews, and referrals to the transplant centres. Kidneys were allocated according to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) wait list for the evaluating transplant centre. Between March 2002 and 23 September 2005, there were 608 inquiries to the OPO about non-directed living kidney donation. In 41 months, 20 transplants occurred with kidneys from non-directed donors. The donor registry and OPO-sponsored publicity led to 578 of the 608 inquiries and 15 of the 20 transplants. OPO screening saved transplant centre resources by ruling out 523 inquiries, referring 76 to transplant centres for complete evaluations. Optional donor/recipient meetings appeared to be beneficial to those participating. OPO-based non-directed living donor programmes can be effective and efficient. Standardization of evaluation, allocation, and follow-up will allow for better data collection and more widespread implementation. PMID:16842517

Mark, Paula J; Baker, Kristie; Aguayo, Cecile; Sorensen, John B

2006-01-01

68

Mass spectrometry of atomic ions produced by in-trap decay of short-lived nuclides  

E-print Network

Mass spectrometry of atomic ions produced by in-trap decay of short-lived nuclides A Herlert1 demonstrated the feasibility of mass spectrometry of in-trap-decay product ions. This novel technique gives is required. Experiments at radioactive-beam facilities that employ Penning traps for mass spectrometry have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Racemization and the origin of optically active organic compounds in living organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organic compounds synthesized in prebiotic experiments are racemic mixtures. A number of proposals have been offered to explain how asymmetric organic compounds formed on the Earth before life arose, with the influence of chiral weak nuclear interactions being the most frequent proposal. This and other proposed asymmetric syntheses give only sight enantiomeric excess and any slight excess will be degraded by racemization. This applies particularly to amino acids where half-lives of 10(5)-10(6) years are to be expected at temperatures characteristic of the Earth's surface. Since the generation of chiral molecules could not have been a significant process under geological conditions, the origins of this asymmetry must have occurred at the time of the origin of life or shortly thereafter. It is possible that the compounds in the first living organisms were prochiral rather than chiral; this is unlikely for amino acids, but it is possible for the monomers of RNA-like molecules.

Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

1987-01-01

70

Imaging of plasmonic heating in a living organism.  

PubMed

Controlling and monitoring temperature at the single cell level has become pivotal in biology and medicine. Indeed, temperature influences many intracellular processes and is also involved as an activator in novel therapies. Aiming to assist such developments, several approaches have recently been proposed to probe cell temperature in vitro. None of them have so far been extended to a living organism. Here we present the first in vivo intracellular temperature imaging. Our technique relies on measuring the fluorescence polarization anisotropy of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on a set of GFP expressing neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We demonstrate fast and noninvasive monitoring of subdegree temperature changes on a single neuron induced by local photoheating of gold nanoparticles. This simple and biocompatible technique is envisioned to benefit several fields including hyperthermia treatment, selective drug delivery, thermal regulation of gene expression and neuron laser ablation. PMID:24047507

Donner, Jon S; Thompson, Sebastian A; Alonso-Ortega, César; Morales, Jordi; Rico, Laura G; Santos, Susana I C O; Quidant, Romain

2013-10-22

71

Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

2014-10-28

72

Organic compounds in produced waters from shale gas wells.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis is reported of the organic composition of produced water samples from typical shale gas wells in the Marcellus (PA), Eagle Ford (TX), and Barnett (NM) formations. The quality of shale gas produced (and frac flowback) waters is a current environmental concern and disposal problem for producers. Re-use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing is being encouraged; however, knowledge of the organic impurities is important in determining the method of treatment. The metal content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Mineral elements are expected depending on the reservoir geology and salts used in hydraulic fracturing; however, significant levels of other transition metals and heavier main group elements are observed. The presence of scaling elements (Ca and Ba) is related to the pH of the water rather than total dissolved solids (TDS). Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the chloroform extracts of the produced water samples, a plethora of organic compounds were identified. In each water sample, the majority of organics are saturated (aliphatic), and only a small fraction comes under aromatic, resin, and asphaltene categories. Unlike coalbed methane produced water it appears that shale oil/gas produced water does not contain significant quantities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons reducing the potential health hazard. Marcellus and Barnett produced waters contain predominantly C6-C16 hydrocarbons, while the Eagle Ford produced water shows the highest concentration in the C17-C30 range. The structures of the saturated hydrocarbons identified generally follows the trend of linear > branched > cyclic. Heterocyclic compounds are identified with the largest fraction being fatty alcohols, esters, and ethers. However, the presence of various fatty acid phthalate esters in the Barnett and Marcellus produced waters can be related to their use in drilling fluids and breaker additives rather than their presence in connate fluids. Halogen containing compounds are found in each of the water samples, and although the fluorocarbon compounds identified are used as tracers, the presence of chlorocarbons and organobromides formed as a consequence of using chlorine containing oxidants (to remove bacteria from source water), suggests that industry should concentrate on non-chemical treatments of frac and produced waters. PMID:25162586

Maguire-Boyle, Samuel J; Barron, Andrew R

2014-10-01

73

Isolation of Antibiotic-Producing Organisms from Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lab experiment in which students attempt to isolate antibiotic-producing bacteria (of the genus Streptomyces ) from soil. Even though antibiotics have gotten a bad rap in the press lately because many disease-causing organisms are multiply resistant, it is still important to discover new antibiotics. This experiment replicates the first step in the search and screen research that is currently underway in many labs worldwide. This three-part experiment has three objectives: Students will Isolate an antibiotic-producing organism from soil, determine the number of colony forming units (CFU's) per gram of soil sample, And become proficient in the following techniques: aseptic technique, dilution series and plating, plate counting, streak plating, two assay methods, simple staining, and using oil immersion microscope.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Betsy Barnard N:Barnard; Betsy ORG:West High School REV:2005-04-13 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

74

Analysis of alternative marketing organizations for improving rice producer income  

E-print Network

of the Mermentau River. At this facility soybeans are loaded on barges for transporta- tion down the river, through Lake Arthur, into the Intracoastal 1 Waterways and on to deep water ports on the Gulf of Mexico. ARI: ARI is a centralized association... level has not advanced in these two states as it has in the other rice producing states. Cooperative marketing organizations were formed in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and California in the 1920's. Integration into milling and other functions took...

Guillot, Patrick Dale

1975-01-01

75

Composition of organic and conventionally produced sunflower seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to highlight the main differences between seed oils produced from conventionally cultivated\\u000a crops and organically cultivated ones and processed using mild extraction procedures. The composition and the nutritional\\u000a and health aspects of both types of sunflower seed oils were compared and were analytically tested to determine the macroscopic\\u000a differences in proximate composition, the

G. Perretti; E. Finotti; S. Adamuccio; R. Della Sera; L. Montanari

2004-01-01

76

Diagnostics and analyses of a laser produced organic vapor plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A fast Langmuir probe technique is developed for diagnosing a plasma produced by a 193 nm laser ionizing an organic vapor, tetrakis(dimethyl-amino)ethylene (TMAE). The plasma is characterized as high electron density (1013-1012 cm-3), low electron temperature (~0.1 eV). A probe theory on correction of sheath motion effects on ion saturation currents in Langmuir probe measurements is

G. Ding; J. E. Scharer; R. Cao; K. L. Kelly

2000-01-01

77

Search for a short-lived neutral particle produced in nuclear decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a search for a short-lived neutral particle phi produced in the decay of the 9.17-MeV J-italic\\/sup ..pi..\\/ = 2\\/sup +\\/ state in ¹⁴N. The experiment is sensitive to decays into an e-italic\\/sup +\\/e⁻ pair with tau\\/sub phi\\/approx. <10⁻¹¹ s. For m-italic\\/sub phi\\/ = 1.7 MeV we place a limit on the branching ratio of GAMMA\\/sub phi\\/\\/GAMMA\\/sub ..gamma..\\/<

M. J. Savage; R. D. McKeown; B. W. Filippone; L. W. Mitchell

1986-01-01

78

Self-organization and entropy reduction in a living cell  

PubMed Central

In this paper we discuss the entropy and information aspects of a living cell. Particular attention is paid to the information gain on assembling and maintaining a living state. Numerical estimates of the information and entropy reduction are given and discussed in the context of the cell’s metabolic activity. We discuss a solution to an apparent paradox that there is less information content in DNA than in the proteins that are assembled based on the genetic code encrypted in DNA. When energy input required for protein synthesis is accounted for, the paradox is clearly resolved. Finally, differences between biological information and instruction are discussed. PMID:23159919

Davies, Paul C.W.; Rieper, Elisabeth; Tuszynski, Jack A.

2012-01-01

79

Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids  

DOEpatents

Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-05-06

80

Iron carbide nanoparticles produced by laser ablation in organic solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ablation of iron in an organic solvent (pentane, hexane, or decane) was performed using an air-tight cell to produce iron carbide nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectra of the nanoparticles were obtained at room temperature. They revealed that the nanoparticles consisted of two paramagnetic components and magnetic components. The two paramagnetic components were a high-spin Fe(II) species and an amorphous iron carbide containing a large amount of carbon. Whereas the magnetic components measured at room temperature exhibited superparamagnetism, those measured at low temperature were fitted by a combination of four sextets, which were assigned to Fe7 C 3. The Fe7 C 3 yield was higher in higher molecular weight solvents. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the samples showed that the nanoparticles were spherical with diameters in the range 10-100 nm.

Matsue, T.; Yamada, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.

2012-03-01

81

FLARES PRODUCING WELL-ORGANIZED POST-FLARE ARCADES (SLINKIES) HAVE EARLY PRECURSORS  

SciTech Connect

Exploding loop systems producing X-ray flares often, but not always, bifurcate into a long-living, well-organized system of multi-threaded loop arcades resembling solenoidal slinkies. The physical conditions that cause or prevent this process are not known. To address this problem, we examined most of the major (X-class) flares that occurred during the last decade and found that the flares that bifurcate into long-living slinky arcades have different signatures than those that do not 'produce' such structures. The most striking difference is that, in all cases of slinky formation, GOES high energy proton flux becomes significantly enhanced 10-24 hr before the flare occurs. No such effect was found prior to the 'non-slinky' flares. This fact may be associated with the difference between energy production by a given active region and the amount of energy required to bring the entire system into the form of well-organized, self-similar loop arcades. As an example illustrating the process of post-flare slinky formation, we present observations taken with the Hinode satellite, in several wavelengths, showing a time sequence of pre-flare and flare activity, followed by the formation of dynamically stable, well-organized structures. One of the important features revealed is that post-flare coronal slinky formation is preceded by scale invariant structure formation in the underlying chromosphere/transition region. We suggest that the observed regularities can be understood within the framework of self-organized critical dynamics characterized by scale invariant structure formation with critical parameters largely determined by energy saturation level. The observed regularities per se may serve as a long-term precursor of strong flares and may help to study predictability of system behavior.

Ryutova, M. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/IGPP, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Frank, Z.; Hagenaar, H.; Berger, T., E-mail: ryutova1@llnl.gov, E-mail: zoe@lmsal.com, E-mail: hagenaar@lmsal.com, E-mail: berger@lmsal.com [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2011-06-01

82

Introducing Incentives in the Market for Live and Cadaveric Organ Donations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the introduction of monetary incentives in the market for live and cadaveric organ donations. We show that monetary incentives would increase the supply of organs for transplant sufficiently to eliminate the very large queues in organ markets, and the suffering and deaths of many of those waiting, without increasing the total cost of transplant surgery by more than

Gary Stanley Becker; Julio Jorge Elías

2007-01-01

83

Position paper Natural living—a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses animal welfare in organic farming systems in relation to values and aims in organic farming. It sums up experiences from a 4-year interdisciplinary project. An important finding is that animal welfare is understood somewhat differently in organic farming from what is common in conventional agriculture. It is interpreted in terms of natural living, which includes the possibility

Vonne Lund

84

Under what conditions would people be willing to make a living organ donation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to examine the factors involved in people's willingness to make a living organ donation. A convenience sample of 200 people in southern France rated willingness to be a living donor in 48 scenarios consisting of all combinations of five factors: recipient's identity (close family member and city resident); donor's surgical risk (little and some); donor's possible long-term

María Teresa Muñoz Sastre; Sophie de Sousa; Erika Bodi; Paul Clay Sorum; Etienne Mullet

2012-01-01

85

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

2011-01-01

86

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

2010-01-01

87

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

2012-01-01

88

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

2013-01-01

89

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

2014-01-01

90

Doing harm: living organ donors, clinical research and The Tenth Man.  

PubMed

This paper examines the ethical difficulties of organ donation from living donors and the problem of causing harm to patients or research subjects at their request. Graham Greene explored morally similar questions in his novella, The Tenth Man. PMID:7608947

Elliott, C

1995-04-01

91

Structure, Genetics and Function of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by a Bacterium Living within Fungal Hyphae.  

PubMed

The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus has an unusual symbiosis with a bacterium, Burkholderia rhizoxinica, which lives within the fungal cytosol and produces a potent phytotoxin that causes severe losses in agriculture. To gain insight into symbiosis factors we investigated the endosymbiont's exopolysaccharide (EPS), a secreted matrix that plays pivotal roles in mediating cell-environment interactions. By a combination of homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR experiments, we elucidated a previously unknown EPS structure: a repeating tetrasaccharide unit bearing a nonstoichiometric acetyl group on a mannose residue. We also analyzed the EPS biosynthesis gene cluster and generated a targeted mutant to compare the phenotypes. Scanning electron microscope images revealed a reduced ability of the mutant to form extracellular polymers around cell aggregates. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the symbiont's EPS genes are retained through evolutionary processes. PMID:25530287

Uzum, Zerrin; Silipo, Alba; Lackner, Gerald; De Felice, Antonia; Molinaro, Antonio; Hertweck, Christian

2015-02-01

92

"Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.  

PubMed

The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain. PMID:22574392

Moniruzzaman, Monir

2012-03-01

93

In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

2013-07-01

94

Organized Living: From Cell Surfaces to Basement Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to integrin receptors initiates intracellular signaling events that are essential for the differentiation and survival of epithelial cells. However, the propagation and processing of these signals also depend on the cells acquiring an appropriate three-dimensional morphology and polarity after contact with the ECM. In fact, even if adhesion to the ECM is maintained but subsequent cellular organization and polarity are impaired, epithelial cells fail to fully differentiate and become susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. Studies using three-dimensional tissue culture models with reconstituted basement membranes not only demonstrate the central role of tissue organization for differentiation and survival, but also emphasize how acquiring this organized polarized phenotype can override a number of genetic changes that would otherwise disrupt normal tissue function.

Nancy J. Boudreau (University of California San Francisco; Department of Surgery REV)

2003-08-19

95

Explaining the Choice of Organic Produce: Cosmetic Defects, Prices, and Consumer Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice between organic and conventional produce was estimated empirically using a two-equation probit model. Data were collected in-store on cosmetic defects, produce prices, and consumers' demographic and economic traits. Store choice displayed a significant impact on the probability of purchasing organic produce. Shoppers at the specialty grocer were sensitive to price differences between organic and conventional items. Households with

Gary D. Thompson; Julia Kidwell

1998-01-01

96

Attitude of Personnel in Hospital Cadaveric Organ Transplant-Related Units Faced with Living Kidney Donation in a Hospital with a Living Kidney Donor Transplantation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The attitude of health care personnel is fundamental for the procurement of organs, especially when they are based in transplant-related services. The objective of this study is to assess the attitude of hospital personnel in transplant-related services toward living kidney donation in a hospital with a cadaveric and living solid organ transplant program. Materials and Methods: A random sample

A. Ríos; P. Ramírez; L. Martínez; J. A. García; M. J. Montoya; D. Lucas; P. Parrilla

2008-01-01

97

Code for encryption hiding data into genomic DNA of living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has considered DNA an interesting medium for long-term and ultra compact information storage and a stegomedium for hidden messages. Artificial components of DNA with encoded information can be added to the genome of living organisms, such as common bacteria. With this approach, a medium for very height-densities information storage, watermarks for protection patents of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Shuhong Jiao; Robert Goutte

2008-01-01

98

CAON THE TRAIL OF LIVING MODIFIED ORGANISMS: Environmentalism within and against Neoliberal Order  

E-print Network

CAON THE TRAIL OF LIVING MODIFIED ORGANISMS: Environmentalism within and against Neoliberal Order-wire fence that surround a field of genetically modified (transgenic) cotton, planted and reproduced MODIFIED ORGANISMS Ana Julia and Miguel have periodically monitored D and PL activities as part

Wu, Mingshen

99

Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach  

PubMed Central

Intermolecular interactions within living organisms have been found to occur not as individual independent events but as a part of a collective array of interconnected events. The problem of the emergence of this collective dynamics and of the correlated biocommunication therefore arises. In the present paper we review the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of microscopic units (atoms/molecules) has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field. Experimental corroboration of this scheme is presented. Some consequences for future biological developments are discussed. PMID:24288611

Bischof, Marco; Del Giudice, Emilio

2013-01-01

100

THE LIVING SOIL ASSOCIATION: PIONEERING ORGANIC FARMING AND INNOVATING SOCIAL INCLUSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Living Soil Association of Tasmania (LSAT) (1946-1960) pioneered the concepts of organic food and farming in Australia?s smallest state, for the decade immediately after WWII. The LSAT was one of the world?s first organisations to promote organic farming. It was preceded by New Zealand?s Humic Compost Society (founded in 1941), the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (1944), Australia?s

John Paull

101

Two-photon fluorescent probe for detection of exogenous and endogenous hydrogen persulfide and polysulfide in living organisms.  

PubMed

Hydrogen persulfide and polysulfide (H2Sn) are newly discovered intracellular reactive species considered to have high protein S-sulfhydration efficiency. The detection of H2Sn in living systems is essential for studying their functions but is quite challenging. In this work, we report a two-photon excited fluorescent probe, QSn, capable of tracking H2Sn in living organisms. QSn exhibited turn-on two-photon fluorescence response upon reaction with H2Sn. With a favorable photophysical property, high specificity, and low cytotoxicity, QSn was able to recognize exogenous H2Sn in living cells. More importantly, it realized for the first time the visualization of endogenous H2Sn generated in cells overexpressing cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase, the enzymes responsible for producing endogenous H2Sn. Taking advantage of two-photon microscopy, the probe was also applied to achieve H2Sn detection in zebrafish embryos and to observe H2Sn distribution in living organisms. PMID:25655109

Zeng, Lingyu; Chen, Shiyu; Xia, Tian; Hu, Wei; Li, Chunya; Liu, Zhihong

2015-03-01

102

The Most Powerful Volunteer Organization of Solar Eclipse Live Broadcasting in the World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LIVE!ECLIPSE executive committee is a volunteer organization which formed to tell the impression of the solar eclipse to the people in the world. It performed Internet live broadcasting of five solar eclipses from March, 1997 to August, 1999. In the solar eclipse in August 1999, they installed nine observation points from Britain to Iran and succeeded in the live broadcasting from these nine places at the same time. The access which exceeded 14 million hits a day concentrated on their server people from more than 120 countries. The Internet is installed to all classrooms in the near future. At that time, their experience will be useful as a concrete practice example.

Okyudo, Masami

2000-02-01

103

The Living Organ Donor Network: a model registry for living kidney donors.  

PubMed

The South-Eastern Organ Procurement Foundation presents the first report on a programme to track donors through questionnaires completed at the time of donation, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly thereafter. Donors at participating centres were eligible for an insurance policy with a total benefit of 250,000 US dollars, covering accidental death related to donation, surgery, medical expenses of complications, and disability income. The four participating centres have registered 104 donors. Response rate to the questionnaires was 90.91%. The majority of the donors come from the immediate family (81.62%), either by blood or marriage. The majority of donors are employed full time, with income ranges similar to the national census. Donors rely on employer-provided vacation time and sick leave to recuperate, but the average donor required 12 days of unpaid leave before returning to work. Donors also experienced costs of transportation, lodging, and childcare. Anti-depressants were prescribed to 10.58% of donors, and 4.8% of donors reported they are treated for hypertension. Complications were reported by 37.5% of the donors, but only 7.6% of the complications were serious enough to require hospitalization or surgery. Donors reported higher complication rates than reported by the centres and experience financial burdens afterwards. PMID:15217405

McCune, Thomas R; Armata, Thomas; Mendez-Picon, Gerardo; Yium, Jackson; Zabari, Gazi B; Crandall, Betty; Spicer, Helen G; Blanton, Jack; Thacker, Leroy R

2004-01-01

104

Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Separating Organics from Produced Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of polar organic compounds typical of water contaminants (organic acids, alcohols, and aromatic compounds) associated with oil and gas production was measured between water and nine hydrophobic, room?temperature ionic liquids. The ionic liquids used in this study were 1?butyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?hexyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?octyl?3?methylimidazolium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?butyl?3?methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, 1?butyl?1?methyl?pyrrolidinium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, tributyltetradecylphosphonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate. Sensitivity

J. McFarlane; W. B. Ridenour; H. Luo; R. D. Hunt; D. W. DePaoli; R. X. Ren

2005-01-01

105

Single-Molecule Microscopy Reveals Membrane Microdomain Organization of Cells in a Living Vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Abstract It has been possible for several years to study the dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins by single-molecule microscopy, but until now this technology has been applied only to individual cells in culture. In this study, it was extended to stem cells and living vertebrate organisms. As a molecule of interest we used yellow fluorescent protein fused to the human H-Ras membrane anchor, which has been shown to serve as a model for proteins anchored in the plasma membrane. We used a wide-field fluorescence microscopy setup to visualize individual molecules in a zebrafish cell line (ZF4) and in primary embryonic stem cells. A total-internal-reflection microscopy setup was used for imaging in living organisms, in particular in epidermal cells in the skin of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos. Our results demonstrate the occurrence of membrane microdomains in which the diffusion of membrane proteins in a living organism is confined. This membrane organization differed significantly from that observed in cultured cells, illustrating the relevance of performing single-molecule microscopy in living organisms. PMID:19686669

Schaaf, Marcel J.M.; Koopmans, Wiepke J.A.; Meckel, Tobias; van Noort, John; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Schmidt, Thomas S.; Spaink, Herman P.

2009-01-01

106

Development of a Reverse Genetics System to Produce Live, Attenuated Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Vaccine Candidates  

E-print Network

1 Development of a Reverse Genetics System to Produce Live, Attenuated Infectious Salmon Anemia Grant Number: NA03NMF4270132 March 29, 2006 Abstract Infectious salmon anemia (ISA), induced by the viral causative agent infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), has had a large, negative economic impact

107

A living demonstration of certified organic farming by Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...

108

Dissolved organic matter composition drives the marine production of brominated very short-lived substances.  

PubMed

Brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), such as bromoform, are important trace gases for stratospheric ozone chemistry. These naturally derived trace gases are formed via bromoperoxidase-mediated halogenation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. Information on DOM type in relation to the observed BrVSLS concentrations in seawater, however, is scarce. We examined the sensitivity of BrVSLS production in relation to the presence of specific DOM moieties. A total of 28 model DOM compounds in artificial seawater were treated with vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO). Our results show a clear dependence of BrVSLS production on DOM type. In general, molecules that comprise a large fraction of the bulk DOM pool did not noticeably affect BrVSLS production. Only specific cell metabolites and humic acid appeared to significantly enhance BrVSLS production. Amino acids and lignin phenols suppressed enzyme-mediated BrVSLS production and may instead have formed halogenated nonvolatile molecules. Dibromomethane production was not observed in any experiments, suggesting it is not produced by the same pathway as the other BrVSLS. Our results suggest that regional differences in DOM composition may explain the observed BrVSLS concentration variability in the global ocean. Ultimately, BrVSLS production and concentrations are likely affected by DOM composition, reactivity, and cycling in the ocean. PMID:25723123

Liu, Yina; Thornton, Daniel C O; Bianchi, Thomas S; Arnold, William A; Shields, Michael R; Chen, Jie; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A

2015-03-17

109

Will recently proposed experiments be able to demonstrate quantum behavior of entire living organisms?  

E-print Network

Recently proposed experiments consider creating and observing the quantum superposition of small living organisms. Those proposed experiments are examined here for feasibility on the basis of results of earlier studies identifying a boundary separating obligatory classical behavior from quantum behavior. It appears that the proposed experiments may be expected to succeed for the case of viruses, but most probably fail for the case of the appreciably larger organisms that are also considered.

C. L. Herzenberg

2009-12-12

110

Living Light: http://w w w .lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/organism/photo.html  

E-print Network

Living Light: http://w w w .lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/organism/photo.html #12;Activity Each group an animal want to locate others of its same kind? Why would it use light for this? http://w w w .lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/organism/photo.html Creatures of the Deep Sea #12;Vibrio fischeri http://w w w .medmicro.w isc.edu/labs/ruby/pictures/research/index.html

Rose, Michael R.

111

Organics produced by ion irradiation of ices: Some recent results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some results, recently obtained from laboratory experiments of ion irradiation of ice mixtures containing H, C, N, and O, are here summarized. They are relevant to the formation and evolution of complex organics on interstellar dust, comets and other small bodies in the external Solar System. In particular the formation of CN-bearing species is discussed. Interstellar dust incorporated into primitive

G. Strazzulla; M. E. Palumbo

2001-01-01

112

Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.  

E-print Network

as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more of those currently on the market · Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel

113

A comparison of chlorinated organic material produced by chlorine and chlorine dioxide bleaching  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine and chlorine dioxide react differently with pulp during bleaching and produce different types of organic by-products. The main differences are the large reduction in the amount of AOX (adsorbable organic halogen) in the effluent and EOX (extractable organic halogen) in the pulp. This talk reviews the differences in the amounts and types of chlorinated organic by-products produced by the two different bleaching agents.

McKaque, A.B.; Reeve, D.W. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)

1995-12-31

114

The space exposure platforms BIOPAN and EXPOSE to study living organisms in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

BIOPAN and EXPOSE are two European space exposure platforms developed for the European Space Agency by Kayser-Threde GmbH Munich Germany to offer flight opportunities to the science community of exo astrobiology research in low earth orbit Both platforms are conceived for the research on the behaviour of living organisms in the environment of space and on simulated conditions of other

W. Schulte

2006-01-01

115

Bio-Enabled Materials Certain living organisms are remarkably adept at generating materials in complex, three-  

E-print Network

Bio-Enabled Materials Certain living organisms are remarkably adept at generating materials. Davis, Y. Cai, M. Liu, K. H. Sandhage, "Bio-enabled Syntheses of Hollow, High Surface Area, Micro, or Adsorption," Energy Environ. Sci., 4 (10) 3980 (2011).) #12;A wide range of cross-cutting bio

Li, Mo

116

PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION BY FREE-LIVING ORGANISMS: APPLICATIONS OF A SIGMOIDAL MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of contaminants by free-living organisms has traditionally been de- termined with permutations of the deterministic model: Ct = Ce(1 - e -kt). However, studies uti- lizing a variety of species and exposure scenarios now suggest that significant deviations may occur from this classic form. In many cases noted to date, these deviations have involved a sigmoidal pat- tern

I. Lehr Brisbin; Michael C. Newman; Susan G. McDowell; Eric L. Peters

1990-01-01

117

Single-Molecule Microscopy Reveals Membrane Microdomain Organization of Cells in a Living Vertebrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been possible for several years to study the dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins by single-molecule microscopy, but until now this technology has been applied only to individual cells in culture. In this study, it was extended to stem cells and living vertebrate organisms. As a molecule of interest we used yellow fluorescent protein fused to the human H-Ras

Marcel J. M. Schaaf; Wiepke J. A. Koopmans; Tobias Meckel; John van Noort; B. Ewa Snaar-Jagalska; Thomas S. Schmidt; Herman P. Spaink

2009-01-01

118

Making Nature's Wisdom Public: The Affirmation of Planet Earth as a Living Organism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planet Earth is a living organism that preserves and regenerates itself and shares information with humans through sensations, feelings, and actions. After early humans migrated from their tropical origins to colder climates, they developed technologies to impose their tropical memories on their new surroundings and lost touch with their ancient…

Cohen, Michael J.

119

The Patentability of Living Organisms under 35 U.S.C. Section 101: In re Bergy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined is the In re Bergy decision in which a divided United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals held that a living micro-organism was patentable under section 101 of the United States Code. Differing views and problems with the decision are also discussed. (JMD)

Harvard Law Review, 1978

1978-01-01

120

77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...was approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and...

2012-09-10

121

Missed Opportunities for Religious Organizations to Support People Living with HIV/AIDS: Findings from Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Abstract Religious beliefs play an important role in the lives of Tanzanians, but little is known about the influence of religion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study shares perspectives of PLWHA and identifies opportunities for religious organizations to support the psychological well-being of this group. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 through semistructured interviews with 36 clients (8 Muslims and 28 Christians) receiving free antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Arusha, Tanzania. Swahili-speaking interviewers asked about participation in religion, change in religious engagement since HIV diagnosis, and what role faith plays in living with HIV and taking ARVs. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Atlas t.i. The findings revealed that patients' personal faith positively influenced their experiences living with HIV, but that religious organizations had neutral or negative influences. On the positive side, prayer gave hope to live with HIV, and religious faith increased after diagnosis. Some respondents said that prayer supported their adherence to medications. On the other hand, few disclosed their HIV status in their religious communities, expressing fear of stigma. Most had heard that prayer can cure HIV, and two expected to be cured. While it was common to hear messages about HIV prevention from churches or mosques, few had heard messages about living with HIV. The findings point to missed opportunities by religious organizations to support PLWHA, particularly the need to ensure that messages about HIV are not stigmatizing; share information about HIV treatment; introduce role models of PLWHA; and emphasize that prayers and medical care go hand-in-hand. PMID:19335171

Maman, Suzanne; Jacobson, Mark; Laiser, John; John, Muze

2009-01-01

122

Imposing options on people in poverty: the harm of a live donor organ market.  

PubMed

A prominent defence of a market in organs from living donors says that if we truly care about people in poverty, we should allow them to sell their organs. The argument is that if poor vendors would have voluntarily decided to sell their organs in a free market, then prohibiting them from selling makes them even worse off, at least from their own perspective, and that it would be unconscionably paternalistic to substitute our judgements for individuals' own judgements about what would be best for them. The author shows that this 'Laissez-Choisir Argument' for organ selling rests on a mistake. This is because the claim that it would be better for people in poverty to sell their organs if given the option is consistent with the claim that it would be even better for them to not have the option at all. The upshot is that objections to an organ market need not be at all paternalistic, since we need not accept that the absence of a market makes those in poverty any worse off, even from their own point of view. The author goes on to argue that there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for believing that people in poverty would in fact be harmed by the introduction of a market for live donor organs and that the harm constitutes sufficient grounds for prohibiting a market. PMID:22745109

Rippon, Simon

2014-03-01

123

Toward mass producible ordered bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.  

PubMed

A strategy to fabricate nanostructured poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films for organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells by a direct transfer method from a reusable soft replica mold is presented. The flexible polyfluoropolyether (PFPE) replica mold allows low-pressure and low- temperature process condition for the successful transfer of nanostructured P3HT films onto PEDOT/PSS-coated ITO substrates. To reduce the fabrication cost of masters in large area, we employed well-ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a template. Also, we provide a method to fabricate reversed nanostructures by exploiting the self-replication of replica molds. The concept of the transfer method in low temperature with a flexible and reusable replica mold obtained from an AAO template will be a firm foundation for a low-cost fabrication process of ordered OPVs. PMID:22991077

Kim, Taeyong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Song, Hyung-Jun; Haberkorn, Niko; Cho, Younghyun; Sung, Seung Hyun; Lee, Chang Hee; Char, Kookheon; Theato, Patrick

2012-12-13

124

Method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism wherein a series of negative pressures are externally applied to successive length-wise sections of a lower limb of the organism. The pressures decreasing progressively with distance of said limb sections from the heart of the organism. A casing defines a chamber adapted to contain the limb of the organism and is rigidified to resist collapse upon the application of negative pressures to the interior of the chamber. Seals extend inwardly from the casing for effective engagement with the limb of the organism and, in cooperation with the limb, subdivide the chamber into a plurality of compartments each in negative pressure communicating relation with the limb.

Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

1983-01-01

125

Pilot Scale Test of a Produced Water-Treatment System for Initial Removal of Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg\\/L or

Soondong Kwon; Enid Sullivan; Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman

2008-01-01

126

Why and how to compensate living organ donors: ethical implications of the new Australian scheme.  

PubMed

The Australian Federal Government has announced a two-year trial scheme to compensate living organ donors. The compensation will be the equivalent of six weeks paid leave at the rate of the national minimum wage. In this article I analyse the ethics of compensating living organ donors taking the Australian scheme as a reference point. Considering the long waiting lists for organ transplantations and the related costs on the healthcare system of treating patients waiting for an organ, the 1.3 million AUD the Australian Government has committed might represent a very worthwhile investment. I argue that a scheme like the Australian one is sufficiently well designed to avoid all the ethical problems traditionally associated with attaching a monetary value to the human body or to parts of it, namely commodification, inducement, exploitation, and equality issues. Therefore, I suggest that the Australian scheme, if cost-effective, should represent a model for other countries to follow. Nonetheless, although I endorse this scheme, I will also argue that this kind of scheme raises issues of justice in regard to the distribution of organs. Thus, I propose that other policies would be needed to supplement the scheme in order to guarantee not only a higher number of organs available, but also a fair distribution. PMID:24654885

Giubilini, Alberto

2015-05-01

127

Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

2003-01-01

128

Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.  

PubMed

Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

2011-12-01

129

Biosecurity risks associated with current identification practices of producers trading live pigs at livestock sales.  

PubMed

Approximately 5% of pigs produced in Australia is believed to be traded at livestock sales. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with producers (106 and 30 producers, respectively), who traded pigs at livestock sales. The purpose of the study was to gather information on how producers identified their pigs in order to evaluate how these practices may impact the ability to trace pig movements in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak or food safety hazard. Results were analyzed according to herd size (0 to 150 sows, 150+ sows) and location (peri-urban, regional) as prior studies suggested a higher biosecurity risk among smaller farms and due to perceptions that peri-urban farms pose additional risk. Most producers (91.5%) had less than 150 sows and a high proportion (70.8%) resided in regional areas compared with only 29.2% residing in peri-urban areas. A higher proportion of large-scale producers identified their pigs than small-scale producers. A third of small-scale producers reported not identifying breeding stock and most did not identify progeny. The most common forms of on-farm identification used were ear tags for breeding stock and ear notches for progeny. Producers identified breeding stock to assist with mating management and genetic improvement. Ear notches were used to determine the litter of origin of progeny. All large-scale producers owned a registered swine brand and used the official body tattoo for post-farm-gate identification. However, approximately 15% of small-scale producers did not own a registered swine brand, and an additional 8% did not identify their pigs post-farm-gate. Producers were satisfied with tattoos as a methodology for post-farm-gate identification of pigs and considered other methodologies cost-prohibitive. However, variations in the maintenance of the branding equipment, the type of ink used and the time of tattoo application in relation to the animal sale were highlighted during focus group discussions. These results suggest that there is a need for education and extension activities, especially among small-scale pig producers, regarding the benefits of identifying animals on-farm. In addition, increased awareness of the traceability legislation that exists in Australia to meet the National Performance Standards for Livestock Traceability in this country is required. PMID:22444022

Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

2008-11-01

130

Artificial cybernetic living individuals based on supramolecular-level organization as dispersed individuals.  

PubMed

One of the most characteristic features of spontaneously originating biological systems is that their most fundamental structure and especially functioning is based on molecular-level organization. This property is particularly important when natural living individuals composed of organic compounds of carbon are compared with (hypothetical) artificial living individuals based on metals, plastic, glass, silicon, and so on, whose most basic structural and functional units appear at the supramolecular level. The cybernetic definition of a living individual I proposed previously is used in the present work. I argue that artificial, supramolecular living individuals existing self-dependently in the environment of some distant planet must have the form of dispersed individuals composed of several separate subindividuals that are integrated functionally, but not structurally. These subindividuals would be analogous to such modules of human technical civilization as machines, robots, steelworks, chemical plants, electronic factories, power stations, and mines. Such dispersed individuals would resemble colonies of social insects and moles, which are also composed of separate subindividuals (particular insects and moles) carrying out different specialized functions. PMID:21087151

Korzeniewski, Bernard

2011-01-01

131

"Living apart together": moral frictions between two coexisting organ transplantation schemes.  

PubMed

Cadaveric transplantation and living transplantation exist side by side. Both practices help to alleviate organ need. They provide us with two separate moral schemes. Is it rational to keep them apart? The cadaveric system is organised along strict, impartial lines, while the living system is inherently partial and local. The ethical justification for this partial scheme seems to be that it merely supplements the cadaveric scheme: partial transplants do not come at the expense of cadaveric impartiality, but in fact significantly reduce the waiting time for patients on the list for a cadaveric transplant. This seemingly peaceful coexistence is challenged by new initiatives, among them living donation list exchange, and also the LifeSharers initiative, leading to practices that undermine cadaveric impartiality. Should we bemoan this fact, or should we move on towards a new balance in the relationship between cadaveric and living transplantation practices, towards a new moral weighing of impartial and partial values? I argue, against the background of a rapid growth of living donations, that we have good, ethical reasons--not only utilitarian ones--for giving the value of partiality a more prominent place in our policies. PMID:18511625

Hilhorst, M T

2008-06-01

132

Certified organic agriculture in Mexico: Market connections and certification practices in large and small producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which certification is based upon extensive document review, group inspections, and assessment of on-farm capacity to produce organic

Laura Gómez Tovar; Lauren Martin; Manuel Angel Gómez Cruz; Tad Mutersbaugh

2005-01-01

133

Sustainability assessment through analogical models: The approach of aerobic living-organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most part of scientific discoveries of human being borrow ideas and inspiration from nature. This point gives the rationale of the sustainability assessment approach presented here and based on the aerobic living organism (ALO) already developed by the author, which funds on the basic assumption that it is reasonable and effective to refer to the analogy between an system organized by human (say, manufacturing system, enterprise, etc.) for several decision-making scopes. The critical review of the ALO conceptual model already developed is here discussed through an example of an Italian small enterprise manufacturing metal components for civil furniture to assess its feasibility for sustainability appraisal.

Dassisti, Michele

2014-10-01

134

Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant  

PubMed Central

In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

Iijima, Yoko

2014-01-01

135

Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from < 1 to 100 ?g/L, but total PAHs (the dominant compound class for most CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 ?g/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of ?g/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

2014-01-01

136

The percentage of living bacterial cells related to organic carbon release from senescent oceanic phytoplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria recycle vast amounts of organic carbon, playing key biogeochemical and ecological roles in the ocean. Bacterioplankton dynamics are expected to be dependent on phytoplankton primary production, but there is a high diversity of processes (e.g., sloppy feeding, cell exudation, viral lysis) involved in the transfer of primary production to dissolved organic carbon available to bacteria. Here, we show the percentage of living heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean in relation to phytoplankton extracellular carbon release (PER). PER represents the fraction of primary production released as dissolved organic carbon. PER variability was explained by phytoplankton cell death, with communities experiencing higher phytoplankton cell mortality showing a larger proportion of phytoplankton extracellular carbon release. Both PER and the percentage of dead phytoplankton cells increased from eutrophic to oligotrophic waters, while abundance of heterotrophic bacteria was highest in the intermediate waters. The percentage of living heterotrophic bacterial cells (range: 60-95%) increased with increasing phytoplankton extracellular carbon release from productive to oligotrophic waters in the subtropical NE Atlantic. The lower PERs, observed at the upwelling waters, have resulted in a decrease in the flux of phytoplankton dissolved organic carbon (DOC) per bacterial cell. The results highlight phytoplankton cell death as a process influencing the flow of dissolved photosynthetic carbon in this region of the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean, and suggest a close coupling between the fraction of primary production released and heterotrophic bacterial cell survival.

Lasternas, S.; Agustí, S.

2014-11-01

137

Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks  

PubMed Central

We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)–emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb3+ lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb3+ NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation. PMID:24108356

Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A.; White, Kiley A.; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnès; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J.; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Petoud, Stéphane

2013-01-01

138

Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms.

Oger, Phil M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

2008-04-01

139

Spray deposition of live cells throughout the electrospinning process produces nanofibrous three-dimensional tissue scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Compared with traditional in-vitro cell culture materials, three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds provide a superior environment for promoting cell functions. Since nanofibrous scaffolds have nanometer pore sizes, cells are unable to penetrate on their own, so must be incorporated into the scaffold during fabrication to ensure proper cell distribution. In this study, biodegradable and cytocompatible poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanofibers were produced using an electrospinning process. As a model cell line, fibroblasts were periodically sprayed from a pump-action spray bottle onto the developing scaffold. The viability of cells before and after spraying, and also after incorporation into the scaffold, was compared. Results indicated that cell spraying and the scaffold fabrication process did not significantly reduce cell viability. These findings, thus, contribute to the understanding of how to produce more physiological relevant cell-seeded nanofibrous scaffolds, an important element for the future of nanotechnology and tissue engineering. PMID:21698076

Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

2011-01-01

140

Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic

Andreas F. Haas; Craig E. Nelson; Linda Wegley Kelly; Craig A. Carlson; Forest Rohwer; James J. Leichter; Alex Wyatt; Jennifer E. Smith

2011-01-01

141

Highly sensitive imaging for ultra-weak photon emission from living organisms.  

PubMed

Spontaneous ultra-weak photon emissions (UPEs) are from living organisms. Often designated as biophoton emissions, they are associated with reactive oxygen species production. They have long been explored for use in the extraction of pathophysiological information of living bodies. Because of its potential non-invasiveness and because it is completely passive, it has been anticipated for application to human diagnosis. However, because of the weakness of its signal and the complexity of the mechanisms, practical applications of UPE and efforts have remained restricted. Imaging of UPE is a powerful tool for the practical application of UPE. Furthermore, efforts to develop imaging technique have been made from the early period of UPE study. This report explains the history of UPE study, particularly describing the development of imaging technology and its application covering agriculture and medicine are reviewed. Furthermore, the issue of what was achieved and what is necessary for the additional advancement of UPE will be discussed for practical application. PMID:24360927

Kobayashi, Masaki

2014-10-01

142

Differential trafficking of live and dead Mycobacterium marinum organisms in macrophages.  

PubMed Central

We characterized the Mycobacterium marinum phagosome by using a variety of endocytic markers to follow the path of the bacteria through a mouse macrophage cell line. Using a laser confocal microscope, we found that the majority of viable M. marinum cells were in nonacidic vacuoles that did not colocalize with the vacuolar proton ATPase (V-ATPase), the calcium-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR), or cathepsin D. In contrast, heat-killed organisms and latex beads were in acidic vacuoles which contained the V-ATPase, the CI-M6PR, and cathepsin D. A population of vesicles that contained live M. marinum labeled with the lysosomal glycoprotein LAMP-1, but the percentage of vacuoles that labeled was lower than for heat-killed organisms or latex beads. When testing live and heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we found levels of colocalization with LAMP- and cathepsin D comparable to those for the M. marinum isolate. We conclude that M. marinum, like M. tuberculosis, can circumvent the host endocytic pathway and reside in an intracellular compartment which is not acidic and does not fuse with lysosomes. In addition, we describe a system for sampling a large population of intracellular organisms by using a laser confocal microscope. PMID:9119492

Barker, L P; George, K M; Falkow, S; Small, P L

1997-01-01

143

Organ transplantation from donors (cadaveric or living) with a history of malignancy: review of the literature.  

PubMed

The evolution of organ transplantation has resulted in extended lifespan as well as better life quality of patients with end-stage diseases, which in turn causes an increased demand for organs. The persistent organ shortage requires a careful reconsideration of potential donors (living or cadaveric) that have current or historical malignancies. Donors with low-grade skin tumors, carcinomas in situ of the uterine cervix, and primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors can be considered as potential donors for recipients dying on wait list longing for organ transplantation. Recently, transplant centers have turned to other types of malignancies including low grade renal cell carcinoma, prostate, ureteral, endometrial and breast cancer, and favorable outcomes have been shown in such innovations. When considering donors with a history of malignancy, general biologic behavior of the tumor type, histology and stage at the time of diagnosis, and the length of disease-free interval should be considered (Transplantation 2002;74(12):1657-1663). With the review of literatures, we illustrate the organ utilization from donors with malignancies all around the world since earlier times and give some suggestions for decision making under the circumstance of whether to choose those marginal donors or not on the basis of reviewed literatures. PMID:25135838

Zhang, Sheng; Yuan, Jin; Li, Wei; Ye, Qifa

2014-10-01

144

Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

Ando, Shin'ichiro; Profumo, Stefano [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Beacom, John F [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rainwater, David, E-mail: ando@tapir.caltech.edu, E-mail: beacom@mps.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: profumo@caltech.edu, E-mail: rain@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

2008-04-15

145

Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

Ando, Shin'ichiro; Beacom, John F.; Profumo, Stefano; Rainwater, David

2008-04-01

146

Food Security Status and Produce Intake Behaviors, Health Status, and Diabetes Risk Among Women With Children Living on a Navajo Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of adult women living on a Navajo reservation with at least one child less than 18 years old attending a primary school on the reservation investigated the relationship of food security to produce intake and behaviors, health status, and diabetes risk of these adult women. Of the 42 participants completing the survey, 8 (19.0%) were living in fully

Emma Bah Ray; David H. Holben; John P. Holcomb Jr

2012-01-01

147

Health status and resonance in a model for living organisms under periodic stress and healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the dynamic model for failures to a living organism under periodic stress and study how the health status of the organism evolves. It is found that without healing, the average fraction of intact cells decays either stepwise to zero or to a constant value far from zero, depending on the peak value of the periodic stress. As the parameter measuring the healing probability is raised from zero, the fraction exhibits oscillating behavior, reminiscent of periodic synchronization. The power spectrum at the stress frequency at first increases with the healing parameter, then decreases, which may be called healing resonance. We also study the time evolution of the system in the case that the healing parameter varies periodically with time and observe a transition from the unhealthy state to the healthy one as the healing frequency increases. This suggests how to adjust the frequency of medical treatment to the optimum.

Yoon, B.-G.; Choi, J.; Choi, M. Y.; Fortin, J.-Y.

2006-03-01

148

Medicinal Plants and Other Living Organisms with Antitumor Potential against Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. As a result, it is often associated with a significant amount of suffering and a general decrease in the quality of life. Herbal medicines are recognized as an attractive approach to lung cancer therapy with little side effects and are a major source of new drugs. The aim of this work was to review the medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. The assays were conducted with animals and humans, and Lewis lung carcinoma was the most used experimental model. China, Japan, South Korea, and Ethiopia were the countries that most published studies of species with antitumor activity. Of the 38 plants evaluated, 27 demonstrated antitumor activity. In addition, six other living organisms were cited for antitumor activity against lung cancer. Mechanisms of action, combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, and new technologies to increase activity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment are discussed. This review was based on the NAPRALERT databank, Web of Science, and Chemical Abstracts. This work shows that natural products from plants continue to be a rich source of herbal medicines or biologically active compounds against cancer. PMID:25147575

Monteiro, Luara de Sousa; Bastos, Katherine Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

2014-01-01

149

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2011-01-01

150

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2012-01-01

151

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2014-01-01

152

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2013-01-01

153

The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes  

PubMed Central

Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

?ak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, ?ukasz

2015-01-01

154

Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in free-living small mammals in Europe and Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Few data are available on the occurrence of chlamydial infections in wild small mammals. We investigated the significance of free-living small mammals as reservoirs or transmission hosts for microorganisms of the phylum/class Chlamydiae. We obtained 3,664 tissue samples from 911 animals in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Afghanistan. Samples included internal organs (n = 3,652) and feces (n = 12) from 679 rodents (order Rodentia) and 232 insectivores (order Soricomorpha) and were tested by three TaqMan® real-time PCRs specific for members of the family Chlamydiaceae and selected Chlamydia-like organisms such as Parachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp. Only one of 911 (0.11%) animals exhibited a questionable positive result by Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR. Five of 911 animals were positive by specific real-time PCR for Parachlamydia spp. but could not be confirmed by quantitative PCR targeting the Parachlamydia acanthamoebae secY gene (secY qPCR). One of 746 animals (0.13%) was positive by real-time PCR for Waddlia chondrophila. This result was confirmed by Waddlia secY qPCR. This is the first detection of Chlamydia-like organisms in small wildlife in Switzerland. Considering previous negative results for Chlamydiaceae in wild ruminant species from Switzerland, these data suggest that wild small mammals are unlikely to be important carriers or transport hosts for Chamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms. PMID:24484495

Stephan, Sarah; Guerra, Diogo; Pospischil, Andreas; Hilbe, Monika; Weissenböck, Herbert; Novotný, Ladislav; Greub, Gilbert; Croxatto, Antony; Teifke, Jens Peter; Ulrich, Rainer G; Schlegel, Mathias; Ruhl, Silke; Schotte, Ulrich; Binder, Alfred; Sauer, Sabine; Borel, Nicole

2014-04-01

155

Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.  

PubMed

Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from conventionally produced milk and provide product verification. Lack of research on interactions between several influential factors and differences in trial complexity and consistency between studies (e.g., sampling period, sample size, reporting of experimental conditions) complicate data interpretation and prevent us from making unequivocal conclusions. The first part of this review provides a detailed summary of individual factors known to influence milk composition. The second part presents an overview of studies that have compared organic and conventional milk and discusses their findings within the framework of the various factors presented in part one. PMID:25497795

Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

2015-02-01

156

Conflict of Interest Policies for Organizations Producing a Large Number of Clinical Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. Conclusions/Significance COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines. PMID:22629391

Norris, Susan L.; Holmer, Haley K.; Burda, Brittany U.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Fu, Rongwei

2012-01-01

157

Physical laws of medicine and their use in the realization of interaction of living organisms with EHF radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author examines the physical laws of medicine and biology that determine the maximum possible rate of harmonic regeneration (i.e., a rate that ensures mutually compatible functioning of the various organs and systems) of living organisms and the maximum amount of such regeneration. These laws are specific to medicine and biology and are analogs of the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

Golant, M. B.

1994-01-01

158

Sampling from living organisms: section 3 in Sampling and experiments with biofilms in the environment: chapter 6  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Living organisms, unlike inanimate surfaces, seem to exert some control over their surface microbiota, in many cases maintaining conserved, species-specific microbial communities. Microbial ecologists seek to characterize and identify these microbes to understand the roles they are playing in the larger organism's biology.

Kellogg, Christina A.

2014-01-01

159

Blood Circulation Laboratory Investigations with Video Are Less Investigative than Instructional Blood Circulation Laboratories with Live Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using…

Hoover, Mildred A.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

160

Effects of some organic pollutants on the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by some Pseudomonas spp. strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa B1, P. fluorescens B5, P. stutzeri B11 and P. putida B15 which had been seen to produce exopolymers of potential interest in biotechnological applications were examined. To initiate the observation of the organic pollutants–polymer interactions, the yield and properties of their extracellular polysaccharide were researched. The exopolysaccharide production

Dilsad Onbasli; Belma Aslim

2009-01-01

161

Associations of free-living bacteria and dissolved organic compounds in a plume of contaminated groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Associations of free-living bacteria (FLB) and dissolved organic contaminants in a 4-km-long plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater were investigated. Abundance of FLB in the core of the plume (as delineated by maximum specific conductance) steadily decreased in the direction of flow from a point 0.25 km downgradient from the source to the toe of the plume. At 0.25 km downgradient, FLB comprised up to 31% of the total bacterial population, but constituted < 7% of the population at 2 km downgradient. Abundance of FLB correlated strongly (r = 0.80 n = 23) with total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in contaminated groundwater between 0.64 and 2.1 km downgradient, although distributions of individual contaminants such as di-, tri- and tetrachloroethene were highly variable, and their association with FLB less clear. Numbers of FLB in the downgradient portion of the plume which is contaminated with branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonate (ABS) surfactants were low (< 5??108/L) in spite of relatively high levels of DOC (up to 4 mg/L). However, abundance of FLB correlated strongly with non-surfactant DOC along vertical transects through the plume. The ratio of FLB to DOC and the ratio of FLB to attached bacteria generally decreased in the direction of flow and, consequently, with the age of the organic contaminants.

Harvey, R.W.; Barber, L.B., II

1992-01-01

162

Organic Acids and Volatile Organic Compounds Produced During Traditional and Starter Culture Fermentation of Bushera, a Ugandan Fermented Cereal Beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum MINF99, Weissella confusa MINF8, Lactobacillus plantarum MINF277, Lactobacillus brevis MINF226, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei MINF98) were used to ferment Bushera during fermentation (96 h). Organic acids and volatile compounds produced during starter and natural fermentation were investigated. Microbial counts, pH, and sugars were also determined. LAB counts increased from 5.87 ±

C. M. B. K. Muyanja; J. A. Narvhus; T. Langsrud

2012-01-01

163

Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa: Role of Producers' Organizations in the Delivery of  

E-print Network

proportion of their production of export crops and, increasingly, food crops and animal production1 Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa: Role of Producers' Organizations management. With the gradual withdrawal of Government from extension services delivery, a stimulating context

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Quick transport of primary produced organic carbon to the ocean M. C. Honda,1  

E-print Network

Quick transport of primary produced organic carbon to the ocean interior M. C. Honda,1 H. Kawakami±10%,whichissignificantly higher than that in other oceans. Citation: Honda, M. C., H. Kawakami, K. Sasaoka, S. Watanabe at 150 m that is ca. 50 m below the late winter mixed layer at station K2 (M. C. Honda, unpublished data

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

165

ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC MARKETING DECISIONS FOR ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a business strategy case study of a group of agricultural producers. One aspect of their strategic decision is whether or not to establish a firm to market their organic vegetables jointly. Another aspect of the decision is which distribution channel to pursue. Data for the paper were obtained from multiple sources, including trade journals, academic journals, and

H. Christopher Peterson; Jon C. Phillips

2003-01-01

166

Unveiling TRPV1 Spatio-Temporal Organization in Live Cell Membranes.  

PubMed

Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that integrates several stimuli into nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Here we investigated the subtle TRPV1 interplay with candidate membrane partners in live cells by a combination of spatio-temporal fluctuation techniques and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We show that TRPV1 is split into three populations with fairly different molecular properties: one binding to caveolin-1 and confined into caveolar structures, one actively guided by microtubules through selective binding, and one which diffuses freely and is not directly implicated in regulating receptor functionality. The emergence of caveolin-1 as a new interactor of TRPV1 evokes caveolar endocytosis as the main desensitization pathway of TRPV1 receptor, while microtubule binding agrees with previous data suggesting the receptor stabilization in functional form by these cytoskeletal components. Our results shed light on the hitherto unknown relationships between spatial organization and TRPV1 function in live-cell membranes. PMID:25764349

Storti, Barbara; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Beltram, Fabio

2015-01-01

167

Unveiling TRPV1 Spatio-Temporal Organization in Live Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that integrates several stimuli into nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Here we investigated the subtle TRPV1 interplay with candidate membrane partners in live cells by a combination of spatio-temporal fluctuation techniques and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We show that TRPV1 is split into three populations with fairly different molecular properties: one binding to caveolin-1 and confined into caveolar structures, one actively guided by microtubules through selective binding, and one which diffuses freely and is not directly implicated in regulating receptor functionality. The emergence of caveolin-1 as a new interactor of TRPV1 evokes caveolar endocytosis as the main desensitization pathway of TRPV1 receptor, while microtubule binding agrees with previous data suggesting the receptor stabilization in functional form by these cytoskeletal components. Our results shed light on the hitherto unknown relationships between spatial organization and TRPV1 function in live-cell membranes. PMID:25764349

Storti, Barbara; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Beltram, Fabio

2015-01-01

168

Resolution Doubling in Live, Multicellular Organisms via Multifocal Structured Illumination Microscopy  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate 3D super-resolution in live multicellular organisms using structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Sparse multifocal illumination patterns generated by a digital micromirror device (DMD) let us physically reject out-of-focus light, enabling 3D subdiffractive imaging in samples 8-fold thicker than previously demonstrated with SIM. We imaged a variety of samples at one 2D image per second, at resolutions down to 145 nm laterally and 400 nm axially. In addition to dual-labeled, whole fixed cells, we imaged GFP-labeled microtubules in live transgenic zebrafish embryos at depths greater than 45 ?m. We also captured dynamic changes in the zebrafish lateral line primordium and observed the interactions between myosin IIA and F-actin in cells encapsulated within collagen gels, obtaining two-color 4D super-resolution datasets spanning tens of time points and minutes without apparent phototoxicity. Our method uses commercially available parts and open-source software and is simpler than existing SIM implementations, allowing easy integration with widefield microscopes. PMID:22581372

York, Andrew G.; Parekh, Sapun H.; Nogare, Damian Dalle; Fischer, Robert S.; Temprine, Kelsey; Mione, Marina; Chitnis, Ajay B.; Combs, Christian A.; Shroff, Hari

2012-01-01

169

Wettability-regulated extracellular electron transfer from the living organism of Shewanella loihica PV-4.  

PubMed

C-type cytochromes located on the outer membrane (OMCs) of genus Shewanella act as the main redox-active species to mediate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from the inside of the outer membrane to the external environment: the central challenge that must be met for successful EET. The redox states of OMCs play a crucial role in dictating the rate and extent of EET. Here, we report that the surface wettability of the electrodes strongly influences the EET activity of living organisms of Shewanella loihica PV-4 at a fixed external potential: the EET activity on a hydrophilic electrode is more than five times higher than that on a hydrophobic one. We propose that the redox state of OMCs varies significantly at electrodes with different wettability, resulting in different EET activities. PMID:25470810

Ding, Chun-mei; Lv, Mei-ling; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Huan

2015-01-26

170

The interplay of biomolecules and water at the origin of the active behavior of living organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the main component of living matter, namely liquid water, is not an ensemble of independent molecules but an ensemble of phase correlated molecules kept in tune by an electromagnetic (e.m) field trapped in the ensemble. This field and the correlated potential govern the interaction among biomolecules suspended in water and are in turn affected by the chemical interactions of molecules. In particular, the phase of the coherent fields appears to play an important role in this dynamics. Recent experiments reported by the Montagnier group seem to corroborate this theory. Some features of the dynamics of human organisms, as reported by psychotherapy, holistic medicine and Eastern traditions, are analyzed in this frame and could find a rationale in this context.

Del Giudice, E.; Stefanini, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Vitiello, G.

2011-12-01

171

Effect of flagellates on free-living bacterial abundance in an organically contaminated aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known about the role of protists in the saturated subsurface. Porous media microcosms containing bacteria and protists, were used to determine whether flagellates from an organically contaminated aquifer could substantively affect the number of free- living bacteria (FLB). When flagellates were present, the 3-40% maximum breakthrough of fluorescent y labelled FLB injected into the microcosms was much lower than the 60-130% observed for killed controls Grazing and clearance rates (3-27 FLB flag-1 h-1 and 12-23 nI flag-1 h-1, respectively) calculated from the data were in the range reported for flagellates in other aqueous environments. The data provide evidence that flagellate bacterivory is an important control on groundwater FLB populations.

Kinner, N.E.; Harvey, R.W.; Kazmierkiewicz-Tabaka, M.

1997-01-01

172

Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

2008-01-01

173

Assessment of chronic toxicity of petroleum and produced water components to marine organisms. Final technical summary  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the report were: (1) to determine the effects of produced water exposure in early life stages of marine plants and animals, at the cellular, subcellular, and physiological levels; (2) to determine the effects of produced water exposure on reproduction in marine organisms; and (3) to develop non-invasive approaches for assessing reproductive impairment. The effects of produced water (PW) was assessed on development in three ecologically and economically important species, the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), the giant kelp (macrocystis pyrifera), and tsahe California mussel (Mytilus califonrnianus). To determine the basis for effects of PW on these developing organisms, some fundamental studies were prerequisite. Furthermore, eggs and embryos from adults which were outplanted near the discharge were also studied. Finally, the biochemical response of embryos to PW was also defined.

Cherr, G.N.; Higashi, R.M.; Shenker, J.M.

1993-05-31

174

Laboratory and field evaluation of a pretreatment system for removing organics from produced water.  

PubMed

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. This "produced water" is characterized by saline water containing a variety of pollutants, including water soluble and immiscible organics and many inorganic species. To reuse produced water, removal of both the inorganic dissolved solids and organic compounds is necessary. In this research, the effectiveness of a pretreatment system consisting of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption followed by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was evaluated for simultaneous removal of carboxylates and hazardous substances, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from saline-produced water. A laboratory-scale MBR, operated at a 9.6-hour hydraulic residence time, degraded 92% of the carboxylates present in synthetic produced water. When BTEX was introduced simultaneously to the MBR system with the carboxylates, the system achieved 80 to 95% removal of BTEX via biodegradation. These results suggest that simultaneous biodegradation of both BTEX and carboxylate constituents found in produced water is possible. A field test conducted at a produced water disposal facility in Farmington, New Mexico confirmed the laboratory-scale results for the MBR and demonstrated enhanced removal of BTEX using a treatment train consisting of SMZ columns followed by the MBR. While most of the BTEX constituents of the produced water adsorbed onto the SMZ adsorption system, approximately 95% of the BTEX that penetrated the SMZ and entered the MBR was biodegraded in the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (influent concentrations of 120 to 170 mg/L) ranged from 91 to 100%, and total organic carbon (influent concentrations as high as 580 mg/L) ranged from 74 to 92%, respectively. Organic removal in the MBR was accomplished at a low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. While the transmembrane pressure during the laboratory-scale tests was well-controlled, it rose substantially during the field test, where no pH control was implemented. The results suggest that pretreatment with an SMZ/MBR system can provide substantial removal of organic compounds present in produced water, a necessary first step for many water-reuse applications. PMID:22073732

Kwon, Soondong; Sullivan, Enid J; Katz, Lynn E; Bowman, Robert S; Kinney, Kerry A

2011-09-01

175

Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.  

PubMed

Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013. PMID:25064352

Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

2014-09-01

176

Challenges to the involvement of people living with HIV in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations in Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

The Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS Principle (GIPA) has been a core commitment for many people involved in the community-based HIV/AIDS movement. GIPA refers to the inclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS in service delivery and decision-making processes that affect their lives. Despite its central importance to the movement, it has received little attention in the academic literature. Drawing on focus group discussions among staff members and volunteers of AIDS service organizations, activists, and community members, we explore challenges to the implementation of the GIPA principle in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations in Ontario, Canada. Our findings reveal ways in which implementing GIPA has become more complicated over recent years. Challenges relating to health, stigma and disclosure, evolving HIV/AIDS organizations, and GIPA-related tensions are identified. This paper considers our findings in light of previous research, and suggests some implications for practice. PMID:23724932

Cain, Roy; Collins, Evan; Bereket, Tarik; George, Clemon; Jackson, Randy; Li, Alan; Prentice, Tracey; Travers, Robb

2014-02-01

177

Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity  

PubMed Central

Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata – Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha – Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia – Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h?1 dm?2), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h?1) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L?1 h?1 dm?2). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial dynamics and biogeochemical parameters (i.e., DOC and oxygen availability, bacterial abundance and metabolism) in coral reef communities. PMID:22125645

Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A.; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J.; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

178

Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times: a few days, three months, and six months after launch. Once the satellite is in its highly inclined orbit, the microbes are constantly being exposed to space's high-energy radiation while in micro-gravity. The SESLO experiment measures the microbes' population density as they consume the components of the nutrient medium; a metabolism indicator dye included in the medium changes color, enabling quantitative tracking of metabolic activity. Together, these data en-able determination of the effects of the combined exposure to space radiation and microgravity on organism growth, health and survival. The design of the spacecraft, its ability to support Astrobiology goals, and the actual spaceflight data obtained will be presented.

Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio

179

In-house work opportunities: implications for housing organizations serving persons living With HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

Finding work and/or re-entering the workforce can be extremely challenging for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Also difficult is assisting them in the process, mostly because there is little documentation or resources about programs that provide vocational services specifically for this population. In response to this dilemma and because it was perceived as a win/win situation, three urban residential community organizations serving the HIV/AIDS population, decided independently to create in-house work opportunities for their clients. All of these organizations are a variation of the same theme: transitional/supportive housing for persons with HIV/AIDS that were formerly homeless and are now interested in becoming increasingly self-sufficient. This article will present a program description that addresses unique manner in which these three sites created in-house job programs in the areas of receptionist, kitchen, and maintenance work. More specifically, this paper will address the strengths, limitations, and ethical considerations that guided program development. PMID:17006001

Egan, Brad E; Hoagland, Joanne

2006-01-01

180

Atomic force microscopy as nano-stethoscope to study living organisms, insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a known method to study various surfaces. Here we report on the use of AFM to study surface oscillations (coming from the work of internal organs) of living organisms, like insects. As an example, ladybird beetles (Hippodamia convergens) measured in different parts of the insect at picometer level. This allows us to record a much broader spectral range of possible surface vibrations (up to several kHz) than the previously studied oscillations due to breathing, heartbeat cycles, coelopulses, etc. (up to 5 -10 Hz). The used here AFM method allows collecting signal from the area as small as ˜100nm2 (0.0001?m2) with an example of noise level of (2±0.2)x10-3 nm r.m.s. at the range of frequencies >50Hz (potentially, up to a MHz). Application of this method to humans is discussed. The method, being a relatively non-invasive technique providing a new type of information, may be useful in developing of what could be called ``nanophysiology.''

Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia

2012-02-01

181

Organic and inorganic species in produced water: Implications for water reuse  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Currently 20-30 billion bbl/yr of formation water are co-produced in the US with conventional oil and natural gas. The large database on the geochemistry of this produced water shows salinities that vary widely from ??? 5000 to > 350,000 mg/L TDS. Chloride, Na, and Ca are generally the dominant ions, and concentrations of Fe, Mn, B, NH3, and dissolved organics, including, BTEX, phenols and PAH may be relatively high. As an alternative to costly disposal, low salinity produced water is being considered for reclamation, especially in the arid western US. The cost of reclaiming this water to meet irrigation, industrial, and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study at Placerita oil field, CA. This produced water had low salinity but high concentration of Si and organics. Removal of B, Si, NH3, and especially organics from this water proved difficult, and the estimated treatment cost was high for water treated for industrial and municipal uses.

Kharaka, Y.K.; Rice, C.A.

2004-01-01

182

Immunogenicity of Live Attenuated B. pertussis BPZE1 Producing the Universal Influenza Vaccine Candidate M2e  

PubMed Central

Background Intranasal delivery of vaccines directed against respiratory pathogens is an attractive alternative to parenteral administration. However, using this delivery route for inactivated vaccines usually requires the use of potent mucosal adjuvants, and no such adjuvant has yet been approved for human use. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine, called BPZE1, and show here that it can be used to present the universal influenza virus epitope M2e to the mouse respiratory tract to prime for protective immunity against viral challenge. Three copies of M2e were genetically fused to the N-terminal domain of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and produced in recombinant BPZE1 derivatives in the presence or absence of endogenous full-length FHA. Only in the absence of FHA intranasal administration of the recombinant BPZE1 derivative induced antibody responses to M2e and effectively primed BALB/c mice for protection against influenza virus-induced mortality and reduced the viral load after challenge. Strong M2e-specific antibody responses and protection were observed after a single nasal administration with the recombinant BPZE1 derivative, followed by a single administration of M2e linked to a virus-like particle without adjuvant, whereas priming alone with the vaccine strain did not protect. Conclusions/Significance Using recombinant FHA-3M2e-producing BPZE1 derivatives for priming and the universal influenza M2e peptide linked to virus-like particles for boosting may constitute a promising approach for needle-free and adjuvant-free nasal vaccination against influenza. PMID:23555631

Kammoun, Hana; Roux, Xavier; Raze, Dominique; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; De Filette, Marina; Ysenbaert, Tine; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Saelens, Xavier; Fiers, Walter; Locht, Camille

2013-01-01

183

Are organic molecules produced by nebular Fischer-Tropsch processes preserved in comets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles, thought to be of cometary origin, contain solid phases that were likely produced by gas-grain reactions in nebular environments. In the course of laboratory simulations addressed to reproduce under nebular conditions such distinctive mineralogies, simple organic molecules are formed through Fischer-Tropsch-type processes, suggesting that part of the organic volatiles in comets may have had a nebular origin. On the basis of these experiments, the relative abundances of homologous volatile hydrocarbons and the implications for the possible existence of thiols and sulfonic acids in comets are discussed.

Llorca, Jordi

184

Koalas use a novel vocal organ to produce unusually low-pitched mating calls.  

PubMed

During the breeding season, male koalas produce 'bellow' vocalisations that are characterised by a continuous series of inhalation and exhalation sections, and an extremely low fundamental frequency (the main acoustic correlate of perceived pitch) [1]. Remarkably, the fundamental frequency (F0) of bellow inhalation sections averages 27.1 Hz (range: 9.8-61.5 Hz [1]), which is 20 times lower than would be expected for an animal weighing 8 kg [2] and more typical of an animal the size of an elephant (Supplemental figure S1A). Here, we demonstrate that koalas use a novel vocal organ to produce their unusually low-pitched mating calls. PMID:24309276

Charlton, Benjamin D; Frey, Roland; McKinnon, Allan J; Fritsch, Guido; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Reby, David

2013-12-01

185

Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization  

SciTech Connect

Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

Silvey, Andrea B. [Quality Improvement, Health Services Advisory Group, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Warrick, Louise H. [Healthcare Consultant, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: lwarrick@cox.net

2008-05-01

186

Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.  

PubMed

Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

2014-12-15

187

Design of homo-organic acid producing strains using multi-objective optimization.  

PubMed

Production of homo-organic acids without byproducts is an important challenge in bioprocess engineering to minimize operation cost for separation processes. In this study, we used multi-objective optimization to design Escherichia coli strains with the goals of maximally producing target organic acids, while maintaining sufficiently high growth rate and minimizing the secretion of undesired byproducts. Homo-productions of acetic, lactic and succinic acids were targeted as examples. Engineered E. coli strains capable of producing homo-acetic and homo-lactic acids could be developed by taking this systems approach for the minimal identification of gene knockout targets. Also, failure to predict effective gene knockout targets for the homo-succinic acid production suggests that the multi-objective optimization is useful in assessing the suitability of a microorganism as a host strain for the production of a homo-organic acid. The systems metabolic engineering-based approach reported here should be applicable to the production of other industrially important organic acids. PMID:25542849

Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Myoung; Kim, Hyun Uk; Cho, Kwang Myung; Lee, Sang Yup

2015-03-01

188

Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter  

PubMed Central

Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a vast quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between organic and inorganic forms, directly impacting global cycles of these biologically important elements. Details regarding the chemical composition of DOM produced by marine phytoplankton are sparse, and while often assumed, it is not currently known if phylogenetically distinct groups of marine phytoplankton release characteristic suites of DOM. To investigate the relationship between specific phytoplankton groups and the DOM they release, hydrophobic phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMP) from eight axenic strains was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Identification of DOM features derived from Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Thalassiosira, and Phaeodactylum revealed DOMP to be complex and highly strain dependent. Connections between DOMP features and the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains were identified on multiple levels of phylogenetic distance, suggesting that marine phytoplankton produce DOM that in part reflects its phylogenetic origin. Chemical information regarding the size and polarity ranges of features from defined biological sources was also obtained. Our findings reveal DOMP composition to be partially conserved among related phytoplankton species, and implicate marine DOM as a potential factor influencing microbial diversity in the sea by acting as a link between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community structures. PMID:24748874

Becker, Jamie W.; Berube, Paul M.; Follett, Christopher L.; Waterbury, John B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

189

A 'NanoSuit' surface shield successfully protects organisms in high vacuum: observations on living organisms in an FE-SEM.  

PubMed

Although extremely useful for a wide range of investigations, the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) has not allowed researchers to observe living organisms. However, we have recently reported that a simple surface modification consisting of a thin extra layer, termed 'NanoSuit', can keep organisms alive in the high vacuum (10(-5) to 10(-7) Pa) of the SEM. This paper further explores the protective properties of the NanoSuit surface-shield. We found that a NanoSuit formed with the optimum concentration of Tween 20 faithfully preserves the integrity of an organism's surface without interfering with SEM imaging. We also found that electrostatic charging was absent as long as the organisms were alive, even if they had not been coated with electrically conducting materials. This result suggests that living organisms possess their own electrical conductors and/or rely on certain properties of the surface to inhibit charging. The NanoSuit seems to prolong the charge-free condition and increase survival time under vacuum. These findings should encourage the development of more sophisticated observation methods for studying living organisms in an FE-SEM. PMID:25631998

Takaku, Yasuharu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohta, Isao; Tsutsui, Takami; Matsumoto, Haruko; Shimomura, Masatsugu; Hariyama, Takahiko

2015-03-01

190

Generation of living color transgenic zebrafish to trace somatostatin-expressing cells and endocrine pancreas organization.  

PubMed

In the present study, both gfp and rfp transgenic zebrafish lines using a 2.5-kb zebrafish somatostatin2 (sst2) promoter were generated. During embryonic development, expression of GFP/RFP in the endocrine pancreas of transgenic embryos was initiated at approximately 20 hpf and the number of GFP/RFP positive cells in the pancreas increased in subsequent stages; thus, our newly generated Tg(sst2:gfp) and Tg(sst2:rfp) lines faithfully recapitulated sst2 expression in endocrine pancreatic cells and provided a useful tool in analyzing the development of Sst2-producing delta-cells in the pancreas. By crossing these new transgenic lines with previously available transgenic lines targeted in insulin (Ins)-producing beta-cells, Tg(ins:gfp) and Tg(ins:rfp), in combination with immunodetection of glucagon (Gcg)-producing alpha-cells and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-producing PP-cells, the organization and composition of endocrine islets were investigated in both embryonic and adult pancreas. We found that there was always a big cluster of endocrine cells (principal islet) in the anterior-dorsal pancreas, followed by numerous smaller clusters (variable in size) of endocrine cells (secondary islets) along the anterior-posterior axis of the pancreas. All four types of endocrine cells were found in the principal islet, but secondary islets may or may not contain PP-cells. In addition, there were also discrete endocrine cells throughout the pancreas. In all co-localization experiments, we did not find any endocrine cells positive for more than one hormone markers, suggesting that these endocrine cells produce only a single hormone. In both principal and secondary islets, we found that beta-cells were generally located in the center and non-beta cells in the periphery; reminiscent of the "mantel-core" organization of islets of Langerhans in mammals where beta-cells form the core and non-beta-cells the mantel. In zebrafish primary islet, beta-cells constitute most of the mass (approximately 50%), followed by delta-cells and alpha-cells (20-25% each), and PP-cells (1-2%); this is also similar to the composition of mammalian islets. PMID:19281772

Li, Zhen; Wen, Chaoming; Peng, Jinrong; Korzh, Vladimir; Gong, Zhiyuan

2009-02-01

191

The meanings of organ donation: Muslims of Pakistani origin and white English nationals living in North England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the meanings of organ donation, with emphasis on donating eyes and hearts, comparing people across gender and across two ethnic groups. Four focus group interviews were conducted with people living in the North of England: (1) five Muslim women of Pakistani origin, (2) five Muslim men of Pakistani origin, (3) nine white English women, and (4) eight

Clare Hayward; Anna Madill

2003-01-01

192

The ability of living organisms to perceive mechanical forces is crucial for interacting with the physical world.  

E-print Network

with the physical world. Mechanotransduction, the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into a biological responseThe ability of living organisms to perceive mechanical forces is crucial for interacting evolution. The first mechanosensitive channel in bacteria and archaea arose as a mechanism for cell

Alford, Simon

193

``Living polymers'' in organic solvents : stress relaxation in bicopper tetracarboxylate/tert-butyl cyclohexane solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscoelastic solutions of a bicopper tetracarboxylate complex in tert-butylcyclohexane have been studied by dynamic rheology in a wide range of concentrations (0.5-1.5 % volume fraction). The zero shear viscosity, the elastic modulus, the terminal stress relaxation time and the height of the high-frequency dip, in a Cole-Cole representation of the complex elastic modulus, follow scaling laws. The related exponents are discussed in the context of the physics of “living polymers” : a term used to describe worm-like species undergoing scission/recombination reactions competing mainly with the reptation motions of the chains. The current system, made up of molecular threads (17.5 Å diameter) of Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 in the apolar solvent, is representative of a “living polymer” where, instead of mechanisms involving transient star polymeric crosslinks, a reversible scission mechanism prevails. The dynamics in the high-frequency range evolves from a regime where reptation is the dominant relaxation mechanism to a cross-over regime where “breathing” fluctuations and Rouse motions become important. Large modifications of the stress relaxation function occur for more concentrated systems. The binary system is the first example of a “living polymer” in an organic solvent and exhibits elastic moduli (G ? ca. 120 Pa à ? = 1 %) which are at least 20 times larger than those found for the aqueous “living polymer” systems. Les solutions viscoélastiques d'un tétracarboxylate binucléaire de cuivre dans le tert-butylcyclohexane sont étudiées par rhéologie en mode dynamique dans une gamme étendue de concentrations (0,5 %-15,5 %). La viscosité à gradient nul, le module élastique, le temps terminal de relaxation et la hauteur du puits à haute fréquence, dans une représentation Cole-Cole du module élastique complexe, suivent des lois d'échelles. Les exposants correspondants sont discutés dans le contexte de la physique des “polymères vivants" : un terme utilisé pour décrire des espèces vermiformes subissant des réactions de scission/recombinaison en compétition principalement avec les mouvements de reptation des chaînes. Le système constitué de fils moléculaires (17,5 Å de diamètre) de Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 dans le solvant apolaire est typique de “polymères vivants” où le mécanisme de scission réversible prévaut plutôt que les mécanismes impliquant des nœuds transitoires branchés. La dynamique dans le domaine des hautes fréquences évolue d'un régime où la reptation est le mécanisme de relaxation dominant vers un régime intermédiaire où les modes de “respiration” et de Rouse deviennent importants. D'importantes modifications de la relaxation de contrainte se produisent pour les systèmes concentrés. Le système binaire est le premier exemple de “polymère vivant” en milieu organique et présente des modules élastiques (G ? ca. 120 Pa à ? = 1 %) qui sont au moins 20 fois plus grands que ceux des homologues aqueux.

Terech, P.; Maldivi, P.; Dammer, C.

1994-10-01

194

The influence of the pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on living organisms  

SciTech Connect

The authors treated 96 patients with pseudoartroses by means of PEMF with the efficiency of 86%. They also treated 19 patients with decubitus and had improvements in all cases. In 58 PEMF treated asthma patients 80% improved. In 41 patients suffering from angina pectoris 90% reduce the need for nitroglycerine lingualetes. In order to eliminate the influence of the placebo and the sinergy, they prepared some experiments with barely and wheat seeds. All this experiments were performed several times with very similar results: Barley seeds were pretreated by PEMF for 1 hour and then planted into Petri's dish. In the stimulated dish, after 72 hours of germination there were three times more seeds with 6 roots then in the control. The embryos of the stimulated dish were stronger and longer compared to the controls. In the other experiment, fungi inoculated wheat seeds were pretreated for 4 hours by PEMF. After 72 hours of germination in a Petri's dish the disease was inhibited compared to the control dish. From all this they conclude that almost every process in a living organism is affected and might be controlled by PEMF.

Pekaric-Nadj, N.; Lazetic, B.; Sep, D.

1991-03-11

195

The space exposure platforms BIOPAN and EXPOSE to study living organisms in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BIOPAN and EXPOSE are two European space exposure platforms developed for the European Space Agency by Kayser-Threde GmbH Munich Germany to offer flight opportunities to the science community of exo astrobiology research in low earth orbit Both platforms are conceived for the research on the behaviour of living organisms in the environment of space and on simulated conditions of other planets Mars The conditions for a possible transfer of life between planets can be studied Both facilities can also be used for materials and components validation and as test bed for advanced technologies envisaged for future exploration missions radio-protection miniaturized devices electronic components Since 1992 BIOPAN has flown five times aboard the Russian FOTON re-entry capsule 25 experiments in exo astrobiology radiation biology and radiation dosimetry have been conducted so far The pan-shaped experiment container BIOPAN can be installed onto the outer surface of its carrier satellite The orbital flight duration is typically two weeks The re-entry capsule with its experiments is recovered after landing and the experiment samples are returned to the ground laboratories of the scientific investigators for post-flight analysis Experiments flown so far with BIOPAN include bacterial spores mixed with Martian soil analogues to test the alleged toxicity of the Martian soil while irradiated in space by solar UV at dose and wavelength levels comparable to those on Mars experiment MARSTOX permafrost soil samples with their embedded natural ancient

Schulte, W.

196

Live attenuated influenza viruses produced in a suspension process with avian AGE1.CR.pIX cells  

PubMed Central

Background Current influenza vaccines are trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated split or subunit vaccines administered intramuscularly, or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) adapted to replicate at temperatures below body temperature and administered intranasally. Both vaccines are considered safe and efficient, but due to differences in specific properties may complement each other to ensure reliable vaccine coverage. By now, licensed LAIV are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. In the near future influenza vaccines for human use will also be available from adherent MDCK or Vero cell cultures, but a scalable suspension process may facilitate production and supply with vaccines. Results We evaluated the production of cold-adapted human influenza virus strains in the duck suspension cell line AGE1.CR.pIX using a chemically-defined medium. One cold-adapted A (H1N1) and one cold-adapted B virus strain was tested, as well as the reference strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). It is shown that a medium exchange is not required for infection and that maximum virus titers are obtained for 1?×?10-6 trypsin units per cell. 1 L bioreactor cultivations showed that 4?×?106 cells/mL can be infected without a cell density effect achieving titers of 1?×?108 virions/mL after 24 h. Conclusions Overall, this study demonstrates that AGE1.CR.pIX cells support replication of LAIV strains in a chemically-defined medium using a simple process without medium exchanges. Moreover, the process is fast with peak titers obtained 24 h post infection and easily scalable to industrial volumes as neither microcarriers nor medium replacements are required. PMID:23110398

2012-01-01

197

Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying to jets in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in pp collisions at ?{ s} = 8 TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb-1 of data collected in proton-proton collisions at ?{ s} = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.

2015-04-01

198

Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV  

E-print Network

The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

ATLAS Collaboration

2015-03-07

199

Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV  

E-print Network

The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin

2015-01-01

200

Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes  

PubMed Central

In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

2014-01-01

201

Biodegradation of photosynthetically produced extracellular organic carbon from intertidal benthic algae.  

PubMed

14C-labeled extracellular products of a natural microphytobenthic community and two species of benthic diatoms (Nitzschia hybridaeformis and Amphora coffeaeformis) were fractionated into extracellular dissolved organic carbon (14C-EDOC), organic carbon extracted with EDTA (14C-EDTA-extractable OC) and extracellular polymeric substances (14C-EPS). The biodegradation of this labeled extracellular organic carbon by bacteria in sediments was examined to determine the processes of enzymatic degradation of photosynthetically-produced extracellular organic carbon from microphytobenthos in an intertidal flat ecosystem. In addition, primary production as well as extracellular enzyme activities (beta- and alpha-glucosidase) were measured to evaluate the possible relationship between organic carbon production and microbiological degradation at the Isshiki intertidal flat in Mikawa Bay, Japan. With all three 14C-fractions extracted from a natural microphytobenthic assemblage and two species of benthic diatoms, more than 50% of the added substrates were mineralized within 24 h by the bacterial community in sediments. At that time, the percentage of high-molecular-weight compounds (>5 K MW) to total MW compounds of 14C-EDTA-extractable OC and 14C-EPS fractions decreased within 24 h from 50.9 to 6.6% and 74.5 to 11.1%, respectively. In situ, beta- and alpha-glucosidase activity in sediment was higher than in the seawater column (at a depth of 1 m), though the photosynthetic production of microphytobenthos was equal to that of phytoplankton. Based on our previous studies that microphytobenthos produced much more extracellular products than phytoplankton, it is assumed from these results that carbon flowing into the microbial loop through the mediation of enzymatic degradation of extracellular products in a benthic system exceeds that in the overlying water column. PMID:11165300

Goto, N; Mitamura, O; Terai, H

2001-02-20

202

Blood circulation laboratory investigations with video are less investigative than instructional blood circulation laboratories with live organisms.  

PubMed

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using microscopes (128 students) and 5 classes using digital video (131 students) to compare blood transport among invertebrates, fish, and humans. The "What Is Happening in this Class?" (WIHIC) questionnaire was used for assessment of microscope and video groups to detect students' perception of their learning environment following these teaching interventions. The use of microscopes had a clear effect on the perception of the investigative aspects of the learning environment that was not detected with the video treatment. Findings suggest that video should not replace investigations with live organisms. PMID:18334569

Hoover, Mildred A; Pelaez, Nancy J

2008-03-01

203

Blood circulation laboratory investigations with video are less investigative than instructional blood circulation laboratories with live organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using microscopes (128 students) and 5 classes using digital video (131 students) to compare blood transport among invertebrates, fish, and humans. The "What Is Happening in this Class?" (WIHIC) questionnaire was used for assessment of microscope and video groups to detect students' perception of their learning environment following these teaching interventions. The use of microscopes had a clear effect on the perception of the investigative aspects of the learning environment that was not detected with the video treatment. Findings suggest that video should not replace investigations with live organisms.

Ms. Mildred A. Hoover (Curtin Univ Technol)

2007-07-26

204

Organic and Inorganic Species in CBM Produced Water: Implications for Water Management Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal-bed methane (CBM) wells currently produce close to one billion bbl of water annually and deliver about 8% of total natural gas in the USA. The salinity of this produced water generally is lower than that of water from conventional petroleum wells; salinity commonly is 1,000-20,000 mg/L, but ranges from 200 to 150,000 mg/L TDS. Most CBM wells produce Na-HCO3-Cl type water that is low in trace metals and has no reported NORMs. This water generally has no oil and grease and has relatively low (2-10 mg/L) dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but its organic composition has not been characterized in detail. The water is disposed of by injection into saline aquifers, through evaporation and/or percolation in disposal pits, road spreading, and surface discharge. Water that has low (<1,000 mg/L TDS) salinity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is considered acceptable for irrigation, surface discharge and for injection into freshwater aquifers. Because groundwater associated with coal, especially with lignite and subbituminous coal, is known to contain a variety of toxic or potentially toxic organics, including hydroxyphenols and PAHs, the organic and inorganic compositions of CBM waters should be systematically characterized and their potential for harm to human health, crops and the environment carefully evaluated prior to its addition to existing water supplies. As an alternative to costly disposal, lower salinity produced water from high-yield CBM wells is being considered for reclamation. The treated water would be a valuable new water resource, especially in the arid western USA. The feasibility and cost of reclaiming produced water to meet irrigation, industrial and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study. The estimated treatment cost was high at about 0.39/bbl (3,000/acre-ft) for potable water, but would be substantially lower and competitive for irrigation and industrial uses in some arid regions of the USA.

Kharaka, Y. K.; Rice, C. A.

2003-12-01

205

Surface enhanced Raman scattering on Tardigrada--towards monitoring and imaging molecular structures in live cryptobiotic organisms.  

PubMed

Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans which are able to survive extreme physical and chemical conditions by entering a stress tolerant state called cryptobiosis. At present, the molecular mechanisms behind cryptobiosis are still poorly understood. We show that surface enhanced Raman scattering supported by plasmonic gold nanoparticles can measure molecular constituents and their local distribution in live tardigrades. Surface enhanced Raman signatures allow to differentiate between two species and indicate molecular structural differences between tardigrades in water and in a dry state. This opens new avenues for exploring cryptobiosis by studying molecular changes in live cryptobiotic organisms. PMID:23225705

Kneipp, Harald; Møbjerg, Nadja; Jørgensen, Aslak; Bohr, Henrik G; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Katrin

2013-10-01

206

Avermectins, New Family of Potent Anthelmintic Agents: Producing Organism and Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The avermectins are a complex of chemically related agents which exhibit extraordinarily potent anthelmintic activity. They are produced by a novel species of actinomycete, NRRL 8165, which we have named Streptomyces avermitilis. The morphological and cultural characteristics which differentiate the producing organism from other species are described. The avermectins have been identified as a series of macrocyclic lactone derivatives which, in contrast to the macrolide or polyene antibiotics, lack significant antibacterial or antifungal activity. The avermectin complex is fully active against the gastrointestinal nematode Nematospiroides dubius when fed to infected mice for 6 days at 0.0002% of the diet. Fermentation development, including medium modification and strain selection, resulted in increasing the broth yields from 9 to 500 ?g/ml. Images PMID:464561

Burg, Richard W.; Miller, Brinton M.; Baker, Edward E.; Birnbaum, Jerome; Currie, Sara A.; Hartman, Robert; Kong, Yu-Lin; Monaghan, Richard L.; Olson, George; Putter, Irving; Tunac, Josefino B.; Wallick, Hyman; Stapley, Edward O.; Oiwa, Ruiko; ?mura, Satoshi

1979-01-01

207

Tetrocarcins, novel antitumor antibiotics. I. Producing organism, fermentation and antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

A novel antitumor antibiotic complex has been obtained from the culture broth of Actinomycete strain DO-11 (KY11091) isolated from a soil sample collected in Sendai, Miyagi, Japan. On the taxonomic studies the producing organism is described as Micromonospora chalcea KY11091. For the production of the antibiotics, soluble starch served as a good carbon source and yeast extract was the best nitrogen source tested. The antibiotic complex designated as tetrocarcins is active against Gram-positive bacteria, but is not active against Gram-negative bacteria. Tetrocarcin A showed bacteriocidal activity against Bacillus subtilis. PMID:6893706

Tomita, F; Tamaoki, T

1980-09-01

208

Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects  

PubMed Central

Nanosizing effects of materials on biological organisms was investigated by biochemical cell functional tests, cell proliferation and animal implantation testing. The increase in specific surface area causes the enhancement of ionic dissolution and serious toxicity for soluble, stimulative materials. This effect originates solely from materials and enhances the same functions as those in a macroscopic size as a catalyst. There are other effects that become prominent, especially for non-soluble, biocompatible materials such as Ti. Particle size dependence showed the critical size for the transition of behaviour is at approximately 100??m, 10??m and 200?nm. This effect has its origin in the biological interaction process between both particles and cells/tissue. Expression of superoxide anions, cytokines tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? from neutrophils was increased with the decrease in particle size and especially pronounced below 10??m, inducing phagocytosis to cells and inflammation of tissue, although inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis showed no dissolution from Ti particles. Below 200?nm, stimulus decreases, then particles invade into the internal body through the respiratory or digestive systems and diffuse inside the body. Although macroscopic hydroxyapatite, which exhibits excellent osteoconductivity, is not replaced with natural bone, nanoapatite composites induce both phagocytosis of composites by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts when implanted in bone defects. The progress of this bioreaction results in the conversion of functions to bone substitution. Although macroscopic graphite is non-cell adhesive, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cell adhesive. The adsorption of proteins and nano-meshwork structure contribute to the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and restricts reaction to the size-sensitive phagocytosis. Materials larger than cell size, approximately 10??m, behave inertly, but those smaller become biointeractive and induce the intrinsic functions of living organisms. This bioreaction process causes the conversion of functions such as from biocompatibility to stimulus in Ti-abraded particles, from non-bone substitutional to bone substitutional in nanoapatite and from non-cell adhesive to cell adhesive CNTs. The insensitive nature permits nanoparticles that are less than 200?nm to slip through body defence systems and invade directly into the internal body. PMID:19364724

Watari, Fumio; Takashi, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Abe, Shigeaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Tohji, Kazuyuki

2009-01-01

209

Lively Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

Juliana Texley

2002-01-01

210

Associations of Organic Produce Consumption with Socioeconomic Status and the Local Food Environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53–94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either “sometimes” or “often or always”. Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84–0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p?=?0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02–1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00–1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99–1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food. PMID:23936098

Curl, Cynthia L.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D.; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

2013-01-01

211

Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).  

PubMed

Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p?=?0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food. PMID:23936098

Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Diez-Roux, Ana V

2013-01-01

212

Community structure evolution and enrichment of glycogen-accumulating organisms producing polyhydroxyalkanoates from fermented molasses.  

PubMed

An open mixed culture was enriched with glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) by using a sequencing batch reactor and treating an agroindustrial waste (sugar cane molasses) under cyclic anaerobic-aerobic conditions. Over a 1-year operating period, the culture exhibited a very stable GAO phenotype with an average polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content of 17% total suspended solids. However, the GAO microbial community evolved over the course of operation to a culture exhibiting unusual characteristics in producing PHAs comprised of short-chain-length monomers, namely, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate, and also, up to 31 mol% of the medium-chain-length (MCL) monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). Microbial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a concurrent long-term drift in the GAO community balance, from mainly "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis" to mainly Defluviicoccus vanus-related organisms. The production of 3HHx was confirmed by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and appeared to be related to the increased presence of D. vanus-related GAOs. These results suggest a broadened spectrum of material, chemical, and mechanical properties that can be achieved for biopolymers produced by open mixed cultures from fermented waste. The increased spectrum of polymer properties brings a wider scope of potential applications. PMID:19465533

Pisco, Ana R; Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Reis, Maria A M; Lemos, Paulo C

2009-07-01

213

Physico-chemical properties of Pd nanoparticles produced by Pulsed Laser Ablation in different organic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palladium nanoparticles are arousing an increasing interest because of their strong activity in heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of reactions. Driven by the interest of producing Pd nanoparticles to be deposited for catalysis over hydrophobic supports, we investigated their synthesis via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid in several organic solvents, as acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, toluene, n-hexane. The colloids were produced by using a Nd:YAG ns laser and without the addition of surfactant agents. The morphology, composition, stability and oxidation state of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by TEM-EDS analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results evidence that the nature of the solvent influences both the yield and the physico-chemical properties of the produced nanoparticles. While in acetone and alcohols spheroidal, non aggregated and stable particles are obtained, in case of toluene and n-hexane few unstable particles surrounded by a gel-like material are produced. Raman/XPS measurements suggest the presence of amorphous or graphitic carbon onto crystalline Pd nanoparticles, which could have hindered their growth and determined the observed smaller sizes if compared to nanoparticles produced in water. The stability of Pd colloids obtained in acetone and alcohols was attributed to adsorbed anions like enolates or alcoholates; non polar solvents like toluene and n-hexane, unable to give rise to adsorbed anionic species, cannot provide any stabilization to the palladium nanoparticles. XPS analyses also evidenced a partial oxidation of particles surface, with a ratio Pd 2+:Pd 0 of 1:2.5 and 1:4 in acetone and ethanol, respectively.

Cristoforetti, Gabriele; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Spiniello, Roberto; Ishak, Randa; Giammanco, Francesco; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Caporali, Stefano

2012-01-01

214

Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

2011-09-01

215

Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments.  

PubMed

Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells. PMID:21891839

Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Viallet, B; Thibault, C; Ressier, L

2011-09-30

216

Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).  

PubMed

Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control. PMID:25654207

Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedzi?ski, Mieczys?aw W; Frega, Natale G

2015-05-01

217

Signing cards, saving lives: an evaluation of the worksite organ donation promotion project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desperate need for organ donors in the United States could be filled if every person eligible became an organ donor. Unfortunately, few organ donation campaigns exist, and fewer still have been evaluated empirically. This study has two objectives: to describe a worksite organ donation campaign and test campaign effects, and to test the Model of Behavioral Willingness to Donate

Susan Morgan; Jenny Miller; Lily Arasaratnam

2002-01-01

218

Distribution of living benthic foraminifera off the Douro river (western Iberian margin): the importance of the terrestrial organic matter.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living (stained) benthic foraminifera assemblages and geochemical characterization of the organic matter (phytopigments, amino acids, ?13Coc, BIT) were investigated on a cross-margin transect off the Douro River (Northern Portuguese margin) in order to assess the role of the quality of organic matter on the distribution of live benthic foraminifera. For this, 5 stations ranging from 50 to 2000 m depth were collected in March 2011 about one month after the Douro River annual flood. Faunal abundances generally decrease from the coast to the slope with maximum total densities of 3051 ind./50 cm3 in the mudbelt (Q50=32µm) at 100 m and minimum density of 63 ind./50 cm3 found at 500 m water depth where grain size is coarse (Q50=190µm). Faunas of the shallow most station are dominated by Ammonia becarii, Eggerella scabra, Bulimina aculeata and Nonion scaphum while N. scaphum and to a lesser extent Uvigerina bifurcata dominate the assemblages at 100 m. The deepest stations are dominated by Uvigerina mediterranea, Hoeglundina elegans and Reophax scorpiurus. In general, live benthic foraminiferal densities are higher where the indicators of organic matter are more concentrated. However, some species appear to have strong affinities with Chl-a (e.g., N. scaphum, U. bifurcata), while others (A. becarii, E. Scabra, B. aculeata) are more abundant where labile organic matter is high as show by the EHAA/THAA amino acid ratio. The species that show a good correlation with Chl-a also show affinity with organic matter of terrestrial origin as show by the ?13Coc suggesting 1) that Chl-a measured in the coastal zone is not only marine and 2) that land plant derived organic matter could be an important source of food for marine benthic communities.

Bonnin, Jerome; Dessandier, Pierre-Antoine; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gremare, Antoine; Deflandre, Bruno; Sinnighe-Damste, Jaap

2014-05-01

219

Using Homolog Groups to Create a Whole-Genomic Tree of Free-Living Organisms: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Genomic trees have been constructed based on the presence and absence of families of protein-encoding genes observed in 27\\u000a complete genomes, including genomes of 15 free-living organisms. This method does not rely on the identification of suspected\\u000a orthologs in each genome, nor the specific alignment used to compare gene sequences because the protein-encoding gene families\\u000a are formed by grouping

Christopher H. House; Sorel T. Fitz-Gibbon

2002-01-01

220

Direct Analysis of Large Living Organism by Megavolt Electrostatic Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ambient ionization method allowing the direct chemical analysis of living human body by mass spectrometry (MS) was developed. This MS method, namely Megavolt Electrostatic Ionization Mass Spectrometry, is based on electrostatic charging of a living individual to megavolt (MV) potential, illicit drugs, and explosives on skin/glove, flammable solvent on cloth/tissue paper, and volatile food substances in breath were readily ionized and detected by a mass spectrometer.

Ng, Kwan-Ming; Tang, Ho-Wai; Man, Sin-Heng; Mak, Pui-Yuk; Choi, Yi-Ching; Wong, Melody Yee-Man

2014-09-01

221

Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2?m filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10?M C6H12O6), ammonium (1?M NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1?M K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which can be linked to this bacterial production. FISH analysis showed percentage abundance of Pelagibacter ubique (SAR 11) and of Alteromonas. On-going and future work will ascertain if specific microbial communities produce CDOM more readily than others, and if these different populations produce varying fluorescence peaks, thus indicating a range of chromophoric groups being produced by bacteria. An additional suite of probes will be used for further FISH analysis to identify percentages of other populations, and seasonal/temporal variations will be investigated.

McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

2013-12-01

222

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

2014-01-01

223

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

2011-01-01

224

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

2013-01-01

225

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

2012-01-01

226

Food system orientation and quality perception among consumers and producers of organic food in Hedmark County, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the potentials of organic agriculture, it is important to know how consumers, as well as producers, relate to food quality and food system issues. A consumer survey from the Hamar region in Southern Norway provided information on a number of these issues, and a rapid food system appraisal and a seminar revealed concerns among organic farmers in the

Hanne Torjusen; Geir Lieblein; Margareta Wandel; Charles A Francis

2001-01-01

227

The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire  

E-print Network

The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which, primarily owing to milk's nutritional and antimicrobial content1 . Lactation, the synthesis and secretion of milk, is made possible by the architecture of the gland. Like other organs used for fluid transport

Nelson, Celeste M.

228

Reimbursing Live Organ Donors for Incurred Non-Medical Expenses: A Global Perspective on Policies and Programs  

PubMed Central

Methods to reimburse living organ donors for the non-medical expenses they incur have been implemented in some jurisdictions and are being considered in others. A global understanding of existing legislation and programs would help decision makers implement and optimize policies and programs. We searched for and collected data from countries that practice living organ donation. We examined legislation and programs that facilitate reimbursement, focusing on policy mechanisms, eligibility criteria, program duration and types of expenses reimbursed. Of 40 countries, reimbursement is expressly legal in 16, unclear in 18, unspecified in 6 and expressly prohibited in 1. Donor reimbursement programs exist in 21 countries; 6 have been enacted in the last 5 years. Lost income is reimbursed in 17 countries, while travel, accommodation, meal and childcare costs are reimbursed in 12 to 19 countries. Ten countries have comprehensive programs, where all major cost categories are reimbursed to some extent. Out-of-country donors are reimbursed in 10 jurisdictions. Reimbursement is conditional on donor income in 7 countries, and recipient income in 2 countries. Many nations have programs that help living donors with their financial costs. These programs differ in operation and scope. Donors in other regions of the world are without support. PMID:19788503

Sickand, M.; Cuerden, M. S.; Klarenbach, S. W.; Ojo, A. O.; Parikh, C. R.; Boudville, N.; Garg, A. X.

2015-01-01

229

Fossil identification activity Standard: Comparing fossils to each other or to living organisms reveals features of  

E-print Network

. Icaronycteris XI6a, aka" bat" 4. Boney Fish (Knightera) XI2c, (1 piece) 5. Megalodon tooth XIa 6. Dinosaur skin imprint, (unkown) XI4a-4 7. Dinosaur foot Imprint, therapoda XI4a-1 8. Trilobite, VIIIa Form groups do you think so? 5. When do you think the animal lived? (before, after, or during the dinosaur ages

230

Building Change Capacity within Secondary Schools through Goal-Driven and Living Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on chaos theory to examine the potential of change within a living community. It focuses on secondary-school change in order to consider the divergent paths and the unexpected cultural adaptations that emerged when a Canadian school district required its secondary schools to revise their organizational models. Department heads…

Hannay, Lynne M.; Ross, John A.; Erb, Cathy Smeltzer

231

Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite organic/inorganic hybrid materials using living cationic polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel chlorosilyl functional initiators have been prepared and applied for the first time in the living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). Well-defined polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying mono-, di-, and trichlorosilyl head-group, and a tert-chloro end-group were synthesized using newly designed silyl-functional initiators in conjunction with TiCl4 in Hex:MeCl (60:40, v:v) at -80°C. End-group analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy verified the product structure and the survival of the Si-Cl head-groups during the polymerization. The chlorosilyl functional initiators and chlorosilyl functional PIBs have been employed for the synthesis of PIB brushes on planar silicate substrates by the "grafting from" and "grafting to" techniques. Structurally well-defined polymer/inorganic nanocomposites were prepared by surface-initiated living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). The living cationic polymerization of IB was initiated from initiators self-assembled on the surface of silica nanoparticles in the presence of additional soluble "free initiator" with TiCl4 in hexanes/CH3Cl (60/40, v/v) at -80°C. The polymerization displayed the diagnostic criteria for living cationic polymerization and provided densely grafted polymers of controlled molecular weight with an approximate graft density of 3.3 chains/nm 2. The surface-initiated polymerization of IB without added "free initiator" also yielded grafted polymer chains with good molecular weight control and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/M n). A series of novel hybrid poly(styryl-POSS), poly(isobutylene- b-(styryl-POSS)), and poly(isobutylene-b-(styryl-POSS)- b-isobutylene) are synthesized and characterized. Living cationic polymerization of styryl-POSS macromer was carried out using the 1-chloro-1-(4-methyphenyl)ethane (p-MeStCl)/TiCl4/MeChx:CH3Cl (60:40, v:v)/-80°C system in the presence of DTBP. Using these conditions, we have synthesized AB diblock, and ABA linear triblock copolymers containing polyisobutylene (PIB)-based rubbery mid block (B) with amorphous glassy poly(styryl-POSS) end blocks (A) by living cationic polymerization using sequential monomer addition. Well-defined PIB-b-P(styryl-POSS) and PIB- b-P(styryl-POSS)-b-PIB have been successfully prepared. The styryl-POSS based hybrid polymers were characterized by thermogravimetry and GPC measurements. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Kim, Iljin

232

Micro-Radiography of Living Biological Organisms with MEDIPIX2 Detector and Application of Various Contrast Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a newly developed radiographic system equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector and a micro-focus FeinFocus X-ray tube tabletop. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by the X-ray tube. The digital pixel detectors of the Medipix family represent a highly efficient type of imaging devices with high spatial resolution better than 1?m, and unlimited dynamic range allowing single particle of radiation and to determine their energies. The setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in vivo observations with various contrast agents (iodine and lanthanum nitrate). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of application of iodine and lanthanum nitrate contrast agents as tracers in various insects as model organisms. The iodine contrast agent increases the absorption of X-rays and this leads to better resolution of internal structures of biological organisms, and especially the various cavities, pores, etc. Micro-radiographic imaging helps to detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

Dammer, Jiri; Sopko, Vit; Jakubek, Jan; Weyda, Frantisek; Benes, Jiri; Zahorovsky, Julian

2012-08-01

233

The Role of Religious and Social Organizations in the Lives of Disadvantaged Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether participation in religious or other social organizations can help offset the negative effects of growing up in a disadvantaged environment. Using the National Survey of Families and Households, we collect measures of disadvantage as well as parental involvement with religious and other social organizations when the youth were ages 3 to 19 and we observe their

Rajeev Dehejia; Thomas DeLeiere; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Joshua Mitchell

2007-01-01

234

A Graphical Journey of Innovative Organic Architectures that Have Improved Our Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new free graphical teaching tool that highlights the beautiful organic architectures of the top selling pharmaceuticals is detailed on two posters. In addition to the multitude of teaching and data-mining opportunities these posters offer, they were also created to emphasize the central role organic chemists play in the development of new…

McGrath, Nicholas A.; Brichacek, Matthew; Njardarson, Jon T.

2010-01-01

235

Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae.  

PubMed

Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4 ?m). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms. PMID:25682049

Villacorte, L O; Ekowati, Y; Neu, T R; Kleijn, J M; Winters, H; Amy, G; Schippers, J C; Kennedy, M D

2015-04-15

236

Comprehensive quality assessment of municipal organic waste composts produced by different preparation methods.  

PubMed

In the first part of this work, the effect of municipal organic waste (MOW) composts on plant growth was evaluated in a greenhouse trial. The treatments included soil amended with 14 different composts (prepared by shredding, adding wood shavings, cocomposting with biosolids or vermicomposting), an inorganically fertilized soil, and a control soil. All of the treatments significantly increased plant growth compared to the control, and yields of three of the amended treatments were as high as that of the inorganic fertilizer treatment. When comparing differently prepared composts to the conventional compost, it was found that cocomposting MOW with biosolids was the method which most positively influenced yields (26-41% yield increases). In the second part of this work, we evaluated the effects of the different preparation methods on compost quality, using a multivariate approach. Three main quality aspects were considered collectively in a principal component analysis: organic matter and nutrient concentrations, degradability and capacity to mineralize these nutrients, and plant growth. The model was restricted to the first and second components (PC1 and PC1) which accounted for 94% of data variance. On the resulting factorial plane, four groups were distinguished. Each of the groups was compared to the reference compost to determine quality increases or decreases. Based on this analysis, it was found that cocomposting MOW with biosolids produced the highest quality products (higher total nutrient and OM concentration, nutrient mineralization potential, and plant growth). Addition of wood shavings increased OM concentration, but reduced quality in terms of the other aspects studied. Shredding was only effective to increase product quality when it was not combined with other methods, whereas vermicomposting only increased quality when MOW was not mixed with biosolids. PMID:21288708

Tognetti, C; Mazzarino, M J; Laos, F

2011-06-01

237

Seaweeds live in habitats characterized by continuous, time-varying water motion. In the intertidal zone, organisms must  

E-print Network

. In the intertidal zone, organisms must cope with the violent flows produced by breaking waves. To survive protected from the full brunt of incoming waves (Emson and Faller-Fritsch, 1976; Koehl, 1977; Menge, 1978). Alternatively, animals such as barnacles and mussels thrive in fully exposed sites (Ricketts et al. 1985

Denny, Mark

238

Estimation and characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutant emission from converter steelmaking processes.  

PubMed

Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were characterized and quantified in stack gas and fly ash from the second ventilation systems in five typical converters in five different steelmaking plants. The 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs (2378-PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCBs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 1.84-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 5.59-87.6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash, and the PCN TEQs were 0.06-0.56 pg TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 0.03-0.08 pg TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash. The concentrations of UP-POPs in the present study were generally lower than those in other metallurgical processes, such as electric arc furnaces, iron ore sintering, and secondary metallurgical processes. Adding scrap metal might increase UP-POP emissions, indicating that raw material composition was a key influence on emissions. HxCDF, HpCDF, OCDF, HpCDD, and OCDD were the dominant PCDD/Fs in the stack gas and fly ash. TeCB and PeCB were dominant in the stack gas, but HxCB provided more to the total PCB concentrations in the fly ash. The lower chlorinated PCNs were dominant in all of the samples. The 2378-PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN emission factors in stack gases from the steelmaking converter processes (per ton of steel produced) were 1.88-2.89, 0.14-0.76, and 229-759 ?g t(-1), respectively. PMID:24682712

Li, Sumei; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang

2014-06-01

239

Imaging complex protein metabolism in live organisms by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with isotope labeling.  

PubMed

Protein metabolism, consisting of both synthesis and degradation, is highly complex, playing an indispensable regulatory role throughout physiological and pathological processes. Over recent decades, extensive efforts, using approaches such as autoradiography, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy, have been devoted to the study of protein metabolism. However, noninvasive and global visualization of protein metabolism has proven to be highly challenging, especially in live systems. Recently, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic labeling of deuterated amino acids (D-AAs) was demonstrated for use in imaging newly synthesized proteins in cultured cell lines. Herein, we significantly generalize this notion to develop a comprehensive labeling and imaging platform for live visualization of complex protein metabolism, including synthesis, degradation, and pulse-chase analysis of two temporally defined populations. First, the deuterium labeling efficiency was optimized, allowing time-lapse imaging of protein synthesis dynamics within individual live cells with high spatial-temporal resolution. Second, by tracking the methyl group (CH3) distribution attributed to pre-existing proteins, this platform also enables us to map protein degradation inside live cells. Third, using two subsets of structurally and spectroscopically distinct D-AAs, we achieved two-color pulse-chase imaging, as demonstrated by observing aggregate formation of mutant hungtingtin proteins. Finally, going beyond simple cell lines, we demonstrated the imaging ability of protein synthesis in brain tissues, zebrafish, and mice in vivo. Hence, the presented labeling and imaging platform would be a valuable tool to study complex protein metabolism with high sensitivity, resolution, and biocompatibility for a broad spectrum of systems ranging from cells to model animals and possibly to humans. PMID:25560305

Wei, Lu; Shen, Yihui; Xu, Fang; Hu, Fanghao; Harrington, Jamie K; Targoff, Kimara L; Min, Wei

2015-03-20

240

7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

2010-01-01

241

A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO2-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering.

Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.

2012-09-01

242

Emission characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants from iron ore sintering process in China.  

PubMed

Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (Unintentional POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were investigated in four typical iron ore sintering plants in China. The emission factors and annual mass releases of the Unintentional POPs were calculated. The results indicated that PCDFs contributed more than 60% to the overall toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values, while the contribution of the dl-PCBs is relatively low, and only in the range of 8-9%. The dominant congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contributing most to the total TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCB-126. With regard to the TEQ contributions, the most abundant homologues were PeCDFs and HxCDD/Fs, followed by PeCDDs and non-ortho dl-PCB, whereas HpCDD/Fs, OCDD/Fs and mono-ortho dl-PCBs almost made no contributions. Due to the massive use of recycled waste in the feeding materials, the average emission factor of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of the four plants was 3.95 ?g WHO-TEQ ton(-1). Based on the results, the annual release of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in 2007-2009 were estimated to be 2070 g, 2212 g, and 2307 gWHO-TEQ, respectively. PMID:22727897

Tian, Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2012-10-01

243

Demographic consequences of adaptive growth and the ramifications for conservation of long-lived organisms  

E-print Network

impact Invasive species Density-dependent selection Elasticity analyses, Emydura macquarii, Chrysemys picta a b s t r a c t Understanding how organisms respond to human impacts is increasingly challenging

Janzen, Fredric

244

Microbially Produced Organic Matter and Its Role in Facilitating Pu Transport in the Deep Vadose Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms have the potential to affect the fate and mobility of actinides in the deep vadose zone (DVZ) by metabolism (direct oxidation/reduction and changes to ecosystem redox potential), production of colloids and ligands, or by sorption (biofilms). The role of microbial communities in colloid-facilitated Pu transport is currently under investigation at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our experimental objective is to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data on the in situ role of biological organic material (DOM, POC, and EPS) on the (de)sorption of Pu at environmentally relevant concentrations. Groundwater samples were collected through vertical ventilation holes from a flooded post-test tunnel at the (NTS), where SSU rRNA gene libraries revealed a range of potential microbial physiotypes. Microbial enrichments were set up with the aim of isolating numerically significant representatives of major relevant physiotypes (e.g. aerobic heterotrophs, Mn/Fe reducers, EPS producers). NTS isolates, a well-characterized Shewanella sp.(str. CN-32), and an EPS-mutant of this strain were screened for their reactivity with Pu(IV). Organisms with both high and low (relative) Kd’s were used in sorption and cell lysis experiments. Viability experiments were conducted for all isolates in NaCl or NaCl/NaHCO3 solutions (I=0.01) for pH = 3, 5, 7, and 9. Products from cell lysis were filtered (0.22 um) or dialyzed (MW cutoff = 20,000 kD). These fractions were normalized by TOC and equilibrated with Pu to determine if Pu sorbs more strongly to either viable cells, EPS, cell membranes, or cell exudates. In our experiments, Pu(IV) sorbed most strongly to cells or cell fractions with EPS (expolysaccharide, the major biofilm component). However, cell fractions and exudates, which may become mobile when released from lysed or senescing cells, also strongly sorbed to Pu(IV). Therefore, changes in groundwater chemistry (e.g., pH or ionic strength) may have both direct chemical effects and indirect effects on Pu sorption due to changes in the stability of the microbial cells or biofilms.

Fisher, J. C.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Zavarin, M.; Kersting, A. B.; Czerwinski, K.; Moser, D. P.

2010-12-01

245

Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

2005-01-01

246

Tracing the flow of organic matter from primary producers to filter feeders in Ria Formosa lagoon, Southern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow of organic matter along the main navigation channel of Ria Formosa, Portugal, was assessed using determinations of\\u000a suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic matter (POM), and chlorophyll a (chla) concentrations in conjunction with stable isotope values of primary producers, particulate matter, and two filter feeders.\\u000a SPM in the lagoon is dominated by inorganic particles comprising 80% of total

Raquel Machás; Rui Santos; Bruce Peterson

2003-01-01

247

The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano: A new model organism for ageing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the several elements and causes of ageing, diverse model organisms and methodologies are required. The most frequently used models are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and rodents. All have their advantages and disadvantages and allow studying particular aspects of the ageing process. During the last few years, several ageing studies focussed on stem cells and their role

Stijn Mouton; Maxime Willems; Bart P. Braeckman; Bernhard Egger; Peter Ladurner; Lukas Schärer; Gaetan Borgonie

2009-01-01

248

Regeneration and long-term stability of surfactant-modified zeolite for removal of volatile organic compounds from produced water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of laboratory-scale evaluation of a produced-water treatment system. The system used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) to strip the volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-, m- and o-xylene (BTEX) from produced water generated as a byproduct of oil and gas recovery. We used laboratory column studies to (1) investigate how different airflow rates impact regeneration of

Craig R. Altare; Robert S. Bowman; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Enid J. Sullivan

2007-01-01

249

Do rBST-Free and Organic Milk Stigmatize Conventionally Produced Milk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producers are continually seeking to differentiate their products in the marketplace. A common approach is via labeling where differences in production methods are marketed. Yet, positive labeling for the new product has the potential to stigmatize the conventionally produced product by highlighting perceived problems with the product. The net economic result can be negative to producers as the conventional product

Christopher Kanter; Kent D. Messer; Harry M. Kaiser

2008-01-01

250

Sequence alignment in bioinformatics Dynamic programming activity Every living organism has DNA, a sequence of four nucleotides A, C, G, and T. DNA is copied and transmitted  

E-print Network

Sequence alignment in bioinformatics ­ Dynamic programming activity Every living organism has DNA, a sequence of four nucleotides A, C, G, and T. DNA is copied and transmitted from parent to child, but from, organisms with a common ancestor can end up with fairly different DNA sequences. Now that it is relatively

Zirbel, Craig L.

251

On the purposes of color for living beings: toward a theory of color organization.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic and paleontological evidence indicates that in the animal kingdom the ability to perceive colors evolved independently several times over the course of millennia. This implies a high evolutionary neural investment and suggests that color vision provides some fundamental biological benefits. What are these benefits? Why are some animals so colorful? What are the adaptive and perceptual meanings of polychromatism? We suggest that in addition to the discrimination of light and surface chromaticity, sensitivity to color contributes to the whole, the parts and the fragments of perceptual organization. New versions of neon color spreading and the watercolor illusion indicate that the visual purpose of color in humans is threefold: to inter-relate each chromatic component of an object, thus favoring the emergence of the whole; to support a part-whole organization in which components reciprocally enhance each other by amodal completion; and, paradoxically, to reveal fragments and hide the whole-that is, there is a chromatic parceling-out process of separation, division, and fragmentation of the whole. The evolution of these contributions of color to organization needs to be established, but traces of it can be found in Harlequin camouflage by animals and in the coloration of flowers. PMID:24374380

Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

2015-01-01

252

Treatment of produced waters for removal of soluble organics and toxicity reduction using the GAC-FBR process  

SciTech Connect

Pilot studies were conducted using 550 gallon per day biological Granular Activated Carbon-Fluidized Bed Reactor (GAC-FBR) systems to treat four different produced waters obtained from on-shore and off-shore production facilities. The organic and inorganic composition of these produced waters varied greatly from site to site. Total dissolved solids ranged from 0.8% to 18.5%; BTEX concentrations varied from 470 {mu}g/L to greater than 4500 {mu}g/L. Organic carbon concentrations of up to 440 mg/L were observed. Sulfide concentrations ranged from nil to greater than 800 mg/L as S. Organic loading rates up to 86.6 kgCOD/cu.m-day were applied to the GAC-FBR. Successful treatment was achieved at hydraulic retention times as low as 7 minutes. Essentially complete removal of BTEX and total volatile hydrocarbons was demonstrated for each of the produced water samples; significant removal of non-purgable dissolved organic carbon was also observed. Overall BTEX removals of >99.9% were consistently achieved. Results from several different toxicity assays indicated that the GAC-FBR was able to achieve complete reduction of toxicity with several of the produced waters tested.

Sunday, A.; Cook, J.; Rajan, R.; Hickey, R. [EFX Systems, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

253

Four-dimensional imaging of E. coli nucleoid organization and dynamics in living cells.  

PubMed

Visualization of living E. coli nucleoids, defined by HupA-mCherry, reveals a discrete, dynamic helical ellipsoid. Three basic features emerge. (1) Nucleoid density coalesces into longitudinal bundles, giving a stiff, low-DNA-density ellipsoid. (2) This ellipsoid is radially confined within the cell cylinder. Radial confinement gives helical shape and directs global nucleoid dynamics, including sister segregation. (3) Longitudinal density waves flux back and forth along the nucleoid, with 5%-10% of density shifting within 5 s, enhancing internal nucleoid mobility. Furthermore, sisters separate end-to-end in sequential discontinuous pulses, each elongating the nucleoid by 5%-15%. Pulses occur at 20 min intervals, at defined cell-cycle times. This progression includes sequential installation and release of programmed tethers, implying cyclic accumulation and relief of intranucleoid mechanical stress. These effects could comprise a chromosome-based cell-cycle engine. Overall, the presented results suggest a general conceptual framework for bacterial nucleoid morphogenesis and dynamics. PMID:23623305

Fisher, Jay K; Bourniquel, Aude; Witz, Guillaume; Weiner, Beth; Prentiss, Mara; Kleckner, Nancy

2013-05-01

254

Independent synchronized control and visualization of interactions between living cells and organisms.  

PubMed

To investigate the early stages of cell-cell interactions occurring between living biological samples, imaging methods with appropriate spatiotemporal resolution are required. Among the techniques currently available, those based on optical trapping are promising. Methods to image trapped objects, however, in general suffer from a lack of three-dimensional resolution, due to technical constraints. Here, we have developed an original setup comprising two independent modules: holographic optical tweezers, which offer a versatile and precise way to move multiple objects simultaneously but independently, and a confocal microscope that provides fast three-dimensional image acquisition. The optical decoupling of these two modules through the same objective gives users the possibility to easily investigate very early steps in biological interactions. We illustrate the potential of this setup with an analysis of infection by the fungus Drechmeria coniospora of different developmental stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. This has allowed us to identify specific areas on the nematode's surface where fungal spores adhere preferentially. We also quantified this adhesion process for different mutant nematode strains, and thereby derive insights into the host factors that mediate fungal spore adhesion. PMID:24853738

Rouger, Vincent; Bordet, Guillaume; Couillault, Carole; Monneret, Serge; Mailfert, Sébastien; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Pujol, Nathalie; Marguet, Didier

2014-05-20

255

Motion of organ of Corti in the apical turn of a living guinea pig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration of Reissner's membrane and reticular lamina were measured at a set of radial positions in the apical turn of a living guinea pig cochlea, in response to sound applied to the ear canal. The cochlea was sealed and the Reissner's membrane was intact. A slit confocal microscope was used to identify the measurement site and confocal heterodyne interferometer was used for measuring the amplitude and phase of vibration. The X, Y, and Z coordinates of each measurement site were recorded. Using the experiment data, the motion of Reissner's membrane and the reticular lamina was animated. This animation allows us to study the relative motion of the key cochlear structures along the cochlear cross section. At the reticular lamina the amplitude of the vibration increases with distance radially from the osseous spiral lamina, reaching a maximum at the Hensen's cells. Except near the two end points, where it is attached, radial phase differences were small. The Reissner's membrane vibration amplitude is high. Phase changes rapidly with radial position, therefore different portions of the membrane do not vibrate together. The motion of the Reissner's membrane and the reticular lamina is dramatically different in amplitude and phase at each radial position. This is in contrast to the accepted concept that the motion of the two structures is the same, and raises questions as to the reason for the differences.

Khanna, Shyam M.; Decraemer, Willem F.; Hao, L. F.

1998-06-01

256

Four dimensional imaging of E. coli nucleoid organization and dynamics in living cells  

PubMed Central

Visualization of living E. coli nucleoids, defined by HupA-mCherry, reveals a discrete, dynamic helical ellipsoid. Three basic features emerge. (i) Nucleoid density efficiently coalesces into longitudinal bundles, giving a stiff, low DNA density ellipsoid. (ii) This ellipsoid is radially confined within the cell cylinder. Radial confinement gives helical shape and drives and directs global nucleoid dynamics, including sister segregation. (iii) Longitudinal density waves flux back and forth along the nucleoid, with 5–10% of density shifting within 5s, enhancing internal nucleoid mobility. Furthermore, sisters separate end-to-end in sequential discontinuous pulses, each elongating the nucleoid by 5–15%. Pulses occur at 20min intervals, at defined cell cycle times. This progression is mediated by sequential installation and release of programmed tethers, implying cyclic accumulation and relief of intra-nucleoid mechanical stress. These effects could comprise a chromosome-based cell cycle engine. Overall, the presented results suggest a general conceptual framework for bacterial nucleoid morphogenesis and dynamics. PMID:23623305

Fisher, J. K.; Bourniquel, A.; Witz, G.; Weiner, B.; Prentiss, M.; Kleckner, N.

2013-01-01

257

Altered metabolism and resistance to obesity in long-lived mice producing reduced levels of IGF-I.  

PubMed

The extension of lifespan due to reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) signaling in mice has been proposed to be mediated through alterations in metabolism. Previously, we showed that mice homozygous for an insertion in the Igf1 allele have reduced levels of IGF-I, are smaller, and have an extension of maximum lifespan. Here, we tested whether this specific reduction of IGF-I alters glucose metabolism both on normal rodent chow and in response to high-fat feeding. We found that female IGF-I-deficient mice were lean on a standard rodent diet but paradoxically displayed an insulin-resistant phenotype. However, these mice gained significantly less weight than normal controls when placed on a high-fat diet. In control animals, insulin response was significantly impaired by high-fat feeding, whereas IGF-I-deficient mice showed a much smaller shift in insulin response after high-fat feeding. Gluconeogenesis was also elevated in the IGF-I-deficient mice relative to controls on both normal and high-fat diet. An analysis of metabolism and respiratory quotient over 24 h indicated that the IGF-I-deficient mice preferentially utilized fatty acids as an energy source when placed on a high-fat diet. These results indicate that reduction in the circulating and tissue IGF-I levels can produce a metabolic phenotype in female mice that increases peripheral insulin resistance but renders animals resistant to the deleterious effects of high-fat feeding. PMID:25648834

Salmon, Adam B; Lerner, Chad; Ikeno, Yuji; Motch Perrine, Susan M; McCarter, Roger; Sell, Christian

2015-04-01

258

ORGANIC VS. CONVENTIONALLY GROWN PRODUCE; QUALITY DIFFERENCES AND GUIDELINES FOR COMPARISON STUDIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic and conventional fruits and vegetables contain compounds with important human health promoting effects. Whether fruits and vegetables grown via organic versus conventional production systems are superior in taste and nutrition, at present, is difficult to say with complete certainty. To as...

259

Consumer response to functional foods produced by conventional, organic, or genetic manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agro-food industry is developing a “second generation” of genetically modified (GM) foods that can offer functional health benefits to consumers. Many consumers, however, are turning to organic foods in order to avoid GM foods. This report attempts to differentiate consumer valuation of functional health properties in conventional, organic, and GM foods. A representative sample of 1,008 Canadian household food

Bruno Larue; Gale E. West; Carole Gendron; Rémy Lambert

2004-01-01

260

Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity  

E-print Network

States of America Abstract Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration

Smith, Jennifer E.

261

The O/OREOS mission: first science data from the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) payload.  

PubMed

We report the first telemetered spaceflight science results from the orbiting Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment, executed by one of the two 10?cm cube-format payloads aboard the 5.5?kg Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) free-flying nanosatellite. The O/OREOS spacecraft was launched successfully to a 72° inclination, 650?km Earth orbit on 19 November 2010. This satellite provides access to the radiation environment of space in relatively weak regions of Earth's protective magnetosphere as it passes close to the north and south magnetic poles; the total dose rate is about 15 times that in the orbit of the International Space Station. The SESLO experiment measures the long-term survival, germination, and growth responses, including metabolic activity, of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to the microgravity, ionizing radiation, and heavy-ion bombardment of its high-inclination orbit. Six microwells containing wild-type (168) and six more containing radiation-sensitive mutant (WN1087) strains of dried B. subtilis spores were rehydrated with nutrient medium after 14 days in space to allow the spores to germinate and grow. Similarly, the same distribution of organisms in a different set of microwells was rehydrated with nutrient medium after 97 days in space. The nutrient medium included the redox dye Alamar blue, which changes color in response to cellular metabolic activity. Three-color transmitted intensity measurements of all microwells were telemetered to Earth within days of each of the 48?h growth experiments. We report here on the evaluation and interpretation of these spaceflight data in comparison to delayed-synchronous laboratory ground control experiments. PMID:22091486

Nicholson, Wayne L; Ricco, Antonio J; Agasid, Elwood; Beasley, Christopher; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Friedericks, Charles; Ghassemieh, Shakib; Henschke, Michael; Hines, John W; Kitts, Christopher; Luzzi, Ed; Ly, Diana; Mai, Nghia; Mancinelli, Rocco; McIntyre, Michael; Minelli, Giovanni; Neumann, Michael; Parra, Macarena; Piccini, Matthew; Rasay, R Mike; Ricks, Robert; Santos, Orlando; Schooley, Aaron; Squires, David; Timucin, Linda; Yost, Bruce; Young, Anthony

2011-12-01

262

Long-lived organisms provide an integrative footprint of agricultural land use.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer runoff into rivers is linked to nutrient enrichment, hydrologic alteration, habitat degradation and loss, and declines in biotic integrity in streams. Nitrogen runoff from agriculture is expected to increase with population growth, so tracking these sources is vital to enhancing biomonitoring and management actions. Unionid mussels are large, long-lived, sedentary, primary consumers that transfer particulate material and nutrients from the water column to the sediments through their filter feeding. Because of these traits, mussels may provide a temporal integration of nitrogen inputs into watersheds. Our goals were to (1) establish a baseline delta15N signature for unionid mussels in watersheds not heavily influenced by agriculture for use in comparative analyses and (2) determine if mussels provide an integrative measure of N sources in watersheds with varying percentages of agriculture across large spatial scales. We compiled tissue delta15N data for 20 species of mussels from seven geographic areas, including 23 watersheds and 42 sample sites that spanned varying degrees of agricultural intensification across the eastern United States and Canada. We used GIS to determine land cover within the study basins, and we estimated net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) entering these systems. We then determined the relationship between mussel tissue delta15N and percentage of land in agriculture (%AG) and net anthropogenic N loading. The delta15N of mussel tissue could be predicted from both %AG and net anthropogenic N loading, and one component of NANI, the amount of N fertilizer applied, was strongly related to the delta15N of mussel tissue. Based on our results, mussels occupying a system not affected by agricultural land use would have a baseline delta15N signature of approximately 2.0 pe thousand, whereas mussels in basins with heavy agriculture had delta15N signatures of 13.6 per thousand. Our results demonstrate that mussels integrate anthropogenic N input into rivers at a watershed scale and could be a good bioassessment tool for tracking agriculture N sources. PMID:24689148

Atkinson, Carla L; Christian, Alan D; Spooner, Daniel E; Vaughn, Caryn C

2014-03-01

263

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 205.302 Section 205.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

2010-01-01

264

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF CANCER RATES IN PRIMARY ORGANIC CHEMICAL-PRODUCING COUNTIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The study is designed to determine whether there is an association between cancer mortality and the production of environmental carcinogens. Mortality rates of counties containing organic chemical production facilities are compared to rates of control counties. Twelve different c...

265

Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

2013-01-01

266

Understanding the Effects of Space Radiation on Living Organisms and its Implication for Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planetary environment around a star will be assaulted with various amounts of radiation. including solar and ionizing radiation. The amount and type varies with the type of star, the distance from the star, time of day, and other variables. While some radiation is critical to life on Earth, especially from 400-750 nm (so-called visible and photosynthetically active radiation), the effects of ultraviolet and ionizing radiation can be hazardous and even deadly. This is because life is based on organic carbon, which is susceptible to radiation damage. Radiation regimes in our own solar system address specifically radiation in our solar system with a main sequence star. The possibility remains of planets around red dwarfs. Such stars are much smaller in mass than the Sun (between 0.5 and .08 M(sub Sun), and so their temperature and stellar luminosity are low and peaked in the red. Since red dwarfs comprise about 75% of all stars in the galaxy, the possibility of life on planets around red dwarfs has been examined.

Tarter, Jill C.; Rothschild, Lynn J.

2012-01-01

267

CytoViz: an artistic mapping of network measurements as living organisms in a VR application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CytoViz is an artistic, real-time information visualization driven by statistical information gathered during gigabit network transfers to the Scalable Adaptive Graphical Environment (SAGE) at various events. Data streams are mapped to cellular organisms defining their structure and behavior as autonomous agents. Network bandwidth drives the growth of each entity and the latency defines its physics-based independent movements. The collection of entity is bound within the 3D representation of the local venue. This visual and animated metaphor allows the public to experience the complexity of high-speed network streams that are used in the scientific community. Moreover, CytoViz displays the presence of discoverable Bluetooth devices carried by nearby persons. The concept is to generate an event-specific, real-time visualization that creates informational 3D patterns based on actual local presence. The observed Bluetooth traffic is put in opposition of the wide-area networking traffic by overlaying 2D animations on top of the 3D world. Each device is mapped to an animation fading over time while displaying the name of the detected device and its unique physical address. CytoViz was publicly presented at two major international conferences in 2005 (iGrid2005 in San Diego, CA and SC05 in Seattle, WA).

López Silva, Brenda A.; Renambot, Luc

2007-02-01

268

Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross.  

PubMed

Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture-mark-recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations. PMID:24920477

Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

2014-07-22

269

Analysis of glycoproteins produced by the associated gland in the olfactory organ of lungfish.  

PubMed

The olfactory organ of African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, contains two distinct sensory epithelia: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. These epithelia correspond to the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods, respectively. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium, which has no associated gland, the recess epithelium is equipped with associated glands. Although the glandular cells and/or the supporting cells are generally presumed to secrete proteins involved in the function of olfactory sensory epithelia, the properties of these proteins in lungfish have not been evaluated to date. In this study, we investigated the associated glands in the olfactory organ of lungfish by transmission electron microscopy and found that the glandular cells contain numerous secretory granules and secrete them from the apical membrane. In addition, we analyzed the olfactory organ by lectin histochemistry using 16 biotinylated lectins. All lectins labeled the secretory granules in the glandular cells with different staining patterns from those of the supporting cells in the lamellar olfactory epithelium or in the recess epithelium. Furthermore, lectin blotting analysis showed that multiple bands were detected by the lectins which specifically labeled the glandular epithelium of the olfactory organ. These results indicate that the secretory products of the associated glands in the recess epithelium have different properties from those of the supporting cells in the olfactory sensory epithelia and contain multiple glycoproteins with different carbohydrate moieties. PMID:23428778

Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

2013-07-31

270

Living roots magnify the response of soil organic carbon decomposition to temperature in temperate grassland  

PubMed Central

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is both a strong driver of primary productivity and widely believed to be the principal cause of recent increases in global temperature. Soils are the largest store of the world's terrestrial C. Consequently, many investigations have attempted to mechanistically understand how microbial mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC) to CO2 will be affected by projected increases in temperature. Most have attempted this in the absence of plants as the flux of CO2 from root and rhizomicrobial respiration in intact plant-soil systems confounds interpretation of measurements. We compared the effect of a small increase in temperature on respiration from soils without recent plant C with the effect on intact grass swards. We found that for 48 weeks, before acclimation occurred, an experimental 3 °C increase in sward temperature gave rise to a 50% increase in below ground respiration (ca. 0.4 kg C m?2; Q10 = 3.5), whereas mineralisation of older SOC without plants increased with a Q10 of only 1.7 when subject to increases in ambient soil temperature. Subsequent 14C dating of respired CO2 indicated that the presence of plants in swards more than doubled the effect of warming on the rate of mineralisation of SOC with an estimated mean C age of ca. 8 years or older relative to incubated soils without recent plant inputs. These results not only illustrate the formidable complexity of mechanisms controlling C fluxes in soils but also suggest that the dual biological and physical effects of CO2 on primary productivity and global temperature have the potential to synergistically increase the mineralisation of existing soil C. PMID:25351704

Hill, Paul W; Garnett, Mark H; Farrar, John; Iqbal, Zafar; Khalid, Muhammad; Soleman, Nawaf; Jones, Davey L

2015-01-01

271

Fluid Forces Enhance the Performance of an Aspirant Leader in Self-Organized Living Groups  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the performance of an individual aiming at guiding a self-organized group is numerically investigated. A collective behavioural model is adopted, accounting for the mutual repulsion, attraction and orientation experienced by the individuals. Moreover, these represent a set of solid particles which are supposed to be immersed in a fictitious viscous fluid. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann and Immersed boundary methods are used to predict the fluid dynamics, whereas the effect of the hydrodynamic forces on particles is accounted for by solving the equation of the solid motion through the time discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out by involving the individuals in a dichotomous process. On the one hand, an aspirant leader (AL) additional individual is added to the system. AL is forced to move along a prescribed direction which intersects the group. On the other hand, these tend to depart from an obstacle represented by a rotating lamina which is placed in the fluid domain. A numerical campaign is carried out by varying the fluid viscosity and, as a consequence, the hydrodynamic field. Moreover, scenarios characterized by different values of the size of the group are investigated. In order to estimate the AL's performance, a proper parameter is introduced, depending on the number of individuals following AL. Present findings show that the sole collective behavioural equations are insufficient to predict the AL's performance, since the motion is drastically affected by the presence of the surrounding fluid. With respect to the existing literature, the proposed numerical model is enriched by accounting for the presence of the encompassing fluid, thus computing the hydrodynamic forces arising when the individuals move. PMID:25501965

De Rosis, Alessandro

2014-01-01

272

Fluid forces enhance the performance of an aspirant leader in self-organized living groups.  

PubMed

In this paper, the performance of an individual aiming at guiding a self-organized group is numerically investigated. A collective behavioural model is adopted, accounting for the mutual repulsion, attraction and orientation experienced by the individuals. Moreover, these represent a set of solid particles which are supposed to be immersed in a fictitious viscous fluid. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann and Immersed boundary methods are used to predict the fluid dynamics, whereas the effect of the hydrodynamic forces on particles is accounted for by solving the equation of the solid motion through the time discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out by involving the individuals in a dichotomous process. On the one hand, an aspirant leader (AL) additional individual is added to the system. AL is forced to move along a prescribed direction which intersects the group. On the other hand, these tend to depart from an obstacle represented by a rotating lamina which is placed in the fluid domain. A numerical campaign is carried out by varying the fluid viscosity and, as a consequence, the hydrodynamic field. Moreover, scenarios characterized by different values of the size of the group are investigated. In order to estimate the AL's performance, a proper parameter is introduced, depending on the number of individuals following AL. Present findings show that the sole collective behavioural equations are insufficient to predict the AL's performance, since the motion is drastically affected by the presence of the surrounding fluid. With respect to the existing literature, the proposed numerical model is enriched by accounting for the presence of the encompassing fluid, thus computing the hydrodynamic forces arising when the individuals move. PMID:25501965

De Rosis, Alessandro

2014-01-01

273

The majority of postselection CD4+ single-positive thymocytes requires the thymus to produce long-lived, functional T cells  

PubMed Central

We have previously isolated, and characterized in vitro, two subsets of CD4hi T cell receptor (TCR)hi single positive (SP) thymocytes: CD8- and CD8lo. In this report, we have analyzed phenotypic, functional, and developmental characteristics of these "late" CD4hi SP thymocyte subsets. The TCRhi phenotype and the elimination of T cells expressing TCR V beta segments reactive with endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) products suggested that both subsets had undergone positive and negative selection. CD8-4hi thymocytes were functional, as judged by their ability to: (a) induce lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD); (b) survive and expand in peripheral lymphoid organs; and (c) proliferate, rather than undergo apoptosis, in response to in vitro TCR cross-linking. By contrast, CD8lo4hi cells could not induce GVHD, were unable to expand (and perhaps even survive) in peripheral organs and underwent apoptosis upon TCR cross-linking. However, when reintroduced into the thymus, these cells matured into functional, long-lived CD8- 4hi lymphocytes. These results document an obligatory requirement for the thymic microenvironment in the final maturation of the majority of CD4hi SP postselection thymocytes, and demonstrate the existence of a previously unrecognized control point in T cell development. PMID:7528769

1995-01-01

274

New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems.  

PubMed

An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language. PMID:25292274

De Pascale, Adele

2014-01-01

275

The Overarching Influence of the Gut Microbiome on End-Organ Function: The Role of Live Probiotic Cultures  

PubMed Central

At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality) state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with a metabolic disease for end organs such as the kidney and liver. A profile emerges that shows that bacteria are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous and have significantly influenced the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:25244509

Vitetta, Luis; Manuel, Rachel; Zhou, Joyce Yusi; Linnane, Anthony W.; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

2014-01-01

276

Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacteria from the Poultry Processing Environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from food-borne bacteria has prompted studies on the development of approaches to utilize the profile of volatiles emitted as a way of detecting contamination. We have examined VOCs from poultry with this in mind. Patt...

277

POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF TOMATOES PRODUCED IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research is being conducted at the USHRL, Fort Pierce, Florida to develop production practices for field-grown vegetables that do not rely on soil fumigation with methyl bromide. Field trials which included conventional and organic tomato production systems were established in 2000. Although the i...

278

Identification of Biologically-Produced Organic Matter in an Aquifer System using Stable Isotope Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon cycle in aquifer systems is poorly understood. In particular, the role of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in the cycling of organic matter (OM) has not been well documented. The goal of this work was to utilize stable isotopes in combination with geochemical and microbial methods to study microbially-mediated OM transformations in aquifers and aquifer sediments. A laboratory flow-through column experiment was conducted with sediment collected from a pristine, shallow, coastal plain aquifer. The groundwater medium was amended with low levels of an isotopically labeled nutrient, 13C-acetate. At pre-determined time points, organic matter (OM) was isolated from the sediment and groundwater. OM components were analyzed by isotope-ratio GC-MS and electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The incorporation of 13C was examined for both the aqueous phase and sediment bound OM. Analyzing both dissolved and adsorbed fractions enabled us to determine the relative importance of each on microbe-mediated OM transformations. The incorporation of 13C allowed us to estimate residence times of different organic matter fractions and to answer fundamental questions about organic matter lability in the subsurface environment.

Kujawinski, E. B.; Mailloux, B. J.; Morrison, L.

2004-12-01

279

Survival of Organic Materials in Ancient Cryovolcanically-Produced Halite Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic evidence supports the presence of Mg-Na-K salts derived from cryovolcanism on the surface of Europa. Halite (NaCl) is effective at very long-term preservation of organic phases and structures. Collection of salt crystals from Europan plumes would provide solid inclusions of organics, potentially also biomaterials, all suitable for analysis. Two thermally-metamorphosed ordinary chondrite regolith breccias (Monahans 1998 (H5) and Zag (H3-6)) contain fluid and solid inclusion-bearing halite crystals, dated to approximately 4.5 billion years, and thus the trapped aqueous fluids and solids are at least as old. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 degrees Centigrade, and their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid occurred after that body's metamorphism ended, since heating would have dessicated the halite. O and H isotopes of the trapped fluids are consistent with mixing of asteroidal and cometary water. Cryovolcanic Origin of the Halite: We hypothesize that these meteoritic halites derive from ancient cryovolcanism based on the following points. (1) Salts crystals are observed as products of current cryovolcanism on Enceladus. (2) In-situ spacecraft analysis of some of the icy grains associated with the Enceladus salt found minor organic or siliceous components, including methane, also found in the Monahans halite. (3) Cryovolcanic fluids are observed to be in chemical disequilibrium, reflecting incomplete reactions between interior volatiles and rocky materials. The coexistence of N2 and HCN in Enceladus' cryovolcanic fluids requires that the plume consists of a mixture of materials whose sources experienced different degrees of aqueous processing, including primordial material trapped in ice that has not been in contact with liquid water. The observed mineral assemblage within the Monahans and Zag halites is also far from equilibrium. Cryovolcanoes on Ceres are a potential source of our halite, however the processes that form halite should also be operating within Europa. Dissolution of Monahans halite grains has revealed a remarkable variety of organics, which dominate the population of solid inclusions. Thermal alteration of this macromolecular carbon (measured by Raman spectroscopy) shows remarkable diversity. We have identified highly-condensed aromatics, diamond, carbonates and chloromethane. Light organic compounds like methane tend to be water soluble and require cold formation temperatures at high hydrogen fugacity - i.e. require water ice. Another indication that these halites have not been heated is that light organics readily volatilize or aromaticize into PAHs. We are currently analyzing the organics by Raman and C-XANES, and measuring the content and exploring the potential chirality of amino acids in the halite. Implications for Europa Plumes: Organic materials and structures erupted by a Europa cryovolcano should be similarly preserved within halite, and other salts, which will be a convenient form for capture and analysis, since halite will serve to encapsulate and protect the organics from spacecraft contamination. Also, being transparent at many wavelengths halite will permit analysis by spacecraft-mounted spectroscopic techniques. In addition, halite is readily dissolved, permitting further analysis of entrained organics.

Zolensky, M.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bodnar, R.; Burton, A.; Callahan, M.; Steele, A.; Sandford, S.

2015-01-01

280

An organic surface modifier to produce a high work function transparent electrode for high performance polymer solar cells.  

PubMed

Modification of an ITO electrode with small-molecule organic surface modifier, 4-chloro-benzoic acid (CBA), via a simple spin-coating method produces a high-work-function electrode with high transparency and a hydrophobic surface. As an alternative to PEDOT:PSS, CBA modification achieves efficiency enhancement up to 8.5%, which is attributed to enhanced light absorption within the active layer and smooth hole transport from the active layer to the anode. PMID:25515353

Choi, Hyosung; Kim, Hak-Beom; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J

2015-02-01

281

Photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of oilfield produced wastewater containing refractory organic pollutants in the presence of high concentration of chloride ions.  

PubMed

The feasibility study of the application of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of high saline produced water containing refractory organic pollutants was investigated in the slurry photoelectrocatalytic reactor with nanometer TiO2 particle prepared with sol-gel method using the acetic acid as hydrolytic catalyst. The efficiency of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of produced water was determined with both COD removal from the tested wastewater and the decrease of mutagenic activity evaluated by Ames tests. The experimental results showed that the photoelectrocatalysis is a quite efficient process for decontaminating the produced water, although there are high concentration of salt existed in oilfield wastewater. We found that the COD removal efficiencies by photoelectrocatalytic process are much higher than that of by photocatalytic or electrochemical oxidation individually in the photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The COD removal can be substantially improved by the added H2O2 and the generation of active chlorine from high concentration chlorides in the wastewater. The effects of various operating conditions, such as initial COD concentration, applied cell voltage, catalyst amount and initial pH value of solution, on the photoelectrocatalytic efficiencies, is also investigated in detail. The results showed that when the raw produced wastewater was diluted in a 1:1 (v/v) ratio, there is a highest COD removal efficiency. And the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in saline water is much favored in acidic solution than that in neutral and/or alkaline solution. PMID:16875777

Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Chen, Jiaxin; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Chen, Fanzhong; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhao, Huijun

2006-11-16

282

Optical control and study of biological processes at the single-cell level in a live organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living organisms are made of cells that are capable of responding to external signals by modifying their internal state and subsequently their external environment. Revealing and understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of these complex interaction networks is the subject of a field known as systems biology. To investigate these interactions (a necessary step before understanding or modelling them) one needs to develop means to control or interfere spatially and temporally with these processes and to monitor their response on a fast timescale (< minute) and with single-cell resolution. In 2012, an EMBO workshop on ‘single-cell physiology’ (organized by some of us) was held in Paris to discuss those issues in the light of recent developments that allow for precise spatio-temporal perturbations and observations. This review will be largely based on the investigations reported there. We will first present a non-exhaustive list of examples of cellular interactions and developmental pathways that could benefit from these new approaches. We will review some of the novel tools that have been developed for the observation of cellular activity and then discuss the recent breakthroughs in optical super-resolution microscopy that allow for optical observations beyond the diffraction limit. We will review the various means to photo-control the activity of biomolecules, which allow for local perturbations of physiological processes. We will end up this review with a report on the current status of optogenetics: the use of photo-sensitive DNA-encoded proteins as sensitive reporters and efficient actuators to perturb and monitor physiological processes.

Feng, Zhiping; Zhang, Weiting; Xu, Jianmin; Gauron, Carole; Ducos, Bertrand; Vriz, Sophie; Volovitch, Michel; Jullien, Ludovic; Weiss, Shimon; Bensimon, David

2013-07-01

283

Drosophila Embryos as Model to Assess Cellular and Developmental Toxicity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) in Living Organisms  

PubMed Central

Different toxicity tests for carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed to assess their impact on human health and on aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant life. We present a new model, the fruit fly Drosophila embryo offering the opportunity for rapid, inexpensive and detailed analysis of CNTs toxicity during embryonic development. We show that injected DiI labelled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) become incorporated into cells in early Drosophila embryos, allowing the study of the consequences of cellular uptake of CNTs on cell communication, tissue and organ formation in living embryos. Fluorescently labelled subcellular structures showed that MWCNTs remained cytoplasmic and were excluded from the nucleus. Analysis of developing ectodermal and neural stem cells in MWCNTs injected embryos revealed normal division patterns and differentiation capacity. However, an increase in cell death of ectodermal but not of neural stem cells was observed, indicating stem cell-specific vulnerability to MWCNT exposure. The ease of CNT embryo injections, the possibility of detailed morphological and genomic analysis and the low costs make Drosophila embryos a system of choice to assess potential developmental and cellular effects of CNTs and test their use in future CNT based new therapies including drug delivery. PMID:24558411

Liu, Boyin; Campo, Eva M.; Bossing, Torsten

2014-01-01

284

Organic solids produced by electrical discharges in reducing atmospheres: Molecular analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex brown polymer produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water, is analyzed by pyrolytic GC/MS. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, pyrroles, and pyridine. Similar pyrolyzates are obtained from polypeptides and polynucleotides with hydrocarbon moieties. This polymer is remarkably stable up to 950 C; its degradation products are candidate constituents of planetary aerosols in the outer solar system and the grains and gas in the interstellar medium.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Zumberge, J. E.; Sklarew, D.; Nagy, B.

1978-01-01

285

Methylglyoxal in living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing interest towards methylglyoxal and glyoxalases their real role in metabolic network is still obscure. In the light of developments several reviews have been published in this field mainly dealing with only a narrow segment of this research area. In this article a trial is made to present a comprehensive overview of methylglyoxal research, extending discussion from chemistry

Miklós Péter Kalapos

1999-01-01

286

Organization of LIving Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on ecology includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

287

Preharvest Evaluation of Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Organic and Conventional Produce Grown by Minnesota Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological analyses of fresh fruits and vegetables produced by organic and conventional farmers in Minnesota were conducted to determine the coliform count and the prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7. A total of 476 and 129 produce samples were collected from 32 organic and 8 conventional farms, respectively. The samples included tomatoes, leafy greens, lettuce, green peppers,

AVIK MUKHERJEE; DORINDA SPEH; ELIZABETH DYCK; FRANCISCO DIEZ-GONZALEZ

288

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13

289

Distinct temporal organizations of the strength- and power-training loads produce similar performance improvements.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the effects of distinct temporal organizations of strength and power training loads on strength, power, and speed improvements. Sixty soldiers with at least 1 year in the army volunteered for this study. The subjects were divided into 4 groups: control group (CG: n = 15; age: 20.18 ± 0.72 years; height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m; and weight: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg); successive-mesocycle group (SMG: n = 15; age: 20.11 ± 0.7 years; height: 1.72 ± 0.045 m; and weight: 63.1 ± 3.6 kg); successive-week group (SWG: n = 15; age: 20.36 ± 0.64 years; height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m; and weight: 66.1 ± 8.0 kg); and simultaneous daily group (SDG: n = 15; age: 20.27 ± 0.75 years; height: 1.71 ± 0.068 m; and weight: 64.0 ± 8.8 kg). In the SMG, heavy resistance training (HRT), jump squat exercise (JS), and countermovement jumps (CMJ) were performed in successive mesocycles of 3 weeks each. In the SWG, HRT, JS, and CMJ were trained in 1-week blocks into 3 mesocycles of 3 weeks each. In the SDG, HRT, JS, and CMJ were trained daily in all the 3 mesocycles of 3 weeks each. Total volume was equalized between groups. The following dependent variables were analyzed: squat 1RM, CMJ height, 20-m sprint speed, mean power, and mean propulsive power in the squat exercise (60% of the squat 1RM) and in the JS (45% of the squat 1RM). Significant improvements for all the dependent variables were detected from pretraininig to posttraining in all the training groups (p ? 0.05), without any between-group differences. Our data suggest that the temporal organization of the training load is not critical for performance improvements in this population. PMID:22362090

Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton; Lopes Mellinger, Alan; Gomes, Filipe; Tricoli, Valmor; Gonzáles-Badillo, Juan José

2013-01-01

290

Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation  

SciTech Connect

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

2011-07-01

291

Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosols Produced by Photo-Oxidation of Biomass Burning Emissions in a Smog Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) is essential for accurate representation of OA in air quality and climate models. Both the sources of OA and their properties and effects remain poorly understood. In particular, we still know relatively little about the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). There is growing interest in the impact of biomass burning emissions on air quality, human health, and radiative forcing. Through a series of experiments, we are working to quantify changes in the chemical composition of wood smoke particles as a result of photochemical aging under well-controlled laboratory conditions. One specific objective of this study is to identify markers for biomass burning SOA and test whether these markers can be used in atmospheric samples to quantify SOA formation from aging of biomass burning emissions. We analyzed SOA generated in a smog chamber by photooxidation of smoke produced by burning oak wood. In order to initiate photochemistry, the chamber was irradiated with UV light. Aqueous extracts of collected aerosol samples were analyzed with Electrospray Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The high mass accuracy of these measurements reduces ambiguity in the assignment of elemental compositions for observed ions. Analysis has shown that primary oak smoke aerosol includes products of the thermal decomposition of cellulose (levoglucosan, cyclotene etc.) and lignin (guaiacol and syringol derivatives, mostly aldehydes and alcohols). After 2 hours of aging at typical summertime hydroxyl radical concentrations, the aerosol mass increased 2.5 fold due to the production of secondary organic aerosol. Mass spectra of the secondary organic aerosol formed are dominated by organic nitrates (nitrophenol, nitrocresol, nitrocatechol, and nitroguaiacol) and aromatic acids (benzoic acid, mono and di-hydroxybenzoic acid). Both nitrates and acids most likely are formed due to oxidation of the lignin decomposition products (guaiacol and syringol derivatives) by reaction with OH and NO2. This research highlights the dynamic nature of fire emissions and atmospheric organic aerosols in general.

Desyaterik, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Robinson, A. L.; Collett, J. L.

2009-12-01

292

Interferon messenger RNA is produced constitutively in the organs of normal individuals.  

PubMed Central

The use of RNA blot hybridization with DNA or RNA probes of high specific activity has shown that interferon (IFN)-alpha mRNA is present constitutively in the spleen, kidney, liver, and peripheral blood leukocytes of normal individuals. A single band (approximately equal to 1.2 kilobases) was detected in poly(A)+ RNA isolated from human organs. This RNA hybridized specifically to human IFN-alpha 1 DNA and comigrated with mature IFN-alpha mRNA from virus-induced human peripheral blood leukocytes. No IFN-beta RNA transcripts were detected in any of the tissues tested. IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in only one sample of normal human spleen, which also contained an unusually high level of IFN-alpha mRNA. The use of a modified S1 mapping technique revealed the presence of IFN-alpha 1 and -alpha 2 transcripts only. No IFN-alpha 4, -alpha 5, -alpha 6, -alpha 7, -alpha 8, or -alpha 14 transcripts were detected in the same sample. The detection, in all the samples tested, of a characteristic pattern of expression of IFN genes, different from that obtained following induction, together with the low number of transcripts present (less than or equal to 0.03 copy per cell) suggest that specific IFN genes are transcribed constitutively in vivo. Images PMID:3110782

Tovey, M G; Streuli, M; Gresser, I; Gugenheim, J; Blanchard, B; Guymarho, J; Vignaux, F; Gigou, M

1987-01-01

293

Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes produce monoclonal autoantibodies that react with antigens in multiple organs.  

PubMed Central

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal individuals and patients with autoimmune abnormalities such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and thyroiditis were infected with Epstein-Barr virus, and the culture supernatants were tested for autoantibodies that reacted with normal tissues. Between 58 and 86% of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cultures produced immunoglobulin M antibodies, and between 9 and 24% of the transformed cultures produced immunoglobulin G antibodies that reacted with normal tissues. Ten Epstein-Barr virus-transformed clones secreting human immunoglobulin M monoclonal autoantibodies were isolated. Four of these monoclonal autoantibodies were studied in depth and found to react with antigens in multiple organs, including thyroid, pancreas, stomach, smooth muscle, and nerves. It is concluded that Epstein-Barr virus can trigger the production of autoantibodies without infecting the target cells to which the autoantibodies are directed. Images PMID:6092698

Garzelli, C; Taub, F E; Scharff, J E; Prabhakar, B S; Ginsberg-Fellner, F; Notkins, A L

1984-01-01

294

In vitro mitotic responses of the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata to extracts of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Amebocyte-producing organs (APOs) of Biomphalaria glabrata were maintained in nonnutritive saline with, or without, extracts of miracidia and adults of Schistosoma mansoni, and examined histologically. The hematopoietic cells remained viable and showed measurable mitotic activity for up to 6 days, with little evidence of tissue death. APOs accumulated fluid and became swollen by as soon as 24 hr, but no cell exomigration was observed. Parasite extracts elicited an increase in the number of dividing cells in the APO, suggesting that the extract may directly stimulate a response from the hematopoietic cells by providing either nutrients or mitogenic growth factors. PMID:18973421

Salamat, Zahra; Sullivan, John T

2008-10-01

295

Method for producing fuel gas from organic material, capable of self-sustaining operation  

SciTech Connect

This patent discloses a form of substantially uniform-sized pellets, to produce a tar-free fuel gas. Prior to initiating operation, the lower end of the reaction chamber is filled with a charge of charcoal, forming a charcoal bed. A portion of the charcoal bed is then ignited, typically near the top, with air from the atmosphere being drawn substantially uniformly down through the reaction chamber by a pump on the outlet line leading from the reaction chamber, creating a thin pyrolysis zone near the top of the charcoal bed. The substantially uniform-size fuel pellets are added to the top of the charcoal bed, and are pyrolized as they move down through the pyrolysis zone. Since the fuel pellets are substantially uniform in size, and since the air-flow down through the chamber is substantially uniform, the temperature profile over the cross-sectional area of the pyrolysis zone is substantially uniform, and a homogeneous pyrolysis zone is created, without hot spots or channels. Such an arrangement results in self-regulating, self-sustaining operation over a relatively wide demand range, with rapid start-up and response characteristics. Air may also be directed into the reaction chamber through an inlet beneath the charcoal bed, which results in the reaction of the devolatilized charcoal to form additional fuel and an ash residue. Thus, the production and consumption of the charcoal within the apparatus may be exactly balanced.

Fetters, W.A.; Chittick, D.E.

1985-07-23

296

Antimicrobial activity of two South African honeys produced from indigenous Leucospermum cordifolium and Erica species on selected micro-organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Honey has been shown to have wound healing properties which can be ascribed to its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity can be effective against a broad spectrum of bacterial species especially those of medical importance. It has also been shown that there is considerable variation in the antimicrobial potency of different types of honey, which is impossible to predict. With this in mind we tested the antimicrobial activity of honeys produced from plants grown in South Africa for their antibacterial properties on selected standard strains of oral micro-organisms. Methods The honeys used were produced from the blossoms of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Bluegum) trees, an indigenous South African plant Leucospermum cordifolium (Pincushion), a mixture of wild heather shrubs, mainly Erica species (Fynbos) and a Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka) honey. Only pure honey which had not been heated was used. The honeys were tested for their antimicrobial properties with a broth dilution method. Results Although the honeys produced some inhibitory effect on the growth of the micro-organisms, no exceptionally high activity occurred in the South African honeys. The carbohydrate concentration plays a key role in the antimicrobial activity of the honeys above 25%. However, these honeys do contain other antimicrobial properties that are effective against certain bacterial species at concentrations well below the hypertonic sugar concentration. The yeast C. albicans was more resistant to the honeys than the bacteria. The species S. anginosus and S. oralis were more sensitive to the honeys than the other test bacteria. Conclusion The honeys produced from indigenous wild flowers from South Africa had no exceptionally high activity that could afford medical grade status. PMID:18627601

Basson, Nicolaas J; Grobler, Sias R

2008-01-01

297

Leaf Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor fall activity, learners find out what living in or under a layer of leaves is like. Learners will discover that animals that live in leaf litter use different senses to find prey, avoid predators, and to navigate through the litter. Learners role play predator and prey—the "prey" hides in a large pile of leaves, and the "predator" tries to "strike" by reaching straight into the leaf pile to grab the "prey." Learners also consider what body adaptations help organisms that spend part of their life under the leaves.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

298

Responses of organic and inorganic materials to intense EUV radiation from laser-produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated responses of polymers to EUV radiation from laser-produced plasmas beyond ablation thresholds and micromachining. We concentrated on fabricate precise 3D micro-structures of PDMS, PMMA, acrylic block copolymers (BCP), and silica. The micromachining technique can be applied to three-dimensional micro-fluidic and bio-medical devices. The EUV processing is a promising to realize a practical micromachining technique. In the present work, we used two EUV radiation sources; (a) Wide band EUV light in a range of 10{300 eV was generated by irradiation of Ta targets with Nd:YAG laser light at 500 mJ/pulse. (b) Narrow band EUV light at 11 and 13 nm was generated by irradiation of solid Xe and Sn targets, respectively, with pulsed TEA CO2 laser light. The generated EUV light was condensed onto the materials at high power density beyond the ablation thresholds, using ellipsoidal mirrors. We found that through-holes with a diameter of one micrometer an be fabricated in PMMA and PDMS sheets with thicknesses of 4-10 micrometers, at 250 and 230 nm/shot, respectively. The effective ablation of PMMA sheets can be applied to a LIGA-like process for fabricating micro-structures of metals for micro- and nano-molds. PDMS sheets are ablated if it is irradiated with EUV light beyond a distinct threshold power density, while PDMS surfaces were modified at lower power densities. Furthermore, BCP sheets were ablated to have 1-micrometer structures. Thus, we have developed a practical technique for micromachining of PMMA, PDMS and BCP sheets in a micrometer scale.

Makimura, Tetsuya; Torii, Shuichi; Nakamura, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akihiko; Okada, Tatsuo; Niino, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Kouichi

2013-05-01

299

Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes  

PubMed Central

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25–1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r2 = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r2 = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 ?m between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

TARTAROTTI, BARBARA; BAFFICO, GUSTAVO; TEMPORETTI, PEDRO; ZAGARESE, HORACIO E.

2011-01-01

300

Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

2014-05-01

301

Quick, Easy Method to Show Living Soil Organisms to High School or Beginning-Level College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The living component of soil is difficult for students to learn about and understand because students have difficulty relating to things they cannot see (beyond sight, beyond mind). Line drawings from textbooks help explain conceptual relationships but do little to stimulate an active interest in the living component of soil. Alternatively,…

Loynachan, Thomas E.

2006-01-01

302

A general strategy for developing cell-permeable photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes for live-cell super-resolution imaging  

PubMed Central

Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) achieves super-resolution imaging beyond the diffraction limit but critically relies on the use of photo-modulatable fluorescent probes. Here we report a general strategy for constructing cell-permeable photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes for live-cell SMLM by exploiting the remarkable cytosolic delivery ability of a cell-penetrating peptide (rR)3R2. We develop photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes consisting of a (rR)3R2 peptide coupled to a cell-impermeable organic fluorophore and a recognition unit. Our results indicate that these organic probes are not only cell permeable but can also specifically and directly label endogenous targeted proteins. Using the probes, we obtain super-resolution images of lysosomes and endogenous F-actin under physiological conditions. We resolve the dynamics of F-actin with 10?s temporal resolution in live cells and discern fine F-actin structures with diameters of ~80?nm. These results open up new avenues in the design of fluorescent probes for live-cell super-resolution imaging. PMID:25410769

Pan, Deng; Hu, Zhe; Qiu, Fengwu; Huang, Zhen-Li; Ma, Yilong; Wang, Yina; Qin, Lingsong; Zhang, Zhihong; Zeng, Shaoqun; Zhang, Yu-Hui

2014-01-01

303

Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.  

PubMed

Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition. PMID:23721965

Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Molina-Jiménez, Tania

2013-09-01

304

Evoecotoxicology: Environmental Changes and Life Features Development during the Evolutionary Process—the Record of the Past at Developmental Stages of Living Organisms  

PubMed Central

For most of evolutionary history, scientific understanding of the environment and life forms is extremely limited. In this commentary I discuss the hypothesis that ontogenetic features of living organisms can be considered biomarkers of coevolution between organisms and physicochemical agents during Earth’s history. I provide a new vision of evolution based on correlations between metabolic features and stage-dependent susceptibility of organisms to physicochemical agents with well-known environmental signatures. Thus, developmental features potentially reflect environmental changes during evolution. From this perspective, early multicellular life forms would have flourished in the anoxic Earth more than 2 billion years ago, which is at least 1.2 billion years in advance of available fossil evidence. The remarkable transition to aerobic metabolism in gastrula-stage embryos potentially reflects evolution toward tridermic organisms by 2 billion years ago. Noteworthy changes in embryonic resistance to physicochemical agents at different developmental stages that can be observed in living organisms potentially reflect the influence of environmental stress conditions during different periods of evolutionary history. Evoecotoxicology, as a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach, can enhance our understanding of evolution, including the phylogenetic significance of differences in susceptibility/resistance to physicochemical agents in different organisms. PMID:16882515

Herkovits, Jorge

2006-01-01

305

Living Non-Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fill out your worksheet as you learn more about living and non-living things. 1. First take this pretest to test your knowledge of living and non living things.Beginning Quiz 2. So, you know what is alive and what is not. But why are those things alive or not? Read the information on this site to learn the 7 characteristics that make things ...

Mrs. Benson

2010-02-23

306

Withdrawal-like effects of pentylenetetrazol and valproate in the naive organism: a model of motivation produced by opiate withdrawal?  

PubMed

Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and sodium valproate (VPA) produce acutely in the naive rat various behavioural effects resembling signs of opiate withdrawal in the morphine-treated subject. Suggestions in the literature that these substances may activate directly some of the neural consequences of opiate and drug withdrawal prompted us to look for and examine possible aversive effects of these substances at non-toxic doses. With a sensitive two-flavour, three-trial taste aversion procedure, relatively low doses of PTZ and VPA (5 and 160 mg/kg, respectively) do indeed have aversive effects. The maximum aversions were produced by 10 and 20 mg/kg PTZ and 320 mg/kg VPA and were equivalent to those of morphine withdrawal precipitated by 0.01-0.03 mg/kg naloxone in a morphine pellet-implanted animal. Moreover, the maximum aversions with PTZ and VPA were significantly higher than the maximum aversions seen with naloxone in the drug-naive animal under the same training conditions. Thus, the data from the present study confirmed the notion that low doses of PTZ and VPA in the naive animal may activate processes activated by drug withdrawal, including those important for the motivational effect of withdrawal. However, it was also pointed out that the lowest dose VPA producing aversion was higher than that found here to produce writhes and ataxia (80 mg/kg) but the same as that required for shaking (160 mg/kg), while the PTZ aversion was at a dose lower than that known to produce a PTZ cue. Implications were discussed for using withdrawal-like phenomena as a model in the non-treated organism of clinically-relevant withdrawal effects. PMID:7587968

Mucha, R F; Fassos, F F; Perl, F M

1995-07-01

307

Influence of residual organic macromolecules produced in biological wastewater treatment processes on removal of pharmaceuticals by NF/RO membranes.  

PubMed

Increasing attention has been given to pollution of the water environment by pharmaceutical compounds discharged from wastewater treatment plants. High-pressure driven membranes such as a nanofiltration (NF) membrane and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane are considered to be effective for control of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment. In practical applications of NF/RO membranes to municipal wastewater treatment, feed water for the membranes always contains organic macromolecules at concentrations of up to 10mg-TOC/L, which are mainly composed of soluble microbial products (SMPs) produced during biological wastewater treatment such as an activated sludge process. In this study, influence of these organic macromolecules on removal of six pharmaceuticals by NF/RO membranes (UTC-60 and LF10) was investigated. Two types of biological treatment (conventional activated sludge process followed by media filtration (i.e., tertiary treatment) and treatment with a membrane bioreactor (MBR)) were examined as pretreatments for NF/RO membranes in this study. In the filtration tests with wastewater effluents, removal of the pharmaceuticals was higher than that seen with deionized pure water spiked with the pharmaceuticals. The increase was significant in the case of the NF membrane. Both alteration of membrane surface properties due to membrane fouling and association of the pharmaceuticals with organic macromolecules contributed to the increase in removal of pharmaceuticals by the membranes. Characteristics of the organic macromolecules contained in the wastewater effluents differed depending on the type of treatment, implying that removal of pharmaceuticals by NF/RO membranes is influenced by the type of pretreatment employed. PMID:19564034

Kimura, Katsuki; Iwase, Tomonori; Kita, Shusuke; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

2009-08-01

308

Isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of fluid migration and escape from intentionally altered subsurface geologic systems, such as in hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon sequestration activities, is an important issue for environmental regulators based on the traction that the "fracking" process is gathering across the United States. Given diverse injected fluid compositions and the potential for toxic or regulated compounds to be released, one of the most important steps in the process is accurately identifying evidence of injected fluid escape during and after injection processes. An important tool in identifying differences between the natural groundwater and injected fluid is the isotopic composition of dissolved constituents including inorganic components such as Sr and carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds. Since biological processes in the mesothermal subsurface can rapidly alter the organic composition of a fluid, stable carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds (DOC) are an effective means to identify differences in the origin of two fluids, especially when coupled with inorganic compound analyses. The burgeoning field of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for isotopic analysis presents an opportunity to obtain rapid, reliable and cost-effective isotopic measurements of DOC in potentially affected groundwater for the identification of leakage or the improvement of hydrogeochemical pathway models. Here we adapt the use of the novel hyphenated TOC-CRDS carbon isotope analyzer for the analysis of DOC in produced water by wet oxidation and describe the methods to evaluate performance and obtain useful information at higher salinities. Our methods are applied to a specific field example in a CO2-enhanced EOR field in Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) as a means to demonstrate the ability to distinguish natural and injected DOC using the stable isotopic composition of the dissolved organic carbon when employing the novel TOC-CRDS instrumentation set up.

Thomas, Randal; Conaway, Christopher; Saad, Nabil; Kharaka, Yousif

2013-04-01

309

Living Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.

310

The effect of organic matter on CCN properties of particles produced in laboratory simulations of bubble bursting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we measure the submicron size distributions and cloud condensation nucleus properties of aerosol particles produced from a laboratory system that simulates particle formation from bubble bursting. The experimental method consists of a plunging water jet into a stainless steel tank filled with 10 L of artificial seawater, with and without added organic compounds. The tank is equipped with a water pump that can be set at variable speeds. Preliminary results from size distribution measurements agree with previous studies, in that the number concentration and size of particles produced depend on the water jet flux. Observations of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity are also affected by the water pump speed. The CCN activity of artificial seawater, at a salinity of 35‰ and with no added organic compounds, is similar to that of pure sodium chloride. Addition of as much as 1 g/L of D-mannitol does not considerably alter the particle size distribution, nor does it alter the observed CCN activity. Addition of less than 5 mg/L of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate leads to shifts in size distribution roughly similar to those from published results, in which other methods of simulating bubble bursting were used. The growing use of experimental methods for the reproduction of bubble bursting in aerosol laboratories gives us reason to explore possible differences in the properties of particles generated from similar systems. Comparisons between observations from the above-mentioned 10-L tank and those from a larger tank filled with approximately 100 L of identical artificial seawater will also be presented.

King, S.; Rosenoern, T.; Nilsson, D.; Bilde, M.

2010-12-01

311

Organic samples produced by ion bombardment of ices for the EXPOSE-R2 mission on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the preparation and characterization (by UV-Vis-IR spectroscopy) of a set of organic samples, stable at room temperature and above, that are part of the experiment "Photochemistry on the Space Station (PSS)" planned to be enclosed in the EXPOSE-R2 mission, which will be conducted on the EXPOSE-R facility, outside the International Space Station (ISS). The organic materials are prepared in the Catania laboratory after 200 keV He+ irradiation of icy mixtures, namely N_2:CH_4:CO deposited at 16 K on MgF_2 windows furnished by European Space Agency. It is widely accepted that such kind of materials produced by energetic processing are representative of organic material in astrophysical environments such as, e.g., comets. Once expelled from comets these materials are exposed to solar radiation during their interplanetary journey before they eventually land on the Earth and other planetary objects where they might give a contribution to the chemical and pre-biotical evolution. In particular our residues contain different chemical groups, including triple CN bonds that are considered relevant to pre-biotic chemistry (e.g. Palumbo et al., 2000). Therefore the samples will be exposed, for several months, to the solar ultraviolet photons that are a major source of energy to initiate chemical evolution in the Solar System. This will allow analysis of their destruction and evaluation of their lifetime in the interplanetary medium. The samples have three different thicknesses (about 200, 130, 65 nm) that will allow the estimation of the depth profile of destruction (e.g., Baratta et al., 2002). This experiment overcomes the limits of ground tests which do not reproduce exactly the space parameters.

Baratta, G.; Chaput, D.; Cottin, H.; Fernandez Cascales, L.; Palumbo, M.; Strazzulla, G.

2014-07-01

312

Oral Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment in Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase–Producing Organisms  

PubMed Central

Background: Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasing problems. The involvement of ESBL-producing organisms is associated with higher rates of carbapenem usage in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Though some strains are susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) in vitro, there is very less data about the consequences of AMC usage for such infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological outcomes of AMC treatment in UTIs caused by AMC-susceptible ESBL-producing organisms. Patients and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Forty-six out of 652 patients (F/M ratio: 32/14; mean age: 43.9 years) with ESBL-positive UTIs were eligible for this study. These patients had cystitis (n = 23), vesicoureteral reflux (n = 7), hyperactive bladder (n = 6), and prostatitis (n = 10). Data was collected via chart review and was statistically analyzed. Results: AMC-susceptible ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca were identified as the causative agents in 31, 14, and 1 patients, respectively. Thirty-nine (84.7%) out of 46 patients were successfully treated with oral AMC. Additionally, 2 (4.3%) patients’ urine cultures turned to be negative, though their clinical complaints and leukocyturia had continued. In the remaining 5 (10.8%) patients, no positive clinical and microbiological response was obtained. Increased minimum inhibitory concentration levels of AMC (from 4 to > 256 µg/mL) were detected in these patients and the treatment failures were attributed to this developing resistance. We found that therapeutic failure was significantly more frequent in Klebsiella spp. than in E. coli (33.3% vs 6.5%, P = 0.029). Furthermore, no treatment failure was observed in pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ? 2 mg/mL, and the high AMC MIC (8 mg/mL) was associated with resistance development and therapeutic failure (71.4% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Our results suggested that amoxicillin-clavulanic acid may be a good oral antimicrobial which can be used for treatment of ESBL-positive UTIs, if the causative agent is susceptible to this antibiotic. However, some strains may develop resistance during therapy, especially in those exhibiting high AMC MICs.

Beytur, Ali; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Oguz, Fatih; Otlu, Baris; Kaysadu, Halim

2014-01-01

313

Molecules in Living Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the difference between molecules in living systems and inanimate objects. In living systems, atoms and molecules are organized to a much greater degree and provide the structure of the organism. Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are also discussed.

2012-06-19

314

Cross-Infection of Solid Organ Transplant Recipients by a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate Producing the OXA-48 Carbapenemase, Likely Derived from a Multiorgan Donor  

PubMed Central

We describe two cases of bacteremic infections caused by a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase that occurred in two solid organ transplant (liver and kidney) recipients, which was apparently transmitted with the allografts. This finding underscores the risk of donor-derived infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients and emphasizes the need for rapid screening of organ donors for carriage of similar pathogens. PMID:24759725

Giani, Tommaso; Conte, Viola; Mandalà, Salvatore; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Luzzaro, Francesco; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Grossi, Paolo

2014-01-01

315

Organic synthesis: the art and science of replicating the molecules of living nature and creating others like them in the laboratory  

PubMed Central

Synthetic organic chemists have the power to replicate some of the most intriguing molecules of living nature in the laboratory and apply their developed synthetic strategies and technologies to construct variations of them. Such molecules facilitate biology and medicine, as they often find uses as biological tools and drug candidates for clinical development. In addition, by employing sophisticated catalytic reactions and appropriately designed synthetic processes, they can synthesize not only the molecules of nature and their analogues, but also myriad other organic molecules for potential applications in many areas of science, technology and everyday life. After a short historical introduction, this article focuses on recent advances in the field of organic synthesis with demonstrative examples of total synthesis of complex bioactive molecules, natural or designed, from the author’s laboratories, and their impact on chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:24611027

Nicolaou, K. C.

2014-01-01

316

www.frontiersinecology.org The Ecological Society of America All organisms have to make a living by harnessing  

E-print Network

a living by harnessing energy, collecting nutrients, and expelling waste. The joining together, or coupling, of elemental cycles occurs when elements required for biosynthesis are assimi- lated into microbial, plant, and animal biomass, and again when that biomass is decomposed; in both cases, elements cycle in proportion

Saleska, Scott

317

WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-lived TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.

Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

2011-12-01

318

Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reaction of Phenols with an Organic Excited Triplet State and Hydroxyl Radical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although reactions in atmospheric condensed phases can form and transform secondary organic aerosol (SOA), these reactions are not well represented in many air quality models. Previous experiments have focused on hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of low molecular weight precursors such as gyloxal and methylglyoxal. In our work we are examining aqueous SOA formed from phenols, which are emitted from biomass burning and formed from the oxidation of anthropogenic aromatics such as benzene and toluene. In this work we examine aqueous SOA production from oxidation of three phenols (phenol, guaiacol, syringol) and three benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, 1,4-hydroquinone) by hydroxyl radical (OH) and the triplet excited state of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (DMB). Our focus is on light absorption by the reaction products, which we characterized by measuring UV-Vis spectra and calculating mass absorption coefficients. To understand the elemental and molecular composition of the SOA, we also analyzed the samples with high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. Our results indicate that aqueous oxidation of phenols and benzene-diols via OH and triplet excited states efficiently produce SOA that is highly absorbing in the UV-A wavelengths, consists of both small and large molecular weight products, and is highly oxidized.

Smith, J.; Yu, L.; George, K.; Ruthenburg, T. C.; Dillner, A. M.; Zhang, Q.; Anastasio, C.

2012-12-01

319

14C-Dead Living Biomass: Evidence for Microbial Assimilation of Ancient Organic Carbon During Shale Weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prokaryotes have been cultured from a modern weathering profile developed on a ~365-million-year-old black shale that use macromolecular shale organic matter as their sole organic carbon source. Using natural-abundance carbon-14 analysis of membrane lipids, we show that 74 to 94% of lipid carbon in these cultures derives from assimilation of carbon-14-free organic carbon from the shale. These results reveal that microorganisms enriched from shale weathering profiles are able to use a macromolecular and putatively refractory pool of ancient organic matter. This activity may facilitate the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter to inorganic carbon when sedimentary rocks are exposed by erosion. Thus, microorganisms may play a more active role in the geochemical carbon cycle than previously recognized, with profound implications for controls on the abundance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere over geologic time.

Petsch, S. T.; Eglinton, T. I.; Edwards, K. J.

2001-05-01

320

14C-dead living biomass: evidence for microbial assimilation of ancient organic carbon during shale weathering.  

PubMed

Prokaryotes have been cultured from a modern weathering profile developed on a approximately 365-million-year-old black shale that use macromolecular shale organic matter as their sole organic carbon source. Using natural-abundance carbon-14 analysis of membrane lipids, we show that 74 to 94% of lipid carbon in these cultures derives from assimilation of carbon-14-free organic carbon from the shale. These results reveal that microorganisms enriched from shale weathering profiles are able to use a macromolecular and putatively refractory pool of ancient organic matter. This activity may facilitate the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter to inorganic carbon when sedimentary rocks are exposed by erosion. Thus, microorganisms may play a more active role in the geochemical carbon cycle than previously recognized, with profound implications for controls on the abundance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere over geologic time. PMID:11283356

Petsch, S T; Eglington, T I; Edwards, K J

2001-05-11

321

Living Things and their Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn how to tell the difference between living and non-living organisms and their habitats. Our class has just learned about living things and their habitats. Use this webquest to create your own living things and their habitats. Remember a living thing: Grows Moves Reproduces A Habitat is a place (home) for living things. A habitat provides four important things: 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Space 4. Water Now you get to decide ...

Mrs. D.

2006-10-11

322

Visualization of Glucocorticoid Receptor Translocation and Intranuclear Organization in Living Cells with a Green Fluorescent Protein Chimera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly fluorescent mutant form of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been fused to the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR). When GFP-GR is expressed in living mouse cells, it is competent for normal transactivation of the GR-responsive mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. The unliganded GFP-GR resides in the cytoplasm and translocates to the nucleus in a hormone-dependent manner with ligand

Han Htun; Julia Barsony; Istvan Renyi; Daniel L. Gould; Gordon L. Hager

1996-01-01

323

Characterization of oligomers from methylglyoxal under dark conditions: a pathway to produce secondary organic aerosol through cloud processing during nighttime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous-phase oligomer formation from methylglyoxal, a major atmospheric photooxidation product, has been investigated in a simulated cloud matrix under dark conditions. The aim of this study was to explore an additional pathway producing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through cloud processes without participation of photochemistry during nighttime. Indeed, atmospheric models still underestimate SOA formation, as field measurements have revealed more SOA than predicted. Soluble oligomers (n = 1-8) formed in the course of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation and acid-catalyzed hydration followed by acetal formation have been detected and characterized by positive and negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Aldol condensation proved to be a favorable mechanism under simulated cloud conditions, while hydration/acetal formation was found to strongly depend on the pH of the system and only occurred at a pH<3.5. No evidence was found for formation of organosulfates. The aldol oligomer series starts with a ?-hydroxy ketone via aldol condensation, where oligomers are formed by multiple additions of C3H4O2 units (72 Da) to the parent ?-hydroxy ketone. Ion trap mass spectrometry experiments were performed to structurally characterize the major oligomer species. A mechanistic pathway for the growth of oligomers under cloud conditions and in the absence of UV-light and OH radicals, which could substantially enhance in-cloud SOA yields, is proposed here for the first time.

Yasmeen, F.; Sauret, N.; Gal, J.-F.; Maria, P.-C.; Massi, L.; Maenhaut, W.; Claeys, M.

2010-04-01

324

Fucoidan stimulates cell division in the amebocyte-producing organ of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Adult Salvador (schistosome-resistant) strain Biomphalaria glabrata snails were injected with 5 ?l of 10 mg/ml solutions of the sulfated polysaccharides ? carageenan, dextran sulfate, fucoidan, and heparin, the nonsulfated polysaccharide laminarin, and the monosaccharides L-fucose and L-galactose, and mitotic activity in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) was measured in histological sections at 24 h post injection. Among the substances tested, only fucoidan induced elevated mitotic activity. Desulfated fucoidan was not mitogenic, indicating that sulfate groups are required for activity. Schistosome-susceptible M-line snails possessed minimal or no hematopoietic tissue in their APO, which did not respond to fucoidan. Immersion of juvenile Salvador snails in 1 or 10 mg/ml solutions of fucoidan for 3 h did not elevate mitotic activity at 24 h post immersion, suggesting that the external and digestive tract epithelia of B. glabrata are impermeable to this molecule. These results provide support for the hypothesis that fucosylated glycans on the tegument and in excretory-secretory products of sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni are in part responsible for increased mitotic activity in the APO of B. glabrata infected with this trematode or injected with its extracts. PMID:25233872

Sullivan, John T; Belloir, Joseph A; Beltran, Roxxana V; Grivakis, Aris; Ransone, Kathryn A

2014-11-01

325

Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 ?C. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

2012-09-01

326

Mycofumigation by the volatile organic compound-producing Fungus Muscodor albus induces bacterial cell death through DNA damage.  

PubMed

Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

Alpha, Cambria J; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Strobel, Scott A

2015-02-01

327

Questions and Answers on Living Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor Families ... Gift Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header Menu ...

328

Living Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about daily rhythms (on page 17 of the PDF), learners will explore circadian patterns in humans, animals and plants. They will observe that some behaviors and functions of living organisms vary predictably every 24 hours and many regular functions are governed by internal "clocks," which run independently but are cued or reset by the environment. Groups of learners can conduct one of four (or more) body clock investigations: body temperature, animal behavior, bean leaf, and alertness/heart rate. Materials required for each group will vary, depending on the investigation(s) being conducted. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

329

Cellular delivery and site-specific targeting of organic fluorophores for super-resolution imaging in living cells  

E-print Network

Recent advances in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy have pushed the spatial resolution of biological imaging down to a few nanometers. The key element to the development of such imaging modality is synthetic organic ...

Uttamapinant, Chayasith

2013-01-01

330

EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

331

Spindle formation and microtubule organization during first division in reconstructed rat embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to demonstrate the spindle formation and behavior of chromosomes and microtubules during first division in reconstructed rat embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with cumulus cell nuclei. To demonstrate the effect of oocyte aging after ovulation on the cleavage of SCNT embryos, micromanipulation was carried out 11, 15 and 18 h after injection of hCG. SCNT oocytes were activated by incubation in culture medium supplemented with 5 microM ionomycin for 5 min followed by treatment with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) in mR1ECM for 2-3 h. For immunocytochemical observation, the SCNT embryos were incubated with monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin antibody and then fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Cleavage rates were significantly higher for oocytes collected after 15 and 18 h rather than for those collected 11 h after injection of hCG (56 and 53%, respectively vs. 28%; P<0.05). Premature chromosome condensation occurred before activation of the SCNT oocytes, but adequate spindle formation was only rarely observed. The distribution of microtubules in SCNT embryos after activation was different from those of fertilized and parthenogenic oocytes, i.e., a dense microtubule organization shaped like a ring was observed. Eighteen to 20 h post-activation, most SCNT embryos were in the 2-cell stage, but no nucleoli were clearly visible, which was quite different from the fertilized oocytes. In addition, first division with and without small cellular bodies containing DNA was observed in the rat SCNT embryos in some cases. The present study suggests that reorganization of transferred nuclei in rat SCNT embryos may be inadequate in terms of formation of the mitotic assembly and nucleolar reorganization. PMID:17446658

Tomioka, Ikuo; Mizutani, Eiji; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Atsushi; Inai, Kentaro; Sasada, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei

2007-08-01

332

Living organisms as an alternative to hyphenated techniques for metal speciation. Evaluation of baker's yeast immobilized on silica gel for Hg speciation*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of living organisms for metal preconcentration and speciation is discussed. Among substrates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast has been successfully used for the speciation of mercury [Hg(II) and CH 3Hg +], selenium [Se(IV) and Se(VI)] and antimony [Sb(III) and Sb(V)]. To illustrate the capabilities of these organisms, the analytical performance of baker's yeast immobilized on silica gel for on-line preconcentration and speciation of Hg(II) and methylmercury is reported. The immobilized cells were packed in a PTFE microcolumn, through which mixtures of organic and inorganic mercury solutions were passed. Retention of inorganic and organic mercury solutions took place simultaneously, with the former retained in the silica and the latter on the yeast. The efficiency uptake for both species was higher than 95% over a wide pH range. The speciation was carried out by selective and sequential elution with 0.02 mol L -1 HCl for methylmercury and 0.8 mol L -1 CN - for Hg(II). This method allows both preconcentration and speciation of mercury. The preconcentration factors were around 15 and 100 for methylmercury and mercury(II), respectively. The method has been successfully applied to spiked sea water samples.

Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Madrid-Albarrán, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen; Beceiro, Elisa

1998-02-01

333

Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

1997-01-01

334

Freezing of living cells  

SciTech Connect

It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.

1985-01-01

335

A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10¿µg¿C¿m-2¿hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

336

77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Discharged in U.S. Waters.'' Six technical...Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U...Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01...after the words ``waters beyond the'' remove...to pump out the ballast water taken on...

2012-06-08

337

Lives, the Biography Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lives, the Biography Resource, is a comprehensive guide to more than one thousand biographical information resources available on the Web. The briefly annotated guide indexes resources by individual names and also organizes resources into several collections, which collocate related resources according to subject, region, era, profession, etc. In addition, the guide includes Inside Lives, a section that features new and noteworthy sites covering biographies, autobiographies, memoirs, oral histories, personal papers, and more. Lives is updated weekly.

338

Photon statistics and correlation analysis of ultraweak light originating from living organisms for extraction of biological information.  

PubMed

Ultraweak photon emission phenomena in the visible to near-IR region, originating from biological organisms, are known. This biophoton emission is generated during metabolic processes and constitutes physiological information. We investigated a technique for characterizing the optical radiation field based on photon statistics and correlation analysis to extract information on regulation processes in biochemical reactions and their interactions. We developed the system based on the time-interval measurement of photoelectrons in a photon-counting region and employed data processing with a nonstationary optical field with correction for the correlative properties of the photomultiplier dark current. We analyzed biophoton emission from cellular slime mold (Dictyosterium discoideum) and observed the characteristic variation of this organism's super-Poisson statistics during the developmental process. PMID:18337887

Kobayashi, M; Inaba, H

2000-01-01

339

Outcome of Cephalosporin Treatment for Serious Infections Due to Apparently Susceptible Organisms Producing Extended-Spectrum  -Lactamases: Implications for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) hydrolyze cephalosporin antibiotics, some ESBL- producing organisms are not resistant to all cephalosporins when tested in vitro. Some authors have suggested that screening klebsiellae or Escherichia coli for ESBL production is not clinically necessary, and when most recently surveyed the majority of American clinical microbiology laboratories did not make efforts to detect ESBLs. We performed a

DAVID L. PATERSON; WEN-CHIEN KO; ANNE VON GOTTBERG; JOSE MARIA CASELLAS; LUTFIYE MULAZIMOGLU; KEITH P. KLUGMAN; ROBERT A. BONOMO; LOUIS B. RICE; JOSEPH G. MCCORMACK; VICTOR L. YU

2001-01-01

340

Bayesian Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Reveals hIAPP-Induced Plasma Membrane Domain Organization in Live Cells  

PubMed Central

Amyloid fibril deposition of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in pancreatic islet cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes. A growing number of studies suggest that small peptide aggregates are cytotoxic via their interaction with the plasma membrane, which leads to membrane permeabilization or disruption. A recent study using imaging total internal reflection-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (ITIR-FCS) showed that monomeric hIAPP induced the formation of cellular plasma membrane microdomains containing dense lipids, in addition to the modulation of membrane fluidity. However, the spatial organization of microdomains and their temporal evolution were only partially characterized due to limitations in the conventional analysis and interpretation of imaging FCS datasets. Here, we apply a previously developed Bayesian analysis procedure to ITIR-FCS data to resolve hIAPP-induced microdomain spatial organization and temporal dynamics. Our analysis enables the visualization of the temporal evolution of multiple diffusing species in the spatially heterogeneous cell membrane, lending support to the carpet model for the association mode of hIAPP aggregates with the plasma membrane. The presented Bayesian analysis procedure provides an automated and general approach to unbiased model-based interpretation of imaging FCS data, with broad applicability to resolving the heterogeneous spatial-temporal organization of biological membrane systems. PMID:24411251

Guo, Syuan-Ming; Bag, Nirmalya; Mishra, Aseem; Wohland, Thorsten; Bathe, Mark

2014-01-01

341

Cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions off C, Al, SiO2, Si and Au producing relatively short-lived radionuclides at neutron energies between 70 and 160 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study was made to measure many cross sections for relevant neutron-induced reactions. This study was motivated by the need to better understand cosmic ray interactions with extraterrestrial materials. The major constituents of meteorites and lunar rocks include oxygen, silicon, and aluminum. The primary aim was to measure cross sections for neutron-induced reactions producing long-lived radionuclides (e.g. 14C) and stable isotopes (e.g. Ne isotopes) but the irradiation conditions allowed cross sections for many reactions producing relatively short-lived radionuclides (e.g. 22Na) to be well measured. Monitor foils used in the irradiations included C, Al, and Au. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced by bombarding Be targets with 80, 120 and 160 MeV proton beams at iThemba LABS, South Africa. Two identical target stacks were irradiated in beam lines at 0° and 16° to the incident proton beam direction. The yield at an unique neutron energy was obtained by subtracting the yield measured at 16° (after suitable normalization) from that measured at 0°. The cross sections for the following reactions: 27Al(n,x)22,24Na; natC(n,x)7Be; 197Au(n,x)194,196Au; SiO2(n,x)22Na and natSi(n,x)24Na are reported.

Sisterson, Janet M.

2007-08-01

342

Producer-Researcher Interactions in On-Farm Research: A Case Study on Developing a Certified Organic Research Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer demand for organic products has created a need for certified organic research sites. Our objective is to discuss the lessons learned from evaluating alternate cropping systems to estab- lish a certified site in western Iowa. Oat (Avena sativa L.), 'Kelson' snail medic (Medicago scutelata (L.) Mill.) or 'Polygraze' burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.), triticale (3Triticosecale spp.), sweet corn

Douglas L. Karlen; Cynthia A. Cambardella; Carolee T. Bull; Craig A. Chase; Lance R. Gibson; Kathleen Delate

343

Microbiological quality of organic vegetables produced in soil treated with different types of manure and mineral fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to evaluate microbiological quality of horticultural crops grown organically. Three species of vegetables were used, lettuce (Lactuva sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) and spinach (Tetragonia expansa), grown organically, in fertile soil. Six different treatments were applied: mineral fertilizer, chicken, cow, and pig manure, chicken litter and cow manure, in association with a liquid foliar biofertilizer. These crops

Débora Cabral Machado; Carla Marques Maia; Isabel Dias Carvalho; Natan Fontoura da Silva; Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borge André; Álvaro Bisol Serafini

2006-01-01

344

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... regulatory framework. Typical Services Offered in Assisted Living Communities: Assisted living communities provide more personal care services ... with dignity and respect. Finding a Senior Living Community That's Right for You! Before you start your ...

345

Living Longer, Healthier Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to popular images that portray a bleak future, important life tasks and accomplishments characterize the lives of\\u000a older women. Midlife women are more likely than not to work full-time, and some will earn the highest salaries of their careers.\\u000a A high percentage of women in public service or elected office are in their 50s and 60s. Bernadine Healy was

Susan D. Lonborg; Cheryl B. Travis

346

Impact of Amorphous SiO2 Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioral, and Molecular Biology Implications  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that silica (SiO2) is not toxic. But the increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many different industrial fields has prompted the careful investigation of their toxicity in biological systems. In this report, we describe the effects elicited by SiO2NPs on animal and cell physiology. Stable and monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles, 25?nM in diameter, were administered to living Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria). The dose-related effects were defined by morphological and behavioral assays. The results revealed an all-or-nothing lethal toxicity with a rather high threshold (35?nM NPs) and a LT50 of 38?h. At sub lethal doses, the morphophysiological effects included: animal morphology alterations, paralysis of the gastric region, disorganization and depletion of tentacle specialized cells, increase of apoptotic and collapsed cells, and reduction of the epithelial cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome analysis (RNAseq) revealed 45 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in stress response and cuticle renovation. Our results show that Hydra reacts to SiO2NPs, is able to rebalance the animal homeostasis up to a relatively high doses of SiO2NPs, and that the physiological modifications are transduced to gene expression modulation. PMID:25325055

Ambrosone, Alfredo; Scotto di Vettimo, Maria Rosaria; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren; Marchesano, Valentina; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Tortiglione, Claudia; Tino, Angela

2014-01-01

347

Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level. 1. Using the LASCA method  

SciTech Connect

A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Ulianova, O V; Uianov, S S; Li Pengcheng; Luo Qingming

2011-04-30

348

Characterization of microbial content of organic and conventional produce in Maryland relative to production practices and inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Production inputs/practices such as soil amendments, water quality, animal intrusion, and human activity can influence microbial quality of fresh produce. Limited data on production practices relative to microbial/pathogen content of fresh produce are currently available for either org...

349

The Living Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is home to vast numbers of organisms, and even small sections of earth teem with a diverse array of life. This Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the world beneath our feet through the lens of soil biologists and ecologists. The first website (1) provides information about the activities of a Natural Environment Research Council-supported research program "on the biological diversity of soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes." The second site (2) contains information about several research projects of the Ecology of Soil Organisms Theme Group at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Theme Group studies "soil organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem level, to ultimately increase understanding of the role of soil organisms." The third site (3) contains a list of publications spanning the past fifteen years from members of the Soil Ecology Group at the University of Jyv'skyl". The site also provides basic information about group members, and concise descriptions of current research projects. From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the fourth website (4) contains an online version of the _Soil Biology Primer_, "an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms." The online version of the Primer contains the entire text of the original published version, but is missing some useful soil organism images. The fifth site (5) links to sixteen movies relating to different aspects of soil biology such as nematodes, mites, springtails, and protozoa. The movies were all produced by Dr. Thomas E. Loynachan, a Professor of Agronomy and Microbiology at Iowa State University. Finally, Soils Are Alive (6) was developed by Professor Lyn Abbot of the University of Western Australia and Jen Slater, a qualified secondary school science teacher. This website contains informative, concise sections addressing Soil Biology, Biological Processes, Living Components, and Ecosystem Management.

350

The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.  

PubMed

In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections. PMID:21559784

Leeb, Christine

2011-06-01

351

Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV  

E-print Network

A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6 fb$^{-1}$ of 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 hours of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of $13.2^{+3.6}_{-2.5}$ events. Limits are presented at 95% confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass $\\lesssim$1000 GeV and a top squark with mass $\\lesssim$525 GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 $\\mu$s and 1000 s. These results are the most stringent c...

Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas

2015-01-01

352

Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV  

E-print Network

A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6 inverse femtobarns of 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 hours of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of 13.2+3.6-2.5 events. Limits are presented at 95% confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass <1000 GeV and a top squark with mass <525 GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 microsecond and 1000 s. These results are the most stringent constraints on stopped particles to date.

CMS Collaboration

2015-01-22

353

Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives  

MedlinePLUS

... and disease. The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives — a group of 36 organizations recognized as experts ... having healthy mouths for the rest of their lives. Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives 4350 N. ...

354

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 205.305 Section 205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

2010-01-01

355

Living liquid crystals  

PubMed Central

Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed “active fluid,” has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter––living liquid crystals (LLCs)––that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

2014-01-01

356

The Normality of Living in Surveillance Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is increasingly argued that contemporary capitalist nations have become ‘surveillance societies’ in which surveillance\\u000a related activities are embedded as the core mode of organization, production and societal order (Lyon 1994, 2001, 2007). But what does it mean to live in a surveillance society and what economic, political and social relations are produced?\\u000a These are the key questions addressed in

David Murakami Wood; C. William R. Webster

357

Urea, Glycolic Acid, and Glycerol in an Organic Residue Produced by Ultraviolet Irradiation of Interstellar/Pre-Cometary Ice Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 50 stable organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), from ground-based and onboard-satellite astronomical observations, in the gas and solid phases. Some of these organics may be prebiotic compounds that were delivered to early Earth by comets and meteorites and may have triggered the first chemical reactions involved in the origin of life. Ultraviolet irradiation of ices simulating photoprocesses of cold solid matter in astrophysical environments have shown that photochemistry can lead to the formation of amino acids and related compounds. In this work, we experimentally searched for other organic molecules of prebiotic interest, namely, oxidized acid labile compounds. In a setup that simulates conditions relevant to the ISM and Solar System icy bodies such as comets, a condensed CH3OH:NH3â = 1:1 ice mixture was UV irradiated at ˜80 K. The molecular constituents of the nonvolatile organic residue that remained at room temperature were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol were detected in this residue, as well as hydroxyacetamide, glycerolic acid, and glycerol amide. These organics are interesting target molecules to be searched for in space. Finally, tentative mechanisms of formation for these compounds under interstellar/pre-cometary conditions are proposed.

Nuevo, Michel; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.

2010-03-01

358

Living Wage Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In many parts of the United States, families working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to live locally given the high cost of living. Some of this can be due to rising real estate costs and the like and a number of organizations have worked to craft living wage legislation in a number of cities. This Living Wage calculator helps visitors estimate the cost of living in their community or region. Visitors can get started by selecting a location from the list presented here. Additionally, they can also use the search engine to look for specific places. For each place, visitors can learn about the living wage, typical expenses, and so on. It's an interesting policy tool and it can be used to teach students about economics, the job market, and much more.

Glasmeier, Amy

359

Use of on-farm produced biofuels on organic farms – Evaluation of energy balances and environmental loads for three possible fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate systems making organic farms self-sufficient in farm-produced bio-based fuels. The energy balance and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Complete LCAs were not performed. Important constraints when implementing the systems in practice were also identified.The RME scenario showed

H. Fredriksson; A. Baky; S. Bernesson; Å. Nordberg; O. Norén; P.-A. Hansson

2006-01-01

360

Living Vs. Non-Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fill out your worksheet as you learn more about living and non-living things. 1. First mouse over the objects to see some of the characteristics of living and non living things.Living Nonliving Characteristics 2. So, you know what is alive and what is not. But why are those things alive or not? Read the information on this site to learn the 7 characteristics that make things ...

Carrie Benson

2012-10-08

361

Colored Solutes, Precipitates and Surface Films Produced by Reactions of Organics in Sulfuric Acid Solutions at Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere Aerosol Acidities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt%). However, recent airborne measurements have shown that these particles may also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds (Murphy et al. 2007). Experiments combining small amounts of organics (glyoxal, methylglyoxal and/or propanal) with sulfuric acid at concentrations typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored solutions, precipitates, and even surface films that have the potential to impact chemical, optical and/or cloud-forming properties of aerosols. Surface films, in particular, would be expected to control these aerosol properties, so the kinetics of film formation were examined to determine the effects of organic mixture, acidity, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Results will be used to assess whether it is possible that such films could exist in the UT/LS in quantities that would be significant enough to impact aerosol chemistry or climate properties.

Perez Montano, S.; Berry, J.; Feick, N.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Le, H.; Khaled, K. A.; Dwisaksono, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Van Wyngarden, A. L.

2011-12-01

362

Type I interferons produced by resident renal cells may promote end-organ disease in autoantibody-mediated glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

Increased Type I IFNs or IFN-I have been associated with human systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly augmenting or negating IFN-I activity in murine lupus not only modulates systemic autoimmunity, but also impacts lupus nephritis, suggesting that IFN-I may be acting at the level of the end-organ. We find resident renal cells to be a dominant source of IFN-I in an experimental model of autoantibody-induced nephritis. In this model, augmenting IFN-I amplified antibody-triggered nephritis, whereas ablating IFN-I activity ameliorated disease. One mechanism through which increased IFN-I drives immune-mediated nephritis might be operative through increased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, though this hypothesis needs further validation. Collectively, these studies indicate that an important contribution of IFN-I toward the disease pathology seen in systemic autoimmunity may be exercised at the level of the end-organ. PMID:19864599

Fairhurst, Anna-Marie; Xie, Chun; Fu, Yuyang; Wang, Andrew; Boudreaux, Christopher; Zhou, Xin J; Cibotti, Ricardo; Coyle, Anthony; Connolly, John E; Wakeland, Edward K; Mohan, Chandra

2009-11-15

363

Type I Interferons Produced by Resident Renal Cells May Promote End-Organ Disease in Autoantibody-Mediated Glomerulonephritis1  

PubMed Central

Increased Type I IFNs or IFN-I have been associated with human systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly augmenting or negating IFN-I activity in murine lupus not only modulates systemic autoimmunity, but also impacts lupus nephritis, suggesting that IFN-I may be acting at the level of the end-organ. We find resident renal cells to be a dominant source of IFN-I in an experimental model of autoantibody-induced nephritis. In this model, augmenting IFN-I amplified antibody-triggered nephritis, whereas ablating IFN-I activity ameliorated disease. One mechanism through which increased IFN-I drives immune-mediated nephritis might be operative through increased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, though this hypothesis needs further validation. Collectively, these studies indicate that an important contribution of IFN-I toward the disease pathology seen in systemic autoimmunity may be exercised at the level of the end-organ. PMID:19864599

Fairhurst, Anna-Marie; Xie, Chun; Fu, Yuyang; Wang, Andrew; Boudreaux, Christopher; Zhou, Xin J.; Cibotti, Ricardo; Coyle, Anthony; Connolly, John E.; Wakeland, Edward K.; Mohan, Chandra

2010-01-01

364

Ultraviolet and visible complex refractive indices of secondary organic material produced by photooxidation of the aromatic compounds toluene and m-Xylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary organic material (SOM) produced by the oxidation of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds is light-absorbing (i.e., brown carbon). Spectral data of the optical properties, however, are scarce. The present study obtained the continuous spectra of the real and imaginary refractive indices (m = n - i k) in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible region using spectroscopic ellipsometry for n and UV-visible spectrometry for k. Several different types of SOM were produced in an oxidation flow reactor by photooxidation of toluene and m-xylene for variable concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The results show that the k values of the anthropogenically derived material were at least ten times greater than those of biogenically derived material. The presence of NOx produced organonitrogen compounds, such as nitro-aromatics and organonitrates, which enhanced light absorption. Compared with the SOM derived from m-xylene, the toluene-derived SOM had larger k values, as well as greater NOx induced enhancement, suggesting different brown-carbon-forming potentials of different aromatic precursor compounds. The results imply that anthropogenic SOM produced around urban environments can have an important influence in affecting ultraviolet irradiance, which might consequently influence photochemical cycles of urban pollution.

Liu, P. F.; Abdelmalki, N.; Hung, H.-M.; Wang, Y.; Brune, W. H.; Martin, S. T.

2014-08-01

365

Optimization of the treatment cycle of pressed-off leachate produced in a facility processing the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

The paper investigates, at a laboratory scale, the applicability of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of pressed-off leachate produced in a biomechanical treatment plant for municipal solid waste. Batch tests show that the anaerobic process proceeds smoothly and produces about 10,000?mL of methane per litre of treated leachate. The process is characterized by a lag phase lasting about 30 days, and is completed in about 2 months. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acids monitoring allows studying process kinetics that are modelled through a triple linear expression. Physical and biological treatments are also investigated to reduce the residual organic charge of the produced digestate. The best performances are obtained via aerobic degradation followed by assisted sedimentation. This cycle reduces the residual COD of about 85%, and allows the correct disposal of the final waste stream. PMID:25422035

d'Antonio, Luca; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Pontoni, Ludovico

2015-06-01

366

Lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of triricinolein in organic solvent to produce 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to find the optimal parameters for lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of triricinolein to produce\\u000a 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein. Four different immobilized lipases were tested, Candida antarctica type B (CALB), Rhizomucor miehei (RML), Pseudomonas cepacia (PCL), and Penicillium roquefortii (PRL). n-Hexane and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) were examined as reaction media at three different water activities (a\\u000a w), 0.11, 0.53, and

Charlotta Turner; Xiaohua He; Tasha Nguyen; Jiann-Tsyh Lin; Rosalind Y. Wong; Robert E. Lundin; Leslie Harden; Thomas McKeon

2003-01-01

367

Fractionation of the Three Stable Oxygen Isotopes by Oxygen-Producing and Oxygen-Consuming Reactions in Photosynthetic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triple isotope composition (d17O and d18O) of dissolved O2 in the ocean and in ice cores was recently used to assess the primary productivity over broad spatial and temporal scales. However, assessment of the productivity with the aid of this method must rely on accurate measurements of the 17O\\/16O versus 18O\\/16O relationship in each of the main oxygen-producing and

Yael Helman; Eugeni Barkan; Doron Eisenstadt; Boaz Luz; Aaron Kaplan

2005-01-01

368

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

369

Live Well  

MedlinePLUS

... Against AIDS Act Against AIDS Campaigns Share Compartir Live Well Being aware of your overall health beyond ... things you can do to stay healthy and live well. Mental Health - Good mental health will help ...

370

A case study on co-exposure to a mixture of organic solvents in a Tunisian adhesive-producing company  

PubMed Central

Objectives to assess environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organic solvents in a glue-manufacturing company in Sfax, Tunisia. Methods Exposure of volunteer workers, in the solvented glue-work-stations, in the control laboratory and in the storage rooms of the finished products, was assessed through indoor-air and urine measurements. Informed consent of the workers was obtained. Results and discussion The exposure indexes were found with high values in the solvented workshop as well as in the control laboratory and were respectively, 8.40 and 3.12. These indexes were also correlated with hexane and toluene indoor air concentrations. As to urine, the obtained results for the 2,5-hexandione and hippuric acid, metabolites of hexane and toluene, respectively, were in accord with the indoor-air measurements, with an average of 0.46 mg/l and 1240 mg/g of creatinine. Conclusion This study assessed for the first time biological exposure to organic solvents used in Tunisian adhesive industries. Although values are likely to underestimate true exposure levels, some figures exceed European and American occupational exposure guidelines. PMID:22082240

2011-01-01

371

Antimould activity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria: identification of a mixture of organic acids produced by Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1.  

PubMed

Sourdough lactic acid bacteria, cultivated in wheat flour hydrolysate, produced antimould compounds. The antimould activity varied greatly among the strains and was mainly detected within obligately heterofermentative Lactobacillus spp. Among these, Lb. sanfrancisco CB1 had the largest spectrum. It inhibited moulds related to bread spoilage such as Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monilia. A mixture of acetic, caproic, formic, propionic, butyric and n-valeric acids, acting in a synergistic way, was responsible for the antimould activity. Caproic acid played a key role in inhibiting mould growth. PMID:9763693

Corsetti, A; Gobbetti, M; Rossi, J; Damiani, P

1998-08-01

372

Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle.  

PubMed

The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading. PMID:25525134

Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; O'Hara, Amanda J

2015-01-01

373

Trimethylamine and organic matter additions reverse substrate limitation effects on the ?13C values of methane produced in hypersaline microbial mats.  

PubMed

Methane production has been observed in a number of hypersaline environments, and it is generally thought that this methane is produced through the use of non-competitive substrates, such as the methylamines, dimethylsulfide and methanol. Stable isotope measurements of the produced methane have also suggested that the methanogens are operating under conditions of substrate limitation. Here, substrate limitation in gypsum-hosted endoevaporite and soft mat hypersaline environments was investigated by the addition of trimethylamine, a non-competitive substrate for methanogenesis, and dried microbial mat, a source of natural organic matter. The ?(13)C values of the methane produced after amendments were compared to those in unamended control vials. At all hypersaline sites investigated, the ?(13)C values of the methane produced in the amended vials were statistically lower (by 10 to 71 ‰) than the unamended controls, supporting the hypothesis of substrate limitation at these sites. When substrates were added to the incubation vials, the methanogens within the vials fractionated carbon isotopes to a greater degree, resulting in the production of more (13)C-depleted methane. Trimethylamine-amended samples produced lower methane ?(13)C values than the mat-amended samples. This difference in the ?(13)C values between the two types of amendments could be due to differences in isotope fractionation associated with the dominant methane production pathway (or substrate used) within the vials, with trimethylamine being the main substrate used in the trimethylamine-amended vials. It is hypothesized that increased natural organic matter in the mat-amended vials would increase fermentation rates, leading to higher H2 concentrations and increased CO2/H2 methanogenesis. PMID:25239903

Kelley, Cheryl A; Nicholson, Brooke E; Beaudoin, Claire S; Detweiler, Angela M; Bebout, Brad M

2014-09-19

374

Engineering living functional materials.  

PubMed

Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

2015-01-16

375

Impacts of Organic and Conventional Crop Management on Diversity and Activity of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria and Total Bacteria Are Subsidiary to Temporal Effects  

PubMed Central

A three year field study (2007–2009) of the diversity and numbers of the total and metabolically active free-living diazotophic bacteria and total bacterial communities in organic and conventionally managed agricultural soil was conducted using the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study, in northeast England. Fertility management appeared to have little impact on both diazotrophic and total bacterial communities. However, copy numbers of the nifH gene did appear to be negatively impacted by conventional crop protection measures across all years suggesting diazotrophs may be particularly sensitive to pesticides. Impacts of crop management were greatly overshadowed by the influence of temporal effects with diazotrophic communities changing on a year by year basis and from season to season. Quantitative analyses using qPCR of each community indicated that metabolically active diazotrophs were highest in year 1 but the population significantly declined in year 2 before recovering somewhat in the final year. The total bacterial population in contrast increased significantly each year. It appeared that the dominant drivers of qualitative and quantitative changes in both communities were annual and seasonal effects. Moreover, regression analyses showed activity of both communities was significantly affected by soil temperature and climatic conditions. PMID:23285218

Orr, Caroline H.; Leifert, Carlo; Cummings, Stephen P.; Cooper, Julia M.

2012-01-01

376

Ultraviolet and visible complex refractive indices of secondary organic material produced by photooxidation of the aromatic compounds toluene and m-xylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary organic material (SOM) produced by the oxidation of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds can be light-absorbing (i.e., brown carbon). Spectral data of the optical properties, however, are scarce. The present study obtained the continuous spectra of the real and imaginary refractive indices (m = n-i k) in the ultraviolet (UV)-to-visible region using spectroscopic ellipsometry for n and UV-visible spectrometry for k. Several different types of SOM were produced in an oxidation flow reactor by photooxidation of toluene and m-xylene for variable concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The results show that the k values of the anthropogenically derived material were at least 10 times greater than those of the biogenically derived material. The presence of NOx was associated with the production of organonitrogen compounds, such as nitro-aromatics and organonitrates, which enhanced light absorption. Compared with the SOM derived from m-xylene, the toluene-derived SOM had larger k values, as well as a greater NOx-induced enhancement, suggesting different brown-carbon-forming potentials of different aromatic precursor compounds. The results imply that anthropogenic SOM produced around urban environments can have an important influence on ultraviolet irradiance, which might consequently influence photochemical cycles of urban pollution.

Liu, P. F.; Abdelmalki, N.; Hung, H.-M.; Wang, Y.; Brune, W. H.; Martin, S. T.

2015-02-01

377

Organics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

1978-01-01

378

Rapid bacterial mineralization of organic carbon produced during a phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of heterotrophic bacteria ( Bacteria and Archaea) to the spring phytoplankton bloom that occurs annually above the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean) due to natural iron fertilization was investigated during the KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study (KEOPS) cruise in January-February 2005. In surface waters (upper 100 m) in the core of the phytoplankton bloom, heterotrophic bacteria were, on an average, 3-fold more abundant and revealed rates of production ([ 3H] leucine incorporation) and respiration (<0.8 ?m size fraction) that exceeded those in surrounding high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters by factors of 6 and 5, respectively. These differences in bacterial metabolic activities were attributable to high-nucleic-acid-containing cells that dominated (?80% of total cell abundance) the heterotrophic bacterial community associated with the phytoplankton bloom. Bacterial growth efficiencies varied between 14% and 20% inside the bloom and were <10% in HNLC waters. Results from bottle-incubation experiments performed at the bloom station indicated that iron had no direct but an indirect effect on heterotrophic bacterial activity, due to the stimulation by phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter. Within the Kerguelen bloom, bacterial carbon demand accounted for roughly 45% of gross community production. These results indicate that heterotrophic bacteria processed a significant portion of primary production, with most of it being rapidly respired.

Obernosterer, Ingrid; Christaki, Urania; Lefèvre, Dominique; Catala, Philippe; Van Wambeke, France; Lebaron, Philippe

2008-03-01

379

Current Concepts in Antimicrobial Therapy Against Resistant Gram-Negative Organisms: Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase–Producing Enterobacteriaceae, Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The development of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens has been progressive and relentless. Pathogens of particular concern include extended-spectrum ?-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Classic agents used to treat these pathogens have become outdated. Of the few new drugs available, many have already become targets for bacterial mechanisms of resistance. This review describes the current approach to infections due to these resistant organisms and elaborates on the available treatment options. PMID:21364117

Kanj, Souha S.; Kanafani, Zeina A.

2011-01-01

380

Pathogenesis and treatment of lesions caused by sulfur mustard: Inflammatory mediators and modulators released from organ-cultured inflammatory lesions produced in vivo in rabbit skin by sulfur mustard. Annual report, September 1983-October 1984  

SciTech Connect

This Annual Report presents the first phase of work on the inflammatory mediators and modulators of sulfur mustard (SM) lesions. Developing and healing SM lesions were produced in the skin of rabbits and organ cultured. During the 3-day period of culture, the explants survived well and even began to heal. Quantitative histological studies showed that almost all of the polymophonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the lesions had disappeared by 3 days of culture, whereas over half the basophils and mononuclear cells still remained. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, that basophils are rather long lived. Normal skin and healing SM lesions gained weight in culture. Peak SM lesions lost weight in culture. We believe that the gel-sol state of inflammatory lesions can be monitored by simply measuring their weight after culture, because the weight loss was probably due to the leaching out of the solubilized ground substance. Serum, which contains both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory components, is present in large amounts in the edematous peak lesions and slowly decreases during healing. Our studies proved that, contrary to what is written in textbooks, edema fluid in acute inflammatory lesions is not static, waiting to be absorbed by the lymphatics, but is being replaced three times each day. This constant influx of fresh serum enables it to play a major role in the control of the inflammatory process.

Dannenberg, A.M.; Vogt, F.

1985-11-01

381

Service Priorities and Unmet Service Needs Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Results from a Nationwide Interview of HIV/AIDS Housing Organizations  

PubMed Central

Housing for people living with HIV/AIDS has been linked to a number of positive physical and mental health outcomes, in addition to decreased sexual and drug-related risk behavior. The current study identified service priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS, services provided by HIV/AIDS housing agencies, and unmet service needs for people living with HIV/AIDS through a nationwide telephone survey of HIV/AIDS housing agencies in the United States. Housing, alcohol/drug treatment, and mental health services were identified as the three highest priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS and assistance finding employment, dental care, vocational assistance, and mental health services were the top needs not being met. Differences by geographical region were also examined. Findings indicate that while housing affords people living with HIV/AIDS access to services, there are still areas (e.g., mental health services) where gaps in linkages to care exist. PMID:23305552

Lennon, Carter A.; White, Angela C.; Finitsis, David; Pishori, Alefiyah; Hernandez, Dominica; Kelly, David M.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Turcios-Cotto, Viana; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Kane, Sister Ann; Lanouette, Gertrude A.

2014-01-01

382

Looking for practical tools to achieve next-future applicability of dark fermentation to produce bio-hydrogen from organic materials in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors.  

PubMed

This study aimed at finding applicable tools for favouring dark fermentation application in full-scale biogas plants in the next future. Firstly, the focus was obtaining mixed microbial cultures from natural sources (soil-inocula and anaerobically digested materials), able to efficiently produce bio-hydrogen by dark fermentation. Batch reactors with proper substrate (1 gL(glucose)(-1)) and metabolites concentrations, allowed high H(2) yields (2.8 ± 0.66 mol H(2)mol(glucose)(-1)), comparable to pure microbial cultures achievements. The application of this methodology to four organic substrates, of possible interest for full-scale plants, showed promising and repeatable bio-H(2) potential (BHP=202 ± 3 NL(H2)kg(VS)(-1)) from organic fraction of municipal source-separated waste (OFMSW). Nevertheless, the fermentation in a lab-scale CSTR (nowadays the most diffused typology of biogas-plant) of a concentrated organic mixture of OFMSW (126 g(TS)L(-1)) resulted in only 30% of its BHP, showing that further improvements are still needed for future full-scale applications of dark fermentation. PMID:21704518

Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Lonati, S; Malagutti, L; Oberti, R; Adani, F

2011-09-01

383

Suitability of the copepod, Acartia clausi as a live feed for Seabass larvae ( Lates calcarifer Bloch): Compared to traditional live-food organisms with special emphasis on the nutritional value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though artificial propagation of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in captivity through induced breeding techniques is standardized under Indian conditions, larval and nursery rearing techniques including suitable nursery feeds have to be standardized to obtain better survival and growth. Feeding experiments in triplicate were conducted to evaluate the suitability of the marine copepod Acartia clausi as live prey for fourteen

M. Rajkumar; K. P. Kumaraguru vasagam

2006-01-01

384

Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Ms. Schultz

2007-11-05

385

Dementia and Assisted Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

2007-01-01

386

Is it living or non living?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once completed, students will have a deeper understanding of what is living and non living. Students will be able to identify the characteristics of non living and living things and will be able to classify them in an environment. Take this pretest to test your knowlege of living and non living things.Beginning Quiz Read this to learn more about living and non living things.Living vs Non Living Things Living things need 7 characteristics of life. Click on this link to learn more about what they are.7 Characteristics of Living Things Living and non living things have different characteristics. Look ...

Miss Aitken

2009-04-17

387

Live work  

SciTech Connect

The practice of performing maintenance on live transmission lines has surged dramatically in the past two decades, as economic concerns have made the construction of redundant lines impractical. These days, utilities face the added pressure of the increasing demand for power and the need to accomplish the tasks quickly with smaller crews. Responding to utility needs, EPRI launched the `Live Working 2000` project in 1993. Through this project, researchers conduct tests of new tools and techniques at the Institute`s Power Delivery Center in Lenox, Massachusetts. The resulting data are made available to utilities and to regulatory groups that govern the practice of live working. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Garfinkel, P.

1995-09-01

388

Orca Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

389

Living Landscape Australian Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to the 10 episodes of "The Living Landscape – an Australian Ecosystems Series" produced by Gulliver Media and Education Queensland. This series previously aired on ABC TV in the "For Schools" slot. The episodes run between 15 minutes and 22 minutes each. Still images from the series are also available for download.

390

Learning from Live Theater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

2015-01-01

391

Involvement of protein kinase C signalling and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca).  

PubMed

Mechanisms that regulate hemocyte production in molluscs, at either the organismal or cellular levels, are not well understood. In the present study, 24-h saline cultures of the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata were used to test for the potential involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) signalling in hematopoiesis. Exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC, resulted in an increase in the number of dividing hematopoietic cells in APOs from schistosome-resistant Salvador snails. PMA-induced cell division was blocked by treatment with U0126, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MEK1/2. These results suggest that PKC-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2, is involved in cell division in the APO. PMID:19183562

Salamat, Zahra; Sullivan, John T

2009-06-01

392

Living Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

Mules, B. R.

1976-01-01

393

Living Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ecological studies have revealed that nature has an in-built system to restore itself, thereby sustaining its continuity.\\u000a In other words, natural ecosystems can act as “Living Machines” in keeping the ecosystems habitable. The biological communities\\u000a – microbes, plants, and animals – serve as the driving force of several living technological innovations – constructed wetlands,\\u000a Lake Restores, Eco-Restorers, and Reedbeds. These

Yung-Tse Hung; Joseph F. Hawumba; Lawrence K. Wang

394

Volcano Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcano Live contains maps of volcanoes from around the world, a kids' page that provides volcano education links for teachers and students, a volcano glossary, volcano news, links to live video cams of volcanoes, geography and volcano information of countries around the world, and video clips of active volcanoes. There is also information for travelling to volcanoes, a volcano photo section, a section on the destruction of Pompeii, a volcanology section, and volcano safety rules.

John Seach

395

Organ Harvesting and Transplants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

2010-01-01

396

Being a Living Donor: Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... after donation or later. You and/or your recipient may face surgical complications. The transplanted organ may ... may change the relationship you have with the recipient. Living donors must be made aware of the ...

397

Living and Non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is intended to help students understand the difference between living and non-living things by teaching them the characteristics of living things. Introduction: We know what living things are, right? People are living things, aren't they? Can you think of any other living things? How do you know they are living? Task: If you were asked to explain what the difference between living and non-living things, how would you? This ...

Mrs. Davies

2010-02-11

398

Interpersonal and Inter?organizational Networks in the Performing Arts: The Case of Project?Based Organizations in the Live Music Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of the paper is to contribute to the literature on project?based organizations (PBOs), concerning how temporary organizations are nested in an organizational setting that involves interpersonal and inter?organizational networks. Special attention is paid to the performing arts. A PBO is defined here as an organization that uses a one?shot method of organizing transactions, created by the ability

Silvia R. Sedita

2008-01-01

399

Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an order of magnitude) less energy is required and that sunlight can be used directly. In the case of photoproduction of hydrogen, as compared to water splitting, feeding the anodic compartment of the PEC with an organic pollutant, instead of the usual supporting electrolyte, will bring about a substantial increase of the photocurrent at a given illumination. Thus, the replacement of the photo-oxidation of water by the photodegradation of organic waste will be accompanied by a gain in solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency and hence by a decrease in the cost of the photoproduced hydrogen. Taking into account the benefits and possible revenues obtainable by the waste degradation, this would seem to be a promising approach to the photoproduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is another waste effluent requiring extensive treatment, especially in petroleum refineries. The so-called Claus process is normally used to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. A sulfur recovery process developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described briefly in Chapter 4 by Dr. C. Linkous as a typical example of the photoproduction of hydrogen in a non oxygen-evolving system. The encouraging results obtained in these investigations of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production combined with organic waste degradation, have prompted a decision to continue the work under the new IEA Hydrogen Agreement Annex 14, Photoelectrolytic Hydrogen Production.

Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))

2000-01-01

400

Positive Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.

401

Innovative Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Innovative Lives Web Site is offered by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and the Smithsonian Institution. "Innovative Lives counters commonly held stereotypes about inventors by featuring speakers with diverse backgrounds," such as Dr. Patricia Bath, an African-American woman who invented the Laserphaco Probe for the treatment of cataracts and founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Over thirty inventors are featured on the site, which gives excellent information about each, telling of their lives and what they have accomplished. Although it is intended for kids, the site will be of interest to anyone looking to learn about many of the most important and unknown contributors to the scientific world.

402

These Women Make a Difference in Our Lives | Poster  

Cancer.gov

Producing viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo studies, evaluating new technologies, organizing outreach and internal events and special programs, preparing site visit reports, helping make newcomers feel comfortable, collaborating on statistics and other projects—these are just some of the ways that the women of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research go about their everyday work lives—and in the process, make history.

403

Monitoring the energy status of a living organism in real time More than 30 years ago Steve Busby --now a distinguished molecular biologist, but then a doctoral  

E-print Network

of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans that express the gene for luciferase, the enzyme responsible but not expressed in the mutant worms, the worms become highly luminescent. As the light-emitting reaction requires a measure of the energy status of the living worm. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci J. Biosci. 33(5), December

404

Application of novel low-intensity nonscanning fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for monitoring excited state dynamics in individual chloroplasts and living cells of photosynthetic organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picosecond fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides a most valuable tool to analyze the primary processes of photosynthesis in individual cells and chloroplasts of living cells. In order to obtain correct lifetimes of the excited states, the peak intensity of the exciting laser pulses as well as the average intensity has to be sufficiently low to avoid distortions of the

Hann-Jörg Eckert; Zdenek Petrásek; Klaus Kemnitz

2006-01-01

405

Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy

406

Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

2009-01-01

407

Orca Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great combination of art and science, the Orca Live Web site provides live Webcam viewing of Orca whales off Hanson Island, in the Johnstone Strait between Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Founded by Dr. Paul Spong, the Orca Lab on Hanson Island and underwater video cameras and microphones at Cracroft Point, monitor the whales' voices and movements 24 hours a day, covering an approximately 20 km. (12.5 mi) area around Hanson Island. If there is not too much happening on the live camera, the site offers archived video highlights from 2000 and 2002. To orient yourself, the Visit Hanson Island section allows you to zoom in and find the location of Hanson Island on Earth (an html version for those with slower connection is also provided). Also at the site, subscribe to a newsletter announcing the best times for live viewing, chat with other orca watchers, or simply open a window for peaceful underwater viewing, accompanied by the sounds of water, birds, and whales.

Spong, Anna

408

The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

409

Microbial Colony in U.S. Suggests Life Could Live on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News explores the possibility that methanogens, which derive their energy from geothermal hydrogen and produce methane as a byproduct, could survive on Mars. These microscopic organisms live in hydrothermal waters 200 meters below the surface, a condition that may mimic those found on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa.

John Roach

410

Carbon isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have adapted the Picarro iTOC CRDS isotope analyzer for analysis of produced water brines via wet chemical persulfate oxidation. In particular, we developed strategies and techniques for overcoming the limitation imposed by low oxidation efficiencies due to the chloride ion interference with persulfate oxidation. These techniques are important for understanding the origin of dissolved organic carbon in subsurface fluids from oilfields, as a tracer of fracking fluids in groundwater, and in interpreting changes in groundwater DOC as a result of microbial activity including oil biodegradation or microbially enhanced oil recovery. We describe the limitations of this new instrument for the analysis of DOC in brines including sample requirements, matrix effects, and the effect of DOC composition on reaction efficiency and isotopic measurements. We compare strategies including anion exchange cartridges, persulfate reactant concentrations, and reaction time. The CRDS analysis of DOC in brines is a useful tool for understanding the origin and fate of DOC and is a potentially powerful tool to identifiy evidence of contamination due to hydrofracturing chemicals that have a distinctive carbon isotopic signature relative to natural brine.

Thomas, B.; Conaway, C.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Saad, N.

2012-12-01

411

Characterization of non-photochemically formed oligomers from methylglyoxal: a pathway to produce secondary organic aerosol through cloud processing during night-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous-phase oligomer formation from methylglyoxal, a major atmospheric photooxidation product, has been investigated in a simulated cloud matrix under dark conditions. The aim of this study was to explore an additional path producing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through cloud processes without photochemistry during night-time. Indeed, atmospheric models still underestimate SOA formation, as field measurements have revealed more SOA than predicted. Soluble oligomers (n=1-8) formed in the course of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation and acid-catalyzed hydration followed by acetal formation have been detected and characterized by positive and negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Aldol condensation proved to be a favorable mechanism under simulated cloud conditions, while hydration/acetal formation was found to strongly depend on the pH of the system. The aldol oligomer series starts with a ?-hydroxy ketone via aldol condensation, where oligomers are formed by multiple additions of C3H4O2 units (72 Da) to the parent ?-hydroxy ketone. Ion trap mass spectrometry experiments were performed to structurally characterize the major oligomer species. A mechanistic pathway for the growth of oligomers under cloud conditions and in the absence of UV-light and OH radicals, which could substantially enhance in-cloud SOA yields, is proposed here for the first time.

Yasmeen, F.; Sauret, N.; Gal, J. F.; Maria, P.-C.; Massi, L.; Maenhaut, W.; Claeys, M.

2009-10-01

412

Polyethylenimine aqueous solution: a low-cost and environmentally friendly formulation to produce low-work-function electrodes for efficient easy-to-fabricate organic solar cells.  

PubMed

Polyethylenimine (PEI) has been widely used to produce low-work-function electrodes. Generally, PEI modification is prepared by spin coating from 2-methoxyethanol solution. In this work, we explore the method for PEI modification on indium tin oxide (ITO) by dipping the ITO sample into PEI aqueous solution for organic solar cells. The PEI prepared in this method could reduce the work function of ITO as effectively as PEI prepared by spin coating from 2-methoxyethanol solution. H2O as the processing solvent is more environmentally friendly and much cheaper compared to the 2-methoxyethanol solvent. The dipping method is also compatible with large-area samples. With low-work-function ITO treated by the dipping method, solar cells with a simple structure of glass/ITO/PEI(dipping)/P3HT:ICBA/PEDOT:PSS(vacuum-free processing) display a high open-circuit voltage of 0.86 ± 0.01, a high fill factor of 66 ± 2%, and power conversion efficiency of 4.4 ± 0.3% under 100 mW/cm(2) illumination. PMID:25479413

Min, Xue; Jiang, Fangyuan; Qin, Fei; Li, Zaifang; Tong, Jinhui; Xiong, Sixing; Meng, Wei; Zhou, Yinhua

2014-12-24

413

Production, Purification, and Identification of Cholest-4-en-3-one Produced by Cholesterol Oxidase from Rhodococcus sp. in Aqueous/Organic Biphasic System.  

PubMed

Cholest-4-en-3-one has positive uses against obesity, liver disease, and keratinization. It can be applied in the synthesis of steroid drugs as well. Most related studies are focused on preparation of cholest-4-en-3-one by using whole cells as catalysts, but production of high-quality cholest-4-en-3-one directly from cholesterol oxidase (COD) using an aqueous/organic two-phase system has been rarely explored. This study set up an enzymatic reaction system to produce cholest-4-en-3-one. We developed and optimized the enzymatic reaction system using COD from COX5-6 (a strain of Rhodococcus) instead of whole-cell biocatalyst. This not only simplifies and accelerates the production but also benefits the subsequent separation and purification process. Through extraction, washing, evaporation, column chromatography, and recrystallization, we got cholest-4-en-3-one with purity of 99.78%, which was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In addition, this optimized process of cholest-4-en-3-one production and purification can be easily scaled up for industrial production, which can largely decrease the cost and guarantee the purity of the product. PMID:25733914

Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Song, Jianrui; Li, Tao

2015-01-01

414

Self-organized ultrathin FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on rippled alumina surfaces.  

PubMed

Ultradense macroscopic arrays of ferromagnetic alloy nanowires exhibit unique properties that make them attractive both for basic physics studies and for prospective nanodevice applications in various areas. We report here on the production of self-organized equiatomic FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on alumina nanoripple patterns at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 600 °C. This study demonstrates that periodically aligned FePt nanowires with tunable size (?10-20 nm width and ?0.5-10 nm height) can be successfully grown as a consequence of shadowing effects and low mobility of Fe and Pt on the rippled alumina surface. Moreover, the structure and magnetic properties of the FePt nanowires, which undergo a phase transition from a disordered A1 (soft) structure to a partially ordered L10 (hard) structure, can be modified upon annealing. We show that this behavior can be further exploited to change the effective uniaxial anisotropy of the system, which is determined by a strong interplay between the shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of the nanowires. PMID:25504082

Garel, Mathieu; Babonneau, David; Boulle, Alexandre; Pailloux, Frédéric; Coati, Alessandro; Garreau, Yves; Ramos, Aline Y; Tolentino, Hélio C N

2015-01-28

415

Production, Purification, and Identification of Cholest-4-en-3-one Produced by Cholesterol Oxidase from Rhodococcus sp. in Aqueous/Organic Biphasic System  

PubMed Central

Cholest-4-en-3-one has positive uses against obesity, liver disease, and keratinization. It can be applied in the synthesis of steroid drugs as well. Most related studies are focused on preparation of cholest-4-en-3-one by using whole cells as catalysts, but production of high-quality cholest-4-en-3-one directly from cholesterol oxidase (COD) using an aqueous/organic two-phase system has been rarely explored. This study set up an enzymatic reaction system to produce cholest-4-en-3-one. We developed and optimized the enzymatic reaction system using COD from COX5-6 (a strain of Rhodococcus) instead of whole-cell biocatalyst. This not only simplifies and accelerates the production but also benefits the subsequent separation and purification process. Through extraction, washing, evaporation, column chromatography, and recrystallization, we got cholest-4-en-3-one with purity of 99.78%, which was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In addition, this optimized process of cholest-4-en-3-one production and purification can be easily scaled up for industrial production, which can largely decrease the cost and guarantee the purity of the product. PMID:25733914

Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Song, Jianrui; Li, Tao

2015-01-01

416

Self-organized ultrathin FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on rippled alumina surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultradense macroscopic arrays of ferromagnetic alloy nanowires exhibit unique properties that make them attractive both for basic physics studies and for prospective nanodevice applications in various areas. We report here on the production of self-organized equiatomic FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on alumina nanoripple patterns at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 600 °C. This study demonstrates that periodically aligned FePt nanowires with tunable size (~10-20 nm width and ~0.5-10 nm height) can be successfully grown as a consequence of shadowing effects and low mobility of Fe and Pt on the rippled alumina surface. Moreover, the structure and magnetic properties of the FePt nanowires, which undergo a phase transition from a disordered A1 (soft) structure to a partially ordered L10 (hard) structure, can be modified upon annealing. We show that this behavior can be further exploited to change the effective uniaxial anisotropy of the system, which is determined by a strong interplay between the shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of the nanowires.

Garel, Mathieu; Babonneau, David; Boulle, Alexandre; Pailloux, Frédéric; Coati, Alessandro; Garreau, Yves; Ramos, Aline Y.; Tolentino, Hélio C. N.

2015-01-01

417

Bioluminescence: Living Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent creatures and the underwater world in which they live. Using shoeboxes and black paint, students are directed to build a deep-sea model and inhabit it with fish made out of black construction paper. Students then use the model to describe how organisms use bioluminescence and learn about its use as camouflage. In addition to a detailed protocol, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessments and links to additional information.

National Geographic Xpeditions

418

Honoring living legends.  

PubMed

From August 17 to 19, 2001, the University of Ottawa Heart Institute hosted the 6th Symposium of the World Artificial-Organ, Immunology and Transplantation Society (WAITS 2001). During WAITS 2001 a very special session entitled "Living Legends-Lessons Learned and Future Visions" was held. This session brought together giants in the field who had pioneered organ transplantation, cardiovascular surgery, pacemakers, and artificial hearts, among many other major contributions. The purpose of the session was to both honor and learn from those who have contributed greatly to the major scientific and technological advances in our field during the twentieth century. PMID:12780514

Mussivand, Tofy

2003-06-01

419

The Uses and Consequences of Literacy in the Daily Lives of Ordinary People: From an Evaluation of Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To evaluate the Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ), an organization whose aim is to achieve universal literacy in Zimbabwe, a study interviewed officials at ALOZ, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and other institutions involved in literacy development; reviewed relevant literature and documents;…

Bhola, H. S.

420

Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Extra figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05447d

Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

2015-01-01

421

R-body-producing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Until 10 years ago, R bodies were known only as diagnostic features by which endosymbionts of paramecia were identified as kappa particles. They were thought to be limited to the cytoplasm of two species in the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Now, R bodies have been found in free-living bacteria and other Paramecium species. The organisms now known to form R bodies include the cytoplasmic kappa endosymbionts of P. biaurelia and P. tetraurelia, the macronuclear kappa endosymbionts of P. caudatum, Pseudomonas avenae (a free-living plant pathogen), Pseudomonas taeniospiralis (a hydrogen-oxidizing soil microorganism), Rhodospirillum centenum (a photosynthetic bacterium), and a soil bacterium, EPS-5028, which is probably a pseudomonad. R bodies themselves fall into five distinct groups, distinguished by size, the morphology of the R-body ribbons, and the unrolling behavior of wound R bodies. In recent years, the inherent difficulties in studying the organization and assembly of R bodies by the obligate endosymbiont kappa, have been alleviated by cloning and expressing genetic determinants for these R bodies (type 51) in Escherichia coli. Type 51 R-body synthesis requires three low-molecular-mass polypeptides. One of these is modified posttranslationally, giving rise to 12 polypeptide species, which are the major structural subunits of the R body. R bodies are encoded in kappa species by extrachromosomal elements. Type 51 R bodies, produced in Caedibacter taeniospiralis, are encoded by a plasmid, whereas bacteriophage genomes probably control R-body synthesis in other kappa species. However, there is no evidence that either bacteriophages or plasmids are present in P. avenae or P. taeniospiralis. No sequence homology was detected between type 51 R-body-encoding DNA and DNA from any R-body-producing species, except C. varicaedens 1038. The evolutionary relatedness of different types of R bodies remains unknown. Images PMID:2651865

Pond, F R; Gibson, I; Lalucat, J; Quackenbush, R L

1989-01-01

422

Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells.  

PubMed

MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. PMID:25514895

Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

2015-02-01

423

The diversity of naturally produced organohalogens.  

PubMed

More than 3800 organohalogen compounds, mainly containing chlorine or bromine but a few with iodine and fluorine, are produced by living organisms or are formed during natural abiogenic processes, such as volcanoes, forest fires, and other geothermal processes. The oceans are the single largest source of biogenic organohalogens, which are biosynthesized by myriad seaweeds, sponges, corals, tunicates, bacteria, and other marine life. Terrestrial plants, fungi, lichen, bacteria, insects, some higher animals, and even humans also account for a diverse collection of organohalogens. PMID:12738253

Gribble, Gordon W

2003-07-01

424

Estuary Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.

425

Living with your ileostomy  

MedlinePLUS

... Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You will have many new ... ileostomy - living with; Continent ileostomy - living with; Abdominal pouch - living with; End ileostomy - living with; Ostomy - living ...

426

A Case Study of the Effects of Participation in an Organization in the Lives of Women: Post-Conflict Ayacucho, Peru  

E-print Network

in the organization, the better their quality of life andquality of life in a positive manner as long as the members of an organizationorganizations have allowed them to access resources that affect their quality of life

Portocarrero, Sandra

2012-01-01

427

Effect of crude lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O127:B8 on the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca).  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) to which the internal defense system (IDS) of both vertebrates and invertebrates responds. We measured the mitotic response of the hematopoietic tissue of the schistosome-transmitting snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, to crude LPS from Escherichia coli 0127:B8. In a dose-response study, snails were injected with a range of concentrations of crude LPS, and mitotic figures were enumerated in histological sections of amebocyte-producing organ (APO) fixed at 24h post-injection (PI) following a 6h treatment with 0.1% colchicine. In APOs from Salvador strain snails, which are genetically resistant to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, LPS concentrations of 0.01 mg/ml and above triggered a large increase in mitotic activity, whereas in APOs from schistosome-susceptible NIH albino snails, concentrations of 0.1mg/ml elicited a much smaller, but statistically significant increase. A time course study, without colchicine treatment, revealed that in Salvador APOs the mitotic response to 0.1mg/ml occurred by 18 h PI, peaked at 24h, and returned to control levels by 72 h; NIH albino APOs showed no detectible response. When Salvador APOs were exposed to crude LPS in vitro, no increase in mitotic activity occurred, a result suggesting the possible requirement for a peripheral tissue or hemolymph factor. The increased cell proliferation induced by crude LPS represents a novel systemic response of an invertebrate IDS to one or more PAMPs from a Gram-negative bacterium. PMID:21530581

Sullivan, John T; Bulman, Christina A; Salamat, Zahra

2011-11-01

428

Opinion Toward Living Liver Donation of Hospital Personnel From Units Related to Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Multicenter Study From Spain and Latin-America  

PubMed Central

Background: Hospital personnel of services related to donation and transplantation process play a fundamental role in the development of transplantation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude toward living liver donation (LLD) among hospital personnel from services related to donation and transplantation in hospital centers in Spain and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Eight hospitals within the “International Donor Collaborative Project” were selected, three in Spain, three in Mexico and two in Cuba. The study was performed in transplant-related services, using a randomized sample, which was stratified by the type of service and job category. Results: In total, 878 workers were surveyed of which 82% (n = 720) were in favor of related LLD, 10% (n = 90) were against and 8% (n = 68) undecided. Attitudes toward related LLD were more favorable in the following groups: the Latin Americans (86% in favor vs. 77% among the Spanish; P = 0.007); younger people (37 vs. 40 years, P = 0.002); those in favor of either deceased donation (P < 0.001) or living kidney donation (P < 0.001); those who believed that they might need a transplant in the future (P < 0.001); those who would accept a liver from a living donor (P < 0.001); those who discussed the subject of donation and transplantation with their families (P = 0.040); and those whose partner was in favor of donation and transplantation (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Personnel from donation and transplantation-related units had a favorable attitude toward LLD. This attitude was not affected by psychosocial factors, although it was influenced by factors directly and indirectly related to the donation and transplantation process. PMID:25737727

Rios, Antonio; Lopez Navas, Ana; Ayala Garcia, Marco Antonio; Sebastian, Jose; Abdo Cuza, Anselmo; Martinez Alarcon, Laura; Ramirez, Ector Jaime; Munoz, Gerardo; Palacios, Gerardo; Suarez Lopez, Juliette; Castellanos, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Diaz, Ernesto; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

2014-01-01

429

A cresyl violet-based fluorescent off-on probe for the detection and imaging of hypoxia and nitroreductase in living organisms.  

PubMed

A new cresyl violet-based fluorescent off-on probe has been developed through a one-step synthesis for the detection of nitroreductase (NTR) and hypoxia. The detection mechanism is based on the NTR-catalyzed reduction of the probe to cresyl violet, accompanied with a large fluorescence enhancement at a long wavelength of 625?nm. The probe can detect NTR in aqueous solution with high selectivity and sensitivity, and the detection limit is 1?ng?mL(-1) NTR. Most importantly, the probe has been successfully used to image not only NTR and hypoxia in living cells, but also the distribution of NTR in zebrafish in vivo. PMID:24920341

Wan, Qiong-Qiong; Gao, Xing-Hui; He, Xin-Yuan; Chen, Su-Ming; Song, Yan-Chao; Gong, Qiu-Yu; Li, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Hui-Min

2014-08-01

430

EDUCAUSE Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people know about EDUCAUSE and their work in promoting information technology across higher education, and the EDUCAUSE Live! series fits quite nicely into that mission. Each program in the series consists of an hour-long interactive web seminar, and visitors can interact directly with the host and guests. It is important to register early for each seminar, as they can be quite popular. On the site, visitors can sign up to learn about upcoming programs, and they can also read brief summaries of those events in the near future.

431

UNM Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you can't make it to the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, why not tune in to their events online? This is now possible, courtesy of the UNM Live website. The function of this site is to bring "educational resources to a wider audience", and their focus is quite catholic, with talks on student aid, podcasts on anthropology, and so on. Visitors can learn about the initiative via the "About UNM Live" section of the site, and for more general information, they can look over the "What is a podcast? How do I subscribe?" area. First-time visitors should start by listening to Professor Jerry Shea talk about the Swahili terms "Sasa" and "Zamani" for a good introduction to the site. The social networking media options are quite easy to use, and visitors can recommend various media clips and programs to friends and others. Also, visitors can use the "Categories" area to look for materials related to campus life, arts, business, education, and current affairs.

432

Estuary Live!!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Intended for elementary, middle, and high school students, this electronic estuary excursion, Estuary Live!!!, will take place May 8-12, 2000. Free to participants (but please sign up in advance), the field trip will explore the Rachel Carson Site of the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve, covering four islands and salt marshes off the North Carolina coast. The site features useful educational materials, including a photo-illustrated field guide (of the "ecology, habitats and specific plants and animals found in North Carolina's estuaries"); lesson plans (covering highschool biology, estuary habitats, species interactions, and adaptations and communities); and a series of related links. The interactive field trip will require a java-enabled browser, RealVideo (to see a moving image and hear sound), and/or Chatvideo, to see a moving image, ask questions of the naturalist leading the trip, and receive responses via a chat window. Note that ChatVideo requires Netscape 4.0 or better and will not work with AOL or Internet Explorer, and pages "look best" on a screen with resolution of 800x600. The Estuary Live!!! Website is provided by the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and The Center for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at East Carolina University.

433

Uncommon Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Uncommon Lives series on the National Archives of Australia website takes an approach to Australian history that not only encompasses the well-known history-makers, but also lesser known people's role in shaping Australian history. One of the stated goals of the Uncommon Lives series is to show how amateur historians and researchers alike can use the archives to find biographical resources. There are five stories the visitor can discover by simply clicking on the image of the person or people next to the brief description of their story including, "Muslim Journeys", "Charles and Ruth Lane Poole", "Jessie Street", "Wolf Klaphake", and "Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda". By clicking on any choice, visitors will find each story divided into subsections. Explanatory text accompanies the thumbnails of each image and these can be expanded into a high quality image by clicking on them. Each of these stories provides a unique and compelling look into Australian history. For instance in Wolf Klaphake's story you can listen to or read the transcript of segments of the ABC radio play "A Doubtful Character" which is about Klaphake's life and in Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda's story, you can view the actual court records of his case, which was the first for an Aboriginal Australian in the High Court.

2007-01-01

434

Service priorities and unmet service needs among people living with HIV/AIDS: results from a nationwide interview of HIV/AIDS housing organizations.  

PubMed

Housing for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been linked to a number of positive physical and mental health outcomes, in addition to decreased sexual and drug-related risk behavior. The current study identified service priorities for PLWHA, services provided by HIV/AIDS housing agencies, and unmet service needs for PLWHA through a nationwide telephone survey of HIV/AIDS housing agencies in the USA. Housing, alcohol/drug treatment, and mental health services were identified as the three highest priorities for PLWHA and assistance finding employment, dental care, vocational assistance, and mental health services were the top needs not being met. Differences by geographical region were also examined. Findings indicate that while housing affords PLWHA access to services, there are still areas (e.g., mental health services) where gaps in linkages to care exist. PMID:23305552

Lennon, Carter A; Pellowski, Jennifer A; White, Angela C; Kalichman, Seth C; Finitsis, David J; Turcios-Cotto, Viana; Pishori, Alefiyah; Overstreet, Nicole M; Hernandez, Dominica; Kane, Ann; Kelly, David M; Lanouette, Gertrude A

2013-01-01

435

Formation and reactions of negative ions relevant to chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. Cl mass spectra of organic compounds produced by F? reactions  

PubMed Central

A systematic study of the negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectra produced by the reaction of F? with a wide variety of organic compounds has been accomplished. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with a modified high pressure ion source was employed for these experiments. The F? reagent ion was generated from CF3H or NF3, typically at an ion source pressure of 100 ?m. In pure NF3, F? is the major ion formed and constitutes more than 90% of the total ion intensity. While F? is also the major primary ion formed in pure CF3H, it undergoes rapid ion-molecule reactions at elevated source pressures, yielding (HF)nF? (n = 1?3) ions, which makes CF3H less suitable as a chemical ionization reagent gas. Among the organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, phenols, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene, ethers, amines and hydrocarbons. An intense (M ? 1)? ion was observed in the F? chemical ionization mass spectra of carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Alcohols yield only (M + F)? ions upon reaction with F?. A weaker (M + F)? ion was also detected in the F? chemical ionization spectra of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and nitriles. The F? chemical ionization mass spectra of esters, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene and ethers are characterized primarily by the ions, RCOO?, X?, CN?, NO2?, and OR?, respectively. In addition, esters show a very weak (M ? 1)? ion (except formates). In the F? chemical ionization spectra of some aliphatic alkanes and o-xylene, a very weak (M + F)? ion was observed. Amines and aliphatic alkenes exhibit only insignificant fragment ions under similar conditions, while aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene are not reactive at all with the F? ion. The mechanisms of the various reactions mentioned are discussed, and several experimental complications are noted. In still other studies, the effects of varying several experimental parameters, including source pressure, relative proportions of the reagent and analyte, and other ion source parameters, on the observed chemical ionization mass spectra were also investigated. In a mixture of NF3 and n-butanol, for example, the ratio of the intensities of the ions characteristic of the alcohol to that of the (HF)nF? ion was found to decrease with increasing sample pressure, with increasing NF3 pressure, and with increasing electron energy. No significant effects on the spectra were observed to result from variation of the source repeller field or the source temperature. The addition of argon to the source as a potential moderator did not alter the F? chemical ionization spectrum significantly, but the use of oxygen appears to inhibit formation of the (HF)nF? cluster ion. The advantages of using F? as a chemical ionization reagent are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reagent ions. PMID:7428746

Tiernan, T. O.; Chang, C.; Cheng, C. C.

1980-01-01

436

Living donor kidney exchange.  

PubMed

Living donor kidney exchange, also referred to as kidney paired donation (KPD), is a relatively new transplant modality that is growing by leaps and bounds in the U.S. From its first realization as an exchange of kidneys between two incompatible donor/recipient pairs, KPD has expanded to include compatible pairs, nondirected donors, three-way and larger exchanges, and living/deceased donor exchanges. Innovations both clinical (transporting organs instead of donors, and improved HLA screening) and mathematical (simulation to test policies, optimization to find better and more matches) have made this modality even more useful and accessible. There are several independent multi-center paired donation registries and many more single-center registries operating in the U.S., but incompatible pairs are most likely to match when they participate in the largest possible paired exchange pool; a single, unified KPD program in the United States would likely best serve patients in search of matches. PMID:22755420

Gentry, Sommer; Segev, Dorry L

2011-01-01

437

London Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"London Lives: Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis" is a project with the goal of "assessing the role of plebeians in the evolution of social practices in the modern metropolis." In other words, the website aims to make accessible the records of non-elite individuals in order to show how those users of particular social institutions charities, the penal system, and others shaped their development. Visitors can choose "Browse Documents" to see the types of documents available, such as "Parish Archives", "Criminal Records", and "Coroners' Records". The "City of London Coroners" records from the 1780s include an inquest into a suspicious death, with no less than a dozen interviews with people who knew the man who died, and one of whom attested to him being "a little touched in the head". The "Additional Datasets" link contains 16 other datasets, including one of boys recruited to serve at sea for the Marine Society.

438

American Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as part of the American Culture studies program at Washington University, the American Lives Project is "a new resource for cultural inquiry that allows users to build connections and identify differences between materials." The project brings together oral histories, historical documents, artifacts, sound, and visual media into an online collection that serves as a model for others seeking to do such work. This particular project documents student activism at Washington University from 1964 to 1972. First-time visitors should look at the About area to learn about the design team, the goals of the project, and the technical aspects of this work. Moving on, visitors can click on the How to Use tab for information about examining the collection. Visitors will find protest banners, letters, handouts, photographs by student groups, and links to related media. Also, visitors can create their own curated collections via the My Objects area, which is a great way to highlight items of personal interest. [KMG

439

Extracellular Collagenase, Proteoglycanase and Products of Their Activity, Released in Organ Culture by Intact Dermal Inflammatory Lesions Produced by Sulfur Mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak (1 and 2 d) and healing (3, 6, and 10 d) inflammatory lesions were produced in rabbits by the topical application of the military vesicant, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, commonly called sulfur mustard (SM). SM produces an acute sterile dermal inflammatory reaction with little or no necrosis, except in the epidermis, which dies during the first day. After an animal was killed,

J. Frederick Woessner Jr.; Arthur M. Dannenberg Jr.; Peggy J. Pula; Marie G. Selzer; Carol L. Ruppert; Kazuyuki Higuchi; Akira Kajiki; Masahiro Nakamura; Nancy M. Dahms; Janet S. Kerr; Gerald W. Hart

1990-01-01