Sample records for living organisms produce

  1. Living and Non Living Organisms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Henrie

    2009-11-18

    Core Curriculum Standard II: Students will understand that organisms depend on living and non living things within their environment. Introduction At the end of this assignment you should know the difference between a living and a non living organism and understand the effect a new environment (both living and non living things) can have on a living organism and the effect that living organism can have on the environment. ...

  2. Bioelectrodynamics in living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ang Zhou; Mitsuru Uesaka

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces an interdisciplinary subject of bioelectrodynamics in living organisms and its related research challenges and opportunities. Bioelectrodynamics in living organisms is aimed to reveal critical roles of electromagnetism and mechanics in biology, to correlate biophysical functions of living organisms with biochemical processes at the cellular level, and to introduce theoretical basis and methodology, such as modeling and simulations,

  3. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  4. Molecular classification of living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Saccone; C. Gissi; C. Lanave; G. Pesole

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies in molecular evolution have generated strong conflicts in opinion as to how world living organisms should be classified. The traditional classification of life into five kingdoms has been challenged by the molecular analysis carried out mostly on rRNA sequences, which supported the division of the extant living organisms into three major groups: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukaryota. As to

  5. Microholography of Living Organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Johndale C.; Baldwin, George C.

    1982-01-01

    By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of living elementary biological structures at precisely defined instants. Discussed are sources/geometrics for x-ray holography, x-radiation interactions, factors affecting resolution, recording the hologram, high-intensity holography,…

  6. Who Can Be a Living Organ Donor?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living Organ Donor? Questions and Answers about Live Organ Donation American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, Suite ... and state employees can get special leave for organ donation. Some private employers also give special leave. Talk ...

  7. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  8. Ecotoxicology: Nanoparticle Reactivity and Living Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffan, Mélanie; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Thill, Antoine; Mouchet, Florence; Carrière, Marie; Gauthier, Laury; Achouak, Wafa; Rose, Jérôme; Wiesner, Mark R.; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    Nanotechnology is a major source of innovation with important economic consequences. However, the potential risks for health and the environment have raised questions on national, European, and international levels. Past experience of sanitary, technological, and environmental risks has shown that it is not a good policy to attempt to deal with them after the fact. It is thus crucial to assess the risks as early on as possible. A particular problem is the potential dissmination of mass produced man-made nanoparticles into the environment [1, 2]. Nanomaterials represent a particular hazard for humans due to their ability to penetrate and subsequently damage living organisms [3]. Indeed, the data available at the present time shows that some nanomaterials, especially insoluble particles, can cross biological barriers and distribute themselves within living organisms.

  9. [Are liquid crystals living organisms?].

    PubMed

    Snelders, H A

    1997-01-01

    In 1888 the Austrian botanist F. Reinitzer made the observation that the solid compound cholesteryl-benzoate changes - when melting at 145.5 oC - into a cloudy liquid, that however, turns into a clear liquid at 178.5 oC and higher temperatures. The cloudy liquid seemed to be doubly refracting. Soon a number of these so-called 'liquid crystals' were discovered; in 1908 D. Vorländer, professor of organic chemistry at Halle, described more than 250 of these substances. It was O. Lehmann, professor of physics at Aachen (1885), Dresden (1888) and Karlsruhe (1889), who immediately after Reinitzer's observation began a systematic study of these liquid crystals. In The Netherlands the Amsterdam professor of physican chemistry H. W. Bakhuis Roozeboom was interested in liquid crystals, in particular because of their place in his phase system. F.M. Jaeger, at that time teaching chemistry in a secondary school in Zaandam (near Amsterdam) and working as an unpaid university lecturer at the Amsterdam university (by recommendation of Bakhuis Roozeboom), investigated liquid crystals (1906), as did a number of doctoral students (A.C. de Kock, 1903; A. Prins, 1907). At the university of Utrecht L.S. Ornstein, professor of physics, gave the study of liquid crystals a prominent place in his research programme. The discovery of liquid crystals, which seemed to be able to grow, move, divide, copulate, and so on, led to a discussion on the nature of these substances. Time and again Lehmann called them 'apparently living crystals', although without considering them as 'real living beings'. In his book Flüssige Kristalle und die Theorien des Lebens (1906), Lehmann proved to be an obvious adherent of the monistic views of the biologist E. Haeckel. Haeckel considered the existence of liquid crystals as proof of the unity between the inorganic and the organic world that he believed in so strongly. In his last book, Kristallseelen. Studien über das Anorganische Leben (1917), he considered liquid crystals a real form of life, as did F. Rinne, professor of mineralogy and petrography, as late as in the nineteen thirties. PMID:11625121

  10. Gender imbalance in living organ donation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikola Biller-Andorno

    2002-01-01

    Living organ donation has developed into an important therapeutic option in transplantation medicine. However, there are some\\u000a medico-ethical problems that come along with the increasing reliance on this organ source. One of these concerns is based\\u000a on the observation that many more women than men function as living organ donors. Whereas discrimination and differential\\u000a access have been extensively discussed in

  11. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOEpatents

    Wong; Pak C. (Richland, WA), Wong; Kwong K. (Sugar Land, TX), Foote; Harlan P. (Richland, WA)

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  12. Producing a Live HDTV Program from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney; Fontanot, Carlos; Hames, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    By the year 2000, NASA had flown HDTV camcorders on three Space Shuttle missions: STS-95, STS-93 and STS-99. All three flights of these camcorders were accomplished with cooperation from the Japanese space agency (then known as NASDA and now known as JAXA). The cameras were large broadcast-standard cameras provided by NASDA and flight certified by both NASA and NASDA. The high-definition video shot during these missions was spectacular. Waiting for the return of the tapes to Earth emphasized the next logical step: finding a way to downlink the HDTV live from space. Both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) programs were interested in live HDTV from space, but neither had the resources to fully fund the technology. Technically, downlinking from the ISS was the most effective approach. Only when the Japanese broadcaster NHK and the Japanese space agency expressed interest in covering a Japanese astronaut's journey to the ISS did the project become possible. Together, JAXA and NHK offered equipment, technology, and funding toward the project. In return, NHK asked for a live HDTV downlink during one of its broadcast programs. NASA and the ISS Program sought a US partner to broadcast a live HDTV program and approached the Discovery Channel. The Discovery Channel had proposed a live HDTV project in response to NASA's previous call for offers. The Discovery Channel agreed to provide addItional resources. With the final partner in place, the project was under way. Engineers in the Avionics Systems Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) had already studied the various options for downlinking HDTV from the ISS. They concluded that the easiest way was to compress the HDTV so that the resulting data stream would "look" like a payload data stream. The flight system would consist of a professional HDTV camcorder with live HD-SDI output, an HDTV MPEG-2 encoder, and a packetizer/protocol converter.

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum and AmpC ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and in people living and/or working on organic broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Patricia M C; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Haenen, Anja P J; Florijn, Alice; Hengeveld, Paul D; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum and AmpC ?-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC)-producing Escherichia coli among broilers, and humans living and/or working on organic broiler farms; further characterise isolates; and compare these results with those from conventional farms. In the Netherlands, only 9 certified organic broiler farms were present. On 8 of these farms, 60 throat swabs and 20 cloacal swabs were taken per farm for MRSA and ESBL/AmpC-E. coli detection, respectively, at an average age of both 34 (T1) and 68 (T2) days. Faecal swabs and questionnaires were returned by 27 out of 36 humans. For selected ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolates, phylogenetic groups, ?-lactamase genes, plasmid families, and sequence types were determined. MRSA was not detected in broiler and human samples. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from broilers on 7/8 farms at T1 and on all farms at T2. Furthermore, 3 farmers at T1, and 2 farmers and 1 family member at T2 were positive. Genes found in broilers and humans were almost exclusively blaCTX-M-1 and blaCMY-2. Given the high overall human ESBL/AmpC-prevalence (18.5%), which is similar to conventional farms, contact with live broilers is assumed a risk factor for carriage. Farm and sample-level prevalence at T1 are consistent with those from conventional farms. At T2, just before slaughter, sample-level prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-E. coli appears to have decreased (94.3% vs. 80%), which could have important consequences for contamination of retail meat. PMID:25582613

  14. Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects*

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction. PMID:23908800

  15. Vitamin C content of organically grown produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organically grown produce is the fastest growing sector of fresh market sales in the U.S. While accounting for only 3% of total produce sales, it is growing by 20% per year. There has been much debate over the relative health merits of organically grown fruits and vegetables. Most consumers believ...

  16. Psychosocial Assessment of Living Organ Donors: Clinical and Ethical Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellen Olbrisch; Sharon M. Benedict

    2001-01-01

    This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, \\

  17. [Distant mental influence on living organisms].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand. PMID:24502184

  18. UAF LIVE Leadership Involvement and Volunteer Experience UAF Student Organization

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    UAF LIVE Leadership Involvement and Volunteer Experience UAF Student Organization Advisor Handbook Organization UAF LIVE Program Student Organizations Phone: 907-474-1959 Fax: 907-474-5508 E-mail: fystuorg.....................................10 #12;3 Dear UAF Student Organization Advisors, On behalf of the UAF LIVE program, thank you for all

  19. Toward Quantum Superposition of Living Organisms

    E-print Network

    Oriol Romero-Isart; Mathieu L. Juan; Romain Quidant; J. Ignacio Cirac

    2010-03-11

    The most striking feature of quantum mechanics is the existence of superposition states, where an object appears to be in different situations at the same time. The existence of such states has been tested with small objects, like atoms, ions, electrons and photons, and even with molecules. More recently, it has been possible to create superpositions of collections of photons, atoms, or Cooper pairs. Current progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow us to create superpositions of even larger objects, like micro-sized mirrors or cantilevers, and thus to test quantum mechanical phenomena at larger scales. Here we propose a method to cool down and create quantum superpositions of the motion of sub-wavelength, arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects trapped inside a high--finesse cavity at a very low pressure. Our method is ideally suited for the smallest living organisms, such as viruses, which survive under low vacuum pressures, and optically behave as dielectric objects. This opens up the possibility of testing the quantum nature of living organisms by creating quantum superposition states in very much the same spirit as the original Schr\\"odinger's cat "gedanken" paradigm. We anticipate our essay to be a starting point to experimentally address fundamental questions, such as the role of life and consciousness in quantum mechanics.

  20. Toward quantum superposition of living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Isart, Oriol; Juan, Mathieu L.; Quidant, Romain; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The most striking feature of quantum mechanics is the existence of superposition states, where an object appears to be in different situations at the same time. The existence of such states has been previously tested with small objects, such as atoms, ions, electrons and photons (Zoller et al 2005 Eur. Phys. J. D 36 203-28), and even with molecules (Arndt et al 1999 Nature 401 680-2). More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to create superpositions of collections of photons (Deléglise et al 2008 Nature 455 510-14), atoms (Hammerer et al 2008 arXiv:0807.3358) or Cooper pairs (Friedman et al 2000 Nature 406 43-6). Very recent progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow us to create superpositions of even larger objects, such as micro-sized mirrors or cantilevers (Marshall et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 130401; Kippenberg and Vahala 2008 Science 321 1172-6 Marquardt and Girvin 2009 Physics 2 40; Favero and Karrai 2009 Nature Photon. 3 201-5), and thus to test quantum mechanical phenomena at larger scales. Here we propose a method to cool down and create quantum superpositions of the motion of sub-wavelength, arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects trapped inside a high-finesse cavity at a very low pressure. Our method is ideally suited for the smallest living organisms, such as viruses, which survive under low-vacuum pressures (Rothschild and Mancinelli 2001 Nature 406 1092-101) and optically behave as dielectric objects (Ashkin and Dziedzic 1987 Science 235 1517-20). This opens up the possibility of testing the quantum nature of living organisms by creating quantum superposition states in very much the same spirit as the original Schrödinger's cat 'gedanken' paradigm (Schrödinger 1935 Naturwissenschaften 23 807-12, 823-8, 844-9). We anticipate that our paper will be a starting point for experimentally addressing fundamental questions, such as the role of life and consciousness in quantum mechanics.

  1. Shrinky Dink microbes! icrobes are living organisms smaller

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Shrinky Dink microbes! M icrobes are living organisms smaller than your eyes can see. They are the oldest form of life on Earth and they live just about everywhere including in, and on your body. They can even live in really hostile environments like icy glaciers, the bottom of the ocean, and hot springs

  2. BIOGLYPHS: A Living Collaboration with Bioluminescent Organisms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MSU-Bozeman School of Art

    BIOGLYPHS is an art and science collaboration initiated by members of the Center for Biofilm Engineering and the Montana State University School of Art. This website features two BIOGLYPHS exhibitions of living bioluminescent paintings that were created by teams of student and staff artists, scientists and engineers in 2002. The site includes a gallery of BIOGLYPH paintings, information about collaborators, comments from the guest book, and links to media coverage and related web pages.

  3. Ethical guidelines for the evaluation of living organ donors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linda; Faith, Karen; Richardson, Robert; Grant, David

    2004-12-01

    Transplantation is an effective, life-prolonging treatment for organ failure. Demand has steadily increased over the past decade, creating a shortage in the supply of organs. In addition, the number of deceased organ donors has reached a plateau. Living-donor transplantation is increasingly an option, influenced by favourable clinical outcomes and increased waiting times at most transplant centres across North America. Living-donor kidney transplants have exceeded deceased-donor transplant rates at some centres. Organ donations from living donors have challenged transplant programs to develop a framework for determining donor acceptability. After a multidisciplinary consensus-building process of discussion and debate, the Multi-Organ Transplant Program of the University Health Network in Toronto has developed ethical guidelines for these procedures. These proposed guidelines address ethical concerns related to selection criteria and procedures, voluntariness, informed consent and disclosure of risks and benefits to both donor and recipient. PMID:15646438

  4. Evolutionary theories of ageing applied to long-lived organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Partridge

    2001-01-01

    Ageing can evolve by mutation accumulation and pleiotropy (trade-offs). The relative prevalence of these two mechanisms is important for determining the likelihood that mechanisms of ageing are homologous in distantly related organisms, and hence the relevance of long-lived organisms to general mechanisms of ageing. Experimental work with Drosophila, examining the properties of standing genetic variation and mutations that accumulate in

  5. X-ray microscopy of live biological micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Al-Ani, Ma'an Nassar

    Real-time, compact x-ray microscopy has the potential to benefit many scientific fields, including microbiology, pharmacology, organic chemistry, and physics. Single frame x-ray micro-radiography, produced by a compact, solid-state laser plasma source, allows scientists to use x-ray emission for elemental analysis, and to observe biological specimens in their natural state. In this study, x-ray images of mouse kidney tissue, live bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia, and the bacteria's interaction with the antibiotic gentamicin, are examined using x-ray microscopy. For the purposes of comparing between confocal microscopy and x-ray microscopy, we introduced to our work the technique of gold labeling. Indirect immunofluorescence staining and immuno-gold labeling were applied on human lymphocytes and human tumor cells. Differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) showed the lymphocyte body and nucleus, as did x-ray microscopy. However, the high resolution of x-ray microscopy allows us to differentiate between the gold particles bound to the antibodies and the free gold. A compact, tabletop Nd: glass laser is used in this study to produce x-rays from an Yttrium target. An atomic force microscope is used to scan the x-ray images from the developed photo-resist. The use of compact, tabletop laser plasma sources, in conjunction with x-ray microscopy, is a new technique that has great potential as a flexible, user-friendly scientific research tool.

  6. Self-organized criticality in living systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adami

    1995-01-01

    We suggest that ensembles of self-replicating entities such as biological systems naturally evolve to a self-organized critical state in which fluctuations, as well as waiting times between phase transitions (“epochs”), are distributed according to a 1f? power law. Such distributions can explain observed frequency distributions in extinction events as well as fractal population structures, and support the punctuated equilibrium picture

  7. Living organism imaging with the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM)

    E-print Network

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    Living organism imaging with the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM) Benjamin Potsaida is often hampered by a traditional microscope's small field of view at high resolution. This paper discusses a new optical microscope design, called the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM), which

  8. Ethical issues in living organ donation: Donor autonomy and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Spital

    2001-01-01

    Despite nearly 50 years of experience with living kidney donation, ethical questions about this practice continue to haunt us today. In this editorial I will address two of them: (1) Given the possibility of limited understanding and coercion, how can we be sure that a person who offers to donate an organ is acting autonomously? and (2) Do people have

  9. Respiratory Chains in the Last Common Ancestor of Living Organisms Jose Castresana,1

    E-print Network

    Castresana, Jose

    Respiratory Chains in the Last Common Ancestor of Living Organisms Jose Castresana,1 David Moreira2, and polysulfide reductase. These proteins can be assigned to the last common an- cestor of living organisms common ancestor of living organisms was not a simple organism in its energetic metabolism. Rather, it may

  10. The impact ejection of living organisms into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of natural processes to blast living organisms into space was examined. It is suggested that rocks ejected from the Earth by a giant meteorite or comet impact can carry microorganisms into space. Such microscopic Earth life would have an opportunity to colonize the other planets if it can survive the rigors of space until it falls into the atmosphere of a hospitable planet.

  11. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  1. ORGANIC CHEMICAL PRODUCERS DATA BASE DEVELOPMENT AND UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes modification, content expansion and update activities performed on the Organic Chemical Producers Data Base (OCPDB), an EPA-owned, computerized information system containing data on chemical products and industrial production facilities located in the United...

  2. Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.

  3. Ertapenem susceptibility of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupal M Mody; Daniel P Erwin; Amy M Summers; Hector A Carrero; Edward B Selby; Allesa J Ewell; Kimberly A Moran

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections caused by multiply drug resistant organisms such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasing. Carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) are the antibiotics commonly used to treat these agents. There is limited clinical data regarding the efficacy of the newest carbapenem, ertapenem, against these organisms. Ertapenem susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical

  4. On the Testing Maturity of Software Producing Organizations Mats Grindal

    E-print Network

    Offutt, Jeff

    On the Testing Maturity of Software Producing Organizations Mats Grindal Humanities and Informatics, and the knowledge of the personnel in the test organizations. The data indicate that the overall test maturity of maturity and thereby articulate the potential gain from increasing testing maturity to upper management

  5. Demographic consequences of adaptive growth and the ramifications for conservation of long-lived organisms

    E-print Network

    Janzen, Fredric

    Available online 3 June 2010 Keywords: Turtle Adaptive growth Population models Long-lived organisms Human biologists. Short- lived organisms can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental hazards, but only recently have long-lived organisms been shown to adapt to human impacts. Changes in any life-history trait

  6. Stability and Responsiveness in a Self-Organized Living Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Simon; Murphy, Tucker; Lutz, Matthew; Hurme, Edward; Leblanc, Simon; Couzin, Iain D.

    2013-01-01

    Robustness and adaptability are central to the functioning of biological systems, from gene networks to animal societies. Yet the mechanisms by which living organisms achieve both stability to perturbations and sensitivity to input are poorly understood. Here, we present an integrated study of a living architecture in which army ants interconnect their bodies to span gaps. We demonstrate that these self-assembled bridges are a highly effective means of maintaining traffic flow over unpredictable terrain. The individual-level rules responsible depend only on locally-estimated traffic intensity and the number of neighbours to which ants are attached within the structure. We employ a parameterized computational model to reveal that bridges are tuned to be maximally stable in the face of regular, periodic fluctuations in traffic. However analysis of the model also suggests that interactions among ants give rise to feedback processes that result in bridges being highly responsive to sudden interruptions in traffic. Subsequent field experiments confirm this prediction and thus the dual nature of stability and flexibility in living bridges. Our study demonstrates the importance of robust and adaptive modular architecture to efficient traffic organisation and reveals general principles regarding the regulation of form in biological self-assemblies. PMID:23555219

  7. Development of the National Living Donor Assistance Center: reducing financial disincentives to living organ donation.

    PubMed

    Warren, Patricia H; Gifford, Kimberly A; Hong, Barry A; Merion, Robert M; Ojo, Akinlolu O

    2014-03-01

    Over the years, the transplant community has worked to advance the care of living organ donors; however, barriers remain, including the nonmedical expenses incurred by living donors. A new center, funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), was established to operate a nationwide system to remove these financial disincentives. The HRSA grant was awarded to an academic institution and the daily operations are managed by a transplant professional society. Expenses are reimbursed prospectively for financially needy living donors. Combining the legislative authority and economic resources of the federal government, the research experience of an academic institution, and the management know-how of a professional society has proven to be successful. To date, the center has received 3918 applications submitted by 199 different transplant centers and receives about 80 applications per month. On average, a donor spends $2767 for their travel expenses to the transplant center. Of the 3918 applications that have been submitted, 1941 of those applicants (50%) have completed their donor surgery. PMID:24598569

  8. Racemization and the origin of optically active organic compounds in living organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    The organic compounds synthesized in prebiotic experiments are racemic mixtures. A number of proposals have been offered to explain how asymmetric organic compounds formed on the Earth before life arose, with the influence of chiral weak nuclear interactions being the most frequent proposal. This and other proposed asymmetric syntheses give only sight enantiomeric excess and any slight excess will be degraded by racemization. This applies particularly to amino acids where half-lives of 10(5)-10(6) years are to be expected at temperatures characteristic of the Earth's surface. Since the generation of chiral molecules could not have been a significant process under geological conditions, the origins of this asymmetry must have occurred at the time of the origin of life or shortly thereafter. It is possible that the compounds in the first living organisms were prochiral rather than chiral; this is unlikely for amino acids, but it is possible for the monomers of RNA-like molecules.

  9. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  10. MAINTENANCE OF THE ORGANIC CHEMICAL PRODUCERS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the maintenance and operation of the Organic Chemical Producers Data Base (OCPDB) from March 1979 to December 1980. During this period the OCPDB, an automated chemical information system developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was expanded an...

  11. Abstract--In order to understand the underlying structural and behavioral mechanisms of living organisms, scientist

    E-print Network

    Weitzenfeld, Alfredo

    , generate predictions to be validated by further experimentation in both robots as well as living organismsAbstract--In order to understand the underlying structural and behavioral mechanisms of living organisms, scientist follow cycles of experimentation and simulation. Experimentation, in the form of data

  12. An Inquiry into the Use of Living Organisms in Biological Education in West German Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumpert, Klaus

    1979-01-01

    Presents a study which was conducted, for the entire Federal Republic of Germany, on the use of living organisms in biological instruction. Teachers' expenditure of time and material and their views on the value of using living organisms in biology teaching were also investigated. (HM)

  13. The Use of Living Organisms in Schools: Advice and Support from Science Inspectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the advice and support from science inspectors or advisers with respect to the use of living organisms in schools. Reports that advice, support, and encouragement in the use of living organisms in teaching was widely available at the time of this study and schools have a great deal to lose from the shrinkage in the advisory service.…

  14. Long-lived states of antiprotonic lithium pLi {sup +} produced in p+ Li collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakimoto, Kazuhiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai 3-1-1, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Antiproton capture by lithium atoms (p+Li{yields}pLi{sup +}+e) is investigated at collision energies from 0.01 to 10 eV by using a semiclassical (also know as quantum-classical hybrid) method, in which the radial distance between the antiproton and the Li{sup +} ion is treated as a classical variable, and the other degrees of freedom are described by quantum mechanics. Analyzing the wave packet of the emitted electrons and making use of the energy conservation rule enable us to calculate the state distribution of the produced antiprotonic lithium pLi{sup +} atoms and also to distinguish between the capture and ionization ({yields}p+Li{sup +}+e) channels at collisional energies above the ionization threshold. This method is tested for the capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms, which was rigorously investigated in previous quantum mechanical studies. Most of the pLi{sup +} atoms produced in p+Li are found to be sufficiently stable against Auger decays and are experimentally observable as long-lived states. The present system bears close similarities to the system of p+He(2S). It is therefore expected that long-lived antiprotonic helium pHe{sup +} atoms can be efficiently produced in the p capture by metastable He(2 {sup 3}S) atoms.

  15. Microbial sucrose isomerases: producing organisms, genes and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Goulter, Ken C; Hashimi, Saeed M; Birch, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose isomerase (SI) activity is used industrially for the conversion of sucrose into isomers, particularly isomaltulose or trehalulose, which have properties advantageous over sucrose for some food uses. All of the known microbial SIs are TIM barrel proteins that convert sucrose without need for any cofactors, with varying kinetics and product specificities. The current analysis was undertaken to bridge key gaps between the information in patents and scientific publications about the microbes and enzymes useful for sucrose isomer production. This analysis shows that microbial SIs can be considered in 5 structural classes with corresponding functional distinctions that broadly align with the taxonomic differences between producing organisms. The most widely used bacterial strain for industrial production of isomaltulose, widely referred to as "Protaminobacter rubrum" CBS 574.77, is identified as Serratia plymuthica. The strain producing the most structurally divergent SI, with a high product specificity for trehalulose, widely referred to as "Pseudomonas mesoacidophila" MX-45, is identified as Rhizobium sp. Each tested SI-producer is shown to have a single SI gene and enzyme, so the properties reported previously for the isolated proteins can reasonably be associated with the products of the genes subsequently cloned from the same isolates and SI classes. Some natural isolates with potent SI activity do not catabolize the isomer under usual production conditions. The results indicate that their industrial potential may be further enhanced by selection for variants that do not catabolize the sucrose substrate. PMID:22133441

  16. Social organization in free-living prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowell L. Getz; Joyce E. Hofmann

    1986-01-01

    Breeding units (occupants of a nest including at least one reproductive female) within two free-living populations of the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, were monitored by live-trapping at nest during two 28-h periods each week from October 1980 to March 1984. Data are presented for 281 breeding units from all seasons, at high and low population densities and during breeding and

  17. Engineered biosealant strains producing inorganic and organic biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Bergdale, Terran E; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; Hughes, Stephen R; Zambelli, Barbara; Ciurli, Stefano; Bang, Sookie S

    2012-10-31

    Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process that has shown its potential in remediation of a wide range of structural damages including concrete cracks. In this study, genetically engineered microorganisms, capable of producing extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) as well as inducing MICCP, were developed based on the assumption that the complex of inorganic CaCO(3) and organic EPS would provide a stronger matrix than MICCP alone as biosealant. In order to develop a recombinant biosealant microorganism, the entire Sporosarcina pasteurii urease gene sequences including ureA, ureB, ureC, ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG from plasmid pBU11 were sub-cloned into the shuttle vector, pUCP18. The newly constructed plasmid, pUBU1, was transformed into two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 8821 and PAO1, to develop recombinants capable of inducing calcite precipitation in addition to their own ability to produce EPS. Nickel-dependent urease activities were expressed from the recombinant P. aeruginosa 8821 (pUBU1) and P. aeruginosa PAO1 (pUBU1), at 99.4% and 60.9% of the S. pasteurii urease activity, respectively, in a medium containing 2mM NiCl(2). No urease activities were detected from the wild type P. aeruginosa 8821 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 under the same growth conditions. Recombinant Pseudomonas strains induced CaCO(3) precipitation at a comparable rate as S. pasteurii and scanning electron microscopy evidenced the complex of CaCO(3) crystals and EPS layers surrounding the cells. The engineered strains produced in this study are expected to serve as a valuable reference to future biosealants that could be applied in the environment. However, the pathogenic potential of P. aeruginosa, used here only as a model system to show the proof of principle, prevents the use of this recombinant organism as a biosealant. In practical applications, other recombinant organisms should be used. PMID:22789480

  18. How killed enterobacterial cultures can activate living organisms to resist lethal agents or conditions.

    PubMed

    Rowbury, Robin J

    2003-01-01

    A major aim in many areas of microbiology is to ensure sterility, and even where this is impossible, to reduce the number of viable organisms occurring in particular environments to an absolute minimum. This applies in the aquatic environment, where e.g. water treatment must ensure as complete absence of viable microbes as possible. It is also crucial in food processing and production; many food constituents contain appreciable numbers of viable organisms, even potential pathogens, and the number must be greatly reduced and in many situations, the presence of viable organisms totally abolished. Cleaning of food production components and surfaces must also kill associated microbes. In domestic, hospital and commercial situations, similar disinfection is critical. Ultimately, the aim is to ensure, if possible, sterility, with the assurance that microbial problems cannot occur if organisms are absent. Additionally, however, it has been implicitly assumed that killed organisms and even killed cultures cannot (except in minor and trivial ways) influence the behaviour of living organisms that later enter the environment. The work reviewed here challenges that view and in fact disproves it. The findings described show that killed enterobacterial cultures, which prior to killing had phenotypically gained the ability to resist potentially lethal stresses, can pass on such ability to living organisms that later enter their environment i.e. that such killed cultures can convey a baleful legacy to living ones. This phenomenon is so widespread that it is clear that it has significance for enterobacterial survival in natural waters, in foods and in food production, in the domestic, commercial and hospital situation, and in the animal and human body. In fact, in this last area, the likely effect of killed cultures appears to be of appreciable public health importance. Here, the ability of appropriate killed cultures to transfer tolerance to acidity, alkalinity and thermal stress is described, as well as their ability to pass on sensitisation to acid and alkali. Other work reviewed suggests that killed cultures can almost certainly transfer the ability to tolerate hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet irradiation and metal ions. The serious implications of this phenomenon are further emphasised by the fact that numerous killing methods produce cultures effective in tolerance response transfer. All the evidence suggests that it is extracellular components (extracellular sensing components, ESCs, and extracellular induction components, EICs), in the killed cultures which are involved in stress response transfer, and that the actual stress response induction process depends on interaction of living organisms with EICs from the killed cultures. It is of note that ESCs and EICs survive in killed cultures because of their extreme resistance to irreversible inactivation by lethal levels of stressing agents and conditions. This is in contrast to the fact that EC activation, namely the conversion of ESC to EIC occurs on exposure to very low levels of stressors. Not only is this the case, but in fact high levels of stressors (e.g. those that kill organisms) generally fail to convert ESC to EIC. PMID:15079995

  19. Volatile organic compounds of polyethylene vinyl acetate plastic are toxic to living organisms.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tingzhu Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products readily evaporate; as a result, hazardous gases enter the ecosystem, and cause cancer in humans and other animals. Polyethylene vinyl acetate (PEVA) plastic has recently become a popular alternative to PVC since it is chlorine-free. In order to determine whether PEVA is harmful to humans, this research employed the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a model to compare their oxygen intakes while they were exposed to the original stock solutions of PEVA, PVC or distilled water at a different length of time for one day, four days or eight days. During the exposure periods, the oxygen intakes in both PEVA and PVC groups were much higher than in the distilled water group, indicating that VOCs in both PEVA and PVC were toxins that stressed L. variegatus. Furthermore, none of the worms fully recovered during the24-hr recovery period. Additionally, the L. variegatus did not clump together tightly after four or eight days' exposure to either of the two types of plastic solutions, which meant that both PEVA and PVC negatively affected the social behaviors of these blackworms. The LD50 tests also supported the observations above. For the first time, our results have shown that PEVA plastic has adverse effects on living organisms, and therefore it is not a safe alternative to PVC. Further studies should identify specific compounds causing the adverse effects, and determine whether toxic effect occurs in more complex organisms, especially humans. PMID:25242410

  20. Introducing Incentives in the Market for Live and Cadaveric Organ Donations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Stanley Becker; Julio Jorge Elías

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the introduction of monetary incentives in the market for live and cadaveric organ donations. We show that monetary incentives would increase the supply of organs for transplant sufficiently to eliminate the very large queues in organ markets, and the suffering and deaths of many of those waiting, without increasing the total cost of transplant surgery by more than

  1. Self-organization and entropy reduction in a living cell

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Paul C.W.; Rieper, Elisabeth; Tuszynski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the entropy and information aspects of a living cell. Particular attention is paid to the information gain on assembling and maintaining a living state. Numerical estimates of the information and entropy reduction are given and discussed in the context of the cell’s metabolic activity. We discuss a solution to an apparent paradox that there is less information content in DNA than in the proteins that are assembled based on the genetic code encrypted in DNA. When energy input required for protein synthesis is accounted for, the paradox is clearly resolved. Finally, differences between biological information and instruction are discussed. PMID:23159919

  2. Variation of ascorbic acid content in different live food organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Merchie; P. Lavens; Ph. Dhert; M. Dehasque; H. Nelis; A. De Leenheer; P. Sorgeloos

    1995-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is an essential nutrient both in particle and live aquafeeds. In order to better assess the needs for this nutrient during larviculture the AA content of algae, rotifers and Artemia was studied with respect to their suitability at startfeeding. In general, the microalgae evaluated were rich in AA (1000–4000 ?g AA\\/g DW), but showed a considerable variability

  3. A Time-Dependent Stopping Problem with Application to Live Organ Transplants Author(s): Israel David and Uri Yechiali

    E-print Network

    Yechiali, Uri

    A Time-Dependent Stopping Problem with Application to Live Organ Transplants Author(s): Israel://www.jstor.org #12;A Time-dependent Stopping Problem with Application to Live Organ Transplants ISRAEL DAVIDand URI. 'HIS WORKwasmotivatedbya decision-makingproblemassociated with transplantinga live organ-in this case

  4. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S....

  5. Doing harm: living organ donors, clinical research and The Tenth Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Elliott

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the ethical difficulties of organ donation from living donors and the problem of causing harm to patients or research subjects at their request. Graham Greene explored morally similar questions in his novella, The Tenth Man.

  6. Heavy metal linkages with mineral, organic and living soil compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Motalib M. Abdul Rida; Marcel B. Bouché

    1997-01-01

    For soil ecotoxicological assessment, we can observe lethal effects (on organism as presence or absence) or sublethal effects due to bioconcentrations of contaminants in organisms. This paper deals with the analysis of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca: (i) in soils, by three chemical extraction techniques; (ii) in earthworm tissues; (iii) the relationships

  7. Intentions of becoming a living organ donor among Hispanics: a theory-based approach exploring differences between living and nonliving organ donation.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D; Dominick, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This research examines perceptions concerning living (n = 1,253) and nonliving (n = 1,259) organ donation among Hispanic adults, a group considerably less likely than the general population to become donors. Measures are derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and Vested Interest Theory (Crano, 1983, 1997). A substantial percentage of respondents reported positive attitudes and high personal stake concerning organ donation. Mean differences in norms, attitudes, intentions, and assumed immediacy of payoff were found between living and nonliving donor groups, suggesting that these two donation formats are dissimilar and should be examined independently. Accordingly, separate hierarchical multiple regression models were estimated for living and nonliving donation. Analyses supported both theoretical frameworks: Constructs associated with Planned Behavior and Vested Interest independently contributed to donor intentions. The implications of these results, and our recommendations for future health campaigns, are presented in light of these theoretical models. PMID:18307137

  8. "Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Monir

    2012-03-01

    The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain. PMID:22574392

  9. In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

  10. Organized Living: From Cell Surfaces to Basement Membranes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy J. Boudreau (University of California San Francisco; Department of Surgery REV)

    2003-08-19

    Binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to integrin receptors initiates intracellular signaling events that are essential for the differentiation and survival of epithelial cells. However, the propagation and processing of these signals also depend on the cells acquiring an appropriate three-dimensional morphology and polarity after contact with the ECM. In fact, even if adhesion to the ECM is maintained but subsequent cellular organization and polarity are impaired, epithelial cells fail to fully differentiate and become susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. Studies using three-dimensional tissue culture models with reconstituted basement membranes not only demonstrate the central role of tissue organization for differentiation and survival, but also emphasize how acquiring this organized polarized phenotype can override a number of genetic changes that would otherwise disrupt normal tissue function.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of household organic waste to produce biogas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mir-Akbar Hessami; Sky Christensen; Robert Gani

    1996-01-01

    Biogas may be readily obtained by the anaerobic digestion of organic waste. If communities and towns could harness the energy which is contained in the organic waste which they presently dispose of in landfills or compost, this fuel could supplement or completely satisfy their heat energy requirements.Biogas production from household organic waste is rare because existing digesters are not suitable

  12. Attitude of Personnel in Hospital Cadaveric Organ Transplant-Related Units Faced with Living Kidney Donation in a Hospital with a Living Kidney Donor Transplantation Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ríos; P. Ramírez; L. Martínez; J. A. García; M. J. Montoya; D. Lucas; P. Parrilla

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The attitude of health care personnel is fundamental for the procurement of organs, especially when they are based in transplant-related services. The objective of this study is to assess the attitude of hospital personnel in transplant-related services toward living kidney donation in a hospital with a cadaveric and living solid organ transplant program. Materials and Methods: A random sample

  13. Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Lungenschmied; Gilles Dennler; Helmut Neugebauer; Serdar N. Sariciftci; Markus Glatthaar; Toby Meyer; Andreas Meyer

    2007-01-01

    We report herein large area (>10cm2), interconnected organic solar cell modules both on glass substrates as well as on flexible ultra-high barrier foils, reaching 1.5% and 0.5% overall power conversion efficiency under AM1.5 conditions. Series connection is described, as these modules consist of up to three cells. Using our flexible barrier material, a shelf lifetime of polythiophene-based solar cells of

  14. Structure and function of vanadium compounds in living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Rehder

    1992-01-01

    Vanadium has been recognized as a metal of biological importance only recently. In this mini-review, its main functions uncovered during the past few years are addressed. These encompass (i) the regulation of phosphate metabolizing enzymes (which is exemplified for the inhibition of ribonucleases by vanadate), (ii) the halogenation of organic compounds by vanadate-dependent non-heme peroxidases from seaweeds, (iii) the reductive

  15. Use of coherent control for selective two-photon fluorescence microscopy in live organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer P. Ogilvie; Delphine Débarre; Xavier Solinas; Jean-Louis Martin; Emmanuel Beaurepaire; Manuel Joffre

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate selective fluorescence We demonstrate selective fluorescence excitation of specific molecular species in live organisms by using coherent control of two-photon excitation. We have acquired quasi-simultaneous images in live fluorescently-labeled Drosophila embryos by rapid switching between appropriate pulse shapes. Linear combinations of these images demonstrate that a high degree of fluorophore selectivity is attainable through phase-shaping. Broadband phase-shaped excitation

  16. New method to detect organic nanoparticles in live tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixler, Dror; Yariv, Inbar

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, infiltrating materials into the human body has become a great challenge many researches are facing. In medicine and cosmetics today, there are materials which are administrated to patients by injection only. The main challenge with topical medication is penetrating the skin barrier. The skin is an effective barrier between the body and the outside environment, which prevents foreign materials entering the body easily. However, reducing the size of the desired materials might help their skin penetration ability. Recently nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated for use in many fields like chemistry, biology, medicine, physics and optics. The technique used in this work for forming organic NPs (ONPs) is the application of sonic waves to an aqueous solution, known as sonochemistry. To investigate the physical penetration depth of ONPs into the human body, we first developed a novel optical technique for detecting NPs within tissues. The detection of NPs is done by the extraction and investigation of the reemitted light phase.

  17. "Can you spare an organ?": exploring Hispanic Americans' willingness to discuss living organ donation with loved ones.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Hohman, Zachary P; Maurer, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Living organ donation offers a means of overcoming the shortage of viable organs available for transplant: a shortage particularly problematic among Hispanics. One barrier standing between those in need of a kidney and a successful transplant operation is an inability, and often lack of desire, to talk to loved ones about the need for a living donation. With an eye on future intervention approaches, and guided in part by the theory of planned behavior, this research effort sought to explore the factors associated with a willingness to engage in a conversation about a living donation with loved ones. Study 1, a phone survey of Hispanic Americans drawn from a Hispanic surname list, reveals that while upward of 90% of respondents would be willing to offer a kidney to a family member in need, and a similar percentage would be willing to accept a living donation if offered, only about half of respondents would feel comfortable initiating a conversation with family members if the respondent was in need of a living donation. Study 2, a survey of Hispanic American patients currently in need of a living kidney donation, revealed that perceived behavioral control accounted for 60% of the variance in future intentions to initiate a conversation among those who have yet to speak to a family member about becoming a living donor. Moreover, perceived behavioral control mediated the relationship between perceived asking appropriateness and future intentions to initiate a conversation. Lastly, recipient outcome expectations, asking appropriateness, and subjective norms were revealed to be predictive of perceived behavioral control. Implications for future living donor interventions focusing on increasing recipient-initiated conversations are discussed. PMID:21722061

  18. A living demonstration of certified organic farming by Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...

  19. Development of a Reverse Genetics System to Produce Live, Attenuated Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Vaccine Candidates

    E-print Network

    1 Development of a Reverse Genetics System to Produce Live, Attenuated Infectious Salmon Anemia Grant Number: NA03NMF4270132 March 29, 2006 Abstract Infectious salmon anemia (ISA), induced by the viral causative agent infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), has had a large, negative economic impact

  20. A comparison of chlorinated organic material produced by chlorine and chlorine dioxide bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    McKaque, A.B.; Reeve, D.W. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Chlorine and chlorine dioxide react differently with pulp during bleaching and produce different types of organic by-products. The main differences are the large reduction in the amount of AOX (adsorbable organic halogen) in the effluent and EOX (extractable organic halogen) in the pulp. This talk reviews the differences in the amounts and types of chlorinated organic by-products produced by the two different bleaching agents.

  1. Nanoscale Organization of Multiple GPI-Anchored Proteins in Living Cell Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranav Sharma; Rajat Varma; R. C Sarasij; Ira; Karine Gousset; G Krishnamoorthy; Madan Rao; Satyajit Mayor

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched “rafts” have long been proposed as platforms for the sorting of specific membrane components including glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), however, their existence and physical properties have been controversial. Here, we investigate the size of lipid-dependent organization of GPI-APs in live cells, using homo and hetero-FRET-based experiments, combined with theoretical modeling. These studies reveal an unexpected organization wherein cell

  2. Will recently proposed experiments be able to demonstrate quantum behavior of entire living organisms?

    E-print Network

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2009-12-12

    Recently proposed experiments consider creating and observing the quantum superposition of small living organisms. Those proposed experiments are examined here for feasibility on the basis of results of earlier studies identifying a boundary separating obligatory classical behavior from quantum behavior. It appears that the proposed experiments may be expected to succeed for the case of viruses, but most probably fail for the case of the appreciably larger organisms that are also considered.

  3. Bio-Enabled Materials Certain living organisms are remarkably adept at generating materials in complex, three-

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    Bio-Enabled Materials Certain living organisms are remarkably adept at generating materials. Davis, Y. Cai, M. Liu, K. H. Sandhage, "Bio-enabled Syntheses of Hollow, High Surface Area, Micro, or Adsorption," Energy Environ. Sci., 4 (10) 3980 (2011).) #12;A wide range of cross-cutting bio

  4. On the function of the NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Gálvez; Pierre Gadal

    1995-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield 2-oxoglutarate. Even if an ICDH activity is widely present in living organisms, the physiological role of this protein remains completely unknown. The situation is further complicated by the presence, in eukaryotic cells, of several ICDH isoenzymes located in different subcellular compartments, as well as by their unstability. In

  5. Can dynamical synapses produce true self-organized criticality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ariadne de Andrade; Copelli, Mauro; Kinouchi, Osame

    2015-06-01

    Neuronal networks can present activity described by power-law distributed avalanches presumed to be a signature of a critical state. Here we study a random-neighbor network of excitable cellular automata coupled by dynamical synapses. The model exhibits a very similar to conservative self-organized criticality (SOC) models behavior even with dissipative bulk dynamics. This occurs because in the stationary regime the model is conservative on average, and, in the thermodynamic limit, the probability distribution for the global branching ratio converges to a delta-function centered at its critical value. So, this non-conservative model pertain to the same universality class of conservative SOC models and contrasts with other dynamical synapses models that present only self-organized quasi-criticality (SOqC). Analytical results show very good agreement with simulations of the model and enable us to study the emergence of SOC as a function of the parametric derivatives of the stationary branching ratio.

  6. HIV screening practices for living organ donors, New York State, 2010: need for standard policies.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Candice K; Al-Samarrai, Teeb; Smith, Lou C; Sabharwal, Charulata J; Valente, Kim A; Torian, Lucia V; McMurdo, Lisa M; Shepard, Colin W; Brooks, John T; Kuehnert, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Our survey of kidney and liver transplant centers in New York State found a wide variation among transplant centers in evaluation and screening for HIV risk and infection among prospective living donors. Survey results underscore the need to standardize practices. A recent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from a living donor to a kidney recipient revealed a possible limitation in existing screening protocols for HIV infection in living donors. We surveyed kidney and liver transplant centers (N = 18) in New York State to assess HIV screening protocols for living donors. Although most transplant centers evaluated HIV risk behaviors in living donors, evaluation practices varied widely, as did the extent of HIV testing and prevention counseling. All centers screened living donors for serologic evidence of HIV infection, either during initial evaluation or ?1 month before surgery; however, only 50% of transplant centers repeated HIV testing within 14 days before surgery for all donors or donors with specific risk behaviors. Forty-four percent of transplant centers used HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) to screen either all donors or donors with recognized risk behaviors, and 55% never performed HIV NAT. Results suggest the need to standardize evaluation of HIV risk behaviors and prevention counseling in New York State to prevent acquisition of HIV by prospective living organ donors, and to conduct HIV antibody testing and NAT as close to the time of donation as possible to prevent HIV transmission to recipients. PMID:22752517

  7. Using mentally incompetent adults as living organ donors: widely diverging regulations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Genicot, Gilles; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2012-12-01

    With the current situation in Belgium as its initial focus, this article will examine the regulatory framework that governs the use of mentally incompetent adults as living organ donors in Europe. Our survey of the national regulation of 22 countries will reveal widely diverging viewpoints, ranging from an absolute prohibition on organ procurement to a barely restricted authorisation to retrieve even non-regenerable organs. We also have a look at the way in which American and English court decisions have applied the best interests standard in an attempt to define the contours of acceptable organ removal from mentally incompetent donors. Taking the best interests of the mentally incompetent person as a yardstick, we suggest that legally prohibiting organ removal from mentally incompetents may be problematic, even if it concerns only non-regenerable organs, and that regulations should be refined accordingly. PMID:23198485

  8. Volatile organic compounds produced during irradiation of mail.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Sheely, Michael V; Hakspiel, Shelly J; Miller, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    In 2001, Bacillus anthracis spores were delivered through the United States postal system in a series of bioterrorist acts. Controls proposed for this threat included sanitization with high-energy electrons. Solid phase microextraction was used with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for field sampling and analysis of volatile compounds apparently produced from polymeric materials such as cellulose and plastics, immediately following processing of mail at a commercial irradiation facility. Solid phase microextraction and direct sampling of air into a cryogenically cooled temperature programmable inlet were used in the laboratory for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of air in contact with irradiated mail, envelopes only (packaged identically to mail), and air inside irradiated plastic mail packaging bags (with neither mail nor envelopes). Irradiated mail or envelope systems produced hydrocarbons such as propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, methylpentanes, and benzene; and oxygen-containing compounds such as acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, furan, 2-methylfuran, methanol, acetone, 2-butanone, and ethanol. In addition to hydrocarbons, methyl and ethyl nitrate were detected in irradiated bags that contained only air, suggesting reactive nitrogen species formed from air irradiation reacted with hydroxy-containing compounds to give nitro esters. The similarities of volatile compounds in irradiated systems containing paper to those observed by researchers studying cellulose pyrolysis suggests common depolymerization and degradation mechanisms in each case. These similarities should guide additional work to examine irradiated mail for chemical compounds not detectable by methods used here. PMID:12688843

  9. Building upon patterned organic monolayers produced via catalytic stamp lithography.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hidenori; Buriak, Jillian M

    2010-08-01

    Soft lithographic sub-100 nm chemical patterning was demonstrated on organic monolayer surfaces using poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based stamps decorated with Pd nanostructures, structures termed "catalytic stamps". Chemically reactive azide or alkene functionalities were incorporated on oxide-capped silicon surfaces and utilized for patterning via Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation or Heck reactions. The catalytic stamps were soft lithographic stamps based on PDMS with embedded nanoscale palladium catalysts, prepared via block copolymer-based templating. Nanoscale chemical patterns were readily generated on the azide or alkene precursor surfaces simply by applying the Pd catalytic stamps and the reactive molecule, the molecular ink, to the surface, thanks to the highly localized catalytic transformations induced by the patterned, immobilized solid Pd catalysts. A series of successful postfunctionalization reactions on the resulting patterned surfaces further demonstrated the utility of this approach to construct novel designs of nanoarchitectures, with potentially unique and innovative properties. PMID:20735101

  10. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...collection approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS)...

  11. Method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism wherein a series of negative pressures are externally applied to successive length-wise sections of a lower limb of the organism. The pressures decreasing progressively with distance of said limb sections from the heart of the organism. A casing defines a chamber adapted to contain the limb of the organism and is rigidified to resist collapse upon the application of negative pressures to the interior of the chamber. Seals extend inwardly from the casing for effective engagement with the limb of the organism and, in cooperation with the limb, subdivide the chamber into a plurality of compartments each in negative pressure communicating relation with the limb.

  12. Organic Compounds in Produced Waters From Coalbed Methane Wells in the Powder River Basin, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, W.; Lerch, H.; Rice, C.; Tatu, C.

    2003-12-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is a significant energy resource, accounting for about 7.5% of natural gas production in the USA. The Powder River Basin (PRB), WY is currently one of the most active CBM drilling sites in the USA. One aspect of concern in the exploitation of CBM resources is the large volumes of water recovered from wells along with the natural gas (so-called produced waters). CBM produced waters may contain coal-derived dissolved substances (inorganic and organic) of environmental concern, and a potential disposal problem for CBM producers. Studies of CBM produced water have mostly focused on inorganics. Dissolved organic compounds in CBM produced water may also present an environmental issue, but little information is available. As part of a larger study of the health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal, we analyzed a number of produced water samples from CBM wells in the PRB, WY for dissolved organic substances. Our goals were results on coal-derived organic compounds in the environment to evaluate potential health and environmental impacts. In 2001, we sampled produced water from 13 CBM wells covering a broad area of the PRB in order to identify and quantify the organic compounds present. In 2002, produced water from 4 of the 2001 CBM wells and 8 new CBM wells were sampled for dissolved organic components. Produced water was collected directly from each well and filtered on site. Organic compounds were isolated from produced water samples by liquid/liquid extraction with methylene chloride and identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic compounds identified by GC/MS in extracts of the produced water samples, included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and fatty acids. However, most compounds had structures unidentified by GC/MS databases. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are likely coal-derived. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 10 to 0.01 ? g/l. Some CBM wells with high concentrations of dissolved organic compounds present in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002, indicating temporal variability. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are toxic (mutagenic and cancer promoters), but are unlikely to have acute health effects at the low levels present. Chronic health and environmental effects from long periods of low-level exposure, however, are possible. Continuing studies will expand the existing dataset on dissolved organic compounds in produced water, and evaluate the toxic effects of these compounds.

  13. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

  14. Long-Lived (GaAl)As DH Lasers Bonded with In Produced by Eliminating Deterioration of In Solder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiro Hayakawa; Saburo Yamamoto; Sadayoshi Matsui; Takeshi Sakurai; Toshiki Hijikata

    1982-01-01

    Long-lived (GaAl)As DH lasers bonded with In solder have been produced using Mo as a barrier metal. The amount of Au on the Mo was reduced to much less than the amount of In solder to eliminate the deterioration of the latter. The intermetallic formation between In and Au was investigated using a simulation method. An accelerated reliability test at

  15. Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

  16. Changes in actin organization in the living egg apparatus of Torenia fournieri during fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Fu; Ming Yuan; Bing-Quan Huang; Hong-Yuan Yang; Sze-Yong Zee; T. P. O’Brien

    2000-01-01

    Changes in actin organization in the living egg apparatus of Torenia fournieri from anthesis to post-fertilization have been investigated using microinjection and confocal microscopy. Our results revealed\\u000a that the actin cytoskeleton displays dramatic changes in the egg apparatus and appears to coordinate the events of synergid\\u000a degeneration, pollen tube arrival and gametic fusion during fertilization. Synergid degeneration occurs after anthesis

  17. Emerging trends in free-living amebic infections of the brain: implications for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H; Boudreaux, J Philip

    2013-01-01

    This epidemiological review analyzed cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) and Balamuthia mandrillaris granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) for behavioral and demographic risk factors for pathogen exposures and potential transmission by organ transplantation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Naegleria Workgroup Registry provided 121 cases of laboratory-confirmed PAM over the period, 1937-2007. The CDC and the California Encephalitis Project provided 28 cases of GAE over the period, 1994-2010. There was a statistically significant increase in clusters of PAM cases between the periods, 1937-1996 and 1997-2007. Risk factors for PAM included male gender, freshwater exposures, summer exposures, and exposures in southern-tier US (United States) states. Risk factors for GAE included male gender, exposures in southern-tier US states, Hispanic ethnicity in California, occupational or recreational contacts with soil, and recent organ transplantation. Fatal free-living amebic infections of the brain are increasing today due to more frequent environmental, recreational, and occupational exposures; organ transplantation; and unanticipated clusters of PAM due to N. fowleri inoculations following nasal sinus irrigation using neti pots filled with municipal tap water. Potential organ donors dying from meningoencephalitis of unexplained causes should be screened for free-living amebic infections of the brain capable of hematogenous dissemination in organ recipients. PMID:25073256

  18. Self-Organized Ordering of Nanostructures Produced by Ion-Beam Sputtering Mario Castro,1

    E-print Network

    Cuerno, Rodolfo

    -organized ordering of nanostructures produced by ion-beam sputtering of targets amorphizing under irradiation in a self-organized fashion [2]. These would allow for easy, low-cost and large area fabrication, such as their alignment with the ion beam as a function of incidence angle. Additional features, such as ripple

  19. Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A.; White, Kiley A.; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnès; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J.; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Petoud, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)–emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb3+ lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb3+ NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation. PMID:24108356

  20. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton-proton collisions at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T. Dos Reis; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Teles, P. Rebello; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.

    2015-04-01

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6 of 8 proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 h of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of events. Limits are presented at 95 % confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass 1000 and a top squark with mass 525 are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 s and 1000. These results are the most stringent constraints on stopped particles to date.

  1. Duration of immunity produced by a live attenuated vaccine against avian pneumovirus type C.

    PubMed

    Patnayak, Devi P; Goyal, Sagar M

    2004-10-01

    A recently developed live, attenuated vaccine against avian pneumovirus (APV) was found to be safe and protective in experimental birds. Duration of immunity following a single dose of this experimental vaccine in 1-week-old turkey poults is described. Two groups each of 60 poults were housed in separate isolation rooms. Birds in group one were inoculated oculonasally at 1 week of age with the vaccine. The second group served as a non-vaccinated group and was inoculated with mock-infected cell culture fluid. At 3, 7, 10, and 14 weeks post vaccination, 15 birds from each of the groups were removed to separate isolation rooms and challenged with virulent APV. Taken together, data on clinical signs and virus detection in choanal swabs following each challenge indicated that the vaccine was able to protect birds for up to 14 weeks post vaccination. Peak antibody levels were attained 7 weeks post vaccination and declined thereafter. These results indicated that this experimental vaccine induced protection against APV even in the absence of high antibody titres. PMID:15545025

  2. Yields of short-lived fission products produced following 235U(nth,f)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipnis, S. V.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Schier, W. A.; Seabury, E. H.; England, T. R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of 235U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10 000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study.

  3. Commercial living non-related organ transplantation: a viewpoint from a developed country.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Peter F

    2006-10-01

    In developed countries, the use of living unrelated donors is restricted to purely altruistic donors who have a close and emotional relationship with the recipients. By law, commercial transplantation is illegal. Increasing shortness of donors, the excellent results of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors as well as the very low risk for the donor has been used as an argument for paid organ donation. Arguments in favour are the relief of donor-organ shortage, short waiting times for renal transplantation, economic benefits for the donor as well as the economic benefits for society by reducing the costs of dialysis by more transplants. Major arguments against are exploitation of the donor, coercion, and a growing black market. Despite the fact that different societies have different norms or reproaches that we are failing our patients and accept the death of thousands, kidney trade has created an environment of corruption and commercialisation, which brings even the cadaver transplant program into disrepute. However, denying the existence of paid organ donation does not contribute to solve the problem. A public discussion about consequences of changing ethics and human rights, rather than pragmatic solutions, is needed. PMID:16810510

  4. Practice Patterns in Evaluation of Living Kidney Donors in United Network for Organ Sharing-Approved Kidney Transplant Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amarpali Brar; Rahul M. Jindal; Kevin C. Abbott; Frank P. Hurst; Moro O. Salifu

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current pattern of evaluation for living kidney donors was investigated. Methods: We designed a 37-question electronic survey to collect information about living kidney donor evaluation. Of the 181 United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)-approved centers, 72 responded. Survey responses were coded and downloaded into SPSS. Data was expressed as means and standard deviations or the percentage of centers

  5. Distributions of short-lived radioactive nuclei produced by young embedded star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Fred C. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Fatuzzo, Marco [Physics Department, Xavier University, Cincinatti, OH 45255 (United States); Holden, Lisa [Department of Mathematics, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver short-lived radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (? ? 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (? ? 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ?10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM {sub ?} (where 1 pM {sub ?} = 10{sup –12} M {sub ?}). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?{sub SLR} ? 1-5 × 10{sup –19} s{sup –1}. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?{sub CR} ? 10{sup –17} s{sup –1}, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).

  6. Organization of Risk Analysis Codes for Living Evaluations (ORACLE). [Computer system facilitation of NRC operators

    SciTech Connect

    Batt, D.L.; MacDonald, P.E.; Sattison, M.B.; Vesely, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    ORACLE (Organization of Risk Analysis Codes for Living Evaluations) is an integration concept for using risk-based information in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) applications. Portions of ORACLE are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the USNRC. The ORACLE concept consists of related databases, software, user interfaces, processes, and quality control checks allowing a wide variety of regulatory problems and activities to be adressed using current, updated PRA information. The ORACLE concept provides for smooth transitions between on code and the next without pre- or post- processing. 3 figs.

  7. Alignment-based approach for durable data storage into living organisms.

    PubMed

    Yachie, Nozomu; Sekiyama, Kazuhide; Sugahara, Junichi; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Tomita, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    The practical realization of DNA data storage is a major scientific goal. Here we introduce a simple, flexible, and robust data storage and retrieval method based on sequence alignment of the genomic DNA of living organisms. Duplicated data encoded by different oligonucleotide sequences was inserted redundantly into multiple loci of the Bacillus subtilis genome. Multiple alignment of the bit data sequences decoded by B. subtilis genome sequences enabled the retrieval of stable and compact data without the need for template DNA, parity checks, or error-correcting algorithms. Combined with the computational simulation of data retrieval from mutated message DNA, a practical use of this alignment-based method is discussed. PMID:17253725

  8. Milk production correlates negatively with plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) during the early fetal period in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. López-Gatius; J. M. Garbayo; P. Santolaria; J Yániz; A. Ayad; N. M. de Sousa; J. F. Beckers

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to establish possible factors affecting plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations during early pregnancy in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses. Blood samples were obtained on days 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 of gestation from 80 lactating cows in two herds carrying live fetuses. Radioimmunoassay systems were used to determine PAG (RIA-497 and RIA-706) and

  9. Food Security Status and Produce Intake Behaviors, Health Status, and Diabetes Risk Among Women With Children Living on a Navajo Reservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Bah Ray; David H. Holben; John P. Holcomb Jr

    2012-01-01

    This study of adult women living on a Navajo reservation with at least one child less than 18 years old attending a primary school on the reservation investigated the relationship of food security to produce intake and behaviors, health status, and diabetes risk of these adult women. Of the 42 participants completing the survey, 8 (19.0%) were living in fully

  10. Polarized Fluorescence Microscopy to Study Cytoskeleton Assembly and Organization in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    McQuilken, Molly; Mehta, Shalin B; Verma, Amitabh; Harris, Grant; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Gladfelter, Amy S

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of not only the location but also the organization of molecules in live cells is crucial to understanding diverse biological processes. Polarized light microscopy provides a nondestructive means to evaluate order within subcellular domains. When combined with fluorescence microscopy and GFP-tagged proteins, the approach can reveal organization within specific populations of molecules. This unit describes a protocol for measuring the architectural dynamics of cytoskeletal components using polarized fluorescence microscopy and OpenPolScope open-access software (http://www.openpolscope.org). The protocol describes installation of linear polarizers or a liquid crystal (LC) universal compensator, calibration of the system, polarized fluorescence imaging, and analysis. The use of OpenPolScope software and hardware allows for reliable, user-friendly image acquisition to measure and analyze polarized fluorescence. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26061244

  11. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from conventionally produced milk and provide product verification. Lack of research on interactions between several influential factors and differences in trial complexity and consistency between studies (e.g., sampling period, sample size, reporting of experimental conditions) complicate data interpretation and prevent us from making unequivocal conclusions. The first part of this review provides a detailed summary of individual factors known to influence milk composition. The second part presents an overview of studies that have compared organic and conventional milk and discusses their findings within the framework of the various factors presented in part one. PMID:25497795

  12. Conflict of Interest Policies for Organizations Producing a Large Number of Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Susan L.; Holmer, Haley K.; Burda, Brittany U.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Fu, Rongwei

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. Conclusions/Significance COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines. PMID:22629391

  13. Dressing living organisms in a thin polymer membrane, the NanoSuit, for high-vacuum FE-SEM observation.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Isao; Takaku, Yasuharu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ishii, Daisuke; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Shimomura, Masatsugu; Hariyama, Takahiko

    2014-08-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has made remarkable progress and has become an essential tool for observing biological materials at microscopic level. However, various complex procedures have precluded observation of living organisms to date. Here, a new method is presented by which living organisms can be observed by field emission (FE)-SEM. Using this method, active movements of living animals were observed in vacuo (10(-5)-10(-7) Pa) by protecting them with a coating of thin polymer membrane, a NanoSuit, and it was found that the surface fine structure of living organisms is very different from that of traditionally fixed samples. After observation of mosquito larvae in the high vacuum of the FE-SEM, it was possible to rear them subsequently in normal culture conditions. This method will be useful for numerous applications, particularly for electron microscopic observations in the life sciences. PMID:24824083

  14. The influence of electromagnetic pollution on living organisms: historical trends and forecasting changes.

    PubMed

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Lewczuk, Bogdan; ?ak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Krawczuk, Marek; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, ?ukasz; Gradolewski, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. PMID:25811025

  15. The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes

    PubMed Central

    ?ak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, ?ukasz

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. PMID:25811025

  16. Organisms living on manganese nodules and crusts: distribution and abundance at three North Pacific sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullineaux, Lauren S.

    1987-02-01

    A diverse and abundant assemblage of deep-sea organisms lives on the surface of manganese nodules and crusts. The organisms on nodules collected at two sites (equational North Pacific and central North Pacific) and on crusts collected at one site (seamount chains near the Hawaiian Islands) were identified and quantified. Eukaryotic organisms attached to a nodule can cover up to 20% of the upper surface (average coverage is about 10%). The number of hard-substrate organisms (larger than 63 ?m) per area of sea floor was about 10 times the faunal density of the nearby soft-substrate macrofauna (larger than 300 ?m) but only about a tenth of the faunal density of sediment-dwelling meiofauna (sizes between 44 and 300 ?m). Foraminifers, many undescribed even at the family level, are the predominant taxonomic group, both in number of individuals and in percentage cover. Suspension feeding metazoans and rhizopod protozoans suspected of suspension feeding were common in the hard-substrate fauna at all sites, in contrast to sediment-dwelling infauna and epifauna, which are predominantly deposit feeders.

  17. Organic matter produced by algae and cyanobacteria: quantitative and qualitative characterization.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Maud; Nicolau, Rudy; Pallier, Virginie; Yéprémian, Claude; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2013-06-01

    This work aims at characterizing organic matter produced by an alga Euglena gracilis and a cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and assessing the evolution of its characteristics during growth. A culture medium was optimized. The species growth phases were monitored using both visible spectrophotometry and flow cytometry cell counting. Organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index were used to specifically characterize the produced algal organic matter (AOM). The AOM characteristics were both growth phase and species dependent. However, a similar evolution was observed. The hydrophilic fraction (HPI) was the major fraction whatever the growth phases and was almost the only one produced during lag and exponential phases. It represented around 75% of AOM during exponential phase and then decreased when the stationary phase appeared. It represented 46% and 60% of the AOM during late decline phase for the cyanobacteria and the alga respectively. The hydrophobic (HPO) and transphilic (TPH) fractions started to appear from the beginning of the stationary phase with more hydrophobic compounds coming from intracellular organic material of dying cells. HPO and TPH percentages still increased during the decline phase probably because of two additional processes: photo-dissolution and leaching of particulate organic matter from cells fragments. A comparison of AOM during late decline phase and natural organic matter (NOM) from Glane River (France) underlined that AOM was more hydrophilic and presented a lower SUVA for each fractions than NOM. However, the difference between NOM and AOM hydrophobicity narrowed during decline phase. PMID:24191597

  18. Comparing the microbiological status of pre- and postharvest produce from small organic production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aixia; Pahl, Donna M; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of locally, organically grown produce is increasing in popularity. Organic farms typically produce on a small scale, have limited resources, and adopt low technology harvest and postharvest handling practices. Data on the food safety risk associated with hand harvesting, field packing, and packing-house handling with minimal treatment, at this production scale, are lacking. We followed produce from small organic farms from the field through postharvest handling and packing. Pre- and postharvest produce (177 samples) and water (29 samples) were collected and analyzed quantitatively for Escherichia coli, total coliforms (TC), aerobic bacteria (APC), yeasts, molds (M), and enteric pathogens. No pathogens were recovered. E. coli was detected in 3 (3.6%) of 83 preharvest produce samples, 2 (6.3%) of 32 unwashed and 0 of 42 washed postharvest produce samples, and 10 (34.5%) of 29 water samples. No correlation was found between bacterial levels in irrigation water and those on produce. Postharvest handling without washing was a factor for APC and M counts on tomatoes, with lower frequencies postharvest. Postharvest handling with washing was a factor for leafy greens for TC counts, with higher frequencies postharvest. APC (P = 0.03) and yeast (P = 0.05) counts were higher in preharvest than in unwashed postharvest tomatoes. Washed postharvest leafy greens had higher M counts (P = 0.03) and other washed produce had higher TC counts (P = 0.01) than did their preharvest counterparts. Barriers were found to the use of sanitizer in wash water for leafy greens among small farms using organic practices. Hand harvesting and dry handling did not appear to be associated with a significant food safety risk, but washed leafy greens carried higher levels of some microbial indicators, possibly because of the lack of sanitizer in the wash water. The development of resources and materials customized for this sector of growers could enhance dissemination of information on best practices for handling of leafy greens. PMID:26038895

  19. Physical laws of medicine and their use in the realization of interaction of living organisms with EHF radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Golant, M.B.

    1994-07-01

    The author examines the physical laws of medicine and biology that determine the maximum possible rate of harmonic regeneration (i.e., a rate that ensures mutually compatible functioning of the various organs and systems) of living organisms and the maximum amount of such regeneration. These laws are specific to medicine and biology and are analogs of the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  20. Blood Circulation Laboratory Investigations with Video Are Less Investigative than Instructional Blood Circulation Laboratories with Live Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Mildred A.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using…

  1. Sampling from living organisms: section 3 in Sampling and experiments with biofilms in the environment: chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms, unlike inanimate surfaces, seem to exert some control over their surface microbiota, in many cases maintaining conserved, species-specific microbial communities. Microbial ecologists seek to characterize and identify these microbes to understand the roles they are playing in the larger organism's biology.

  2. Immunization with live aroA recombinant Salmonella typhimurium producing invasin inhibits intestinal translocation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Simonet, M; Fortineau, N; Beretti, J L; Berche, P

    1994-03-01

    The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis inv gene encodes invasin, a 103-kDa outer membrane protein that allows bacteria to enter mammalian cells. The gene was subcloned into the attenuated aroA mutant of Salmonella typhimurium SL3261. Invasin was produced by the recombinant Salmonella strain and increased the ability of microorganisms to translocate from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Specific antibodies for invasin were detected in sera and intestinal secretions of mice following oral immunization with the live Inv+ Salmonella strain. The immunization strongly inhibited intestinal translocation of Y. pseudotuberculosis when this pathogen was inoculated to mice but failed to prevent Yersinia dissemination from the gut lymphoid tissue. PMID:8112856

  3. Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa: Role of Producers' Organizations in the Delivery of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , methods and tools used, emphasis put on different aspects of management. All experiments stress1 Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa: Role of Producers' Organizations Abstract. The emergence of Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa is closely related

  4. Cold Ischemia Time and Allograft Outcomes in Live Donor Renal Transplantation: Is Live Donor Organ Transport Feasible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Simpkins; R. A. Montgomery; A. M. Hawxby; J. E. Locke; S. E. Gentry; D. S. Warren; D. L. Segev

    2007-01-01

    One of the greatest obstacles to the implementation of regional or national kidney paired donation pro- grams (KPD) is the need for the donor to travel to their matched recipient's hospital. While transport of the kidney is an attractive alternative, there is concern that prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) would dimin- ish the benefits of live donor transplantation (LDTx). To

  5. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

  6. Associations of free-living bacteria and dissolved organic compounds in a plume of contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Barber, L.B., II

    1992-01-01

    Associations of free-living bacteria (FLB) and dissolved organic contaminants in a 4-km-long plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater were investigated. Abundance of FLB in the core of the plume (as delineated by maximum specific conductance) steadily decreased in the direction of flow from a point 0.25 km downgradient from the source to the toe of the plume. At 0.25 km downgradient, FLB comprised up to 31% of the total bacterial population, but constituted < 7% of the population at 2 km downgradient. Abundance of FLB correlated strongly (r = 0.80 n = 23) with total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in contaminated groundwater between 0.64 and 2.1 km downgradient, although distributions of individual contaminants such as di-, tri- and tetrachloroethene were highly variable, and their association with FLB less clear. Numbers of FLB in the downgradient portion of the plume which is contaminated with branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonate (ABS) surfactants were low (< 5??108/L) in spite of relatively high levels of DOC (up to 4 mg/L). However, abundance of FLB correlated strongly with non-surfactant DOC along vertical transects through the plume. The ratio of FLB to DOC and the ratio of FLB to attached bacteria generally decreased in the direction of flow and, consequently, with the age of the organic contaminants.

  7. Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

  8. Unveiling TRPV1 Spatio-Temporal Organization in Live Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Barbara; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Beltram, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that integrates several stimuli into nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Here we investigated the subtle TRPV1 interplay with candidate membrane partners in live cells by a combination of spatio-temporal fluctuation techniques and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We show that TRPV1 is split into three populations with fairly different molecular properties: one binding to caveolin-1 and confined into caveolar structures, one actively guided by microtubules through selective binding, and one which diffuses freely and is not directly implicated in regulating receptor functionality. The emergence of caveolin-1 as a new interactor of TRPV1 evokes caveolar endocytosis as the main desensitization pathway of TRPV1 receptor, while microtubule binding agrees with previous data suggesting the receptor stabilization in functional form by these cytoskeletal components. Our results shed light on the hitherto unknown relationships between spatial organization and TRPV1 function in live-cell membranes. PMID:25764349

  9. Unveiling TRPV1 spatio-temporal organization in live cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Storti, Barbara; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Beltram, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that integrates several stimuli into nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Here we investigated the subtle TRPV1 interplay with candidate membrane partners in live cells by a combination of spatio-temporal fluctuation techniques and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We show that TRPV1 is split into three populations with fairly different molecular properties: one binding to caveolin-1 and confined into caveolar structures, one actively guided by microtubules through selective binding, and one which diffuses freely and is not directly implicated in regulating receptor functionality. The emergence of caveolin-1 as a new interactor of TRPV1 evokes caveolar endocytosis as the main desensitization pathway of TRPV1 receptor, while microtubule binding agrees with previous data suggesting the receptor stabilization in functional form by these cytoskeletal components. Our results shed light on the hitherto unknown relationships between spatial organization and TRPV1 function in live-cell membranes. PMID:25764349

  10. Sphingolipid levels crucially modulate lateral microdomain organization of plasma membrane in living yeast.

    PubMed

    Vecer, Jaroslav; Vesela, Petra; Malinsky, Jan; Herman, Petr

    2014-01-31

    We report sphingolipid-related reorganization of gel-like microdomains in the plasma membrane of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae using trans-Parinaric acid (t-PnA) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Compared to control, the gel-like domains were significantly reduced in the membrane of a sphingolipid-deficient lcb1-100 mutant. The same reduction resulted from sphingolipid depletion by myriocin. The phenotype could be reverted when a myriocin-induced block in sphingolipid biosynthesis was bypassed by exogenous dihydrosphingosine. Lipid order of less-ordered membrane regions decreased with sphingolipid depletion as well, as documented by DPH fluorescence anisotropy. The data indicate that organization of lateral microdomains is an essential physiological role of these structural lipids. PMID:24333335

  11. Wettability-regulated extracellular electron transfer from the living organism of Shewanella loihica PV-4.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun-mei; Lv, Mei-ling; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-26

    C-type cytochromes located on the outer membrane (OMCs) of genus Shewanella act as the main redox-active species to mediate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from the inside of the outer membrane to the external environment: the central challenge that must be met for successful EET. The redox states of OMCs play a crucial role in dictating the rate and extent of EET. Here, we report that the surface wettability of the electrodes strongly influences the EET activity of living organisms of Shewanella loihica PV-4 at a fixed external potential: the EET activity on a hydrophilic electrode is more than five times higher than that on a hydrophobic one. We propose that the redox state of OMCs varies significantly at electrodes with different wettability, resulting in different EET activities. PMID:25470810

  12. Effect of flagellates on free-living bacterial abundance in an organically contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, N.E.; Harvey, R.W.; Kazmierkiewicz-Tabaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the role of protists in the saturated subsurface. Porous media microcosms containing bacteria and protists, were used to determine whether flagellates from an organically contaminated aquifer could substantively affect the number of free- living bacteria (FLB). When flagellates were present, the 3-40% maximum breakthrough of fluorescent y labelled FLB injected into the microcosms was much lower than the 60-130% observed for killed controls Grazing and clearance rates (3-27 FLB flag-1 h-1 and 12-23 nI flag-1 h-1, respectively) calculated from the data were in the range reported for flagellates in other aqueous environments. The data provide evidence that flagellate bacterivory is an important control on groundwater FLB populations.

  13. A synergic simulation-optimization approach for analyzing biomolecular dynamics in living organisms.

    PubMed

    Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush

    2011-01-01

    A synergic duo simulation-optimization approach was developed and implemented to study protein-substrate dynamics and binding kinetics in living organisms. The forward problem is a system of several coupled nonlinear partial differential equations which, with a given set of kinetics and diffusion parameters, can provide not only the commonly used bleached area-averaged time series in fluorescence microscopy experiments but more informative full biomolecular/drug space-time series and can be successfully used to study dynamics of both Dirac and Gaussian fluorescence-labeled biomacromolecules in vivo. The incomplete Cholesky preconditioner was coupled with the finite difference discretization scheme and an adaptive time-stepping strategy to solve the forward problem. The proposed approach was validated with analytical as well as reference solutions and used to simulate dynamics of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor (GFP-GR) in mouse cancer cell during a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiment. Model analysis indicates that the commonly practiced bleach spot-averaged time series is not an efficient approach to extract physiological information from the fluorescence microscopy protocols. It was recommended that experimental biophysicists should use full space-time series, resulting from experimental protocols, to study dynamics of biomacromolecules and drugs in living organisms. It was also concluded that in parameterization of biological mass transfer processes, setting the norm of the gradient of the penalty function at the solution to zero is not an efficient stopping rule to end the inverse algorithm. Theoreticians should use multi-criteria stopping rules to quantify model parameters by optimization. PMID:21106190

  14. Immunogenicity of Live Attenuated B. pertussis BPZE1 Producing the Universal Influenza Vaccine Candidate M2e

    PubMed Central

    Kammoun, Hana; Roux, Xavier; Raze, Dominique; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; De Filette, Marina; Ysenbaert, Tine; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Saelens, Xavier; Fiers, Walter; Locht, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Background Intranasal delivery of vaccines directed against respiratory pathogens is an attractive alternative to parenteral administration. However, using this delivery route for inactivated vaccines usually requires the use of potent mucosal adjuvants, and no such adjuvant has yet been approved for human use. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine, called BPZE1, and show here that it can be used to present the universal influenza virus epitope M2e to the mouse respiratory tract to prime for protective immunity against viral challenge. Three copies of M2e were genetically fused to the N-terminal domain of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and produced in recombinant BPZE1 derivatives in the presence or absence of endogenous full-length FHA. Only in the absence of FHA intranasal administration of the recombinant BPZE1 derivative induced antibody responses to M2e and effectively primed BALB/c mice for protection against influenza virus-induced mortality and reduced the viral load after challenge. Strong M2e-specific antibody responses and protection were observed after a single nasal administration with the recombinant BPZE1 derivative, followed by a single administration of M2e linked to a virus-like particle without adjuvant, whereas priming alone with the vaccine strain did not protect. Conclusions/Significance Using recombinant FHA-3M2e-producing BPZE1 derivatives for priming and the universal influenza M2e peptide linked to virus-like particles for boosting may constitute a promising approach for needle-free and adjuvant-free nasal vaccination against influenza. PMID:23555631

  15. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

  16. Organisms living in estuaries are often subjected to harsh living conditions associated with frequent changes in their

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    be severe (Breitburg, 1990, 1992; Cochran and Burnett, 1996). Benthic and sessile organisms, such as oysters, are particularly vulnerable to hypoxia. Furthermore, low oxygen is not the only condition that oysters must contend, but the effects of concomitant changes in water CO2 and pH have been less thoroughly studied (Burnett, 1997

  17. Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jamie W.; Berube, Paul M.; Follett, Christopher L.; Waterbury, John B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a vast quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between organic and inorganic forms, directly impacting global cycles of these biologically important elements. Details regarding the chemical composition of DOM produced by marine phytoplankton are sparse, and while often assumed, it is not currently known if phylogenetically distinct groups of marine phytoplankton release characteristic suites of DOM. To investigate the relationship between specific phytoplankton groups and the DOM they release, hydrophobic phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMP) from eight axenic strains was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Identification of DOM features derived from Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Thalassiosira, and Phaeodactylum revealed DOMP to be complex and highly strain dependent. Connections between DOMP features and the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains were identified on multiple levels of phylogenetic distance, suggesting that marine phytoplankton produce DOM that in part reflects its phylogenetic origin. Chemical information regarding the size and polarity ranges of features from defined biological sources was also obtained. Our findings reveal DOMP composition to be partially conserved among related phytoplankton species, and implicate marine DOM as a potential factor influencing microbial diversity in the sea by acting as a link between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community structures. PMID:24748874

  18. Effects of nutritional enhancement of live food organisms on growth and survival of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. RIMMER; A. W. REED; M. S. LEVITT; A. T. LISLE

    1994-01-01

    Larvae of barramundi (Laces calcarifer Bloch) reared intensively in some Australian hatcheries have suffered periodic high mortalities which have been ascribed to nutritional deficiencies in the live food organisms used, particularly deficiencies of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Barramundi larvae were reared in an experimental system and fed on four diets, representing combinations of supplemented and unsupplemented rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) and supplemented

  19. Extending physical chemistry to populations of living organisms. First step: measuring coupling strength

    E-print Network

    Di, Zengru

    2013-01-01

    For any system, whether physical or non-physical, knowledge of the form and strength of inter-individual interactions is a key-information. In an approach based on statistical physics one needs to know the interaction Hamiltonian. For non-physical systems, based on qualitative arguments similar to those used in physical chemistry, interaction strength gives useful clues about the macroscopic properties of the system. Even though our ultimate objective is the understanding of social phenomena, we found that systems composed of insects (or other living organisms) are of great convenience for investigating group effects. In this paper we show how to design experiments that enable us to estimate the strength of interaction in groups of insects. By repeating the same experiments with increasing numbers of insects, ranging from less than 10 to several hundreds, one is able to explore key-properties of the interaction. The data turn out to be consistent with a global correlation that is independent of distance (at l...

  20. The Thermodynamics of the living organisms: entropy production in the cell

    E-print Network

    Gomez, Araceli Venegas

    2014-01-01

    Trying to identify the entropy production within a cell has been part of debates and studies in the last century. First the idea was to make a resemblance of a cell with a Carnot engine, which is the most thermodynamically perfect machine. This approach was clearly not the best, since the yield achieved within a cell cannot be ideal, but can we even measure it? Several models approach the living cell, since the very simple one (e.g. Prigogine model) to more elaborated proposals. The concept of entropy has been the centre of discussions within several scientific fields. To interpret how entropy is produced in the complicated system of a cell is as hard as to understand how life originated at the first place. Understanding the way a cell works is key in biology, medicine, and multiple other scientific fields. Thermodynamics is essential in multitude of processes around us. Trying to identify the entropy production within a cell has been past of debates and studies in the last century. I give here an insight of ...

  1. Blood circulation laboratory investigations with video are less investigative than instructional blood circulation laboratories with live organisms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Mildred A. Hoover (Curtin Univ Technol)

    2007-07-26

    Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using microscopes (128 students) and 5 classes using digital video (131 students) to compare blood transport among invertebrates, fish, and humans. The "What Is Happening in this Class?" (WIHIC) questionnaire was used for assessment of microscope and video groups to detect students' perception of their learning environment following these teaching interventions. The use of microscopes had a clear effect on the perception of the investigative aspects of the learning environment that was not detected with the video treatment. Findings suggest that video should not replace investigations with live organisms.

  2. Informational Closed-Loop Coding-Decoding Control Concept as the Base of the Living or Organized Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirvelis, Dobilas; Beitas, Kastytis

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this work is to show that the essence of life and living systems is their organization as bioinformational technology on the base of informational anticipatory control. Principal paradigmatic and structural schemes of functional organization of life (organisms and their systems) are constructed on the basis of systemic analysis and synthesis of main phenomenological features of living world. Life is based on functional elements that implement engineering procedures of closed-loop coding-decoding control (CL-CDC). Phenomenon of natural bioinformational control appeared and developed on the Earth 3-4 bln years ago, when the life originated as a result of chemical and later biological evolution. Informatics paradigm considers the physical and chemical transformations of energy and matter in organized systems as flows that are controlled and the signals as means for purposive informational control programs. The social and technical technological systems as informational control systems are a latter phenomenon engineered by man. The information emerges in organized systems as a necessary component of control technology. Generalized schemes of functional organization on levels of cell, organism and brain neocortex, as the highest biosystem with CL-CDC, are presented. CL-CDC concept expands the understanding of bioinformatics.

  3. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  4. Bacterial mutagenicity of pyrolysis tars produced from chloro-organic fuels.

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, J A; Sarofim, A F; Longwell, J P; Lafleur, A L; Thilly, W G

    1994-01-01

    Droplets of toluene and three chlorinated organics, ortho-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, were pyrolyzed in pure nitrogen. The composition and bacterial mutagenicity of the product tars were measured. The presence of organic chlorine was found to affect both pyrolysis product tar composition and total tar mutagenicity. Pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine produced tars whose bacterial mutagenicity was found to be largely due to the presence of cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Small amounts of chlorine in the fuel (i.e., Cl/H molar ratios of less than 0.3) enhanced the formation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including cyclopenta[cd]pyrene) and increased tar mutagenicity. Larger amounts of organic chlorine (Cl/H ratios of between 0.3 and 0.6) resulted in significant yields of mono- and dichlorinated aromatics and higher levels of tar mutagenicity, which could not be accounted for by the presence of mutagens produced by pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine. Furthermore, unlike tars containing little or no chlorine, tars containing aryl chlorine were more mutagenic in the absence of added enzymes (intended to mimic in vivo mammalian metabolism) than in their presence. We hypothesize that at least one of the chlorinated aromatic products is strongly mutagenic. Two specific conditions that gave notably different results were a) the low-temperature (i.e., below 1400 K) pyrolysis of ortho-dichlorobenzene, which produced tri- and tetrachlorinated biphenyls almost exclusively; and b) the chlorine-rich pyrolysis of trichloroethylene, during which mostly perchloroaromatics were formed. Neither of these tars was found to mutate bacteria. PMID:8187720

  5. Why Do Organisms in the Atlantic Ocean Produce So Much CaCO3?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggweiler, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Sediments in the Atlantic are richer in CaCO3 than sediments in the other oceans. Sediment trap observations show that sinking particles in the Atlantic also tend to have more CaCO3 in relation to organic carbon than sinking particles elsewhere. The reason for the extra production of CaCO3 has never been very clear. The Atlantic is unusual because it receives much more than its share of the global input of river water. River water adds alkalinity to the surface ocean while the production of CaCO3 takes it away. In this presentation a new tracer, called Alk*, is derived from the surface alkalinity distribution to highlight the impact of river inputs and the production of CaCO3. If the production of CaCO3 were evenly distributed across the ocean one would expect the Atlantic to have a higher level of Alk* becaused of its river inputs. We find instead that Alk* is lower in the middle of the Atlantic than almost any place else. This, of course, is consistent with the fact that organisms in the Atlantic produce a lot of CaCO3. Comparison with other areas with especially low values of Alk* (Red Sea and northern Arabian Sea) shows that the production of CaCO3 is highly correlated across the ocean with the surface salinity. Hence, we argue that organisms in the Atlantic produce a lot of CaCO3 simply because the Atlantic is so salty. Salty waters, by definition, have more CO3= ions, which increase the supersaturation with respect to calcite and aragonite. This finding, while extremely simple, has major implifications for the impact of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms.

  6. Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Fumio; Takashi, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Abe, Shigeaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Nanosizing effects of materials on biological organisms was investigated by biochemical cell functional tests, cell proliferation and animal implantation testing. The increase in specific surface area causes the enhancement of ionic dissolution and serious toxicity for soluble, stimulative materials. This effect originates solely from materials and enhances the same functions as those in a macroscopic size as a catalyst. There are other effects that become prominent, especially for non-soluble, biocompatible materials such as Ti. Particle size dependence showed the critical size for the transition of behaviour is at approximately 100??m, 10??m and 200?nm. This effect has its origin in the biological interaction process between both particles and cells/tissue. Expression of superoxide anions, cytokines tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? from neutrophils was increased with the decrease in particle size and especially pronounced below 10??m, inducing phagocytosis to cells and inflammation of tissue, although inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis showed no dissolution from Ti particles. Below 200?nm, stimulus decreases, then particles invade into the internal body through the respiratory or digestive systems and diffuse inside the body. Although macroscopic hydroxyapatite, which exhibits excellent osteoconductivity, is not replaced with natural bone, nanoapatite composites induce both phagocytosis of composites by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts when implanted in bone defects. The progress of this bioreaction results in the conversion of functions to bone substitution. Although macroscopic graphite is non-cell adhesive, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cell adhesive. The adsorption of proteins and nano-meshwork structure contribute to the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and restricts reaction to the size-sensitive phagocytosis. Materials larger than cell size, approximately 10??m, behave inertly, but those smaller become biointeractive and induce the intrinsic functions of living organisms. This bioreaction process causes the conversion of functions such as from biocompatibility to stimulus in Ti-abraded particles, from non-bone substitutional to bone substitutional in nanoapatite and from non-cell adhesive to cell adhesive CNTs. The insensitive nature permits nanoparticles that are less than 200?nm to slip through body defence systems and invade directly into the internal body. PMID:19364724

  7. Community Structure Evolution and Enrichment of Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms Producing Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Fermented Molasses?

    PubMed Central

    Pisco, Ana R.; Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Reis, Maria A. M.; Lemos, Paulo C.

    2009-01-01

    An open mixed culture was enriched with glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) by using a sequencing batch reactor and treating an agroindustrial waste (sugar cane molasses) under cyclic anaerobic-aerobic conditions. Over a 1-year operating period, the culture exhibited a very stable GAO phenotype with an average polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content of 17% total suspended solids. However, the GAO microbial community evolved over the course of operation to a culture exhibiting unusual characteristics in producing PHAs comprised of short-chain-length monomers, namely, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate, and also, up to 31 mol% of the medium-chain-length (MCL) monomer 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). Microbial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a concurrent long-term drift in the GAO community balance, from mainly “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis” to mainly Defluviicoccus vanus-related organisms. The production of 3HHx was confirmed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and appeared to be related to the increased presence of D. vanus-related GAOs. These results suggest a broadened spectrum of material, chemical, and mechanical properties that can be achieved for biopolymers produced by open mixed cultures from fermented waste. The increased spectrum of polymer properties brings a wider scope of potential applications. PMID:19465533

  8. Lively Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliana Texley

    2002-01-01

    Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

  9. The significance of the amoebocyte-producing organ in Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Souza, Samaly Dos Santos; Andrade, Zilton Araújo

    2012-08-01

    In molluscs, internal defence against microorganisms is performed by a single cell type, i.e., the haemocyte or amoebocyte. The origin of these cells in Biomphalaria glabrata was initially thought to be localised within the vasculo-connective tissue. More recently, origin from a single organ, termed the amoebocyte-producing organ (APO), has been postulated based on the occurrence of hyperplasia and mitoses during Schistosoma mansoni infection. The present investigation represents a histological, immuno-histochemical and ultra-structural study of the B. glabrata APO, whereby histological identification was facilitated by means of collecting epithelial basophilic cells. These cells were comprised of single-cell layers that cover a portion of the stroma, which contains many small, round cells and haemolymph sinuses, as well as a small area of the pericardial surface of the reno-pericardial region. On occasion, this epithelial component vaguely resembled the vertebrate juxtaglomerular apparatus, which reinforces its presumed relationship to the kidney. Both in normal and infected molluscs, mitoses were only occasionally found. The present quantitative studies failed to demonstrate the presence of APO cellular hyperplasia, either in normal or schistosome-infected B. glabrata. Conversely, several structural details from the APO region in B. glabrata were found to be consistent with the hypothesis that the APO is a filtration organ, i.e., it is more closely related to the kidney rather than the bone marrow, as has been suggested in the literature. PMID:22850949

  10. [Streptomyces griseolus # 182--a novel organism producing oligomycin antibiotics. Taxonomy, fermentation, and isolation].

    PubMed

    Grammatikova, N E; Bibikova, M V; Spiridonova, I A; Kabanov, A E; Katlinski?, A V

    2003-01-01

    Target screening of natural immunosuppressors resulted in isolation of a strain of Streptomyces griseolus (No. 182) producing a complex of antifungal antibiotics. The strain proved to be an aerobe with the growth temperature of 26 to 28 degrees C. Morphological features and physiological properties of the strain were studied. Scanning electron microscopy revealed smooth, oval spores 1.10-1.25 mu in size. The findings showed that the strain belonged to Streptomyces griseolus. Unlike the previously described organisms producing the oligomycin complex the new strain formed straight or twisted sporophores and did not produce melanoid pigment or soluble pigment when grown on the Gauze mineral agar medium No. 1. The procedures for biosynthesis and chemical recovery of the antibiotic complex from the mycelium are described. The complex was shown to include 3 components at a ratio of 80:15:5 identified as oligomycins A, B and C respectively. The oligomycin complex was highly active against Aspergillus niger 137, Tolypocladium inflatum, Fusarium ocsisporum, Curvularia lunata 645 and Trichoderma alba F-32 (MIC 0.1-1.0 mcg/ml). The activity against yeast and bacterial cultures was observed only when the doses were higher than 100 mcg/ml. PMID:14558413

  11. Distribution of living benthic foraminifera off the Douro river (western Iberian margin): the importance of the terrestrial organic matter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, Jerome; Dessandier, Pierre-Antoine; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gremare, Antoine; Deflandre, Bruno; Sinnighe-Damste, Jaap

    2014-05-01

    Living (stained) benthic foraminifera assemblages and geochemical characterization of the organic matter (phytopigments, amino acids, ?13Coc, BIT) were investigated on a cross-margin transect off the Douro River (Northern Portuguese margin) in order to assess the role of the quality of organic matter on the distribution of live benthic foraminifera. For this, 5 stations ranging from 50 to 2000 m depth were collected in March 2011 about one month after the Douro River annual flood. Faunal abundances generally decrease from the coast to the slope with maximum total densities of 3051 ind./50 cm3 in the mudbelt (Q50=32µm) at 100 m and minimum density of 63 ind./50 cm3 found at 500 m water depth where grain size is coarse (Q50=190µm). Faunas of the shallow most station are dominated by Ammonia becarii, Eggerella scabra, Bulimina aculeata and Nonion scaphum while N. scaphum and to a lesser extent Uvigerina bifurcata dominate the assemblages at 100 m. The deepest stations are dominated by Uvigerina mediterranea, Hoeglundina elegans and Reophax scorpiurus. In general, live benthic foraminiferal densities are higher where the indicators of organic matter are more concentrated. However, some species appear to have strong affinities with Chl-a (e.g., N. scaphum, U. bifurcata), while others (A. becarii, E. Scabra, B. aculeata) are more abundant where labile organic matter is high as show by the EHAA/THAA amino acid ratio. The species that show a good correlation with Chl-a also show affinity with organic matter of terrestrial origin as show by the ?13Coc suggesting 1) that Chl-a measured in the coastal zone is not only marine and 2) that land plant derived organic matter could be an important source of food for marine benthic communities.

  12. Signing cards, saving lives: an evaluation of the worksite organ donation promotion project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Morgan; Jenny Miller; Lily Arasaratnam

    2002-01-01

    The desperate need for organ donors in the United States could be filled if every person eligible became an organ donor. Unfortunately, few organ donation campaigns exist, and fewer still have been evaluated empirically. This study has two objectives: to describe a worksite organ donation campaign and test campaign effects, and to test the Model of Behavioral Willingness to Donate

  13. Transplant commercialism and organ trafficking: The Declaration of Istanbul with special relevance to disadvantaged populations living with kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Levin, Adeera; Muller, Elmi; Alrukhaimi, Mona; Naicker, Saralah; Tibbel, Annika

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a historical perspective on organ trafficking and transplant commercialism, an overview of the Declaration of Istanbul [1, 2], and an update on current state. We highlight the importance of this problem pertaining to disadvantaged populations living with or at risk for kidney disease. It was presented during the Kidney Disease in Disadvantaged Populations Satellite Symposium of the World Congress of Nephrology in Hong Kong 2013 (www.theisn.org). PMID:25725249

  14. An X-ray micro-tomography system optimised for the low-dose study of living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Jenneson; W. B. Gilboy; E. J. Morton; P. J. Gregory

    2003-01-01

    An X-ray micro-tomography system has been designed that is dedicated to the low-dose imaging of radiation sensitive living organisms and has been used to image the early development of the first few days of plant development immediately after germination. The system is based on third-generation X-ray micro-tomography system and consists of an X-ray tube, two-dimensional X-ray detector and a mechanical

  15. Using Homolog Groups to Create a Whole-Genomic Tree of Free-Living Organisms: An Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher H. House; Sorel T. Fitz-Gibbon

    2002-01-01

    .   Genomic trees have been constructed based on the presence and absence of families of protein-encoding genes observed in 27\\u000a complete genomes, including genomes of 15 free-living organisms. This method does not rely on the identification of suspected\\u000a orthologs in each genome, nor the specific alignment used to compare gene sequences because the protein-encoding gene families\\u000a are formed by grouping

  16. Living with HIV infection: Perceptions of patients with access to care at a non?governmental organization in Chennai, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nalini Tarakeshwar; A. K. Krishnan; Sethulakshmi Johnson; Suniti Solomon; Kathleen Sikkema; Michael Merson

    2006-01-01

    Through interviews, we examined explanatory frameworks of living with HIV infection among 50 HIV?positive individuals (23 women, 27 men) receiving care at a non?governmental organization in Chennai, India. Results were analysed according to three sets of issues, all of which were found to differ by gender: causal beliefs about HIV, impact of HIV, and care\\/treatment of HIV. HIV?positive participants attributed

  17. Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Incentives to Increase the Rate of Organ Donations from the Living: A Moral Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Barilan, Michael Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving. PMID:23908808

  18. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

    2013-12-01

    The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2?m filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10?M C6H12O6), ammonium (1?M NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1?M K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which can be linked to this bacterial production. FISH analysis showed percentage abundance of Pelagibacter ubique (SAR 11) and of Alteromonas. On-going and future work will ascertain if specific microbial communities produce CDOM more readily than others, and if these different populations produce varying fluorescence peaks, thus indicating a range of chromophoric groups being produced by bacteria. An additional suite of probes will be used for further FISH analysis to identify percentages of other populations, and seasonal/temporal variations will be investigated.

  19. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels...or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic...

  20. Organic matrix in produced water from the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research site, Osage county, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Sirivedhin, Tanita; Dallbauman, Liese

    2004-11-01

    Produced water (water co-produced with oil and gas) constitutes the single largest waste stream for oil and gas industry. Reclaiming this water for beneficial use is thought to be one of the most practical solutions that can solve both environmental and water shortage problems. The feasibility of this practice depends on the ability to remove its chemical content to the levels that meets the appropriate standards. Organic compounds are probably the most difficult fraction to handle. In this paper, the discrete organic compounds and non-volatile, macromolecular organic compounds (i.e., natural organic matter--NOM) of three produced water samples from the Osage-Skiatook Environmental Research site were characterized. Two of the three produced waters had very little contribution from NOM, while one of the samples had about 23% NOM contribution to its organic matrix pool. Fluorescent spectrophotometric scans provided little differentiation among the organic quality of the produced water, while pyrolysis-GC/MS showed that the NOM characteristics of the three produced waters were distinct. Specifically, the overall halogenated content and aromaticity of the NOM were found to be possible qualifiers that distinguish produced water from the coalbed methane well from produced water from the oil well. And the specific chemical fragments that are linked to polysaccharide sources were found to be potential identifiers that distinguish produced water from the newer oil well from produced water from the older oil well. These identifiers were, however, only suggested for this preliminary study. More samples must be included to build a substantial database on produced water NOM to confirm and identify more markers. PMID:15350408

  1. Drumlin Farm: Resilience through Organic Systems teve Haendler owns the land and has lived

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    dealt with; potato beetles, cucumber beetles, cabbageworms, but now TM Steve and his wife live. Sustainability Briefings are a collection of occasional essays, thought pieces, case studies and research

  2. Sister chromatid exchange induced by short-lived monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells

    SciTech Connect

    Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.

    1982-01-01

    To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced short-lived lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.

  3. The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which, primarily owing to milk's nutritional and antimicrobial content1 . Lactation, the synthesis and secretion of milk, is made possible by the architecture of the gland. Like other organs used for fluid transport

  4. Management of Intra-abdominal Infections due to Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Paola; Vitale, Francesco; O'Súilleabháin, Criostóir; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of bacterial resistance to carbapenem antibiotics continues to increase because of bacteria producing metallo-?-lactamases (MBL), called carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO). Enterobacteriaceae, which can be a common cause of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), have become carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Updated international guidelines for the treatment of both IAIs and IAIs due to CRE have been published. Given the multifaceted nature of these infections, these recommendations have been jointly reviewed and endorsed by the Surgical Society and the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease. The aims of this review are to summarize the general and new generation of multimodal procedure to manage IAIs due to CRE and review the data available on the combination of interventions to reduce CRE. Future research should focus on the development of novel and safe antimicrobial therapies and the quantification of the incremental effect of infection control programmes and new methods to rapidly detect pathogens before patients enter the surgical setting. PMID:25129116

  5. Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans growth from conidia and mycelial extension by bacterially produced volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Christopher T; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney; Crow, Sidney A

    2014-02-01

    The recently identified causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been implicated in the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its initial documentation in 2006 (Frick et al. in Science 329:679-682, 2010). In an effort to identify potential biological and chemical control options for WNS, 6 previously described bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were screened for anti-P. destructans activity. The compounds include decanal; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; nonanal; benzothiazole; benzaldehyde; andN,N-dimethyloctylamine. P. destructans conidia and mycelial plugs were exposed to the VOCs in a closed air space at 15 and 4 °C and then evaluated for growth inhibition. All VOCs inhibited growth from conidia as well as inhibiting radial mycelial extension, with the greatest effect at 4 °C. Studies of the ecology of fungistatic soils and the natural abundance of the fungistatic VOCs present in these environments suggest a synergistic activity of select VOCs may occur. The evaluation of formulations of two or three VOCs at equivalent concentrations was supportive of synergistic activity in several cases. The identification of bacterially produced VOCs with anti-P. destructans activity indicates disease-suppressive and fungistatic soils as a potentially significant reservoir of biological and chemical control options for WNS and provides wildlife management personnel with tools to combat this devastating disease. PMID:24190516

  6. Laboratory Investigations of Complex Refractory Organic Material Produced from Irradiation of Pluto Ice Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Much of Pluto’s surface consists of N2 ice with smaller amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Despite the low temperature 45K), chemistry can be driven in the surface ices by radiation processing such as cosmic ray bombardment. When cosmic rays strike the surface, much of their energy is dispersed in the form of secondary electrons, which in turn drive much of the resulting chemical reactions. Laboratory experiments designed to simulate the conditions on these icy bodies may provide insight into this chemistry. Significant progress has been made in the laboratory toward understanding the smaller, simple compounds produced in the solid phase by radiation processing of (N2, CH4, CO) ices (Bohn et al. 1994; Moore & Hudson 2003; Hodyss et al. 2011; Kim and Kaiser 2012). Recently Materese et al. (2014) used a variety of techniques to better characterize the refractory materials produced from the UV photo-irradiation of N2:CH4:CO ices. However, because Pluto’s atmosphere is optically thick to Lyman-? UV radiation it is important to re-examine the results using an alternate radiation source. Our latest work has consisted of the analysis of refractory materials produced from the electron bombardment of low-temperature N2-, CH4-, and CO-containing ices (100:1:1). The ice mixture was chosen to be analogous to the known surface ices on Pluto and the radiation source was chosen to mimic the secondary electrons produced by cosmic rays bombardment. The residues were studied using multiple chemical techniques including, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic residues produced in these experiments can be seen as an analog for the refractory component of the surface of Pluto, and are compared with the residues previously obtained from UV photo-irradiation. UV and near-IR spectroscopy of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon during the encounter with NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft in 2015, will give the first close-up measurements of ices and their photoproducts. Laboratory measurements and experiments will provide a better context for the data returned by the spacecraft.

  7. Contribution of very short-lived organic substances to stratospheric chlorine and bromine in the tropics - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J. C.; Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Möbius, T.; Worton, D. R.; Sturges, W. T.; Grunow, K.; Schmidt, U.

    2008-12-01

    The total stratospheric organic chlorine and bromine burden was derived from balloon-borne measurements in the tropics (Teresina, Brazil, 5°04´ S, 42°52´ W) in 2005. Whole air samples were collected cryogenically at altitudes between 15 and 34 km. For the first time, we report measurements of a set of 28 chlorinated and brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere including ten substances with an atmospheric lifetime of less than half a year. The substances were quantified using pre-concentration techniques followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometric detection. In the tropical tropopause layer at altitudes between 15 and 17 km we found 1.1-1.4% of the chlorine and 6-8% of the bromine to be present in the form of very short-lived organic compounds. By combining the data with tropospheric reference data and age of air observations the abundances of inorganic chlorine and bromine (Cly and Bry) were derived. At an altitude of 34 km we calculated 3062 ppt of Cly and 17.5 ppt of Bry from the decomposition of both long- and short-lived organic source gases. Furthermore we present indications for the presence of additional organic brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere.

  8. Reimbursing Live Organ Donors for Incurred Non-Medical Expenses: A Global Perspective on Policies and Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sickand, M.; Cuerden, M. S.; Klarenbach, S. W.; Ojo, A. O.; Parikh, C. R.; Boudville, N.; Garg, A. X.

    2015-01-01

    Methods to reimburse living organ donors for the non-medical expenses they incur have been implemented in some jurisdictions and are being considered in others. A global understanding of existing legislation and programs would help decision makers implement and optimize policies and programs. We searched for and collected data from countries that practice living organ donation. We examined legislation and programs that facilitate reimbursement, focusing on policy mechanisms, eligibility criteria, program duration and types of expenses reimbursed. Of 40 countries, reimbursement is expressly legal in 16, unclear in 18, unspecified in 6 and expressly prohibited in 1. Donor reimbursement programs exist in 21 countries; 6 have been enacted in the last 5 years. Lost income is reimbursed in 17 countries, while travel, accommodation, meal and childcare costs are reimbursed in 12 to 19 countries. Ten countries have comprehensive programs, where all major cost categories are reimbursed to some extent. Out-of-country donors are reimbursed in 10 jurisdictions. Reimbursement is conditional on donor income in 7 countries, and recipient income in 2 countries. Many nations have programs that help living donors with their financial costs. These programs differ in operation and scope. Donors in other regions of the world are without support. PMID:19788503

  9. When Operating on Dead People Saves Lives: Benefits of Surgical Organ Donor Intensivists.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin; Talley, Cynthia; Yarrison, Rebecca B; Bernard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for many patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Organs have been successfully recovered after a variety of aggressive interventions. We propose that decompressive laparotomy, when clinically indicated, should be considered in the aggressive resuscitation of potential organ donors. A thorough literature review examining aggressive interventions on potential organ donors was conducted after experience with a unique case at this institution. Articles were reviewed for the types of interventions performed as well as the time frame in relation to organ donation. In our case, several ethical issues were raised when considering decompressive laparotomy in a patient pronounced dead by neurologic criteria. We propose that having a surgical intensivist involved in the management of potential donors will further increase the salvage rate, as more invasive resuscitation options are possible. PMID:26078909

  10. When Operating on Dead People Saves Lives: Benefits of Surgical Organ Donor Intensivists

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kristin; Talley, Cynthia; Yarrison, Rebecca B.; Bernard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for many patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Organs have been successfully recovered after a variety of aggressive interventions. We propose that decompressive laparotomy, when clinically indicated, should be considered in the aggressive resuscitation of potential organ donors. A thorough literature review examining aggressive interventions on potential organ donors was conducted after experience with a unique case at this institution. Articles were reviewed for the types of interventions performed as well as the time frame in relation to organ donation. In our case, several ethical issues were raised when considering decompressive laparotomy in a patient pronounced dead by neurologic criteria. We propose that having a surgical intensivist involved in the management of potential donors will further increase the salvage rate, as more invasive resuscitation options are possible. PMID:26078909

  11. Living Paid Organ Transplantation Results in Unacceptably High Recipient Morbidity and Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Inston; D. Gill; A. Al-Hakim; A. R. Ready

    2005-01-01

    The ethical debate surrounding the payment of living unrelated donors continues despite very little evidence regarding the outcome. The aim of this audit was to identify the scale of the problem and assess the results of patients undergoing these procedures.The large Indo-Asian population within our region has a high demand for renal replacement therapy and transplantation. These patients have a

  12. The Functional Composition of Living Machines as a Design Principle for Artificial Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos A. Ouzounis; Alfonso Valencia; Javier Tamames; Peer Bork; Chris Sander

    1995-01-01

    How similar are the engineering principles of artificial and natural machines? One way to approach this question is to compare in detail the basic functional components of living cells and human-made machines. Here, we provide some basic material for such a comparison, based on the analysis of functions for a few thousand protein molecules, the most versatile functional components of

  13. Fossil identification activity Standard: Comparing fossils to each other or to living organisms reveals features of

    E-print Network

    . Icaronycteris XI6a, aka" bat" 4. Boney Fish (Knightera) XI2c, (1 piece) 5. Megalodon tooth XIa 6. Dinosaur skin imprint, (unkown) XI4a-4 7. Dinosaur foot Imprint, therapoda XI4a-1 8. Trilobite, VIIIa Form groups do you think so? 5. When do you think the animal lived? (before, after, or during the dinosaur ages

  14. Collapsing Aged Culture of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Produces Compound(s) Toxic to Photosynthetic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Assaf; Sendersky, Eleonora; Carmeli, Shmuel; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton mortality allows effective nutrient cycling, and thus plays a pivotal role in driving biogeochemical cycles. A growing body of literature demonstrates the involvement of regulated death programs in the abrupt collapse of phytoplankton populations, and particularly implicates processes that exhibit characteristics of metazoan programmed cell death. Here, we report that the cell-free, extracellular fluid (conditioned medium) of a collapsing aged culture of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is toxic to exponentially growing cells of this cyanobacterium, as well as to a large variety of photosynthetic organisms, but not to eubacteria. The toxic effect, which is light-dependent, involves oxidative stress, as suggested by damage alleviation by antioxidants, and the very high sensitivity of a catalase-mutant to the conditioned medium. At relatively high cell densities, S. elongatus cells survived the deleterious effect of conditioned medium in a process that required de novo protein synthesis. Application of conditioned medium from a collapsing culture caused severe pigment bleaching not only in S. elongatus cells, but also resulted in bleaching of pigments in a cell free extract. The latter observation indicates that the elicited damage is a direct effect that does not require an intact cell, and therefore, is mechanistically different from the metazoan-like programmed cell death described for phytoplankton. We suggest that S. elongatus in aged cultures are triggered to produce a toxic compound, and thus, this process may be envisaged as a novel regulated death program. PMID:24959874

  15. Analysis of optical emissions produced by controlled electron impact on Si-organic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kurunczi, P.; Michel, J.P.; Abramzon, N. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Si-organic compounds are used in a variety of plasma-assisted film deposition applications and in plasma polymerization processes. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), tetramethyl-silane (TMS), and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) are common constituents of technological processing plasmas. Mass spectrometry, laser-induced fluorescence techniques and optical emission spectroscopy are the most widely used diagnostics techniques for such plasmas. Optical methods require a detailed knowledge of the interaction of the parent molecule with electrons. While there is a limited data base of ionization and dissociative ionization cross sections for TMS, HMDSO, and TEOS, there have been no studies of the dissociative excitation of these molecules by controlled electron impact under single collision conditions with the exception of some earlier work for TEOS which was limited to the visible region of the optical spectrum. Energetic vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons, on the other hand, can cause serious damage of the processed surface. A knowledge of the electron-impact induced production of VUV photons can be an important factor in damage and quality control issues of the deposited materials. This paper reports the results of a detailed analysis of the optical emission spectra from the VUV to the near-infrared (50-800 nm) produced by electron impact on TEOS, HMDSO, and TMS under controlled single collision conditions.

  16. Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando Santos; Pascale Ehrenfreund; Rocco Mancinelli; Wayne Nicholson; Antonio Ricco

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Organism\\/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O\\/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O\\/OREOS is constructed

  17. Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter

    E-print Network

    Becker, Jamie William

    Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a ...

  18. Organic Compounds Produced by Photolysis of Realistic Interstellar and Cometary Ice Analogs Containing Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Chang, Sherwood; Scharberg, Maureen A.

    1995-11-01

    The infrared (IR) spectra of ultraviolet (UV) and thermally processed, methanol-containing interstellar/ cometary ice analogs at temperatures from 12 to 300 K are presented. Infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicate that CO (carbon monoxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane), HCO (the formyl radical), H2CO (formaldehyde), CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC(=O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C(=O)NH2 (acetamide), and R-C=-N (nitriles) are formed. In addition, the organic materials remaining after photolyzed ice analogs have been warmed to room temperature contain (in rough order of decreasing abundance), (1) hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), (2) ethers, alcohols, and compounds related to polyoxymethylene {POM, ( CH2O )n}, and (3) ketones {R-C(=O)-R'} and amides {H2NC(=O)-R}. Most of the carbon in these residues is thought to come from the methanol in the original ice. Deuterium and 13C isotopic labeling demonstrates that methanol is definitely the source of carbon in HMT. High concentrations of HMT in interstellar and cometary ices could have important astrophysical consequences. The ultraviolet photolysis of HMT frozen in H2O ice readily produces the "XCN" band observed in the spectra of protostellar objects and laboratory ices, as well as other nitriles. Thus, HMT may be a precursor of XCN and a source of CN in comets and the interstellar medium. Also, HMT is known to hydrolyze under acidic conditions to yield ammonia, formaldehyde, and amino acids. Thus, HMT may be a significant source of prebiogenic compounds on asteroidal parent bodies. A potential mechanism for the radiative formation of HMT in cosmic ices is outlined.

  19. Ultrastructural Alterations Produced by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Rat TrachéalEpithelium in Organ Culture1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Roter Dirksen; T. Timothy Crocker

    SUMMARY Ultrastructural alterations of columnar respiratory epithe lium were produced by certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocar bons in suckling rat trachea maintained in organ culture for 11 days. The potent carcinogens 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthra- cene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene and the weakly carci nogenic compounds benz(a)anthracene and 5-fluoro-7,12-di- methylbenz(a)anthracene (F-DMBA) produced cells whose cytoplasm contained little endoplasmic reticulum, many free ribosomes, complex autophagic vacuoles,

  20. Visualizing digestive organ morphology and function using differential fatty acid metabolism in live zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Carten, Juliana Debrito; Bradford, Mary Katherine; Farber, Steven Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Lipids are essential for cellular function as sources of fuel, critical signaling molecules and membrane components. Deficiencies in lipid processing and transport underlie many metabolic diseases. To better understand metabolic function as it relates to disease etiology, a whole animal approach is advantageous, one in which multiple organs and cell types can be assessed simultaneously in vivo. Towards this end, we have developed an assay to visualize fatty acid (FA) metabolism in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). The method utilizes egg yolk liposomes to deliver different chain length FA analogs (BODIPY-FL) to six day-old larvae. Following liposome incubation, larvae accumulate the analogs throughout their digestive organs, providing a comprehensive readout of organ structure and physiology. Using this assay we have observed that different chain length FAs are differentially transported and metabolized by the larval digestive system. We show that this assay can also reveal structural and metabolic defects in digestive mutants. Because this labeling technique can be used to investigate digestive organ morphology and function, we foresee its application in diverse studies of organ development and physiology. PMID:21968100

  1. Yields of short-lived fission products produced following {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f)

    SciTech Connect

    Tipnis, S.V.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H.V.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H. [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States)] [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); England, T.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10thinsp000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Renowned for compassionate care, St. Joseph's is one of the best academic health care organizations in Canada dedicated to helping people live to their fullest by minimizing the

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Renowned for compassionate care, St. Joseph's is one of the best academic health care organizations in Canada dedicated to helping people live to their fullest by minimizing the effects of injury, disease care, St. Joseph's is one of the best academic health care organizations in Canada dedicated to helping

  3. Introduction The ability of a living organism to respond appropriately to

    E-print Network

    Paulin, Mike

    , 1999; Bodznick et al., 2003). The DON is a cone-shaped structure divided into three layers organized). In the electrosensory system of elasmobranches the dorsal- octavolateral nucleus (DON) is the site where unexpected sensory input is retrieved from the overall sensory information. The DON is a structure in the medulla

  4. Sense of "Calling": An Organizing Principle for the Lives and Values of Young Women in University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Jared R.; Domene, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the experience of "life calling" in a sample of female Christian university students who felt a strong sense of calling. Participants were interviewed about the meaning and their experiences of life calling, with thematic analysis revealing the conception of life calling as an organizing and guiding force in these…

  5. Living organ procurement from the mentally incompetent: the need for more appropriate guidelines.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Genicot, Gilles; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2014-03-01

    With the case of Belgium as a negative example, this paper will evaluate the legitimacy of using mentally incompetents as organ sources. The first section examines the underlying moral dilemma that results from the necessity of balancing the principle of respect for persons with the obligation to help people in desperate need. We argue for the rejection of a radical utilitarian approach but also question the appropriateness of a categorical prohibition. Section two aims to strike a fair balance between the competing interests at stake and to define the conditions under which organ harvest from mentally incompetents might be morally acceptable. To this end, we morally assess the main requirements that have been put forward to allow organ removal from incompetent donors. We conclude that the current Belgian legislation is far too permissive and that national regulations that do not permit the harvest of non-regenerable organs from mentally incompetents in exceptional circumstances are too restrictive. On the basis of this discussion, we propose a number of guiding principles for decision-making in this area. PMID:22762369

  6. The occurrence of stanols in various living organisms and the behavior of sterols in contemporary sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsugu Nishimura; Tadashiro Koyama

    1977-01-01

    Unsaturated sterols (stenols) and saturated sterols (stanols) in phytoplankton and Zooplankton from Lake Suwa and from higher plants around the lake were analyzed by combined GLC and MS. In all the organisms investigated, 5 -cholestanol, 24-methylcholestan-3 -ol and 24-ethyl-5 -cholestanol were found, although in low concentrations, together with large quantities of stenols. This strongly suggests the contribution of stanols from

  7. Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Ragna; Hummel, Jürgen; Kienzle, Ellen; Kölle, Petra; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Allometric equations are often used to extrapolate traits in animals for which only body mass estimates are known, such as dinosaurs. One important decision can be whether these equations should be based on mammal, bird or reptile data. To address whether this choice will have a relevant influence on reconstructions, we compared allometric equations for birds and mammals from the literature to those for reptiles derived from both published and hitherto unpublished data. Organs studied included the heart, kidneys, liver and gut, as well as gut contents. While the available data indicate that gut content mass does not differ between the clades, the organ masses for reptiles are generally lower than those for mammals and birds. In particular, gut tissue mass is significantly lower in reptiles. When applying the results in the reconstruction of a sauropod dinosaur, the estimated volume of the coelomic cavity greatly exceeds the estimated volume of the combined organ masses, irrespective of the allometric equation used. Therefore, substantial deviation of sauropod organ allometry from that of the extant vertebrates can be allowed conceptually. Extrapolations of retention times from estimated gut contents mass and food intake do not suggest digestive constraints on sauropod dinosaur body size. PMID:19324837

  8. Estimations of local thermal impact on living organisms irradiated by non-thermal microwaves

    E-print Network

    Shatalov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Pennes' differential equation for bioheat transfer and the heat transfer equation are solved for the temperature distribution in a living tissue with spherical inclusions, irradiated by microwave power. It is shown that relative temperature excess in a small inclusion in the tissue in some cases is inversely proportional to its radius and does not depend on the applied power. In pulsing RF fields the effect is amplified proportionally to the ratio of the pulse period to the pulse duration. The local temperature rise significantly outpaces the averaged one and therefore the Watt to Weight SAR limits may be insufficient to estimate the safety of RF radiation and the conventional division of the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on the thermal and non-thermal needs to be revised.

  9. Concentration- and chromosome-organization-dependent regulator unbinding from DNA for transcription regulation in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tai-Yen; Santiago, Ace George; Jung, Won; Krzemi?ski, ?ukasz; Yang, Feng; Martell, Danya J.; Helmann, John D.; Chen, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Binding and unbinding of transcription regulators at operator sites constitute a primary mechanism for gene regulation. While many cellular factors are known to regulate their binding, little is known on how cells can modulate their unbinding for regulation. Using nanometer-precision single-molecule tracking, we study the unbinding kinetics from DNA of two metal-sensing transcription regulators in living Escherichia coli cells. We find that they show unusual concentration-dependent unbinding kinetics from chromosomal recognition sites in both their apo and holo forms. Unexpectedly, their unbinding kinetics further varies with the extent of chromosome condensation, and more surprisingly, varies in opposite ways for their apo-repressor versus holo-activator forms. These findings suggest likely broadly relevant mechanisms for facile switching between transcription activation and deactivation in vivo and in coordinating transcription regulation of resistance genes with the cell cycle. PMID:26145755

  10. Biodegradation of photosynthetically produced extracellular organic carbon from intertidal benthic algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoshige Goto; Osamu Mitamura; Hisayoshi Terai

    2001-01-01

    14C-labeled extracellular products of a natural microphytobenthic community and two species of benthic diatoms (Nitzschia hybridaeformis and Amphora coffeaeformis) were fractionated into extracellular dissolved organic carbon (14C-EDOC), organic carbon extracted with EDTA (14C-EDTA-extractable OC) and extracellular polymeric substances (14C-EPS). The biodegradation of this labeled extracellular organic carbon by bacteria in sediments was examined to determine the processes of enzymatic degradation

  11. Risk Assessment for Invasive Species Produces Net Bioeconomic Benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuben P. Keller; David M. Lodge; David C. Finnoff

    2007-01-01

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce

  12. The effect of organic matter on CCN properties of particles produced in laboratory simulations of bubble bursting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. King; T. Rosenoern; D. Nilsson; M. Bilde

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we measure the submicron size distributions and cloud condensation nucleus properties of aerosol particles produced from a laboratory system that simulates particle formation from bubble bursting. The experimental method consists of a plunging water jet into a stainless steel tank filled with 10 L of artificial seawater, with and without added organic compounds. The tank is equipped

  13. [Streptomyces sp. 17, an organism producing oligomycin SC-iI (culture characteristics and antibiotic biological properties)].

    PubMed

    Bibikova, M V; Grammatikova, N E; Spiridonova, I A; Danilenko, A N; Katlinski?, A V

    2012-01-01

    Under the screening programme for organisms producing substances with hypolipidemic and antifungal activity Streptomyces sp. 17 was isolated. The taxonomic properties of the strain were investigated. Active compounds, i.e. oligomycin A and oligomycin SC-II were isolated from a complex biosynthetic product. Oligomycin A showed high antifungal activity whereas oligomycin SC-II had also moderate antibacterial activity. PMID:23350188

  14. Organic Tracers from Asphalt in Propolis Produced by Urban Honey Bees, Apis mellifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Raweh, Hael S.; El-Mubarak, Aarif H.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a gummy material produced by honey bees to protect their hives and currently has drawn the attention of researchers due to its broad clinical use. It has been reported, based only on observations, that honey bees also collect other non-vegetation substances such as paint or asphalt/tar to make propolis. Therefore, propolis samples were collected from bee hives in Riyadh and Al-Bahah, a natural area, Saudi Arabia to determine their compositional characteristics and possible sources of the neutral organic compounds. The samples were extracted with hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the major compounds were n-alkanes, n-alkenes, methyl n-alkanoates, long chain wax esters, triterpenoids and hopanes. The n-alkanes (ranging from C17 to C40) were significant with relative concentrations varying from 23.8 to 56.8% (mean = 44.9+9.4%) of the total extracts. Their odd carbon preference index (CPI) ranged from 3.6 to 7.7, with a maximum concentration at heptacosane indicating inputs from higher plant vegetation wax. The relative concentrations of the n-alkenes varied from 23.8 to 41.19% (mean = 35.6+5.1%), with CPI = 12.4-31.4, range from C25 to C35 and maximum at tritriacontane. Methyl n-alkanoates, ranged from C12 to C26 as acids, with concentrations from 3.11 to 33.2% (mean = 9.6+9.5%). Long chain wax esters and triterpenoids were minor. The main triterpenoids were ?- and ?-amyrins, amyrones and amyryl acetates. The presence of hopanes in some total extracts (up to 12.5%) indicated that the bees also collected petroleum derivatives from vicinal asphalt and used that as an additional ingredient to make propolis. Therefore, caution should be taken when considering the chemical compositions of propolis as potential sources of natural products for biological and pharmacological applications. Moreover, beekeepers should be aware of the proper source of propolis in the flight range of their bee colonies. PMID:26075382

  15. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-12-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents' domestic violence and youths' internalizing problems. PMID:23162370

  16. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents’ domestic violence and youths’ internalizing problems. PMID:23162370

  17. On the purposes of color for living beings: toward a theory of color organization.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic and paleontological evidence indicates that in the animal kingdom the ability to perceive colors evolved independently several times over the course of millennia. This implies a high evolutionary neural investment and suggests that color vision provides some fundamental biological benefits. What are these benefits? Why are some animals so colorful? What are the adaptive and perceptual meanings of polychromatism? We suggest that in addition to the discrimination of light and surface chromaticity, sensitivity to color contributes to the whole, the parts and the fragments of perceptual organization. New versions of neon color spreading and the watercolor illusion indicate that the visual purpose of color in humans is threefold: to inter-relate each chromatic component of an object, thus favoring the emergence of the whole; to support a part-whole organization in which components reciprocally enhance each other by amodal completion; and, paradoxically, to reveal fragments and hide the whole-that is, there is a chromatic parceling-out process of separation, division, and fragmentation of the whole. The evolution of these contributions of color to organization needs to be established, but traces of it can be found in Harlequin camouflage by animals and in the coloration of flowers. PMID:24374380

  18. Contribution of very short-lived organic substances to stratospheric chlorine and bromine in the tropics - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J. C.; Engel, A.; Bönisch, H.; Möbius, T.; Worton, D. R.; Sturges, W. T.; Grunow, K.; Schmidt, U.

    2008-05-01

    The total stratospheric organic chlorine and bromine burden was derived from balloon-borne measurements in the tropics (Teresina, Brazil, 5°04´S, 42°52´W) in 2005. Whole air samples were collected cryogenically at altitudes between 15 and 34 km. For the first time, we report measurements of a set of 28 chlorinated and brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere including ten substances with an atmospheric lifetime of less than half a year. The substances were quantified using pre-concentration techniques followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometric detection. In the tropical tropopause layer at an altitude of 15.2 km we found 1.4% of the chlorine and 8% of the bromine to be present in the form of very short-lived compounds. By combining the data with tropospheric reference data and age of air observations the abundances of inorganic chlorine and bromine (Cly and Bry) were derived. At an altitude of 34 km we calculated 3062 ppt of Cly and 17.5 ppt of Bry from organic source gases. Furthermore we present indications for the presence of additional organic brominated substances in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere.

  19. SELF-ORGANIZATION OF LIVING SYSTEMS: A FORMAL MODEL OF AUTOPOIESIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MILAN ZELENY

    1977-01-01

    A formalization, computerization and extension of the original Varela-Maturana-Uribe model of autopoiesis is presented. Autopoietic systems are driven by sets of simple “rules” which guide the behavior of components in a given milieu. These rules are capable of producing systemic structures that are far more complex than we could ever achieve by a direct arrangement of components, i.e., by a

  20. Independent Synchronized Control and Visualization of Interactions between Living Cells and Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rouger, Vincent; Bordet, Guillaume; Couillault, Carole; Monneret, Serge; Mailfert, Sébastien; Ewbank, Jonathan J.; Pujol, Nathalie; Marguet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the early stages of cell-cell interactions occurring between living biological samples, imaging methods with appropriate spatiotemporal resolution are required. Among the techniques currently available, those based on optical trapping are promising. Methods to image trapped objects, however, in general suffer from a lack of three-dimensional resolution, due to technical constraints. Here, we have developed an original setup comprising two independent modules: holographic optical tweezers, which offer a versatile and precise way to move multiple objects simultaneously but independently, and a confocal microscope that provides fast three-dimensional image acquisition. The optical decoupling of these two modules through the same objective gives users the possibility to easily investigate very early steps in biological interactions. We illustrate the potential of this setup with an analysis of infection by the fungus Drechmeria coniospora of different developmental stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. This has allowed us to identify specific areas on the nematode’s surface where fungal spores adhere preferentially. We also quantified this adhesion process for different mutant nematode strains, and thereby derive insights into the host factors that mediate fungal spore adhesion. PMID:24853738

  1. Programmable living material containing reporter micro-organisms permits quantitative detection of oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mora, Carlos A; Herzog, Antoine F; Raso, Renzo A; Stark, Wendelin J

    2015-08-01

    The increasing molecular understanding of many diseases today permits the development of new diagnostic methods. However, few easy-to-handle and inexpensive tools exist for common diseases such as food disorders. Here we present a living material based analytical sensor (LiMBAS) containing genetically modified bacteria (Escherichia coli) immobilized and protected in a thin layer between a nanoporous and support polymer membrane for a facile quantification of disease-relevant oligosaccharides. The bacteria were engineered to fluoresce in response to the analyte to reveal its diffusion behavior when using a blue-light source and optical filter. We demonstrated that the diffusion zone diameter was related semi-logarithmically to the analyte concentration. LiMBAS could accurately quantify lactose or galactose in undiluted food samples and was able to measure food intolerance relevant concentrations in the range of 1-1000 mM requiring a sample volume of 1-10 ?L. LiMBAS was storable for at least seven days without losing functionality at 4 °C. A wide range of genetic tools for E. coli are readily available thus allowing the reprogramming of the material to serve as biosensor for other molecules. In combination with smartphones, an automated diagnostic analysis becomes feasible which would also allow untrained people to use LiMBAS. PMID:25988843

  2. Four dimensional imaging of E. coli nucleoid organization and dynamics in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, J. K.; Bourniquel, A.; Witz, G.; Weiner, B.; Prentiss, M.; Kleckner, N.

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of living E. coli nucleoids, defined by HupA-mCherry, reveals a discrete, dynamic helical ellipsoid. Three basic features emerge. (i) Nucleoid density efficiently coalesces into longitudinal bundles, giving a stiff, low DNA density ellipsoid. (ii) This ellipsoid is radially confined within the cell cylinder. Radial confinement gives helical shape and drives and directs global nucleoid dynamics, including sister segregation. (iii) Longitudinal density waves flux back and forth along the nucleoid, with 5–10% of density shifting within 5s, enhancing internal nucleoid mobility. Furthermore, sisters separate end-to-end in sequential discontinuous pulses, each elongating the nucleoid by 5–15%. Pulses occur at 20min intervals, at defined cell cycle times. This progression is mediated by sequential installation and release of programmed tethers, implying cyclic accumulation and relief of intra-nucleoid mechanical stress. These effects could comprise a chromosome-based cell cycle engine. Overall, the presented results suggest a general conceptual framework for bacterial nucleoid morphogenesis and dynamics. PMID:23623305

  3. Comment on "Self-organized criticality in living systems" by C. Adami

    E-print Network

    M. E. J. Newman; Simon M. Fraser; Kim Sneppen; William A. Tozier

    1997-02-04

    Following extensive numerical experiments, it has been suggested that the evolution of competing computer programs in artificial life simulations shows signs of being a self-organized critical process. The primary evidence for this claim comes from the distribution of the lifetimes of species in the simulations, which appears to follow a power law. We argue that, for a number of reasons, it is unlikely that the system is in fact at a critical point and suggest an alternative explanation for the power-law lifetime distribution.

  4. Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

  5. Heterogeneous nano metal-organic framework fluorescence probe for highly selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide in living cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu; Su, Hao; Kuang, Xuan; Li, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Tang, Bo

    2014-11-18

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been regarded as the third important gaseous signaling molecule involved in human physiological and pathological processes. Due to the high reactive and diffusible properties of H2S, real-time detection of H2S fluctuations in living biological specimens is crucial. Here, we present a Cu(II)-metalated 3D porous nanoscale metal-organic framework (nano-MOF) {CuL[AlOH]2}n (PAC; H6L = meso-tetrakis(4-carboxylphenyl)porphyrin) and successfully employ this nano-MOF as a novel heterogeneous fluorescence probe for H2S detection. As far as we know, nano-MOFs have never been used as selective fluorescence probes for H2S detection. On the basis of the advantages of nano-MOF materials, this biocompatible nano-MOF probe exhibits rapid response, excellent selectivity, and hypotoxicity in in situ detection of H2S and represents the most sensitive fluorescence probe for selective H2S detection under physiological pH. In addition, confocal imaging was achieved successfully in living cells. PMID:25342497

  6. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF CANCER RATES IN PRIMARY ORGANIC CHEMICAL-PRODUCING COUNTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study is designed to determine whether there is an association between cancer mortality and the production of environmental carcinogens. Mortality rates of counties containing organic chemical production facilities are compared to rates of control counties. Twelve different c...

  7. FISH SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY PREDICTION MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS THAT PRODUCE NARCOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model based on partition coefficient was developed for predicting subchronic toxicities of selected chemicals to fish. Early life stage tests were conducted under flow-through conditions using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test organisms. Embryos, larvae and juvenile...

  8. An endophytic Nodulisporium sp. from Central America producing volatile organic compounds with both biological and fuel potential.

    PubMed

    Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Strobel, Gary; Geary, Brad; Sears, Joe

    2013-01-01

    A Nodulisporium sp. (Hypoxylon sp.) has been isolated as an endophyte of Thelypteris angustifolia (Broadleaf Leaf Maiden Fern) in a rainforest region of Central America. It has been identified both on the basis of its morphological characteristics and by scanning electron microscopy as well as ITS sequence analysis. The endophyte produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have both fuel (mycodiesel) and use for biological control of plant disease. When grown on potato dextrose agar, the organism uniquely produces a series of ketones, including acetone; 2-pentanone; 3-hexanone, 4-methyl; 3-hexanone, 2,4- dimethyl; 2-hexanone, 4-methyl, and 5-hepten, 2-one and these account for about 25% of the total VOCs. The most abundant identified VOC was 1,8 cineole, which is commonly detected in this group of organisms. Other prominent VOCs produced by this endophyte include 1-butanol, 2- methyl, and phenylethanol alcohol. Moreover, of interest was the presence of cyclohexane, propyl, which is a common ingredient of diesel fuel. Furthermore, the VOCs of this isolate of Nodulisporium sp. were selectively active against a number of plant pathogens, and upon a 24 h exposure caused death to Phytophthora palmivora, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and 100% inhibition to Phytophthora cinnamomi with only slight to no inhibition of the other pathogens that were tested. From this work, it is becoming increasingly apparent that each isolate of this endophytic Nodulisporium spp., including the Daldina sp. and Hypoxylon spp. teleomorphs, seems to produce its own unique set of VOCs. PMID:23314364

  9. Volatile and sensory profile of organic red wines produced by different selected autochthonous and commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Callejon, R M; Clavijo, A; Ortigueira, P; Troncoso, A M; Paneque, P; Morales, M L

    2010-02-15

    Organic wines were produced at pilot scale to select the best autochthonous and commercial yeast strains to obtain wines with high organoleptic qualities. We tested the behaviour of five S. cerevisiae yeast strains and determined their volatile composition and organoleptic characteristics by sensory analysis. A total of 51 volatile compounds were quantified in the wines produced. The concentration of most of the volatile compounds was significantly influenced depending on which yeast strain was inoculated. The differences observed in the volatile composition of the wines appear to be quantitative rather than qualitative. In general, acetals were the most abundant group of volatile compounds in all the samples studied, followed by alcohols without ethanol. The highest contents of volatile compounds were found in two of the wines produced by autochthonous yeast strains. The results obtained in the sensory analysis suggest that autochthonous yeast produced wines of higher organoleptic quality because this sample gave the highest value for the general impression attribute. PMID:20103145

  10. Infection of Semen-Producing Organs by SIV during the Acute and Chronic Stages of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Le Tortorec, Anna; Le Grand, Roger; Denis, Hélène; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mannioui, Karim; Roques, Pierre; Maillard, Anne; Daniels, Sylvanne; Jégou, Bernard; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Background Although indirect evidence suggests the male genital tract as a possible source of persistent HIV shedding in semen during antiretroviral therapy, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to the difficulty of sampling semen-producing organs in HIV+ asymptomatic individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a range of molecular and cell biological techniques, this study investigates SIV infection within reproductive organs of macaques during the acute and chronic stages of the disease. We demonstrate for the first time the presence of SIV in the testes, epididymides, prostate and seminal vesicles as early as 14 days post-inoculation. This infection persists throughout the chronic stage and positively correlates with blood viremia. The prostate and seminal vesicles appear to be the most efficiently infected reproductive organs, followed by the epididymides and testes. Within the male genital tract, mostly T lymphocytes and a small number of germ cells harbour SIV antigens and RNA. In contrast to the other organs studied, the testis does not display an immune response to the infection. Testosteronemia is transiently increased during the early phase of the infection but spermatogenesis remains unaffected. Conclusions/Significance The present study reveals that SIV infection of the macaque male genital tract is an early event and that semen-producing organs display differential infection levels and immune responses. These results help elucidate the origin of HIV in semen and constitute an essential base to improving the design of antiretroviral therapies to eradicate virus from semen. PMID:18347738

  11. Process and installation for simultaneously producing compost and biogas from organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lebesgue, Y.; Zeana, A.

    1986-12-30

    A process is described for the simultaneous treatment of solid or semi-solid organic waste and liquid organic waste with a view to the simultaneous production of compost and biogas, wherein the liquid organic waste is subjected to a liquid-solid separation. The liquid phase from this separation is subjected to anaerobic fermentation in at least one closed digester, the solid phase from the liquid-solid separation is mixed with the solid or semi-solid organic waste, and the resulting mixture is subjected to aerobic fermentation at the periphery of the digester and in contact therewith. Mud, clarified liquid and gas are respectively discharged from the digester whereas compost from the aerobic fermentation of the solid or semi-solid waste is recovered at the periphery of the digester wherein the digester is characterized by two superimposed compartments, an upper compartment at low pressure and a lower compartment at high pressure, the compartments communicating together through at least one lateral pipe and through a central siphon. A means is provided for lowering the pressure of the lower compartment when the liquid reaches a predetermined level therein. An installation is described for the simultaneous treatment of solid or semi-solid organic waste and liquid waste with a view to the simultaneous production of compost and biogas. This comprises: means for separating the liquid organic waste into a solid phase and a liquid phase; at least one closed digester; means for introducing the liquid phase into the digester; means for mixing the solid phase with the solid or semi-solid waste; means for bringing the resulting mixture to the periphery of the digester in contact therewith; and means for discharging respectively from the digester the gas which is formed therein by anaerobic fermentation and the sludges which are deposited therein.

  12. Shewanella putrefaciens produces an Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligand during anaerobic respiration on insoluble Fe(III) oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martial Taillefert; Jordon S. Beckler; Elizabeth Carey; Justin L. Burns; Christine M. Fennessey; Thomas J. DiChristina

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of Fe(III) reduction was investigated using voltammetric techniques in anaerobic incubations of Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 supplemented with Fe(III) citrate or a suite of Fe(III) oxides as terminal electron acceptor. Results indicate that organic complexes of Fe(III) are produced during the reduction of Fe(III) at rates that correlate with the reactivity of the Fe(III) phase and bacterial cell

  13. Grass-Based Dairy Production Provides a Viable Option for Producing Organic Milk in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More intensive use of pasture and the transition to organic production are being used to reduce production costs and increase profitability of some small dairy farms in Pennsylvania. Simulation of farm production systems, supported by case study farm data, was used to compare economic benefits and e...

  14. Living roots magnify the response of soil organic carbon decomposition to temperature in temperate grassland

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Paul W; Garnett, Mark H; Farrar, John; Iqbal, Zafar; Khalid, Muhammad; Soleman, Nawaf; Jones, Davey L

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is both a strong driver of primary productivity and widely believed to be the principal cause of recent increases in global temperature. Soils are the largest store of the world's terrestrial C. Consequently, many investigations have attempted to mechanistically understand how microbial mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC) to CO2 will be affected by projected increases in temperature. Most have attempted this in the absence of plants as the flux of CO2 from root and rhizomicrobial respiration in intact plant-soil systems confounds interpretation of measurements. We compared the effect of a small increase in temperature on respiration from soils without recent plant C with the effect on intact grass swards. We found that for 48 weeks, before acclimation occurred, an experimental 3 °C increase in sward temperature gave rise to a 50% increase in below ground respiration (ca. 0.4 kg C m?2; Q10 = 3.5), whereas mineralisation of older SOC without plants increased with a Q10 of only 1.7 when subject to increases in ambient soil temperature. Subsequent 14C dating of respired CO2 indicated that the presence of plants in swards more than doubled the effect of warming on the rate of mineralisation of SOC with an estimated mean C age of ca. 8 years or older relative to incubated soils without recent plant inputs. These results not only illustrate the formidable complexity of mechanisms controlling C fluxes in soils but also suggest that the dual biological and physical effects of CO2 on primary productivity and global temperature have the potential to synergistically increase the mineralisation of existing soil C. PMID:25351704

  15. Estimating screening-level organic chemical half-lives in humans.

    PubMed

    Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few measured data are available for the thousands of chemicals requiring hazard and risk assessment. The whole body, total elimination half-life (HLT) and the whole body, primary biotransformation half-life (HLB) are key parameters determining the extent of bioaccumulation, biological concentration, and risk from chemical exposure. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic (1-CoPK) mass balance model was developed to estimate organic chemical HLB from measured HLT data in mammals. Approximately 1900 HLs for human adults were collected and reviewed and the 1-CoPK model was parametrized for an adult human to calculate HLB from HLT. Measured renal clearance and whole body total clearance data for 306 chemicals were used to calculate empirical HLB,emp. The HLB,emp values and other measured data were used to corroborate the 1-CoPK HLB model calculations. HLs span approximately 7.5 orders of magnitude from 0.05 h for nitroglycerin to 2 × 10(6) h for 2,3,4,5,2',3',5',6'-octachlorobiphenyl with a median of 7.6 h. The automated Iterative Fragment Selection (IFS) method was applied to develop and evaluate various quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) to predict HLT and HLB from chemical structure and two novel QSARs are detailed. The HLT and HLB QSARs show similar statistical performance; that is, r(2) = 0.89, r(2-ext) = 0.72 and 0.73 for training and external validation sets, respectively, and root-mean-square errors for the validation data sets are 0.70 and 0.75, respectively. PMID:24298879

  16. Fluid Forces Enhance the Performance of an Aspirant Leader in Self-Organized Living Groups

    PubMed Central

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of an individual aiming at guiding a self-organized group is numerically investigated. A collective behavioural model is adopted, accounting for the mutual repulsion, attraction and orientation experienced by the individuals. Moreover, these represent a set of solid particles which are supposed to be immersed in a fictitious viscous fluid. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann and Immersed boundary methods are used to predict the fluid dynamics, whereas the effect of the hydrodynamic forces on particles is accounted for by solving the equation of the solid motion through the time discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out by involving the individuals in a dichotomous process. On the one hand, an aspirant leader (AL) additional individual is added to the system. AL is forced to move along a prescribed direction which intersects the group. On the other hand, these tend to depart from an obstacle represented by a rotating lamina which is placed in the fluid domain. A numerical campaign is carried out by varying the fluid viscosity and, as a consequence, the hydrodynamic field. Moreover, scenarios characterized by different values of the size of the group are investigated. In order to estimate the AL's performance, a proper parameter is introduced, depending on the number of individuals following AL. Present findings show that the sole collective behavioural equations are insufficient to predict the AL's performance, since the motion is drastically affected by the presence of the surrounding fluid. With respect to the existing literature, the proposed numerical model is enriched by accounting for the presence of the encompassing fluid, thus computing the hydrodynamic forces arising when the individuals move. PMID:25501965

  17. The overarching influence of the gut microbiome on end-organ function: the role of live probiotic cultures.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Manuel, Rachel; Zhou, Joyce Yusi; Linnane, Anthony W; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality) state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with a metabolic disease for end organs such as the kidney and liver. A profile emerges that shows that bacteria are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous and have significantly influenced the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:25244509

  18. The Overarching Influence of the Gut Microbiome on End-Organ Function: The Role of Live Probiotic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vitetta, Luis; Manuel, Rachel; Zhou, Joyce Yusi; Linnane, Anthony W.; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality) state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with a metabolic disease for end organs such as the kidney and liver. A profile emerges that shows that bacteria are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous and have significantly influenced the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:25244509

  19. When organ donation from living donors serves as the main source of organ procurement: a critical examination of the ethical and legal challenges to Turkey's recent efforts to overcome organ shortage.

    PubMed

    Sert, G; Guven, T; Gorkey, S

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that Turkey has implemented a number of legislative and regulatory efforts to increase cadaveric donations, live donors still serve as the main source of organ procurement in this country. To address this problem, Turkey's regulatory authorities have sought to increase the number of brain death declarations. A new regulation issued in 2012 repeats the criteria for brain death that were first issued in 1993. This paper argues that these efforts are far from adequate owing to a number of complicated, ethical, and legal challenges that must be addressed to increase cadaveric organ donations. After examining these factors, which are completely neglected in current policies, we conclude that Turkey needs a realistic ethically justifiable organ procurement policy that must be supported by a framework of patient rights to implement the concept of patient autonomy and respect for human dignity in health care services as the primary goal. PMID:23953519

  20. Unique gene organization: alternative splicing in Drosophila produces two structurally unrelated proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy C. Mottus; Ian P. Whitehead; Michael O'Grady; Richard E. Sobel; Rod H. L. Burr; George B. Spiegelman; Thomas A. Grigliatti

    1997-01-01

    The Ub80 gene in eukaryotes produces a ubiquitin fusion protein in which ubiquitin is fused in frame to a tail protein (Redman and Rechsteiner, 1988; Finley et al., 1989; Barrio et al., 1994). The tail protein is incorporated into the ribosome, and ubiquitin is thought to act as a chaperone. The DUb80 gene of Drosophila melanogaster was cloned by Barrio

  1. XANES Analysis of Organic Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, M.; Milam, S N.; Sandford, S A.; De Gregorio, B T.; Cody, G D.; Kilcoyne, A L.

    2011-01-01

    Organic residues formed in the laboratory from the ultraviolet (UV) photo-irradiation or ion bombardment of astrophysical ice analogs have been extensively studied for the last 15 years with a broad suite of techniques, including infrared (IR) and UV spectroscopies, as well as mass spectrometry. Analyses of these materials show that they consist of complex mixtures of organic compounds stable at room temperature, mostly soluble, that have not been fully characterized. However, the hydrolysis products of these residues have been partly identified using chromatography techniques, which indicate that they contain molecular precursors of prebiotic interest such as amino acids, nitrile-bearing compounds, and amphiphilic compounds. In this study, we present the first X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy measurements of three organic residues made from the UV irradiation of ices having different starting compositions. XANES spectra confirm the presence of different chemical functions in these residues, and indicate that they are rich in nitrogenand oxygen-bearing species. These data can be compared with XANES measurements of extraterrestrial materials. Finally, this study also shows how soft X rays can alter the chemical composition of samples.

  2. Microbial Production of Glyceric Acid, an Organic Acid That Can Be Mass Produced from Glycerol ? †

    PubMed Central

    Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process. PMID:19837846

  3. Indole trimers with antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms produced using combinatorial biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    McClay, Kevin; Mehboob, Shahila; Yu, Jerry; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Deng, Jiangping; Cook, James L; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Johnson, Michael E; Steffan, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The I100V isoform of toluene-4-monooxygenase was used to catalyze the oxidative polymerization of anthranil and various indoles under mildly acidic conditions, favoring the production of trimers. Compounds produced in sufficient yield were purified and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis, E. faecalis, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and in some cases, F. tularensis. 15 of the compounds displayed promising antibacterial activity (MIC < 5 µg/ml) against one or more of the strains tested, with the best MIC values being <0.8 µg/ml. All of these compounds had good selectivity, showing minimal cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells. The structure was solved for six of the compounds that could be crystallized, revealing that minimally two classes of indole based trimers were produced. One compound class produced was a group of substituted derivatives of the natural product 2,2-bis(3-indolyl) indoxyl. The other group of compounds identified was classified as tryptanthrin-like compounds, all having multi-ring pendant groups attached at position 11 of tryptanthrin. One compound of particular interest, SAB-J85, had a structure that suggests that any compound, with a ring structure that can be activated by an oxygenase, might serve as a substrate for combinatorial biocatalysis. PMID:26112315

  4. Competitive and Soil Fertility Effects of Forbs and Legumes as Companion Plants or Living Mulch in Wide Spaced Organically Grown Cereals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Ulrich Germeier

    2006-01-01

    Effects of forbs and legumes intercropped with organically grown winter cereals on plant productivity and fertility related soil parameters were determined. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), cornflower (Centaureo cyanus), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), white clover (Trifolium repens) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) were established between wide spaced cereal rows as companion plants or as perennial living mulch, where cereals were

  5. Optical control and study of biological processes at the single-cell level in a live organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhiping; Zhang, Weiting; Xu, Jianmin; Gauron, Carole; Ducos, Bertrand; Vriz, Sophie; Volovitch, Michel; Jullien, Ludovic; Weiss, Shimon; Bensimon, David

    2013-07-01

    Living organisms are made of cells that are capable of responding to external signals by modifying their internal state and subsequently their external environment. Revealing and understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of these complex interaction networks is the subject of a field known as systems biology. To investigate these interactions (a necessary step before understanding or modelling them) one needs to develop means to control or interfere spatially and temporally with these processes and to monitor their response on a fast timescale (< minute) and with single-cell resolution. In 2012, an EMBO workshop on ‘single-cell physiology’ (organized by some of us) was held in Paris to discuss those issues in the light of recent developments that allow for precise spatio-temporal perturbations and observations. This review will be largely based on the investigations reported there. We will first present a non-exhaustive list of examples of cellular interactions and developmental pathways that could benefit from these new approaches. We will review some of the novel tools that have been developed for the observation of cellular activity and then discuss the recent breakthroughs in optical super-resolution microscopy that allow for optical observations beyond the diffraction limit. We will review the various means to photo-control the activity of biomolecules, which allow for local perturbations of physiological processes. We will end up this review with a report on the current status of optogenetics: the use of photo-sensitive DNA-encoded proteins as sensitive reporters and efficient actuators to perturb and monitor physiological processes.

  6. [The levels of stable organic pollutants in the breast milk of women living in the Irkutsk region].

    PubMed

    Mamontova, E A; Tarasova, E N; Kuz'min, M I; Maklakhlan, M S; Papke, O; Mamontov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of stable organic chlorine pollutants (SOCP) in the breast milk of women living in Irkutsk, Baikalsk, and the settlement of Kachug are lower than those in the increased SOCP-burdened areas of the Irkutsk Region (the town of Usolye-Sibirskoye, settlements on the shore of the Baikal Lake) and comparable with those in Russia and industrially developed countries of the world. The content of SOPC is much lower than those in the developing countries where this pesticide continues to be applied. The breast milk levels of OCP, TEQ (polychlorinated dibento-para-dioxines and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in all towns and individual indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Irkutsk significantly decreased as compared with those in the 1980s. However, in Kachug and Baikalsk, the concentrations of PCB practically unchanged and the level of some congeners increased. The absence of changes in the content of PCB in Kachug and Baikalsk may be associated with no decrease in environmental pollution in the Irkutsk Region. Altered breast concentrations of SOCPs caused a reduction in their intake in babies. PMID:20373711

  7. Drosophila Embryos as Model to Assess Cellular and Developmental Toxicity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) in Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyin; Campo, Eva M.; Bossing, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Different toxicity tests for carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed to assess their impact on human health and on aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant life. We present a new model, the fruit fly Drosophila embryo offering the opportunity for rapid, inexpensive and detailed analysis of CNTs toxicity during embryonic development. We show that injected DiI labelled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) become incorporated into cells in early Drosophila embryos, allowing the study of the consequences of cellular uptake of CNTs on cell communication, tissue and organ formation in living embryos. Fluorescently labelled subcellular structures showed that MWCNTs remained cytoplasmic and were excluded from the nucleus. Analysis of developing ectodermal and neural stem cells in MWCNTs injected embryos revealed normal division patterns and differentiation capacity. However, an increase in cell death of ectodermal but not of neural stem cells was observed, indicating stem cell-specific vulnerability to MWCNT exposure. The ease of CNT embryo injections, the possibility of detailed morphological and genomic analysis and the low costs make Drosophila embryos a system of choice to assess potential developmental and cellular effects of CNTs and test their use in future CNT based new therapies including drug delivery. PMID:24558411

  8. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  9. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines

    DOEpatents

    Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1990-04-03

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about 0.degree. C. up to about 300.degree. C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  10. Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.

    PubMed

    Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-01-01

    1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation. PMID:25299877

  11. A One-Step, Solvothermal Reduction Method for Producing Reduced Graphene Oxide Dispersions in Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sergey; Gilje, Scott; Wang, Kan; Tung, Vincent C.; Cha, Kitty; Hall, Anthony S.; Farrar, Jabari; Varshneya, Rupal; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Refluxing graphene oxide (GO) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) results in deoxygenation and reduction to yield a stable colloidal dispersion. The solvothermal reduction is accompanied by a color change from light brown to black. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the product confirm the presence of single sheets of the solvothermally reduced graphene oxide (SRGO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of SRGO indicates a significant increase in intensity of the C=C bond character, while the oxygen content decreases markedly after the reduction is complete. X-ray diffraction analysis of SRGO shows a single broad peak at 26.24° 2? (3.4 Å), confirming the presence of graphitic stacking of reduced sheets. SRGO sheets are redispersible in a variety of organic solvents, which may hold promise as an acceptor material for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells, or electromagnetic interference shielding applications. PMID:20586422

  12. A one-step, solvothermal reduction method for producing reduced graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Sergey; Gilje, Scott; Wang, Kan; Tung, Vincent C; Cha, Kitty; Hall, Anthony S; Farrar, Jabari; Varshneya, Rupal; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B

    2010-07-27

    Refluxing graphene oxide (GO) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) results in deoxygenation and reduction to yield a stable colloidal dispersion. The solvothermal reduction is accompanied by a color change from light brown to black. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the product confirm the presence of single sheets of the solvothermally reduced graphene oxide (SRGO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of SRGO indicates a significant increase in intensity of the C=C bond character, while the oxygen content decreases markedly after the reduction is complete. X-ray diffraction analysis of SRGO shows a single broad peak at 26.24 degrees 2theta (3.4 A), confirming the presence of graphitic stacking of reduced sheets. SRGO sheets are redispersible in a variety of organic solvents, which may hold promise as an acceptor material for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells, or electromagnetic interference shielding applications. PMID:20586422

  13. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reactions of Phenols in Fog Drops and Deliquesced Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in atmospheric condensed phases (i.e., aqueous SOA) can proceed rapidly, but relatively little is known of the important aqueous SOA precursors or their reaction pathways. In our work we are studying the aqueous SOA formed from reactions of phenols (phenol, guaiacol, and syringol), benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone), and phenolic carbonyls (e.g., vanillin and syringaldehyde). These species are potentially important aqueous SOA precursors because they are released in large quantities from biomass burning, have high Henry's Law constants (KH = 103 -109 M-1 atm-1) and are rapidly oxidized. To evaluate the importance of aqueous reactions of phenols as a source of SOA, we first quantified the kinetics and SOA mass yields for 11 phenols reacting via direct photodegradation, hydroxyl radical (•OH), and with an excited organic triplet state (3C*). In the second step, which is the focus of this work, we use these laboratory results in a simple model of fog chemistry using conditions during a previously reported heavy biomass burning event in Bakersfield, CA. Our calculations indicate that under aqueous aerosol conditions (i.e., a liquid water content of 100 ?g m-3) the rate of aqueous SOA production (RSOA(aq)) from phenols is similar to the rate in the gas phase. In contrast, under fog/cloud conditions the aqueous RSOA from phenols is 10 times higher than the rate in the gas phase. In both of these cases aqueous RSOA is dominated by the oxidation of phenols by 3C*, followed by direct photodegradation of phenolic carbonyls, and then •OH oxidation. Our results suggest that aqueous oxidation of phenols is a significant source of SOA during fog events and also during times when deliquesced aerosols are present.

  14. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of orange ( Citrus sinensis (l.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) juice produced under organic and integrated farming system in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Roussos

    2011-01-01

    Organically and integrated produced orange (Citrus sinensis (l.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) fruits were assayed in terms of fruit characteristics and juice phytochemicals over a period of two years. Fruit size and juice volume were higher under organic farming system. There were not any significant differences concerning either the carbohydrates’ or organic acids’ concentrations of the juice. Similar results were obtained

  15. Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosols Produced by Photo-Oxidation of Biomass Burning Emissions in a Smog Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desyaterik, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Robinson, A. L.; Collett, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) is essential for accurate representation of OA in air quality and climate models. Both the sources of OA and their properties and effects remain poorly understood. In particular, we still know relatively little about the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). There is growing interest in the impact of biomass burning emissions on air quality, human health, and radiative forcing. Through a series of experiments, we are working to quantify changes in the chemical composition of wood smoke particles as a result of photochemical aging under well-controlled laboratory conditions. One specific objective of this study is to identify markers for biomass burning SOA and test whether these markers can be used in atmospheric samples to quantify SOA formation from aging of biomass burning emissions. We analyzed SOA generated in a smog chamber by photooxidation of smoke produced by burning oak wood. In order to initiate photochemistry, the chamber was irradiated with UV light. Aqueous extracts of collected aerosol samples were analyzed with Electrospray Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The high mass accuracy of these measurements reduces ambiguity in the assignment of elemental compositions for observed ions. Analysis has shown that primary oak smoke aerosol includes products of the thermal decomposition of cellulose (levoglucosan, cyclotene etc.) and lignin (guaiacol and syringol derivatives, mostly aldehydes and alcohols). After 2 hours of aging at typical summertime hydroxyl radical concentrations, the aerosol mass increased 2.5 fold due to the production of secondary organic aerosol. Mass spectra of the secondary organic aerosol formed are dominated by organic nitrates (nitrophenol, nitrocresol, nitrocatechol, and nitroguaiacol) and aromatic acids (benzoic acid, mono and di-hydroxybenzoic acid). Both nitrates and acids most likely are formed due to oxidation of the lignin decomposition products (guaiacol and syringol derivatives) by reaction with OH and NO2. This research highlights the dynamic nature of fire emissions and atmospheric organic aerosols in general.

  16. An experimental study of the organic molecules produced in cometary and interstellar ice analogs by thermal formaldehyde reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, W. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an experimental study tracing thermal formaldehyde reactions in astrophysically relevant ices in dense molecular clouds are reported. The formaldehyde chemistry during warm-up of ices containing H2CO and one or more of the molecules H2O, CH3OH, CO, O2, and NH3 were monitored using IR spectroscopy. Conversion of H2CO into residues was observed to start at about 40 K for NH3:H2CO ices and at about 80 K in H2O-rich ices. A total of five different organic products of these reactions were distinguished: POM and reaction products of H2CO and H2O, CH3OH, and NH3. Given the measured reaction paths and efficiencies, it is estimated that on the order of 1 percent of the organics found in the coma of Comet P/Halley could have been produced by thermal formaldehyde reactions taking place in the nucleus.

  17. Methylglyoxal in living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miklós Péter Kalapos

    1999-01-01

    Despite the growing interest towards methylglyoxal and glyoxalases their real role in metabolic network is still obscure. In the light of developments several reviews have been published in this field mainly dealing with only a narrow segment of this research area. In this article a trial is made to present a comprehensive overview of methylglyoxal research, extending discussion from chemistry

  18. Organization of LIving Things

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on ecology includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  19. Fine structure of gonadotrophs and prolactin producing cells in the rat pars distalis in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, T G; Young, B A

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described which permits the maintenance for up to 8 days in organ culture of explanted rat pituitary glands. Electron microscope studies showed that the cultured glands (whether treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or not) were almost identical to controls in appearance, although the stellate (follicular) cells seemingly were eliminated in vitro. Gonadotrophs and prolactin-secreting cells in male and female pituitary glands were similar in appearance both in vivo and in vitro to comparable cells described by other authors. There was some evidence for an increase in the secretory activity of these cell types (particularly gonadotrophs) when the explants were treated with GnRH. The present technique thus provides a suitable and valid 'model' with which to study the effects of GnRH and steroid hormones on the release and synthesis of FSH and LH in vitro. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:395144

  20. Volatile organic compounds produced by the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Teresa; Kai, Marco; Gummesson, Anja; Troeger, Armin; von Reuß, Stephan; Piepenborn, Silvia; Kosterka, Francine; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf; Francke, Wittko

    2012-01-01

    Summary Xanthomonas campestris is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causes many diseases of agricultural relevance. Volatiles were shown to be important in inter- and intraorganismic attraction and defense reactions. Recently it became apparent that also bacteria emit a plethora of volatiles, which influence other organisms such as invertebrates, plants and fungi. As a first step to study volatile-based bacterial–plant interactions, the emission profile of Xanthomonas c. pv. vesicatoria 85-10 was determined by using GC/MS and PTR–MS techniques. More than 50 compounds were emitted by this species, the majority comprising ketones and methylketones. The structure of the dominant compound, 10-methylundecan-2-one, was assigned on the basis of its analytical data, obtained by GC/MS and verified by comparison of these data with those of a synthetic reference sample. Application of commercially available decan-2-one, undecan-2-one, dodecan-2-one, and the newly synthesized 10-methylundecan-2-one in bi-partite Petri dish bioassays revealed growth promotions in low quantities (0.01 to 10 ?mol), whereas decan-2-one at 100 ?mol caused growth inhibitions of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Volatile emission profiles of the bacteria were different for growth on media (nutrient broth) with or without glucose. PMID:22563356

  1. Method for producing fuel gas from organic material, capable of self-sustaining operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fetters, W.A.; Chittick, D.E.

    1985-07-23

    This patent discloses a form of substantially uniform-sized pellets, to produce a tar-free fuel gas. Prior to initiating operation, the lower end of the reaction chamber is filled with a charge of charcoal, forming a charcoal bed. A portion of the charcoal bed is then ignited, typically near the top, with air from the atmosphere being drawn substantially uniformly down through the reaction chamber by a pump on the outlet line leading from the reaction chamber, creating a thin pyrolysis zone near the top of the charcoal bed. The substantially uniform-size fuel pellets are added to the top of the charcoal bed, and are pyrolized as they move down through the pyrolysis zone. Since the fuel pellets are substantially uniform in size, and since the air-flow down through the chamber is substantially uniform, the temperature profile over the cross-sectional area of the pyrolysis zone is substantially uniform, and a homogeneous pyrolysis zone is created, without hot spots or channels. Such an arrangement results in self-regulating, self-sustaining operation over a relatively wide demand range, with rapid start-up and response characteristics. Air may also be directed into the reaction chamber through an inlet beneath the charcoal bed, which results in the reaction of the devolatilized charcoal to form additional fuel and an ash residue. Thus, the production and consumption of the charcoal within the apparatus may be exactly balanced.

  2. Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

    2014-05-01

    In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

  3. A general strategy for developing cell-permeable photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes for live-cell super-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Deng; Hu, Zhe; Qiu, Fengwu; Huang, Zhen-Li; Ma, Yilong; Wang, Yina; Qin, Lingsong; Zhang, Zhihong; Zeng, Shaoqun; Zhang, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) achieves super-resolution imaging beyond the diffraction limit but critically relies on the use of photo-modulatable fluorescent probes. Here we report a general strategy for constructing cell-permeable photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes for live-cell SMLM by exploiting the remarkable cytosolic delivery ability of a cell-penetrating peptide (rR)3R2. We develop photo-modulatable organic fluorescent probes consisting of a (rR)3R2 peptide coupled to a cell-impermeable organic fluorophore and a recognition unit. Our results indicate that these organic probes are not only cell permeable but can also specifically and directly label endogenous targeted proteins. Using the probes, we obtain super-resolution images of lysosomes and endogenous F-actin under physiological conditions. We resolve the dynamics of F-actin with 10?s temporal resolution in live cells and discern fine F-actin structures with diameters of ~80?nm. These results open up new avenues in the design of fluorescent probes for live-cell super-resolution imaging. PMID:25410769

  4. Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes

    PubMed Central

    TARTAROTTI, BARBARA; BAFFICO, GUSTAVO; TEMPORETTI, PEDRO; ZAGARESE, HORACIO E.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25–1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r2 = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r2 = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 ?m between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

  5. BIOCHEMISTRY: Zooming Into Live Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fabien Pinaud (Université Pierre et Marie Curie; Laboratoire Kastler Brossel; Physics and Biology Department)

    2008-04-11

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. High-resolution optical imaging is providing real-time data on molecular processes in live cells. As reported by Westphal et al., optical techniques are now producing image sequences in which the dynamics of molecules or supramolecular assemblies are recorded with nanometer-scale accuracy in real time. By opening a window to molecular-scale processes, the techniques promise to elucidate many aspects of cell organization.

  6. Effect of maternal intake of organically or conventionally produced feed on oral tolerance development in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maja Melballe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher R; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings' response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother's milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups' anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L). PMID:23581797

  7. DISCOVERY OF SIGNALING MOLECULES Course summary: The diversity of chemical signals between organisms and their structural specificities will be

    E-print Network

    Sherrill, David

    mechanisms by which signaling molecules are produced by living organisms. - Understand molecular mechanisms between organisms and their structural specificities will be presented along with chemical and biological to explore the mechanisms and consequences of chemical signaling between organisms, integrating biological

  8. Isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Randal; Conaway, Christopher; Saad, Nabil; Kharaka, Yousif

    2013-04-01

    Identification of fluid migration and escape from intentionally altered subsurface geologic systems, such as in hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon sequestration activities, is an important issue for environmental regulators based on the traction that the "fracking" process is gathering across the United States. Given diverse injected fluid compositions and the potential for toxic or regulated compounds to be released, one of the most important steps in the process is accurately identifying evidence of injected fluid escape during and after injection processes. An important tool in identifying differences between the natural groundwater and injected fluid is the isotopic composition of dissolved constituents including inorganic components such as Sr and carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds. Since biological processes in the mesothermal subsurface can rapidly alter the organic composition of a fluid, stable carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds (DOC) are an effective means to identify differences in the origin of two fluids, especially when coupled with inorganic compound analyses. The burgeoning field of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for isotopic analysis presents an opportunity to obtain rapid, reliable and cost-effective isotopic measurements of DOC in potentially affected groundwater for the identification of leakage or the improvement of hydrogeochemical pathway models. Here we adapt the use of the novel hyphenated TOC-CRDS carbon isotope analyzer for the analysis of DOC in produced water by wet oxidation and describe the methods to evaluate performance and obtain useful information at higher salinities. Our methods are applied to a specific field example in a CO2-enhanced EOR field in Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) as a means to demonstrate the ability to distinguish natural and injected DOC using the stable isotopic composition of the dissolved organic carbon when employing the novel TOC-CRDS instrumentation set up.

  9. An experimental study of the organic molecules produced in cometary and interstellar ice analogs by thermal formaldehyde reactions.

    PubMed

    Schutte, W A; Allamandola, L J; Sandford, S A

    1993-01-01

    Thermally promoted formaldehyde (H2CO) reactions in very low temperature ices have been studied to test their importance as a source of organic molecules in astrophysical environments such as comets and interstellar ices. The infrared absorption strengths of a number of the H2CO bands were measured in 10 K ices of pure H2CO and H20:H2CO = 100:3. Infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the formaldehyde chemistry during warm-up of ices containing H2CO and one or more of the molecules H2O, CH3OH, CO, CO2, O2, and NH3. Formaldehyde reactions do not proceed at low temperatures in the absence of NH3. However, even small traces of NH3 (NH3/H2CO > or = 0.005) are sufficient to induce conversion of a considerable fraction (> 40%) of the H2CO into organic residues. Formaldehyde reactions were observed to start at temperatures as low as 40 K for NH3:H2CO binary ices and at approximately 80 K in astrophysically relevant (i.e., H2O-dominated) ices. A total of five different organic products of these reactions can be distinguished by infrared spectroscopy. One of them is polyoxymethylene (POM), a well-known H2CO polymerization product, whereas the others are reaction products of H2CO with H20, CH3OH and NH3. These all seem to be derivatives of polyoxymethylene. The nature of the components and their relative abundances depend strongly on the initial composition of the ice mixture as well as on the ice's irradiation history. We estimate that about 1% of the organics found in the coma of Comet Halley could have been produced by thermal formaldehyde reactions taking place in the nucleus. PMID:11540089

  10. Aerodynamically assisted bio-jets: the development of a novel and direct non-electric field-driven methodology for engineering living organisms.

    PubMed

    Arumuganathar, Sumathy; Irvine, Scott; McEwan, Jean R; Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2007-06-01

    We recently demonstrated the ability to use electrified jets under stable conditions for the generation of cell-bearing droplets to the formation of composite threads which are biologically active. Our studies established that processed cells were viable over several generations post-jetting and -threading. These harmless and successful techniques for jet-based cell handling to deployment for precision deposition have great potential and widespread applications in bioengineering and biotechnology. Nonetheless, our investigations into 'bio-electrosprays' and 'cell electrospinning' have elucidated these jets having direct applicability in regenerative and therapeutic medicine to studies in developmental biology. For these very reasons, jet methodologies having the capability to safely handle living organisms for drop and placing are increasingly gaining the interests of life scientists. We now demonstrate yet another technique (a non-electric field-driven approach, previously never explored with jetting living cells), possessing the ability to directly handle the processing of primary living organisms by means of the flow of a cell suspension within a needle placed in a pressure chamber in the presence of an applied pressure difference. The technique we introduce here is referred to as 'aerodynamically assisted bio-jets/-jetting' which is driven completely by aerodynamic forces applied over an exit orifice by way of a differential pressure. Our investigations present an operational window in which stable jetting conditions are achieved for the formation of a near-monodispersed distribution of cell-bearing droplets and droplet residues. Finally, the aerodynamically bio-jetted living primary organisms are assessed (over both short and long time points) for cellular viability by means of FACScan, a flow cytometry technology which quantifies the percentage of living and dead cells. These advanced biophysical and bioengineering studies elucidate the emergence of a non-electric field-driven bio-jetting technology which now joins the cell jetting race. PMID:18458450

  11. Can the Liquid Live MicroOrganisms System, a Commercial Probiotic, Affect Sediment, Water Quality, and Koi Carp Production in Fish Hatchery Ponds?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Barkoh; John M. Paret; Dale D. Lyon; J. Warren Schlechte

    2010-01-01

    Sediment and turbidity can reduce pond and effluent water quality and fish production. We investigated the efficacy of a commercial bacterial product, Liquid Live Micro-Organisms (LLMO) System, in reducing sediment accumulation and improving water quality and fish production in hatchery ponds for 4.5 months. Four plastic-lined ponds received LLMO treatment at a rate of 1 L per 63,230 L of

  12. Written informed consent for living liver donor evaluation: compliance with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Guidelines and alibi offers.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Carrie; Kim, Yunsoo A; Yoo, Peter S; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel; Mulligan, David; Kulkarni, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    We examined written informed consent forms for living liver donor evaluations to determine whether they incorporated elements required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and suggested by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). We contacted each of the 41 US centers that performed at least 1 living donor liver transplant in 2011; 37 centers reported active living donor evaluation programs. Twenty-six centers shared their consent form for living donor evaluation (response rate?=?70%). Each document was double-coded for consent element content. We found that 57% of the centers included the 9 mandated CMS elements. Although the OPTN guidelines are non-binding, 78% of the centers used consent forms that addressed at least two-thirds of the elements recommended by OPTN. Only 17% of the centers provided written offers of an alibi to donors who withdrew from the evaluation. On the basis of our findings, we offer suggestions that may be relevant to ongoing revisions to the OPTN living liver donor consent policy and may help centers to improve the clarity of their written consent forms. PMID:24415564

  13. Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, B.N.; Thompson, W.R.; Chyba, C.F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed. 56 refs.

  14. The effect of organic matter on CCN properties of particles produced in laboratory simulations of bubble bursting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S.; Rosenoern, T.; Nilsson, D.; Bilde, M.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we measure the submicron size distributions and cloud condensation nucleus properties of aerosol particles produced from a laboratory system that simulates particle formation from bubble bursting. The experimental method consists of a plunging water jet into a stainless steel tank filled with 10 L of artificial seawater, with and without added organic compounds. The tank is equipped with a water pump that can be set at variable speeds. Preliminary results from size distribution measurements agree with previous studies, in that the number concentration and size of particles produced depend on the water jet flux. Observations of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity are also affected by the water pump speed. The CCN activity of artificial seawater, at a salinity of 35‰ and with no added organic compounds, is similar to that of pure sodium chloride. Addition of as much as 1 g/L of D-mannitol does not considerably alter the particle size distribution, nor does it alter the observed CCN activity. Addition of less than 5 mg/L of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate leads to shifts in size distribution roughly similar to those from published results, in which other methods of simulating bubble bursting were used. The growing use of experimental methods for the reproduction of bubble bursting in aerosol laboratories gives us reason to explore possible differences in the properties of particles generated from similar systems. Comparisons between observations from the above-mentioned 10-L tank and those from a larger tank filled with approximately 100 L of identical artificial seawater will also be presented.

  15. Quantum mechanical modeling of self-assembly and photoinduced electron transfer in PNA-based artificial living organisms.

    PubMed

    Tamulis, A; Tamulis, V; Graja, A

    2006-04-01

    In order to support the creation of both artificial living organisms in the USA LANL "Protocell Assembly" project and programmable nano-biorobots in the EU "Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution" project, we used quantum mechanical (QM), density functional theory (DFT), the semiempirical PM3 method, and molecular mechanics (MM) software to investigate various complex photosynthetic systems based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in a water environment. Quantum mechanical DFT PBEPBE simulations, including electron correlations, confirm that water molecules that surround all the photosynthetic complex of the LANL protoorganism are main constructing factors and stabilize this system consisting of: PNA fragment attached by covalent bond sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule, lipid precursor molecule and fragment of lipid molecules mono layer. The absorption spectrum shift to the red wavelengths in the complex artificial protocell photosynthetic center might be used as the measure of the complexity of this system. The electron pi-pi* transitions in the first and third excited states are from HOMO and HOMO-1 located on the conjugated water molecules and sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the LUMO of the lipid precursor molecule as calculated using the time dependent (TD) PBEPBE/6-31G model. Electron charge tunneling in the first and third excited states should induce metabolic photodissociation of the lipid precursor molecule because of localization of the transferred electron cloud on the head (waste) of the lipid precursor molecule. TD electron correlation PBEPBE/6-31G calculations show that in the different energies of excitation, the charge transfer tunneling is from sensitizer to lipid precursor and cytosine molecules. One should note that in a water solvent, the electron charge transfer pi-pi* transition in the fifth and sixth excited state is from the HOMO and HOMO-1 located on the sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the LUMO+2 located on the cytosine-PNA fragment molecule. Investigation results indicate that strong back electron tunneling from the sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the cytosine molecule in the LANL artificial photosynthetic system exists. PMID:16736752

  16. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton–proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    E-print Network

    Apyan, Aram

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation ...

  17. Organic samples produced by ion bombardment of ices for the EXPOSE-R2 mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, G.; Chaput, D.; Cottin, H.; Fernandez Cascales, L.; Palumbo, M.; Strazzulla, G.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization (by UV-Vis-IR spectroscopy) of a set of organic samples, stable at room temperature and above, that are part of the experiment "Photochemistry on the Space Station (PSS)" planned to be enclosed in the EXPOSE-R2 mission, which will be conducted on the EXPOSE-R facility, outside the International Space Station (ISS). The organic materials are prepared in the Catania laboratory after 200 keV He+ irradiation of icy mixtures, namely N_2:CH_4:CO deposited at 16 K on MgF_2 windows furnished by European Space Agency. It is widely accepted that such kind of materials produced by energetic processing are representative of organic material in astrophysical environments such as, e.g., comets. Once expelled from comets these materials are exposed to solar radiation during their interplanetary journey before they eventually land on the Earth and other planetary objects where they might give a contribution to the chemical and pre-biotical evolution. In particular our residues contain different chemical groups, including triple CN bonds that are considered relevant to pre-biotic chemistry (e.g. Palumbo et al., 2000). Therefore the samples will be exposed, for several months, to the solar ultraviolet photons that are a major source of energy to initiate chemical evolution in the Solar System. This will allow analysis of their destruction and evaluation of their lifetime in the interplanetary medium. The samples have three different thicknesses (about 200, 130, 65 nm) that will allow the estimation of the depth profile of destruction (e.g., Baratta et al., 2002). This experiment overcomes the limits of ground tests which do not reproduce exactly the space parameters.

  18. Living Heritage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.

  19. Cross-Infection of Solid Organ Transplant Recipients by a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate Producing the OXA-48 Carbapenemase, Likely Derived from a Multiorgan Donor

    PubMed Central

    Giani, Tommaso; Conte, Viola; Mandalà, Salvatore; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Luzzaro, Francesco; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Grossi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We describe two cases of bacteremic infections caused by a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase that occurred in two solid organ transplant (liver and kidney) recipients, which was apparently transmitted with the allografts. This finding underscores the risk of donor-derived infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients and emphasizes the need for rapid screening of organ donors for carriage of similar pathogens. PMID:24759725

  20. Organic phosphorus compounds as a phosphorus source for higher plants through the activity of phosphatases produced by plant roots and microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C Tarafdar; N. Claassen

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency of phosphatases produced by clover, barley, oats and wheat was investigated in soils treated with sodium glycerophosphate, lecithin and phytin. Root exudates of aseptically grown clover were also examined for the breakdown of different organic P compounds in order to test the efficiency of plant-produced phosphatases. In general, the plants were able to use P from all the

  1. Molecules in Living Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-19

    This lesson explains the difference between molecules in living systems and inanimate objects. In living systems, atoms and molecules are organized to a much greater degree and provide the structure of the organism. Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are also discussed.

  2. Organic synthesis: the art and science of replicating the molecules of living nature and creating others like them in the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic organic chemists have the power to replicate some of the most intriguing molecules of living nature in the laboratory and apply their developed synthetic strategies and technologies to construct variations of them. Such molecules facilitate biology and medicine, as they often find uses as biological tools and drug candidates for clinical development. In addition, by employing sophisticated catalytic reactions and appropriately designed synthetic processes, they can synthesize not only the molecules of nature and their analogues, but also myriad other organic molecules for potential applications in many areas of science, technology and everyday life. After a short historical introduction, this article focuses on recent advances in the field of organic synthesis with demonstrative examples of total synthesis of complex bioactive molecules, natural or designed, from the author’s laboratories, and their impact on chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:24611027

  3. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.305...

  4. Living fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misbah, Chaouqi; Wagner, Christian

    2013-06-01

    One of the major emerging fields of research of the beginning of this century concerns living fluids. By "living fluids", we mean two major categories of complex fluids: (i) fluids which are essential to life, like blood, and (ii) active fluids made of particles that are able to propel themselves in the suspending fluid by converting a form of their energy into mechanical motion. Studies on active fluids have known a considerable interest since the last decade. Blood might be viewed as an old topic, but the progresses in experimental techniques, analytical concepts and numerics, have contributed nowadays to a dramatic renewal of the interest in this field, with a great potential towards understanding physical and mechanical factors in cardiovascular diseases. These fields have considerably strengthened interdisciplinary research. The series of reviews of this dossier focus on the tremendous recent progress achieved in research on living fluids both from the experimental and theoretical points of views. These reviews present also the major open issues, making of this dossier a unique guide for future research in these fields. This project grew up thanks to the international summer school that we organized on the topic "living fluids" at the IES (Institut d'études scientifiques) of Cargèse (Corsica) in 2012.

  5. WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-lived TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.

  6. Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.

    PubMed

    Smoli?ski, Adam; Sta?czyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 ?g/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed. PMID:23202571

  7. Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 ?C. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

  8. Frequency and Characteristics of Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Organisms in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Bahl, Dheeraj; Kaur, Nirmaljit; Maria, Arti; Dubey, Nand Kishore

    2013-01-01

    This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the frequency of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms, various bacteria producing ESBL, antibiotic susceptibility of these organisms, and the risk factors associated with these infections in a neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital in North India. Of the 150 neonates enrolled in the study, 47 culture-positive neonates were included in the study cohort and were divided into two groups: ESBL-positive (8 neonates) and ESBL-negative (39 neonates) cohorts. Various organisms were isolated from 72 culture samples in these 47 neonates. Of these, 10 culture samples grew ESBL-positive organisms and 62 samples grew ESBL-negative organisms. The frequency of ESBL-producing organisms was found to be 5.3%. ESBL infection incidence densities were found to be 3.4 per 1000 patient-days. Klebsiella (60%) was the most common organism producing ESBL followed by Escherichia coli (30%) and Pseudomonas (10%). Eighty percent of the ESBL-producing organisms were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam. Risk factors found significant by univariate analysis (P < 0.05) were preterm, low birthweight, perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, anaemia, metabolic acidosis, prolonged mechanical ventilation (>7 days), length of hospitalization, length of level 3 stay, prior antibiotic use, central venous catheter duration, peripherally inserted central venous catheter duration, and total parenteral nutrition duration. Factors that retained significance in the logistic regression model were duration of hospital stay (adjusted OR: 0.958, CI: 0.920–0.997, and P value = 0.037) and gestational age (adjusted OR: 1.39, CI: 1.037–1.865, and P value = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two groups. PMID:24175299

  9. Living Things and their Habitats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. D.

    2006-10-11

    Students will learn how to tell the difference between living and non-living organisms and their habitats. Our class has just learned about living things and their habitats. Use this webquest to create your own living things and their habitats. Remember a living thing: Grows Moves Reproduces A Habitat is a place (home) for living things. A habitat provides four important things: 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Space 4. Water Now you get to decide ...

  10. The Concept of Animal Welfare at the Interface between Producers and Scientists: The Example of Organic Pig Farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Leeb

    2011-01-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health,\\u000a ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes—besides traditional\\u000a terms of animal welfare—‘regeneration’ and ‘naturalness’. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use\\u000a complex parameters, include natural behaviour and

  11. Living Clocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about daily rhythms (on page 17 of the PDF), learners will explore circadian patterns in humans, animals and plants. They will observe that some behaviors and functions of living organisms vary predictably every 24 hours and many regular functions are governed by internal "clocks," which run independently but are cued or reset by the environment. Groups of learners can conduct one of four (or more) body clock investigations: body temperature, animal behavior, bean leaf, and alertness/heart rate. Materials required for each group will vary, depending on the investigation(s) being conducted. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

  12. EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

  13. Living organisms as an alternative to hyphenated techniques for metal speciation. Evaluation of baker's yeast immobilized on silica gel for Hg speciation*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Madrid-Albarrán, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen; Beceiro, Elisa

    1998-02-01

    The use of living organisms for metal preconcentration and speciation is discussed. Among substrates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast has been successfully used for the speciation of mercury [Hg(II) and CH 3Hg +], selenium [Se(IV) and Se(VI)] and antimony [Sb(III) and Sb(V)]. To illustrate the capabilities of these organisms, the analytical performance of baker's yeast immobilized on silica gel for on-line preconcentration and speciation of Hg(II) and methylmercury is reported. The immobilized cells were packed in a PTFE microcolumn, through which mixtures of organic and inorganic mercury solutions were passed. Retention of inorganic and organic mercury solutions took place simultaneously, with the former retained in the silica and the latter on the yeast. The efficiency uptake for both species was higher than 95% over a wide pH range. The speciation was carried out by selective and sequential elution with 0.02 mol L -1 HCl for methylmercury and 0.8 mol L -1 CN - for Hg(II). This method allows both preconcentration and speciation of mercury. The preconcentration factors were around 15 and 100 for methylmercury and mercury(II), respectively. The method has been successfully applied to spiked sea water samples.

  14. Outcome of Cephalosporin Treatment for Serious Infections Due to Apparently Susceptible Organisms Producing Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamases: Implications for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. PATERSON; WEN-CHIEN KO; ANNE VON GOTTBERG; JOSE MARIA CASELLAS; LUTFIYE MULAZIMOGLU; KEITH P. KLUGMAN; ROBERT A. BONOMO; LOUIS B. RICE; JOSEPH G. MCCORMACK; VICTOR L. YU

    Although extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) hydrolyze cephalosporin antibiotics, some ESBL- producing organisms are not resistant to all cephalosporins when tested in vitro. Some authors have suggested that screening klebsiellae or Escherichia coli for ESBL production is not clinically necessary, and when most recently surveyed the majority of American clinical microbiology laboratories did not make efforts to detect ESBLs. We performed a

  15. Outcome of Cephalosporin Treatment for Serious Infections Due to Apparently Susceptible Organisms Producing Extended-Spectrum  -Lactamases: Implications for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. PATERSON; WEN-CHIEN KO; ANNE VON GOTTBERG; JOSE MARIA CASELLAS; LUTFIYE MULAZIMOGLU; KEITH P. KLUGMAN; ROBERT A. BONOMO; LOUIS B. RICE; JOSEPH G. MCCORMACK; VICTOR L. YU

    2001-01-01

    Although extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) hydrolyze cephalosporin antibiotics, some ESBL- producing organisms are not resistant to all cephalosporins when tested in vitro. Some authors have suggested that screening klebsiellae or Escherichia coli for ESBL production is not clinically necessary, and when most recently surveyed the majority of American clinical microbiology laboratories did not make efforts to detect ESBLs. We performed a

  16. Viscoelastic Retraction of Single Living Stress Fibers and Its Impact on Cell Shape, Cytoskeletal Organization, and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Sanjay

    and exerting traction forces on their extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesions. Individual stress fibers receptors bind extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins; integrins then cluster within focal adhesions, thereby Organization, and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics Sanjay Kumar,* Iva Z. Maxwell,y Alexander Heisterkamp,y Thomas

  17. A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10¿µg¿C¿m-2¿hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

  18. Peptide-coated semiconductor quantum dots and their applications in biological imaging of single molecules in live cells and organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaud, Fabien Florent

    2007-12-01

    A new surface chemistry has been developed for the solubilization and biofunctionalization of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals fluorescent probes, also known as quantum dots. This chemistry is based on the surface coating of quantum dots with custom-designed polycysteine peptides and yields water-soluble, small, monodispersed and colloidally stable probes that remain bright and photostable in complex biological milieus. This peptide coating strategy was successfully tested on several types of core and core-shell quantum dots emitting from the visible (e.g. CdSe/ZnS) to the NIR spectrum range (e.g. CdTe/CdSe/ZnS). By taking advantage of the versatile physico-chemical properties of peptides, a peptide "toolkit" was designed and employed to impart several biological functions to individual quantum dots and control their biochemical activity at the nanometer scale. These biofunctionalized peptide-coated quantum dots were exploited in very diverse biological applications. Near-infrared emitting quantum dot probes were engineered with optimized blood circulation and biodistribution properties for in vivo animal imaging. Visible emitting quantum dots were used for single molecule tracking of raft-associated GPI-anchored proteins in live cells. This last application revealed the presence of discrete and non-caveolar lipid microdomains capable of impeding free lateral diffusions in the plasma membrane of Hela cells. Imaging and tracking of peptide-coated quantum dots provided the first direct evidence that microdomains having the composition and behavior expected for lipid rafts can induce molecular compartmentalization in the membrane of living cells.

  19. Lives, the Biography Resource

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lives, the Biography Resource, is a comprehensive guide to more than one thousand biographical information resources available on the Web. The briefly annotated guide indexes resources by individual names and also organizes resources into several collections, which collocate related resources according to subject, region, era, profession, etc. In addition, the guide includes Inside Lives, a section that features new and noteworthy sites covering biographies, autobiographies, memoirs, oral histories, personal papers, and more. Lives is updated weekly.

  20. Microbiological quality of organic vegetables produced in soil treated with different types of manure and mineral fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Débora Cabral Machado; Carla Marques Maia; Isabel Dias Carvalho; Natan Fontoura da Silva; Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borge André; Álvaro Bisol Serafini

    2006-01-01

    An attempt was made to evaluate microbiological quality of horticultural crops grown organically. Three species of vegetables were used, lettuce (Lactuva sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) and spinach (Tetragonia expansa), grown organically, in fertile soil. Six different treatments were applied: mineral fertilizer, chicken, cow, and pig manure, chicken litter and cow manure, in association with a liquid foliar biofertilizer. These crops

  1. Producer-Researcher Interactions on On-Farm Research: A Case Study on Developing a Certified Organic Research Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing consumer demand for organic products has created a need for certified organic research sites. Our objective is to discuss the lessons learned from evaluating alternate cropping systems to establish such a site in western Iowa. Oat (Avena sativa L.), 'Kelson' snail medic (Medicago scutelat...

  2. Three-year comparison of the polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in organically and conventionally produced apples ( Malus domestica Bork. Cultivar 'Golden Delicious').

    PubMed

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Weibel, Franco P; Bub, Achim; Watzl, Bernhard

    2009-06-10

    The present study was performed to evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of apples (cv. ;Golden Delicious') grown under defined organic and conventional conditions. Apples were harvested at five comparable commercial farms over the course of three years (2004-2006). In 2005 and 2006 the antioxidant capacity was 15% higher (p < 0.05) in organically produced apples than in conventionally produced fruits. In 2005 significantly higher polyphenol concentrations were found in the organically grown apples. In 2004 and 2006 no significant differences were observed (2004, 304 +/- 68 microg/g organic vs 284 +/- 69 microg/g conventional, p = 0.18; 2005, 302 +/- 58 micro/g organic vs 253 +/- 41 microg/g conventional, p = 0.002; 2006, 402 +/- 100 microg/g organic vs 365 +/- 58 microg/g conventional, p = 0.17). Year-to-year variations in the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol content of up to 20% were more significant than the production method found within one year. Finally, flavanols and flavonols were major determinants of the antioxidant capacities in these apples. Overall, the production method had a smaller impact on the variation in the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of apples than the yearly climate. PMID:19388640

  3. Long-lived glycosyl-enzyme intermediate mimic produced by formate re-activation of a mutant endoglucanase lacking its catalytic nucleophile.

    PubMed Central

    Viladot, J L; Canals, F; Batllori, X; Planas, A

    2001-01-01

    The mutant E134A 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanase from Bacillus licheniformis, in which the catalytic nucleophilic residue has been removed by mutation to alanine, has its hydrolytic activity rescued by exogenous formate in a concentration-dependent manner. A long-lived alpha-glycosyl formate is detected and identified by (1)H-NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-MS. The intermediate is kinetically competent, since it is, at least partially, enzymically hydrolysed, and able to act as a glycosyl donor in transglycosylation reactions. This transient compound represents a true covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate mimic of the proposed covalent intermediate in the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosidases. PMID:11256951

  4. Living and Nonliving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2003-09-26

    What is it that distinguishes a living organism from a nonliving object? This collection of images presents examples that aren't as clear-cut as one might think, enticing students to question the meaning of life.

  5. Low levels of fixed nitrogen required for isolation of free-living N2-fixing organisms from rice roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iwao Watanabe; Wilfredo L. Barraquio

    1979-01-01

    ISOLATION and counting of N2-fixing bacteria from the natural environment have until now been conducted on selective N-free media. It is likely that some N2-fixing bacteria are overlooked by using this procedure. We now report that most of the bacteria present in rice roots are N2-fixers, but that they require a supply of mineral or organic N for growth. In

  6. Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level.1. Using the LASCA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianova, O. V.; Uianov, S. S.; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

    2011-04-01

    A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals.

  7. Organic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

  8. The Living Soil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Soil is home to vast numbers of organisms, and even small sections of earth teem with a diverse array of life. This Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the world beneath our feet through the lens of soil biologists and ecologists. The first website (1) provides information about the activities of a Natural Environment Research Council-supported research program "on the biological diversity of soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes." The second site (2) contains information about several research projects of the Ecology of Soil Organisms Theme Group at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Theme Group studies "soil organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem level, to ultimately increase understanding of the role of soil organisms." The third site (3) contains a list of publications spanning the past fifteen years from members of the Soil Ecology Group at the University of Jyv'skyl". The site also provides basic information about group members, and concise descriptions of current research projects. From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the fourth website (4) contains an online version of the _Soil Biology Primer_, "an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms." The online version of the Primer contains the entire text of the original published version, but is missing some useful soil organism images. The fifth site (5) links to sixteen movies relating to different aspects of soil biology such as nematodes, mites, springtails, and protozoa. The movies were all produced by Dr. Thomas E. Loynachan, a Professor of Agronomy and Microbiology at Iowa State University. Finally, Soils Are Alive (6) was developed by Professor Lyn Abbot of the University of Western Australia and Jen Slater, a qualified secondary school science teacher. This website contains informative, concise sections addressing Soil Biology, Biological Processes, Living Components, and Ecosystem Management.

  9. Subcellular Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Bivalve Modiolus Modiolus Living Along a Metal Contamination Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgurskaya, Olga V.; Kavun, Victor Ya.

    2006-03-01

    Concentration and distribution of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni among subcellular fractions (cellular membrane structures and cytosol) and Zn, Cu, Cd among cytoplasmic proteins in the kidney and digestive gland of mussel Modiolus modiolus living along a polymetallic concentration gradient were studied. It was found in the kidney of M. modiolus from contaminated sites that the Fe percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn percent increased in the cytosol compared to the kidney of the control mussel. Note kidney cytosol of M. modiolus from clean and contaminated sites sequestered major parts of Cu and Cd. In the digestive gland of M. modiolus from contaminated sites Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Cu, Pb percent increased in the cytosol compared to digestive gland of control mussel. Gel-filtration chromatography shows kidney of M. modiolus contains increased metallothionein-like protein levels irrespective of ambient dissolved metal concentrations. It was shown that the metal detoxification system in the kidney and digestive gland of M. modiolus was efficient under extremely high ambient metal levels. However, under complex environmental contamination in the kidney of M. modiolus, the metal detoxification capacity of metallothionein-like proteins was damaged.

  10. The Normality of Living in Surveillance Societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Murakami Wood; C. William R. Webster

    \\u000a It is increasingly argued that contemporary capitalist nations have become ‘surveillance societies’ in which surveillance\\u000a related activities are embedded as the core mode of organization, production and societal order (Lyon 1994, 2001, 2007). But what does it mean to live in a surveillance society and what economic, political and social relations are produced?\\u000a These are the key questions addressed in

  11. Thermal Solitons in 1d and 2d Anharmonic Lattices - Solectrons and the Organization of Non-Linear Fluctuations in Long-Living Dynamical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, M. G.; Ebeling, W.; Chetverikov, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermal excitation of intrinsic localized modes in the form of solitons in 1d and 2d anharmonic lattices at moderately high temperatures. Such finite-amplitude fluctuations form long-living dynamical structures with life-time in the pico-second range thus surviving a relatively long time in comparison to other thermal fluctuations. Further we discuss the influence of such long-living fluctuations on the dynamics of added excess free electrons. The atomic lattice units are treated as quasi-classical objects interacting by Morse forces and stochastically moving according to Langevin equations. In 2d the atoms are initially organized in a triangular lattice. The electron distributions are in a first estimate represented by equilibrium adiabatic distributions in the actual polarization fields. Computer simulations show that in 2d systems such excitations are moving with supersonic velocities along lattice rows oriented with the cristallographic axes. By following the electron distributions we have also been able to study the excitations of solectron type (electron-soliton dynamic bound states) and estimate their life times.

  12. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach ‘special advice’ for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed the threshold limit value of the mixture (P > 1 = 0.2375), the expected personal exposure after adjusting for the assigned protection factor for the respirators in use would be considerably lower (P > 1 = 0.0161). Thus, our findings suggested that the COSHH essentials model worked reasonably well for the volatile organic chemicals at the plant. However, it was difficult to override the reproductive hazard even though it was meant to be possible in principle. Further, it became apparent that an input of existing controls, which is not possible in the web-based model, may have allowed the model be more widely applicable. The experience of using the web-based COSHH Essentials model generated some suggestions to provide a more user-friendly tool to the model users who do not have expertise in occupational hygiene. PMID:21047985

  13. Potency of Melatonin in Living Beings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donchan

    2013-01-01

    Living beings are surrounded by various changes exhibiting periodical rhythms in environment. The environmental changes are imprinted in organisms in various pattern. The phenomena are believed to match the external signal with organisms in order to increase their survival rate. The signals are categorized into circadian, seasonal, and annual cycles. Among the cycles, the circadian rhythm is regarded as the most important factor because its periodicity is in harmony with the levels of melatonin secreted from pineal gland. Melatonin is produced by the absence of light and its presence displays darkness. Melatonin plays various roles in creatures. Therefore, this review is to introduce the diverse potential ability of melatonin in manifold aspects in living organism. PMID:25949131

  14. Dynamics and Characterization of Refractory Dissolved Organic Matter Produced by a Pure Bacterial Culture in an Experimental Predator-Prey System

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, David F.; Simjouw, Jean-Paul; Seitzinger, Sybil P.; Taghon, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of a bacterium (Pseudomonas chlororaphis) and a bactivorous protozoan (Uronema sp.) on transformations of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In 36-day time series experiments, bacteria were grown on glucose both with and without protozoa. We measured bulk organic carbon pools and used electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to characterize dissolved organic matter on a molecular level. Bacteria rapidly utilized glucose, depleting it to nondetectable levels and producing new DOC compounds of higher molecular weight within 2 days. Some of these new compounds, representing 3 to 5% of the initial glucose-C, were refractory and persisted for over a month. Other new compounds were produced and subsequently used by bacteria during the lag and exponential growth phases, pointing to a dynamic cycling of organic compounds. Grazers caused a temporary spike in the DOC concentration consisting of labile compounds subsequently utilized by the bacteria. Grazing did not increase the complexity of the DOC pool already established by the bacteria but did continually decrease the particulate organic carbon pool and expedited the conversion of glucose-C to CO2. After 36 days, 29% of initial glucose-C remained in pure bacteria cultures, while only 6% remained in cultures where a grazer was present. In this study the bacteria were the primary shapers of the complex DOC continuum, suggesting higher trophic levels possibly have less of an impact on the qualitative composition of DOC than previously assumed. PMID:16751530

  15. Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S

    2004-04-01

    When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered. PMID:15041429

  16. A high-frequency response relaxed eddy accumulation flux measurement system for sampling short-lived biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnts, Robert R.; Mowry, Fred L.; Hampton, Gary A.

    2013-05-01

    second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m-2 hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozone removal procedure to allow for the measurement of highly reactive species such as ?-caryophyllene and polar terpenoids such as linalool. A two-component internal standard continuously added to the accumulators was used to correct for switching-induced volumetric errors and as a check on VOC losses exceeding accumulator tube adsorption limits. In addition, the internal standards were used to demonstrate that accumulators quickly return to target flow rates at segregation valve switching frequencies up to at least 0.8 Hz. The system was able to measure daytime hourly fluxes of individual biogenic VOC including oxygenated terpenoids, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes.

  17. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E; López, Nancy I; Levin, Laura; Pettinari, M Julia

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel(T) can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34mel(T) belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The most relevant phenotypic characteristics of 34mel(T) are pectin degradation, a distinctive trait of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, and melanin production. Genes coding for three pectate lyases were detected in a cluster, unique to this microorganism, that contains all genes needed for pectin degradation. Melanin synthesis in 34mel(T) is hypothesized to occur through the homogentisate pathway, as no tyrosinases or laccases were detected and the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene is inactivated by a transposon insertion, leading to the accumulation of the melanin precursor homogentisate. Comparative genome analysis of other melanogenic Aeromonas strains revealed that this gene was inactivated by transposon insertions or point mutations, indicating that melanin biosynthesis in Aeromonas occurs through the homogentisate pathway. Horizontal gene transfer could have contributed to the adaptation of 34mel(T) to a highly polluted environment, as 13 genomic islands were identified in its genome, some of them containing genes coding for fitness-related traits. Heavy metal resistance genes were also found, along with others associated with oxidative and nitrosative stresses. These characteristics, together with melanin production and the ability to use different substrates, may explain the ability of this microorganism to live in an extremely polluted environment. PMID:26025898

  18. Emergence of DHA1-Producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian Region: Genetic Organization of the ampC and ampR Genes Originating from Morganella morganii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Verdet; Yahia Benzerara; Valerie Gautier; Olivier Adam; Zahia Ould-Hocine; Guillaume Arlet

    2006-01-01

    Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C -lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the blaDHA-1 genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the

  19. Self-sufficiency of motor fuels on organic farms – Evaluation of systems based on fuels produced in industrial-scale plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-A. Hansson; A. Baky; S. Ahlgren; S. Bernesson; Å. Nordberg; O. Norén; O. Pettersson

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate systems for making organic farms self-sufficient in bio-based fuels. The energy efficiency and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas produced by processing raw material from the farm in industrial-scale plants were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Eventual constraints when implementing the systems in

  20. Living Wage Calculator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glasmeier, Amy

    In many parts of the United States, families working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to live locally given the high cost of living. Some of this can be due to rising real estate costs and the like and a number of organizations have worked to craft living wage legislation in a number of cities. This Living Wage calculator helps visitors estimate the cost of living in their community or region. Visitors can get started by selecting a location from the list presented here. Additionally, they can also use the search engine to look for specific places. For each place, visitors can learn about the living wage, typical expenses, and so on. It's an interesting policy tool and it can be used to teach students about economics, the job market, and much more.

  1. Theresa-Marie Rhyne has lately been organizing efforts for a number of researchers to produce lists

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jonathan E.

    visualization systems catch up a little with the large data sets produced by super- computers. But none view their large data sets (or at least what were considered large data sets in 1989) and interactively of top visualization problems, and I am flattered to be included. A recent Visualization Viewpoints

  2. Optimization of the treatment cycle of pressed-off leachate produced in a facility processing the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    d'Antonio, Luca; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2015-06-01

    The paper investigates, at a laboratory scale, the applicability of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of pressed-off leachate produced in a biomechanical treatment plant for municipal solid waste. Batch tests show that the anaerobic process proceeds smoothly and produces about 10,000?mL of methane per litre of treated leachate. The process is characterized by a lag phase lasting about 30 days, and is completed in about 2 months. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acids monitoring allows studying process kinetics that are modelled through a triple linear expression. Physical and biological treatments are also investigated to reduce the residual organic charge of the produced digestate. The best performances are obtained via aerobic degradation followed by assisted sedimentation. This cycle reduces the residual COD of about 85%, and allows the correct disposal of the final waste stream. PMID:25422035

  3. Creating living machines

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Roger D.; Bashir, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Development of increasingly complex integrated cellular systems will be a major challenge for the next decade and beyond, as we apply the knowledge gained from the sub-disciplines of tissue engineering, synthetic biology, micro-fabrication and nanotechnology, systems biology, and developmental biology. In this prospective, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the context of differentiating source cells from more primitive, pluripotent cells, and organizing these cells into populations of a single cell type to produce the components or building blocks of higher order systems and finally, combining multiple cell types, possibly in combination with scaffolds possessing specific physical or chemical properties, to produce greater functionality. As these “living machines” increase in capabilities, exhibit emergent behavior and potentially reveal the ability for self-assembly, self-repair, and even self-replication, questions arise regarding the ethical implications of this work. Future prospects as well as ways of addressing these complex ethical questions will be addressed. PMID:24006130

  4. Antimould activity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria: identification of a mixture of organic acids produced by Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Corsetti; M. Gobbetti; J. Rossi; P. Damiani

    1998-01-01

    Sourdough lactic acid bacteria, cultivated in wheat flour hydrolysate, produced antimould compounds. The antimould activity\\u000a varied greatly among the strains and was mainly detected within obligately heterofermentative Lactobacillus spp. Among these, Lb. sanfrancisco CB1 had the largest spectrum. It inhibited moulds related to bread spoilage such as Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monilia. A mixture of acetic, caproic, formic, propionic, butyric

  5. Origin, transport and fate of the dissolved organic matter produced in the watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva Junior, Jomar; Soares Gonçalves Serafim, Tassiana; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Dittmar, Thorsten; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is an important river from Southeastern Brazil that flows through the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The PSR is responsible for the water supply of over 14 million of the habitants. Due the human occupation and anthropic pressure, only 8% of it is original forest cover remains in the form of small fragmented patches. The remaining of the basin is mostly covered by grasses, such as pasture and sugar cane. Isotopic studies allows the monitoring of ecosystem changes and promotes specific links between ecology, land use and biogeochemical processes. We investigated the isotopic composition of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in PSR. Our objective was to identify how extensive land use changes, from forest (C3 Plants) to pasture and sugar cane (C4 Plants), have affected river biogeochemistry of organic matter transported by PSR. Water samples were collected at 24 sites along the main channel of the PSR, 14 sites samples at the tributaries and 21 sites samples in the estuarine and marine environmental until 35km of the coast. Sampling was performed in the wet season of the 2013 and the dry season of the 2013. The fluvial and estuarine samples were processed with conventional filtration and the marine samples were processed with the cross-flow filtration. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the PPL cartridges (Styrene divinyl benzene polymer). Isotope measurements, organic carbon and nitrogen concentration were performed with a isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (Thermo Finningan). The ?13C and the ?15N values ranged from -20.0‰ and -29.0‰, and from -0.80 to 4.59 respectively, while the (C/N)a ratio varied between 8 and 41. The ?13C were depleted in 13C at the river samples from the wet season, and in the estuary and marine areas as well. The ?13C average values observed during the wet season in the PSR and in the estuarine samples are close to those recorded for the soil of the Rain Forest and mangrove species, respectively. These results suggest an input contribution of the allochthonous organic matter due to washing of the soil during the rainy season. The ?13C values found in the samples more distant from the coast showed a terrigenous organic matter input in marine environmental due the high flow. In the dry season the ?13C values showed indicated predominance of the autochthonous production. Downstream of the PSR, the ?13C and ?15N values were enriched in both seasons, showing the influence of the cover substitution from Rain Forest to pasture and sugar cane, that has more enriched values of the 13C and 15N. In conclusion, DOM transported by PSR is formed by multiple sources (a mixture of C3 and C4 plants and autochthonous production), showing that the land use in the watershed and the discharge of domestic and industrial effluents promote a qualitative change in the MOD of the water column of the river.

  6. Moving to Produce: Nukak Mobility and Settlement Patterns in Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo G. Politis

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents original information on the mobility and settlement patterns of the Nukak, who live between the Guaviare and Inirida rivers in the Colombian Amazon. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of how egalitarian societies produce spatial arrangements in order to organize their settlements and to exploit the tropical rain forest resources. Traditional Nukak

  7. A case study on co-exposure to a mixture of organic solvents in a Tunisian adhesive-producing company

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives to assess environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organic solvents in a glue-manufacturing company in Sfax, Tunisia. Methods Exposure of volunteer workers, in the solvented glue-work-stations, in the control laboratory and in the storage rooms of the finished products, was assessed through indoor-air and urine measurements. Informed consent of the workers was obtained. Results and discussion The exposure indexes were found with high values in the solvented workshop as well as in the control laboratory and were respectively, 8.40 and 3.12. These indexes were also correlated with hexane and toluene indoor air concentrations. As to urine, the obtained results for the 2,5-hexandione and hippuric acid, metabolites of hexane and toluene, respectively, were in accord with the indoor-air measurements, with an average of 0.46 mg/l and 1240 mg/g of creatinine. Conclusion This study assessed for the first time biological exposure to organic solvents used in Tunisian adhesive industries. Although values are likely to underestimate true exposure levels, some figures exceed European and American occupational exposure guidelines. PMID:22082240

  8. Trimethylamine and Organic Matter Additions Reverse Substrate Limitation Effects on the ?13C Values of Methane Produced in Hypersaline Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Brooke E.; Beaudoin, Claire S.; Detweiler, Angela M.; Bebout, Brad M.

    2014-01-01

    Methane production has been observed in a number of hypersaline environments, and it is generally thought that this methane is produced through the use of noncompetitive substrates, such as the methylamines, dimethylsulfide and methanol. Stable isotope measurements of the produced methane have also suggested that the methanogens are operating under conditions of substrate limitation. Here, substrate limitation in gypsum-hosted endoevaporite and soft-mat hypersaline environments was investigated by the addition of trimethylamine, a noncompetitive substrate for methanogenesis, and dried microbial mat, a source of natural organic matter. The ?13C values of the methane produced after amendments were compared to those in unamended control vials. At all hypersaline sites investigated, the ?13C values of the methane produced in the amended vials were statistically lower (by 10 to 71‰) than the unamended controls, supporting the hypothesis of substrate limitation at these sites. When substrates were added to the incubation vials, the methanogens within the vials fractionated carbon isotopes to a greater degree, resulting in the production of more 13C-depleted methane. Trimethylamine-amended samples produced lower methane ?13C values than the mat-amended samples. This difference in the ?13C values between the two types of amendments could be due to differences in isotope fractionation associated with the dominant methane production pathway (or substrate used) within the vials, with trimethylamine being the main substrate used in the trimethylamine-amended vials. It is hypothesized that increased natural organic matter in the mat-amended vials would increase fermentation rates, leading to higher H2 concentrations and increased CO2/H2 methanogenesis. PMID:25239903

  9. The Effects of Trimethylamine and Organic Matter Additions on the Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of Methane Produced in Hypersaline Microbial Mat Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, C. A.; Nicholson, B. E.; Beaudoin, C. S.; Detweiler, A. M.; Bebout, B.

    2014-12-01

    Methane production has been observed in a number of hypersaline environments, and it is generally thought that this methane is produced through the use of non-competitive substrates, such as the methylamines, methanol and dimethylsulfide. The stable carbon isotopic composition of the produced methane has suggested that the methanogens are operating under conditions of substrate limitation. We investigated substrate limitation in gypsum-hosted endoevaporite and soft mat hypersaline environments by the additions of trimethylamine, a non-competitive substrate for methanogenesis, and dried microbial mat, a source of natural organic matter. The ?13C values of the methane produced after amendments were compared to those in unamended control vials. At all hypersaline sites investigated, the ?13C values of the methane produced in the amended vials were statistically lower (by 10 to 71 ‰) than the unamended controls, supporting the hypothesis of substrate limitation at these sites. When substrates were added to the incubation vials, the methanogens within the vials fractionated carbon isotopes to a greater degree, resulting in the production of more 13C-depleted methane. Trimethylamine-amended samples produced lower methane ?13C values than the mat-amended samples. This difference in the ?13C values between the two types of amendments could be due to differences in isotope fractionation associated with the dominant methane production pathway (or substrate used) within the vials, with trimethylamine being the main substrate used in the trimethylamine-amended vials. We hypothesize that increased natural organic matter in the mat-amended vials would increase fermentation rates, leading to higher H2 concentrations and increased CO2/H2 methanogenesis.

  10. Ultraviolet and visible complex refractive indices of secondary organic material produced by photooxidation of the aromatic compounds toluene and m-xylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P. F.; Abdelmalki, N.; Hung, H.-M.; Wang, Y.; Brune, W. H.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-02-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) produced by the oxidation of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds can be light-absorbing (i.e., brown carbon). Spectral data of the optical properties, however, are scarce. The present study obtained the continuous spectra of the real and imaginary refractive indices (m = n-i k) in the ultraviolet (UV)-to-visible region using spectroscopic ellipsometry for n and UV-visible spectrometry for k. Several different types of SOM were produced in an oxidation flow reactor by photooxidation of toluene and m-xylene for variable concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The results show that the k values of the anthropogenically derived material were at least 10 times greater than those of the biogenically derived material. The presence of NOx was associated with the production of organonitrogen compounds, such as nitro-aromatics and organonitrates, which enhanced light absorption. Compared with the SOM derived from m-xylene, the toluene-derived SOM had larger k values, as well as a greater NOx-induced enhancement, suggesting different brown-carbon-forming potentials of different aromatic precursor compounds. The results imply that anthropogenic SOM produced around urban environments can have an important influence on ultraviolet irradiance, which might consequently influence photochemical cycles of urban pollution.

  11. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  12. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60°C and 3.0mL100kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  13. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

  14. Fusicoccin-induced catalase inhibitor is produced independently of H+-ATPase activation and behaves as an organic acid.

    PubMed

    Beffagna, Nicoletta; Riva, Marzia Alessandra

    2011-06-01

    The phytotoxin fusicoccin (FC) was found to induce an increase in apoplastic H?O? content in Arabidopsis thaliana cells, apparently linked to the presence of an as yet unidentified catalase inhibitor detectable even in the external medium of FC-treated cells. This study, aimed to further characterize the inhibitor's features, shows that (1) FC-induced H?O? accumulation increases as a function of FC concentration and correlates to the amount of inhibitor released at apoplastic level. The pattern of H+ efflux, conversely, does not fit with that of these two parameters, suggesting that neither the production nor the release of the catalase inhibitor is linked to the main role of FC in activating the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase; (2) treatment with 10 µM erythrosine B (EB) early and totally inhibits net H+ and K+ fluxes across the PM, indicative of the H+ pump activity; nevertheless, also in these conditions a huge FC-induced H?O? accumulation occurs, confirming that this effect is not related to the FC-induced PM H+-ATPase activation; (3) the inhibitor's release increases with time in all conditions tested and is markedly affected by extracellular pH (a higher pH value being associated to a larger efflux), in agreement with a weak acid release; and (4) the inhibitor can be almost completely recovered in a CH?C?-soluble fraction extracted from the incubation medium by sequential acid-base partitioning which contains nearly all of the organic acids released. These final results strongly suggest that the metabolite responsible for the FC-induced catalase inhibition belongs to the organic acid class. PMID:21320127

  15. Some harmful algae produce potent toxins which cause illness or death in humans

    E-print Network

    Issue Some harmful algae produce potent toxins which cause illness or death in humans and other organisms, including endangered species. Other harmful algae are non-toxic to humans and wildlife, and organisms living on the sea-bottom. Human health and ecosystem impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs

  16. Creation of Superheterojunction Polymers via Direct Polycondensation: Segregated and Bicontinuous Donor-Acceptor ?-Columnar Arrays in Covalent Organic Frameworks for Long-Lived Charge Separation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shangbin; Supur, Mustafa; Addicoat, Matthew; Furukawa, Ko; Chen, Long; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Irle, Stephan; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-24

    By developing metallophthalocyanines and diimides as electron-donating and -accepting building blocks, herein, we report the construction of new electron donor-acceptor covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with periodically ordered electron donor and acceptor ?-columnar arrays via direct polycondensation reactions. X-ray diffraction measurements in conjunction with structural simulations resolved that the resulting frameworks consist of metallophthalocyanine and diimide columns, which are ordered in a segregated yet bicontinuous manner to form built-in periodic ?-arrays. In the frameworks, each metallophthalocyanine donor and diimide acceptor units are exactly linked and interfaced, leading to the generation of superheterojunctions-a new type of heterojunction machinery, for photoinduced electron transfer and charge separation. We show that this polycondensation method is widely applicable to various metallophthalocyanines and diimides as demonstrated by the combination of copper, nickel, and zinc phthalocyanine donors with pyrommellitic diimide, naphthalene diimide, and perylene diimide acceptors. By using time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy and electron spin resonance, we demonstrated that the COFs enable long-lived charge separation, whereas the metal species, the class of acceptors, and the local geometry between donor and acceptor units play roles in determining the photochemical dynamics. The results provide insights into photoelectric COFs and demonstrate their enormous potential for charge separation and photoenergy conversions. PMID:26030399

  17. Successful rescue of disseminated varicella infection with multiple organ failure in a pediatric living donor liver transplant recipient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Naoya; Sanada, Yukihiro; Okada, Noriki; Wakiya, Taiichi; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Urahashi, Taizen; Mizuta, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old female patient with biliary atresia underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Twelve months after the LDLT, she developed acute hepatitis (alanine aminotransferase 584 IU/L) and was diagnosed with disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with high level of serum VZV-DNA (1.5?×?10(5) copies/mL) and generalized vesicular rash. She had received the VZV vaccination when she was 5-years-old and had not been exposed to chicken pox before the LDLT, and her serum was positive for VZV immunoglobulin G at the time of the LDLT. Although she underwent treatment with intravenous acyclovir, intravenous immunoglobulin, and withdrawal of immunosuppressants, her symptoms worsened and were accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation, pneumonia, and encephalitis. These complications required treatment in the intensive care unit for 16 days. Five weeks later, her clinical findings improved, although her VZV-DNA levels remained high (8.5?×?10(3)copies/mL). Oral acyclovir was added for 2 weeks, and she was eventually discharged from our hospital on day 86 after admission; she has not experienced a recurrence. In conclusion, although disseminated VZV infection with multiple organ failure after pediatric LDLT is a life-threatening disease, it can be cured via an early diagnosis and intensive treatment. PMID:26081644

  18. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

  19. Fractionation of the three stable oxygen isotopes by oxygen-producing and oxygen-consuming reactions in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Helman, Yael; Barkan, Eugeni; Eisenstadt, Doron; Luz, Boaz; Kaplan, Aaron

    2005-08-01

    The triple isotope composition (delta17O and delta18O) of dissolved O2 in the ocean and in ice cores was recently used to assess the primary productivity over broad spatial and temporal scales. However, assessment of the productivity with the aid of this method must rely on accurate measurements of the 17O/16O versus 18O/16O relationship in each of the main oxygen-producing and -consuming reactions. Data obtained here showed that cleavage of water in photosystem II did not fractionate oxygen isotopes; the delta18O and delta17O of the O2 evolved were essentially identical to those of the substrate water. The fractionation slopes for the oxygenase reaction of Rubisco and respiration were identical (0.518 +/- 0.001) and that of glycolate oxidation was 0.503 +/- 0.002. There was a considerable difference in the slopes of O2 photoreduction (the Mehler reaction) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (0.497 +/- 0.004) and that of pea (Pisum sativum) thylakoids (0.526 +/- 0.001). These values provided clear and independent evidence that the mechanism of O2 photoreduction differs between higher plants and cyanobacteria. We used our method to assess the magnitude of O2 photoreduction in cyanobacterial cells maintained under conditions where photorespiration was negligible. It was found that electron flow to O2 can be as high as 40% that leaving photosystem II, whereas respiratory activity in the light is only 6%. The implications of our findings to the evaluation of specific O2-producing or -consuming reactions, in vivo, are discussed. PMID:16040650

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Zima, Tatyana, E-mail: Zima@solid.nsc.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Baklanova, Natalya [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Bataev, Ivan [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

  1. Passive dosing for producing defined and constant exposure of hydrophobic organic compounds during in vitro toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kilian E C; Oostingh, Gertie J; Mayer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in plastic cell culture plates is problematic due to compound losses through volatilization and sorption to the wells and culture medium constituents. This leads to poorly defined exposure and reduced test sensitivity. Passive dosing can overcome these problems by the continual partitioning of HOCs from a dominating reservoir loaded in a biologically inert polymer such as silicone, providing defined and constant freely dissolved concentrations and also eliminating spiking with cosolvents. This study aimed to select a suitable passive dosing format for in vitro tests in multiwell plates and characterize its performance at 37 degrees C. Silicone O-rings were the most suitable format; they were both practical and demonstrated excellent passive dosing performance. (1) The rings were loaded by partitioning from a methanol solution containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (log K(OW), 3.33-6.43) that served as model compounds, followed by removal of the methanol with water. This resulted in highly reproducible HOC concentrations in the silicone O-rings. (2) The release of PAHs into aqueous solutions was rapid and reproducible, with equilibrium partitioning being reached within hours. (3) The buffering capacity of the O-rings was sufficient to maintain stable concentrations over more than 72 h. The O-rings were then applied to test a range of PAHs at their aqueous solubility in an array of established in vitro cell culture assays with human cells and cell lines. These included the formation of reactive oxygen species, induction of the IL-8 cytokine promoter, and secretion of MCP-1 by the cells. The biological responses depended on the melting point of the individual PAHs and their maximum chemical activities (a(max)). Only those PAHs with the highest a(max) stimulated the formation of reactive oxygen species and MCP-1 secretion, while they inhibited the induction of the IL-8 cytokine promoter. PMID:19928796

  2. Lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of triricinolein in organic solvent to produce 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charlotta; He, Xiaohua; Nguyen, Tasha; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Wong, Rosalind Y; Lundin, Robert E; Harden, Leslie; McKeon, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to find the optimal parameters for lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of triricinolein to produce 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein. Four different immobilized lipases were tested, Candida antarctica type B (CALB), Rhizomucor miehei (RML), Pseudomonas cepacia (PCL), and Penicillium roquefortii (PRL). n-Hexane and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) were examined as reaction media at three different water activities (a(w)), 0.11, 0.53, and 0.97. The consumption of triricinolein and the formation of 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein, methyl ricinoleate, and ricinoleic acid were followed for up to 48 h. PRL gave the highest yield of 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein. Moreover, this lipase showed the highest specificity for the studied reaction, i.e., high selectivity for the reaction with triricinolein but low for 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein. Recoveries of 93 and 88% DAG were obtained using PRL in DIPE at a(w) of 0.11 and 0.53, respectively. Further, NMR studies showed that a higher purity of the 1,2(2,3)-isomer vs. the 1,3-isomer was achieved at higher a(w) (88% at a(w) = 0.53), compared to lower a(w) (71% at a(w) = 0.11). The DAG obtained was acylated by the DAG acyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, this enzymatic product is a useful enzyme substrate for lipid biosynthesis. Accordingly, the use of PRL in DIPE at a(w) 0.53 is considered optimal for the synthesis of 1,2(2,3)-diricinolein from triricinolein. PMID:14733366

  3. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced from new Brazilian varieties planted in the Northeast Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Silani, Igor de Souza Veras; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2014-10-15

    The phenolic compounds, organic acids and the antioxidant activity were determined for grape juice samples from new Brazilian varieties grown in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The results showed that the Brazilian grape juices have high antioxidant activity, which was significantly correlated with the phenolic compounds catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The produced juice samples showed higher concentrations of trans-resveratrol than those observed in juices made from different varieties of grapes from traditional growing regions. Organic acids concentrations were similar to those of juices produced from other classical varieties. It was demonstrated that it is possible to prepare juices from grapes of new varieties grown in the Northeast of Brazil containing a high content of bioactive compounds and typical characteristics of the tropical viticulture practised in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley. PMID:24837926

  4. Control of the Biofilms Formed by Curli- and Cellulose-Expressing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Using Treatments with Organic Acids and Commercial Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are a mixture of bacteria and extracellular products secreted by bacterial cells and are of great concern to the food industry because they offer physical, mechanical, and biological protection to bacterial cells. This study was conducted to quantify biofilms formed by different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces and to determine the effectiveness of sanitizing treatments in control of these biofilms. STEC producing various amounts of cellulose (n = 6) or curli (n = 6) were allowed to develop biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces at 28°C for 7 days. The biofilms were treated with 2% acetic or lactic acid and manufacturer-recommended concentrations of acidic or alkaline sanitizers, and residual biofilms were quantified. Treatments with the acidic and alkaline sanitizers were more effective than those with the organic acids for removing the biofilms. Compared with their counterparts, cells expressing a greater amount of cellulose or curli formed more biofilm mass and had greater residual mass after sanitizing treatments on polystyrene than on stainless steel. Research suggests that the organic acids and sanitizers used in the present study differed in their ability to control biofilms. Bacterial surface components and cell contact surfaces can influence both biofilm formation and the efficacy of sanitizing treatments. These results provide additional information on control of biofilms formed by STEC. PMID:25951395

  5. Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater on soil quality, soil-borne pathogens, and living organisms: case study of the vicinity of El Hajeb (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Chaker, Sana; Wali, Ahmed; Ayoub, Tarek; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Medium (i.e. 15 years) and long-term (i.e. 20 years) impact of irrigation using secondary-treated municipal wastewater (TWW) was assessed on two agricultural soil samples, denoted by E and G, respectively, in the vicinity of El Hajeb region (Southern Tunisia). Soil pH, electrical conductivity particle size grading, potential risk of salinity, water holding capacity and chemical composition, as well as organic matter content, pathogenic microorganisms and heavy metal concentrations in the TWW-irrigated (E and G) and rainwater-irrigated (T) soils at various depths, were monitored and compared during a 5-year experiment. Our study showed that bacterial abundance is higher in sandy-clayey soil, which has an enhanced ability to retain moisture and nutrients. The high level of bacterial flora in TWW-irrigated soils was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated (r = ~0.5) with the high level of OM. Avoidance assays have been used to assess toxic effects generated by hazards in soils. The earthworms gradually avoided the soils from the surface (20 cm) to the depth (60 cm) of the G transect and then the E transect, preferring the T transect. The same behaviour was observed for springtails, but they seem to be less sensitive to the living conditions in transects G and E than the earthworms. The avoidance response test of Eisenia andrei was statistically correlated with soil layers at the sampling sites. However, the avoidance response test of Folsomia candida was positively correlated with silt-clay content (+0.744*) and was negatively correlated with sand content (-0.744*). PMID:24362513

  6. What Lives Here

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1980-01-01

    In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners explore an aquatic site such as a pond, lake, stream, river or seashore to find and investigate plants and animals that live in water. Learners use dip nets to scoop up as many different organisms as they can for observation. This is a great introduction to the life of aquatic systems.

  7. Dementia and Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

  8. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  9. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  10. organism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD E. MICHOD

    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic com- ponents: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness com- ponents drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ-soma

  11. Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis Mouse Pneumonitis Induced by Vaccination with Live Organisms Correlates with Early Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleukin12 Production and with Dendritic Cell-Like Maturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONGJI ZHANG; XI YANG; HANG LU; GUANGMING ZHONG; ROBERT C. BRUNHAM

    As is true for other intracellular pathogens, immunization with live Chlamydia trachomatis generally induces stronger protective immunity than does immunization with inactivated organism. To investigate the basis for such a difference, we studied immune responses in BALB\\/c mice immunized with viable or UV-killed C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn). Strong, acquired resistance to C. trachomatis infection was elicited by immunization with

  12. Emergence of DHA-1-Producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian Region: Genetic Organization of the ampC and ampR Genes Originating from Morganella morganii

    PubMed Central

    Verdet, Charlotte; Benzerara, Yahia; Gautier, Valérie; Adam, Olivier; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Arlet, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C ?-lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the blaDHA-1 genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the Morganella morganii-derived genomic region containing blaDHA-1 was inserted in an entire complex sul1-type integron, including a region common to In6-In7 (CR1), as previously described in a blaDHA-1-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis KF92 isolate from Saudi Arabia in 1992. Different gene cassette arrays were characterized in each of these integrons. In two of them, an additional 10-kb fragment was inserted between the CR1 and the M. morganii-derived region and was similar to the sap (ABC transporter family) and psp (phage shock protein) operons originated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The length of the M. morganii region was variable, suggesting that several independent recombination events have occurred and that open reading frame orf513 encodes a recombinase involved in the mobilization of the resistance genes. The genetic organization of blaDHA-1 was identical in the eight other isolates. This structure is likely derived from a complex integron following the insertion of IS26, leading to the deletion of the first part of integron. The horizontal transfer of one plasmid carrying that truncated integron was shown for seven of these isolates. PMID:16436717

  13. Emergence of DHA-1-producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian region: genetic organization of the ampC and ampR genes originating from Morganella morganii.

    PubMed

    Verdet, Charlotte; Benzerara, Yahia; Gautier, Valérie; Adam, Olivier; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Arlet, Guillaume

    2006-02-01

    Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C beta-lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the bla(DHA-1) genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the Morganella morganii-derived genomic region containing bla(DHA-1) was inserted in an entire complex sul1-type integron, including a region common to In6-In7 (CR1), as previously described in a bla(DHA-1)-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis KF92 isolate from Saudi Arabia in 1992. Different gene cassette arrays were characterized in each of these integrons. In two of them, an additional 10-kb fragment was inserted between the CR1 and the M. morganii-derived region and was similar to the sap (ABC transporter family) and psp (phage shock protein) operons originated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The length of the M. morganii region was variable, suggesting that several independent recombination events have occurred and that open reading frame orf513 encodes a recombinase involved in the mobilization of the resistance genes. The genetic organization of bla(DHA-1) was identical in the eight other isolates. This structure is likely derived from a complex integron following the insertion of IS26, leading to the deletion of the first part of integron. The horizontal transfer of one plasmid carrying that truncated integron was shown for seven of these isolates. PMID:16436717

  14. Differential induction of macrophage-derived cytokines by live and dead intracellular bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Y; Cheers, C

    1995-01-01

    Marked differences in the abilities of living and heat-killed Brucella abortus and Listeria monocytogenes organisms to induce production of tumor necrosis factor alpha by in vitro-cultured macrophages were observed. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 appeared to be under different control. The results are discussed in relation to the induction of gamma interferon-producing Th1 cells and acquired cellular resistance to infection by living vaccines but not killed vaccines. PMID:7822049

  15. A new physiological role for Pdr12p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: export of aromatic and branched-chain organic acids produced in amino acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, Lucie A; Tai, Siew Leng; Boer, Viktor M; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean Marc

    2006-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use a broad range of compounds as sole nitrogen source. Many amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and methionine, are utilized through the Ehrlich pathway. The fusel acids and alcohols produced from this pathway, along with their derived esters, are important contributors to beer and wine flavor. It is unknown how these compounds are exported from the cell. Analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcript profiles via microarray analysis of glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures revealed a common upregulation of PDR12 in cultures grown with leucine, methionine or phenylalanine as sole nitrogen source. PDR12 encodes an ABC transporter involved in weak-organic-acid resistance, which has hitherto been studied in the context of resistance to exogenous organic acids. The hypothesis that PDR12 is involved in export of natural products of amino acid catabolism was evaluated by analyzing the phenotype of null mutants in PDR12 or in WAR1, its positive transcriptional regulator. The hypersensitivity of the pdr12Delta and war1Delta strains for some of these compounds indicates that Pdr12p is involved in export of the fusel acids, but not the fusel alcohols derived from leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. PMID:16911515

  16. Effects of the organic acids produced by a lactic acid bacterium in Apis mellifera colony development, Nosema ceranae control and fumagillin efficiency.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Negri, Pedro; Plischuk, Santiago; Szawarski, Nicolás; De Piano, Fiorella; De Feudis, Leonardo; Eguaras, Martín; Audisio, Carina

    2013-12-27

    The European honey bee Apis mellifera is known to be affected by many parasites and pathogens that have great impact over the insect development. Among parasites affecting bee health, Nosema ceranae is one of the main biotic factors affecting colony populations. As honey bee populations decline, interest in pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bees and microorganisms has increased. The main goal of the current study was to assess the effect of the oral administration of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 (mainly organic acids) supplemented in syrup, on: (I) N. ceranae sporulation dynamics before and after fumagillin application, and (II) performance of A. mellifera colonies. Different experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these bacterial metabolites on bees: in vitro administration revealed no toxic effects against bees. Colonies fed with the lactic acids incremented their beehive population and also the amount of fat bodies per bee. Finally, the organic acids reduced the intensity of the pathogen after the second application of treatment as well as enhanced the fumagillin efficiency. This study provides important information for the development of new control substances against nosemosis. PMID:23978352

  17. Live work

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkel, P.

    1995-09-01

    The practice of performing maintenance on live transmission lines has surged dramatically in the past two decades, as economic concerns have made the construction of redundant lines impractical. These days, utilities face the added pressure of the increasing demand for power and the need to accomplish the tasks quickly with smaller crews. Responding to utility needs, EPRI launched the `Live Working 2000` project in 1993. Through this project, researchers conduct tests of new tools and techniques at the Institute`s Power Delivery Center in Lenox, Massachusetts. The resulting data are made available to utilities and to regulatory groups that govern the practice of live working. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Orca Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

  19. Healthy Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  20. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  1. [Living better or living longer].

    PubMed

    Sauvy, A

    1987-01-01

    It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious organization such as the World Health Organization. Assurance of sufficient care to protect health would be a more realistic goal than the illusory "health for all". Future gains in mortality control will be made primarily in endogenous diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease that prolong life in the retirement years rather than in youth. Thorny moral and economic questions will ensue as health care for the elderly becomes more expensive and as the population ages. Contrary to a widely held belief, aging of the population is due to fertility decline rather than mortality decline. By the year 2000, health care in France may consume a larger part of household income than food. Sterilization of individuals with hereditary diseases, the influence of health care on the balance of payments, and the funding of social security systems are among the issues that will become more pressing in the future. PMID:3427520

  2. Microbial Colony in U.S. Suggests Life Could Live on Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Roach

    This article from National Geographic News explores the possibility that methanogens, which derive their energy from geothermal hydrogen and produce methane as a byproduct, could survive on Mars. These microscopic organisms live in hydrothermal waters 200 meters below the surface, a condition that may mimic those found on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa.

  3. Innovative Lives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Innovative Lives Web Site is offered by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and the Smithsonian Institution. "Innovative Lives counters commonly held stereotypes about inventors by featuring speakers with diverse backgrounds," such as Dr. Patricia Bath, an African-American woman who invented the Laserphaco Probe for the treatment of cataracts and founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Over thirty inventors are featured on the site, which gives excellent information about each, telling of their lives and what they have accomplished. Although it is intended for kids, the site will be of interest to anyone looking to learn about many of the most important and unknown contributors to the scientific world.

  4. Monitoring the energy status of a living organism in real time More than 30 years ago Steve Busby --now a distinguished molecular biologist, but then a doctoral

    E-print Network

    NMR: this is much less sensitive than proton NMR, but nearly all 31 P nuclei in living cells occur, as originally suggested by Britton Chance (Chance et al 1978). Initially this approach was restricted to 31 P with the instruments available 30 years ago. Moreover, the 31 P nuclei occur in metabolites of special biochemical

  5. Self-organized ultrathin FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on rippled alumina surfaces.

    PubMed

    Garel, Mathieu; Babonneau, David; Boulle, Alexandre; Pailloux, Frédéric; Coati, Alessandro; Garreau, Yves; Ramos, Aline Y; Tolentino, Hélio C N

    2015-01-28

    Ultradense macroscopic arrays of ferromagnetic alloy nanowires exhibit unique properties that make them attractive both for basic physics studies and for prospective nanodevice applications in various areas. We report here on the production of self-organized equiatomic FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on alumina nanoripple patterns at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 600 °C. This study demonstrates that periodically aligned FePt nanowires with tunable size (?10-20 nm width and ?0.5-10 nm height) can be successfully grown as a consequence of shadowing effects and low mobility of Fe and Pt on the rippled alumina surface. Moreover, the structure and magnetic properties of the FePt nanowires, which undergo a phase transition from a disordered A1 (soft) structure to a partially ordered L10 (hard) structure, can be modified upon annealing. We show that this behavior can be further exploited to change the effective uniaxial anisotropy of the system, which is determined by a strong interplay between the shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of the nanowires. PMID:25504082

  6. Self-organized ultrathin FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on rippled alumina surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, Mathieu; Babonneau, David; Boulle, Alexandre; Pailloux, Frédéric; Coati, Alessandro; Garreau, Yves; Ramos, Aline Y.; Tolentino, Hélio C. N.

    2015-01-01

    Ultradense macroscopic arrays of ferromagnetic alloy nanowires exhibit unique properties that make them attractive both for basic physics studies and for prospective nanodevice applications in various areas. We report here on the production of self-organized equiatomic FePt nanowires produced by glancing-angle ion-beam codeposition on alumina nanoripple patterns at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 600 °C. This study demonstrates that periodically aligned FePt nanowires with tunable size (~10-20 nm width and ~0.5-10 nm height) can be successfully grown as a consequence of shadowing effects and low mobility of Fe and Pt on the rippled alumina surface. Moreover, the structure and magnetic properties of the FePt nanowires, which undergo a phase transition from a disordered A1 (soft) structure to a partially ordered L10 (hard) structure, can be modified upon annealing. We show that this behavior can be further exploited to change the effective uniaxial anisotropy of the system, which is determined by a strong interplay between the shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of the nanowires.

  7. Carbon isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Conaway, C.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Saad, N.

    2012-12-01

    We have adapted the Picarro iTOC CRDS isotope analyzer for analysis of produced water brines via wet chemical persulfate oxidation. In particular, we developed strategies and techniques for overcoming the limitation imposed by low oxidation efficiencies due to the chloride ion interference with persulfate oxidation. These techniques are important for understanding the origin of dissolved organic carbon in subsurface fluids from oilfields, as a tracer of fracking fluids in groundwater, and in interpreting changes in groundwater DOC as a result of microbial activity including oil biodegradation or microbially enhanced oil recovery. We describe the limitations of this new instrument for the analysis of DOC in brines including sample requirements, matrix effects, and the effect of DOC composition on reaction efficiency and isotopic measurements. We compare strategies including anion exchange cartridges, persulfate reactant concentrations, and reaction time. The CRDS analysis of DOC in brines is a useful tool for understanding the origin and fate of DOC and is a potentially powerful tool to identifiy evidence of contamination due to hydrofracturing chemicals that have a distinctive carbon isotopic signature relative to natural brine.

  8. R-body-producing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pond, F R; Gibson, I; Lalucat, J; Quackenbush, R L

    1989-01-01

    Until 10 years ago, R bodies were known only as diagnostic features by which endosymbionts of paramecia were identified as kappa particles. They were thought to be limited to the cytoplasm of two species in the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Now, R bodies have been found in free-living bacteria and other Paramecium species. The organisms now known to form R bodies include the cytoplasmic kappa endosymbionts of P. biaurelia and P. tetraurelia, the macronuclear kappa endosymbionts of P. caudatum, Pseudomonas avenae (a free-living plant pathogen), Pseudomonas taeniospiralis (a hydrogen-oxidizing soil microorganism), Rhodospirillum centenum (a photosynthetic bacterium), and a soil bacterium, EPS-5028, which is probably a pseudomonad. R bodies themselves fall into five distinct groups, distinguished by size, the morphology of the R-body ribbons, and the unrolling behavior of wound R bodies. In recent years, the inherent difficulties in studying the organization and assembly of R bodies by the obligate endosymbiont kappa, have been alleviated by cloning and expressing genetic determinants for these R bodies (type 51) in Escherichia coli. Type 51 R-body synthesis requires three low-molecular-mass polypeptides. One of these is modified posttranslationally, giving rise to 12 polypeptide species, which are the major structural subunits of the R body. R bodies are encoded in kappa species by extrachromosomal elements. Type 51 R bodies, produced in Caedibacter taeniospiralis, are encoded by a plasmid, whereas bacteriophage genomes probably control R-body synthesis in other kappa species. However, there is no evidence that either bacteriophages or plasmids are present in P. avenae or P. taeniospiralis. No sequence homology was detected between type 51 R-body-encoding DNA and DNA from any R-body-producing species, except C. varicaedens 1038. The evolutionary relatedness of different types of R bodies remains unknown. Images PMID:2651865

  9. The Living Lakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

  10. Living Nanomachines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-F. Carlier; E. Helfer; R. Wade; F. Haraux

    2009-01-01

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication

  11. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

  12. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  13. Saving Lives Branch by Branch: The Effectiveness of Driver Licensing Bureau Campaigns to Promote Organ Donor Registry Sign-Ups to African Americans in Michigan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler R. Harrison; Susan E. Morgan; Andy J. King; Elizabeth A. Williams

    2011-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately represented on the national waiting list for organ transplantation. Promoting organ donor registries is one way to improve the possibility that those on the waiting list can receive a life saving transplant. Driver licensing bureaus have been suggested as an efficient site for campaigns aimed at increasing state-based registry sign-ups. Previous research has suggested these campaigns

  14. Organic Vegetable Organic Vegetable

    E-print Network

    .......................................6 Safety ................................................................6 Insect Management ...............................19 disease, and weed management. Information on other aspects of vegetable production may be found of management and time invested in developing the system, organic produce should bring a premium price compared

  15. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression.MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Extra figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05447d

  16. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF)-based strategies for multiplexed microRNA detection in solution and living cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yafeng; Han, Jianyu; Xue, Peng; Xu, Rong; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-02-01

    MiRNAs are an emerging type of biomarker for diagnostics and prognostics. A reliable sensing strategy that can monitor miRNA expression in living cancer cells would be critical in view of its extensive advantages for fundamental research related to miRNA-associated bioprocesses and biomedical applications. Conventional miRNA sensing methods include northern blot, microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR. However, none of them is able to monitor miRNA levels expressed in living cancer cells in a real-time fashion. Some fluorescennt biosensors developed recently from carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and carbon nanoparticles, have been successfully used for assaying miRNA in vitro; however the preparation processes are often expensive, complicated and time-consuming, which have motivated the research on other substitute and novel materials. Herein we present a novel sensing strategy based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes labeled with fluorophores and conjugated with an NMOF vehicle to monitor multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells. The NMOF works as a fluorescence quencher of the labelled PNA that is firmly bound with the metal center. In the presence of a target miRNA, PNA is hybridized and released from the NMOF leading to the recovery of fluorescence. This miRNA sensor not only enables the quantitative and highly specific detection of multiplexed miRNAs in living cancer cells, but it also allows the precise and in situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal changes of miRNA expression. PMID:25514895

  17. Estuary Live!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.

  18. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  19. 1 of 35The Living Bank International Business Plan The Living Bank International

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    donation advocacy group. It has operated its organ and tissue donor registry since 1968, and conducts organ: There is a tragic shortage of donated organs in the U.S today. This has led to a United Network for Organ Sharing Bank has taken on. Strategy: The Living Bank's strategy for significantly increasing organ donations

  20. The role of commercial non-related living kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, Michael M

    2003-01-01

    The motivation for dialysis patients to seek early, even pre-emptive, kidney transplantation from living donors is discussed. In most countries both the waiting time and the numbers of patients awaiting kidney transplantation are increasing. Local geopolitics in Jerusalem have produced a unique window to observe present transplant practices which include widespread international marketing of kidneys from paid living donors. These have been subject of media admonitions and total rejection by professional organizations. In a modern world, traditional medical paternalism to both donors and patients should be balanced by rights for individual autonomy. Since patients, donors and medical professionals are already participating in illicit organ trading, is it not time for us to seriously consider the ethical and logistic implications of legalizing financial remuneration for kidney donation? PMID:14733294

  1. Formation and reactions of negative ions relevant to chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. Cl mass spectra of organic compounds produced by F? reactions

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T. O.; Chang, C.; Cheng, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic study of the negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectra produced by the reaction of F? with a wide variety of organic compounds has been accomplished. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with a modified high pressure ion source was employed for these experiments. The F? reagent ion was generated from CF3H or NF3, typically at an ion source pressure of 100 ?m. In pure NF3, F? is the major ion formed and constitutes more than 90% of the total ion intensity. While F? is also the major primary ion formed in pure CF3H, it undergoes rapid ion-molecule reactions at elevated source pressures, yielding (HF)nF? (n = 1?3) ions, which makes CF3H less suitable as a chemical ionization reagent gas. Among the organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, phenols, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene, ethers, amines and hydrocarbons. An intense (M ? 1)? ion was observed in the F? chemical ionization mass spectra of carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Alcohols yield only (M + F)? ions upon reaction with F?. A weaker (M + F)? ion was also detected in the F? chemical ionization spectra of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and nitriles. The F? chemical ionization mass spectra of esters, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene and ethers are characterized primarily by the ions, RCOO?, X?, CN?, NO2?, and OR?, respectively. In addition, esters show a very weak (M ? 1)? ion (except formates). In the F? chemical ionization spectra of some aliphatic alkanes and o-xylene, a very weak (M + F)? ion was observed. Amines and aliphatic alkenes exhibit only insignificant fragment ions under similar conditions, while aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene are not reactive at all with the F? ion. The mechanisms of the various reactions mentioned are discussed, and several experimental complications are noted. In still other studies, the effects of varying several experimental parameters, including source pressure, relative proportions of the reagent and analyte, and other ion source parameters, on the observed chemical ionization mass spectra were also investigated. In a mixture of NF3 and n-butanol, for example, the ratio of the intensities of the ions characteristic of the alcohol to that of the (HF)nF? ion was found to decrease with increasing sample pressure, with increasing NF3 pressure, and with increasing electron energy. No significant effects on the spectra were observed to result from variation of the source repeller field or the source temperature. The addition of argon to the source as a potential moderator did not alter the F? chemical ionization spectrum significantly, but the use of oxygen appears to inhibit formation of the (HF)nF? cluster ion. The advantages of using F? as a chemical ionization reagent are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reagent ions. PMID:7428746

  2. 13C FRACTIONATION DURING RELIC SOIL ORGANIC C MINERALIZATION ON CARBON BUDGETS AND HALF-LIVES CALCULATED USING THE STABLE ISOTOPE APPROACH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 13C natural abundance approach for determining soil organic C (SOC) stability and turnover has been used to determine SOC mineralization kinetics. These calculations often assume that 13C fractionation during relic SOC and non-harvested biomass mineralization is insignificant. The objective of t...

  3. Cloning and Sequencing of the Histidine Decarboxylase Genes of Gram-Negative, Histamine-Producing Bacteria and Their Application in Detection and Identification of These Organisms in Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Takahashi; Bon Kimura; Miwako Yoshikawa; Tateo Fujii

    2003-01-01

    The use of molecular tools for early and rapid detection of gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria is important for preventing the accumulation of histamine in fish products. To date, no molecular detection or identification system for gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria has been developed. A molecular method that allows the rapid detection of gram-negative histamine producers by PCR and simultaneous differentiation by single-strand conformation

  4. UNM Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you can't make it to the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, why not tune in to their events online? This is now possible, courtesy of the UNM Live website. The function of this site is to bring "educational resources to a wider audience", and their focus is quite catholic, with talks on student aid, podcasts on anthropology, and so on. Visitors can learn about the initiative via the "About UNM Live" section of the site, and for more general information, they can look over the "What is a podcast? How do I subscribe?" area. First-time visitors should start by listening to Professor Jerry Shea talk about the Swahili terms "Sasa" and "Zamani" for a good introduction to the site. The social networking media options are quite easy to use, and visitors can recommend various media clips and programs to friends and others. Also, visitors can use the "Categories" area to look for materials related to campus life, arts, business, education, and current affairs.

  5. Estuary Live!!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Intended for elementary, middle, and high school students, this electronic estuary excursion, Estuary Live!!!, will take place May 8-12, 2000. Free to participants (but please sign up in advance), the field trip will explore the Rachel Carson Site of the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve, covering four islands and salt marshes off the North Carolina coast. The site features useful educational materials, including a photo-illustrated field guide (of the "ecology, habitats and specific plants and animals found in North Carolina's estuaries"); lesson plans (covering highschool biology, estuary habitats, species interactions, and adaptations and communities); and a series of related links. The interactive field trip will require a java-enabled browser, RealVideo (to see a moving image and hear sound), and/or Chatvideo, to see a moving image, ask questions of the naturalist leading the trip, and receive responses via a chat window. Note that ChatVideo requires Netscape 4.0 or better and will not work with AOL or Internet Explorer, and pages "look best" on a screen with resolution of 800x600. The Estuary Live!!! Website is provided by the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and The Center for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at East Carolina University.

  6. Living Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Buckley, Jr.

    This site provides materials designed to prepare students for the New York State Regents Exams, including a review of subject matter and practice questions. The reviewed subject matter includes the organization of life, heredity and genetics, evolution and change over time, reproduction and development, homeostasis, ecology, and human impacts on the environment. Old Regents Exams are also provided for practice.

  7. Use Of Low Light Image Microscopy To Monitor Genetically Engineered Bacterial Luciferase Gene Expression In Living Cells And Gene Activation Throughout The Development Of A Transgenic Organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, W. H.; Escher, Alan P.; Baga, M.; O'Kane, Dennis J.; Wampler, John E.; Koncz, C.; Schell, John D.; Szalay, A. A.

    1989-12-01

    Procaryotic and eucaryotic expression vectors which contain a marker gene for selection of transformants linked to genes encoding bacterial luciferase for detection of promoter activated gene expression in vivo were used to transform the appropriate host organisms and drug resistant colonies, cells, or calli were obtained. Bacterial luciferase expression was measured by a luminescence assay for quantitative determination of promoter activation. The cellular localization of bacteria inside the host plant cell cytoplasm was achieved in a single infected plant cell based on the light emitting ability of the genetically engineered bacteria. In addition, the bacterial luciferase marker gene fusions were used to monitor cell type, tissue, and organ specific gene expression in transgenic plants in vivo. To monitor physiological changes during ontogeny of a transformed plant, low light video microscopy, aided by real time image processing techniques developed specifically to enhance extreme low light images, was successfully applied.

  8. American Lives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started as part of the American Culture studies program at Washington University, the American Lives Project is "a new resource for cultural inquiry that allows users to build connections and identify differences between materials." The project brings together oral histories, historical documents, artifacts, sound, and visual media into an online collection that serves as a model for others seeking to do such work. This particular project documents student activism at Washington University from 1964 to 1972. First-time visitors should look at the About area to learn about the design team, the goals of the project, and the technical aspects of this work. Moving on, visitors can click on the How to Use tab for information about examining the collection. Visitors will find protest banners, letters, handouts, photographs by student groups, and links to related media. Also, visitors can create their own curated collections via the My Objects area, which is a great way to highlight items of personal interest. [KMG

  9. Living Links

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted by the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center at Emory University, the Living Links site specializes in "comparisons of the social life, ecology, cognition, neurology, and molecular genetics of apes and humans." With an emphasis on the four extant great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans), this educational site attempts "1) to reconstruct human evolution, 2) pinpoint the differences and similarities between humans and apes, and 3) educate the public about apes, and promote their well-being and conservation." The Info section provides a long (hyperlinked) list of general information on apes, from Allogrooming to Wooly spider monkeys. The Research section gives a brief overview of the Yerkes Center's research questions (and their evolutionary context), and Animals describes the Center's study animals -- three main social groups of chimpanzees -- with a special vocalizations feature. For those interested in learning more about apes and how our ancestry is intertwined with theirs, this site will be of interest.

  10. Living comets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, C.

    Contents: (1) Comet Halley in astronomical history. (2) Evaporated material from comets. (3) Comets with perihelia within the orbit of Jupiter. (4) Encounters with passing stars and galactic clouds. (5) Reflections on the cosmogony of the solar system. (6) On a possibly fundamentalprinciple in chemistry and its relation to the organic soup theory ofthe origin of life. (7) Biological activity in the early solar systemin its outer regions. (8) The terrestrial connection. (9) The solar system connection. (10) The Galaxy connection.

  11. Biology: Study of the Living or the Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    1973-01-01

    Teaching of biology can be more exciting in schools if students are given experience with living animals and plants. Many living organisms can be maintained without much expense and care. Prospective teachers should be taught about taking care of living organisms. (PS)

  12. The Emergent Computational Potential of Evolving Arti cial Living Systems

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    them as conglomerates of such organisms. We describe a scenario in which an arti#12;cial living (AL formalizable question concerns the emergent behavior of societies, or colonies, of living organisms: whatThe Emergent Computational Potential of Evolving Arti#12;cial Living Systems #3; Ji#20;r#19

  13. Biosecurity for Swine Producers

    E-print Network

    Sterle, Jodi; Dement, Angela; Faries Jr., Floron C.

    2008-10-03

    animals come in contact with infected or contaminated vehicles or equipment; fomites such as soil, feed or water; and vectors such as mos- quitoes, flies, birds, rodents, cats and dogs. People also can carry pathogens on clothing, shoes and body. Immunity.... Faries, Professor and Extension Program Leader for Veterinary Medicine The Texas A&M System Improving Lives. Improving Texas. Biosecurity for Swine Producers L-5507 09-08 mals carry antibodies that attack and destroy the pathogen before the illness starts...

  14. Effect of additive gases on synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide using non-thermal plasma produced by atmospheric surface discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuya Hayashi; Tsutomu Yamakawa; Seiji Baba

    2006-01-01

    Reduction and recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) were performed using a non-thermal plasma produced by a surface discharge at atmospheric pressure. Useful hydrocarbons (CHs) such as dimethyl ether and methane were produced at the discharge voltage of 11kV, when hydrogen (H2) gas was mixed with CO2 and the mixture ratio was 50%. The conversion of CO2 to the CHs mixing

  15. Cellular organization and spectral diversity of GFP-like proteins in live coral cells studied by single and multiphoton imaging and microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Anya; Cox, Guy C.; Larkum, Anthony W.

    2003-07-01

    Tissues of many marine invertebrates of class Anthozoa contain intensely fluorescent or brightly coloured pigments. These pigments belong to a family of photoactive proteins closely related to Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), and their emissions range from blue to red wavelengths. The great diversity of these pigments has only recently been realised. To investigate the role of these proteins in corals, we have performed an in vivo fluorescent pigment (FP) spectral and cellular distribution analyses in live coral cells using single and multi-photon laser scanning imaging and microspectroscopy. These analyses revealed that even single colour corals contain spectroscopically heterogeneous pigment mixtures, with 2-5 major colour types in the same area of tissue. They were typically arranged in step-wise light emission energy gradients (e.g. blue, green, yellow, red). The successive overlapping emission-excitation spectral profiles of differently coloured FPs suggested that they were suited for sequential energy coupling. Traces of red FPs (emission = 570-660 nm) were present, even in non-red corals. We confirmed that radiative energy transfer could occur between separate granules of blue and green FPs and that energy transfer was inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Multi-photon micro-spectrofluorometric analysis gave significantly improved spectral resolution by restricting FP excitation to a single point in the focal plane of the sample. Pigment heterogeneity at small scales within granules suggested that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) might be occurring, and we confirmed that this was the case. Thus, energy transfer can take place both radiatively and by FRET, probably functioning in photoprotection by dissipation of excessive solar radiation.

  16. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  17. Living in the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-12-13

    What is weather? Is climate different from weather? It doesn't matter where you live or where you travel, weather patterns influence your daily life. In this guide, students will engage in exploring and predicting the conditions in the atmosphere that are responsible for weather patterns and climatic conditions, and investigate how extreme weather impacts humans and the environment. While many of the keywords embedded into the "Living in the Weather" themes will be familiar, do your students really understand them? This guide provides teacher-tested, reliable links that allow you and your students to "surf" the internet in a quest to better understand how atmospheric conditions directly relate to weather on Earth. Understanding weather and climate can be a great opportunity for you to engage students in topics and themes that connect Earth and space science, life science, and physical science in a real way. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) focus on the study of weather and climate and their impact on human life. This guide uses the ongoing work and technology of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (known to the public simply as NOAA). NOAA scientists study our planet Earth in a global way. Working together with scientists worldwide, NOAA scientists study the diversity of living organisms (including humans) and their impact on our environment--not only in our country but in every country and continent around the world.

  18. Direct plasma interaction with living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Gregory

    For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

  19. POLARON DYNAMICS. Long-lived photoinduced polaron formation in conjugated polyelectrolyte-fullerene assemblies.

    PubMed

    Huber, Rachel C; Ferreira, Amy S; Thompson, Robert; Kilbride, Daniel; Knutson, Nicholas S; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Toso, Daniel B; Challa, J Reddy; Zhou, Z Hong; Rubin, Yves; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Tolbert, Sarah H

    2015-06-19

    The efficiency of biological photosynthesis results from the exquisite organization of photoactive elements that promote rapid movement of charge carriers out of a critical recombination range. If synthetic organic photovoltaic materials could mimic this assembly, charge separation and collection could be markedly enhanced. We show that micelle-forming cationic semiconducting polymers can coassemble in water with cationic fullerene derivatives to create photoinduced electron-transfer cascades that lead to exceptionally long-lived polarons. The stability of the polarons depends on the organization of the polymer-fullerene assembly. Properly designed assemblies can produce separated polaronic charges that are stable for days or weeks in aqueous solution. PMID:26089510

  20. The sulfide produced in modern systems is released to overlying waters where it can be a toxin for aerobic organisms (Eghbal et al.,

    E-print Network

    Girguis, Peter R.

    microbes form microbial mats (Jorgensen,1994;Baumgartner et al., 2006), and these organisms as well and grow. In the deep sea sulfide oxidation using oxygen as oxidant forms the basis for symbiotic and Vetter, 1990;Arndt et al.,2001).In shallower environments,phototrophic anaerobic microbes use sunlight

  1. Study on copper phthalocyanine and perylene-based ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors produced using neutral beam deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Do; Shin, Eun-Sol; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Choi, Jong-Ho, E-mail: jhc@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-28

    The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to the production and characterization of ambipolar, heterojunction-based organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) with a top-contact, multi-digitated, long-channel geometry. Organic thin films of n-type N,N?-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide and p-type copper phthalocyanine were successively deposited on the hydroxyl-free polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-coated SiO{sub 2} dielectrics using the NCBD method. Characterization of the morphological and structural properties of the organic active layers was performed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various device parameters such as hole- and electron-carrier mobilities, threshold voltages, and electroluminescence (EL) were derived from the fits of the observed current-voltage and current-voltage-light emission characteristics of OLEFETs. The OLEFETs demonstrated good field-effect characteristics, well-balanced ambipolarity, and substantial EL under ambient conditions. The device performance, which is strongly correlated with the surface morphology and the structural properties of the organic active layers, is discussed along with the operating conduction mechanism.

  2. Sex workers self-organizing and empowerment : the experience of Women’s Network for Unity (WNU) in Cambodia : article produced as part of the KIC Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Womyn's Agenda for Change

    2007-01-01

    Many organizations that are working with sex workers have learned that it is ineffective to provide HIV and other health services to them if they do not consider – and address – sex workers’ work environments, where many cases of human rights violations can be found. Thus, they gradually move into rights-based activities. By reframing sex workers’ health as a

  3. Tetrafungin, a new polyene macrolide antibiotic. II. Taxonomy of the producing organism and comparison with nystatin by means of high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Veiga, M; Traba, M P; Fabregas, J

    1983-07-01

    Tetrafungin, a new polyene macrolide antibiotic, is produced by a Streptomyces strain identified as a new subspecies of Streptomyces albulus and named Streptomyces albulus subsp. tetrafungini. Tetrafungin and nystatin have been investigated and compared by HPLC. It has been demonstrated that tetrafungin and nystatin differ qualitatively in, at least, one component, and quantitatively in their relative amounts of common components. PMID:6885633

  4. NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body; Genome sequencing creates first reference data for microbes living with healthy adults

    Cancer.gov

    Microbes inhabit just about every part of the human body, living on the skin, in the gut, and up the nose. Sometimes they cause sickness, but most of the time, microorganisms live in harmony with their human hosts, providing vital functions essential for human survival. For the first time, a consortium of researchers organized by the National Institutes of Health has mapped the normal microbial make-up of healthy humans, producing numerous insights and even a few surprises.

  5. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis and phagocytosis complexes, and also dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton complexes which generate protrusion forces involved in cell adhesion and migration. The ideas of molecular recognition and controlled interfaces between biological components provide the underlying mechanisms for biological machinery and networks [1]. Many proteins illustrate this principle by their modular organisation into domains. The juxtaposition of catalytic domains of known function and domains of interaction with different partners leads to the emergence of new biological functions. It can also create threshold mechanisms, or biological switches, by triggering the activity of a given domain only when several partners interact with the regulatory domains. Many of these interaction domains are well understood. They exist inside different proteins, in particular, in cell signaling networks, and could potentially be used as building blocks in the construction of new proteins.

  6. Nucleobases and Prebiotic Molecules in Organic Residues Produced from the Ultraviolet Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in NH3 and H2O+NH3 Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Milam, Stefanie N.; Sandford, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although not yet identified in the interstellar medium (ISM), N-heterocycles including nucleobases the information subunits of DNA and RNA are present in carbonaceous chondrites, which indicates that molecules of biological interest can be formed in non-terrestrial environments via abiotic pathways. Recent laboratory experiments and ab-initio calculations have already shown that the irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H2O ices leads to the formation of a suite of oxidized pyrimidine derivatives, including the nucleobase uracil. In the present work, NH3:pyrimidine and H2O:NH3:pyrimidine ice mixtures with different relative proportions were irradiated with UV photons under astrophysically relevant conditions. Liquid- and gas-chromatography analysis of the resulting organic residues has led to the detection of the nucleobases uracil and cytosine, as well as other species of prebiotic interest such as urea and small amino acids. The presence of these molecules in organic residues formed under abiotic conditions supports scenarios in which extraterrestrial organics that formed in space and were subsequently delivered to telluric planets via comets and meteorites could have contributed to the inventory of molecules that triggered the first biological reactions on their surfaces.

  7. GIS Live and Web Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

    2007-01-01

    GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

  8. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our Partners     Every Child Deserves a Healthy Smile Dental decay is the most common chronic ... preventing dental pain and disease. The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives — a group of 36 organizations ...

  9. Susceptibility testing accuracy of a CTX-M–type extended-spectrum ?-lactamase organism-producing population of Enterobacteriaceae: intermethod analysis for 9 ?-lactams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudha Pottumarthy; Yunson Yu; Helio S. Sader; Ronald N. Jones; Minjun Chen

    2005-01-01

    To assess the wide geographical applicability of the current and proposed susceptibility breakpoint criteria for 9 ?-lactam antimicrobials, the performance characteristics of 2 standardized methods were analyzed by testing a contemporary collection of 354 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, enriched (76; 21.5%) for extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)–producing strains. Molecular characterization of 57 ESBL strains revealed that majority of the strains (94.7%) were CTX-M

  10. Partial purification and characterisation of a xylanase enzyme produced by a micro-organism isolated from selected indigenous fruits of Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest T Chivero; Anthony N Mutukumira; Remigio Zvauya

    2001-01-01

    Aerobic bacteria and fungi isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana, Scierocarya birrea fruits and a cattle compost were screened for production of endo-xylanase enzyme. Xylanolytic activity was found in 10 of the 88 isolates obtained. Two best endo-xylanase enzyme producers (SB-9a and TC-17d) were selected for further investigations. The two isolates were classified as belonging to the genus Bacillus. The endo-xylanase enzymes

  11. Living donor liver transplantation: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charles M; Smith, Martin L; Diago Uso, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Most solid-organ transplants performed in the Western world are from deceased donors. In the last decade, deceased donation rates have reached a plateau as the number of patients with end-stage organ disease has steadily increased, resulting in a large discrepancy between organ supply and demand. Living donor transplantation is one way to decrease this discrepancy. However, living donation is not universally accepted. For instance, living donation rates vary geographically (eg, living donation is more accepted in Asia than in the Western world) and depend on the organ donated (eg, kidney versus liver donation). In this article we will review the ethical principles guiding living donor liver transplantation, with emphasis on justification and safeguards that support the practice of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation, the most clinically and ethically challenging type of living organ donation. Our ethical justification will include a presentation of triangular or tripartite equipoise, a framework that aims to balance donor safety, expected recipient outcomes, and need. PMID:22499492

  12. Using carbon dioxide as a building block in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Wu, Lipeng; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exits in the atmosphere and is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, the fermentation of sugars and the respiration of all living organisms. An active goal in organic synthesis is to take this carbon--trapped in a waste product--and re-use it to build useful chemicals. Recent advances in organometallic chemistry and catalysis provide effective means for the chemical transformation of CO? and its incorporation into synthetic organic molecules under mild conditions. Such a use of carbon dioxide as a renewable one-carbon (C1) building block in organic synthesis could contribute to a more sustainable use of resources. PMID:25600683

  13. Informational biopolymer structure in early living forms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayhoff, M. O.; Mclaughlin, P. J.; Barker, W. C.; Hunt, L. T.

    1972-01-01

    Some studies devoted to the search in various organisms for 'relics' of the biochemical nature of ancient organisms, preserved by the conservative nature of the evolutionary process in all living species, are reviewed. Investigations of five families of informational molecules constituting such 'relics' in very diverse organisms are reported. They include: cytochrome c, ferredoxin, trypsin, transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA), and 5S ribosomal RNA. It is shown that, even from these few informational molecules, some interesting inferences about early living organisms can be drawn.

  14. 34 CFR 365.1 - What is the State Independent Living Services (SILS) program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...365.1 What is the State Independent Living Services (SILS...significant disabilities the independent living (IL) services required...operation of centers for independent living (centers) that...capacities of public or nonprofit agencies and organizations and...

  15. 34 CFR 365.1 - What is the State Independent Living Services (SILS) program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...365.1 What is the State Independent Living Services (SILS...significant disabilities the independent living (IL) services required...operation of centers for independent living (centers) that...capacities of public or nonprofit agencies and organizations and...

  16. 34 CFR 365.1 - What is the State Independent Living Services (SILS) program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...365.1 What is the State Independent Living Services (SILS...significant disabilities the independent living (IL) services required...operation of centers for independent living (centers) that...capacities of public or nonprofit agencies and organizations and...

  17. 34 CFR 365.1 - What is the State Independent Living Services (SILS) program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...365.1 What is the State Independent Living Services (SILS...significant disabilities the independent living (IL) services required...operation of centers for independent living (centers) that...capacities of public or nonprofit agencies and organizations and...

  18. Formation of long-lived reactive species of blood serum proteins by the action of heat.

    PubMed

    Bruskov, Vadim I; Popova, Nelly R; Ivanov, Vladimir E; Karp, Olga E; Chernikov, Anatoly V; Gudkov, Sergey V

    2014-01-17

    It has been previously established that heat induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aqueous solutions. In biological systems, ROS cause oxidative damage predominantly to proteins due to their abundance and sensitivity to oxidation. Proteins oxidized by the action of X-rays represent long-lived reactive species, which trigger the secondary generation of ROS (Bruskov et al. (2012) [25]). Here we studied the possibility of formation of long-lived species of the blood serum proteins bovine serum albumin and bovine gamma-globulin in air-saturated solutions under the action of heat. It is shown that heat induces the generation of long-lived protein species, which in turn generate ROS ((1)?2, (·)O2(-), (·)O?, and H2O2). The formation of the long-lived reactive species of BSA and BGG with a half-life of about 4h induced by moderate hyperthermia was revealed using the chemiluminescence of protein solutions. It was found that long-lived reactive species of BSA and BGG cause prolonged generation of H2O2. The results obtained suggest that H2O2 produced by proteins after heating represents a messenger in signaling pathways and produces therapeutic effects in living organisms. PMID:24361896

  19. Creak: The Last Living Terror Bird

    E-print Network

    McGee, Jeffrey Robert

    2009-06-02

    that sustains the formulation of a kinetic narrative, the reality of live motion produced by a sculptural structure. I see "Creak: The Last Living Terror Bird" as a natural marriage between my previous sculpted animal forms and my desire to create movement...

  20. Involvement of the Beta Subunit of RNA Polymerase in Resistance to Streptolydigin and Streptovaricin in the Producer Organisms Streptomyces lydicus and Streptomyces spectabilis?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Núñez, Luz Elena; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2010-01-01

    Streptomyces lydicus NRRL2433 and S. spectabilis NRRL2494 produce two inhibitors of bacterial RNA polymerase: the 3-acyltetramic acid streptolydigin and the naphthalenic ansamycin streptovaricin, respectively. Both strains are highly resistant to their own antibiotics. Independent expression of the S. lydicus and S. spectabilis rpoB and rpoC genes, encoding the ?- and ??-subunits of RNA polymerase, respectively, in S. albus showed that resistance is mediated by rpoB, with no effect of rpoC. Within the ?-subunit, resistance was confined to an amino acid region harboring the “rif region.” Comparison of the ?-subunit amino acid sequences of this region from the producer strains and those of other streptomycetes and site-directed mutagenesis of specific differential residues located in it (L485 and D486 in S. lydicus and N474 and S475 in S. spectabilis) showed their involvement in streptolydigin and streptovaricin resistance. Other amino acids located close to the “Stl pocket” in the S. lydicus ?-subunit (L555, F593, and M594) were also found to exert influence on streptolydigin resistance. PMID:20176899

  1. Evaluation of the medically complex living kidney donor.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Yasar; Yildiz, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of "Medically complex living donors" are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term "Complex living donor" is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor. PMID:22655169

  2. Solid organic residues produced by irradiation of hydrocarbon-containing H2O and H2O/NH3 ices - Infrared spectroscopy and astronomical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1989-06-01

    Plasma-discharge irradiations were conducted for the methane clathrate expected in outer solar system satellites and cometary nuclei; also irradiated were ices prepared from other combinations of H2O with CH4, C2H6, or C2H2. Upon evaporation of the yellowish-to-tan irradiated ices, it is found that a colored solid film adheres to the walls of the reaction vessel at room temperature. These organic films are found to exhibit IR band identifiable with alkane, aldehide, alcohol, and perhaps alkene, as well as substituted aromatic functional groups. These spectra are compared with previous studies of UV- or photon-irradiated nonclathrated hydrocarbon-containing ices.

  3. Solid organic residues produced by irradiation of hydrocarbon-containing H2O and H2O/NH3 ices - Infrared spectroscopy and astronomical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma-discharge irradiations were conducted for the methane clathrate expected in outer solar system satellites and cometary nuclei; also irradiated were ices prepared from other combinations of H2O with CH4, C2H6, or C2H2. Upon evaporation of the yellowish-to-tan irradiated ices, it is found that a colored solid film adheres to the walls of the reaction vessel at room temperature. These organic films are found to exhibit IR band identifiable with alkane, aldehide, alcohol, and perhaps alkene, as well as substituted aromatic functional groups. These spectra are compared with previous studies of UV- or photon-irradiated nonclathrated hydrocarbon-containing ices.

  4. L-696,474, a novel cytochalasin as an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. I. The producing organism and its fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, A W; Bills, G F; Sabnis, G; Koupal, L R; Meyer, R; Ondeyka, J G; Giacobbe, R A; Monaghan, R L; Lingham, R B

    1992-05-01

    A novel cytochalasin, L-696,474, (18-dehydroxy cytochalasin H) that inhibits HIV-1 protease was discovered in fermentations of a bark-inhabiting Ascomycete, Hypoxylon fragiforme. The product was first identified from extracts of an agar medium. Fermentation studies on a number of media indicated that the product can be made on several solid and liquid media. Optimum production was obtained from growth in a complex medium composed of glycerol, glucose, citrate, Ardamine, soybean meal, tomato paste, and inorganic salts. Other Hypoxylon spp., related species of Xylariales, and other fungi known to produce cytochalasins, were also surveyed for their ability to make L-696,474. Only one other Hypoxylon fragiforme isolate was found to make this novel cytochalasin; none of the other cultures surveyed made L-696,474 or any other compounds which inhibit HIV-1 protease. PMID:1624369

  5. Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion equation which represents the mental dynamics. It has been demonstrated that coupled mental-motor dynamics can simulate emerging self-organization, prey-predator games, collaboration and competition, "collective brain," etc.

  6. Technical Note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2015-03-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued not only about their contribution to the global methane budget but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds to be identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify the in vivo formation of methane, and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C positionally labeled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labeled methionine clearly identified the sulfur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  7. Technical note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2014-11-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued, not only about their contribution to the global methane budget, but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify in vivo formation of methane and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C-positionally labelled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labelled methionine clearly identified the sulphur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  8. Project Produce

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna M. Wolfinger

    2005-01-01

    In this science- and social studies-integrated lesson, students researched the produce found at their local grocery store. The class learned the difference between fruits and vegetables and learned the origins of various "exotic" food items. Students also interviewed local gardeners and prepared ethnic foods in the classroom.

  9. Scientific Challenges of Producing Natural Gas from Organic-Rich Shales - From the Nano-Scale to the Reservoir Scale (Louis Néel Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, Mark D.

    2013-04-01

    In this talk I will discuss several on-going research projects with the PhD students and post-Docs in my group that are investigating the wide variety of factors affecting the success of stimulating gas production from extremely low permeability organic-rich shales. First, I will present laboratory measurements of pore structure, adsorption and nano-scale fluid transport on samples of the Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Marcellus and Horn River shale (all in North America). I will also discuss how these factors affect ultimate gas recovery. Second, I present several lines of evidence that indicate that during hydraulic fracturing stimulation of shale gas reservoirs there is pervasive slow slip occurring on pre-existing fractures and faults that are not detected by standard microseismic monitoring. I will also present laboratory and modeling studies that demonstrate why slowly slipping faults are to be expected. In many cases, slow slip on faults may be the most important process responsible for stimulating gas production in the reservoirs. Finally, I discuss our research on the viscoplastic behavior of the shales and what viscoplasticity implies for the evolution of the physical properties of the reservoir and in situ stress magnitudes.

  10. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3-D Zr-Si Organic-Inorganic Scaffolds Produced by Two-Photon Polymerization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Koroleva, Anastasia; Deiwick, Andrea; Nguyen, Alexander; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Narayan, Roger; Timashev, Peter; Popov, Vladimir; Bagratashvili, Viktor; Chichkov, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is applied for the fabrication of 3-D Zr-Si scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Zr-Si scaffolds with 150, 200, and 250 ?m pore sizes are seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) and human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hASCs) and cultured in osteoinductive and control media for three weeks. Osteogenic differentiation of hASCs and hBMSCs and formation of bone matrix is comparatively analyzed via alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), calcium quantification, osteocalcin staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is observed that the 150 ?m pore size Zr-Si scaffolds support the strongest matrix mineralization, as confirmed by calcium deposition. Analysis of ALP activity, osteocalcin staining and SEM observations of matrix mineralization reveal that mesenchymal stem cells cultured on 3-D scaffolds without osteogenic stimulation spontaneously differentiate towards osteogenic lineage. Nanoindentation measurements show that aging of the 2PP-produced Zr-Si scaffolds in aqueous or alcohol media results in an increase in the scaffold Young’s modulus and hardness. Moreover, accelerated formation of bone matrix by hASCs is noted, when cultured on the scaffolds with lower Young’s moduli and hardness values (non aged scaffolds) compared to the cells cultured on scaffolds with higher Young’s modulus and hardness values (aged scaffolds). Presented results support the potential application of Zr-Si scaffolds for autologous bone tissue engineering. PMID:25706270

  11. Coupling of primary producers, detritus, decomposer organisms and nitrogen availability during secondary succession: Progress report for period September 28, 1987-September 27, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Redente, E.F.

    1988-06-01

    Secondary succession is a consequence of the interactions among primary producers, decomposers, detritus and abiotic components of the system over time. This study focuses on the interrelationships among above- and below-ground processes involved in semiarid ecosystem development. We found that the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus significantly reduced the production of perennial species while significantly increasing the production of annual and biennial plants. Three years of N addition have altered plant community composition, slowed the rate of secondary succession, and reduced the fungal component, of the microbial community. Early- and late-successional plant species differ in their maintenance of rhizosphere microbial communities. Under nutrient-limited conditions, early-successional species maintain larger microbial biomasses than late-successional species. This strategy may cause early-successional species to be less competitive than late-successional species under nutrient poor conditions because of the need for a greater amount of carbon to be released by early-successional species to maintain a rhizosphere community. Using P/N ratios we have demonstrated that mycorrhizal grasses in the field have enriched relative P nutrition. 52 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them. PMID:25936672

  13. Live Organisms in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlans, F. Barbara

    1972-01-01

    Reports the results of surveys of the use of animals by secondary school teachers and participants in science fairs. Recommends wider use of invertebrates and suggests sources of ideas for animal experiments. (AL)

  14. Measurements of nitrite production and nitrite-producing organisms in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2013-03-01

    Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea and assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton or heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central California Current in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), high-resolution measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process with rates of NH3 oxidation of up to 50 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- profiles supported direct rate measurements of a net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM were similar at the mesotrophic and oligotrophic stations and ranged from 150-205 d. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.

  15. Measurement of Organic Acids Produced By The Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Simple Olefins Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) as a Function of Temperature And Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, C. J.; Bacak, A.; Leather, K. E.; McGillen, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) form an important trace component of the atmosphere and are of particular environmental interest because of their deleterious effects on air quality, their numerous (and potentially counteractive) effects on Earth’s climate system and their sophisticated semiochemical roles in the world’s ecosystems. NMHCs are also important precursors to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g. Pandis et al., 1991; Kavouras et al., 1999). The ozonolysis reactions of olefins result in complex menageries of products, of which the acids are ubiquitous. Although the gas phase acid concentrations are small, they are thought to be key species in SOA formation as a result of their low volatility (e.g., Ma et al., 2009). Despite this, the factors that control acid formation are not well understood, especially with regards to humidity and temperature. Acid yields will be measured using the newly commissioned EXTreme RAnge (EXTRA) chamber (Leather et al., 2009). EXTRA is a 125 L stainless steel chamber, which can be temperature controlled using a commercial chest freezer unit (for T ? -20 °C) or a purpose built oven for T > 25 °C. The EXTRA chamber can be operated at pressures from 10-3800 Torr and at temperatures from 180-473 K. The stainless steel chamber walls have been coated with PFA to minimize wall loss of radicals. Fans, located at both ends of the cylinder, promote rapid mixing of reactants. Six sample ports are located at either end of the chamber for connection to ADS-GC-ECD, CIMS and commercial sensors such as a Thermo Electron Corporation 49i Ozone Analyzer, an Edinburgh Instruments Gascard CO2 sensor and a Trace Analytical inc. RGA3 CO analyzer. Experiments will be performed as a function of atmospherically relevant temperatures (T= 180-300 K). The field CIMS has sub ppt(v) L.O.D.s with a sub 1 Hz time response so will enable products to be quantified at very low concentrations in real time. Acid products will be detected using both the acetate ion (Verez et al., 2008) and silicon pentafluoride ion (Huey et al., 1998) reaction schemes, both of which have been used previously in atmospheric measurements, with little interference from water vapour. References Kavouras, I.G., Mihalopoulos N., Stephanou, E.G., 1999, Environ. Sci. Technol. 33: 1028-1037. Huey, L. G., E. J. Dunlea, E. R. Lovejoy, D. R. Hanson, R.B. Norton, F.C. Fehsenfeld and C. J. Howard, 1998, J. Geophys. Res, 103(D3), 3355-3360. Leather, K.E., Mcgillen, M.R. and Percival, C.J., 2009, Submitted to PCCP. Ma, Y., Porter, R.A., Chappell, D., Russell, A.T., Marston, G., 2009,. PCCP, 21, 4184-4197. Pandis, S. N., Paulson, S.E., Seinfeld, J.H., Flagan, R.C. 1991, Atmos. Environ. A, 1991, 25, 997-1008. Veres, P., Roberts, J.M., Warneke, C., Welsh-Bon, D., Zahniser, M., Herndon, S., Fall,R., de Gouw, J., 2008, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 274, 48-55.

  16. A Framework Linking NonLiving and Living Systems: Classification of Persistence, Survival and Evolution Transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Dennis; R. W. Gray; J. Brender McNair; N. J. Woolf

    2009-01-01

    We propose a framework for analyzing the development, operation and failure to survive of all things, living, non-living or\\u000a organized groupings. This framework is a sequence of developments that improve survival capability. Framework processes range\\u000a from origination of any entity\\/system, to the development of increased survival capability and development of life-forms and\\u000a organizations that use intelligence. This work deals with

  17. Bioethics of organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate. PMID:24478386

  18. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce your risk of having another ... content was last reviewed on 04/30/2014. Healthy Living Resource Guide for All Seniors Any person ...

  19. Living with Grandparents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Back 1 ? 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC What Is a Divorce? Being Adopted Talking About Your Feelings Living With Stepparents What Kids Say About: Parents Living With a Single Parent Welcoming a New ...

  20. Is It Living?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about living and nonliving things. The probe is designed to find out what attributes children focus on when considering if something is or was once living.

  1. Living with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... This section of the website provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Spina bifida ...

  2. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  3. History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

    2012-03-01

    The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

  4. FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Heiser, Gernot

    FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY Delivering Innovation The Future Logistics Living Lab that will provide logistics solutions for the future. The Living Lab is a demonstration, exhibition and work space of around 200 m² located at NICTA's Australian Technology Park offices in Redfern. The lab is driven

  5. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living

  6. Recognizing Safety and Liveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bowen Alpern

    1986-01-01

    This paper substantiates that experience by formalizing safety and liveness in a way that permits the relationship between safety and invariance and between liveness and wellfoundedness to be demonstrated for a large class of properties. In so doing, we give new characterizations of safety and liveness and prove that they satisfy the formal definitions in [Alpera & Schneider 85a

  7. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Reuben P.; Lodge, David M.; Finnoff, David C.

    2007-01-01

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10–500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits. PMID:17190819

  8. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits.

    PubMed

    Keller, Reuben P; Lodge, David M; Finnoff, David C

    2007-01-01

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10-500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits. PMID:17190819

  9. Live Donors in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been controversial since its inception. Begun in response to deceased donor organ shortage and waiting list mortality, LDLT was initiated in 1989 in children, grew rapidly after its first general application in adults in the US in 1998, and has declined since 2001. There are significant risks to the living donor, including the risk of death and substantial morbidity, and two highly publicized donor deaths are thought to have contributed to decreased enthusiasm for LDLT. Significant improvements in outcomes have been seen over recent years and data, including from the NIH-funded Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, A2ALL, has established a survival benefit from pursuing LDLT. Despite this, LDLT still comprises less than 5% of adult liver transplants, significantly less than in kidney transplantation where living donors comprise approximately 40% of all transplant performed. The ethics, optimal utility and application of LDLT remain to be defined. In addition, most studies to date have focused on post-transplant outcomes and not included the effect of the learning curve on outcome or the potential impact of LDLT on waiting list mortality. Further growth of LDLT will depend on defining the optimal recipient and donor characteristics for this procedure as well as broader acceptance and experience in the public and in transplant centers. PMID:18471556

  10. Engineered biosealant producing inorganic and organic biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process that has shown its potential in remediation of a wide range of structural damages including concrete cracks. MICCP involves sequential microbiological and chemical reactions, such as urea h...

  11. Treatment of hypersaline produced water employing a moderately halophilic bacterial consortium in a membrane bioreactor: effect of salt concentration on organic removal performance, mixed liquor characteristics and membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Abdollahzadeh Sharghi, Elham; Bonakdarpour, Babak; Pakzadeh, Mehrzad

    2014-07-01

    In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a moderately halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water containing 100-250 g L(-1) NaCl were considered. The COD and oil and grease (O&G) removal efficiencies in the range 81.6-94.6% and 84.8-94.0% respectively and MBR effluent turbidity lower than 2NTU were achieved. There was no pronounced membrane fouling at any salt concentration. O&G accumulation (less than 11% of the influent O&G) occurred in the mixed liquor at all salt concentrations, but biodegradation was identified as the major organic removal mechanism. With increasing salt concentration, initially increase in SVI and later formation of oil/biomass bodies took place but due to the presence of the membrane biomass washout did not occur. The mixed liquor was pseudoplastic and the apparent viscosity and flow behavior index generally increased with salt concentration. PMID:24859212

  12. Bacteriocins produced by Leuconostoc species.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M E

    1994-09-01

    Leuconostoc spp. are lactic acid bacteria that are commonly associated with foods and that are used as starter bacteria in some dairy fermentations. Lactic acid bacteria are inhibitory to other bacteria because of pH, organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, and other chemicals produced during their growth, including bacteriocins. Bacteriocin production by Leuconostoc spp. was first observed in the 1950s, but only since 1984, when antagonistic activity of Leuconostoc spp. was reported, have more extensive studies of bacteriocins produced by Leuconostoc spp. been conducted, including mesentericin Y105, produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. mesenteroides; leucocin A-UAL 187, produced by Leuconostoc gelidum; carnosin 44A, produced by Leuconostoc carnosum; and leuconocin S, produced by Leuconostoc paramesenteroides. Bacteriocins produced by leuconostocs may or may not be active against other lactic acid bacteria, but all include Listeria in their activity spectra. Mesentericin Y105 is reported to be exclusively active against Listeria spp. The amino acid sequences for leucocin A and mesentericin Y105 have been determined. Despite considerable differences in antibacterial spectra, only two amino acids differ between these bacteriocins. The prevalence of leuconostocs in many adventitious fermentations of food and the use of leuconostocs as starter bacteria in controlled fermentations make the bacteriocins produced by these bacteria of interest as possible food preservatives by addition of the bacteriocin or its producer organism to foods. PMID:7814741

  13. The direction of evolution: the rise of cooperative organization.

    PubMed

    Stewart, John E

    2014-09-01

    Two great trends are evident in the evolution of life on Earth: towards increasing diversification and towards increasing integration. Diversification has spread living processes across the planet, progressively increasing the range of environments and free energy sources exploited by life. Integration has proceeded through a stepwise process in which living entities at one level are integrated into cooperative groups that become larger-scale entities at the next level, and so on, producing cooperative organizations of increasing scale (for example, cooperative groups of simple cells gave rise to the more complex eukaryote cells, groups of these gave rise to multi-cellular organisms, and cooperative groups of these organisms produced animal societies). The trend towards increasing integration has continued during human evolution with the progressive increase in the scale of human groups and societies. The trends towards increasing diversification and integration are both driven by selection. An understanding of the trajectory and causal drivers of the trends suggests that they are likely to culminate in the emergence of a global entity. This entity would emerge from the integration of the living processes, matter, energy and technology of the planet into a global cooperative organization. Such an integration of the results of previous diversifications would enable the global entity to exploit the widest possible range of resources across the varied circumstances of the planet. This paper demonstrates that it's case for directionality meets the tests and criticisms that have proven fatal to previous claims for directionality in evolution. PMID:24887200

  14. Living Phenomena and Living Information : Centered on Living Structure and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuno, Tomofumi

    The term ‘living’ has manifold meanings. The author interprets it in three reasonable ways : 1) sustaining one's life, 2) surviving under economic surroundings, 3) existing socially. Centered on ‘living structure’ which grasps static aspects of living and ‘living design’ which does dynamic aspects of living he investigates living phenomena and discusses their relationship to living information. The author also catches living phenomena from viewpoints as follows : 1) people, 2) corporation, 3) researcher, 4) administration, and investigates living information from the four viewpoints as above. The examples of classification for living itself as well as for living information are shown.

  15. Living Things and Where They Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on living things and their habitats includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  16. Environmental assessment requirements for live biological drugs.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Ann

    2008-02-01

    Marketing approval of biological products by the US Food and Drug Administration must comply with requirements of Code of Federal Regulations title 21 part 25, "Environmental Impact Considerations." An environmental impact statement is usually not required. Environmental assessment is required unless excluded. As naturally occurring substances, biological products qualify for categorical exclusion if manufacture and use do not significantly alter their concentration or distribution in the human environment. The manufacturing process and establishment descriptions in the license application should include enough detail to ensure that waste is controlled and inactivated. During clinical development of a live biotherapeutic product, data should be collected regarding the shedding of live organisms from treated patients. The ability of the live organism to persist in the environment should be assessed, and instructions for safe handling by health care providers and consumers should be incorporated into the package insert. PMID:18181713

  17. Where You Live Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is not. Where You Live Matters Is your home, community and state well-suited for aging/long-term care? Expand Staying in Your Home ... steps can I take to stay in my home? What are my options for living in an aging-oriented facility? LTC PathFinder Long-term care is ...

  18. Empathetic living media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian David Cheok; Roger Thomas Kok; Chuen Tan; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Tim Merritt; Janyn Yen Ping Sen

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new form of interactive living media used to communicate social or ecological information in the form of an empathetic ambient media. In the fast paced modern world people are generally too busy to monitor various significant social or human aspects of their lives, such as time spent with their family, their overall health, state of the ecology,

  19. Living History of Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-01

    The APS is pleased to announce the launch of the Living History of Physiology Project. The Society encourages the membership to consider interviewing senior physiologists at their institutions to provide a living history of physiology. The videos provided to date focus on the physiologistÂ?s training and career and their professional interactions.

  20. Is It Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

  1. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  2. Living Effectively in the 70's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexis I. DuPont School District, Greenville, DE.

    GRADES OR AGES: Unspecified. SUBJECT MATTER: Effective living. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Most of the pages are divided into three columns: concept, some activities, and teacher comments. The guide is offset printed and spiral bound with a soft cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The guide is divided into eight units: human growth and…

  3. Living Neoplatonism1 Bruce MacLennan

    E-print Network

    MacLennan, Bruce

    of my talk, "Living Neoplatonism," is intentionally ambiguous, for it can refer, first, to Neoplatonism with many peoples' spiritual concerns. II. Evolutionary Jungian Psychology The interconnections between systems theory provides many examples of common principles of self-organization throughout nature

  4. Implantable biohybrid artificial organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clark K. Colton

    1995-01-01

    Biohybrid artificial organs encompass all devices which substitute for an organ or tissue function and incorporate both synthetic materials and living cells. This review concerns implantable immunoisolation devices in which the tissue is protected from immune rejection by enclosure within a semipermeable membrane. Two critical areas are discussed in detail: (i) Device design and performance as it relates to maintenance

  5. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...suitability of candidates for donation. (a) Standard: Patient...non-discriminatory distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement...psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living...living donor's suitability for donation, and (3) Document...

  6. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...suitability of candidates for donation. (a) Standard: Patient...non-discriminatory distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement...psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living...living donor's suitability for donation, and (3) Document...

  7. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...suitability of candidates for donation. (a) Standard: Patient...non-discriminatory distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement...psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living...living donor's suitability for donation, and (3) Document...

  8. 42 CFR 482.90 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...suitability of candidates for donation. (a) Standard: Patient...non-discriminatory distribution of organs. (1) Prior to placement...psychosocial evaluation prior to donation, (2) Document in the living...living donor's suitability for donation, and (3) Document...

  9. Ebola Virus Outbreak among Wild Chimpanzees Living in a Rain Forest of Co^te Pierre Formenty, Christophe Boesch, Monique Wyers, World Health Organization (WHO), TaiF Forest Project, and Centre

    E-print Network

    S120 Ebola Virus Outbreak among Wild Chimpanzees Living in a Rain Forest of Co^te d'Ivoire Pierre, Paris, France An outbreak of Ebola in nature is described for the first time. During a few weeks. Laboratory procedures included histology, immunohistochemistry, bacteriology, and serology. Ebola

  10. Endocrine Function In Naturally Long-Living Small Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Buffenstein, Rochelle; Pinto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The complex, highly integrative endocrine system regulates all aspects of somatic maintenance and reproduction and has been widely implicated as an important determinant of longevity in short-lived traditional model organisms of aging research. Genetic or experimental manipulation of hormone profiles in mice has been proven to definitively alter longevity. These hormonally induced lifespan extension mechanisms may not necessarily be relevant to humans and other long-lived organisms that naturally show successful slow aging. Long-lived species may have evolved novel anti-aging defenses germane to naturally retarding the aging process. Here we examine the available endocrine data associated with the vitamin D, insulin, grlucocorticoid and thyroid endocrine systems of naturally long-living small mammals. Generally, long-living rodents and bats maintain tightly regulated lower basal levels of these key pleiotropic hormones than shorter-lived rodents. Similarities with genetically manipulated suggest that evolutionarily wellconserved hormonal mechanisms are integrally involved in lifespan determination. PMID:18674586

  11. Living Liver Donor Mortality: Where Do We Stand?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina A. Bramstedt

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore the use of medical journals, lay media, registries, and transplant center websites to discuss living liver donor mortality.METHODS:To study the incidence of and circumstances relating to living liver donor death, medical journals and lay print media were searched to create a case summary of worldwide living liver donor deaths. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and European

  12. Laparosopic Hand-Assisted Living Donor Nephrectomy: The Niguarda Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maione; C. V. Sansalone; P. Aseni; A. De Roberto; S. Soldano; I. Mangoni; L. Perrino; E. Minetti; G. Civati

    2005-01-01

    Perioperative donor morbidity, a barrier to living organ donation, may be mitigated by the laparoscopic approach. From September 2002 to September 2004, 15 living donors, of ages ranging from 36 to 59 years, underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy. We used a hand-assisted device to increase the safety of the procedure. The average operating time was 200 minutes. The average blood loss was

  13. Dynamic Multiphoton Imaging: A Live View from Cells to Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Grace E. Stutzmann (University of California-Irvine)

    2005-02-01

    The application of multiphoton microscopy to the biological sciences has led to a new generation of imaging-based studies extending from the tracking of individual molecules within living cells to the observation of whole organisms

  14. Assisted Living Community Profile

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services; Supervise person with cognitive disabilities; Social and religious activities; Arrangements for transportation; Laundry and linen service; ... NCAL Gazette Resources & Publications Assisted Living Studies Clinical Practice Guidelines Consumer Resources Health Information Technology In-Service ...

  15. Mercury: Where You Live

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for... Businesses Consumers Health Care Providers Parents Schools Mercury can be found most anywhere. On this page, you will find resources about mercury where you live - your home and community, your ...

  16. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Twitter. Living With Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) usually is treated in a hospital. After leaving ... you're taking medicine. Medicines used to treat PE can thin your blood too much. This can ...

  17. Live Science: Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, created by Live Science, provides current information on what is happening in technology. The site features videos and textual information on broad technical topics, including electronics, robotics, energy, aeronautics and much more.

  18. Living with Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eating and maintaining an active lifestyle after a prostate cancer diagnosis can lower the chances of the cancer coming ... cardiovascular fitness, and depression. Physical activity after a prostate cancer diagnosis is linked to living longer and a reduced ...

  19. Living with Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), ... it harder for you to make lifestyle changes. Heart Attack Warning Signs If you have CHD, learn ...

  20. Living with Fanconi Anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> November 1, 2011 Fanconi Anemia Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  1. Living with Anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  2. The Living Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Preface; 1. The unfinished revolution; 2. Life's origins; 3. Extreme life; 4. Shaping evolution; 5. Living in the Solar System; 6. Distant worlds; 7. Are we alone?; Notes; Glossary; Reading list; Media resources; Illustration credits; Index.

  3. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

  4. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  5. Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli stx1, stx2, eaeA, and rfbE Genes and Survival of E. coli O157:H7 in Manure from Organic and Low-Input Conventional Dairy Farms?

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Eelco; Klerks, Michel M.; De Vos, Oscar J.; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Manure samples were collected from 16 organic (ORG) and 9 low-input conventional (LIC) Dutch dairy farms during August and September 2004 to determine the prevalence of the STEC virulence genes stx1 (encoding Shiga toxin 1), stx2 (encoding Shiga toxin 2), and eaeA (encoding intimin), as well as the rfbE gene, which is specific for Escherichia coli O157. The rfbE gene was present at 52% of the farms. The prevalence of rfbE was higher at ORG farms (61%) than at LIC farms (36%), but this was not significant. Relatively more LIC farms were positive for all Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) virulence genes eaeA, stx1, and stx2, which form a potentially highly virulent combination. Species richness of Enterobacteriaceae, as determined by DGGE, was significantly lower in manure positive for rfbE. Survival of a green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli O157:H7 strain was studied in the manure from all farms from which samples were obtained and was modeled by a biphasic decline model. The time needed to reach the detection limit was predominantly determined by the level of native coliforms and the pH (both negative relationships). Initial decline was faster for ORG manure but leveled off earlier, resulting in longer survival than in LIC manure. Although the nonlinear decline curve could theoretically be explained as the cumulative distribution of an underlying distribution of decline kinetics, it is proposed that the observed nonlinear biphasic pattern of the survival curve is the result of changing nutrient status of the manure over time (and thereby changing competition pressure), instead of the presence of subpopulations differing in the level of resistance. PMID:17277204

  6. Living and Fossil Macrocyprididae

    E-print Network

    Maddocks, R. F.

    1990-02-27

    that resisted wetting, dirt, and cracks or other flaws, especially in the older type specimens. Adhering epidermis and uncalcified inner lamella also are visible in many photo- graphs of live specimens. These unretouched photographs were printed at standard... that resisted wetting, dirt, and cracks or other flaws, especially in the older type specimens. Adhering epidermis and uncalcified inner lamella also are visible in many photo- graphs of live specimens. These unretouched photographs were printed at standard...

  7. [Living donors for kidney transplantation: ethical and legal challenges].

    PubMed

    Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Fournier, Catherine; Legendre, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has developed very heterogeneously worldwide despite excellent results and without taking into account the context of global organ shortage. Such a heterogeneity highlights persistent ethical issues, whereas organ trafficking is emerging as an organized transplant tourism reinforcing the need for strong national legal frameworks. Despite its powerful regulation system, which ensures standardization, transparency and accountability of support for donation, France remains reluctant to enlarge the circle of legal donors, whereas it would be the first step to give a greater role to living organ donation. PMID:20510152

  8. NMR bioreactor development for live in-situ microbial functional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majors, Paul D.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Scholten, Johannes C. M.

    2008-05-01

    A live, in-situ metabolomics capability was developed for prokaryotic cultures under controlled growth conditions. Toward this goal, a radiofrequency-transparent bioreactor was developed and integrated with a commercial wide-bore nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging spectrometer and a commercial bioreactor controller. Water suppressed 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor glucose and fructose utilization and byproduct excretion by Eubacterium aggregans (an anaerobic bacterial species relevant for biofuel production) under controlled batch and continuous culture conditions. The resulting metabolite profiles (short chain organic acids and ethanol) and trends are consistent with existing knowledge of its metabolism. However, our study also showed that E. aggregans produces lactate end product in significant concentrations—a result not previously reported. The advantages of live in-situ microbial metabolomics analysis and its complementariness with functional genomics/systems biology methods are discussed.

  9. Assisted Living State Regulatory Review

    MedlinePLUS

    ... State Regulatory Review Webinars Assisted Living State Regulatory Review Page Content NCAL will not be publishing its ... on the NCAL website. Assisted Living State Regulatory Reviews 2013 Assisted Living State Regulatory Review 2012 Assisted ...

  10. NCCN: 20 Years of Improving Patients' Lives.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W

    2015-05-01

    In his Keynote Address at the NCCN 20th Annual Conference, Robert W. Carlson, MD, reflected on the achievements of NCCN and described how the organization will continue to grow under his leadership. Recognizing that the founding of NCCN was by a group of visionary leaders who came together 20 years ago to assure access of patients to high-quality cancer care, Dr. Carlson said "All our efforts within NCCN are focused on improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of patient care, so that our patients can live better lives." PMID:25995416

  11. Live Hope Love: Living & Loving with HIV in Jamaica

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting is the support organization behind this moving website on the HIV crisis in Jamaica. Dedicated to independent international journalism on under-reported topics, the Pulitzer Center also aims to reach a broad and diverse audience, and it does so successfully with this website. Visitors will enjoy the introductory video, as it features an appealing montage that explains the artistic focus of the site. In the "Poem Gallery" and "Featured Poems" there are poems written by those living with HIV, along with photographs inspired by the poems which visitors can find in the "Image Gallery". In the "Vital Voices" link, visitors will hear brief audio clips of people with HIV, caretakers, medical personnel, and other supporters. Visitors shouldn't miss the clip of Carla Legister, who issues a short but strong message to parents, and the clip of Lascelles Graham, who sings a few of his thoughts.

  12. Features and ethical considerations associated with living kidney and liver transplantations in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H

    2014-12-01

    When the Organ Transplantation Act came into effect in 2000 in South Korea, living organ donations were legalized and the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) had a duty to approve the application of donation. The number of living organ donors has increased and the waiting time of recipients has been steady or decreased. The Organ Transplantation Act mainly focuses on the informed consent process of donations, so unrelated directed donations are permitted unless there is a suspicion of organ trafficking. But the annual reports show that directed donations of unrelated and related donors may have an ethical concern about organ sales. The donations of family members show another ethical concern. The numbers of ABO-incompatible transplantations have steadily increased since 2008, and lineal descendants, including minors, comprised 61% of living liver donors in 2012. Addressing the unethical practices without inhibiting living organ donations is the current task in South Korea. Private agencies have actively operated the living organ donations programs. The web-based computerized organ exchange program has been cooperatively run by hospital-based organizations. The strict legal regulations that could decrease living organ donations are hard to adopt. In the current situation, the functions of the official system need to be more developed. A national organ exchange program run by KONOS could be an option which could reduce ABO-incompatible transplantations and relieve the ethical concern of organ sales in unrelated directed donations. PMID:25498104

  13. Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Living Cell Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiangling; Lv, Yifan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-06-01

    Cells as the building blocks of life determine the basic functions and properties of a living organism. Understanding the structure and components of a cell aids in the elucidation of its biological functions. Moreover, knowledge of the similarities and differences between diseased and healthy cells is essential to understanding pathological mechanisms, identifying diagnostic markers, and designing therapeutic molecules. However, monitoring the structures and activities of a living cell remains a challenging task in bioanalytical and life science research. To meet the requirements of this task, aptamers, as “chemical antibodies,” have become increasingly powerful tools for cellular analysis. This article reviews recent advances in the development of nucleic acid aptamers in the areas of cell membrane analysis, cell detection and isolation, real-time monitoring of cell secretion, and intracellular delivery and analysis with living cell models. Limitations of aptamers and possible solutions are also discussed.

  14. Living in Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

  15. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  16. Calit2: Live Webcasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) conducts research on the scientific and technological components needed to "extend the reach of the Internet throughout the physical world." (See also report on Mathematics, Engineering and Technology, March 15, 2002) This section of the Institute website features live webcasts and video footage of guest speakers who visited the Institute. Topics range from robot design to Internet plagues, and from Telematics to the Internet marketplace. Upcoming live webcasts for May 2005 will address Non-Magnetic Data Storage Principles, Potential and Problems; Quantum Codes: Constructions and Parameters; and Biotechnology Entrepreneurship.

  17. Where Do You Live?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Kunz

    2010-03-26

    Students will choose an animal to "become." They will then decided which biome would be the best place to live, who their neighbors are, and what they will eat. Students will successfully complete a report or short story incorporating the information they have learned. Introduction If you were an Utah animal, what would you be? A blue herring? a mule deer? a fox? TASK You will choose and pretend to be a Utah animal and decide which habitat in our state you would most likely enjoy living. You will be writing a report or ...

  18. The inertness of being organic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence M. Mayer

    2004-01-01

    Organic matter protection, defined here as slowing of the oxidation of organic matter, is thought to result from a variety of mechanisms, which can be placed into two classes. Recalcitrant organic-organic linkages often account for protection on shorter time scales; biota intentionally create many of these linkages, leading to “selectively preserved” organic matter, and various humification reactions may produce others.

  19. Organic ferroelectrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachio Horiuchi; Yoshinori Tokura

    2008-01-01

    Ferroelectricity results from one of the most representative phase transitions in solids, and is widely used for technical applications. However, observations of ferroelectricity in organic solids have until recently been limited to well-known polymer ferroelectrics and only a few low-molecular-mass compounds. Whereas the traditional use of dipolar molecules has hardly succeeded in producing ferroelectricity in general, here we review advances

  20. Organic watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Research investigating certified organic production requires a systems approach to determine the optimum combination of individual components to max...

  1. Is there a role for living donor intestine transplants?

    PubMed

    Fryer, Jonathan; Angelos, Peter

    2004-12-01

    The use of living donors with intestinal transplantation is controversial because it may not significantly improve candidate access to organs when intestine-only grafts are needed, and may involve excessive donor risk when combined liver-intestine grafts are required. Although limited data are available for comparison at this time, graft and patient survival rates for intestinal transplantations using living donors are no different than for deceased donor transplantations. Potential benefits that may be provided to the intestine transplant recipient through the use of living donors include better HLA matching, shorter ischemia times, better bowel preparation, and better opportunities for introducing immunomodulatory strategies. Conversely, living intestine donors are at risk for mortality, significant morbidity, financial loss, and psychologic trauma. The long-term outcomes of living intestine donors have not yet been reported. Ultimately, these data are essential before the wider use of living donors can be advocated for intestinal transplantation. PMID:15663017

  2. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's...outcomes from, living donation. Transplant centers...right to opt out of donation at any time during the donation process; and ...transplant should an organ become...

  3. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's...outcomes from, living donation. Transplant centers...right to opt out of donation at any time during the donation process; and ...transplant should an organ become...

  4. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's...outcomes from, living donation. Transplant centers...right to opt out of donation at any time during the donation process; and ...transplant should an organ become...

  5. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...condition or age of the organs used, or the patient's...outcomes from, living donation. Transplant centers...right to opt out of donation at any time during the donation process; and ...transplant should an organ become...

  6. Live Science: Robots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from Live Science looks at developments in robotics. The site includes interactive features, images, multimedia and news items. Teachers interested in beginning a unit on robotics will find many useful resources on the site to use as a starting point.

  7. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  8. Living in Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    2007-12-12

    NASA's Living in Space Web site allows kids of all ages the opportunity to learn how astronauts cope with zero gravity conditions in space. Everything from eating, dressing, working, and having fun is explained through descriptions, photographs, movies, audio files, and more.

  9. Moab's Living Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a sizable group…

  10. Living with Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Living With Cancer Day to Day The impact of kidney cancer on your life is complex. Here are suggestions on what to expect — from employment matters and ... least one half hour of exercise every other day. Vigorous walking, jogging, swimming, or other aerobic exercise ...

  11. Living with Vasculitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with vasculitis. You can ... them. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  12. Living with Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with Marfan syndrome. You ... it. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  13. Living with ARDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with ARDS. You can ... them. Talk to your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  14. Living with Thalassemias

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with thalassemia. You can ... them. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  15. Living with Hemochromatosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your quality of life. Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with hemochromatosis. You can ... them. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area ... and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones ...

  16. Solar System Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, John

    The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

  17. Live Science: Hot Topics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from Live Science looks at a multitude of topics and the latest news and/or inventions in the topic. Topics include: Nanotechnolgy, Science, Robots, Biotechnology, Inventions, Technology and more. Each page includes a collection of resources on each topic.

  18. Choice of Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, R. J.; Lakin, K. C.; Larson, S.; Engler, J.; Taub, S.; Fortune, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The rights to choose where and with whom to live are widely endorsed but commonly denied to adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The current study provides a contemporary benchmark on the degree of choice exercised by adult service users in the USA. Method: Data came from the National Core Indicators programme. Participants were…

  19. 9 CFR 114.16 - Producing subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.16 Producing subsidiaries. A serial or subserial...

  20. 9 CFR 114.16 - Producing subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.16 Producing subsidiaries. A serial or subserial...