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Producing Knowledge for Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a village in Zimbabwe illustrated how collective community actions resulted in learning that enabled sustainable management of a community resource. Educators' role was helping the community ask the right questions in the process of producing useful working knowledge. (Contains 34 references.) (SK)

von Kotze, Astrid



What Organisms Live in Antarctica?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these activities students will discover the characteristics that enable Antarctica's many life forms to live in this continent of extreme cold, wind, and extended periods of light and darkness. In this weeklong unit, students research how flora and fauna have adapted to thrive in Antarctica, and use their knowledge to create imaginary polar organisms. Throughout this module, students collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain a Web activity in which students investigate the living conditions in Antarctica and some of the adaptations its organisms have made, a classroom activity in which students apply what they have learned to create models of imaginary polar creatures, several readings that provide a broad perspective, including excerpts from early explorers' journals, and question and answer interviews with scientists working in Antarctica. Teacher tools include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, teacher strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, a student handout with guidance for putting together their portfolios and examples of creative final projects, and additional readings.


Just love in live organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or,\\u000a in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged\\u000a but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit\\u000a of the concept of just

Kristin Zeiler



Gender imbalance in living organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organ donation has developed into an important therapeutic option in transplantation medicine. However, there are some\\u000a medico-ethical problems that come along with the increasing reliance on this organ source. One of these concerns is based\\u000a on the observation that many more women than men function as living organ donors. Whereas discrimination and differential\\u000a access have been extensively discussed in

Nikola Biller-Andorno



Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms  


Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

Wong; Pak C. (Richland, WA), Wong; Kwong K. (Sugar Land, TX), Foote; Harlan P. (Richland, WA)



Producing a Live HDTV Program from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By the year 2000, NASA had flown HDTV camcorders on three Space Shuttle missions: STS-95, STS-93 and STS-99. All three flights of these camcorders were accomplished with cooperation from the Japanese space agency (then known as NASDA and now known as JAXA). The cameras were large broadcast-standard cameras provided by NASDA and flight certified by both NASA and NASDA. The high-definition video shot during these missions was spectacular. Waiting for the return of the tapes to Earth emphasized the next logical step: finding a way to downlink the HDTV live from space. Both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) programs were interested in live HDTV from space, but neither had the resources to fully fund the technology. Technically, downlinking from the ISS was the most effective approach. Only when the Japanese broadcaster NHK and the Japanese space agency expressed interest in covering a Japanese astronaut's journey to the ISS did the project become possible. Together, JAXA and NHK offered equipment, technology, and funding toward the project. In return, NHK asked for a live HDTV downlink during one of its broadcast programs. NASA and the ISS Program sought a US partner to broadcast a live HDTV program and approached the Discovery Channel. The Discovery Channel had proposed a live HDTV project in response to NASA's previous call for offers. The Discovery Channel agreed to provide addItional resources. With the final partner in place, the project was under way. Engineers in the Avionics Systems Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) had already studied the various options for downlinking HDTV from the ISS. They concluded that the easiest way was to compress the HDTV so that the resulting data stream would "look" like a payload data stream. The flight system would consist of a professional HDTV camcorder with live HD-SDI output, an HDTV MPEG-2 encoder, and a packetizer/protocol converter.

Grubbs, Rodney; Fontanot, Carlos; Hames, Kevin



[Necessary sites: identical duplication of living organisms].  


The paper deals with the concept of the identity of living organisms, a concept used up until now very ambiguously. The discussion rests on the combination of two concepts, one proposed by Munzer (1993) and another derived from the considerations of Riedl (1975). The first is the proposal that the identity of living organisms depends on the properties of their elementary constituents, such as cells and tissues, and that these properties, in turn, depend on those of their DNA and RNA. It follows that the identity of a living organism remains constant or changes during life according to whether its DNA and RNA content also remains constant or changes. The second is the consideration that, during duplication of a cell population, the informational content of the population does not increase if the duplicated cells are identical (increase only of redundant DNA). On the other hand the informational content of the cell population increases if the duplicated cells are the result of a variation-selection process (increase of essential DNA). The changes of DNA and RNA content, occurring in the germinal cells during phylogenesis and in the somatic cells of the evolutionary systems during ontogenesis, lead, therefore, to the generation of new identities. Living organisms are suggested to reflect two types of identity, that of the deterministic and that of the evolutionary systems. Since the informational content of the deterministic systems (the essential DNA content) remains approximately constant during life, their identity also remains constant. The changes in the number of elementary constituents and cell volumes during the processes of hypertrophy and atrophy are accompanied only by changes in the amount of DNA (the redundant DNA). On the other hand the informational content of the evolutionary systems (the essential DNA), such as the brain-mind system, the immunological system and some receptor systems, undergo a marked increase during the ontogenic development: this leads to changes of identity of these systems. For example, in the immunological system the process of mutation and recombination of the DNA of the immunological cells leads to the generation of new proteins in the amount about 10,000 times larger than that produced through the decodification of the genome. Also the construction of the neural network, and of a number of synapses much larger than that of the neuronal cells, requires the generation of an amount of new information much larger than that contained in the genome. In short, the attribution of a double identity to living organisms reflects the simultaneous presence of systems developing either within strictly programmed limits or without programs and limits, say as closed or open projects. The difference between the two types of systems explains the different effects in the case of the transplants. The identity of the recipient of transplants is not altered in the case of transplants of a deterministic system but is so in case of transplants of evolutionary systems. There is now a widespread fear of the possibility of human cloning. It is argued that this fear is unjustified because a cloning process can never succeed in duplicating those parts which are essential for the characters of humans, namely those concerned with the properties of the evolutionary systems. PMID:12212445

Azzone, G F



Levels of organization of living systems: Cooperons  

Microsoft Academic Search

All creatures living on Earth are traditionally discussed in the context of structuralmorphological approach, in frame of\\u000a which there are considered various systems (for instance, organisms and ecosystems) that have different sizes and organization\\u000a and use different resources for their existence. These characteristics are sometimes added by some particular functional and\\u000a ecological characteristics, but usually with respect to the structural

V. F. Levchenko; V. A. Kotolupov



Organ Transplants from Living Donors - Halachic Aspects*  

PubMed Central

This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction.

Halperin, Mordechai



Organ transplants from living donors - halachic aspects.  


This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms "halacha" and "Jewish law" are defined in the introduction. PMID:23908800

Halperin, Mordechai



Living Organisms for the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication was prepared for elementary teachers and other local personnel responsible for providing, maintaining and using living organisms to enhance elementary science programs. The manual contains a foreword, general information, and an appendix. It gives information concerning equipment and supplies, establishing and maintaining an…

Hampton, Carolyn H.; Hampton, Carol D.


[Distant mental influence on living organisms].  


This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand. PMID:24502184

Bonilla, Ernesto



Psychosocial Assessment of Living Organ Donors: Clinical and Ethical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, \\

Mary Ellen Olbrisch; Sharon M. Benedict



Introduction to the Science of Living Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Profession Carin Zimmerman of the City College of San Francisco has posted materials for a number of her courses online. This one, Introduction to the Science of Living Organisms, provides visitors with lecture notes on five major topics: Population Genetics, Chromosomes, DNA Structure and Function, Central Dogma of Genetics, and Translation. There are also a number of course resources at the bottom of the page, linking to outside tutorials in DNA replication, transcription, translation, and RNA processing.

Zimmerman, Carin C.



Finding Extraterrestrial Organisms Living on Thermosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During thermal cycling, organisms could live on thermosynthesis, a theoretical mechanism applicable to the origin of life and the early evolution of biological energy conversion. All extraterrestrial ice may be a repository for frozen dead or dormant organisms from earlier stages of evolution. In the presence of a thermal gradient within the ice, organisms might still be harvesting energy from thermosynthesis. Possible habitats for thermosynthesizers can be found throughout the Solar System, particularly in the cold traps on Mercury and the Moon, convecting waters on Mars, the oceans on moons in the outer Solar System, and smaller bodies rotating in the sunlight such as cosmic dust, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. A general strategy for detecting thermosynthetic organisms on Earth is offered, and highlights of current and upcoming robotic exploratory missions relevant to the detection of thermosynthesis are reviewed.

Muller, Anthonie W. J.



[Basic ethical aspects of living organ donation].  


A characteristic feature of transplanting organs from living donors is that not only patients in need for treatment but also healthy individuals are submitted to medical interventions. Ethical considerations in this field have to deal with the question of property attributes of the human body and conflicts with traditional medical principles. Altruistic organ donation, appreciated by Christianity as a sign of charity, is indeed contradictory to the classic maxim of medical ethics "primum nihil nocere, " meaning "first of all, do not harm." The autonomous choice of a potential donor has to be balanced thoroughly against his personal physical and psychological risks. Apart from organ donation with altruistic motives, commercial incentives or payment for organ donation, which are increasingly under discussion in many nations, need profound ethical reflection. Organ selling does not lead to long-term economic benefit for individual donors in developing countries and is associated with a decline in health. A market system of organ sales would foster exploitation of the poor, and it is substantially doubtful whether autonomy and self determination are valid under circumstances of poverty and coercion. Commodification of the human body risks viewing persons as marketable objects. The human body,however, is an integral element of an individual's personality and not a resource to be removed. It is therefore fundamental that the social good of altruism is preserved as the major principle in organ donation. PMID:12883802

Nagel, E; Mayer, J



What Organisms Live in Antarctica Today?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this weeklong unit, students research how flora and fauna have adapted to thrive in Antarctica, and use their knowledge to create imaginary polar organisms. Throughout the unit, students collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain: teacher tools, which include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, teacher strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, and additional readings; a Web activity in which students investigate the living conditions in Antarctica and some of the adaptations its organisms have made; a classroom activity in which students apply what they've learned to create models of imaginary polar creatures; several readings that provide a broad perspective, including excerpts from early explorers' journals and Q&A interviews with scientists working in Antarctica and a student handout with guidance for putting together their portfolios and examples of creative final projects.


A proposal for an anonymous living organ donation in Germany.  


In Germany, living organ donation of paired and usually not regenerating organs is restricted by law to related individuals, as well as persons who 'obviously entertain an especially intimate personal relationship'. When this law was adopted in 1997, the intention of the legislator was to guarantee the free will of the donor and to exclude any trade of organs. Since then the transplantation of cadaveric organs has not increased. Additional organs were donated from living donors. However, for a number of reasons only a limited array of transplantation centers use living organ donation as a supply facing a steadily increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure. Living organ donation raises a variety of medical, ethical and legal questions. Although transplantation is a generally accepted therapeutic approach for impaired organ function, doctors do not promote it actively. Prospective donor-recipient pairs use the information obtained via internet and other sources before they contact the clinician. Doctors are hesitant to operate a healthy individual for allowing her or him to profit from this organ loss only emotionally or in an altruistic sense. Often a complex relationship between donor and recipient, as well as tissue incompatibility (ABO, HLA) may be additional reasons to restrain from carrying out living organ transplantation. To improve the chances for good organ function and better life quality of the patients we here propose a model for anonymous living organ donation with special reference to kidney transplantation. PMID:12935555

Rittner, Christian K; Besold, Andrea; Wandel, Evelyn



Taxes and Transplants: Public Policies and Live Organ Donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple model for live organ donation based on altruistic motives. Using state-level data on live kidney donations in the U.S., we estimate donor income (0.81) and donor cost (-0.47) elasticities of live kidney donations. We then use the model to simulate the effects of state income tax credits on the number of organ donors. Our results indicate

Miguel Gouveia; Pamela B. Peele


BIOGLYPHS: A Living Collaboration with Bioluminescent Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BIOGLYPHS is an art and science collaboration initiated by members of the Center for Biofilm Engineering and the Montana State University School of Art. This website features two BIOGLYPHS exhibitions of living bioluminescent paintings that were created by teams of student and staff artists, scientists and engineers in 2002. The site includes a gallery of BIOGLYPH paintings, information about collaborators, comments from the guest book, and links to media coverage and related web pages.

Art, Msu-Bozeman S.; Engineering, Center F.


Self-organized criticality in living systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that ensembles of self-replicating entities such as biological systems naturally evolve to a self-organized critical state in which fluctuations, as well as waiting times between phase transitions (“epochs”), are distributed according to a 1f? power law. Such distributions can explain observed frequency distributions in extinction events as well as fractal population structures, and support the punctuated equilibrium picture

C. Adami



X-ray microscopy of live biological micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time, compact x-ray microscopy has the potential to benefit many scientific fields, including microbiology, pharmacology, organic chemistry, and physics. Single frame x-ray micro-radiography, produced by a compact, solid-state laser plasma source, allows scientists to use x-ray emission for elemental analysis, and to observe biological specimens in their natural state. In this study, x-ray images of mouse kidney tissue, live bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia, and the bacteria's interaction with the antibiotic gentamicin, are examined using x-ray microscopy. For the purposes of comparing between confocal microscopy and x-ray microscopy, we introduced to our work the technique of gold labeling. Indirect immunofluorescence staining and immuno-gold labeling were applied on human lymphocytes and human tumor cells. Differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) showed the lymphocyte body and nucleus, as did x-ray microscopy. However, the high resolution of x-ray microscopy allows us to differentiate between the gold particles bound to the antibodies and the free gold. A compact, tabletop Nd: glass laser is used in this study to produce x-rays from an Yttrium target. An atomic force microscope is used to scan the x-ray images from the developed photo-resist. The use of compact, tabletop laser plasma sources, in conjunction with x-ray microscopy, is a new technique that has great potential as a flexible, user-friendly scientific research tool.

Raja Al-Ani, Ma'an Nassar


Psychosocial assessment of living organ donors: clinical and ethical considerations.  


This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, "Good Samaritan" (both directed and nondirected), vendors, and organ exchangers. The primary domains to be assessed in the psychosocial evaluation are informed consent, motivation for donating and the decision-making process, adequacy of support (financial and social), behavioral and psychological health, and the donor-recipient relationship. Obstacles to the evaluation process include impression management, overt deception, minimization of behavioral risk factors, and cultural and language differences between the donor and the evaluator. Ethical concerns, such as the right to donate, donor autonomy, freedom from coercion, nonmaleficence and beneficence in donor selection, conflicts of interest, "reasonable" risks to donors, and recipient decision making are also explored. To fully evaluate living organ donation, studying psychosocial as well as medical outcomes is crucial. PMID:11357556

Olbrisch, M E; Benedict, S M; Haller, D L; Levenson, J L




Microsoft Academic Search

This study demographically determines: which consumers are currently buying organic produce; consumer comparisons of organic and conventional produce; and consumer purchase likelihood of higher-priced organic produce. Data were collected from a Delaware consumer survey, dealing with fresh produce and food safety. Multinomial and ordered logit models were developed to generate marginal effects of age, gender, education, and income. Increasing age,

Patrick J. Byrne; Ulrich C. Toensmeyer; Carl L. German; H. Reed Muller



Method of producing briquettes from organic waste products  

SciTech Connect

In a method of producing fuel briquettes from organic waste products calcium oxide together with the enriching coal are added to the waste organic products subjected to high pressures to produce sterilized fuel briquettes of high heating values.

Lindemann, R. W.



Ethical issues in living organ donation: Donor autonomy and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite nearly 50 years of experience with living kidney donation, ethical questions about this practice continue to haunt us today. In this editorial I will address two of them: (1) Given the possibility of limited understanding and coercion, how can we be sure that a person who offers to donate an organ is acting autonomously? and (2) Do people have

Aaron Spital



Investigating Biological Classification: Organization of All Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will investigate the organization of all living things through and learn how to classify through process of classifying their own shoes. Students will complete the classification of a Jaguar and write their own pneumonic device to remember the order of biological classification. (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species)

Lindsey Oliver, Fridley Middle School, Fridley, MN


D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

Fujii, Noriko



Determination of Vitamin C in the Living Organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE determining the vitamin C content of urine taken from healthy individuals or patients suffering from various diseases by titration with 2-6 dichlorophenolindophenol, we tried to perform this test in the living organism itself. First we injected small quantities of a 1\\/1,000 normal sterile solution of the dye into the sole of healthy and scorbutic guinea pigs. We observed that

H. Rotter



The impact ejection of living organisms into space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of natural processes to blast living organisms into space was examined. It is suggested that rocks ejected from the Earth by a giant meteorite or comet impact can carry microorganisms into space. Such microscopic Earth life would have an opportunity to colonize the other planets if it can survive the rigors of space until it falls into the atmosphere of a hospitable planet.

Melosh, H. J.



[Phenomenological theory of the recuperative period of the living organism].  


A phenomenological nonlinear model, describing a reconstruction of the living organism after strong loading have been proposed. This model is describing a restitution dynamics of the organism functional state to the initial state, including a supercompensation stage. In a simplest (one-component) case this model is overdamping Duffing oscillator. It is shown that the mutation phenomena may be described as the phase transition within the framework of Landau-Khalatnikov approach. A generalized many-component nonlinear reconstruction model is proposed. PMID:9172700

Za?tsev, A A; Sazonov, S V



Organic reactants rapidly produce plastic foam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adding trichlorofluoromethane to polyether resin accelerates the reaction between the resin and toluene diisocyanate. This accelerated reaction instantaneously produces a plastic foam of low density and uniform porosity needed to provide buoyancy for flotation recovery of instrument packages dropped into the sea from spacecraft.

Look, G. F.



Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices  

SciTech Connect

The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.

Schmieder, R.W.



9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...



9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...



Living Organ Donation: An Ethical Evolution or Evolution of Ethics?  

PubMed Central

The disparity between available and needed organs is rapidly increasing, and the number of patients dying while still on the waiting list is growing exponentially. As a partial solution to this disparity, living unrelated transplantation is being performed more frequently, and some have proposed providing financial incentives to donors. The aim of this discussion is to illustrate that with an ever-increasing number of living unrelated transplantations, society and the transplant community should adopt a more active role in developing specific strategies to scrutinize the process. The current paper will also examine the viewpoint that medical ethics is not separable from the prevailing needs of society and involves a constant balancing of often opposing goods. Issues surrounding living unrelated donor transplantation illustrate ethics as a dynamically evolving field, which is often influenced by necessity and which evolves with progression of science and society. As part of this evolution, it is the collective responsibility of society and the transplant community to devise safeguards to guarantee adherence to basic principles of ethics and to avoid “situational ethics.”

Ghahramani, N.



Living Organisms Coupling to Electromagnetic Radiation Below Thermal Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation is part of the natural environment. Prior to major earthquakes the local ULF and global ELF radiation field is often markedly perturbed. This has detrimental effects on living organisms. We are studying the mechanism of these effects on the biochemical, cellular and organismal levels. The transfer of electrons along the Electron Transfer Chain (ETC) controls the universal reduction-oxidation reactions that are essential for fundamental biochemical processes in living cells. In order for these processes to work properly, the ETC has to maintain some form of synchronization, or coherence with all biochemical reactions in the living cells, including energy production, RNA transcription, and DNA replication. As a consequence of this synchronization, harmful chemical conflict between the reductive and the oxidative partial reactions can be minimized or avoided. At the same time we note that the synchronization allows for a transfer of energy, coherent or interfering, via coupling to the natural ambient EM field. Extremely weak high frequency EM fields, well below the thermal noise level, tuned in frequency to the electron spins of certain steps in the ETC, have already been shown to cause aberrant cell growth and disorientation among plants and animals with respect to the magnetic and gravity vectors. We investigate EM fields over a much wider frequency range, including ULF known to be generated deep in the Earth prior to major earthquakes locally, and ELF known to be fed by lightning discharges, traveling around the globe in the cavity formed between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. This ULF/ELF radiation can control the timing of the biochemical redox cycle and thereby have a universal effect on physiology of organisms. The timing can even have a detrimental influence, via increased oxidative damage, on the DNA replication, which controls heredity.

Stolc, Viktor; Freund, Friedemann



Superresolution imaging of targeted proteins in fixed and living cells using photoactivatable organic fluorophores.  


Superresolution imaging techniques based on sequential imaging of sparse subsets of single molecules require fluorophores whose emission can be photoactivated or photoswitched. Because typical organic fluorophores can emit significantly more photons than average fluorescent proteins, organic fluorophores have a potential advantage in super-resolution imaging schemes, but targeting to specific cellular proteins must be provided. We report the design and application of HaloTag-based target-specific azido DCDHFs, a class of photoactivatable push-pull fluorogens which produce bright fluorescent labels suitable for single-molecule superresolution imaging in live bacterial and fixed mammalian cells. PMID:20936809

Lee, Hsiao-lu D; Lord, Samuel J; Iwanaga, Shigeki; Zhan, Ke; Xie, Hexin; Williams, Jarrod C; Wang, Hui; Bowman, Grant R; Goley, Erin D; Shapiro, Lucy; Twieg, Robert J; Rao, Jianghong; Moerner, W E




EPA Science Inventory

This report describes modification, content expansion and update activities performed on the Organic Chemical Producers Data Base (OCPDB), an EPA-owned, computerized information system containing data on chemical products and industrial production facilities located in the United...


7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...



7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...




PubMed Central

Trejo, William (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and Ralph E. Bennett. Streptomyces nodosus sp. n., the amphotericin-producing organism. J. Bacteriol. 85:436–439. 1963.—Streptomyces nodosus, the amphotericin-producing organism, is described as a new species in conformity with the rules of nomenclature as applied to streptomycetes. The relationship between S. nodosus and S. rutgersensis is discussed, and the basis for separation of the species is presented. Images

Trejo, William H.; Bennett, R. E.



Racemization and the origin of optically active organic compounds in living organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organic compounds synthesized in prebiotic experiments are racemic mixtures. A number of proposals have been offered to explain how asymmetric organic compounds formed on the Earth before life arose, with the influence of chiral weak nuclear interactions being the most frequent proposal. This and other proposed asymmetric syntheses give only sight enantiomeric excess and any slight excess will be degraded by racemization. This applies particularly to amino acids where half-lives of 10(5)-10(6) years are to be expected at temperatures characteristic of the Earth's surface. Since the generation of chiral molecules could not have been a significant process under geological conditions, the origins of this asymmetry must have occurred at the time of the origin of life or shortly thereafter. It is possible that the compounds in the first living organisms were prochiral rather than chiral; this is unlikely for amino acids, but it is possible for the monomers of RNA-like molecules.

Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.



Characteristics of the I-2 Live Thermostable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Produced at INIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The I-2 thermostable live Newcastle disease vaccine was successfully produced and tested at the National Veterinary Research Institute in Mozambique. Local production of the vaccine has facilitated the supply of a low-cost, thermostable ND vaccine suitable for use in the control of ND in village chickens. For the vaccine to be used successfully in the field, the development of appropriate

R. G. Alders; R. Fringe; B. V. Mata


Psychosocial factors in living organ donation: clinical and ethical challenges.  


Living donor surgery has come to the forefront of public attention because increasing numbers of potential donors respond to the organ shortage. Because of several factors including decreased morbidity from donor surgery, online resources appealing for organs, and increased publicity about donation, new populations of unrelated donors are seeking evaluation for donor surgery. However, concern about potential coercion of vulnerable individuals, the potential for adverse psychosocial outcomes, and recent reports of donor deaths have reinvigorated discussion within the medical community about how best to assess donors. Research on the long-term quality of life outcomes for donors suggests that most donors are satisfied with their decision to donate. Small single-center studies on psychosocial outcomes have reported psychiatric sequelae after donor surgery. Little is known about the psychosocial outcomes for donors who are psychosocially excluded from donating. A multidisciplinary team approach, including social work and psychiatry evaluations, allows for the comprehensive assessment of important areas including motivation and expectations about surgery, current and past psychiatric conditions, history of substance or alcohol abuse, family support, understanding of the risks and alternatives of donor surgery for the donor and recipient, and motivation for donation including any evidence of coercion. PMID:18631877

Jowsey, Sheila G; Schneekloth, Terry D



Long-lived radicals produced by ?-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-lived radicals produced by ?-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20 nmol g -1. Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to life conservation. Long-lived radicals are also produced by ?-irradiation of cells or protein solution. The radicals decay after death of living things or after ?-irradiation. We found that the decay dynamics in all biological systems can be expressed by the same kinetic equation of an inhomogeneous reaction.

Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Morikawa, Akiyuki; Kumagai, Jun; Ikehata, Masateru; Koana, Takao; Kikuchi, Shoshi



“Can You Spare an Organ?”: Exploring Hispanic Americans' Willingness to Discuss Living Organ Donation With Loved Ones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organ donation offers a means of overcoming the shortage of viable organs available for transplant: a shortage particularly problematic among Hispanics. One barrier standing between those in need of a kidney and a successful transplant operation is an inability, and often lack of desire, to talk to loved ones about the need for a living donation. With an eye

Jason T. Siegel; Eusebio M. Alvaro; Zachary P. Hohman; Deborah Maurer




EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the maintenance and operation of the Organic Chemical Producers Data Base (OCPDB) from March 1979 to December 1980. During this period the OCPDB, an automated chemical information system developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was expanded an...


Comparison of the biosorption and desorption of hazardous organic pollutants by live and dead biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

and 2-chlorobiphenyl by living and dead cells of the fungus R. arrhizus and activated sludge was studied. A generalization concerning the relative magnitude of biosorptive uptake between live and dead biomass cannot be made using the experimental data. Uptakes by live and dead cells are similarly correlated to the octanol\\/water partition coefficient of the organic pollutants. The desorption of the




Social organization in free-living prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding units (occupants of a nest including at least one reproductive female) within two free-living populations of the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, were monitored by live-trapping at nest during two 28-h periods each week from October 1980 to March 1984. Data are presented for 281 breeding units from all seasons, at high and low population densities and during breeding and

Lowell L. Getz; Joyce E. Hofmann



Composition of organic and conventionally produced sunflower seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to highlight the main differences between seed oils produced from conventionally cultivated\\u000a crops and organically cultivated ones and processed using mild extraction procedures. The composition and the nutritional\\u000a and health aspects of both types of sunflower seed oils were compared and were analytically tested to determine the macroscopic\\u000a differences in proximate composition, the

G. Perretti; E. Finotti; S. Adamuccio; R. Della Sera; L. Montanari



Harvesting the living?: separating "brain death" and organ transplantation.  


The chronic shortage of transplantable organs has reached critical proportions. In the wake of this crisis, some bioethicists have argued that there is sufficient public support to expand organ recovery through use of neocortical criteria of death or even pre-mortem organ retrieval. I present a typology of ways in which data gathered from the public can be misread or selectively used by bioethicists in service of an ideological or policy agenda, resulting in bad policy and bad ethics. Such risks should lead us to look at alternatives for increasing organ supplies short of expanding or abandoning the dead donor rule. The chronic problem of organ scarcity should prompt bioethicists to engage in constructive dialogue about the relation of the social sciences and bioethics, to examine the social malleability of the definition of death, and to revisit the question of the priority of organ transplants in the overall package of healthcare benefits provided to most, but not all, citizens. PMID:15497228

Campbell, Courtney S



Introducing Incentives in the Market for Live and Cadaveric Organ Donations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the introduction of monetary incentives in the market for live and cadaveric organ donations. We show that monetary incentives would increase the supply of organs for transplant sufficiently to eliminate the very large queues in organ markets, and the suffering and deaths of many of those waiting, without increasing the total cost of transplant surgery by more than

Gary Stanley Becker; Julio Jorge Elías



Position paper Natural living—a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses animal welfare in organic farming systems in relation to values and aims in organic farming. It sums up experiences from a 4-year interdisciplinary project. An important finding is that animal welfare is understood somewhat differently in organic farming from what is common in conventional agriculture. It is interpreted in terms of natural living, which includes the possibility

Vonne Lund


77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...



77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters'' (Docket No....



77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...allowable concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters...



77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S....



In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping



In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping



Organized Living: From Cell Surfaces to Basement Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to integrin receptors initiates intracellular signaling events that are essential for the differentiation and survival of epithelial cells. However, the propagation and processing of these signals also depend on the cells acquiring an appropriate three-dimensional morphology and polarity after contact with the ECM. In fact, even if adhesion to the ECM is maintained but subsequent cellular organization and polarity are impaired, epithelial cells fail to fully differentiate and become susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. Studies using three-dimensional tissue culture models with reconstituted basement membranes not only demonstrate the central role of tissue organization for differentiation and survival, but also emphasize how acquiring this organized polarized phenotype can override a number of genetic changes that would otherwise disrupt normal tissue function.

Nancy J. Boudreau (University of California San Francisco;Department of Surgery REV)



Immobilization of long-lived radionuclides in carbon matrices produced with the use of polyimide binders  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Conditions for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I and {sup 241}Am in carbon matrices were investigated by using their chemical analogs. Stable isotopes of rhenium, iodine and europium were used as chemical analogs of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I and {sup 241}Am, respectively. It is shown that the carbon matrices incorporating the above elements can be produced by carbonization of composites with ITA-31 polyimide binder of the following composition: equal molar ratio between dianhydride of 3,3/,4,4/-benzophenone-tetracarboxylic acid and tetraacetyl derivative of 4,4/-diaminodiphenyl ester, radionuclide being investigated or its chemical analog and carbon fabric as reinforcing component. The elements under investigation were used both in the form of salts or oxides and in the form of their complexes with ion-exchange resins. The produced composites were carbonized in inert gas (argon) or in vacuum. The physical-chemical properties of the samples were studied. It was revealed that the resultant matrices meet the requirements imposed on waste storage and final disposal. (authors)

Abdulakhatov, Murat; Bartenev, Sergey; Firsin, Nikolai; Zykov, Mikhail [V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 194021, 28, 2nd Murinsky pr., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Goikhman, Mikhail; Gribanov, Alexander [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds RAS, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMC RAS), Bolshoi pr.31, Saint-Petersburg, UR-199004 (Russian Federation); Novikov, Valery [RAS, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Krasznail, John [Kinectrics Inc., 800 Kipling Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M8Z 6C4 (Canada)



Iron carbide nanoparticles produced by laser ablation in organic solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ablation of iron in an organic solvent (pentane, hexane, or decane) was performed using an air-tight cell to produce iron carbide nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectra of the nanoparticles were obtained at room temperature. They revealed that the nanoparticles consisted of two paramagnetic components and magnetic components. The two paramagnetic components were a high-spin Fe(II) species and an amorphous iron carbide containing a large amount of carbon. Whereas the magnetic components measured at room temperature exhibited superparamagnetism, those measured at low temperature were fitted by a combination of four sextets, which were assigned to Fe7 C 3. The Fe7 C 3 yield was higher in higher molecular weight solvents. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the samples showed that the nanoparticles were spherical with diameters in the range 10-100 nm.

Matsue, T.; Yamada, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.



Attitude of Personnel in Hospital Cadaveric Organ Transplant-Related Units Faced with Living Kidney Donation in a Hospital with a Living Kidney Donor Transplantation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The attitude of health care personnel is fundamental for the procurement of organs, especially when they are based in transplant-related services. The objective of this study is to assess the attitude of hospital personnel in transplant-related services toward living kidney donation in a hospital with a cadaveric and living solid organ transplant program. Materials and Methods: A random sample

A. Ríos; P. Ramírez; L. Martínez; J. A. García; M. J. Montoya; D. Lucas; P. Parrilla



Quantum Mechanics Action of ELF Electromagnetic Fields on Living Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is presently an intense discussion if extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure has consequences for human health. This include exposure to structures and appliances from this range of frequency in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Biological effects of such exposures have been noted frequently, although the implications for specific health effects is not that clear. The basic interactions mechanisms between such fields and living matter is unknown. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested, although none is convincingly supported by experimental data. Various cellular components, processes, and systems can be affected by EMF exposure. Since it is unlikely that EMF can induce DNA damage directly, most studies have examined EMF effects on the cell membrane level, general and specific gene expression, and signal transduction pathways. Even more, a large number of studies have been performed regarding cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, metabolism, and various physiological characteristics of cells. The aim of this letter is present the hypothesis of a possible quantum mechanic effect generated by the exposure of ELF EMF, an event which is compatible with the multitude of effects observed after exposure. Based on an extensive literature review, we suggest that ELF EMF exposure is able to perform such activation restructuring the electronic level of occupancy of free radicals in molecules interacting with DNA structures.

Godina-Nava, J. J.



Estimating Service Lives of Organic Vapor Cartridges III: Multiple Vapors at All Humidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A published model for estimating service lives of organic vapor (OV) air-purifying respirator cartridges has been extended to include multiple organic vapors at all humidities. Equilibria among the OVs are calculated using Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory, whereas the effects of adsorbed water are considered as due to micropore volume exclusion. Solubilities of OVs in water must also be taken into

Gerry O. Wood; Jay L. Snyder



Islamic Sunni Mainstream Opinions on Compensation to Unrelated Live Organ Donors  

PubMed Central

This article focuses on contemporary Islamic attitudes towards the question of compensation to a non-relative live organ donor. This article presents the history of the debate on organ transplantation in Islam since the 1950s and the key ethical questions. It continues by presenting the opinions of the mainstream ulema such as Tantawi and Qaradawi. The article ends with a conclusion that there must be no compensation made to a non-related live organ donor, not even a symbolic gift of honor (ikramiyya).

Natour, Ahmad; Fishman, Shammai



Fundamental Limitation on Applicability of Statistical Methods to Study of Living Organisms and Other Complex Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A living organism is a complex system whose state is characterized by extremely large number of variables that far exceeds the number of individual organisms that can be experimentally studied. Since the relations between these variables and even their identities are largely unknown, the applicability of statistical methods of inference to the outcome of experiments in biomedical sciences is severely limited. Far from being a purely theoretical issue, this explains the recently proposed "Truth Wears Off" effect and sets a fundamental limitation on the applicability of machine-like approaches to the study of living organisms.

Rabin, Yitzhak



The nutritional relationship linking sulfur to nitrogen in living organisms.  


Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) coexist in the biosphere as free elements or in the form of simple inorganic NO3- and SO4(2-) oxyanions, which must be reduced before undergoing anabolic processes leading to the production of methionine (Met) and other S-containing molecules. Both N and S pathways are tightly regulated in plant tissues so as to maintain S:N ratios ranging from 1:20 to 1:35. As a result, plant products do not adequately fulfill human tissue requirements, whose mean S:N ratios amount to 1:14.5. The evolutionary patterns of total body N (TBN) and of total body S (TBS) offer from birth to death sex- and age-related specificities well identified by the serial measurement of plasma transthyretin (TTR). Met is regarded as the most limiting of all indispensable amino acids (IAAs) because of its participation in a myriad of molecular, structural, and metabolic activities of survival importance. Met homeostasis is regulated by subtle competitive interactions between transsulfuration and remethylation pathways of homocysteine (Hcy) and by the actual level of TBN reserves working as a direct sensor of cystathionine-beta-synthase activity. Under steady-state conditions, the dietary intake of SO4(2-) is essentially equal to total sulfaturia. The recommended dietary allowances for both S-containing AAs allotted to replace the minimal obligatory losses resulting from endogenous catabolism is largely covered by Western customary diets. By contrast, strict vegans and low-income populations living in plant-eating countries incur the risk of chronic N and Met dietary deficiencies causing undesirable hyperhomocysteinemia best explained by the downsizing of their TBN resources and documented by declining TTR plasma values. PMID:16702334

Ingenbleek, Yves




Microsoft Academic Search

The Living Soil Association of Tasmania (LSAT) (1946-1960) pioneered the concepts of organic food and farming in Australia?s smallest state, for the decade immediately after WWII. The LSAT was one of the world?s first organisations to promote organic farming. It was preceded by New Zealand?s Humic Compost Society (founded in 1941), the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (1944), Australia?s

John Paull


The Living Organ Donor Network: a model registry for living kidney donors.  


The South-Eastern Organ Procurement Foundation presents the first report on a programme to track donors through questionnaires completed at the time of donation, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly thereafter. Donors at participating centres were eligible for an insurance policy with a total benefit of 250,000 US dollars, covering accidental death related to donation, surgery, medical expenses of complications, and disability income. The four participating centres have registered 104 donors. Response rate to the questionnaires was 90.91%. The majority of the donors come from the immediate family (81.62%), either by blood or marriage. The majority of donors are employed full time, with income ranges similar to the national census. Donors rely on employer-provided vacation time and sick leave to recuperate, but the average donor required 12 days of unpaid leave before returning to work. Donors also experienced costs of transportation, lodging, and childcare. Anti-depressants were prescribed to 10.58% of donors, and 4.8% of donors reported they are treated for hypertension. Complications were reported by 37.5% of the donors, but only 7.6% of the complications were serious enough to require hospitalization or surgery. Donors reported higher complication rates than reported by the centres and experience financial burdens afterwards. PMID:15217405

McCune, Thomas R; Armata, Thomas; Mendez-Picon, Gerardo; Yium, Jackson; Zabari, Gazi B; Crandall, Betty; Spicer, Helen G; Blanton, Jack; Thacker, Leroy R



Cystic fibrosis: an inherited disease affecting mucin-producing organs.  


Our current understanding of cystic fibrosis (CF) has revealed that the biophysical properties of mucus play a considerable role in the pathogenesis of the disease in view of the fact that most mucus-producing organs are affected in CF patients. In this review, we discuss the potential causal relationship between altered cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function and the production of mucus with abnormal biophysical properties in the intestine and lungs, highlighting what has been learned from cell cultures and animal models that mimic CF pathogenesis. A similar cascade of events, including mucus obstruction, infection and inflammation, is common to all epithelia affected by impaired surface hydration. Hence, the main structural components of mucus, namely the polymeric, gel-forming mucins, are critical to the onset of the disease. Defective CFTR leads to epithelial surface dehydration, altered pH/electrolyte composition and mucin concentration. Further, it can influence mucin transition from the intracellular to extracellular environment, potentially resulting in aberrant mucus gel formation. While defective HCO3(-) production has long been identified as a feature of CF, it has only recently been considered as a key player in the transition phase of mucins. We conclude by examining the influence of mucins on the biophysical properties of CF sputum and discuss existing and novel therapies aimed at removing mucus from the lungs. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Cystic Fibrosis: From o-mics to cell biology, physiology, and therapeutic advances. PMID:24685676

Ehre, Camille; Ridley, Caroline; Thornton, David J



Probing transplant and living donor candidates about their participation in organ vending.  


The selling of human organs for transplant is illegal in the United States and in most countries; however, such transactions still occur. Transplant hospitals and their personnel have multiple ethical duties, including (1) protecting the safety of their living donors and transplant recipients and (2) protecting the integrity of living donation and transplantation as clinical practices. To date, few psychosocial screening tools exist that pertain specifically to a person's risk or intent of pursuing organ vending (buying or selling). This article presents a series of transplant ethics case consultations that spawned the creation of a set of behavioral prompts for teams to probe with regard to organ vending when screening candidates about their suitability for participation as living donors or transplant recipients. PMID:20929116

Bramstedt, Katrina A



Live piglets derived from in vitro-produced zygotes vitrified at the pronuclear stage.  


We report the successful cryopreservation of in vitro-produced porcine zygotes. Follicular oocytes from prepubertal gilts were matured (IVM), fertilized (IVF), and cultured (IVC) in vitro. At 10 or 23 h after IVF, the oocytes were centrifuged to visualize pronuclei. Zygotes with two or three pronuclei were used for solid surface vitrification (SSV). Survival of vitrified-warmed zygotes was determined by their morphology. To assess their developmental competence, vitrified (SSV), cryoprotectant-treated (CPA), and untreated (control) zygotes were subjected to IVC for 6 days. Survival and developmental competence did not differ between control and CPA zygotes. The proportion of live zygotes after SSV and warming (93.4%) was similar to that in the controls (100%). Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of SSV zygotes after vitrification (71.7% and 15.8%, respectively) were significantly lower than those of controls (86.3% and 24.5%, respectively; ANOVA P<0.05). Blastocyst cell numbers of SSV and control embryos were similar (41.2+/-3.4 and 41.6+/-3.3, respectively). There was no difference in developmental ability between zygotes cryopreserved at an early (10 h after IVF) or late (23 h after IVF) pronuclear stage. Storage in liquid nitrogen had no effect on the in vitro developmental competence of vitrified zygotes beyond the reduction induced by the vitrification itself. When the embryo culture medium was supplemented with 1 muM glutathione, the rate of development of cryopreserved zygotes to the blastocyst stage did not differ significantly from that of control glutathione-treated zygotes (18.6% and 22.1%, respectively). To test their ability to develop to term, vitrified zygotes were transferred to five recipients, resulting in three pregnancies and the production of a total of 17 piglets. These data demonstrate that IVM-IVF porcine zygotes can be cryopreserved at the pronuclear stage effectively without micromanipulation-derived delipation, preserving their full developmental competence to term. PMID:18768913

Somfai, Tamás; Ozawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Michiko; Maedomari, Naoki; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro



Carriage of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates among Children Living in a Remote Village in Senegal?  

PubMed Central

Two out of 20 children with no known antibiotic exposure, living in a very remote Senegalese village, were found to be fecal carriers of a multiresistant Escherichia coli clone that produced CTX-M-15. This highlights the current massive spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases, even in isolated communities.

Ruppe, Etienne; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Diop, Abdoulaye; Sene, Anne-Marie; Da Costa, Annaelle; Arlet, Guillaume; Andremont, Antoine; Rouveix, Bernard



Fundamental Limitation on Applicability of Statistical Methods to Study of Living Organisms and Other Complex Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A living organism is a complex system whose state is characterized by extremely large number of variables that far exceeds\\u000a the number of individual organisms that can be experimentally studied. Since the relations between these variables and even\\u000a their identities are largely unknown, the applicability of statistical methods of inference to the outcome of experiments\\u000a in biomedical sciences is severely

Yitzhak Rabin



HIV screening practices for living organ donors, New York State, 2010: need for standard policies.  


Our survey of kidney and liver transplant centers in New York State found a wide variation among transplant centers in evaluation and screening for HIV risk and infection among prospective living donors. Survey results underscore the need to standardize practices. A recent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from a living donor to a kidney recipient revealed a possible limitation in existing screening protocols for HIV infection in living donors. We surveyed kidney and liver transplant centers (N = 18) in New York State to assess HIV screening protocols for living donors. Although most transplant centers evaluated HIV risk behaviors in living donors, evaluation practices varied widely, as did the extent of HIV testing and prevention counseling. All centers screened living donors for serologic evidence of HIV infection, either during initial evaluation or ?1 month before surgery; however, only 50% of transplant centers repeated HIV testing within 14 days before surgery for all donors or donors with specific risk behaviors. Forty-four percent of transplant centers used HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) to screen either all donors or donors with recognized risk behaviors, and 55% never performed HIV NAT. Results suggest the need to standardize evaluation of HIV risk behaviors and prevention counseling in New York State to prevent acquisition of HIV by prospective living organ donors, and to conduct HIV antibody testing and NAT as close to the time of donation as possible to prevent HIV transmission to recipients. PMID:22752517

Kwan, Candice K; Al-Samarrai, Teeb; Smith, Lou C; Sabharwal, Charulata J; Valente, Kim A; Torian, Lucia V; McMurdo, Lisa M; Shepard, Colin W; Brooks, John T; Kuehnert, Matthew J



The Patentability of Living Organisms under 35 U.S.C. Section 101: In re Bergy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined is the In re Bergy decision in which a divided United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals held that a living micro-organism was patentable under section 101 of the United States Code. Differing views and problems with the decision are also discussed. (JMD)

Harvard Law Review, 1978



[Structure, methodology and ethics of German commissions on living organ donation].  


Living organ donation is a medically established and morally acceptable method of transplantation. According to German Transplantation Law, an expert review by a local "Commission on Living Donation" (Lebendspendekommission, LSK) is required before transplantation. The legal task of this review is to ensure a voluntary decision by the donor and to rule out illegal trading of organs. Results from a national survey among all LSKs show that the process of review and assessment varies considerably among German LSKs. Most of them carry out a compulsory hearing of every potential donor, but this is omitted by some LSKs in a number of cases. Only 60% of all LSKs feel confident to determine donors' free will and protect their self-determination. Only 33% claim to be able to recognise illegal trading of organs. The LSKs even disagree on the exact borderline between legal incentives and illegal commerce. An expansion of living donation by financial incentives, pool-donation or crossover donation is supported only by a minority of German LSKs. The article argues in favour of establishing national standards for the process of LSK-reviews in order to foster procedural ethics and trustworthiness in the field of living organ donation. PMID:16755426

Sievers, K; Neitzke, G



Making Nature's Wisdom Public: The Affirmation of Planet Earth as a Living Organism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planet Earth is a living organism that preserves and regenerates itself and shares information with humans through sensations, feelings, and actions. After early humans migrated from their tropical origins to colder climates, they developed technologies to impose their tropical memories on their new surroundings and lost touch with their ancient…

Cohen, Michael J.


Effect of flagellates on free-living bacterial abundance in an organically contaminated aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the role of protists in the saturated subsurface. Porous media microcosms, containing bacteria and protists, were used to determine whether flagellates from an organically contaminated aquifer could substantively affect the number of free-living bacteria (FLB). When flagellates were present, the 3–40% maximum breakthrough of fluorescently labelled FLB injected into the microcosms was much lower than the

N. E Kinner; R. W Harvey; Marina Kazmierkiewicz-Tabaka



A newly isolated organic solvent tolerant Staphylococcus saprophyticus M36 produced organic solvent-stable lipase.  


Thirty-eight high lipase activity strains were isolated from soil, seawater, and Brassica napus. Among them, a novel organic solvent tolerant bacterium (strain M36) was isolated from the seawater in Jiangsu, China. Isolate M36 was able to grow at high concentration of benzene or toluene up to 40% (vol/vol), and later identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus by biochemical test and 16s ribosomal DNA sequence. No work on Staphylococcus producing lipase with organic solvent tolerance has been reported so far. The lipase of strain M36 whose activity in liquid medium was 42 U mL(-1) at 24-h incubation time was stable in the presence of 25% (vol/vol) p-xylene, benzene, toluene, and hexane. PMID:17089221

Fang, Yaowei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lv, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei; Liu, Shu; Ding, Zhongyang; Xu, Weifeng



Living organ donation practices in Europe - results from an online survey.  


In Europe, living organ donation (LOD) is increasingly accepted as a valuable solution to overcome the organ shortage. However, considerable differences exist between European countries regarding frequency, practices and acceptance of donor-recipient relations. As a response, the Coordination Action project 'Living Organ Donation in Europe' (, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission, was initiated. Transplant professionals from 331 European kidney and liver transplant centres were invited to complete an online survey on living kidney donation (LKD) and living liver donation (LLD). In total, 113 kidney transplant centres from 40 countries and 39 liver transplant centres from 24 countries responded. 96.5% and 71.8% performed LKD and LLD respectively. The content of the medical screening of donors was similar, but criteria for donor acceptance varied. Few absolute contraindications for donation existed. The reimbursement policies diverged and the majority of the donors did not get reimbursed for their income loss during recovery. Large discrepancies were found between geographical European regions (the Eastern, the Mediterranean and the North-Western). As a result of this survey we suggest several recommendations to improve quality and safety of LOD in Europe. PMID:23198985

Lennerling, Annette; Lovén, Charlotte; Dor, Frank J M F; Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Frunza, Mihaela; Pascalev, Assya; Zuidema, Willij; Weimar, Willem; Dobbels, Fabienne



Imposing options on people in poverty: the harm of a live donor organ market.  


A prominent defence of a market in organs from living donors says that if we truly care about people in poverty, we should allow them to sell their organs. The argument is that if poor vendors would have voluntarily decided to sell their organs in a free market, then prohibiting them from selling makes them even worse off, at least from their own perspective, and that it would be unconscionably paternalistic to substitute our judgements for individuals' own judgements about what would be best for them. The author shows that this 'Laissez-Choisir Argument' for organ selling rests on a mistake. This is because the claim that it would be better for people in poverty to sell their organs if given the option is consistent with the claim that it would be even better for them to not have the option at all. The upshot is that objections to an organ market need not be at all paternalistic, since we need not accept that the absence of a market makes those in poverty any worse off, even from their own point of view. The author goes on to argue that there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for believing that people in poverty would in fact be harmed by the introduction of a market for live donor organs and that the harm constitutes sufficient grounds for prohibiting a market. PMID:22745109

Rippon, Simon



Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?  


Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ?50 ?m were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event. PMID:23614690

First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A



Method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism wherein a series of negative pressures are externally applied to successive length-wise sections of a lower limb of the organism. The pressures decreasing progressively with distance of said limb sections from the heart of the organism. A casing defines a chamber adapted to contain the limb of the organism and is rigidified to resist collapse upon the application of negative pressures to the interior of the chamber. Seals extend inwardly from the casing for effective engagement with the limb of the organism and, in cooperation with the limb, subdivide the chamber into a plurality of compartments each in negative pressure communicating relation with the limb.

Thornton, W. E. (inventor)



77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...collection approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS)...



Enantiomeric separation of complex organic molecules produced from irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs by ultraviolet (UV) light followed by warm up in the laboratory leads to the formation of complex organic molecules, stable at room temperature. Hydrolysis of the room temperature residue releases amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. These amino acids exist in two different forms (L and D), but proteins encountered in living beings consist exclusively of L enantiomers. The origin of this property, called homochirality, is still unknown. Amino acids can be detected and quantified by chemical techniques such as chiral gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enantiomers of chiral organics are also known to interact selectively with circularly polarized light (CPL), leading to a selective production or destruction of the final compounds. This paper describes how we settled an experiment where amino acids are formed by irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs with ultraviolet (UV) CPL, produced by a synchrotron radiation beamline, which allowed us to quantify the effect of such polarized light on the production of amino acids. These results can be compared to the enantiomeric excesses measured in primitive meteorites such as Murchison.

Nuevo, M.; Meierhenrich, U. J.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Dartois, E.; Deboffle, D.; Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Bredehöft, J.-H.; Nahon, L.


Live cold-adapted influenza A vaccine produced in Vero cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line was used as a substrate for the development of a live cold-adapted (ca) reassortant influenza vaccine. For that purpose, a new master strain was generated by an adaptation of the wild type (wt) A\\/Singapore\\/1\\/57 virus to growth at 25°C in a Vero cell line. The resulting cold-adapted (ca) muster strain A\\/Singapore\\/1\\/57ca showed

Julia Romanova; Dietmar Katinger; Boris Ferko; Brigitta Vcelar; Sabine Sereinig; Oleg Kuznetsov; Marina Stukova; Marjana Erofeeva; Oleg Kiselev; Hermann Katinger; Andrej Egorov



Probing the Dynamic Organization of Transcription Compartments and Gene Loci within the Nucleus of Living Cells  

PubMed Central

The three-dimensional organization of nuclear compartments within living cells determines genome function and yet their underlying self-organizing principles are unclear. We visualize in real-time transcriptionally active compartments (TCs) by the transient enrichment of fluorescently-labeled uridine 5?-triphosphate molecules within living cells. These TCs partially colocalize with active RNA-Pol II in the cell nucleus. Fluorescence anisotropy maps of chromatin compaction evidences a more open chromatin structure at the TCs. Using live-cell timelapse imaging, heterogeneity in the dynamic behavior of TCs has been revealed which falls into three distinct classes: subdiffusive, super-diffusive, and normal diffusive behavior. In contrast, the mobility of a candidate gene locus, either in the repressed or activated state, undergoes a differential restricted motion that is coupled to TC movement. Further TC dynamics is directly affected by small molecule chromatin structure modulators and adenosine triphosphate depletion. This heterogeneous behavior in TC dynamics within living cells could provide an interesting paradigm to explore the spatiotemporal dimension to gene transcription control.

Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Banerjee, Bidisha; Maharana, Shovamayee; Shivashankar, G. V.



Being Sherlock Holmes: the Internet as a tool for assessing live organ donors.  


Donor advocacy is a critical feature of live donor transplantation. Donor Advocates and Donor Advocate Teams (DAT) are now routine to the practice of live donor evaluation in the USA. Multidisciplinary in nature, DATs gather both medical and psychosocial information about potential live organ donors and then render a decision as to whether or not these individuals are suitable to participate. Because of the critical ethical and psychosocial concerns about live donation, thorough donor evaluations are essential. Additionally, the information gathered must be accurate, and this requires honest disclosure by the donor candidate. In this paper, we describe how DATs can use various forms of free, public content available on the Internet to aid live donor assessments. In this way, the DAT assumes somewhat of an investigative role; however, this is ethically justified in light of the DAT duty to protect the donor. The protective effect can also spread to the transplant program, in general, when inappropriate donors are excluded from the donation process. PMID:19210684

Bramstedt, Katrina A; Katznelson, Steven



Living systems theory as a paradigm for organizational behavior: understanding humans, organizations, and social processes.  


Living systems theories have been used to model human, organization, and communication processes. This paper attempts to describe these models and to highlight the isomorphisms among the models. Particular emphasis is given to self-regulating properties of humans as a subsystem of social systems. Attention is given to the advantages of generalizing across levels and phenomena and integrating the middle-range theories that dominate the field of organizational behavior. Three broad recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:8856949

Vancouver, J B



Current Canadian initiatives to reimburse live organ donors for their non-medical expenses.  


Living organ donors frequently incur non-medical expenses for travel, accommodation, prescription drugs, loss of income, and child care in conjunction with organ donation. Despite international precedent and widespread public support, Canada currently lacks a unified strategy to reimburse donors for these expenses. In 2005, we communicated with 78 individuals within the field of Canadian transplantation to identify which initiatives for reimbursement of living donors existed in each province. Saskatchewan was the only province in which public employees were granted paid leave for organ donation. Six provincial governments partially reimbursed travel and accommodation. At the federal level, other expenses could be partially reimbursed through an income tax credit, while the Employment Insurance program and the Canada Pension Plan provided funding for donors who become unemployed or develop long-term disability as a result of donation. Charities helped a limited number of patients in financial need through grants and no-interest loans, but funding was generally limited by contributions received. While reimbursing living donors for their non-medical expenses is considered just, existing programs only partially reimburse expenses and are not available in all provinces. Developing future reimbursement policies will remove a disincentive faced by some potential donors, and may increase rates of transplantation in Canada. PMID:19039887

Vlaicu, Sorina; Klarenbach, Scott; Yang, Robert C; Dempster, Todd; Garg, Amit X



Toward mass producible ordered bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.  


A strategy to fabricate nanostructured poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films for organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells by a direct transfer method from a reusable soft replica mold is presented. The flexible polyfluoropolyether (PFPE) replica mold allows low-pressure and low- temperature process condition for the successful transfer of nanostructured P3HT films onto PEDOT/PSS-coated ITO substrates. To reduce the fabrication cost of masters in large area, we employed well-ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a template. Also, we provide a method to fabricate reversed nanostructures by exploiting the self-replication of replica molds. The concept of the transfer method in low temperature with a flexible and reusable replica mold obtained from an AAO template will be a firm foundation for a low-cost fabrication process of ordered OPVs. PMID:22991077

Kim, Taeyong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Song, Hyung-Jun; Haberkorn, Niko; Cho, Younghyun; Sung, Seung Hyun; Lee, Chang Hee; Char, Kookheon; Theato, Patrick



Live Leishmania promastigotes can directly activate primary human natural killer cells to produce interferon-gamma  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated in the natural protection and healing of leishmaniasis by their ability to secrete the macrophage activating cytokine interferon (IFN)?. Previous studies have demonstrated that early production of interleukin (IL)-12 triggers IFN? secretion by NK cells. Here we report that live Leishmania promastigotes (the form that is injected by the vector) can directly induce human peripheral blood NK cells from healthy donors to IFN? secretion in the absence of IL-12 and professional antigen presenting cells. Killing of promastigotes abolishes this property. This novel mechanism of activation of the innate immune response may be relevant for establishment of infection and thus also the design of vaccines against leishmaniasis.

Nylen, S; Maasho, K; Soderstrom, K; Ilg, T; Akuffo, H



Fermentation by a new daunomycin-producing organism, Streptomyces insignis ATCC 31913.  

PubMed Central

A new organism belonging to the grey series of streptomycetes is described which produces 55 to 75 micrograms of daunomycin per ml in a sparged fermentor. This organism is not taxonomically related to other known daunomycin producers. Its proposed name in Streptomyces insignis ATCC 31913. Images

Tunac, J B; Graham, B D; Dobson, W E; Lenzini, M D




Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers were surveyed at various grocery retail establishments in New Jersey to provide opinions on organic produce. The objective of this study was to empirically evaluate which demographic characteristics cause consumers to be more likely to pay a premium to obtain organically grown produce. The results indicate that females, those with higher annual incomes, younger individuals, and those who usually

Ramu Govindasamy; John Italia



Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks  

PubMed Central

We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)–emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb3+ lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb3+ NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation.

Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A.; White, Kiley A.; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnes; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J.; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Petoud, Stephane



A comparison of organic and conventional fresh produce buyers in the Boston area.  


Food safety concerns and the demand for organically grown produce have increased significantly in the United States over the last decade. Key differences in lifestyle characteristics, food safety attitudes and beliefs, perceived food safety risks, and valuation of health risk reductions between organic and conventional food buyers remain largely unknown, however. To better characterize how buyers of organic fresh produce differ from their conventional counterparts, over 700 food shoppers were sampled from ten major retail stores in the Boston area. Survey results show that self-reported organic buyers are more likely than conventional buyers to engage in a variety of health-promoting and environmentally friendly behaviors. Organic buyers are less trusting of federal food safety agencies than are conventional buyers, and perceive greater benefits associated with organically grown produce than do their conventional counterparts. Further, organic buyers have significantly higher risk perceptions than do conventional buyers for food safety hazards associated with conventionally grown produce. Compared to conventional buyers, organic produce buyers also perceive significant risk reductions associated with switching to organically grown produce and are willing to pay a higher price to reduce perceived food safety risks. Few sociodemographic differences between buyer types were observed, possibly due to how organic and conventional food stores were matched. Survey findings highlight the need for greater public education about a range of food safety issues and farming practices to ensure that consumers are making informed decisions in the marketplace. PMID:11110219

Williams, P R; Hammitt, J K



Yields of short-lived fission products produced following 235U(nth,f)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of 235U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10 000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study.

Tipnis, S. V.; Campbell, J. M.; Couchell, G. P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H. V.; Pullen, D. J.; Schier, W. A.; Seabury, E. H.; England, T. R.



Oral administration of live exopolysaccharide-producing Pediococcus parvulus, but not purified exopolysaccharide, suppressed Enterobacteriaceae without affecting bacterial diversity in ceca of mice.  


Growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota could have an important role in the development of diet- and lifestyle-induced diseases. It has been shown that modulation of the gut microbiota by means of probiotics and prebiotics could improve host health. An oat-based product fermented by the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing organism Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 has been reported to have a bifidogenic effect. To find out whether the effect could be attributed to the EPS or the bacterium, mice were fed a diet supplemented with 2% purified EPS or 10(8) CFU/g of live P. parvulus 2.6 for 6 weeks. Both supplementations altered the gut microbiota composition but in different directions. Purified EPS not only significantly lowered the microbial diversity (P < 0.001) but decreased the bifidobacterial population (P = 0.01). In contrast, the live EPS-producing bacterium P. parvulus 2.6 antagonized Enterobacteriaceae without disturbing the homeostasis of the cecal microbiota. PMID:23770909

Lindström, Cecilia; Xu, Jie; Oste, Rickard; Holst, Olle; Molin, Göran



Commercial living non-related organ transplantation: a viewpoint from a developed country.  


In developed countries, the use of living unrelated donors is restricted to purely altruistic donors who have a close and emotional relationship with the recipients. By law, commercial transplantation is illegal. Increasing shortness of donors, the excellent results of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors as well as the very low risk for the donor has been used as an argument for paid organ donation. Arguments in favour are the relief of donor-organ shortage, short waiting times for renal transplantation, economic benefits for the donor as well as the economic benefits for society by reducing the costs of dialysis by more transplants. Major arguments against are exploitation of the donor, coercion, and a growing black market. Despite the fact that different societies have different norms or reproaches that we are failing our patients and accept the death of thousands, kidney trade has created an environment of corruption and commercialisation, which brings even the cadaver transplant program into disrepute. However, denying the existence of paid organ donation does not contribute to solve the problem. A public discussion about consequences of changing ethics and human rights, rather than pragmatic solutions, is needed. PMID:16810510

Hoyer, Peter F



Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.  


Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S



Distributions of Short-lived Radioactive Nuclei Produced by Young Embedded Star Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver short-lived radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (l ~ 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (l ~ 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ~10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of 26Al and 60Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM ? (where 1 pM ? = 10–12 M ?). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?SLR ~ 1-5 × 10–19 s–1. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?CR ~ 10–17 s–1, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).

Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco; Holden, Lisa



Organic Compounds in Produced Waters From Coalbed Methane Wells in the Powder River Basin, WY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed methane (CBM) is a significant energy resource, accounting for about 7.5% of natural gas production in the USA. The Powder River Basin (PRB), WY is currently one of the most active CBM drilling sites in the USA. One aspect of concern in the exploitation of CBM resources is the large volumes of water recovered from wells along with the natural gas (so-called produced waters). CBM produced waters may contain coal-derived dissolved substances (inorganic and organic) of environmental concern, and a potential disposal problem for CBM producers. Studies of CBM produced water have mostly focused on inorganics. Dissolved organic compounds in CBM produced water may also present an environmental issue, but little information is available. As part of a larger study of the health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal, we analyzed a number of produced water samples from CBM wells in the PRB, WY for dissolved organic substances. Our goals were results on coal-derived organic compounds in the environment to evaluate potential health and environmental impacts. In 2001, we sampled produced water from 13 CBM wells covering a broad area of the PRB in order to identify and quantify the organic compounds present. In 2002, produced water from 4 of the 2001 CBM wells and 8 new CBM wells were sampled for dissolved organic components. Produced water was collected directly from each well and filtered on site. Organic compounds were isolated from produced water samples by liquid/liquid extraction with methylene chloride and identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic compounds identified by GC/MS in extracts of the produced water samples, included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and fatty acids. However, most compounds had structures unidentified by GC/MS databases. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are likely coal-derived. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 10 to 0.01 ? g/l. Some CBM wells with high concentrations of dissolved organic compounds present in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002, indicating temporal variability. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are toxic (mutagenic and cancer promoters), but are unlikely to have acute health effects at the low levels present. Chronic health and environmental effects from long periods of low-level exposure, however, are possible. Continuing studies will expand the existing dataset on dissolved organic compounds in produced water, and evaluate the toxic effects of these compounds.

Orem, W.; Lerch, H.; Rice, C.; Tatu, C.



Growth, Development, Reproduction, Physiological and Behavioural Studies on Living Organisms, Human Adults and Children Exposed to Radiation from Video Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating volt age of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V\\/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were

A. M. Laverdure; J. Surbeck; M. O. North; J. Trittoa



Growth, Development, Reproduction, Physiological and Behavioural Studies on Living Organisms, Human Adults and Children Exposed to Radiation from Video Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating voltage of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V\\/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were obtained

A. M. Laverdure; J. Surbeck; M. O. North; J. Tritto



The impact of tax policies on living organ donations in the United States.  


In an effort to increase living organ donation, fifteen states passed tax deductions and one a tax credit to help defray potential medical, lodging and wage loss costs between 2004 and 2008. To assess the impact of these policies on living donation rates, we used a differences-in-differences strategy that compares the pre- and postlegislation change in living donations in states that passed legislation against the same change in those states that did not. We found no statistically significant effect of these tax policies on donation rates. Furthermore, we found no evidence of any lagged effects, differential impacts by gender, race or donor relationship, or impacts on deceased donation. Possible hypotheses to explain our findings are: the cash value of the tax deduction may be too low to defray costs faced by donors, lack of public awareness about the existence of these policies, and that states that were proactive enough to pass tax policy laws may have already depleted donor pools with previous interventions. PMID:22487077

Venkataramani, A S; Martin, E G; Vijayan, A; Wellen, J R



Living between two worlds: two-phase culture systems for producing plant secondary metabolites.  


The two-phase culture system is an important in vitro strategy to increase the production of secondary metabolites (SMs) by providing an enhanced release of these compounds from plant cells. Whereas the first phase supports cell growth, the second phase provides an additional site or acts as a metabolic sink for the accumulation of SMs and also reduces feedback inhibition. This review is focused on several aspects of the two-phase culture system and aims to show the diverse possibilities of employing this technique for the in vitro production of SMs from plant cells. Depending on the material used in the secondary phase, two-phase culture systems can be broadly categorised as liquid-liquid or liquid-solid. The choice of material for the second phase depends on the type of compound to be recovered and the compatibility with the other phase. Different factors affecting the efficiency of two-phase culture systems include the choice of material for the secondary phase, its concentration, volume, and time of addition. Factors such as cell elicitation, immobilization, and permeabilization, have been suggested as important strategies to make the two-phase culture system practically reliable on a commercial scale. Since there are many possibilities for designing a two-phase system, more detailed studies are needed to broaden the range of secondary phases compatible with the various plant species producing SMs with potential applications, mainly in the food and pharmacology industries. PMID:22372438

Malik, Sonia; Hossein Mirjalili, Mohammad; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Mazzafera, Paulo; Bonfill, Mercedes



Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from < 1 to 100 ?g/L, but total PAHs (the dominant compound class for most CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 ?g/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of ?g/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer



Food Security Status and Produce Intake Behaviors, Health Status, and Diabetes Risk Among Women With Children Living on a Navajo Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of adult women living on a Navajo reservation with at least one child less than 18 years old attending a primary school on the reservation investigated the relationship of food security to produce intake and behaviors, health status, and diabetes risk of these adult women. Of the 42 participants completing the survey, 8 (19.0%) were living in fully

Emma Bah Ray; David H. Holben; John P. Holcomb Jr



Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in free-living small mammals in Europe and Afghanistan.  


Few data are available on the occurrence of chlamydial infections in wild small mammals. We investigated the significance of free-living small mammals as reservoirs or transmission hosts for microorganisms of the phylum/class Chlamydiae. We obtained 3,664 tissue samples from 911 animals in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Afghanistan. Samples included internal organs (n = 3,652) and feces (n = 12) from 679 rodents (order Rodentia) and 232 insectivores (order Soricomorpha) and were tested by three TaqMan® real-time PCRs specific for members of the family Chlamydiaceae and selected Chlamydia-like organisms such as Parachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp. Only one of 911 (0.11%) animals exhibited a questionable positive result by Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR. Five of 911 animals were positive by specific real-time PCR for Parachlamydia spp. but could not be confirmed by quantitative PCR targeting the Parachlamydia acanthamoebae secY gene (secY qPCR). One of 746 animals (0.13%) was positive by real-time PCR for Waddlia chondrophila. This result was confirmed by Waddlia secY qPCR. This is the first detection of Chlamydia-like organisms in small wildlife in Switzerland. Considering previous negative results for Chlamydiaceae in wild ruminant species from Switzerland, these data suggest that wild small mammals are unlikely to be important carriers or transport hosts for Chamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms. PMID:24484495

Stephan, Sarah; Guerra, Diogo; Pospischil, Andreas; Hilbe, Monika; Weissenböck, Herbert; Novotný, Ladislav; Greub, Gilbert; Croxatto, Antony; Teifke, Jens Peter; Ulrich, Rainer G; Schlegel, Mathias; Ruhl, Silke; Schotte, Ulrich; Binder, Alfred; Sauer, Sabine; Borel, Nicole



N-Chlorotaurine, a Long-Lived Oxidant Produced by Human Leukocytes, Inactivates Shiga Toxin of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

N-chlorotaurine (NCT), the main representative of long-lived oxidants produced by granulocytes and monocytes, is known to exert broad-spectrum microbicidal activity. Here we show that NCT directly inactivates Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), used as a model toxin secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Bacterial growth and Stx2 production were both inhibited by 2 mM NCT. The cytotoxic effect of Stx2 on Vero cells was removed by ?5.5 mM NCT. Confocal microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the binding of Stx2 to human kidney glomerular endothelial cells was inhibited, and no NCT-treated Stx2 entered the cytosol. Mass spectrometry displayed oxidation of thio groups and aromatic amino acids of Stx2 by NCT. Therefore, long-lived oxidants may act as powerful tools of innate immunity against soluble virulence factors of pathogens. Moreover, inactivation of virulence factors may contribute to therapeutic success of NCT and novel analogs, which are in development as topical antiinfectives.

Eitzinger, Christian; Ehrlenbach, Silvia; Lindner, Herbert; Kremser, Leopold; Gottardi, Waldemar; Debabov, Dmitri; Anderson, Mark



Blood Circulation Laboratory Investigations with Video Are Less Investigative than Instructional Blood Circulation Laboratories with Live Organisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using…

Hoover, Mildred A.; Pelaez, Nancy J.



Treatment of infections with ESBL-producing organisms: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility surveillance investigations have demonstrated an increased incidence of ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli. Case cohort studies have suggested clinical relevance associated with ESBL- producing Enterobacteriaciae infection. Yet, current laboratory reporting guidelines classify a large percentage of these organisms in the susceptible category. The regulatory agencies Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (formly NCCLS) and EUCAST, which oversee these guidelines are in the process

D. Andes; W. A. Craig



On some organic constituents of city refuse composts produced in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the research project “Improvement of composting process of municipal refuse and agricultural use of the product,” city refuse composts produced at various cities in Japan were collected and analysed to characterize their organic constituents. Besides these samples, city refuse composts, produced from the same raw materials in the pilot plant, were also analysed to clarify the changes

Akio Inoko; Kazuo Miyamatsu; Kazuo Sugahara; Yasuo Harada



A synergic simulation-optimization approach for analyzing biomolecular dynamics in living organisms.  


A synergic duo simulation-optimization approach was developed and implemented to study protein-substrate dynamics and binding kinetics in living organisms. The forward problem is a system of several coupled nonlinear partial differential equations which, with a given set of kinetics and diffusion parameters, can provide not only the commonly used bleached area-averaged time series in fluorescence microscopy experiments but more informative full biomolecular/drug space-time series and can be successfully used to study dynamics of both Dirac and Gaussian fluorescence-labeled biomacromolecules in vivo. The incomplete Cholesky preconditioner was coupled with the finite difference discretization scheme and an adaptive time-stepping strategy to solve the forward problem. The proposed approach was validated with analytical as well as reference solutions and used to simulate dynamics of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor (GFP-GR) in mouse cancer cell during a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiment. Model analysis indicates that the commonly practiced bleach spot-averaged time series is not an efficient approach to extract physiological information from the fluorescence microscopy protocols. It was recommended that experimental biophysicists should use full space-time series, resulting from experimental protocols, to study dynamics of biomacromolecules and drugs in living organisms. It was also concluded that in parameterization of biological mass transfer processes, setting the norm of the gradient of the penalty function at the solution to zero is not an efficient stopping rule to end the inverse algorithm. Theoreticians should use multi-criteria stopping rules to quantify model parameters by optimization. PMID:21106190

Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush



Triple-color super-resolution imaging of live cells: resolving submicroscopic receptor organization in the plasma membrane.  


In living color: efficient intracellular covalent labeling of proteins with a photoswitchable dye using the HaloTag for dSTORM super-resolution imaging in live cells is described. The dynamics of cellular nanostructures at the plasma membrane were monitored with a time resolution of a few seconds. In combination with dual-color FPALM imaging, submicroscopic receptor organization within the context of the membrane skeleton was resolved. PMID:22488831

Wilmes, Stephan; Staufenbiel, Markus; Lisse, Domenik; Richter, Christian P; Beutel, Oliver; Busch, Karin B; Hess, Samuel T; Piehler, Jacob



The effect of live weight gain and live weight loss on body composition of Merino wethers: chemical composition of the noncarcass organs and the empty body.  


Chemical composition of the noncarcass organs, combined noncarcass organs, and fleece-free empty body (FFEB) was measured during live weight gain (LWG) and live weight loss (LWL) to determine the effect of different periods of normal and retarded growth on chemical composition of noncarcass organs and FFEB. Thirty-five Merino wethers had ad libitum access to the experimental diet (17.23% CP and 12.09 MJ/kg of DE) to grow from 23.0 to 33.0 kg live weight and then were fed to lose a total of 10 kg in three periods of 25 d each at the rate of 133 g/d. Groups of five wethers were slaughtered at live weights of 23.0, 26.3, 29.6, and 33.0 kg during LWG and 29.6 (first period), 26.3 (second period), and 23.0 kg (third period) during LWL. The lower combined noncarcass weight in LWL wethers than in LWG wethers at 23.0 and 26.3 kg of live weights was due to the significantly lower protein weight at 23.0 and 26.3 kg (P < .01) and water weight at all common slaughter weights (P < .01). Chemical fat in the combined noncarcass organs was significantly greater in LWL wethers than in LWG wethers at 23.0, 26.3 (P < .01), and 29.6 kg (P < .05). The general increase of chemical fat in the combined noncarcass organs of the LWL wethers was mainly due to the significant increase in the chemical fat in the head and feet at 23.0 (P < .01), 26.3, and 29.6 kg (P < .05), liver at 23.0 kg (P < .01), and total alimentary tract fat at 23.0 (P < .01) and 29.6 kg (P < .05). Although fleece-free empty body weight (FFEBW) was similar in LWG and LWL wethers at all common slaughter weights, FFEB water weight was lower significantly in LWL wethers at 23.0, 26.3 (P < .01), and 29.6 kg (P < .05) and that of chemical fat was greater significantly in LWL wethers at 23.0 (P < .01), 26.3, and 29.6 kg (P < .05) than in LWG wethers. Wethers after weight loss had more chemical fat and less water in their FFEB than normal growing wethers at the same FFEBW. PMID:7759358

Aziz, N N; Murray, D M; Ball, R O



Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times: a few days, three months, and six months after launch. Once the satellite is in its highly inclined orbit, the microbes are constantly being exposed to space's high-energy radiation while in micro-gravity. The SESLO experiment measures the microbes' population density as they consume the components of the nutrient medium; a metabolism indicator dye included in the medium changes color, enabling quantitative tracking of metabolic activity. Together, these data en-able determination of the effects of the combined exposure to space radiation and microgravity on organism growth, health and survival. The design of the spacecraft, its ability to support Astrobiology goals, and the actual spaceflight data obtained will be presented.

Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio


Atomic force microscopy as nano-stethoscope to study living organisms, insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a known method to study various surfaces. Here we report on the use of AFM to study surface oscillations (coming from the work of internal organs) of living organisms, like insects. As an example, ladybird beetles (Hippodamia convergens) measured in different parts of the insect at picometer level. This allows us to record a much broader spectral range of possible surface vibrations (up to several kHz) than the previously studied oscillations due to breathing, heartbeat cycles, coelopulses, etc. (up to 5 -10 Hz). The used here AFM method allows collecting signal from the area as small as ˜100nm2 (0.0001?m2) with an example of noise level of (2±0.2)x10-3 nm r.m.s. at the range of frequencies >50Hz (potentially, up to a MHz). Application of this method to humans is discussed. The method, being a relatively non-invasive technique providing a new type of information, may be useful in developing of what could be called ``nanophysiology.''

Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia



Modelling the mobility of living organisms in heterogeneous landscapes: does memory improve foraging success?  


Thanks to recent technological advances, it is now possible to track with an unprecedented precision and for long periods of time the movement patterns of many living organisms in their habitat. The increasing amount of data available on single trajectories offers the possibility of understanding how animals move and of testing basic movement models. Random walks have long represented the main description for micro-organisms and have also been useful to understand the foraging behaviour of large animals. Nevertheless, most vertebrates, in particular humans and other primates, rely on sophisticated cognitive tools such as spatial maps, episodic memory and travel cost discounting. These properties call for other modelling approaches of mobility patterns. We propose a foraging framework where a learning mobile agent uses a combination of memory-based and random steps. We investigate how advantageous it is to use memory for exploiting resources in heterogeneous and changing environments. An adequate balance of determinism and random exploration is found to maximize the foraging efficiency and to generate trajectories with an intricate spatio-temporal order, where travel routes emerge without multi-step planning. Based on this approach, we propose some tools for analysing the non-random nature of mobility patterns in general. PMID:21078640

Boyer, Denis; Walsh, Peter D



Conflict of Interest Policies for Organizations Producing a Large Number of Clinical Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. Conclusions/Significance COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines.

Norris, Susan L.; Holmer, Haley K.; Burda, Brittany U.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Fu, Rongwei



Organic matter produced by algae and cyanobacteria: quantitative and qualitative characterization.  


This work aims at characterizing organic matter produced by an alga Euglena gracilis and a cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and assessing the evolution of its characteristics during growth. A culture medium was optimized. The species growth phases were monitored using both visible spectrophotometry and flow cytometry cell counting. Organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index were used to specifically characterize the produced algal organic matter (AOM). The AOM characteristics were both growth phase and species dependent. However, a similar evolution was observed. The hydrophilic fraction (HPI) was the major fraction whatever the growth phases and was almost the only one produced during lag and exponential phases. It represented around 75% of AOM during exponential phase and then decreased when the stationary phase appeared. It represented 46% and 60% of the AOM during late decline phase for the cyanobacteria and the alga respectively. The hydrophobic (HPO) and transphilic (TPH) fractions started to appear from the beginning of the stationary phase with more hydrophobic compounds coming from intracellular organic material of dying cells. HPO and TPH percentages still increased during the decline phase probably because of two additional processes: photo-dissolution and leaching of particulate organic matter from cells fragments. A comparison of AOM during late decline phase and natural organic matter (NOM) from Glane River (France) underlined that AOM was more hydrophilic and presented a lower SUVA for each fractions than NOM. However, the difference between NOM and AOM hydrophobicity narrowed during decline phase. PMID:24191597

Leloup, Maud; Nicolau, Rudy; Pallier, Virginie; Yéprémian, Claude; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève



Oral immunization of mice with a live recombinant Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strain that produces the cholera toxin B subunit.  

PubMed Central

The 70-kilobase pYV plasmid of Yersinia enterocolitica encodes a set of proteins called Yops that are produced during infection. To use Y. enterocolitica as a live carrier to present the cholera toxin B (CT-B) subunit to the immune system, we constructed an operon fusion between ctxB and the yop51 gene. This operon fusion was either cloned on an RSF1010-derived plasmid or integrated into the pYV plasmid itself. In Y. enterocolitica, both constructions directed the synthesis of free CT-B only under conditions of Yops production, i.e., at 37 degrees C in a medium deprived of Ca2+. Bacteria containing both types of recombinant plasmids were given orally to mice. A serum antibody response against CT-B was detected in both cases. A secretory immunoglobulin A activity specific to CT-B was also observed in the intestinal secretions. According to immunoblot analysis, the serum antibody response was only directed against the polymeric form of the B subunit. The ctxB gene was also inserted in frame within yop51, giving a chimeric Yop51-CT-B protein that was secreted into the surrounding medium. In this case, however, no antibody response was observed after oral inoculation of mice. This lack of response probably results from the inability of the hybrid protein to assemble into the polymeric form of the B subunit. Images

Sory, M P; Hermand, P; Vaerman, J P; Cornelis, G R



Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Incentives to Increase the Rate of Organ Donations from the Living: A Moral Exploration  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving.

Barilan, Michael Y.



Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatile organic compounds produced by some micromycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile organic compounds evolved from various fungi were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All the fungi studied were selected for their relevance in human mycology. According to their behaviour in the production of volatile compounds the fungi were divided into three groups. Group I was composed of fungi characteristically yeasts producing very high levels of volatile compounds. Ethanol, ethyl

A. Caileux; J. P. Bouchara; V. Daniel; D. Chabasse; P. Allain



The number is the beast: a political economy of organic-coffee certification and producer unionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author argues that organic-coffee certification enacted under the rubric of transnational certification norms alters the logic and practice of economic management and governance in an Oaxacan (Mexican) peasant producers' union. As the title indicates, these changes are productive of social and economic tensions. An economic and ethnographic analysis of 'certification labor' demonstrates (a) that the work of certification is

Tad Mutersbaugh



Heavy metal contents of organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples from Kayseri, Turkey.  


Organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples bought at organic markets in Kayseri, Turkey have been analyzed for their trace element contents. In the determinations, flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) was used. This pilot study is the first to be performed for organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples from Kayseri, Turkey. The copper, iron, manganese, and zinc concentrations were found to be 1.6-15.5, 10.3-144, 23.0-211, and 23.3-91.6 ?g/g, respectively. The cobalt, lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations in all analyzed organic fruit samples were below the quantification limits of FAAS. SRM 1570A spinach leaves and SRM 1515 apple leaves were used to check the accuracy of the procedure. The results for the dried fruit samples found in this work were compared with the values from some studies from the world. The results found in the presented work may also be useful for future studies about organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples. PMID:22736211

Soylak, Mustafa; Cihan, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Erkan



The influence of the pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on living organisms  

SciTech Connect

The authors treated 96 patients with pseudoartroses by means of PEMF with the efficiency of 86%. They also treated 19 patients with decubitus and had improvements in all cases. In 58 PEMF treated asthma patients 80% improved. In 41 patients suffering from angina pectoris 90% reduce the need for nitroglycerine lingualetes. In order to eliminate the influence of the placebo and the sinergy, they prepared some experiments with barely and wheat seeds. All this experiments were performed several times with very similar results: Barley seeds were pretreated by PEMF for 1 hour and then planted into Petri's dish. In the stimulated dish, after 72 hours of germination there were three times more seeds with 6 roots then in the control. The embryos of the stimulated dish were stronger and longer compared to the controls. In the other experiment, fungi inoculated wheat seeds were pretreated for 4 hours by PEMF. After 72 hours of germination in a Petri's dish the disease was inhibited compared to the control dish. From all this they conclude that almost every process in a living organism is affected and might be controlled by PEMF.

Pekaric-Nadj, N.; Lazetic, B.; Sep, D.



Effects of nutritional enhancement of live food organisms on growth and survival of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of barramundi (Laces calcarifer Bloch) reared intensively in some Australian hatcheries have suffered periodic high mortalities which have been ascribed to nutritional deficiencies in the live food organisms used, particularly deficiencies of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Barramundi larvae were reared in an experimental system and fed on four diets, representing combinations of supplemented and unsupplemented rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) and supplemented




Spatial distribution of live benthic foraminifera in the Rhône prodelta: Faunal response to a continental–marine organic matter gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic foraminifera were collected in the Rhône prodelta (Gulf of Lions, Mediterranean Sea), an enriched zone with high organic matter content. In June 2005, sediment cores were sampled at depths ranging from 20 to 100 m. Four distinct foraminiferal assemblages were determined in the study area, reflecting the geographical distribution of the impact of river supply. The living foraminiferal faunas present

M. Mojtahid; F. Jorissen; B. Lansard; C. Fontanier; B. Bombled; C. Rabouille



Live attenuated influenza viruses produced in a suspension process with avian AGE1.CR.pIX cells  

PubMed Central

Background Current influenza vaccines are trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated split or subunit vaccines administered intramuscularly, or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) adapted to replicate at temperatures below body temperature and administered intranasally. Both vaccines are considered safe and efficient, but due to differences in specific properties may complement each other to ensure reliable vaccine coverage. By now, licensed LAIV are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. In the near future influenza vaccines for human use will also be available from adherent MDCK or Vero cell cultures, but a scalable suspension process may facilitate production and supply with vaccines. Results We evaluated the production of cold-adapted human influenza virus strains in the duck suspension cell line AGE1.CR.pIX using a chemically-defined medium. One cold-adapted A (H1N1) and one cold-adapted B virus strain was tested, as well as the reference strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). It is shown that a medium exchange is not required for infection and that maximum virus titers are obtained for 1?×?10-6 trypsin units per cell. 1 L bioreactor cultivations showed that 4?×?106 cells/mL can be infected without a cell density effect achieving titers of 1?×?108 virions/mL after 24 h. Conclusions Overall, this study demonstrates that AGE1.CR.pIX cells support replication of LAIV strains in a chemically-defined medium using a simple process without medium exchanges. Moreover, the process is fast with peak titers obtained 24 h post infection and easily scalable to industrial volumes as neither microcarriers nor medium replacements are required.



Electronic system for the activation, inhibition and/or modification of the development and functioning of cells, organs and organisms of living beings  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Instrumentation and methodology for the application of non-invasive electromagnetic fields characterized by sharp, unidirectional square waves with rising and falling times below 0.1 microseconds and frequencies below 120 pulses per second. The waves are applied through antennas which produce magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are applied to living beings with the purpose of producing predictable modifications of determined structures, functions and manifestations.



Organic and inorganic species in produced water: Implications for water reuse  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Currently 20-30 billion bbl/yr of formation water are co-produced in the US with conventional oil and natural gas. The large database on the geochemistry of this produced water shows salinities that vary widely from ??? 5000 to > 350,000 mg/L TDS. Chloride, Na, and Ca are generally the dominant ions, and concentrations of Fe, Mn, B, NH3, and dissolved organics, including, BTEX, phenols and PAH may be relatively high. As an alternative to costly disposal, low salinity produced water is being considered for reclamation, especially in the arid western US. The cost of reclaiming this water to meet irrigation, industrial, and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study at Placerita oil field, CA. This produced water had low salinity but high concentration of Si and organics. Removal of B, Si, NH3, and especially organics from this water proved difficult, and the estimated treatment cost was high for water treated for industrial and municipal uses.

Kharaka, Y. K.; Rice, C. A.



Advanced photoassisted atomic switches produced using ITO nanowire electrodes and molten photoconductive organic semiconductors.  


Photoassisted atomic switches (PASs) are those produced using photoconductive organic materials. However, the use of solid photoconductive materials and the formation of a large Ag conductive bridge lead to the formation of large voids during the shrinking of Ag conductive bridges; this may degrade the performance of PASs. A low-melting-point organic semiconductor is used as a molten photoconductive material, and self-assembled ITO nanowires are used as transparent electrodes. Stable atomic switching is observed only under light irradiation. PMID:23943473

Klamchuen, Annop; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Toyama, Hirotaka; Meng, Gang; Rahong, Sakon; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Yanagida, Takeshi; Kawai, Tomoji; Ogawa, Takuji



Surface enhanced Raman scattering on Tardigrada--towards monitoring and imaging molecular structures in live cryptobiotic organisms.  


Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans which are able to survive extreme physical and chemical conditions by entering a stress tolerant state called cryptobiosis. At present, the molecular mechanisms behind cryptobiosis are still poorly understood. We show that surface enhanced Raman scattering supported by plasmonic gold nanoparticles can measure molecular constituents and their local distribution in live tardigrades. Surface enhanced Raman signatures allow to differentiate between two species and indicate molecular structural differences between tardigrades in water and in a dry state. This opens new avenues for exploring cryptobiosis by studying molecular changes in live cryptobiotic organisms. PMID:23225705

Kneipp, Harald; Møbjerg, Nadja; Jørgensen, Aslak; Bohr, Henrik G; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Katrin



Informational Closed-Loop Coding-Decoding Control Concept as the Base of the Living or Organized Systems Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to show that the essence of life and living systems is their organization as bioinformational technology on the base of informational anticipatory control. Principal paradigmatic and structural schemes of functional organization of life (organisms and their systems) are constructed on the basis of systemic analysis and synthesis of main phenomenological features of living world. Life is based on functional elements that implement engineering procedures of closed-loop coding-decoding control (CL-CDC). Phenomenon of natural bioinformational control appeared and developed on the Earth 3-4 bln years ago, when the life originated as a result of chemical and later biological evolution. Informatics paradigm considers the physical and chemical transformations of energy and matter in organized systems as flows that are controlled and the signals as means for purposive informational control programs. The social and technical technological systems as informational control systems are a latter phenomenon engineered by man. The information emerges in organized systems as a necessary component of control technology. Generalized schemes of functional organization on levels of cell, organism and brain neocortex, as the highest biosystem with CL-CDC, are presented. CL-CDC concept expands the understanding of bioinformatics.

Kirvelis, Dobilas; Beitas, Kastytis



CARS microscopy for the monitoring of fat deposition mechanisms in a living organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce near-infrared Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy as a method for the monitoring of fat deposition in a living organism by directly probing the CH II vibration of the lipids without the need for staining or labeling. This study nicely brings forward all the advantages of the technique: deep probe depth, low excitation powers, high 3-dimensional resolution, and visualization without the interference of exogenous label molecules, or fixation and staining procedures. Differences in fat deposition during the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were evaluated quantitatively from the CARS microscopy images, showing that the technique can be used to study mechanisms that regulate lipid storage. Beside the wild type nematode, the feeding-deficient mutant pha-3 was studied. It was shown that the embryonal accumulation of energy stores is enough for the development of a full-sized pre-adult larva, being possible also for the mutant. However, the volume density of lipid stores at the fourth and last pre-adult development stage seems to determine its adult body size. Whereas the wild type larva maintains its size when becoming adult, though at the cost of reduced lipid density, the feeding deficient mutant instead has to reduce its body size in order to reach the same volume density of lipid stores. Both strains start off their adult life with a volume fraction of lipid stores corresponding to 6-7%; the wild type with a radius of 24+/-2 µm and the pha-3 mutant with a significantly smaller radius of 16+/-3 ?m.

Enejder, Annika; Hellerer, Thomas; Hillertz, Per; Brackmann, Christian; Axäng, Claes; Pilon, Marc



Non-Conventional Measurement Techniques for the Determination of Some Long-Lived Radionuclides Produced in Nuclear Fuel. Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a literature survey on non-radiometric analytical techniques for the determination of long-lived radionuclides are described. The methods which have been considered are accelerator mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrom...

R. J. Rosenberg



Non-Conventional Measurement Techniques for the Determination of Some Long-Lived Radionuclides Produced in Nuclear Fuel: Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a literature survey of nonradiometric analytical techniques for the determination of long lived radionuclides are described. The methods which were considered are accelerator mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ...

R. J. Rosenberg



Beta-decay half-lives of neutron rich Cu and Ni isotopes produced by thermal fission of (sup 235)U and (sup 239)Pu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The half-lives of very neutron rich isotopes of Ni and Cu have been measured. The isotopes are produced in very asymmetric thermal fission of (sup 235)U and (sup 239)Pu at the I.L.L. high flux reactor. They are separated by means of the Lohengrin spectrom...

M. Bernas J. L. Sida J. P. Bocquet H. Faust R. Brissot



Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects  

PubMed Central

Nanosizing effects of materials on biological organisms was investigated by biochemical cell functional tests, cell proliferation and animal implantation testing. The increase in specific surface area causes the enhancement of ionic dissolution and serious toxicity for soluble, stimulative materials. This effect originates solely from materials and enhances the same functions as those in a macroscopic size as a catalyst. There are other effects that become prominent, especially for non-soluble, biocompatible materials such as Ti. Particle size dependence showed the critical size for the transition of behaviour is at approximately 100??m, 10??m and 200?nm. This effect has its origin in the biological interaction process between both particles and cells/tissue. Expression of superoxide anions, cytokines tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? from neutrophils was increased with the decrease in particle size and especially pronounced below 10??m, inducing phagocytosis to cells and inflammation of tissue, although inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis showed no dissolution from Ti particles. Below 200?nm, stimulus decreases, then particles invade into the internal body through the respiratory or digestive systems and diffuse inside the body. Although macroscopic hydroxyapatite, which exhibits excellent osteoconductivity, is not replaced with natural bone, nanoapatite composites induce both phagocytosis of composites by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts when implanted in bone defects. The progress of this bioreaction results in the conversion of functions to bone substitution. Although macroscopic graphite is non-cell adhesive, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cell adhesive. The adsorption of proteins and nano-meshwork structure contribute to the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and restricts reaction to the size-sensitive phagocytosis. Materials larger than cell size, approximately 10??m, behave inertly, but those smaller become biointeractive and induce the intrinsic functions of living organisms. This bioreaction process causes the conversion of functions such as from biocompatibility to stimulus in Ti-abraded particles, from non-bone substitutional to bone substitutional in nanoapatite and from non-cell adhesive to cell adhesive CNTs. The insensitive nature permits nanoparticles that are less than 200?nm to slip through body defence systems and invade directly into the internal body.

Watari, Fumio; Takashi, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Abe, Shigeaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Tohji, Kazuyuki



Fermentative metabolism to produce hydrogen gas and organic compounds in a cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non nitrogen-fixing and filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis NIES-46 produced hydrogen gas, ethanol, and low molecular organic acids auto-fermentatively under dark and anaerobic conditions. The fermentative productivity was enhanced by incubating the cyanobacterium under nitrogen-starved conditions. Cell-free extracts of the cyanobacterium catalyzed hydrogen production by the addition of acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate. Pyruvate-degrading and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were observed in

Katsuhiro Aoyama; Ieaki Uemura; Jun Miyake; Yasuo Asada



Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.  


Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin



Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter.  


Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a vast quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between organic and inorganic forms, directly impacting global cycles of these biologically important elements. Details regarding the chemical composition of DOM produced by marine phytoplankton are sparse, and while often assumed, it is not currently known if phylogenetically distinct groups of marine phytoplankton release characteristic suites of DOM. To investigate the relationship between specific phytoplankton groups and the DOM they release, hydrophobic phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMP) from eight axenic strains was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Identification of DOM features derived from Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Thalassiosira, and Phaeodactylum revealed DOMP to be complex and highly strain dependent. Connections between DOMP features and the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains were identified on multiple levels of phylogenetic distance, suggesting that marine phytoplankton produce DOM that in part reflects its phylogenetic origin. Chemical information regarding the size and polarity ranges of features from defined biological sources was also obtained. Our findings reveal DOMP composition to be partially conserved among related phytoplankton species, and implicate marine DOM as a potential factor influencing microbial diversity in the sea by acting as a link between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community structures. PMID:24748874

Becker, Jamie W; Berube, Paul M; Follett, Christopher L; Waterbury, John B; Chisholm, Sallie W; Delong, Edward F; Repeta, Daniel J



Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter  

PubMed Central

Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a vast quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between organic and inorganic forms, directly impacting global cycles of these biologically important elements. Details regarding the chemical composition of DOM produced by marine phytoplankton are sparse, and while often assumed, it is not currently known if phylogenetically distinct groups of marine phytoplankton release characteristic suites of DOM. To investigate the relationship between specific phytoplankton groups and the DOM they release, hydrophobic phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMP) from eight axenic strains was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Identification of DOM features derived from Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Thalassiosira, and Phaeodactylum revealed DOMP to be complex and highly strain dependent. Connections between DOMP features and the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains were identified on multiple levels of phylogenetic distance, suggesting that marine phytoplankton produce DOM that in part reflects its phylogenetic origin. Chemical information regarding the size and polarity ranges of features from defined biological sources was also obtained. Our findings reveal DOMP composition to be partially conserved among related phytoplankton species, and implicate marine DOM as a potential factor influencing microbial diversity in the sea by acting as a link between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community structures.

Becker, Jamie W.; Berube, Paul M.; Follett, Christopher L.; Waterbury, John B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.



Signing cards, saving lives: an evaluation of the worksite organ donation promotion project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desperate need for organ donors in the United States could be filled if every person eligible became an organ donor. Unfortunately, few organ donation campaigns exist, and fewer still have been evaluated empirically. This study has two objectives: to describe a worksite organ donation campaign and test campaign effects, and to test the Model of Behavioral Willingness to Donate

Susan Morgan; Jenny Miller; Lily Arasaratnam



Improving phosphorus availability in an Acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.  


In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab



Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes  

PubMed Central

In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.



Carbon isotope composition of organic compounds produced by abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is widely believed that production of organic compounds by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and related processes occurs in many geologic environments, unambiguous identification of compounds with an abiotic origin in natural samples has been hampered by a lack of means to discriminate between abiotic compounds and organic matter from biological sources. While isotopic compositions might provide a means to discriminate between biologic and non-biologic sources of organic matter, there are few data presently available to constrain the isotopic composition of compounds produced by abiotic processes in geologic systems. Here, we report results of laboratory experiments conducted to evaluate the isotopic composition of organic compounds synthesized abiotically under hydrothermal conditions. We find the organic products are depleted in 13C to a degree typically ascribed to biological processes, indicating that carbon isotopic composition may not be a particularly effective diagnostic means to differentiate between biologic and non-biologic sources. Furthermore, our results suggest that the isotopic compositions of reduced carbon compounds found in many ancient rocks that have heretofore been attributed to biological sources could be consistent with an abiotic origin in a hydrothermal setting.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.



Distribution of living benthic foraminifera off the Douro river (western Iberian margin): the importance of the terrestrial organic matter.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living (stained) benthic foraminifera assemblages and geochemical characterization of the organic matter (phytopigments, amino acids, ?13Coc, BIT) were investigated on a cross-margin transect off the Douro River (Northern Portuguese margin) in order to assess the role of the quality of organic matter on the distribution of live benthic foraminifera. For this, 5 stations ranging from 50 to 2000 m depth were collected in March 2011 about one month after the Douro River annual flood. Faunal abundances generally decrease from the coast to the slope with maximum total densities of 3051 ind./50 cm3 in the mudbelt (Q50=32µm) at 100 m and minimum density of 63 ind./50 cm3 found at 500 m water depth where grain size is coarse (Q50=190µm). Faunas of the shallow most station are dominated by Ammonia becarii, Eggerella scabra, Bulimina aculeata and Nonion scaphum while N. scaphum and to a lesser extent Uvigerina bifurcata dominate the assemblages at 100 m. The deepest stations are dominated by Uvigerina mediterranea, Hoeglundina elegans and Reophax scorpiurus. In general, live benthic foraminiferal densities are higher where the indicators of organic matter are more concentrated. However, some species appear to have strong affinities with Chl-a (e.g., N. scaphum, U. bifurcata), while others (A. becarii, E. Scabra, B. aculeata) are more abundant where labile organic matter is high as show by the EHAA/THAA amino acid ratio. The species that show a good correlation with Chl-a also show affinity with organic matter of terrestrial origin as show by the ?13Coc suggesting 1) that Chl-a measured in the coastal zone is not only marine and 2) that land plant derived organic matter could be an important source of food for marine benthic communities.

Bonnin, Jerome; Dessandier, Pierre-Antoine; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gremare, Antoine; Deflandre, Bruno; Sinnighe-Damste, Jaap



Gut microbiota as a candidate for lifespan extension: an ecological\\/evolutionary perspective targeted on living organisms as metaorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging central concept in evolutionary biology suggests that symbiosis is a universal characteristic of living organisms\\u000a that can help in understanding complex traits and phenotypes. During evolution, an integrative circuitry fundamental for survival\\u000a has been established between commensal gut microbiota and host. On the basis of recent knowledge in worms, flies, and humans,\\u000a an important role of the gut

E. Ottaviani; N. Ventura; M. Mandrioli; M. Candela; A. Franchini; C. Franceschi


Using Homolog Groups to Create a Whole-Genomic Tree of Free-Living Organisms: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Genomic trees have been constructed based on the presence and absence of families of protein-encoding genes observed in 27\\u000a complete genomes, including genomes of 15 free-living organisms. This method does not rely on the identification of suspected\\u000a orthologs in each genome, nor the specific alignment used to compare gene sequences because the protein-encoding gene families\\u000a are formed by grouping

Christopher H. House; Sorel T. Fitz-Gibbon



Ingestion of Salmonella enterica Serotype Poona by a Free-Living Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Protection against Inactivation by Produce Sanitizers  

PubMed Central

Free-living nematodes are known to ingest food-borne pathogens and may serve as vectors to contaminate preharvest fruits and vegetables. Caenorhabditis elegans was selected as a model to study the effectiveness of sanitizers in killing Salmonella enterica serotype Poona ingested by free-living nematodes. Aqueous suspensions of adult worms that had fed on S. enterica serotype Poona were treated with produce sanitizers. Treatment with 20 ?g of free chlorine/ml significantly (? = 0.05) reduced the population of S. enterica serotype Poona compared to results for treating worms with water (control). However, there was no significant difference in the number of S. enterica serotype Poona cells surviving treatments with 20 to 500 ?g of chlorine/ml, suggesting that reductions caused by treatment with 20 ?g of chlorine/ml resulted from inactivation of S. enterica serotype Poona on the surface of C. elegans but not cells protected by the worm cuticle after ingestion. Treatment with Sanova (850 or 1,200 ?g/ml), an acidified sodium chlorite sanitizer, caused reductions of 5.74 and 6.34 log10 CFU/worm, respectively, compared to reductions from treating worms with water. Treatment with 20 or 40 ?g of Tsunami 200/ml, a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer, resulted in reductions of 4.83 and 5.34 log10 CFU/worm, respectively, compared to numbers detected on or in worms treated with water. Among the organic acids evaluated at a concentration of 2%, acetic acid was the least effective in killing S. enterica serotype Poona and lactic acid was the most effective. Treatment with up to 500 ?g of chlorine/ml, 1% hydrogen peroxide, 2,550 ?g of Sanova/ml, 40 ?g of Tsunami 200/ml, or 2% acetic, citric, or lactic acid had no effect on the viability or reproductive behavior of C. elegans. Treatments were also applied to cantaloupe rind and lettuce inoculated with S. enterica serotype Poona or C. elegans that had ingested S. enterica serotype Poona. Protection of ingested S. enterica serotype Poona against sanitizers applied to cantaloupe was not evident; however, ingestion afforded protection of the pathogen on lettuce. These results indicate that S. enterica serotype Poona ingested by C. elegans may be protected against treatment with chlorine and other sanitizers, although the basis for this protection remains unclear.

Caldwell, Krishaun N.; Adler, Barbara B.; Anderson, Gary L.; Williams, Phillip L.; Beuchat, Larry R.



Pecuniary and non-pecuniary incentives to increase the rate of organ donations from the living: a moral exploration.  


This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving. PMID:23908808

Barilan, Michael Y



Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.



EMMC process for combined removal of organics, nitrogen and an odor producing substance.  


In order to improve the process performance regarding the removal of organics, nitrogen, and an odor-causing compound (sulfide) contained in domestic wastewater, an entrapped-mixed-microbial cell (EMMC) with and without humic substances for both fixed and moving carrier reactors and conventional suspended growth culture (i.e. conventional activated sludge process) were investigated simultaneously. Both synthetic (simulated to the organics concentration of general domestic sewage) and actual domestic wastewater were investigated under operational conditions of 12 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) with 1 h of aeration and 1 h of non-aeration, and 6 h of HRT with continuous aeration, at a room temperature of 25 +/- 2 degrees C. It was found that entrapping humic substances in the EMMC carriers had no impact on the removal of organics, nitrogen, and the odor-producing compound. Additionally, the performance of the EMMC moving carrier system for the removal of these pollutants is similar to that of the EMMC fixed carrier system. In general, the EMMC associated systems which provide high solids retention time achieve a better removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, and the odor-producing substance than the suspended growth system for both HRTs of 6 h (continuous aeration) and 12 h (1 h of aeration and 1 h of non-aeration). Both the fixed and moving carrier EMMC processes, therefore, have the potential for improvement or replacement of the existing conventional activated sludge process with regard to improving the effluent qualities (such as COD, nitrogen and odor-producing compound) for reuse/disposal. PMID:14680899

Yang, P Y; Su, R; Kim, S J



Bacterial mutagenicity of pyrolysis tars produced from chloro-organic fuels.  

PubMed Central

Droplets of toluene and three chlorinated organics, ortho-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, were pyrolyzed in pure nitrogen. The composition and bacterial mutagenicity of the product tars were measured. The presence of organic chlorine was found to affect both pyrolysis product tar composition and total tar mutagenicity. Pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine produced tars whose bacterial mutagenicity was found to be largely due to the presence of cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Small amounts of chlorine in the fuel (i.e., Cl/H molar ratios of less than 0.3) enhanced the formation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including cyclopenta[cd]pyrene) and increased tar mutagenicity. Larger amounts of organic chlorine (Cl/H ratios of between 0.3 and 0.6) resulted in significant yields of mono- and dichlorinated aromatics and higher levels of tar mutagenicity, which could not be accounted for by the presence of mutagens produced by pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine. Furthermore, unlike tars containing little or no chlorine, tars containing aryl chlorine were more mutagenic in the absence of added enzymes (intended to mimic in vivo mammalian metabolism) than in their presence. We hypothesize that at least one of the chlorinated aromatic products is strongly mutagenic. Two specific conditions that gave notably different results were a) the low-temperature (i.e., below 1400 K) pyrolysis of ortho-dichlorobenzene, which produced tri- and tetrachlorinated biphenyls almost exclusively; and b) the chlorine-rich pyrolysis of trichloroethylene, during which mostly perchloroaromatics were formed. Neither of these tars was found to mutate bacteria.

Mulholland, J A; Sarofim, A F; Longwell, J P; Lafleur, A L; Thilly, W G



Determine Feasibility of Producing a Killed Rubella Virus Vaccine, and to Produce, Test, and Supply One Liter or More of Live Attenuated Rubella Vaccine, Strain M-33.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major effort during this period has been the production and testing of attenuated rubella virus vaccines for use in human clinical trials. Four lots were produced to date, and one of these selected for complete control testing. Two of the remaining lo...

R. N. Hull C. B. Reimer F. T. Counter



Molecular Crowding of Collagen: A Pathway to Produce Highly-Organized Collagenous Structures  

PubMed Central

Collagen in vertebrate animals is often arranged in alternating lamellae or in bundles of aligned fibrils which are designed to withstand in vivo mechanical loads. The formation of these organized structures is thought to result from a complex, large-area integration of individual cell motion and locally-controlled synthesis of fibrillar arrays via cell-surface fibripositors (direct matrix printing). The difficulty of reproducing such a process in vitro has prevented tissue engineers from constructing clinically useful load-bearing connective tissue directly from collagen. However, we and others have taken the view that long-range organizational information is potentially encoded into the structure of the collagen molecule itself, allowing the control of fibril organization to extend far from cell (or bounding) surfaces. We here demonstrate a simple, fast, cell-free method capable of producing highly-organized, anistropic collagen fibrillar lamellae de novo which persist over relatively long-distances (tens to hundreds of microns). Our approach to nanoscale organizational control takes advantage of the intrinsic physiochemical properties of collagen molecules by inducing collagen association through molecular crowding and geometric confinement. To mimic biological tissues which comprise planar, aligned collagen lamellae (e.g. cornea, lamellar bone or annulus fibrosus), type I collagen was confined to a thin, planar geometry, concentrated through molecular crowding and polymerized. The resulting fibrillar lamellae show a striking resemblance to native load-bearing lamellae in that the fibrils are small, generally aligned in the plane of the confining space and change direction en masse throughout the thickness of the construct. The process of organizational control is consistent with embryonic development where the bounded planar cell sheets produced by fibroblasts suggest a similar confinement/concentration strategy. Such a simple approach to nanoscale organizational control of structure not only makes de novo tissue engineering a possibility, but also suggests a clearer pathway to organization for fibroblasts than direct matrix printing.

Saeidi, Nima; Karmelek, Kathryn N.; Paten, Jeffrey. A; Zareian, Ramin; DiMasi, Elaine



Self-organized ordering of nanostructures produced by ion-beam sputtering.  


We study the self-organized ordering of nanostructures produced by ion-beam sputtering of targets amorphizing under irradiation. By introducing a model akin to models of pattern formation in aeolian sand dunes, we extend consistently the current continuum theory of erosion by IBS. We obtain new nonlinear effects responsible for the in-plane ordering of the structures, whose strength correlates with the degree of ordering found in experiments. Our results highlight the importance of redeposition and surface viscous flow to this nanopattern formation process. PMID:15698100

Castro, Mario; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Vázquez, Luis; Gago, Raúl



Avermectins, New Family of Potent Anthelmintic Agents: Producing Organism and Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The avermectins are a complex of chemically related agents which exhibit extraordinarily potent anthelmintic activity. They are produced by a novel species of actinomycete, NRRL 8165, which we have named Streptomyces avermitilis. The morphological and cultural characteristics which differentiate the producing organism from other species are described. The avermectins have been identified as a series of macrocyclic lactone derivatives which, in contrast to the macrolide or polyene antibiotics, lack significant antibacterial or antifungal activity. The avermectin complex is fully active against the gastrointestinal nematode Nematospiroides dubius when fed to infected mice for 6 days at 0.0002% of the diet. Fermentation development, including medium modification and strain selection, resulted in increasing the broth yields from 9 to 500 ?g/ml. Images

Burg, Richard W.; Miller, Brinton M.; Baker, Edward E.; Birnbaum, Jerome; Currie, Sara A.; Hartman, Robert; Kong, Yu-Lin; Monaghan, Richard L.; Olson, George; Putter, Irving; Tunac, Josefino B.; Wallick, Hyman; Stapley, Edward O.; Oiwa, Ruiko; Omura, Satoshi



Distribution of uranium in human organs of an urban Indian population and its relationship with clearance half-lives.  


This organ burdens of uranium were estimated for an urban Indian (Bombay) population living in a normal background environment, using the technique of neutron activation analysis, in combination with post-irradiation chemical separation. The total organ burdens were: skeleton > muscle > soft tissue > lungs > kidney > liver > heart. A comparison was made between the observed organ burdens of uranium for skeleton, kidney, and muscle with those obtained by applying the metabolic model of uranium as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to its daily intake by urban population. The observed organ burdens for kidney and muscle were found to be 4 and 70 times higher than the derived burden values; however, the two estimates were similar in the case of skeleton. This observation indicated that the clearance half-lives for uranium present in kidney and muscle tissue are likely to be longer than those reported by ICRP. For skeleton, however, the clearance half-life reported by the ICRP appeared to be reasonable. PMID:7860303

Dang, H S; Pullat, V R; Sharma, R C



Comparing support for organic and conventional farming in the European Union using an adjusted Producer Support Estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares support for organic and conventional farming in 2001, using the methodology of the Producer Support Estimate (PSE). Although market price support for organic products is difficult to determine, our case study-based estimates indicate that the PSE for organic farming ranged between 41 and 44 per cent in the EU, compared with 35 per cent for conventional farming.

Stephan Hubertus Gay; Frank Offermann



A Comparison of the Nutritional Value, Sensory Qualities, and Food Safety of Organically and Conventionally Produced Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. William Lockeretz, Professor, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 12155 Given the significant increase in consumer interest in organic food products, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic produce. Studies comparing foods derived from organic and conventional growing systems were assessed for

Diane Bourn; John Prescott



A large hyperbaric trap-respirometer for the capture and maintenance of live deep sea organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The capture and maintenance of live deep-sea fishes is difficult due to the rapid decompression and expansion of the gas-filled bladders of some species upon ascent to the surface, and potentially to the intolerance of many species to surface pressure (1 atm). Overcoming these problems would enable an enormous diversity of studies concerning the biology and

J. C. Drazen; J. P. Barry; L. E. Bird



Effect of flagellates on free-living bacterial abundance in an organically contaminated aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the role of protists in the saturated subsurface. Porous media microcosms, containing bacteria and protists, were used to determine whether flagellates from an organicially contaminated aquifer could substantively affect the number of free-living bacteria (FLB). When flagellates were present, the 3-40% maximum breakthrough of fluorescently labeled FLB injected into the microcosms was much lower than the

N. E Kinner; R. W Harvey; Marina Kazmierkiewicz-Tabaka



Building Change Capacity within Secondary Schools through Goal-Driven and Living Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on chaos theory to examine the potential of change within a living community. It focuses on secondary-school change in order to consider the divergent paths and the unexpected cultural adaptations that emerged when a Canadian school district required its secondary schools to revise their organizational models. Department heads…

Hannay, Lynne M.; Ross, John A.; Erb, Cathy Smeltzer


[Living organ donation vs. cadaveric donation - study of liver transplanted children and their families].  


There is only scarce information on the quality of life of child recipients of liver transplants and their families. Particularly children with a living related graft and their families never have been compared to children who received a cadaveric graft and their families. We investigated the following issues in our study: How do parents and children from participating families rate their strain, their quality of life and their relationships within their family? Do families with a living - related donor differ from those with a cadaveric donor? What do living donors and their partners think about the donation retrospectively? The study was conducted with 106 participants from 50 families (42 mothers, 40 fathers, and 24 children older than 6 years). In 20 of these families, a living transplantation had been performed. Participants were interviewed and asked to fill out several questionnaires. School-aged children with a liver transplant show good social integration among their peers and in school. The child's disease, however, has a great impact on the family. Family members show a reduction in social contact, and an increase in marital crises, and problematic relations amongst siblings. Families in which a cadaveric graft was performed, are less satisfied with life, and show more symptoms of exhaustion. Every family studied possessed or acquired - a high degree of internal or external coping resources. Living - related donors tried hard to obtain an understanding of the medical context. The partner, rather than the donor himself, feels anxious before the donation. The limited time available for the decision to donate is not perceived by the donors to be critical. Ten percent of living donors feel "a little" that their health is affected. The decision to donate is supported "strongly" or "very strongly" by the partners in 80 % of the cases. A possible strain on the child through the expectation of gratitude by the donor is stated by 20 %. All of the donors agree that if they were to be asked today, they would donate again, only one of the partners raised objections. In summary, as a retrospective pilot study, this study primarily generates hypotheses rather than testing them and helps to develop research tools for the field. Results suggest that a psychological support be made available both prior to and following the operation, not only for the children but also for their families, with particular attention to the partners of the living donors and the siblings of the affected children. PMID:11774048

Schulz, K H; Hofmann, C; Sander, K; Edsen, S; Burdelski, M; Koch, U; Rogiers, X



Organically versus conventionally grown produce: common production inputs, nutritional quality, and nitrogen delivery between the two systems.  


One distinguishing conclusion found in most reviews of research studies comparing organically and conventionally grown produce is that variables shared alike by organic and conventional produce during production, harvest, and postharvest handling and storage were not applied. As a result, accurate and meaningful conclusions comparing the nutritional quality of organic and conventional produce are difficult to ascertain. Pairing common production variables such as the physical, biological, and chemical/nutritional attributes of soils, the irrigation sources and amounts, crop varieties, crop maturities and harvest dates, pre- and postharvest processing, handling, and/or storage methods, individually and collectively, provide greater clarity as to how inputs unique to organic and conventional systems affect produce quality. Variables to be paired during production, harvest, and postharvest handling and storage studies comparing organic and conventional produce are discussed along with findings indicating that organic crops often have higher dry matter, ascorbic acid, phenolic, and sugar and lower moisture, nitrate, and protein contents and yields than conventionally grown crops. Recent studies of nutritional quality in organic versus conventional produce also indicate that soil nitrogen delivery rates strongly affect nutritional quality. Nitrogen profiling is a promising new approach to improving the nutritional quality of both organic and conventional produce. PMID:21910454

Lester, Gene E; Saftner, Robert A



Sister chromatid exchange induced by short-lived monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells  

SciTech Connect

To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced short-lived lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.

Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.



Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.  


Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05). Most respondents, 303 (79.1%), were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation. PMID:24434412

Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa



[A mathematical model for variations in the functional state of a living organism under external regular load].  


On the basis of the nonlinear model of the overdamped Duffing oscillator, the adaptation of the living organism to regular external loads (constant and periodical) was studied. It was shown that this model describes the stages of strain and resistance. In the resistance stage, a superadaptation phase may be observed, which exceeds by functional shift its asymptotic volume. This stage has a threshold character with respect to load. It was shown that the theoretical results coincide with the experimental data obtained under periodical loads. The conclusion about the existence of optimal load frequency, which leads to a maximum heating of the organism. The differences between the responses of organisms with strong and weak immunities to the harmonic actions were analyzed. PMID:12298217

Za?tsev, A A; Sazonov, S V



Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite organic/inorganic hybrid materials using living cationic polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel chlorosilyl functional initiators have been prepared and applied for the first time in the living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). Well-defined polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying mono-, di-, and trichlorosilyl head-group, and a tert-chloro end-group were synthesized using newly designed silyl-functional initiators in conjunction with TiCl4 in Hex:MeCl (60:40, v:v) at -80°C. End-group analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy verified the product structure and the survival of the Si-Cl head-groups during the polymerization. The chlorosilyl functional initiators and chlorosilyl functional PIBs have been employed for the synthesis of PIB brushes on planar silicate substrates by the "grafting from" and "grafting to" techniques. Structurally well-defined polymer/inorganic nanocomposites were prepared by surface-initiated living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). The living cationic polymerization of IB was initiated from initiators self-assembled on the surface of silica nanoparticles in the presence of additional soluble "free initiator" with TiCl4 in hexanes/CH3Cl (60/40, v/v) at -80°C. The polymerization displayed the diagnostic criteria for living cationic polymerization and provided densely grafted polymers of controlled molecular weight with an approximate graft density of 3.3 chains/nm 2. The surface-initiated polymerization of IB without added "free initiator" also yielded grafted polymer chains with good molecular weight control and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/M n). A series of novel hybrid poly(styryl-POSS), poly(isobutylene- b-(styryl-POSS)), and poly(isobutylene-b-(styryl-POSS)- b-isobutylene) are synthesized and characterized. Living cationic polymerization of styryl-POSS macromer was carried out using the 1-chloro-1-(4-methyphenyl)ethane (p-MeStCl)/TiCl4/MeChx:CH3Cl (60:40, v:v)/-80°C system in the presence of DTBP. Using these conditions, we have synthesized AB diblock, and ABA linear triblock copolymers containing polyisobutylene (PIB)-based rubbery mid block (B) with amorphous glassy poly(styryl-POSS) end blocks (A) by living cationic polymerization using sequential monomer addition. Well-defined PIB-b-P(styryl-POSS) and PIB- b-P(styryl-POSS)-b-PIB have been successfully prepared. The styryl-POSS based hybrid polymers were characterized by thermogravimetry and GPC measurements. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Kim, Iljin


Organics Produced by Irradiation of Frozen and Liquid HCN Solutions: Implications for Chemical Evolution Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), an important precursor of organic compounds, is widely present in extraterrestrial environments. HCN is also readily synthesized in prebiotic simulation experiments. To gain insight into the radiation chemistry of one of the most important and highly versatile constituents of cometary ices, we examined the behavior of over-irradiated frozen and liquid HCN solutions under ionizing radiation. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at a dose range from 0 up to 419 kGy. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to follow the process. The analyses confirmed that gamma-ray irradiation of liquid HCN solutions generates several organic products. Many of them are essential to life; we verified the presence of carboxylic acids (some of them members of the Krebs cycle) as well as free amino acids and urea. These are the first studies to reveal the presence of these compounds in experiments performed at low temperatures and bulk irradiation. Organic material was produced even at low temperatures and low radiation doses. This work strongly supports the presumption that, as a parent molecule, HCN played a central essential role in the process of chemical evolution on early Earth, comets, and other extraterrestrial environments.

Colín-García, M.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.



Halocarbons produced by natural oxidation processes during degradation of organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOC) play an important role in atmospheric chemical processes-contributing, for example, to stratospheric ozone depletion. For anthropogenic VHOC whose sources are well known, the global atmospheric input can be estimated from industrial production data. Halogenated compounds of natural origin can also contribute significantly to the levels of VHOC in the atmosphere. The oceans have been implicated as one of the main natural sources, where organisms such as macroalgae and microalgae can release large quantities of VHOC to the atmosphere. Some terrestrial sources have also been identified, such as wood-rotting fungi, biomass burning and volcanic emissions. Here we report the identification of a different terrestrial source of naturally occurring VHOC. We find that, in soils and sediments, halide ions can be alkylated during the oxidation of organic matter by an electron acceptor such as Fe( III): sunlight or microbial mediation are not required for these reactions. When the available halide ion is chloride, the reaction products are CH 3Cl, C2H5Cl, C3H7Cl and C4H9Cl. (The corresponding alkyl bromides or alkyl iodides are produced when bromide or iodide are present.) Such abiotic processes could make a significant contribution to the budget of the important atmospheric compounds CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I.

Keppler, F.; Eiden, R.; Niedan, V.; Pracht, J.; Schöler, H. F.



[Streptomyces griseolus # 182--a novel organism producing oligomycin antibiotics. Taxonomy, fermentation, and isolation].  


Target screening of natural immunosuppressors resulted in isolation of a strain of Streptomyces griseolus (No. 182) producing a complex of antifungal antibiotics. The strain proved to be an aerobe with the growth temperature of 26 to 28 degrees C. Morphological features and physiological properties of the strain were studied. Scanning electron microscopy revealed smooth, oval spores 1.10-1.25 mu in size. The findings showed that the strain belonged to Streptomyces griseolus. Unlike the previously described organisms producing the oligomycin complex the new strain formed straight or twisted sporophores and did not produce melanoid pigment or soluble pigment when grown on the Gauze mineral agar medium No. 1. The procedures for biosynthesis and chemical recovery of the antibiotic complex from the mycelium are described. The complex was shown to include 3 components at a ratio of 80:15:5 identified as oligomycins A, B and C respectively. The oligomycin complex was highly active against Aspergillus niger 137, Tolypocladium inflatum, Fusarium ocsisporum, Curvularia lunata 645 and Trichoderma alba F-32 (MIC 0.1-1.0 mcg/ml). The activity against yeast and bacterial cultures was observed only when the doses were higher than 100 mcg/ml. PMID:14558413

Grammatikova, N E; Bibikova, M V; Spiridonova, I A; Kabanov, A E; Katlinski?, A V



A Graphical Journey of Innovative Organic Architectures that Have Improved Our Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new free graphical teaching tool that highlights the beautiful organic architectures of the top selling pharmaceuticals is detailed on two posters. In addition to the multitude of teaching and data-mining opportunities these posters offer, they were also created to emphasize the central role organic chemists play in the development of new…

McGrath, Nicholas A.; Brichacek, Matthew; Njardarson, Jon T.



Micro-Radiography of Living Biological Organisms with MEDIPIX2 Detector and Application of Various Contrast Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a newly developed radiographic system equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector and a micro-focus FeinFocus X-ray tube tabletop. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by the X-ray tube. The digital pixel detectors of the Medipix family represent a highly efficient type of imaging devices with high spatial resolution better than 1?m, and unlimited dynamic range allowing single particle of radiation and to determine their energies. The setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in vivo observations with various contrast agents (iodine and lanthanum nitrate). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of application of iodine and lanthanum nitrate contrast agents as tracers in various insects as model organisms. The iodine contrast agent increases the absorption of X-rays and this leads to better resolution of internal structures of biological organisms, and especially the various cavities, pores, etc. Micro-radiographic imaging helps to detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

Dammer, Jiri; Sopko, Vit; Jakubek, Jan; Weyda, Frantisek; Benes, Jiri; Zahorovsky, Julian



Modulation of volatile organic compound formation in the Mycodiesel-producing endophyte Hypoxylon sp. CI-4.  


An endophytic Hypoxylon sp. (strain CI-4) producing a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,8-cineole, 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene and cyclohexane, 1,2,4-tris(methylene), was selected as a candidate for the modulation of VOC production. This was done in order to learn if the production of these and other VOCs can be affected by using agents that may modulate the epigenetics of the fungus. Many of the VOCs made by this organism are of interest because of their high energy densities and thus the potential they might have as Mycodiesel fuels. Strain CI-4 was exposed to the epigenetic modulators suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a histone deacetylase) and 5-azacytidine (AZA, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor). After these treatments the organism displayed striking cultural changes, including variations in pigmentation, growth rates and odour, in addition to significant differences in the bioactivities of the VOCs. The resulting variants were designated CI4-B, CI4-AZA and CI4-SAHA. GC/MS analyses of the VOCs produced by the variants showed considerable variation, with the emergence of several compounds not previously observed in the wild-type, particularly an array of tentatively identified terpenes such as ?-thujene, sabinene, ?-terpinene, ?-terpinolene and ?-selinene, in addition to several primary and secondary alkanes, alkenes, organic acids and derivatives of benzene. Proton transfer reaction mass spectroscopic analyses showed a marked increase in the ratio of ethanol (mass 47) to the total mass of all other ionizable VOCs, from ~0.6 in the untreated strain CI-4 to ~0.8 in CI-4 grown in the presence of AZA. Strain CI4-B was created by exposure of the fungus to 100 µM SAHA; upon removal of the epigenetic modulator from the culture medium, it did not revert to the wild-type phenotype. Results of this study have implications for understanding why there may be a wide range of VOCs found in various isolates of this fungus in nature. PMID:22096148

Ul-Hassan, Syed Riyaz; Strobel, Gary A; Booth, Eric; Knighton, Berk; Floerchinger, Cody; Sears, Joe



Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Organism\\/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O\\/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O\\/OREOS is constructed

Orlando Santos; Pascale Ehrenfreund; Rocco Mancinelli; Wayne Nicholson; Antonio Ricco



Physical characteristics and solubility of long-lived airborne particulates in uranium producing and manufacturing facilities Phase IV - Part II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rates of dissolution in simulated lung fluid of uranium dusts associated with three yellowcake processing areas at the Blind River Mill in Ontario and from uranium dioxide powder produced by a fluid bed process at Port Hope, Ontario were determined. B...

D. C. Stuart R. Robertson



Interferon-gamma producing regulatory T cells as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in organ transplantation.  


There is increasing evidence that IFNg plays a major role in both induction of Tregs as well as immunosuppression mediated by IFNg-producing Tregs. The present review focuses on a small subset of iTregs that produces IFNg, comprises only 0.04% of all CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the blood of healthy individuals, and increases strongly during an immune response. IFNg(+) Tregs are induced by IFNg and IL12, making them sensors for inflammatory cytokines. They develop rapidly during inflammation and represent the first line of Tregs that suppress initial immune responses. The pool of IFNg(+) Tregs consists of activated stable immunosuppressive thymus-derived nTregs as well as peripherally proliferating iTregs with in part only transient immunosuppressive function, which limits their diagnostic and therapeutic usefulness in organ transplantation. Apparently, a part of IFNg(+) Tregs dies during the immune response, whereas others, after efficient immunosuppression with resolution of the immune response, differentiate toward Th1 lymphocytes. Goals of further research are the development of appropriate diagnostic tests for rapid and exact determinination of immunosuppressive IFNg(+) iTregs, as well as the induction and propagation of stable immunosuppressive IFNg(+) Tregs that establish and maintain good long-term graft function in transplant recipients. PMID:24266365

Daniel, Volker; Wang, Haihao; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard



Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans growth from conidia and mycelial extension by bacterially produced volatile organic compounds.  


The recently identified causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been implicated in the mortality of an estimated 5.5 million North American bats since its initial documentation in 2006 (Frick et al. in Science 329:679-682, 2010). In an effort to identify potential biological and chemical control options for WNS, 6 previously described bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were screened for anti-P. destructans activity. The compounds include decanal; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; nonanal; benzothiazole; benzaldehyde; andN,N-dimethyloctylamine. P. destructans conidia and mycelial plugs were exposed to the VOCs in a closed air space at 15 and 4 °C and then evaluated for growth inhibition. All VOCs inhibited growth from conidia as well as inhibiting radial mycelial extension, with the greatest effect at 4 °C. Studies of the ecology of fungistatic soils and the natural abundance of the fungistatic VOCs present in these environments suggest a synergistic activity of select VOCs may occur. The evaluation of formulations of two or three VOCs at equivalent concentrations was supportive of synergistic activity in several cases. The identification of bacterially produced VOCs with anti-P. destructans activity indicates disease-suppressive and fungistatic soils as a potentially significant reservoir of biological and chemical control options for WNS and provides wildlife management personnel with tools to combat this devastating disease. PMID:24190516

Cornelison, Christopher T; Gabriel, Kyle T; Barlament, Courtney; Crow, Sidney A



Characterization of some efficient cellulase producing bacteria isolated from paper mill sludges and organic fertilizers  

PubMed Central

The wide variety of bacteria in the environment permits screening for more efficient cellulases to help overcome current challenges in biofuel production. This study focuses on the isolation of efficient cellulase producing bacteria found in organic fertilizers and paper mill sludges which can be considered for use in large scale biorefining. Pure isolate cultures were screened for cellulase activity. Six isolates: S1, S2, S3, S4, E2, and E4, produced halos greater in diameter than the positive control (Cellulomonas xylanilytica), suggesting high cellulase activities. A portion of the 16S rDNA genes of cellulase positive isolates were amplified and sequenced, then BLASTed to determine likely genera. Phylogenetic analysis revealed genera belonging to two major Phyla of Gram positive bacteria: Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. All isolates were tested for the visible degradation of filter paper; only isolates E2 and E4 (Paenibacillus species) were observed to completely break down filter paper within 72 and 96 h incubation, respectively, under limited oxygen condition. Thus E2 and E4 were selected for the FP assay for quantification of total cellulase activities. It was shown that 1% (w/v) CMC could induce total cellulase activities of 1652.2±61.5 and 1456.5±30.7 ?M of glucose equivalents for E2 and E4, respectively. CMC could induce cellulase activities 8 and 5.6X greater than FP, therefore CMC represented a good inducing substrate for cellulase production. The genus Paenibacillus are known to contain some excellent cellulase producing strains, E2 and E4 displayed superior cellulase activities and represent excellent candidates for further cellulase analysis and characterization.

Maki, Miranda L; Broere, Michael; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng



Long-Lived Plasma Cells and Memory B Cells Produce Pathogenic Anti-GAD65 Autoantibodies in Stiff Person Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by sudden cramps and spasms. High titers of enzyme-inhibiting IgG autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) are a hallmark of SPS, implicating an autoimmune component in the pathology of the syndrome. Studying the B cell compartment and the anti-GAD65 B cell response in two monozygotic twins suffering from SPS, who were treated with the B cell-depleting monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, we found that the humoral autoimmune response in SPS is composed of a rituximab-sensitive part that is rapidly cleared after treatment, and a rituximab-resistant component, which persists and acts as a reservoir for autoantibodies inhibiting GAD65 enzyme activity. Our data show that these potentially pathogenic anti-GAD65 autoantibodies are secreted by long-lived plasma cells, which may either be persistent or develop from rituximab-resistant memory B lymphocytes. Both subsets represent only a fraction of anti-GAD65 autoantibody secreting cells. Therefore, the identification and targeting of this compartment is a key factor for successful treatment planning of SPS and of similar autoimmune diseases.

Rizzi, Marta; Knoth, Rolf; Hampe, Christiane S.; Lorenz, Peter; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Lemercier, Brigitte; Venhoff, Nils; Ferrera, Francesca; Salzer, Ulrich; Thiesen, Hans-Jurgen; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Walker, Ulrich A.; Eibel, Hermann



Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

PubMed Central

Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents’ domestic violence and youths’ internalizing problems.

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne



In vitro oocyte culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer used to produce a live-born cloned goat.  


The use of an in vitro culture system was examined for production of somatic cells suitable for nuclear transfer in the goat. Goat cumulus-oocyte complexes were incubated in tissue culture medium TCM-199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 20 h. In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes were enucleated and used as karyoplast recipients. Donor cells obtained from the anterior pituitary of an adult male were introduced into the perivitelline space of enucleated IVM oocytes and fused by an electrical pulse. Reconstituted oocytes were cultured in chemically defined medium for 9 days. Two hundred and twenty-eight oocytes (70%) were fused with donor cells. After in vitro culture, seven somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes (3%) developed to the blastocyst stage. SCNT embryos were transferred to the oviducts of recipient females (four 8-cell embryos per female) or uterine horn (two blastocysts per female). One male clone (NT1) was produced at day 153 from an SCNT blastocyst and died 16 days after birth. This study demonstrates that nuclear transferred goat oocytes produced using an in vitro culture system could develop to term and that donor anterior pituitary cells have the developmental potential to produce term offspring. In this study, it suggested that the artificial control of endocrine system in domestic animal might become possible by the genetic modification to anterior pituitary cells. PMID:12930622

Ohkoshi, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Seiya; Koyama, Shin-Ichiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Adachi, Noritaka; Furusawa, Tadashi; Fujimoto, Jun-Ichiro; Takeda, Kumiko; Kubo, Masanori; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki



High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.  


An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L



The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASEXUALLY reproducing organisms occur in a variety of taxa in all biological kingdoms1 and distinguishing asexually propagated genotypes is essential for the understanding of their population biology. Among the higher fungi, however, the clonal 'individual' is especially difficult to define2 because most of the fungal thallus consists of a network of anastamosing hyphae embedded in the substratum. Whether fruit-bodies, the

Myron L. Smith; Johann N. Bruhn; James B. Anderson



The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano: A new model organism for ageing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the several elements and causes of ageing, diverse model organisms and methodologies are required. The most frequently used models are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and rodents. All have their advantages and disadvantages and allow studying particular aspects of the ageing process. During the last few years, several ageing studies focussed on stem cells and their role

Stijn Mouton; Maxime Willems; Bart P. Braeckman; Bernhard Egger; Peter Ladurner; Lukas Schärer; Gaetan Borgonie



Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne



Sense of "Calling": An Organizing Principle for the Lives and Values of Young Women in University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the experience of "life calling" in a sample of female Christian university students who felt a strong sense of calling. Participants were interviewed about the meaning and their experiences of life calling, with thematic analysis revealing the conception of life calling as an organizing and guiding force in these…

French, Jared R.; Domene, Jose F.



Living organ procurement from the mentally incompetent: the need for more appropriate guidelines.  


With the case of Belgium as a negative example, this paper will evaluate the legitimacy of using mentally incompetents as organ sources. The first section examines the underlying moral dilemma that results from the necessity of balancing the principle of respect for persons with the obligation to help people in desperate need. We argue for the rejection of a radical utilitarian approach but also question the appropriateness of a categorical prohibition. Section two aims to strike a fair balance between the competing interests at stake and to define the conditions under which organ harvest from mentally incompetents might be morally acceptable. To this end, we morally assess the main requirements that have been put forward to allow organ removal from incompetent donors. We conclude that the current Belgian legislation is far too permissive and that national regulations that do not permit the harvest of non-regenerable organs from mentally incompetents in exceptional circumstances are too restrictive. On the basis of this discussion, we propose a number of guiding principles for decision-making in this area. PMID:22762369

Van Assche, Kristof; Genicot, Gilles; Sterckx, Sigrid



Comparison of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in organically and conventionally produced beers sold on the Belgian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beer was chosen as a cereal-derived and homogeneous product for a comparison of organic and conventional production methods in terms of mycotoxin contamination levels. Ochratoxin A (OTA, a storage mycotoxin) and deoxynivalenol (DON, a field mycotoxin) were assessed by HPLC in organically and conventionally produced beers sold in Belgium. Immunoaffinity column (OchraTest® and DONPrep®) purification was used prior to HPLC

M. Anselme; E. K. Tangni; L. Pussemier; J.-C. Motte; F. Van Hove; Y.-J. Schneider; C. Van Peteghem; Y. Larondelle



Price Premiums Hold on as U.S. Organic Produce Market Expands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fresh fruits and vegetables have long been an important component of the organic food sector. Price premiums for organic products have contributed to growth in certified organic farmland and, ultimately, market expansion. This report examines trends in or...

L. Oberholtzer C. Dimitri C. Greene



Origin of the scaling rule for fundamental living organisms based on thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regular relationships between metabolic energy and body mass M of unicellular organisms, poikilotherms and homeotherms were well known as general equations. The metabolic energy rate and the life span are proportional to M0.75 and to M0.25, respectively. As a result, the product of the metabolic energy rate and the life time, namely, life metabolic energy, is proportional to the

Noboru Fujiwara



An Automatic GLPC Apparatus for the Analysis of Organic Compounds Labeled with Short-Lived Radioisotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined gas-liquid chromatograph, effluent counter, effluent flow-meter, and automatic data collection device is described which can be used for the analysis and assay of gas mixtures containing isotopes of short half-life. The data are collected in a form compatible for computer correction and evaluation. An example using C-containing compounds is given. The device is useful for research with organic

M. J. Welch; R. Withnell; A. P. Wolf



Estimation and characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutant emission from converter steelmaking processes.  


Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were characterized and quantified in stack gas and fly ash from the second ventilation systems in five typical converters in five different steelmaking plants. The 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs (2378-PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCBs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 1.84-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 5.59-87.6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash, and the PCN TEQs were 0.06-0.56 pg TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 0.03-0.08 pg TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash. The concentrations of UP-POPs in the present study were generally lower than those in other metallurgical processes, such as electric arc furnaces, iron ore sintering, and secondary metallurgical processes. Adding scrap metal might increase UP-POP emissions, indicating that raw material composition was a key influence on emissions. HxCDF, HpCDF, OCDF, HpCDD, and OCDD were the dominant PCDD/Fs in the stack gas and fly ash. TeCB and PeCB were dominant in the stack gas, but HxCB provided more to the total PCB concentrations in the fly ash. The lower chlorinated PCNs were dominant in all of the samples. The 2378-PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN emission factors in stack gases from the steelmaking converter processes (per ton of steel produced) were 1.88-2.89, 0.14-0.76, and 229-759 ?g t(-1), respectively. PMID:24682712

Li, Sumei; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang



Prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in humans living in municipalities with high and low broiler density.  


Prevalence of, and risk factors for, carriage of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae were determined for 1025 Dutch adults in municipalities with either high or low broiler densities. Overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 5.1%. The hypothesis that individuals in areas with high broiler densities are at greater risk for ESBL carriage was rejected, as the risk was lower (OR = 0.45; p 0.009) for these individuals. Owning a horse increased the risk (OR = 4.69; p ?0.0001), but horse owners often owned multiple species of companion animals. Routes of transmission from animals to humans in the community, and the role of poultry in this process, remain to be elucidated. PMID:23397953

Huijbers, P M C; de Kraker, M; Graat, E A M; van Hoek, A H A M; van Santen, M G; de Jong, M C M; van Duijkeren, E; de Greeff, S C



Independent synchronized control and visualization of interactions between living cells and organisms.  


To investigate the early stages of cell-cell interactions occurring between living biological samples, imaging methods with appropriate spatiotemporal resolution are required. Among the techniques currently available, those based on optical trapping are promising. Methods to image trapped objects, however, in general suffer from a lack of three-dimensional resolution, due to technical constraints. Here, we have developed an original setup comprising two independent modules: holographic optical tweezers, which offer a versatile and precise way to move multiple objects simultaneously but independently, and a confocal microscope that provides fast three-dimensional image acquisition. The optical decoupling of these two modules through the same objective gives users the possibility to easily investigate very early steps in biological interactions. We illustrate the potential of this setup with an analysis of infection by the fungus Drechmeria coniospora of different developmental stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. This has allowed us to identify specific areas on the nematode's surface where fungal spores adhere preferentially. We also quantified this adhesion process for different mutant nematode strains, and thereby derive insights into the host factors that mediate fungal spore adhesion. PMID:24853738

Rouger, Vincent; Bordet, Guillaume; Couillault, Carole; Monneret, Serge; Mailfert, Sébastien; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Pujol, Nathalie; Marguet, Didier



Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit  

PubMed Central

Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells.

Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi



A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO2-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering.

Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.



Collapsing Aged Culture of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Produces Compound(s) Toxic to Photosynthetic Organisms  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton mortality allows effective nutrient cycling, and thus plays a pivotal role in driving biogeochemical cycles. A growing body of literature demonstrates the involvement of regulated death programs in the abrupt collapse of phytoplankton populations, and particularly implicates processes that exhibit characteristics of metazoan programmed cell death. Here, we report that the cell-free, extracellular fluid (conditioned medium) of a collapsing aged culture of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is toxic to exponentially growing cells of this cyanobacterium, as well as to a large variety of photosynthetic organisms, but not to eubacteria. The toxic effect, which is light-dependent, involves oxidative stress, as suggested by damage alleviation by antioxidants, and the very high sensitivity of a catalase-mutant to the conditioned medium. At relatively high cell densities, S. elongatus cells survived the deleterious effect of conditioned medium in a process that required de novo protein synthesis. Application of conditioned medium from a collapsing culture caused severe pigment bleaching not only in S. elongatus cells, but also resulted in bleaching of pigments in a cell free extract. The latter observation indicates that the elicited damage is a direct effect that does not require an intact cell, and therefore, is mechanistically different from the metazoan-like programmed cell death described for phytoplankton. We suggest that S. elongatus in aged cultures are triggered to produce a toxic compound, and thus, this process may be envisaged as a novel regulated death program.

Cohen, Assaf; Sendersky, Eleonora; Carmeli, Shmuel; Schwarz, Rakefet



Studies on the biology of the crisamicin-producing organism Micromonospora purpureochromogenes subsp. celinoensis  

SciTech Connect

A Micromonospora isolate, RV-101, obtained from the Red V Coconut Company in the Philippines, produces a new complex of antibiotics, the crisamicins. Using standard taxonomic methods for the genus Micromonospora, including micromorphology, growth characteristics on select media, whole cell analysis of chemical composition, and carbohydrate utilization patterns, the organism was classified as Micromonospora purpureochromogenes subsp. celinoensis. The chief character used in this classification was the production of a dark-brown diffusible pigment on media containing complex sources of nitrogen. The biosynthesis of crisamicin A was investigated by the technique of /sup 13/C acetate feeding and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. Crisamicin A was found to be synthesized from acetate via the polyketide biosynthetic pathway. In addition, the assignment of one of two possible structures, differing in the position of phenolic hydroxyl groups, and in the point of linkage between the two monomers of the molecule, was made using the labeling data. The structure determined demonstrates that crisamicin A is unique among the benzoisochromanequinone antibiotics, in that it lacks an oxygen atom at position C-8.

Pope, J.A. Jr.



Development of a simplified, mass producible hybridized ambient, low frequency, low intensity vibration energy scavenger (half-lives)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scavenging energy from environmental sources is an active area of research to enable remote sensing and microsystems applications. Furthermore, as energy demands soar, there is a significant need to explore new sources and curb waste. Vibration energy scavenging is one environmental source for remote applications and a candidate for recouping energy wasted by mechanical sources that can be harnessed to monitor and optimize operation of critical infrastructure (e.g. Smart Grid). Current vibration scavengers are limited by volume and ancillary requirements for operation such as control circuitry overhead and battery sources. This dissertation, for the first time, reports a mass producible hybrid energy scavenger system that employs both piezoelectric and electrostatic transduction on a common MEMS device. The piezoelectric component provides an inherent feedback signal and pre-charge source that enables electrostatic scavenging operation while the electrostatic device provides the proof mass that enables low frequency operation. The piezoelectric beam forms the spring of the resonant mass-spring transducer for converting vibration excitation into an AC electrical output. A serially poled, composite shim, piezoelectric bimorph produces the highest output rectified voltage of over 3.3V and power output of 145muW using ¼ g vibration acceleration at 120Hz. Considering solely the volume of the piezoelectric beam and tungsten proof mass, the volume is 0.054cm3, resulting in a power density of 2.68mW/cm3. Incorporation of a simple parallel plate structure that provides the proof mass for low frequency resonant operation in addition to cogeneration via electrostatic energy scavenging provides a 19.82 to 35.29 percent increase in voltage beyond the piezoelectric generated DC rails. This corresponds to approximately 2.1nW additional power from the electrostatic scavenger component and demonstrates the first instance of hybrid energy scavenging using both piezoelectric and synchronous electrostatic transduction. Furthermore, it provides a complete system architecture and development platform for additional enhancements that will enable in excess of 100muW additional power from the electrostatic scavenger.

Khbeis, Michael Tawfik


Long-lived Solar Neutron Emission in Comparison with Electron-produced Radiation in the 2005 September 7 Solar Flare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong signals of neutral emissions were detected in association with a solar flare that occurred on 2005 September 7. They were produced by both relativistic ions and electrons. In particular, relativistic neutrons were observed with the solar neutron telescopes (SNTs) located at Mount Chacaltaya in Bolivia and Mount Sierra Negra in Mexico and with neutron monitors (NMs) at Chacaltaya and Mexico City with high statistical significances. At the same time, hard X-rays and ?-rays, which were predominantly emitted by high-energy electrons, were detected by the Geotail and the INTEGRAL satellites. We found that a model of the impulsive neutron emission at the time of the X-ray/?-ray peak can explain the main peaks of all the detected neutron signals, but failed to explain the long tailed decaying phase. An alternative model, in which the neutron emission follows the X-ray/?-ray profile, also failed to explain the long tail. These results indicate that the acceleration of ions began at the same time as the electrons but that ions were continuously accelerated or trapped longer than the electrons in the emission site. We also demonstrate that the neutron data observed by multienergy channels of SNTs put constraints on the neutron spectrum.

Sako, T.; Watanabe, K.; Muraki, Y.; Matsubara, Y.; Tsujihara, H.; Yamashita, M.; Sakai, T.; Shibata, S.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; González, L. X.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.; Miranda, P.; Martinic, N.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.; Kakimoto, F.; Ogio, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tokuno, H.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Terasawa, T.; Saito, Y.; Mukai, T.; Gros, M.



The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano: a new model organism for ageing research.  


To study the several elements and causes of ageing, diverse model organisms and methodologies are required. The most frequently used models are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and rodents. All have their advantages and disadvantages and allow studying particular aspects of the ageing process. During the last few years, several ageing studies focussed on stem cells and their role in tissue homeostasis. Here we present a new model organism which can study this relation where other model systems fail. The flatworm Macrostomum lignano possesses a dynamic population of likely totipotent somatic stem cells known as neoblasts. Several characteristics qualify M. lignano as a suitable model system for ageing studies in general and more specifically for gaining more insight in the causal relation between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. In this review, we will briefly describe the species and its life history, and discuss the role of its stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. We also give an overview of the available experimental tools that allow a multidisciplinary approach for studying ageing in M. lignano. PMID:19111920

Mouton, Stijn; Willems, Maxime; Braeckman, Bart P; Egger, Bernhard; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas; Borgonie, Gaetan



Living in history: how war, terrorism, and natural disaster affect the organization of autobiographical memory.  


Memories of war, terrorism, and natural disaster play a critical role in the construction of group identity and the persistence of group conflict. Here, we argue that personal memory and knowledge of the collective past become entwined only when public events have a direct, forceful, and prolonged impact on a population. Support for this position comes from a cross-national study in which participants thought aloud as they dated mundane autobiographical events. We found that Bosnians often mentioned their civil war and that Izmit Turks made frequent reference to the 1999 earthquake in their country. In contrast, public events were rarely mentioned by Serbs, Montenegrins, Ankara Turks, Canadians, Danes, or Israelis. Surprisingly, historical references were absent from (post-September 11) protocols collected in New York City and elsewhere in the United States. Taken together, these findings indicate that it is personal significance, not historical importance, that determines whether public events play a role in organizing autobiographical memory. PMID:19298262

Brown, Norman R; Lee, Peter J; Krslak, Mirna; Conrad, Frederick G; G B Hansen, Tia; Havelka, Jelena; Reddon, John R



Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization facilitates fertilization of vitrified-warmed C57BL/6 mouse oocytes with fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups.  


The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups. The ability to cryopreserve mouse gametes for LAIVF may facilitate management of large-scale transgenic mouse production facilities. PMID:24618785

Woods, Stephanie E; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G; García, Alexis



Effects on Carp Embryos (Cyprinus Carpio) and Daphnia Pulex of Chlorinated Organic Compounds Produced During Control of Fouling Organisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorinated organic compounds have been identified in cooling, waste treatment, and drinking waters after application of chlorine. The advisability of chlorination for some purposes and the suitability of present chlorination technology for others have be...

J. R. Trabalka S. C. Tsai J. S. Mattice M. B. Burch



Progress in developing a living human tissue-engineered tri-leaflet heart valve assembled from tissue produced by the self-assembly approach.  


The aortic heart valve is constantly subjected to pulsatile flow and pressure gradients which, associated with cardiovascular risk factors and abnormal hemodynamics (i.e. altered wall shear stress), can cause stenosis and calcification of the leaflets and result in valve malfunction and impaired circulation. Available options for valve replacement include homograft, allogenic or xenogenic graft as well as the implantation of a mechanical valve. A tissue-engineered heart valve containing living autologous cells would represent an alternative option, particularly for pediatric patients, but still needs to be developed. The present study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a living tissue sheet produced by the self-assembly method, to replace the bovine pericardium currently used for the reconstruction of a stented human heart valve. In this study, human fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of sodium ascorbate to produce tissue sheets. These sheets were superimposed to create a thick construct. Tissue pieces were cut from these constructs and assembled together on a stent, based on techniques used for commercially available replacement valves. Histology and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the fibroblasts were embedded in a dense extracellular matrix produced in vitro. The mechanical properties measured were consistent with the fact that the engineered tissue was resistant and could be cut, sutured and assembled on a wire frame typically used in bioprosthetic valve assembly. After a culture period in vitro, the construct was cohesive and did not disrupt or disassemble. The tissue engineered heart valve was stimulated in a pulsatile flow bioreactor and was able to sustain multiple duty cycles. This prototype of a tissue-engineered heart valve containing cells embedded in their own extracellular matrix and sewn on a wire frame has the potential to be strong enough to support physiological stress. The next step will be to test this valve extensively in a bioreactor and at a later date, in a large animal model in order to assess in vivo patency of the graft. PMID:24813743

Dubé, Jean; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Gauvin, Robert; Lafrance, Hugues; Roberge, Charles J; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie



Physical properties and structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials produced by sol-gel process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches of the sol-gel process to prepare organic-inorganic hybrids are reviewed. One method is simple and involves mixing an organic polymer with a metal alkoxide such as tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). During the sol-gel process the inorganic mineral is deposited in the organic polymer matrix forming hydrogen bonding between organic phase and inorganic phase. In the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

Shoichiro Yano; Keisuke Iwata; Kimio Kurita



Differential Uncertainties and Risk Attitudes between Conventional and Organic Producers: The Case of Spanish COP Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing importance of economic factors in farmers decision to go organic has raised interest in characterizing the economic behavior of organic versus conventional farms. Published analyses so far have not considered differential uncertainties and farmers risk preferences between conventional and organic practices when comparing these techniques. Our article attempts to assess this issue. We use a model of farmer

Teresa Serra; David Zilberman; Jose Maria Gil



Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad



The O/OREOS mission: first science data from the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) payload.  


We report the first telemetered spaceflight science results from the orbiting Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment, executed by one of the two 10?cm cube-format payloads aboard the 5.5?kg Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) free-flying nanosatellite. The O/OREOS spacecraft was launched successfully to a 72° inclination, 650?km Earth orbit on 19 November 2010. This satellite provides access to the radiation environment of space in relatively weak regions of Earth's protective magnetosphere as it passes close to the north and south magnetic poles; the total dose rate is about 15 times that in the orbit of the International Space Station. The SESLO experiment measures the long-term survival, germination, and growth responses, including metabolic activity, of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to the microgravity, ionizing radiation, and heavy-ion bombardment of its high-inclination orbit. Six microwells containing wild-type (168) and six more containing radiation-sensitive mutant (WN1087) strains of dried B. subtilis spores were rehydrated with nutrient medium after 14 days in space to allow the spores to germinate and grow. Similarly, the same distribution of organisms in a different set of microwells was rehydrated with nutrient medium after 97 days in space. The nutrient medium included the redox dye Alamar blue, which changes color in response to cellular metabolic activity. Three-color transmitted intensity measurements of all microwells were telemetered to Earth within days of each of the 48?h growth experiments. We report here on the evaluation and interpretation of these spaceflight data in comparison to delayed-synchronous laboratory ground control experiments. PMID:22091486

Nicholson, Wayne L; Ricco, Antonio J; Agasid, Elwood; Beasley, Christopher; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Friedericks, Charles; Ghassemieh, Shakib; Henschke, Michael; Hines, John W; Kitts, Christopher; Luzzi, Ed; Ly, Diana; Mai, Nghia; Mancinelli, Rocco; McIntyre, Michael; Minelli, Giovanni; Neumann, Michael; Parra, Macarena; Piccini, Matthew; Rasay, R Mike; Ricks, Robert; Santos, Orlando; Schooley, Aaron; Squires, David; Timucin, Linda; Yost, Bruce; Young, Anthony



Elemental, isotopic, and structural changes in Tagish Lake insoluble organic matter produced by parent body processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we present the results of a multitechnique study of the bulk properties of insoluble organic material (IOM) from the Tagish Lake meteorite, including four lithologies that have undergone different degrees of aqueous alteration. The IOM C contents of all four lithologies are very uniform and comprise about half the bulk C and N contents of the lithologies. However, the bulk IOM elemental and isotopic compositions vary significantly. In particular, there is a correlated decrease in bulk IOM H/C ratios and ?D values with increasing degree of alteration—the IOM in the least altered lithology is intermediate between CM and CR IOM, while that in the more altered lithologies resembles the very aromatic IOM in mildly metamorphosed CV and CO chondrites, and heated CMs. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, C X-ray absorption near-edge (XANES), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirm and quantitate this transformation from CR-like, relatively aliphatic IOM functional group chemistry to a highly aromatic one. The transformation is almost certainly thermally driven, and probably occurred under hydrothermal conditions. The lack of a paramagnetic shift in 13C NMR spectra and 1s-?* exciton in the C-XANES spectra, both typically seen in metamorphosed chondrites, shows that the temperatures were lower and/or the timescales were shorter than experienced by even the least metamorphosed type 3 chondrites. Two endmember models were considered to quantitatively account for the changes in IOM functional group chemistry, but the one in which the transformations involved quantitative conversion of aliphatic material to aromatic material was the more successful. It seems likely that similar processes were involved in producing the diversity of IOM compositions and functional group chemistries among CR, CM, and CI chondrites. If correct, CRs experienced the lowest temperatures, while CM and CI chondrites experienced similar more elevated temperatures. This ordering is inconsistent with alteration temperatures based on mineralogy and O isotopes.

Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Cody, G. D.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Herd, C. D. K.



Spatial Organization and Dynamics of Transcription Elongation and Pre-mRNA Processing in Live Cells  

PubMed Central

During the last 30 years, systematic biochemical and functional studies have significantly expanded our knowledge of the transcriptional molecular components and the pre-mRNA processing machinery of the cell. However, our current understanding of how these functions take place spatiotemporally within the highly compartmentalized eukaryotic nucleus remains limited. Moreover, it is increasingly clear that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts” and that an understanding of the dynamic coregulation of genes is essential for fully characterizing complex biological phenomena and underlying diseases. Recent technological advances in light microscopy in addition to novel cell and molecular biology approaches have led to the development of new tools, which are being used to address these questions and may contribute to achieving an integrated and global understanding of how the genome works at a cellular level. Here, we review major hallmarks and novel insights in RNA polymerase II activity and pre-mRNA processing in the context of nuclear organization, as well as new concepts and challenges arising from our ability to gather extensive dynamic information at the single-cell resolution.

Sanchez-Alvarez, Miguel; Sanchez-Hernandez, Noemi; Sune, Carlos



CytoViz: an artistic mapping of network measurements as living organisms in a VR application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CytoViz is an artistic, real-time information visualization driven by statistical information gathered during gigabit network transfers to the Scalable Adaptive Graphical Environment (SAGE) at various events. Data streams are mapped to cellular organisms defining their structure and behavior as autonomous agents. Network bandwidth drives the growth of each entity and the latency defines its physics-based independent movements. The collection of entity is bound within the 3D representation of the local venue. This visual and animated metaphor allows the public to experience the complexity of high-speed network streams that are used in the scientific community. Moreover, CytoViz displays the presence of discoverable Bluetooth devices carried by nearby persons. The concept is to generate an event-specific, real-time visualization that creates informational 3D patterns based on actual local presence. The observed Bluetooth traffic is put in opposition of the wide-area networking traffic by overlaying 2D animations on top of the 3D world. Each device is mapped to an animation fading over time while displaying the name of the detected device and its unique physical address. CytoViz was publicly presented at two major international conferences in 2005 (iGrid2005 in San Diego, CA and SC05 in Seattle, WA).

López Silva, Brenda A.; Renambot, Luc



Understanding the Effects of Space Radiation on Living Organisms and its Implication for Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planetary environment around a star will be assaulted with various amounts of radiation. including solar and ionizing radiation. The amount and type varies with the type of star, the distance from the star, time of day, and other variables. While some radiation is critical to life on Earth, especially from 400-750 nm (so-called visible and photosynthetically active radiation), the effects of ultraviolet and ionizing radiation can be hazardous and even deadly. This is because life is based on organic carbon, which is susceptible to radiation damage. Radiation regimes in our own solar system address specifically radiation in our solar system with a main sequence star. The possibility remains of planets around red dwarfs. Such stars are much smaller in mass than the Sun (between 0.5 and .08 M(sub Sun), and so their temperature and stellar luminosity are low and peaked in the red. Since red dwarfs comprise about 75% of all stars in the galaxy, the possibility of life on planets around red dwarfs has been examined.

Tarter, Jill C.; Rothschild, Lynn J.



A comparison of the nutritional value and food safety of organically and conventionally produced wheat flours.  


Growing interest in organic agriculture has prompted this study aiming to evaluate nutritional content of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional production systems. Obtained results showed that organic samples had significantly lower protein content and lower levels of Ca, Mn and Fe compared to conventional samples. Protein digestibility and levels of K, Zn and Mo were significantly higher in organic than in conventional wheat flours. Regarding undesirable metals, significantly higher levels of As and Cd were found in conventional compared to organic wheat flours. Although the mean concentrations of zearalenone and ochratoxin A were higher in conventional than in organic flours, this difference was not significant. This study revealed that organic agriculture has the potential to yield products with some relevant improvements in terms of high quality proteins and microelements contents, while the reduction in contamination with toxic elements and mycotoxins may be accomplished. PMID:24054276

Vr?ek, Ivana Vinkovi?; ?epo, Dubravka Vitali; Raši?, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja; Žuntar, Irena; Boji?, Mirza; Mendaš, Gordana; Medi?-Šari?, Marica



Carbon dot-based inorganic-organic nanosystem for two-photon imaging and biosensing of pH variation in living cells and tissues.  


A carbon dot (C-Dot)-based two-photon fluorescent probe has been developed for the monitoring of pH changes across a broad range with high sensitivity and selectivity. The inorganic-organic probe also shows good biocompatibility and cell permeability, and thus can be successfully applied in bioimaging and biosensing of physiological pH in living cells, as well as living tissues at a depth of 65-185 ?m. PMID:22933395

Kong, Biao; Zhu, Anwei; Ding, Changqin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Li, Bo; Tian, Yang



Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross.  


Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture-mark-recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations. PMID:24920477

Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier



First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with short-lived, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial isotopic separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy ?-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of short-lived nuclei.

Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.



Discovery of a free-living chlorophyll d-producing cyanobacterium with a hybrid proteobacterial/cyanobacterial small-subunit rRNA gene  

PubMed Central

Chlorophyll d-producing cyanobacteria are a recently described group of phototrophic bacteria that is a major focus of photosynthesis research, previously known only from marine environments in symbiosis with eukaryotes. We have discovered a free-living member of this group from a eutrophic hypersaline lake. Phylogenetic analyses indicated these strains are closely related to each other but not to prochlorophyte cyanobacteria that also use an alternative form of chlorophyll as the major light-harvesting pigment. We have also demonstrated that these bacteria acquired a fragment of the small-subunit rRNA gene encoding a conserved hairpin in the bacterial ribosome from a proteobacterial donor at least 10 million years before the present. Thus, our most widely used phylogenetic marker can be a mosaic of sequence fragments with widely divergent evolutionary histories.

Miller, Scott R.; Augustine, Sunny; Olson, Tien Le; Blankenship, Robert E.; Selker, Jeanne; Wood, A. Michelle



Organic Compounds Produced by Photolysis of Realistic Interstellar and Cometary Ice Analogs Containing Methanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The InfraRed (IR) spectra of UltraViolet (UV) and thermally processed, methanol-containing interstellar / cometary ice analogs at temperatures from 12 to 300 K are presented. Infrared spectroscopy, H-1 and C-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicate that CO (carbon monoxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane), HCO (the formyl radical), H2CO (formaldehyde), CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC([double bond]O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C([double bond]O)NH2 (acetamide), and R[single bond]C[triple bond]N (nitriles) are formed. In addition, the organic materials remaining after photolyzed ice analogs have been warmed to room temperature contain (in rough order of decreasing abundance), (1) hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), (2) ethers, alcohols, and compounds related to PolyOxyMethylene (POM, ([single bond]CH2O[single bond](sub n)), and (3) ketones (R[single bond]C([double bond]O)[single bond]R') and amides (H2NC([double bond]O)[single bond]R). Most of the carbon in these residues is thought to come from the methanol in the original ice. Deuterium and C-13 isotopic labeling demonstrates that methanol is definitely the source of carbon in HMT. High concentrations of HMT in interstellar and cometary ices could have important astrophysical consequences. The ultraviolet photolysis of HMT frozen in H2O ice readily produces the 'XCN' band observed in the spectra of protostellar objects and laboratory ices, as well as other nitriles. Thus, HMT may be a precursor of XCN and a source of CN in comets and the interstellar medium. Also, HMT is known to hydrolyze under acidic conditions to yield ammonia, formaldehyde, and amino acids. Thus, HMT may be a significant source of prebiogenic compounds on asteroidal parent bodies. A potential mechanism for the radiative formation of HMT in cosmic ices is outlined.

Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Chang, Sherwood; Scharberg, Maureen A.



Abundance of organic compounds photochemically produced in the atmospheres of the outer planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic photochemical syntheses in the Jovian atmosphere were simulated by irradiating, at 147 nm, gaseous mixtures of methane and ammonia with varying quantities of hydrogen. An excess of H2 did not eliminate organic synthesis but did affect the yields quantitatively and qualitatively.

François Raulin; Alain Bossard; Gérard Toupance; Cyril Ponnamperuma



7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

...the total net weight (excluding water and salt) of combined organic ingredients at the total weight (excluding water and salt) of the finished product. (2) ingredients (excluding water and salt) by the fluid volume of the finished...




EPA Science Inventory

A model based on partition coefficient was developed for predicting subchronic toxicities of selected chemicals to fish. Early life stage tests were conducted under flow-through conditions using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test organisms. Embryos, larvae and juvenile...


Efficiency analysis for organic agricultural producers: the role of soil-improving inputs.  


Greater emphasis is being placed on indicators of agri-environmental efficiency of organic production systems. Linking environmental measures with profitability measures based on net income is the only way to develop such indicators. A stochastic production frontier model that explicitly incorporates farm decisions about acquiring and managing organic soil-improving inputs is used to measure efficiency. The results confirm that on-farm self-sufficiency in soil-improving inputs is positively related to farm-level efficiency. PMID:16618528

Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A



EMMC process for combined removal of organics, nitrogen and an odor producing substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the process performance regarding the removal of organics, nitrogen, and an odor-causing compound (sulfide) contained in domestic wastewater, an entrapped-mixed-microbial cell (EMMC) with and without humic substances for both fixed and moving carrier reactors and conventional suspended growth culture (i.e. conventional activated sludge process) were investigated simultaneously. Both synthetic (simulated to the organics concentration of general

P. Y. Yang; R. Su; S. J. Kim



Optical control and study of biological processes at the single-cell level in a live organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living organisms are made of cells that are capable of responding to external signals by modifying their internal state and subsequently their external environment. Revealing and understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of these complex interaction networks is the subject of a field known as systems biology. To investigate these interactions (a necessary step before understanding or modelling them) one needs to develop means to control or interfere spatially and temporally with these processes and to monitor their response on a fast timescale (< minute) and with single-cell resolution. In 2012, an EMBO workshop on ‘single-cell physiology’ (organized by some of us) was held in Paris to discuss those issues in the light of recent developments that allow for precise spatio-temporal perturbations and observations. This review will be largely based on the investigations reported there. We will first present a non-exhaustive list of examples of cellular interactions and developmental pathways that could benefit from these new approaches. We will review some of the novel tools that have been developed for the observation of cellular activity and then discuss the recent breakthroughs in optical super-resolution microscopy that allow for optical observations beyond the diffraction limit. We will review the various means to photo-control the activity of biomolecules, which allow for local perturbations of physiological processes. We will end up this review with a report on the current status of optogenetics: the use of photo-sensitive DNA-encoded proteins as sensitive reporters and efficient actuators to perturb and monitor physiological processes.

Feng, Zhiping; Zhang, Weiting; Xu, Jianmin; Gauron, Carole; Ducos, Bertrand; Vriz, Sophie; Volovitch, Michel; Jullien, Ludovic; Weiss, Shimon; Bensimon, David



Optical control and study of biological processes at the single-cell level in a live organism.  


Living organisms are made of cells that are capable of responding to external signals by modifying their internal state and subsequently their external environment. Revealing and understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of these complex interaction networks is the subject of a field known as systems biology. To investigate these interactions (a necessary step before understanding or modelling them) one needs to develop means to control or interfere spatially and temporally with these processes and to monitor their response on a fast timescale (< minute) and with single-cell resolution. In 2012, an EMBO workshop on 'single-cell physiology' (organized by some of us) was held in Paris to discuss those issues in the light of recent developments that allow for precise spatio-temporal perturbations and observations. This review will be largely based on the investigations reported there. We will first present a non-exhaustive list of examples of cellular interactions and developmental pathways that could benefit from these new approaches. We will review some of the novel tools that have been developed for the observation of cellular activity and then discuss the recent breakthroughs in optical super-resolution microscopy that allow for optical observations beyond the diffraction limit. We will review the various means to photo-control the activity of biomolecules, which allow for local perturbations of physiological processes. We will end up this review with a report on the current status of optogenetics: the use of photo-sensitive DNA-encoded proteins as sensitive reporters and efficient actuators to perturb and monitor physiological processes. PMID:23764902

Feng, Zhiping; Zhang, Weiting; Xu, Jianmin; Gauron, Carole; Ducos, Bertrand; Vriz, Sophie; Volovitch, Michel; Jullien, Ludovic; Weiss, Shimon; Bensimon, David



Organization of LIving Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on ecology includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.


Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles.

Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.



A Quantitative Index of Sociality and Its Application to Group-Living Spiders and Other Social Organisms  

PubMed Central

Species are often classified in discrete categories, such as solitary, subsocial, social and eusocial based on broad qualitative features of their social systems. Often, however, species fall between categories or species within a category may differ from one another in ways that beg for a quantitative measure of their sociality level. Here, we propose such a quantitative measure in the form of an index that is based on three fundamental features of a social system: (1) the fraction of the life cycle that individuals remain in their social group, (2) the proportion of nests in a population that contain multiple vs. solitary individuals and (3) the proportion of adult members of a group that do not reproduce, but contribute to communal activities. These are measures that should be quantifiable in most social systems, with the first two reflecting the tendencies of individuals to live in groups as a result of philopatry, grouping tendencies and intraspecific tolerance, and the third potentially reflecting the tendencies of individuals to exhibit reproductive altruism. We argue that this index can serve not only as a way of ranking species along a sociality scale, but also as a means of determining how level of sociality correlates with other aspects of the biology of a group of organisms. We illustrate the calculation of this index for the cooperative social spiders and the African mole-rats and use it to analyse how sex ratios and interfemale spacing correlate with level of sociality in spider species in the genus Anelosimus.

Aviles, Leticia; Harwood, Gyan; Koenig, W



Gut microbiota as a candidate for lifespan extension: an ecological/evolutionary perspective targeted on living organisms as metaorganisms.  


An emerging central concept in evolutionary biology suggests that symbiosis is a universal characteristic of living organisms that can help in understanding complex traits and phenotypes. During evolution, an integrative circuitry fundamental for survival has been established between commensal gut microbiota and host. On the basis of recent knowledge in worms, flies, and humans, an important role of the gut microbiota in aging and longevity is emerging. The complex bacterial community that populates the gut and that represents an evolutionary adapted ecosystem correlated with nutrition appears to limit the accumulation of pathobionts and infections in all taxa, being able of affecting the efficiency of the host immune system and exerting systemic metabolic effects. There is an urgent need to disentangle the underpinning molecular mechanisms, which could shed light on the basic mechanisms of aging in an ecological perspective. Thus, it appears possible to extend healthy aging and lifespan by targeting the host as a metaorganism by manipulating the complex symbiotic ecosystem of gut microbiota, as well as other possible ecosystems of the body. PMID:21814818

Ottaviani, E; Ventura, N; Mandrioli, M; Candela, M; Franchini, A; Franceschi, C



An X-ray micro-tomography system optimised for the low-dose study of living organisms.  


An X-ray micro-tomography system has been designed that is dedicated to the low-dose imaging of radiation sensitive living organisms and has been used to image the early development of the first few days of plant development immediately after germination. The system is based on third-generation X-ray micro-tomography system and consists of an X-ray tube, two-dimensional X-ray detector and a mechanical sample manipulation stage. The X-ray source is a 50kVp X-ray tube with a silver target with a filter to centre the X-ray spectrum on 22keV.A 100mm diameter X-ray image intensifier (XRII) is used to collect the two-dimensional projection images. The rotation tomography table incorporates a linear translation mechanism to eliminate ring artefact that is commonly associated with third-generation tomography systems. Developing maize seeds (Triticum aestivum) have been imaged using the system with a cubic voxel linear dimension of 100 microm, over a diameter of 25mm and the root lengths and volumes measured. The X-ray dose to the plants was also assessed and found to have no effect on the plant root development. PMID:12573316

Jenneson, P M; Gilboy, W B; Morton, E J; Gregory, P J



A Quantitative Index of Sociality and Its Application to Group-Living Spiders and Other Social Organisms.  


Species are often classified in discrete categories, such as solitary, subsocial, social and eusocial based on broad qualitative features of their social systems. Often, however, species fall between categories or species within a category may differ from one another in ways that beg for a quantitative measure of their sociality level. Here, we propose such a quantitative measure in the form of an index that is based on three fundamental features of a social system: (1) the fraction of the life cycle that individuals remain in their social group, (2) the proportion of nests in a population that contain multiple vs. solitary individuals and (3) the proportion of adult members of a group that do not reproduce, but contribute to communal activities. These are measures that should be quantifiable in most social systems, with the first two reflecting the tendencies of individuals to live in groups as a result of philopatry, grouping tendencies and intraspecific tolerance, and the third potentially reflecting the tendencies of individuals to exhibit reproductive altruism. We argue that this index can serve not only as a way of ranking species along a sociality scale, but also as a means of determining how level of sociality correlates with other aspects of the biology of a group of organisms. We illustrate the calculation of this index for the cooperative social spiders and the African mole-rats and use it to analyse how sex ratios and interfemale spacing correlate with level of sociality in spider species in the genus Anelosimus. PMID:23335829

Avilés, Leticia; Harwood, Gyan; Koenig, W



Short-lived charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent.  


The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves short-lived charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes. PMID:25073082

Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan



Analysis of glycoproteins produced by the associated gland in the olfactory organ of lungfish.  


The olfactory organ of African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, contains two distinct sensory epithelia: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. These epithelia correspond to the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods, respectively. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium, which has no associated gland, the recess epithelium is equipped with associated glands. Although the glandular cells and/or the supporting cells are generally presumed to secrete proteins involved in the function of olfactory sensory epithelia, the properties of these proteins in lungfish have not been evaluated to date. In this study, we investigated the associated glands in the olfactory organ of lungfish by transmission electron microscopy and found that the glandular cells contain numerous secretory granules and secrete them from the apical membrane. In addition, we analyzed the olfactory organ by lectin histochemistry using 16 biotinylated lectins. All lectins labeled the secretory granules in the glandular cells with different staining patterns from those of the supporting cells in the lamellar olfactory epithelium or in the recess epithelium. Furthermore, lectin blotting analysis showed that multiple bands were detected by the lectins which specifically labeled the glandular epithelium of the olfactory organ. These results indicate that the secretory products of the associated glands in the recess epithelium have different properties from those of the supporting cells in the olfactory sensory epithelia and contain multiple glycoproteins with different carbohydrate moieties. PMID:23428778

Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki



A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics.  


Organic and printed electronics technologies require conductors with a work function that is sufficiently low to facilitate the transport of electrons in and out of various optoelectronic devices. We show that surface modifiers based on polymers containing simple aliphatic amine groups substantially reduce the work function of conductors including metals, transparent conductive metal oxides, conducting polymers, and graphene. The reduction arises from physisorption of the neutral polymer, which turns the modified conductors into efficient electron-selective electrodes in organic optoelectronic devices. These polymer surface modifiers are processed in air from solution, providing an appealing alternative to chemically reactive low-work function metals. Their use can pave the way to simplified manufacturing of low-cost and large-area organic electronic technologies. PMID:22517855

Zhou, Yinhua; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Shim, Jaewon; Meyer, Jens; Giordano, Anthony J; Li, Hong; Winget, Paul; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Cheun, Hyeunseok; Kim, Jungbae; Fenoll, Mathieu; Dindar, Amir; Haske, Wojciech; Najafabadi, Ehsan; Khan, Talha M; Sojoudi, Hossein; Barlow, Stephen; Graham, Samuel; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R; Kahn, Antoine; Kippelen, Bernard



The relative roles of the otolith organs and semicircular canals in producing space motion sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inflight and post-landing "immunity" to the "coriolis sickness susceptibility test", observed during the Skylab M131 experiment, suggests that the otolith organs play a major role in space motion sickness (SMS). This view is supported by the report that ocular counter-torsion asymmetries correlate with SMS incidence and severity. Further data indicate that sensory-motor adaptation to microgravity includes a process whereby central interpretation of otolith signals is biased from "tilt" toward translation. However, unexpected responses to linear acceleration suggest the importance of graviceptors distributed throughout the body in addition to the vestibular otolith organs. Research is needed to assess distributed graviceptor effects.

Parker, D. E.



Living Drugs for Gastrointestinal Diseases: The Case for Probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpathogenic micro-organisms may contain or produce molecules of potential therapeutic interest. This led to the concept of using ingested living micro-organisms to produce and transport these molecules to targets in the proximal or distal intestine. Several characteristics of this pharmacological approach are very original: potential for in vivo production of active molecules, for targeting immune cells, for presenting immunogenic molecules

Philippe Marteau



Characterisation of airborne particles and associated organic components produced from incense burning.  


Airborne particles generated from the burning of incense have been characterized in order to gain an insight into the possible implications for human respiratory health. Physical characterization performed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed incense particulate smoke mainly consisted of soot particles with fine and ultrafine fractions in various aggregated forms. A range of organic compounds present in incense smoke have been identified using derivatisation reactions coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 19 polar organic compounds were positively identified in the samples, including the biomass burning markers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, as well as a number of aromatic acids and phenols. Formaldehyde was among 12 carbonyl compounds detected and predominantly associated with the gas phase, whereas six different quinones were also identified in the incense particulate smoke. The nano-structured incense soot particles intermixed with organics (e.g. formaldehyde and quinones) could increase the oxidative capacity. When considering the worldwide prevalence of incense burning and resulting high respiratory exposures, the oxygenated organics identified in this study have significant human health implications, especially for susceptible populations. PMID:21769554

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Yang; Bell, Jennifer; Wenger, John; BéruBé, Kelly



Sensitivity of Narrative Organization Measures Using Narrative Retells Produced by Young School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of children's productions of oral narratives provides a rich description of children's oral language skills. However, measures of narrative organization can be directly affected by both developmental and task-based performance constraints which can make a measure insensitive and inappropriate for a particular population and/or sampling…

Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann



Autotaxin, an ectoenzyme that produces lysophosphatidic acid, promotes the entry of lymphocytes into secondary lymphoid organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular lysophospholipase D autotaxin (ATX) and its product, lysophosphatidic acid, have diverse functions in development and cancer, but little is known about their functions in the immune system. Here we found that ATX had high expression in the high endothelial venules of lymphoid organs and was secreted. Chemokine-activated lymphocytes expressed receptors with enhanced affinity for ATX, which provides a

Hidenobu Kanda; Rebecca Newton; Russell Klein; Yuka Morita; Michael D Gunn; Steven D Rosen



Can we find solutions with people? Participatory action research with small organic producers in Andalusia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and medium-scale organic farmers from the official certification system; to

Mamen Cuéllar-Padilla; Ángel Calle-Collado


Nisin-producing organisms during traditional 'Fior di latte' cheese-making monitored by multiplex-PCR and PFGE analyses.  


In this work we studied using different molecular methods the population dynamics of nisin-producing organisms and the persistence of such organisms within a complex ecosystem, 'Fior di latte' cheese, a traditional high-moisture pasta filata cheese. Using the primers targeting the eubacterial 16S-23S rRNA spacer region, together with those amplifying the nisA or nisZ gene, we were able to provide a rapid species identification of the isolates. Inhibitors of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DSM 20481T used as indicator occurred during the whole process of cheese manufacture as a significant part of lactic microflora; however, only 12 among 109 isolates of bacteriocin producers were nisin producers. Amplification of the nisA or nisZ gene, using DNA extracted directly from dairy samples as templates, showed that the nisin structural gene was detected during cheese-making from milk samples up to the end of curd ripening but not in the final cheese. In order to monitor nisin-producing strains during cheese manufacturing, the 12 Lactococcus lactis nis+ strains were analysed by low frequency restriction fragment and PFGE. Nine isolates among the 12 nisin-producers exhibited an unique and distinct DNA banding pattern and are considered to be genetically diverse. The other three isolates from curd after ripening showed the same restriction pattern and could be the same strain. In fact, it was also isolated 2 months after the first analysis of cheese-making of 'Fior di latte'. PMID:11205941

Moschetti, G; Blaiotta, G; Villani, F; Coppola, S



Optically Controllable Dual-Gate Organic Transistor Produced via Phase Separation between Polymer Semiconductor and Photochromic Spiropyran Molecules.  


We produced an optically controllable dual-gate organic field-effect transistor by a simple one-step spin-coating of a mixed solution of photochromic spiropyran (SP) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Postannealing enhanced polymer chain ordering of P3HT to induce phase separation into an SP-rich lower layer and an SP-free upper layer. These layers worked independently as transistor channels with distinct optical responsivity. The top channel was optically inactive, but the bottom channel was optically active, because of the photoisomerization of SP. These results demonstrate the potential of our technique to produce a multifunctional photoactive organic transistor by a simple process. PMID:24911949

Ishiguro, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Wakayama, Yutaka



XANES Analysis of Organic Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organic residues formed in the laboratory from the ultraviolet (UV) photo-irradiation or ion bombardment of astrophysical ice analogs have been extensively studied for the last 15 years with a broad suite of techniques, including infrared (IR) and UV spectroscopies, as well as mass spectrometry. Analyses of these materials show that they consist of complex mixtures of organic compounds stable at room temperature, mostly soluble, that have not been fully characterized. However, the hydrolysis products of these residues have been partly identified using chromatography techniques, which indicate that they contain molecular precursors of prebiotic interest such as amino acids, nitrile-bearing compounds, and amphiphilic compounds. In this study, we present the first X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy measurements of three organic residues made from the UV irradiation of ices having different starting compositions. XANES spectra confirm the presence of different chemical functions in these residues, and indicate that they are rich in nitrogenand oxygen-bearing species. These data can be compared with XANES measurements of extraterrestrial materials. Finally, this study also shows how soft X rays can alter the chemical composition of samples.

Nuevo, M.; Milam, S N.; Sandford, S A.; De Gregorio, B T.; Cody, G D.; Kilcoyne, A L.



Quick, Easy Method to Show Living Soil Organisms to High School or Beginning-Level College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The living component of soil is difficult for students to learn about and understand because students have difficulty relating to things they cannot see (beyond sight, beyond mind). Line drawings from textbooks help explain conceptual relationships but do little to stimulate an active interest in the living component of soil. Alternatively,…

Loynachan, Thomas E.



Microbial production of glyceric acid, an organic acid that can be mass produced from glycerol.  


Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process. PMID:19837846

Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji



Microbial Production of Glyceric Acid, an Organic Acid That Can Be Mass Produced from Glycerol ? †  

PubMed Central

Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process.

Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji



Production and purification of organic reagents labeled with radioisotopes produced by an accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the production of nine typical organic analytical reagents labeled with11C,13N and18F by irradiation with charged particles and bremsstrahlung and the purification of labeled compounds with HPLC and sublimation.\\u000a As a result, we found that six reagents, ?-naphthol, ?-naphthol, quinoline, ?-nitroso-?-naphthol, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and\\u000a 1,10-phenanthroline H2O could be labeled with11C by bombarding a mixture of each reagent and boron with

K. Shikano; K. Masumoto; T. Ohtsuki; M. Katoh



Organic solids produced by electrical discharges in reducing atmospheres: Molecular analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex brown polymer produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water, is analyzed by pyrolytic GC/MS. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, pyrroles, and pyridine. Similar pyrolyzates are obtained from polypeptides and polynucleotides with hydrocarbon moieties. This polymer is remarkably stable up to 950 C; its degradation products are candidate constituents of planetary aerosols in the outer solar system and the grains and gas in the interstellar medium.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Zumberge, J. E.; Sklarew, D.; Nagy, B.



Organic solids produced by electrical discharge in reducing atmospheres - Tholin molecular analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex dark brown solid of a class called tholins, produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a roughly equimolar mixture of methane and ammonia with 2.6% water vapor, is analyzed by vacuum pyrolysis followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrrole, and pyridine. This tholin is remarkably stable to 950 C. It and its degradation products are candidate constituents of planetary aerosols in the outer solar system and of the grains in the interstellar medium.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Zumberge, J. E.; Sklarew, D. S.; Nagy, B.



Unstable genetic determinant of A-factor biosynthesis in streptomycin-producing organisms: cloning and characterization.  

PubMed Central

We cloned a DNA fragment directing synthesis of A-factor from the total cellular DNA of streptomycin-producing Streptomyces bikiniensis on the plasmid vector pIJ385 . Introduction of the recombinant plasmid ( pAFB1 ) into A-factor-deficient S. bikiniensis and Streptomyces griseus mutants led to A-factor production in the host cells, as a result of which streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and spore formation of these mutants were simultaneously restored. The plasmid pAFB1 also complemented both afsA and afsB mutations of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). These results indicated that the cloned DNA fragment contained the genetic determinant of A-factor biosynthesis. The cloned fragment, when carried on a multicopy vector plasmid, induced production of a large amount of A-factor in several Streptomyces hosts. In Southern blot DNA/DNA hybridization analyses with a trimmed 5-kilobase fragment containing the intact A-factor determinant as probe, total cellular DNA from A-factor-deficient mutants gave no positive hybridization. The DNA blot experiment also showed a wide distribution of sequences homologous to the S. bikiniensis A-factor determinant among most, but not all, A-factor-producing actinomycetes with a varying extent of homology and the absence of these sequences from most A-factor nonproducers . Images

Horinouchi, S; Kumada, Y; Beppu, T



A one-step, solvothermal reduction method for producing reduced graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents.  


Refluxing graphene oxide (GO) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) results in deoxygenation and reduction to yield a stable colloidal dispersion. The solvothermal reduction is accompanied by a color change from light brown to black. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the product confirm the presence of single sheets of the solvothermally reduced graphene oxide (SRGO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of SRGO indicates a significant increase in intensity of the C=C bond character, while the oxygen content decreases markedly after the reduction is complete. X-ray diffraction analysis of SRGO shows a single broad peak at 26.24 degrees 2theta (3.4 A), confirming the presence of graphitic stacking of reduced sheets. SRGO sheets are redispersible in a variety of organic solvents, which may hold promise as an acceptor material for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells, or electromagnetic interference shielding applications. PMID:20586422

Dubin, Sergey; Gilje, Scott; Wang, Kan; Tung, Vincent C; Cha, Kitty; Hall, Anthony S; Farrar, Jabari; Varshneya, Rupal; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B



Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  


Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)



Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation  

PubMed Central

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2??m?h?1). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (?100?nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J



Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation.  


Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2? ?m ?h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (?100? nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature. PMID:21107443

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J



Living Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Heritage is a website that celebrates New Zealand heritage through the help of the schools and students of New Zealand. The "About Living Heritage" link states that the website is "an online bilingual initiative that enables New Zealand schools to develop and publish an online resource, based on a heritage treasure in their community." Visitors can also read about the five or so groups these stories "Benefit", including New Zealand and the World, in the About Living Heritage link. The "Schools' Stories" link takes visitors to 26 schools' websites produced since 2008, and an archive of 79 schools' websites produced before 2008. By browsing through the stories, visitors can learn about Paddy, the much-loved wandering Airedale who lived on Island Bay in Wellington in the 1930s. The story of Mitiaro High School in the Cook Islands describes how they learned how to build a canoe called a paiere. Finally, a group of Year 1 and 2 students at Russley School write about their discovery that a tree near their school is protected by the city council.


Characteristically shaped ZnO particles produced by periodic precipitation in organic gel media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wurtzite-type ZnO particles were directly prepared in agar gel containing zinc sulfate by diffusion of hydroxyl ions (OH -). A banded structure consisting of characteristically shaped particles, such as star-like, ellipsoidal, and round grains, was obtained through periodic precipitation along the direction of the OH - diffusion. The individual particles were composed of nanoscale ZnO crystallites elongated in the c-axis. The star-like and ellipsoidal ZnO aggregates were produced through a dissolution-precipitation process from previously precipitated thin plates of ZnSO 4·3Zn(OH) 2. The gel media provided a diffusion field of the precursors resulting in the formation of various kinds of characteristic shapes consisting of nanoscale ZnO particles.

Kawano, Tetsuo; Imai, Hiroaki



BIOCHEMISTRY: Zooming Into Live Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. High-resolution optical imaging is providing real-time data on molecular processes in live cells. As reported by Westphal et al., optical techniques are now producing image sequences in which the dynamics of molecules or supramolecular assemblies are recorded with nanometer-scale accuracy in real time. By opening a window to molecular-scale processes, the techniques promise to elucidate many aspects of cell organization.

Fabien Pinaud (Université Pierre et Marie Curie; Laboratoire Kastler Brossel;Physics and Biology Department); Maxime Dahan (Université Pierre et Marie Curie; Laboratoire Kastler Brossel;Physics and Biology Department)



Optimal testing of the live organ donor for blood-borne viral pathogens: the report of a consensus conference.  


In 2011, live donor transmission events involving Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prompted consideration of changing the process of live donor testing and evaluation in the United States. Following CDC recommendations for screening all live donors with nucleic acid testing for HIV, HCV and Hepatitis B (HBV), a consensus conference was convened to evaluate this recommendation. Workgroups focused on determining whether there was an evidence based rationale for identifying live donors at increased risk for HIV, HBV and HCV, testing options and timing for diagnosing these infections in potential donors and consent issues specific to potential increased risk donor utilization. Strategies for donor assessment were proposed. Based on review of the limited available evidence as well as guidance documents and policies currently in place in the United States and other countries, the conference participants recommended that HIV, HBV and HCV NAT should not be required for live donor evaluation; the optimal timing of live donor testing for these blood borne pathogens has not been determined. PMID:23601095

Blumberg, E A; Ison, M G; Pruett, T L; Segev, D L



Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby  


A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.



Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines  


A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about C. up to about C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)



Responsive hydrogels produced via organic sol-gel chemistry for cell culture applications.  


In this study, we report the synthesis of novel environmentally responsive polyurea hydrogel networks prepared via organic sol-gel chemistry and demonstrate that the networks can stabilize pH while releasing glucose both in simple aqueous media and in mammalian cell culture settings. Hydrogel formulations have been developed based on the combination of an aliphatic triisocyanate with pH-insensitive amine functional polyether and pH-sensitive poly(ethyleneimine) segments in a minimally toxic solvent suitable for the sol-gel reaction. The polyether component of the polyurea network is sufficiently hydrophilic to give rise to some level of swelling independent of environmental pH, while the poly(ethyleneimine) component contains tertiary amine groups providing pH sensitivity to the network in the form of enhanced swelling and release under acidic conditions. The reaction of these materials to form a network is rapid and requires no catalyst. The resultant material exhibits the desired pH-responsive swelling behavior and demonstrates its ability to simultaneously neutralize lactic acid and release glucose in both cell-free culture media and mammalian cell culture, with no detectable evidence of cytotoxicity or changes in cell behavior, in the case of either SA-13 human hybridomas or mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, pH is observed to have a clear effect on the rate at which glucose is released from the hydrogel network. Such characteristics promise to maintain a favorable cell culture environment in the absence of human intervention. PMID:22561670

Patil, Smruti; Chaudhury, Pulkit; Clarizia, Lisa; McDonald, Melisenda; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Gaines, Peter; Schmidt, Daniel F



In-Situ Cold Temperature XRD of Calcium Phosphate Produced From Organic Phosphoric Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we synthesized calcium phosphate from an organic phosphoric acid, diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and calcium hydroxide solution. The reaction involves a sol-gel process with a whitish gel formed. In-situ XRD analysis was then performed on the sample from room temperature to -140° C. At room the XRD diffractogram shows the sample as an amorphous material and as the temperature was further lowered sharp peaks begins to form indicating that the material had becomes crystalline. The peaks were identified to be that calcium hydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) and this indicates that there is no hydroxyl group removal during the cooling process. The relative crystallinity values obtained for the different cooling temperatures show a slow exponential increase on the initial cooling of 0 to -100° C and at further cooling temperatures resulted fast and linear process. Also unlike the in-situ XRD analysis performs at high temperature no phase transformation occurred at this low temperature.

Yusoff, M. S. Meor; Paulus, Wilfred; Muslimin, Masliana



Quantum mechanical modeling of self-assembly and photoinduced electron transfer in PNA-based artificial living organisms.  


In order to support the creation of both artificial living organisms in the USA LANL "Protocell Assembly" project and programmable nano-biorobots in the EU "Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution" project, we used quantum mechanical (QM), density functional theory (DFT), the semiempirical PM3 method, and molecular mechanics (MM) software to investigate various complex photosynthetic systems based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in a water environment. Quantum mechanical DFT PBEPBE simulations, including electron correlations, confirm that water molecules that surround all the photosynthetic complex of the LANL protoorganism are main constructing factors and stabilize this system consisting of: PNA fragment attached by covalent bond sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule, lipid precursor molecule and fragment of lipid molecules mono layer. The absorption spectrum shift to the red wavelengths in the complex artificial protocell photosynthetic center might be used as the measure of the complexity of this system. The electron pi-pi* transitions in the first and third excited states are from HOMO and HOMO-1 located on the conjugated water molecules and sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the LUMO of the lipid precursor molecule as calculated using the time dependent (TD) PBEPBE/6-31G model. Electron charge tunneling in the first and third excited states should induce metabolic photodissociation of the lipid precursor molecule because of localization of the transferred electron cloud on the head (waste) of the lipid precursor molecule. TD electron correlation PBEPBE/6-31G calculations show that in the different energies of excitation, the charge transfer tunneling is from sensitizer to lipid precursor and cytosine molecules. One should note that in a water solvent, the electron charge transfer pi-pi* transition in the fifth and sixth excited state is from the HOMO and HOMO-1 located on the sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the LUMO+2 located on the cytosine-PNA fragment molecule. Investigation results indicate that strong back electron tunneling from the sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the cytosine molecule in the LANL artificial photosynthetic system exists. PMID:16736752

Tamulis, A; Tamulis, V; Graja, A



Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosols Produced by Photo-Oxidation of Biomass Burning Emissions in a Smog Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) is essential for accurate representation of OA in air quality and climate models. Both the sources of OA and their properties and effects remain poorly understood. In particular, we still know relatively little about the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). There is growing interest in the impact of biomass burning emissions on air quality, human health, and radiative forcing. Through a series of experiments, we are working to quantify changes in the chemical composition of wood smoke particles as a result of photochemical aging under well-controlled laboratory conditions. One specific objective of this study is to identify markers for biomass burning SOA and test whether these markers can be used in atmospheric samples to quantify SOA formation from aging of biomass burning emissions. We analyzed SOA generated in a smog chamber by photooxidation of smoke produced by burning oak wood. In order to initiate photochemistry, the chamber was irradiated with UV light. Aqueous extracts of collected aerosol samples were analyzed with Electrospray Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The high mass accuracy of these measurements reduces ambiguity in the assignment of elemental compositions for observed ions. Analysis has shown that primary oak smoke aerosol includes products of the thermal decomposition of cellulose (levoglucosan, cyclotene etc.) and lignin (guaiacol and syringol derivatives, mostly aldehydes and alcohols). After 2 hours of aging at typical summertime hydroxyl radical concentrations, the aerosol mass increased 2.5 fold due to the production of secondary organic aerosol. Mass spectra of the secondary organic aerosol formed are dominated by organic nitrates (nitrophenol, nitrocresol, nitrocatechol, and nitroguaiacol) and aromatic acids (benzoic acid, mono and di-hydroxybenzoic acid). Both nitrates and acids most likely are formed due to oxidation of the lignin decomposition products (guaiacol and syringol derivatives) by reaction with OH and NO2. This research highlights the dynamic nature of fire emissions and atmospheric organic aerosols in general.

Desyaterik, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Robinson, A. L.; Collett, J. L.



Preharvest Evaluation of Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Organic and Conventional Produce Grown by Minnesota Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological analyses of fresh fruits and vegetables produced by organic and conventional farmers in Minnesota were conducted to determine the coliform count and the prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7. A total of 476 and 129 produce samples were collected from 32 organic and 8 conventional farms, respectively. The samples included tomatoes, leafy greens, lettuce, green peppers,



Live foraminiferal faunas from a 2800 m deep lower canyon station from the Bay of Biscay: Faunal response to focusing of refractory organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2800 m deep station was sampled on three occasions, in January 1999, June 1999 and April 2000, in the lower part of Cap-Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay). This area is characterised by a rapid accumulation of fine-grained sediments and by important inputs of reworked organic matter in an intermediate state of decay. Diagenetic reactions within the sediment follow the well-established depth sequence resulting from the oxidation of organic deposits by different electron acceptors. At our station, live benthic foraminiferal faunas differ strongly from faunas previously collected at nearby open slope sites at a comparable water depth. Spectacularly high densities of deep infaunal species are observed in the deeper parts of the sediment for all three sampling periods. In our opinion, these high deep infaunal densities are a direct response to the massive flux of partially degraded organic matter, which is slowly introduced into the deeper parts of the sediment, where it induces a rather stable succession of redox gradients. Melonis barleeanus lives in the dysoxic part of the sediment whereas Globobulimina affinis appears preferentially close to the zero oxygen boundary. Both taxa occupy niches where the highest content of Mn (III, IV)-oxides and -oxihydroxides and Fe (III)-oxides are recorded. The fact that most of the geochemical reactions within the sediment are directly or indirectly catalysed by heterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic bacterial consortia could suggest that deep infaunal foraminifera may be highly specialised protozoans able to feed on, or live in symbiosis with these prokaryotic communities.

Fontanier, C.; Jorissen, F. J.; Chaillou, G.; Anschutz, P.; Grémare, A.; Griveaud, C.



Responses of organic and inorganic materials to intense EUV radiation from laser-produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated responses of polymers to EUV radiation from laser-produced plasmas beyond ablation thresholds and micromachining. We concentrated on fabricate precise 3D micro-structures of PDMS, PMMA, acrylic block copolymers (BCP), and silica. The micromachining technique can be applied to three-dimensional micro-fluidic and bio-medical devices. The EUV processing is a promising to realize a practical micromachining technique. In the present work, we used two EUV radiation sources; (a) Wide band EUV light in a range of 10{300 eV was generated by irradiation of Ta targets with Nd:YAG laser light at 500 mJ/pulse. (b) Narrow band EUV light at 11 and 13 nm was generated by irradiation of solid Xe and Sn targets, respectively, with pulsed TEA CO2 laser light. The generated EUV light was condensed onto the materials at high power density beyond the ablation thresholds, using ellipsoidal mirrors. We found that through-holes with a diameter of one micrometer an be fabricated in PMMA and PDMS sheets with thicknesses of 4-10 micrometers, at 250 and 230 nm/shot, respectively. The effective ablation of PMMA sheets can be applied to a LIGA-like process for fabricating micro-structures of metals for micro- and nano-molds. PDMS sheets are ablated if it is irradiated with EUV light beyond a distinct threshold power density, while PDMS surfaces were modified at lower power densities. Furthermore, BCP sheets were ablated to have 1-micrometer structures. Thus, we have developed a practical technique for micromachining of PMMA, PDMS and BCP sheets in a micrometer scale.

Makimura, Tetsuya; Torii, Shuichi; Nakamura, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akihiko; Okada, Tatsuo; Niino, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Kouichi



In vitro mitotic responses of the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata to extracts of Schistosoma mansoni.  


Amebocyte-producing organs (APOs) of Biomphalaria glabrata were maintained in nonnutritive saline with, or without, extracts of miracidia and adults of Schistosoma mansoni, and examined histologically. The hematopoietic cells remained viable and showed measurable mitotic activity for up to 6 days, with little evidence of tissue death. APOs accumulated fluid and became swollen by as soon as 24 hr, but no cell exomigration was observed. Parasite extracts elicited an increase in the number of dividing cells in the APO, suggesting that the extract may directly stimulate a response from the hematopoietic cells by providing either nutrients or mitogenic growth factors. PMID:18973421

Salamat, Zahra; Sullivan, John T



Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark



Enzymes from psychrophilic organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrophilic organisms such as micro-organisms and other ectothermic species living in polar, deep- sea or any constantly low temperature environments, produce enzymes adapted to function at low temperature. These enzymes are characterized by a high catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures but are rather thermolabile. Due to their high specific activity and their rapid inactivation at temperatures as low

Georges Feller; Emmanuel Narinx; Jean Louis Arpigny; Mohamed Aittaleb; Etienne Baise; Sabine Genicot; Charles Gerday



Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.  


Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition. PMID:23721965

Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Molina-Jiménez, Tania



Characterization of photons produced in solid films of organic molecules by the impact of 252Cf-fission fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on photon production in solid films of organic molecules by the impact of 252Cf-fission fragments are presented. The samples were mainly prepared with Coronene or POPOP sprayed onto an aluminized polyester foil using the nebulizer spray technique. It is demonstrated by scanning electron micrographs that this technique is a suitable method to prepare homogeneous solid films of organic compounds by producing layers of microcrystals. Time profiles and photon spectra have been determined by bombarding these samples with 252Cf-fission fragments as well as, for comparison, by exciting with light. The results give evidence that the photons induced by fission fragment bombardment originate from molecular fluorescence in the solid sample. Approximately 500 photons per fission fragment have been produced within a 100 ns time window in about 2 ?m thick POPOP samples. The photon yield has been observed to increase linearly with the thickness of the sample up to about 16 ?m. Only very few photons per fission fragment has been obtained with Rhodamine 6G samples and the same low photon yield has been observed under the bombardment with 2 keV electrons. These results probably indicate that the excitation of molecular species by energetic ?-electrons is the necessary step in the process of photon production by fast heavy ions. Photons which have been additionally produced when extracting positive ions come also from molecular fluorescence in the samples. But this fluorescence is excited by electrons which originate from impacts of fission fragments on components of the acceleration system and which are accelerated back to the sample.

Wehofsky, M.; Martin, D.; Koch, K.; Tuszynski, W.; Hilf, E. R.



Isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of fluid migration and escape from intentionally altered subsurface geologic systems, such as in hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon sequestration activities, is an important issue for environmental regulators based on the traction that the "fracking" process is gathering across the United States. Given diverse injected fluid compositions and the potential for toxic or regulated compounds to be released, one of the most important steps in the process is accurately identifying evidence of injected fluid escape during and after injection processes. An important tool in identifying differences between the natural groundwater and injected fluid is the isotopic composition of dissolved constituents including inorganic components such as Sr and carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds. Since biological processes in the mesothermal subsurface can rapidly alter the organic composition of a fluid, stable carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds (DOC) are an effective means to identify differences in the origin of two fluids, especially when coupled with inorganic compound analyses. The burgeoning field of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for isotopic analysis presents an opportunity to obtain rapid, reliable and cost-effective isotopic measurements of DOC in potentially affected groundwater for the identification of leakage or the improvement of hydrogeochemical pathway models. Here we adapt the use of the novel hyphenated TOC-CRDS carbon isotope analyzer for the analysis of DOC in produced water by wet oxidation and describe the methods to evaluate performance and obtain useful information at higher salinities. Our methods are applied to a specific field example in a CO2-enhanced EOR field in Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) as a means to demonstrate the ability to distinguish natural and injected DOC using the stable isotopic composition of the dissolved organic carbon when employing the novel TOC-CRDS instrumentation set up.

Thomas, Randal; Conaway, Christopher; Saad, Nabil; Kharaka, Yousif



Living Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about daily rhythms (on page 17 of the PDF), learners will explore circadian patterns in humans, animals and plants. They will observe that some behaviors and functions of living organisms vary predictably every 24 hours and many regular functions are governed by internal "clocks," which run independently but are cued or reset by the environment. Groups of learners can conduct one of four (or more) body clock investigations: body temperature, animal behavior, bean leaf, and alertness/heart rate. Materials required for each group will vary, depending on the investigation(s) being conducted. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Greg L.



WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-lived TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.

Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.



Opinions of professional buyers toward organic produce: A case study of mid-Atlantic market for fresh tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of professional tomato buyers indicated that handlers and nonhandlers of organic tomatoes had common perceptions of the organic market and its limitations. Both groups identified the following factors as constraining the organic market: low demands by consumers and retailers, uncertainties about organic labeling, short supplies of organics, and the discard rate of organics. However, handlers and nonhandlers differed

Biing-Hwan Lin; Steven Payson; Jane Wertz



Nuclear organization studied with the help of a hypotonic shift: its use permits hydrophilic molecules to enter into living cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A new procedure for introduction of hydrophilic molecules into living cells based on efficient uptake of these molecules into\\u000a the cells during hypotonic treatment is presented and its use is demonstrated by a variety of applications. Experiments with\\u000a cultured vertebrate and Drosophila cells and various animal tissues demonstrated that the increase in cell membrane permeability under hypotonic conditions\\u000a is

K. Koberna; D. Stan?k; J. Malínský; M. Eltsov; A. Pliss; V. ?trnáctá; Š. Cermanová; I. Raška



Visualization of Glucocorticoid Receptor Translocation and Intranuclear Organization in Living Cells with a Green Fluorescent Protein Chimera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly fluorescent mutant form of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been fused to the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR). When GFP-GR is expressed in living mouse cells, it is competent for normal transactivation of the GR-responsive mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. The unliganded GFP-GR resides in the cytoplasm and translocates to the nucleus in a hormone-dependent manner with ligand

Han Htun; Julia Barsony; Istvan Renyi; Daniel L. Gould; Gordon L. Hager



14C-dead living biomass: evidence for microbial assimilation of ancient organic carbon during shale weathering.  


Prokaryotes have been cultured from a modern weathering profile developed on a approximately 365-million-year-old black shale that use macromolecular shale organic matter as their sole organic carbon source. Using natural-abundance carbon-14 analysis of membrane lipids, we show that 74 to 94% of lipid carbon in these cultures derives from assimilation of carbon-14-free organic carbon from the shale. These results reveal that microorganisms enriched from shale weathering profiles are able to use a macromolecular and putatively refractory pool of ancient organic matter. This activity may facilitate the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter to inorganic carbon when sedimentary rocks are exposed by erosion. Thus, microorganisms may play a more active role in the geochemical carbon cycle than previously recognized, with profound implications for controls on the abundance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere over geologic time. PMID:11283356

Petsch, S T; Eglington, T I; Edwards, K J



Optical constants of organic tholins produced in a simulated Titanian atmosphere - From soft X-ray to microwave frequencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex refractive index of thin films of the dark reddish organic solids called tholins, produced by continuous D.C. discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mb, is reported. For the 250 A-1000 micron wavelength range, n and k have been determined from a combination of transmittance, specular reflectance, interferometric, Brewster angle, and ellipsometric polarization measurements. Experimental uncertainties are estimated at + or -0.05 for n and + or -30 percent for k. The results in the visible range are consistent with deductions made by ground-based and spacecraft observations of Titan, in whose atmosphase tholins are thought to be present.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.; Suits, F.; Callcott, A.; Williams, M. W.



Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system  

SciTech Connect

The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed. 56 refs.

Khare, B.N.; Thompson, W.R.; Chyba, C.F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E.T.



Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles - Applications to the outer solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge on surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate with a 200:1 ratio and on ices composed of H2O and C2H6 or C2H2 are examined. The molecules studies are found in Comet Halley and are plausible constituents in icy outer solar system objects. The IR transmission spectra of four ice-tholin residues obtained in the laboratory are compared with spectra produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. The similarities between CH4 clathrate residue and Halley organic grains, and the surface transport or atmospheric replenishment activity on Triton and Pluto are discussed.

Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.



Evidence for dissolved organic matter as the primary source and sink of photochemically produced hydroxyl radical in arctic surface waters.  


Hydroxyl radical (?OH) is an indiscriminate oxidant that reacts at near-diffusion-controlled rates with organic carbon. Thus, while ?OH is expected to be an important oxidant of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and other recalcitrant compounds, the role of ?OH in the oxidation of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems is not well known due to the poorly constrained sources and sinks of ?OH, especially in pristine (unpolluted) natural waters. We measured the rates of ?OH formation and quenching across a range of surface waters in the Arctic varying in concentrations of expected sources and sinks of ?OH. Photochemical formation of ?OH was observed in all waters tested, with rates of formation ranging from 2.6 ± 0.6 to 900 ± 100 × 10(-12) M s(-1). Steady-state concentrations ranged from 2 ± 1 to 290 ± 60 × 10(-17) M, and overlapped with previously reported values in surface waters. While iron-mediated photo-Fenton reactions likely contributed to the observed ?OH production, several lines of evidence suggest that DOM was the primary source and sink of photochemically produced ?OH in pristine arctic surface waters. DOM from first-order or headwater streams was more efficient in producing ?OH than what has previously been reported for DOM, and ?OH formation decreased with increasing residence time of DOM in sunlit surface waters. Despite the ubiquitous formation of ?OH in arctic surface waters observed in this study, photochemical ?OH formation was estimated to contribute ?4% to the observed photo-oxidation of DOM; however, key uncertainties in this estimate must be addressed before ruling out the role of ?OH in the oxidation of DOM in these waters. PMID:24556650

Page, Sarah E; Logan, J Robert; Cory, Rose M; McNeill, Kristopher



The effect of organic matter on CCN properties of particles produced in laboratory simulations of bubble bursting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we measure the submicron size distributions and cloud condensation nucleus properties of aerosol particles produced from a laboratory system that simulates particle formation from bubble bursting. The experimental method consists of a plunging water jet into a stainless steel tank filled with 10 L of artificial seawater, with and without added organic compounds. The tank is equipped with a water pump that can be set at variable speeds. Preliminary results from size distribution measurements agree with previous studies, in that the number concentration and size of particles produced depend on the water jet flux. Observations of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity are also affected by the water pump speed. The CCN activity of artificial seawater, at a salinity of 35‰ and with no added organic compounds, is similar to that of pure sodium chloride. Addition of as much as 1 g/L of D-mannitol does not considerably alter the particle size distribution, nor does it alter the observed CCN activity. Addition of less than 5 mg/L of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate leads to shifts in size distribution roughly similar to those from published results, in which other methods of simulating bubble bursting were used. The growing use of experimental methods for the reproduction of bubble bursting in aerosol laboratories gives us reason to explore possible differences in the properties of particles generated from similar systems. Comparisons between observations from the above-mentioned 10-L tank and those from a larger tank filled with approximately 100 L of identical artificial seawater will also be presented.

King, S.; Rosenoern, T.; Nilsson, D.; Bilde, M.




EPA Science Inventory

Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...


Peptide-coated semiconductor quantum dots and their applications in biological imaging of single molecules in live cells and organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new surface chemistry has been developed for the solubilization and biofunctionalization of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals fluorescent probes, also known as quantum dots. This chemistry is based on the surface coating of quantum dots with custom-designed polycysteine peptides and yields water-soluble, small, monodispersed and colloidally stable probes that remain bright and photostable in complex biological milieus. This peptide coating strategy was successfully tested on several types of core and core-shell quantum dots emitting from the visible (e.g. CdSe/ZnS) to the NIR spectrum range (e.g. CdTe/CdSe/ZnS). By taking advantage of the versatile physico-chemical properties of peptides, a peptide "toolkit" was designed and employed to impart several biological functions to individual quantum dots and control their biochemical activity at the nanometer scale. These biofunctionalized peptide-coated quantum dots were exploited in very diverse biological applications. Near-infrared emitting quantum dot probes were engineered with optimized blood circulation and biodistribution properties for in vivo animal imaging. Visible emitting quantum dots were used for single molecule tracking of raft-associated GPI-anchored proteins in live cells. This last application revealed the presence of discrete and non-caveolar lipid microdomains capable of impeding free lateral diffusions in the plasma membrane of Hela cells. Imaging and tracking of peptide-coated quantum dots provided the first direct evidence that microdomains having the composition and behavior expected for lipid rafts can induce molecular compartmentalization in the membrane of living cells.

Pinaud, Fabien Florent


A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10¿µg¿C¿m-2¿hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...


Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

Siegel, D. C.; Congleton, J. L.



Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reaction of Phenols with an Organic Excited Triplet State and Hydroxyl Radical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although reactions in atmospheric condensed phases can form and transform secondary organic aerosol (SOA), these reactions are not well represented in many air quality models. Previous experiments have focused on hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of low molecular weight precursors such as gyloxal and methylglyoxal. In our work we are examining aqueous SOA formed from phenols, which are emitted from biomass burning and formed from the oxidation of anthropogenic aromatics such as benzene and toluene. In this work we examine aqueous SOA production from oxidation of three phenols (phenol, guaiacol, syringol) and three benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, 1,4-hydroquinone) by hydroxyl radical (OH) and the triplet excited state of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (DMB). Our focus is on light absorption by the reaction products, which we characterized by measuring UV-Vis spectra and calculating mass absorption coefficients. To understand the elemental and molecular composition of the SOA, we also analyzed the samples with high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. Our results indicate that aqueous oxidation of phenols and benzene-diols via OH and triplet excited states efficiently produce SOA that is highly absorbing in the UV-A wavelengths, consists of both small and large molecular weight products, and is highly oxidized.

Smith, J.; Yu, L.; George, K.; Ruthenburg, T. C.; Dillner, A. M.; Zhang, Q.; Anastasio, C.



Freezing of living cells  

SciTech Connect

It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.



Parameterization of thermal properties of aging secondary organic aerosol produced by photo-oxidation of selected terpene mixtures.  


Formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from biogenic VOCs influences the Earth's radiative balance. We have examined the photo-oxidation and aging of boreal terpene mixtures in the SAPHIR simulation chamber. Changes in thermal properties and chemical composition, deduced from mass spectrometric measurements, were providing information on the aging of biogenic SOA produced under ambient solar conditions. Effects of precursor mixture, concentration, and photochemical oxidation levels (OH exposure) were evaluated. OH exposure was found to be the major driver in the long term photochemical transformations, i.e., reaction times of several hours up to days, of SOA and its thermal properties, whereas the initial concentrations and terpenoid mixtures had only minor influence. The volatility distributions were parametrized using a sigmoidal function to determine TVFR0.5 (the temperature yielding a 50% particle volume fraction remaining) and the steepness of the volatility distribution. TVFR0.5 increased by 0.3 ± 0.1% (ca. 1 K), while the steepness increased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per hour of 1 × 10(6) cm(-3) OH exposure. Thus, aging reduces volatility and increases homogeneity of the vapor pressure distribution, presumably because highly volatile fractions become increasingly susceptible to gas phase oxidation, while less volatile fractions are less reactive with gas phase OH. PMID:24810838

Emanuelsson, Eva U; Mentel, Thomas F; Watne, Agot K; Spindler, Christian; Bohn, Birger; Brauers, Theo; Dorn, Hans-Peter; Hallquist, Asa M; Häseler, Rolf; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Müller, Klaus-Peter; Pleijel, Håkan; Rohrer, Franz; Rubach, Florian; Schlosser, Eric; Tillmann, Ralf; Hallquist, Mattias



Determination of unique microbial volatile organic compounds produced by five Aspergillus species commonly found in problem buildings.  


This study identified unique microbial volatile organic compounds (UMVOCs) produced by five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. sydowi, A. flavus, and A. niger) cultivated on malt extract agar and gypsum board. The hypothesis was that UMVOCs can be used to predict the presence of Aspergillus species. During the cultivation humidified air was continually supplied and evenly distributed through each of the culture flasks. Volatile metabolites were collected using Tenax TA tubes on Days 8, 16, and 30 after inoculation. The volatile metabolites were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy after thermal desorption. Nine compounds recognized as UMVOCs--3-methyl-1-butanol; 2-methyl-1-propanol; terpineol; 2-heptanone; 1-octen-3-ol; dimethyl disulfide; 2-hexanone; 3-octanone; and 2-pentylfuran--were found on the cultures in detectable amounts. The first two compounds were detected at the highest frequency when combining both media. The first four compounds were found to be the dominant UMVOCs on gypsum board, which could be used as chemical markers of the common Aspergillus species grown indoors. PMID:11975648

Gao, Pengfei; Korley, Frederick; Martin, Jennifer; Chen, Bean T



Concentrations, profiles, and emission factors of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants in fly ash from coking processes.  


The coking process has been found to be an important source of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs). However, the concentrations, profiles, and emission factors of UP-POPs in fly ash from coke plants have not been studied. In this study, six UP-POPs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz)) were identified and quantified in fly ash from eight coke plants. The average concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and "dioxin-like" PCBs were 1.5, 2.26, and 0.26 pg TEQ g(-1), respectively, and the average concentrations of the PCNs, HxCBz, and PeCBz were 256, 290, and 146 pg g(-1), respectively. The proportion each homolog contributed to the total concentration of the PCDFs, PCBs, and PCNs decreased with increasing chlorination level. The PCDFs contributed the biggest proportion of the total UP-POPs toxic equivalents (TEQs), and the average emission factors in fly ash were 10.5, 17.3, and 1.82 ng TEQt(-1) for the PCDDs, PCDFs, and "dioxin-like" PCBs, respectively, and 1,792, 2,028, and 1,025 ngt(-1) for the PCNs, HxCBz, and PeCBz, respectively. These data are essential for establishing an integrated UP-POP release inventory. PMID:23973475

Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Cai, Zongwei; Zheng, Minghui



Living and Nonliving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is it that distinguishes a living organism from a nonliving object? This collection of images presents examples that aren't as clear-cut as one might think, enticing students to question the meaning of life.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Subcellular Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Bivalve Modiolus Modiolus Living Along a Metal Contamination Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentration and distribution of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni among subcellular fractions (cellular membrane structures and cytosol) and Zn, Cu, Cd among cytoplasmic proteins in the kidney and digestive gland of mussel Modiolus modiolus living along a polymetallic concentration gradient were studied. It was found in the kidney of M. modiolus from contaminated sites that the Fe percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn percent increased in the cytosol compared to the kidney of the control mussel. Note kidney cytosol of M. modiolus from clean and contaminated sites sequestered major parts of Cu and Cd. In the digestive gland of M. modiolus from contaminated sites Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Cu, Pb percent increased in the cytosol compared to digestive gland of control mussel. Gel-filtration chromatography shows kidney of M. modiolus contains increased metallothionein-like protein levels irrespective of ambient dissolved metal concentrations. It was shown that the metal detoxification system in the kidney and digestive gland of M. modiolus was efficient under extremely high ambient metal levels. However, under complex environmental contamination in the kidney of M. modiolus, the metal detoxification capacity of metallothionein-like proteins was damaged.

Podgurskaya, Olga V.; Kavun, Victor Ya.



Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level.1. Using the LASCA method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals.

Ulianova, O. V.; Uianov, S. S.; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming



Frequency and Characteristics of Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Organisms in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the frequency of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms, various bacteria producing ESBL, antibiotic susceptibility of these organisms, and the risk factors associated with these infections in a neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital in North India. Of the 150 neonates enrolled in the study, 47 culture-positive neonates were included in the study cohort and were divided into two groups: ESBL-positive (8 neonates) and ESBL-negative (39 neonates) cohorts. Various organisms were isolated from 72 culture samples in these 47 neonates. Of these, 10 culture samples grew ESBL-positive organisms and 62 samples grew ESBL-negative organisms. The frequency of ESBL-producing organisms was found to be 5.3%. ESBL infection incidence densities were found to be 3.4 per 1000 patient-days. Klebsiella (60%) was the most common organism producing ESBL followed by Escherichia coli (30%) and Pseudomonas (10%). Eighty percent of the ESBL-producing organisms were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam. Risk factors found significant by univariate analysis (P < 0.05) were preterm, low birthweight, perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, anaemia, metabolic acidosis, prolonged mechanical ventilation (>7 days), length of hospitalization, length of level 3 stay, prior antibiotic use, central venous catheter duration, peripherally inserted central venous catheter duration, and total parenteral nutrition duration. Factors that retained significance in the logistic regression model were duration of hospital stay (adjusted OR: 0.958, CI: 0.920–0.997, and P value = 0.037) and gestational age (adjusted OR: 1.39, CI: 1.037–1.865, and P value = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two groups.

Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Bahl, Dheeraj; Kaur, Nirmaljit; Maria, Arti; Dubey, Nand Kishore



Differential uncertainties and risk attitudes between conventional and organic producers: the case of Spanish arable crop farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing importance of economic factors in farmers' decisions to go organic has raised interest in characterizing the economic behavior of organic versus conventional farms. In general, published analyses so far have not considered differential uncertainties, abilities to control production risk, and farmers' risk preferences between conventional and organic practices when comparing these techniques. Our article attempts to assess this

Teresa Serra; David Zilberman; José M. Gil



The Living Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is home to vast numbers of organisms, and even small sections of earth teem with a diverse array of life. This Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the world beneath our feet through the lens of soil biologists and ecologists. The first website (1) provides information about the activities of a Natural Environment Research Council-supported research program "on the biological diversity of soil biota and the functional roles played by soil organisms in key ecological processes." The second site (2) contains information about several research projects of the Ecology of Soil Organisms Theme Group at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Theme Group studies "soil organisms at the population, community, and ecosystem level, to ultimately increase understanding of the role of soil organisms." The third site (3) contains a list of publications spanning the past fifteen years from members of the Soil Ecology Group at the University of Jyv'skyl". The site also provides basic information about group members, and concise descriptions of current research projects. From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the fourth website (4) contains an online version of the _Soil Biology Primer_, "an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms." The online version of the Primer contains the entire text of the original published version, but is missing some useful soil organism images. The fifth site (5) links to sixteen movies relating to different aspects of soil biology such as nematodes, mites, springtails, and protozoa. The movies were all produced by Dr. Thomas E. Loynachan, a Professor of Agronomy and Microbiology at Iowa State University. Finally, Soils Are Alive (6) was developed by Professor Lyn Abbot of the University of Western Australia and Jen Slater, a qualified secondary school science teacher. This website contains informative, concise sections addressing Soil Biology, Biological Processes, Living Components, and Ecosystem Management.


Use of Fluorescent Protein Tags to Study Nuclear Organization of the Spliceosomal Machinery in Transiently Transformed Living Plant CellsD?  

PubMed Central

Although early studies suggested that little compartmentalization exists within the nucleus, more recent studies on metazoan systems have identified a still increasing number of specific subnuclear compartments. Some of these compartments are dynamic structures; indeed, protein and RNA-protein components can cycle between different domains. This is particularly evident for RNA processing components. In plants, lack of tools has hampered studies on nuclear compartmentalization and dynamics of RNA processing components. Here, we show that transient expression of fluorescent protein fusions of U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP)-specific proteins U1-70K, U2B?, and U2A ?, nucleolar proteins Nop10 and PRH75, and serine-arginine-rich proteins in plant protoplasts results in their correct localization. Furthermore, snRNP-specific proteins also were correctly assembled into mature snRNPs. This system allowed a systematic analysis of the cellular localization of Arabidopsis serine-arginine-rich proteins, which, like their animal counterparts, localize to speckles but not to nucleoli and Cajal bodies. Finally, markers for three different nuclear compartments, namely, nucleoli, Cajal bodies, and speckles, have been established and were shown to be applicable for colocalization studies in living plant protoplasts. Thus, transient expression of proteins tagged with four different fluorescent proteins is a suitable system for studying the nuclear organization of spliceosomal proteins in living plant cells and should therefore allow studies of their dynamics as well.

Lorkovic, Zdravko J.; Hilscher, Julia; Barta, Andrea



Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level. 1. Using the LASCA method  

SciTech Connect

A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Ulianova, O V; Uianov, S S; Li Pengcheng; Luo Qingming



Detection of Live Salmonella sp. Cells in Produce by a TaqMan-Based Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR Targeting invA mRNA? †  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica contamination in foods is a significant concern for public health. When DNA detection methods are used for analysis of foods, one of the major concerns is false-positive results from the detection of dead cells. To circumvent this crucial issue, a TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay with an RNA internal control was developed. invA RNA standards were used to determine the detection limit of this assay as well as to determine invA mRNA levels in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase cells. This assay has a detection limit of 40 copies of invA mRNA per reaction. The levels of invA mRNA in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase S. enterica cells was approximately 1 copy per 3 CFU, 1 copy per CFU, and 4 copies per 103 CFU, respectively. Spinach, tomatoes, jalapeno peppers, and serrano peppers were artificially contaminated with four different Salmonella serovars at levels of 105 and less than 10 CFU. These foods were analyzed with qRT-PCR and with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method (W. A. Andrews and T. S. Hammack, in G. J. Jackson et al., ed., Bacteriological analytical manual online,, 2007). Comparable results were obtained by both methods. Only live Salmonella cells could be detected by this qRT-PCR assay, thus avoiding the dangers of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of the PCR) were also ruled out through the use of an RNA internal control. This assay allows for the fast and accurate detection of viable Salmonella spp. in spinach, tomatoes, and in both jalapeno and serrano peppers.

Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S.; Russell, Mindi; Jacobson, Andrew P.; De Jesus, Antonio J.; Brown, Eric W.; Lampel, Keith A.



Living Wage Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In many parts of the United States, families working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to live locally given the high cost of living. Some of this can be due to rising real estate costs and the like and a number of organizations have worked to craft living wage legislation in a number of cities. This Living Wage calculator helps visitors estimate the cost of living in their community or region. Visitors can get started by selecting a location from the list presented here. Additionally, they can also use the search engine to look for specific places. For each place, visitors can learn about the living wage, typical expenses, and so on. It's an interesting policy tool and it can be used to teach students about economics, the job market, and much more.

Glasmeier, Amy


Risk factors associated with extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing organisms at a tertiary care hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In 1995, b-lactam inhibitor combinations replaced third-generation cephalosporins as empirical therapy in an effort to manage extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) resistance. This study investigated the relationship between antibiotic usage and ESBL organisms from 1994 through 2002 using epidemiological and molecular analysis. Methods: A case-control study of 119 patients with ESBL organisms and 132 patients with non-ESBL organisms was conducted. Demographics,

Eileen M. Graffunder; Karen E. Preston; Ann M. Evans; Richard A. Venezia


Assisted Living  


... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...



NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.



Organ Facts  


... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Facts Here you can find valuable information about organs ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...


RGB tricolor produced by white-based top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with microcavity structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

RGB pixels by microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diode (TOLED) is beneficial to both minimizing the loss of light and improving the color purity and the efficiency. Based on the multi-emitting layers, white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and microcavity TOLEDs were prepared. TOLEDs were fabricated using Ag\\/ITO as the reflector and adjusting layer, Al\\/Ag as semi-transparent cathode, Alq:DCJTB\\/TBADN:TBPe\\/Alq:C545 as white light

Jin Cao; Xiang Liu; M. A. Khan; WenQing Zhu; XueYin Jiang; ZhiLin Zhang; ShaoHong Xu




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999



Urea, Glycolic Acid, and Glycerol in an Organic Residue Produced by Ultraviolet Irradiation of Interstellar/Pre-Cometary Ice Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 50 stable organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), from ground-based and onboard-satellite astronomical observations, in the gas and solid phases. Some of these organics may be prebiotic compounds that were delivered to early Earth by comets and meteorites and may have triggered the first chemical reactions involved in the origin of life. Ultraviolet irradiation of ices simulating photoprocesses of cold solid matter in astrophysical environments have shown that photochemistry can lead to the formation of amino acids and related compounds. In this work, we experimentally searched for other organic molecules of prebiotic interest, namely, oxidized acid labile compounds. In a setup that simulates conditions relevant to the ISM and Solar System icy bodies such as comets, a condensed CH3OH:NH3â = 1:1 ice mixture was UV irradiated at ˜80 K. The molecular constituents of the nonvolatile organic residue that remained at room temperature were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol were detected in this residue, as well as hydroxyacetamide, glycerolic acid, and glycerol amide. These organics are interesting target molecules to be searched for in space. Finally, tentative mechanisms of formation for these compounds under interstellar/pre-cometary conditions are proposed.

Nuevo, Michel; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.



Living Stock Collections (LSC)  

NSF Publications Database

The Living Stock Collections (LSC) program supports operation of and improvements in outstanding collections of living organisms used in basic biological research. The program provides support for two types of projects. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) ...


SOLO: Self Organizing Live Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data dissemination overlays are central in scalable multicast protocols and are used in many other kinds of distributed systems. Such overlays must self-assemble and in situations where there are multiple protocol options, a suitable choice of protocol ma...

K. Birman Q. Huang



Impacts of Organic and Conventional Crop Management on Diversity and Activity of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria and Total Bacteria Are Subsidiary to Temporal Effects  

PubMed Central

A three year field study (2007–2009) of the diversity and numbers of the total and metabolically active free-living diazotophic bacteria and total bacterial communities in organic and conventionally managed agricultural soil was conducted using the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study, in northeast England. Fertility management appeared to have little impact on both diazotrophic and total bacterial communities. However, copy numbers of the nifH gene did appear to be negatively impacted by conventional crop protection measures across all years suggesting diazotrophs may be particularly sensitive to pesticides. Impacts of crop management were greatly overshadowed by the influence of temporal effects with diazotrophic communities changing on a year by year basis and from season to season. Quantitative analyses using qPCR of each community indicated that metabolically active diazotrophs were highest in year 1 but the population significantly declined in year 2 before recovering somewhat in the final year. The total bacterial population in contrast increased significantly each year. It appeared that the dominant drivers of qualitative and quantitative changes in both communities were annual and seasonal effects. Moreover, regression analyses showed activity of both communities was significantly affected by soil temperature and climatic conditions.

Orr, Caroline H.; Leifert, Carlo; Cummings, Stephen P.; Cooper, Julia M.



Influence of organically or conventionally produced wheat on health, performance and mycotoxin residues in tissues and bile of growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1999?–?2001 three different varieties of wheat [Contur (susceptible to Fusarium), Batis and Petrus (less susceptible to Fusarium)] were cultivated under organic and conventional conditions in order to determine mycotoxin burden. Soil quality, preceding crop and weather conditions were comparable in the different production systems. The wheat batches were analysed for moulds, and the contents of zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol

Isabell Schneweis; Karsten Meyer; Mathias Ritzmann; Peter Hoffmann; Leo Dempfle; Johann Bauer



A comparison of the character of algal extracellular versus cellular organic matter produced by cyanobacterium, diatom and green alga.  


This study investigated characteristics of algal organic matter (AOM) derived from three species (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, diatom Fragilaria crotonensis and green alga Chlamydomonas geitleri) which dominate phytoplanktonic populations in reservoirs supplying drinking water treatment plants. Algal growth was monitored by cell counting, optical density and dissolved organic carbon concentration measurements. Extracellular organic matter (EOM) released at exponential and stationary growth phases and cellular organic matter (COM) were characterised in terms of specific UV absorbance (SUVA), peptide/protein and non-peptide content, hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW). It was found that both EOM and COM were predominantly hydrophilic with low SUVA. COM was richer in peptides/proteins, more hydrophilic (with about 89% of hydrophilic fraction for all three species) and had lower SUVA than EOM. MW fractionation showed that both EOM and COM of all three species contain large portions of low-MW (<1 kDa) compounds and high-MW (>100 kDa) polysaccharides. Peptides/proteins exhibited narrower MW distribution than non-peptide fraction and it widened as the cultures grew. The highest amount of peptides/proteins with a significant portion of high-MW ones (22%) was observed in COM of M. aeruginosa. The results imply that the knowledge of AOM composition and characteristics predetermine which processes would be effective in the treatment of AOM laden water. PMID:24388829

Pivokonsky, Martin; Safarikova, Jana; Baresova, Magdalena; Pivokonska, Lenka; Kopecka, Ivana



Effect of organic compounds on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of sea spray aerosol produced by bubble bursting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean comprises over 70% of the surface of the earth and thus sea spray aerosols generated by wave processes represent a critical component of our climate system. The manner in which different complex oceanic mixtures of organic species and inorganic salts are distributed between individual particles in sea spray directly determines which particles will effectively form cloud nuclei. Controlled

Meagan J. K. Moore; Hiroshi Furutani; Gregory C. Roberts; Ryan C. Moffet; Mary K. Gilles; Brian Palenik; Kimberly A. Prather



Organic compounds in meteorites--III. Distribution and identification of aliphatic hydrocarbons produced by open flow Fischer-Tropsch processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible abiotic synthesis of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in extraterrestrial samples was investigated, using as a model, the Fischer-Tropsch reaction between hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Iron of meteoritic origin, as well as commercial nickel and nickel-iron alloys, were used as the catalyst. This type of synthesis produced small amounts of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons ranging from C 8 to about

E. Gelpi; J. Han; D. W. Nooner; J. Oró



Biomorphic forms in carbonaceous meteorite Alliende and possible ecological system as producer of organic matter of chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with paleomicrobiological analyses of litified remnants of microbial organisms from carbon hondrites of Murchison, Efremovka and Alliende meteorites as well as general analyses of mineral composition of carbon meteorites. On the basis of this analyses the assumption is made that the cyanobacterial community (mat) from hydrothermal areas of active volcanic zone was most likely to be the ancient ecological system on space objects. It has been demonstrated that hydrothermal process has been exerting great influence on transformation of primary hyperacidites mineral matrix and on biogenic carbon substance. The article presents the results of the analyses of microphotos of lunar regolith particles published earlier, which confirmed that lunar rock contains fossilized remnants of microbial organisms, that most probably had been functioning in hydrothermal springs.

Zhmur, Stanislav I.; Gerasimenko, Lyudmila M.



Secondary organic aerosol produced from aircraft emissions at the Atlanta Airport: An advanced diagnostic investigation using process analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to investigate the impacts of aircraft emissions from the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport have previously shown aircraft emissions increased total daily PM2.5 concentrations by up to 9.4% (0.94 ?g m-3) with overall impacts varying by modeled grid resolution. However, those results also indicated that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in the airport grid cell were reduced due to aircraft emissions at coarser grid resolutions (36-km and 12-km) but not at a finer resolution (4-km). To investigate this anomaly, this study instruments the CMAQ model with process analysis, an advanced diagnostic modeling tool, and focuses on changes to SOA concentrations due to aircraft emissions in the grid cells containing the Atlanta airport at grid resolutions of 36-km, 12-km, and 4-km. Model results indicated aircraft emissions reduced hourly anthropogenic and biogenic SOA concentrations at the 36-km and 12-km grid resolutions by up to 6.2% (0.052 ?g m-3) by removing nitrate, hydroxyl, and hydroperoxy radicals through chemistry. At the 4-km resolution, however, hourly modeled SOA concentrations increased (primarily due to changes in biogenic SOA) by up to 11.5% (0.081 ?g m-3) due to primary organic aerosol emissions from aircraft, with the additional organic mass shifting partitioning of SOA semi-volatile gas phase species into the particle phase.

Woody, Matthew C.; Arunachalam, Saravanan



Use of on-farm produced biofuels on organic farms – Evaluation of energy balances and environmental loads for three possible fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate systems making organic farms self-sufficient in farm-produced bio-based fuels. The energy balance and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Complete LCAs were not performed. Important constraints when implementing the systems in practice were also identified.The RME scenario showed

H. Fredriksson; A. Baky; S. Bernesson; Å. Nordberg; O. Norén; P.-A. Hansson



Weighing Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are often faced with choices that involve the weighing of people's lives against each other, or the weighing of lives against other good things. These are choices both for individuals and for societies. A person who is terminally ill may have to choose between palliative care and more aggressive treatment, which will give her a longer life but at

John Broome


Colored Solutes, Precipitates and Surface Films Produced by Reactions of Organics in Sulfuric Acid Solutions at Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere Aerosol Acidities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt%). However, recent airborne measurements have shown that these particles may also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds (Murphy et al. 2007). Experiments combining small amounts of organics (glyoxal, methylglyoxal and/or propanal) with sulfuric acid at concentrations typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored solutions, precipitates, and even surface films that have the potential to impact chemical, optical and/or cloud-forming properties of aerosols. Surface films, in particular, would be expected to control these aerosol properties, so the kinetics of film formation were examined to determine the effects of organic mixture, acidity, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Results will be used to assess whether it is possible that such films could exist in the UT/LS in quantities that would be significant enough to impact aerosol chemistry or climate properties.

Perez Montano, S.; Berry, J.; Feick, N.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Le, H.; Khaled, K. A.; Dwisaksono, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Van Wyngarden, A. L.



Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Schultz, Ms.



Antimould activity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria: identification of a mixture of organic acids produced by Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough lactic acid bacteria, cultivated in wheat flour hydrolysate, produced antimould compounds. The antimould activity\\u000a varied greatly among the strains and was mainly detected within obligately heterofermentative Lactobacillus spp. Among these, Lb. sanfrancisco CB1 had the largest spectrum. It inhibited moulds related to bread spoilage such as Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monilia. A mixture of acetic, caproic, formic, propionic, butyric

A. Corsetti; M. Gobbetti; J. Rossi; P. Damiani



Fractionation of the Three Stable Oxygen Isotopes by Oxygen-Producing and Oxygen-Consuming Reactions in Photosynthetic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triple isotope composition (d17O and d18O) of dissolved O2 in the ocean and in ice cores was recently used to assess the primary productivity over broad spatial and temporal scales. However, assessment of the productivity with the aid of this method must rely on accurate measurements of the 17O\\/16O versus 18O\\/16O relationship in each of the main oxygen-producing and

Yael Helman; Eugeni Barkan; Doron Eisenstadt; Boaz Luz; Aaron Kaplan



Genomic Organization and Molecular Analysis of Virulent Bacteriophage 2972 Infecting an Exopolysaccharide-Producing Streptococcus thermophilus Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Streptococcus thermophilus virulent pac-type phage 2972 was isolated from a yogurt made in France in 1999. It is a representative of several phages that have emerged with the industrial use of the exopolysaccha- ride-producing S. thermophilus strain RD534. The genome of phage 2972 has 34,704 bp with an overall GC content of 40.15%, making it the shortest S. thermophilus

Celine Levesque; Martin Duplessis; Jessica Labonte; Steve Labrie; Christophe Fremaux; Denise Tremblay; Sylvain Moineau



Method for producing biomass  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a method for producing biomass from halophilic organisms, in which the halophilic organisms are fermented in a hollow space in a salt dome and said halophilic organisms or components thereof are isolated as biomass.



Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater on soil quality, soil-borne pathogens, and living organisms: case study of the vicinity of El Hajeb (Tunisia).  


Medium (i.e. 15 years) and long-term (i.e. 20 years) impact of irrigation using secondary-treated municipal wastewater (TWW) was assessed on two agricultural soil samples, denoted by E and G, respectively, in the vicinity of El Hajeb region (Southern Tunisia). Soil pH, electrical conductivity particle size grading, potential risk of salinity, water holding capacity and chemical composition, as well as organic matter content, pathogenic microorganisms and heavy metal concentrations in the TWW-irrigated (E and G) and rainwater-irrigated (T) soils at various depths, were monitored and compared during a 5-year experiment. Our study showed that bacterial abundance is higher in sandy-clayey soil, which has an enhanced ability to retain moisture and nutrients. The high level of bacterial flora in TWW-irrigated soils was significantly (p?living conditions in transects G and E than the earthworms. The avoidance response test of Eisenia andrei was statistically correlated with soil layers at the sampling sites. However, the avoidance response test of Folsomia candida was positively correlated with silt-clay content (+0.744*) and was negatively correlated with sand content (-0.744*). PMID:24362513

Hentati, Olfa; Chaker, Sana; Wali, Ahmed; Ayoub, Tarek; Ksibi, Mohamed



Live work  

SciTech Connect

The practice of performing maintenance on live transmission lines has surged dramatically in the past two decades, as economic concerns have made the construction of redundant lines impractical. These days, utilities face the added pressure of the increasing demand for power and the need to accomplish the tasks quickly with smaller crews. Responding to utility needs, EPRI launched the `Live Working 2000` project in 1993. Through this project, researchers conduct tests of new tools and techniques at the Institute`s Power Delivery Center in Lenox, Massachusetts. The resulting data are made available to utilities and to regulatory groups that govern the practice of live working. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Garfinkel, P.



Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.



Nano-structured calcite produced by micro-organisms in ancient and modern loess in Chinese Loess Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission gun scanning microscopy (FEG-SEM) investigation show that there are calcite nano-fibers (CNFs) formed during pedogenic process. The CNFs are widely distributed in the loess and red clay samples of Caoxian, Luochuan, Lingtai, Lantian, and Xifeng profiles as well as the samples of modern surface loess soils in Chinese Loess Plateau. Diameters of all the NFCs are about 40 nm, the length of the CNFs ranges from tens nanometer to several micrometers. Elongation direction of NFCs is unusual near parallel (105)* or (115)*. Crystals of NFCs arrange as bird net like and lattice-like frameworks. X-ray EDS spectra show the weak peaks of magnesium, phosphorous, and sulfur. Our investigation indicates that CNFs are in pore space of loess and paleosol and made up most of carbonate except for caliche nodular layers. Concentration of NFCs in the loess layers are significantly higher than those of paleosol layers because of leaching of carbonate in the paleosol forming environment (warn and wet paleoclimate). The "nanobacteria-like CNFs are well crystalline calcite single crystals with smoothes surfaces. The morphologies of CNFs are very unusual and different from the calcite single crystals observed in most geological environments. The CNFs are directly related to microbial activities in both ancient and modern loess. It is proposed that the intervention of organic compounds derived from microbial activities control the formation of the calcite nano-fibers. Both morphology and bulk composition of CNFs indicate that the formation of the CNFs involves bio-organics derived from microorganisms in loess deposit environment. Formation conditions of the calcite nano-fibers may information about paleoclimate, paleo-environment and paleoecology. So, the discovery of CNFs in loess-paloesol sequences can provide a new route for reconstruct paleoclimate by oxygen and carbon isotope from the CNFs.

Xu, H.; Chen, T.; Lu, H.; Wang, X.



Second-generation products contribute substantially to the particle-phase organic material produced by beta-caryophyllene ozonolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by the dark ozonolysis of gas-phase ?-caryophyllene was studied. The experiments were conducted in a continuous-flow environmental chamber for organic particle mass concentrations of 0.5 to 30 ?g m-3 and with ozone in excess, thereby allowing the study of second-generation particle-phase products under atmospherically relevant conditions. The particle-phase products were characterized by an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-ToF-MS). Fragmentation mass spectra were used for the structural elucidation of each product, and the structures were confirmed as consistent with the accurate m/z values of the parent ions. In total, fifteen products were identified. Of these, three are reported for the first time. The structures showed that 9 out of 15 particle-phase products were second generation, including all three of the new products. The relative abundance of the second-generation products was approximately 90% by mass among the 15 observed products. The O:C and H:C elemental ratios of the 15 products ranged from 0.13 to 0.50 and from 1.43 to 1.60, respectively. Fourteen of the products contained 3 to 5 oxygen atoms. A singular product, which was one of the three newly identified ones, had 7 oxygen atoms, including 1 carboxylic group, 2 carbonyl groups, and 3 hydroxyl groups. It was identified as 2, 3-dihydroxy-4-[2-(4-hydroxy-3-oxobutyl)-3, 3-dimethylcyclobutyl]-4-oxobutanoic acid (C14H22O7). The estimated saturation vapor pressure of this product is 3.3×10-13 Pa, making this product a candidate contributor to new particle formation in the atmosphere.

Li, Y. J.; Chen, Q.; Guzman, M. I.; Chan, C. K.; Martin, S. T.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.



Living or Nonliving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William



Dementia and Assisted Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent



Live, by Satellite.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Illinois used teleconferencing to ignite volunteers and leaders for a five-year capital campaign. The program was live with two-way audio communications from meeting sites back to the main studio. Suggestions for planning and organizing a teleconference are presented. (MLW)

Gobberdiel, Jim



Healthy Living  


... Environmental Health Sciences Kids Pages skip navigation Home Discover & Explore What's That Word Scientific Kids Fun & Games Parents & Teachers About Contact Home » Discover & Explore » Print this page Share Healthy Living By ...


Assisted Living  


... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...


Living Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

Mules, B. R.



Living Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ecological studies have revealed that nature has an in-built system to restore itself, thereby sustaining its continuity.\\u000a In other words, natural ecosystems can act as “Living Machines” in keeping the ecosystems habitable. The biological communities\\u000a – microbes, plants, and animals – serve as the driving force of several living technological innovations – constructed wetlands,\\u000a Lake Restores, Eco-Restorers, and Reedbeds. These

Yung-Tse Hung; Joseph F. Hawumba; Lawrence K. Wang


Medicago truncatula increases its iron-uptake mechanisms in response to volatile organic compounds produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti.  


Medicago truncatula represents a model plant species for understanding legume-bacteria interactions. M. truncatula roots form a specific root-nodule symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation generates high iron (Fe) demands for bacterial nitrogenase holoenzyme and plant leghemoglobin proteins. Leguminous plants acquire Fe via "Strategy I," which includes mechanisms such as rhizosphere acidification and enhanced ferric reductase activity. In the present work, we analyzed the effect of S. meliloti volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the Fe-uptake mechanisms of M. truncatula seedlings under Fe-deficient and Fe-rich conditions. Axenic cultures showed that both plant and bacterium modified VOC synthesis in the presence of the respective symbiotic partner. Importantly, in both Fe-rich and -deficient experiments, bacterial VOCs increased the generation of plant biomass, rhizosphere acidification, ferric reductase activity, and chlorophyll content in plants. On the basis of our results, we propose that M. truncatula perceives its symbiont through VOC emissions, and in response, increases Fe-uptake mechanisms to facilitate symbiosis. PMID:23564626

Orozco-Mosqueda, Maria del Carmen; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes I; Santoyo, Gustavo; Farías-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo



Positive Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.


Vergleich der Stützung ökologischer und konventioneller Landwirtschaft in der EU unter Verwendung des PSE-Konzeptes der OECD Comparing support for organic and conventional farming in the European Union using an adjusted Producer Support Estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming has grown considerably in recent years in the European Union, not least due to changes in the political environment. The aim of this paper is to compare the support of organic and conventional farming in the year 2000. A measurement of support is calculated using the methodology of the Producer Support Estimate (PSE) of the Organization of Economic

J. Hecht; S. H. Gay; F. Offermann


Innovative Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Innovative Lives Web Site is offered by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and the Smithsonian Institution. "Innovative Lives counters commonly held stereotypes about inventors by featuring speakers with diverse backgrounds," such as Dr. Patricia Bath, an African-American woman who invented the Laserphaco Probe for the treatment of cataracts and founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Over thirty inventors are featured on the site, which gives excellent information about each, telling of their lives and what they have accomplished. Although it is intended for kids, the site will be of interest to anyone looking to learn about many of the most important and unknown contributors to the scientific world.



Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced from new Brazilian varieties planted in the Northeast Region of Brazil.  


The phenolic compounds, organic acids and the antioxidant activity were determined for grape juice samples from new Brazilian varieties grown in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The results showed that the Brazilian grape juices have high antioxidant activity, which was significantly correlated with the phenolic compounds catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The produced juice samples showed higher concentrations of trans-resveratrol than those observed in juices made from different varieties of grapes from traditional growing regions. Organic acids concentrations were similar to those of juices produced from other classical varieties. It was demonstrated that it is possible to prepare juices from grapes of new varieties grown in the Northeast of Brazil containing a high content of bioactive compounds and typical characteristics of the tropical viticulture practised in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley. PMID:24837926

Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Silani, Igor de Souza Veras; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Ninow, Jorge Luiz



Living History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

Walsh, Mark



Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.



Electron Capture Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Study of Metabolites Produced by Some Arthritic Transudate-Associated Organisms In Vitro and In Vivo in Rabbit Models  

PubMed Central

Computerized, frequency-pulsed, modulated electron capture gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the acid metabolites produced in vitro in fetal calf serum and in vivo in an animal chamber model. Several strains of Diplostreptococcus agalactiae, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus serogroups A, B, and G were studied. All of these organisms have been reported to be associated with arthritic transudates in humans. Metabolites were detected by this method from derivatized extracts of both spent fetal calf serum and chamber fluids. Since there was little host response to the organisms cultured in the chambers, it is highly probable that the products detected represent metabolites produced in an in vivo type of environment. The metabolic patterns were reproducible and exhibited many similarities in vitro and in vivo. Production of the acids detected was reproducible, and these acids were useful identification markers. The data support published reports (J. B. Brooks, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, Anal. Chem. 46: 1930-1934, 1974; J. B. Brooks, G. Choudhary, R. B. Craven, D. Edman, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:625-628, 1977; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, A. R. Melton, and C. C. Alley, in H. H. Johnson and W. B. Newson, ed., Second International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation on Microbiology, 1976; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, D. Schlossberg, C. C. Alley, and F. M. Pitts, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:203-208, 1978; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, C. C. Alley, H. B. Short, and H. H. Handsfield, J. Infect. Dis. 129:660-668, 1974) that bacterial metabolites might be detectable in diseased body fluids. The growth characteristics of the organisms in the animal model and fetal calf serum are discussed, and a moderately priced computer for performing data manipulations is evaluated.

Brooks, John B.; Melton, A. Richard



Living and non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things often rely on non-living things to accomplish daily tasks. Living things have several characteristics that non-living things do not, such as the ability to move, eat, breathe, and reproduce. Living things and non-living things can interact even though they do not have the same characteristics.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)



Nosocomial blood stream infection in intensive care units at Assiut University Hospitals (Upper Egypt) with special reference to extended spectrum ?-lactamase producing organisms  

PubMed Central

Aim This study investigated the nosocomial blood stream infection (BSI) in the adult ICUs in Assiut university hospitals to evaluate the rate of infection in different ICUs, causative microorganisms, antimicrobial resistance, outcome of infection, risk factors, prevalence of extended spectrum B-lactamase producing organisms and molecular typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to highlight the role of environment as a potential source of nosocomial BSI. Methods This study was conducted over a period of 12 months from January 2006 to December 2006. All Patients admitted to the different adult ICUs were monitored daily by attending physicians for subsequent development of nosocomial BSI. Blood cultures were collected from suspected patients to detect the causative organisms. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of ESBLs was conducted among gram negative isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were tested by PCR to determine the most common group of B-lactamase genes responsible for resistance. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from infected patients and those isolated from the environment were typed by RAPD technique to investigate the role of environment in transmission of infection. Results The study included 2095 patients who were admitted to different ICUs at Assiut University Hospitals from January 2006 to December 2006. Blood samples were collected from infected patients for blood cultures. The colonies were identified and antibiotic sensitivities were performed. This study showed that the rate of nosocomial BSI was 75 per 1000 ICU admissions with the highest percentages in Trauma ICU (17%). Out of 159 patients with primary bloodstream infection, 61 patients died representing a crude mortality rate of 38%. Analysis of the organisms causing BSI showed that Gram positive organisms were reported in 69.1% (n = 121); MRSA was the most prevalent (18.9%), followed by methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (16%). Gram negative bacilli were reported in 29.1% (n = 51). In this case, Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common (10.3%) followed E coli (8.6%). Candida spp. was reported only in (1.7%) of isolates. Antibiotics sensitivities of Gram positive organisms showed that these organisms were mostly sensitive to vancomycin (90.1%), while Gram negative organisms were mostly sensitive to imipenem (90.2%). In this study we tested Gram negative isolates for the production of the ESBL enzyme and concluded that 64.7% (33/51) of patients' isolates and 20/135 (14.8%) environmental isolates were confirmed to be ESBL producers. The type of ?-lactamase gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction which showed that SHV was the main type. Molecular typing was done for 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains that caused nosocomial BSI and for the 36 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains which were isolated from the environmental samples by the RAPD method. The two environmental strains were identical, with one isolated from a patient, which confirms the serious role of the hospital environment in the spread of infections. Conclusion Nosocomial BSI represents a current problem in Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt. Problems associated with BSI include infection with multidrug resistant pathogens (especially ESBLs) which are difficult to treat and are associated with increased mortality. Of all available anti-microbial agents, carbapenems are the most active and reliable treatment options for infections caused by ESBL isolates. However, overuse of carbapenems may lead to resistance of other Gram-negative organisms.

Ahmed, Shaaban H; Daef, Enas A; Badary, Mohammed S; Mahmoud, Mohammed A; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A



Living T9 glioma cells expressing membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor produce immediate tumor destruction by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages via a "paraptosis"-induced pathway that promotes systemic immunity against intracranial T9 gliomas.  


Cloned T9-C2 glioma cells transfected with membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) never formed subcutaneous tumors when implanted into Fischer rats, whereas control T9 cells did. The T9-C2 cells were completely killed within 1 day through a mechanism that resembled paraptosis. Vacuolization of the T9-C2 cell's mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum started within 4 hours after implantation. By 24 hours, the dead tumor cells were swollen and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive. Bcl2-transduced T9-C2 cells failed to form tumors in rats. Both T9 and T9-C2 cells produced cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant that recruited the granulocytes into the tumor injection sites, where they interacted with the tumor cells. Freshly isolated macrophages killed the T9-C2 cells in vitro by a mechanism independent of phagocytosis. Nude athymic rats treated with antiasialo GM1 antibody formed T9-C2 tumors, whereas rats treated with a natural killer cell (NK)-specific antibody failed to form tumors. When treated with antipolymorphonuclear leukocyte (anti-PMN) and antimacrophage antibodies, 80% of nude rats formed tumors, whereas only 40% of the rats developed a tumor when a single antibody was used. This suggests that both PMNs and macrophages are involved in the killing of T9-C2 tumor cells. Immunocompetent rats that rejected the living T9-C2 cells were immune to the intracranial rechallenge with T9 cells. No vaccinating effect occurred if the T9-C2 cells were freeze-thawed, x-irradiated, or treated with mitomycin-C prior to injection. Optimal tumor immunization using mM-CSF-transduced T9 cells requires viable tumor cells. In this study optimal tumor immunization occurred when a strong inflammatory response at the injection of the tumor cells was induced. PMID:12149220

Chen, Yijun; Douglass, Thomas; Jeffes, Edward W B; Xu, Qingcheng; Williams, Christopher C; Arpajirakul, Neary; Delgado, Christina; Kleinman, Michael; Sanchez, Ramon; Dan, Qinghong; Kim, Ronald C; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R



Water and autocatalysis in living matter.  


Water plays a fundamental role in living organisms. Liquid water includes coherence domains (CD) where all molecules oscillate in unison in tune with a self-trapped electromagnetic field at a well-defined frequency. The coherent oscillations produce an ensemble of quasi-free electrons, able to collect noise energy from the environment and transform it into high-grade coherent energy in the form of electron vortices. This high-grade energy may activate the biomolecules resonating with the water CD. In this way, water CDs become dissipative structures in the sense of Prigogine and Froehlich, such that they are able to oscillate and coherence among them can be established. Thus, autocatalysis in living matter is made possible. PMID:19337894

Del Giudice, Emilio; Tedeschi, Alberto



Color tunable organic light-emitting devices with external quantum efficiency over 20% based on strongly luminescent gold(III) complexes having long-lived emissive excited states.  


Gold(III) complexes supported by C-deprotonated fluorene-C^N^C ligands having high emission quantum yield up to 0.61 and long-lived emissive excited states are used as yellow emitters in color tunable PLEDs and OLEDs. High EQEs of 13.16% and 22.02% are achieved in the best PLED and OLED, respectively. PMID:24497411

Cheng, Gang; Chan, Kaai Tung; To, Wai-Pong; Che, Chi-Ming



The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.



Estuary Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.


Bioluminescence: Living Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent creatures and the underwater world in which they live. Using shoeboxes and black paint, students are directed to build a deep-sea model and inhabit it with fish made out of black construction paper. Students then use the model to describe how organisms use bioluminescence and learn about its use as camouflage. In addition to a detailed protocol, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessments and links to additional information.

Xpeditions, National G.


Involvement of protein kinase C signalling and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca).  


Mechanisms that regulate hemocyte production in molluscs, at either the organismal or cellular levels, are not well understood. In the present study, 24-h saline cultures of the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata were used to test for the potential involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) signalling in hematopoiesis. Exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC, resulted in an increase in the number of dividing hematopoietic cells in APOs from schistosome-resistant Salvador snails. PMA-induced cell division was blocked by treatment with U0126, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MEK1/2. These results suggest that PKC-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2, is involved in cell division in the APO. PMID:19183562

Salamat, Zahra; Sullivan, John T



?-Conjugated organic-based devices with different layered structures produced by the neutral cluster beam deposition method and operating conduction mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report on the systematic characterization of structural effects of organic complementary inverters based on two ?-conjugated organic molecules, pentacene and copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc). Three classes of inverters with different layered structures in top-contact configuration were produced using the neutral cluster beam deposition method. Their voltage transfer characteristics, gain curves and hysteresis behaviour were characterized with respect to their thickness. Class I inverters, with generic structures of single-layered, p-and n-type (200/180 Å) transistors, exhibited high gains of 12.8 ± 1.0 with sharp inversions. Their two constituent transistors, with hole and electron mobilities of 0.38 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 7.0 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, showed well-coupled carrier conduction during operation. The behaviour of class II and III inverters, with layered heterojunction structures, was independent of upper-layer thickness and did not show hysteresis. The better performances of class II inverters, which showed high gains of 14.4 ± 1.1, were rationalized partly in terms of decreased mobility differences between their constituent transistors. Heterojunction geometries can be applied to obtain high-performance, fast-switching inverters by avoiding direct exposure of the air-sensitive transistors to ambient conditions. The inverters' general operating conduction mechanism is also discussed.

Seo, Hoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Do; Kim, Dae-Kyu; Shin, Eun-Sol; Choi, Jong-Ho



Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from organic dairy farms, conventional dairy farms, and county fairs in Minnesota.  


This study compared the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from organic dairy farms, conventional dairy farms, and Minnesota county fairs. A total of 83 STEC isolates (43 O157 and 40 non-O157 STEC) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility as determined by the automated broth microdilution method. Resistance to tetracycline was identified in 19 (23%) isolates and to sulphadimethoxine in 40 (48%) isolates. Half of the STEC isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was observed in 18 (62%) isolates from conventional farms and in 11 (48%) isolates from organic farms. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was more frequent in isolates from calves (77%) than from cows (39%). Multidrug resistant patterns were more common in non-O157 STEC than O157 STEC. This study provides data to document the degree of STEC antimicrobial resistance from dairy cattle sources in Minnesota. The use of antimicrobial agents on farms, and other environmental influences, may affect resistance patterns in isolates from cattle sources. Systematic surveillance of STEC from cattle could potentially detect emergence of antimicrobial resistance that may be spread to humans through the food chain. PMID:17600485

Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J; Hedberg, Craig W; Kaneene, John B; Ruegg, Pamela L; Warnick, Lorin D; Bender, Jeffrey B



These Women Make a Difference in Our Lives | Poster

Producing viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo studies, evaluating new technologies, organizing outreach and internal events and special programs, preparing site visit reports, helping make newcomers feel comfortable, collaborating on statistics and other projects—these are just some of the ways that the women of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research go about their everyday work lives—and in the process, make history.


Predictors of hospital surface contamination with Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: patient and organism factors  

PubMed Central

Background The role of the hospital environment in transmission of ESBL-Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and ESBL-Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is poorly defined. Recent data however suggest that in the hospital setting, ESBL-KP is more transmissible than ESBL-EC. We sought therefore to measure the difference in hospital contamination rates between the two species and to identify key risk factors for contamination of the hospital environment with these organisms. Methods We systematically sampled 8 surfaces in the rooms and bathrooms of adult patients colonized or infected with ESBL-EC or ESBL-KP throughout their hospital stay. Data were collected on factors potentially affecting contamination rates. Environmental contamination was defined as recovery of an ESBL-producing organism matching the source patient’s isolate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed at the level of the patient visit using generalized estimating equations to identify independent predictors of environmental contamination. Results 24 patients (11 with ESBL-KP, 11 ESBL-EC and 2 with both organisms) had 1104 swabs collected during 138 visits. The overall contamination rate was 3.4% (38/1104) and was significantly higher for ESBL-KP than ESBL-EC (5.4% versus 0.4%; p?producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is inversely associated with carbapenem exposure. Predictors of hospital contamination with ESBL-E include: indwelling urinary catheters and ESBL-KP. Rooms of patients with ESBL-KP have substantially higher contamination rates than those with ESBL-EC. This finding may help explain the apparently higher transmissibility of ESBL-KP in the hospital setting.



Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an order of magnitude) less energy is required and that sunlight can be used directly. In the case of photoproduction of hydrogen, as compared to water splitting, feeding the anodic compartment of the PEC with an organic pollutant, instead of the usual supporting electrolyte, will bring about a substantial increase of the photocurrent at a given illumination. Thus, the replacement of the photo-oxidation of water by the photodegradation of organic waste will be accompanied by a gain in solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency and hence by a decrease in the cost of the photoproduced hydrogen. Taking into account the benefits and possible revenues obtainable by the waste degradation, this would seem to be a promising approach to the photoproduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is another waste effluent requiring extensive treatment, especially in petroleum refineries. The so-called Claus process is normally used to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. A sulfur recovery process developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described briefly in Chapter 4 by Dr. C. Linkous as a typical example of the photoproduction of hydrogen in a non oxygen-evolving system. The encouraging results obtained in these investigations of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production combined with organic waste degradation, have prompted a decision to continue the work under the new IEA Hydrogen Agreement Annex 14, Photoelectrolytic Hydrogen Production.

Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))



Uncommon Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Uncommon Lives series on the National Archives of Australia website takes an approach to Australian history that not only encompasses the well-known history-makers, but also lesser known people's role in shaping Australian history. One of the stated goals of the Uncommon Lives series is to show how amateur historians and researchers alike can use the archives to find biographical resources. There are five stories the visitor can discover by simply clicking on the image of the person or people next to the brief description of their story including, "Muslim Journeys", "Charles and Ruth Lane Poole", "Jessie Street", "Wolf Klaphake", and "Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda". By clicking on any choice, visitors will find each story divided into subsections. Explanatory text accompanies the thumbnails of each image and these can be expanded into a high quality image by clicking on them. Each of these stories provides a unique and compelling look into Australian history. For instance in Wolf Klaphake's story you can listen to or read the transcript of segments of the ABC radio play "A Doubtful Character" which is about Klaphake's life and in Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda's story, you can view the actual court records of his case, which was the first for an Aboriginal Australian in the High Court.



Active Living by Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Members of the public health community and those from the world of urban planning have teamed up to create the Active Living By Design program, and by extension, this fine website. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and an academic home at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, the program was created âÂÂto increase physical activity through community design, public policies and communications strategies.â On the siteâÂÂs homepage, visitors can browse through sections that include information on âÂÂActive Living EssentialsâÂÂ, âÂÂActive Living ProgramsâÂÂ, and âÂÂActive Living ResourcesâÂÂ. The âÂÂEssentialsâ section is a good place to start as visitors can learn about the organizationâÂÂs major fields, which include information on the links between physical activity, urban design, and health. Visitors who are looking to learn about the specific âÂÂon the groundâ programs will want to look over the âÂÂCommunity Partnershipsâ area, as it contains information on initiatives in Chicago, Nashville, Orlando, and Cleveland.


Living Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center at Emory University, the Living Links site specializes in "comparisons of the social life, ecology, cognition, neurology, and molecular genetics of apes and humans." With an emphasis on the four extant great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans), this educational site attempts "1) to reconstruct human evolution, 2) pinpoint the differences and similarities between humans and apes, and 3) educate the public about apes, and promote their well-being and conservation." The Info section provides a long (hyperlinked) list of general information on apes, from Allogrooming to Wooly spider monkeys. The Research section gives a brief overview of the Yerkes Center's research questions (and their evolutionary context), and Animals describes the Center's study animals -- three main social groups of chimpanzees -- with a special vocalizations feature. For those interested in learning more about apes and how our ancestry is intertwined with theirs, this site will be of interest.


American Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as part of the American Culture studies program at Washington University, the American Lives Project is "a new resource for cultural inquiry that allows users to build connections and identify differences between materials." The project brings together oral histories, historical documents, artifacts, sound, and visual media into an online collection that serves as a model for others seeking to do such work. This particular project documents student activism at Washington University from 1964 to 1972. First-time visitors should look at the About area to learn about the design team, the goals of the project, and the technical aspects of this work. Moving on, visitors can click on the How to Use tab for information about examining the collection. Visitors will find protest banners, letters, handouts, photographs by student groups, and links to related media. Also, visitors can create their own curated collections via the My Objects area, which is a great way to highlight items of personal interest. [KMG


London Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"London Lives: Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis" is a project with the goal of "assessing the role of plebeians in the evolution of social practices in the modern metropolis." In other words, the website aims to make accessible the records of non-elite individuals in order to show how those users of particular social institutions charities, the penal system, and others shaped their development. Visitors can choose "Browse Documents" to see the types of documents available, such as "Parish Archives", "Criminal Records", and "Coroners' Records". The "City of London Coroners" records from the 1780s include an inquest into a suspicious death, with no less than a dozen interviews with people who knew the man who died, and one of whom attested to him being "a little touched in the head". The "Additional Datasets" link contains 16 other datasets, including one of boys recruited to serve at sea for the Marine Society.


The hydrogen-bonded dianion of vitamin K1 produced in aqueous-organic solutions exists in equilibrium with its hydrogen-bonded semiquinone anion radical.  


When the quinone, vitamin K1 (VK1), is electrochemically reduced in aqueous-acetonitrile solutions (CH3CN with 7.22 M H2O), it undergoes a two-electron reduction to form the dianion that is hydrogen-bonded with water [VK1(H2O)y(2–)]. EPR and voltammetry experiments have shown that the persistent existence of the semiquinone anion radical (also hydrogen-bonded with water) [VK1(H2O)x(–•)] in aqueous or organic–aqueous solutions is a result of VK1(H2O)y(2–) undergoing a net homogeneous electron transfer reaction (comproportionation) with VK1, and not via direct one-electron reduction of VK1. When 1 mM solutions of VK1 were electrochemically reduced by two electrons in aqueous-acetonitrile solutions, quantitative EPR experiments indicated that the amount of VK1(H2O)x(–•) produced was up to approximately 35% of all the reduced species. In situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR experiments on sequentially one- and two-electron bulk reduced solutions of VK1 (showing strong absorbances at 1664, 1598, and 1298 cm(–1)) in CH3CN containing <0.05 M H2O led to the detection of VK1(–•) with strong absorbances at 1710, 1703, 1593, 1559, 1492, and 1466 cm(–1) and VK1(H2O)y(2–) with strong absorbances at 1372 and 1342 cm(–1). PMID:23398469

Lim, Zhen Hui; Chng, Elaine Lay Khim; Hui, Yanlan; Webster, Richard D



Carbon isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have adapted the Picarro iTOC CRDS isotope analyzer for analysis of produced water brines via wet chemical persulfate oxidation. In particular, we developed strategies and techniques for overcoming the limitation imposed by low oxidation efficiencies due to the chloride ion interference with persulfate oxidation. These techniques are important for understanding the origin of dissolved organic carbon in subsurface fluids from oilfields, as a tracer of fracking fluids in groundwater, and in interpreting changes in groundwater DOC as a result of microbial activity including oil biodegradation or microbially enhanced oil recovery. We describe the limitations of this new instrument for the analysis of DOC in brines including sample requirements, matrix effects, and the effect of DOC composition on reaction efficiency and isotopic measurements. We compare strategies including anion exchange cartridges, persulfate reactant concentrations, and reaction time. The CRDS analysis of DOC in brines is a useful tool for understanding the origin and fate of DOC and is a potentially powerful tool to identifiy evidence of contamination due to hydrofracturing chemicals that have a distinctive carbon isotopic signature relative to natural brine.

Thomas, B.; Conaway, C.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Saad, N.



Live Your Life Well  


... here Home » Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven ... ability to build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is ...


The complete mitochondrial genome of a tree frog, Polypedates megacephalus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae), and a novel gene organization in living amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of an Old World tree frog Polypedates megacephalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) by using a long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and shotgun strategy of sequencing. The entire mtDNA sequence is 16,473 nt long with a novel mitogenomic gene organization in amphibians. Unlike other neobatrachian frogs, the transfer ribonucleic

Peng Zhang; Hui Zhou; Dan Liang; Yi-Fei Liu; Yue-Qin Chen; Liang-Hu Qu



ISS Live!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed



Exploitation of long-lived 3IL excited states for metal-organic photodynamic therapy: verification in a metastatic melanoma model.  


Members of a family of Ru(II)-appended pyrenylethynylene dyads were synthesized, characterized according to their photophysical and photobiological properties, and evaluated for their collective potential as photosensitizers for metal-organic photodynamic therapy. The dyads in this series possess lowest-lying (3)IL-based excited states with lifetimes that can be tuned from 22 to 270 ?s in fluid solution and from 44 to 3440 ?s in glass at 77 K. To our knowledge, these excited-state lifetimes are the longest reported for Ru(II)-based dyads containing only one organic chromophore and lacking terminal diimine groups. These excited states proved to be extremely sensitive to trace amounts of oxygen, owing to their long lifetimes and very low radiative rates. Herein, we demonstrate that (3)IL states of this nature are potent photodynamic agents, exhibiting the largest photocytotoxicity indices reported to date with nanomolar light cytotoxicities at very short drug-to-light intervals. Importantly, these new agents are robust enough to maintain submicromolar PDT in pigmented metastatic melanoma cells, where the presence of melanin in combination with low oxygen tension is known to compromise PDT. This activity underscores the potential of metal-organic PDT as an alternate treatment strategy for challenging environments such as malignant melanoma. PMID:24127659

Lincoln, Richard; Kohler, Lars; Monro, Susan; Yin, Huimin; Stephenson, Mat; Zong, Ruifa; Chouai, Abdellatif; Dorsey, Christopher; Hennigar, Robie; Thummel, Randolph P; McFarland, Sherri A



The role of commercial non-related living kidney transplants.  


The motivation for dialysis patients to seek early, even pre-emptive, kidney transplantation from living donors is discussed. In most countries both the waiting time and the numbers of patients awaiting kidney transplantation are increasing. Local geopolitics in Jerusalem have produced a unique window to observe present transplant practices which include widespread international marketing of kidneys from paid living donors. These have been subject of media admonitions and total rejection by professional organizations. In a modern world, traditional medical paternalism to both donors and patients should be balanced by rights for individual autonomy. Since patients, donors and medical professionals are already participating in illicit organ trading, is it not time for us to seriously consider the ethical and logistic implications of legalizing financial remuneration for kidney donation? PMID:14733294

Friedlaender, Michael M



Effect of crude lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O127:B8 on the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca).  


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) to which the internal defense system (IDS) of both vertebrates and invertebrates responds. We measured the mitotic response of the hematopoietic tissue of the schistosome-transmitting snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, to crude LPS from Escherichia coli 0127:B8. In a dose-response study, snails were injected with a range of concentrations of crude LPS, and mitotic figures were enumerated in histological sections of amebocyte-producing organ (APO) fixed at 24h post-injection (PI) following a 6h treatment with 0.1% colchicine. In APOs from Salvador strain snails, which are genetically resistant to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, LPS concentrations of 0.01 mg/ml and above triggered a large increase in mitotic activity, whereas in APOs from schistosome-susceptible NIH albino snails, concentrations of 0.1mg/ml elicited a much smaller, but statistically significant increase. A time course study, without colchicine treatment, revealed that in Salvador APOs the mitotic response to 0.1mg/ml occurred by 18 h PI, peaked at 24h, and returned to control levels by 72 h; NIH albino APOs showed no detectible response. When Salvador APOs were exposed to crude LPS in vitro, no increase in mitotic activity occurred, a result suggesting the possible requirement for a peripheral tissue or hemolymph factor. The increased cell proliferation induced by crude LPS represents a novel systemic response of an invertebrate IDS to one or more PAMPs from a Gram-negative bacterium. PMID:21530581

Sullivan, John T; Bulman, Christina A; Salamat, Zahra



Live @ IO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This multimedia exhibit hosted by the Internet Public Library was created by University of Michigan School of Information graduate student Matthew Martin. Martin's Website documents the past and present music scene at io, a Detroit alternative music venue. The Website has photos, music, and interviews with the owners of the club, explaining why they wanted to create an alternative music space in the motor city. The site is nicely organized and has a section that explains and gives links to viewing requirements and plug-ins. The alt gallery is especially fun: music clips give users a taste of the sounds of io, and collections of photos give visuals. Get a sound clip of the band going and then flip through the pics to feel like a part of the scene.

Martin, Matthew.


Living lobar lung transplantation.  


A constant awareness of the risk to the living donors must be maintained with any live-donor organ transplantation program, and comprehensive short- and long-term follow-up should be strongly encouraged to maintain the viability of these potentially life-saving programs. There has been no perioperative or long-term mortality following lobectomy for living lobar lung transplantation, and in the authors' series the perioperative risks associated with donor lobectomy are similar to those seen with standard lung resection. These risks might increase if the procedure were offered on an occasional basis and not within a well-established program. Further long-term outcome data, similar to data for live-donor renal and liver transplantation, are needed. Therefore, the authors still favor performing living lobar lung transplantation only for the patient with a clinically deteriorating condition. They believe that prospective donors should be informed of the morbidity associated with donor lobectomy and the potential for mortality, as well of potential recipient outcomes in regard to life expectancy and quality of life after transplantation. A major question regarding lobar lung transplantation that has been unanswered during the last decade has been defining when a potential recipient is too ill to justify placing two healthy donors at risk of donor lobectomy. Recipient age, gender, indication for primary transplant, prehospitalization status, preoperative steroid usage, relationship of donor to recipient, and the presence or absence of rejection episodes postoperatively do not seem to influence overall mortality. Patients receiving mechanical ventilation preoperatively and those undergoing retransplantation after either a previous cadaveric or lobar lung transplantation have significantly elevated odds ratios for postoperative death. The authors therefore recommend caution in these subgroups of patients. This experience is similar to the cadaveric experience in which intubated patients have higher I-year mortalities and patients undergoing retransplantation have decreased 3- and 5-year survival. A similar experience with a smaller number of lobar transplants has been reported by the Washington University group. Despite the high-risk patient population, this alternative procedure has been life saving in severely ill patients who would die or become unsuitable recipients before a cadaveric organ becomes available. Although cadaveric transplantation is preferable because of the risk to the donors, living lobar lung transplantation should continue to be used under properly selected circumstances. Although there have been no deaths in the donor cohort, a risk of death between 0.5% and 1% should be quoted pending further data. These encouraging results are important if this procedure is to be considered as an option at more pulmonary transplant centers in view of the institutional, regional, and intra- and international differences in the philosophical and ethical acceptance of the use of organs from live donors for transplantation. PMID:15585183

Bowdish, Michael E; Barr, Mark L



Enteral Immunization with Attenuated Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes as a Live Vaccine Vector: Organ-Dependent Dynamics of CD4 T Lymphocytes Reactive to a Leishmania major Tracer Epitope  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes is considered as a potential live bacterial vector, particularly for the induction of CD8 T cells. The CD4 T-cell immune response triggered after enteral immunization of mice has not yet been thoroughly characterized. The dynamics of gamma interferon (IFN-?)- and interleukin-4 (IL-4)-secreting CD4 T cells were analyzed after priming through intragastric delivery of an attenuated ?actA recombinant L. monocytogenes strain expressing the Leishmania major LACK protein; a peptide of this protein, LACK158-173 peptide (pLACK), is a well-characterized CD4 T-cell target in BALB/c mice. Five compartments were monitored: Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, liver, and blood. A single intragastric inoculation of ?actA-LACK-LM in BALB/c mice led to colonization of the MLN and spleen at a significant level for at least 3 days. Efficient priming of IFN-?-secreting pLACK-reactive CD4 T cells was observed in all tested compartments. Interestingly, IL-4-secreting pLACK-reactive CD4 T cells were detectable at day 6 or 7 only in blood and liver. The absence of translocation of viable bacteria through the intestinal epithelium after further ?actA-LACK-LM inoculations was concomitant with the absence of an increase in the level of IFN-? secreted by the MLN, blood, and splenic pLACK-reactive Th1 T cells, although the levels remained significantly above the basal level. No change in this population size was detected in the spleen. However, an increase in the number of intragastric inoculations had a clinical beneficial effect in L. major-infected BALB/c mice. L. monocytogenes thus presents the potential of an efficient vector for induction of CD4 T cells when administered by the enteral route.

Saklani-Jusforgues, Helene; Fontan, Elisabeth; Soussi, Neirouz; Milon, Genevieve; Goossens, Pierre L.



Perceptions of rewards among volunteer caregivers of people living with AIDS working in faith-based organizations in South Africa: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Volunteer caregivers are a critical source of support for the majority of people living with HIV and AIDS in southern Africa, which has extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates. While studies have shown that volunteer caregiving is associated with negative health and socio-economic outcomes, little is known about the positive experiences of volunteers in the home-based care context in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of rewards among volunteers working in home-based care settings. Methods This study uses a qualitative design. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 55 volunteer caregivers using an interview schedule containing open-ended questions. Results Volunteer caregivers derived intrinsic rewards related to self-growth and personal (emotional and psychological) development on the job; they also derived satisfaction from community members taking a liking for them and expressing a need for their services. Volunteers felt gratified by the improvements in their health behaviours, which were a direct consequence of the experiences of caring for terminally ill patients with AIDS. Extrinsic rewards came from appreciation and recognition shown by patients and community members. Extrinsic rewards also accrued to volunteers when the services they rendered made their patients happy. Perhaps the greatest sources of extrinsic rewards are skills and competencies acquired from training and experience while caring for their patients, and volunteers' ability to make a difference in the community. Conclusions Insights into volunteer caregiver rewards provide opportunities for policy makers and programme managers to develop a model of home-based care that facilitates the accrual of rewards to volunteers alongside volunteers' traditional duties of patient care. Programme managers could employ these insights in recruiting and assisting volunteers to identify and reflect on rewards in the caregiving situation as a means of reducing the burden of care and sustaining volunteer interest in caregiving.



Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assembling non-biological materials (geomaterials) into a proto-organism constitutes a bridge between nonliving and living matter. In this article we present a simple step-by-step route to assemble a proto-organism. Many pictures have been proposed to describe this transition within the origins-of-life and artificial life communities, and more recently alternative pictures have been emerging from advances in nanoscience and biotechnology. The proposed

Steen Rasmussen; Liaohai Chen; Martin Nilsson; Shigeaki Abe



Complete lives in the balance.  


The allocation of scarce health care resources such as flu treatment or organs for transplant presents stark problems of distributive justice. Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel have recently proposed a novel system for such allocation. Their "complete lives system" incorporates several principles, including ones that prescribe saving the most lives, preserving the most life-years, and giving priority to persons between 15 and 40 years old. This paper argues that the system lacks adequate moral foundations. Persad and colleagues' defense of giving priority to those between 15 and 40 leaves them open to the charge that they discriminate unfairly against children. Second, the paper contends that the complete lives system fails to provide meaningful practical guidance in central cases, since it contains no method for balancing its principles when they conflict. Finally, the paper proposes a new method for balancing principles of saving the most lives and maximizing life-years. PMID:20379920

Kerstein, Samuel J; Bognar, Greg



Accessing the long-lived triplet excited states in bodipy-conjugated 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole/benzoxazoles and applications as organic triplet photosensitizers for photooxidations.  


Bodipy derivatives containing excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) chromophores 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole and benzoxazole (HBT and HBO) subunits were prepared (7-10). The compounds show red-shifted UV-vis absorption (530-580 nm; ? up to 50000 M(-1) cm(-1)) and emission compared to both HBT/HBO and Bodipy. The new chromophores show small Stokes shift (45 nm) and high fluorescence quantum yields (?(F) up to 36%), which are in stark contrast to HBT and HBO (Stokes shift up to 180 nm and ?(F) as low as 0.6%). On the basis of steady state and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, as well as DFT/TDDFT calculations, we propose that 7-9 do not undergo ESIPT upon photoexcitation. Interestingly, nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that Bodipy-localized triplet excited states were populated for 7-10 upon photoexcitation; the lifetimes of the triplet excited states (?(T)) are up to 195 ?s. DFT calculations confirm the transient absorptions are due to the triplet state. Different from the previous report, we demonstrated that population of the triplet excited states is not the result of ESIPT. The compounds were used as organic triplet photosensitizers for photooxidation of 1,5-dihydroxylnaphthalene. One of the compounds is more efficient than the conventional [Ir(ppy)(2)(phen)][PF(6)] triplet photosensitizer. Our result will be useful for design of new Bodipy derivatives, ESIPT compounds, and organic triplet photosensitizers, as well as for applications of these compounds in photovoltaics, photocatalysis and luminescent materials, etc. PMID:22742957

Yang, Pei; Zhao, Jianzhang; Wu, Wanhua; Yu, Xuerong; Liu, Yifan



A President Lives with Activism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College President offers 10 commandments for living with activism: take work, but not self, seriously; keep objective in sight; do not oversimplify; communicate; be prepared; chose proper reaction level; beware November and April (time for an organized activity); watch student funds; resist forces of division; and advance confidently. (Author/CJ)

Gooder, Glen G.



Direct plasma interaction with living tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

Fridman, Gregory


Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  


Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim



Technical assistance to the Ohio Department of Health. Volatile organic compound testing of blood of persons living near the Industrial Excess Landfill NPL site, Uniontown, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Epidemiology and Medicine Branch (EMB) of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was requested by the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) to assist in evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures of persons residing near the Industrial Excess Landfill site in Uniontown, Ohio, and who had prior privately obtained tests. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate the concern that prior tests might indicate unusual VOC exposures. EMB proposed to perform an investigation that would survey the community near the landfill for self-reported diseases and health complaints and to provide some blood testing. The proposal was declined by a committee representing the affected citizens until a health assessment can be completed wherein routes of contamination from the landfill are established. The blood testing was performed on these privately evaluated people on a voluntary basis, and 13 of the 16 chose to participate. The VOC test results were within established norms for all but two participants. These two had high levels of tetrachloroethene. Also reported was the presence of a 6-carbon, 14-hydrogen compound. The level of the compound could not be quantitated because of the absence of laboratory validation standard materials.

Not Available



Organic Chemistry of Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)




Microsoft Academic Search

Alien—unlike one's own; strange; repugnant in nature Living on an alien planet will be difficult. Humankind has produced excessive amounts of greenhouse gases, discharged many thousands of hazardous chemicals into the environment, displaced huge numbers of species from their habitat, and depleted brood stock from oceanic fisheries. In addition, the period following peak oil will mean less energy for heating\\/cooling,

John Cairns



Cloning and Sequencing of the Histidine Decarboxylase Genes of Gram-Negative, Histamine-Producing Bacteria and Their Application in Detection and Identification of These Organisms in Fish  

PubMed Central

The use of molecular tools for early and rapid detection of gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria is important for preventing the accumulation of histamine in fish products. To date, no molecular detection or identification system for gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria has been developed. A molecular method that allows the rapid detection of gram-negative histamine producers by PCR and simultaneous differentiation by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using the amplification product of the histidine decarboxylase genes (hdc) was developed. A collection of 37 strains of histamine-producing bacteria (8 reference strains from culture collections and 29 isolates from fish) and 470 strains of non-histamine-producing bacteria isolated from fish were tested. Histamine production of bacteria was determined by paper chromatography and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Among 37 strains of histamine-producing bacteria, all histidine-decarboxylating gram-negative bacteria produced a PCR product, except for a strain of Citrobacter braakii. In contrast, none of the non-histamine-producing strains (470 strains) produced an amplification product. Specificity of the amplification was further confirmed by sequencing the 0.7-kbp amplification product. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates constructed using newly determined sequences of partial hdc was similar to the phylogenetic tree generated from 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. Histamine accumulation occurred when PCR amplification of hdc was positive in all of fish samples tested and the presence of powerful histamine producers was confirmed by subsequent SSCP identification. The potential application of the PCR-SSCP method as a rapid monitoring tool is discussed.

Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Yoshikawa, Miwako; Fujii, Tateo



GIS Live and Web Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.



Live Kidney Donation: a plea for the laparoscopic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chapter One we described the development of live kidney donation. Currently, live donor \\u000akidney transplantation is the best solution to attack the persistent organ shortage in the \\u000aWestern World. Because of this shortage live kidney donation is still interesting over fifty years \\u000aafter Joseph Murray and Rene Kuss performed the first live kidney donor transplantations. \\u000aThe revival of live

N. F. M. Kok



Live and Inert Fascine Streambank Erosion Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Live fascines (LF) and inert fascines (IF) are sausage-shaped bundle structures made from cuttings of living woody plant material. In the LF, the cut branches are expected to grow producing roots and top growth, (performing additional soil reinforcement v...

R. B. Sotir C. Fischenich



NASA LIVE Creating a Global Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes NASA LIVE (Learning through Interactive Videoconferencing Experiences), a free series of videoconferencing programs produced by NASA's Langley Center for Distance Learning in Hampton, Virginia. NASA LIVE is designed for K-12 educators and students, allowing teachers and students to interact with NASA experts in a virtual…

Townes-Young, Katrina L.; Ewing, Virginia R.



Study on copper phthalocyanine and perylene-based ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors produced using neutral beam deposition method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to the production and characterization of ambipolar, heterojunction-based organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) with a top-contact, multi-digitated, long-channel geometry. Organic thin films of n-type N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide and p-type copper phthalocyanine were successively deposited on the hydroxyl-free polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-coated SiO2 dielectrics using the NCBD method. Characterization of the morphological and structural properties of the organic active layers was performed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various device parameters such as hole- and electron-carrier mobilities, threshold voltages, and electroluminescence (EL) were derived from the fits of the observed current-voltage and current-voltage-light emission characteristics of OLEFETs. The OLEFETs demonstrated good field-effect characteristics, well-balanced ambipolarity, and substantial EL under ambient conditions. The device performance, which is strongly correlated with the surface morphology and the structural properties of the organic active layers, is discussed along with the operating conduction mechanism.

Kim, Dae-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Do; Shin, Eun-Sol; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Choi, Jong-Ho



Use of Genetic Engineering to Produce a Mutated Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Capable of Both Oxidizing and Reductively Dechlorinating Hazardous Organic Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to develop new catalysts and organisms that will be capable of enhancing in situ bioremediation. Our approach is to prepare site-specific mutants of the P450 monooxygenase enzyme P450 102 (BM-3) from the soil bacterium Bacillus...

W. L. Alworth D. A. Mullin



[Liver transplantation and living donors].  


LIVER SPLITTING: Classically, cadaver livers are split ex situ to provide two grafts for transplantation. This procedure could be performed in situ, limiting the duration of the operation and improving recovery of liver function. LIVING RELATED DONORS: Living donor liver transplantation is a well established technique in children. Donor mortality is nil and morbidity very acceptable. For adults, the results have been less satisfactory with increasing risk for the recipient, with biliary and venous problems due to the "small-for-size" implant. ORGAN HARVESTING: The left lobe, classically used for children, can also be grafted into adults, but under certain restrictive conditions. If the donor's residual liver volume is below 0.8% of the total body mass, the biological alterations remain limited and transient. EMERGENCY TRANSPLANTATIONS: Liver transplantations using a living donor can save critically ill patients with a life expectancy of less than 3 months. Remarkable survival rates have been achieved. PMID:11577581

Campan, P



Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion equation which represents the mental dynamics. It has been demonstrated that coupled mental-motor dynamics can simulate emerging self-organization, prey-predator games, collaboration and competition, "collective brain," etc.

Zak, M.



Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor  

PubMed Central

Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term “Complex living donor” is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor.

Caliskan, Yasar; Yildiz, Alaattin



Das Image deutscher Öko-Zeichen - Unterscheiden Verbraucher zwischen Öko-Verbandszeichen, Öko- Herstellermarken, Öko-Handelsmarken und dem BioSiegel? - The Image of Organic Labels - Do Consumers Differentiate between Labels of Organic Producer Organisations, Organic Brands, Retailers' Own Organic Labels and the 'Bio Siegel'?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Germany, consumers are confronted with more than 100 organic labels, which lead to uncertainty about the reliability of such labels. As a solution, one public organic label, the Bio-Siegel, was designed. This raises two questions from the marketing perspective: (1) Do any of the individual organic labels have a specific image, a unique selling proposition (USP)? (2) Does the

A. Wirthgen


Electronic Interfacing with Living Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct interfacing of living cells with inorganic electronic materials, components or systems has led to the development of two broad categories of devices that can (1) transduce biochemical signals generated by biological components into electrical signals and (2) transduce electronically generated signals into biochemical signals. The first category of devices permits the monitoring of living cells, the second, enables control of cellular processes. This review will survey this exciting area with emphasis on the fundamental issues and obstacles faced by researchers. Devices and applications that use both prokaryotic (microbial) and eukaryotic (mammalian) cells will be covered. Individual devices described include microbial biofuel cells that produce electricity, bioelectrical reactors that enable electronic control of cellular metabolism, living cell biosensors for the detection of chemicals and devices that permit monitoring and control of mammalian physiology.

Fleming, James T.


NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body; Genome sequencing creates first reference data for microbes living with healthy adults

Microbes inhabit just about every part of the human body, living on the skin, in the gut, and up the nose. Sometimes they cause sickness, but most of the time, microorganisms live in harmony with their human hosts, providing vital functions essential for human survival. For the first time, a consortium of researchers organized by the National Institutes of Health has mapped the normal microbial make-up of healthy humans, producing numerous insights and even a few surprises.


Methylglyoxal in food and living organisms.  


Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive alpha-oxoaldehyde formed endogenously in numerous enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. It modifies arginine and lysine residues in proteins forming advanced glycation end-products such as N(delta)-(5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-L-ornithine (MG-H1), 2-amino-5-(2-amino-5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-1-yl)pentanoic acid (MG-H2), 2-amino-5-(2-amino-4-hydro-4-methyl-5-imidazolon-1-yl)pentanoic acid (MG-H3), argpyrimidine, N(delta)-(4-carboxy-4,6-dimethyl-5,6-dihydroxy-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-yl)-L-ornithine (THP), N(epsilon)-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), MG-derived lysine dimer (MOLD), and 2-ammonio-6-({2-[4-ammonio-5-oxido-5-oxopently)amino]-4-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-5-ylidene}amino)hexanoate (MODIC), which have been identified in vivo and are associated with complications of diabetes and some neurodegenerative diseases. In foodstuffs and beverages, MG is formed during processing, cooking, and prolonged storage. Fasting and metabolic disorders and/or defects in MG detoxification processes cause accumulation of this reactive dicarbonyl in vivo. In addition, the intake of low doses of MG over a prolonged period of time can cause degenerative changes in different tissues, and can also exert anticancer activity. MG in biological samples can be quantified by HPLC or GC methods with preliminary derivatization into more stable chromophores and/or fluorophores, or derivatives suitable for determination by MS by use of diamino derivatives of benzene and naphthalene, 6-hydroxy-2,4,5-triaminopyrimidine, cysteamine, and o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine. The methods include three basic steps: deproteinization, incubation with derivatization agent, and chromatographic analysis with or without preliminary extraction of the formed products. PMID:17103372

Nemet, Ina; Varga-Defterdarovi?, Lidija; Turk, Zdenka



DNA Patents Create Monopolies on Living Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused position statement from the Council for Responsible Genetics reflects on how patenting of life forms should be considered unethical because: it fosters biopiracy of indigenous resources, turns life forms into commodities to be used for profit, hinders the free-flow of scientific research, and destroys economic sustainability of developing nations.

Council for Responsible Genetics (;)



Short-chain organic acids produced on glucose, lactose, and citrate media by Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus casei, and Enterobacter aerogenes strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of Enterococcus faecalis, three of Lactobacillus casei and two of Enterobacter aerogenes, isolated from commercial Palmita-type cheese were cultured in peptone-yeast extract broth with glucose (PYG), lactose (PYL), or citrate (PYC) added as the main carbon sources. The short-chain volatile and non-volatile organic acids were extracted and their concentration determined by GC with a FID detector. The identity

D. Urdaneta; D. Raffe; A. Ferrer; B. Sulbarán de Ferrer; L. Cabrera; M. Pérez



Prediction of optimum process parameters to achieve eco-friendly desizing of organic cotton fabrics with indigenously produced alpha-amylase and their enzyme kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to study the desizing of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) starch-based organic cotton fabric using alpha-amylase enzyme with various process parameters such as enzyme concentration, temperature and reaction time. These process variables are selected based on the Box–Behnken design of experiment and the output of experiment resulted in weight loss of the fabric and their results are

C. Vigneswaran; N. Anbumani; M. Ananthasubramanian; R. Rajendran



Prediction of optimum process parameters to achieve eco-friendly desizing of organic cotton fabrics with indigenously produced alpha-amylase and their enzyme kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to study the desizing of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) starch-based organic cotton fabric using alpha-amylase enzyme with various process parameters such as enzyme concentration, temperature and reaction time. These process variables are selected based on the Box–Behnken design of experiment and the output of experiment resulted in weight loss of the fabric and their results are

C. Vigneswaran; N. Anbumani; M. Ananthasubramanian; R. Rajendran



Nucleobases and prebiotic molecules in organic residues produced from the ultraviolet photo-irradiation of pyrimidine in NH(3) and H(2)O+NH(3) ices.  


Although not yet identified in the interstellar medium (ISM), N-heterocycles including nucleobases-the information subunits of DNA and RNA-are present in carbonaceous chondrites, which indicates that molecules of biological interest can be formed in non-terrestrial environments via abiotic pathways. Recent laboratory experiments and ab initio calculations have already shown that the irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H(2)O ices leads to the formation of a suite of oxidized pyrimidine derivatives, including the nucleobase uracil. In the present work, NH(3):pyrimidine and H(2)O:NH(3):pyrimidine ice mixtures with different relative proportions were irradiated with UV photons under astrophysically relevant conditions. Liquid- and gas-chromatography analysis of the resulting organic residues has led to the detection of the nucleobases uracil and cytosine, as well as other species of prebiotic interest such as urea and small amino acids. The presence of these molecules in organic residues formed under abiotic conditions supports scenarios in which extraterrestrial organics that formed in space and were subsequently delivered to telluric planets via comets and meteorites could have contributed to the inventory of molecules that triggered the first biological reactions on their surfaces. PMID:22519971

Nuevo, Michel; Milam, Stefanie N; Sandford, Scott A



The Role of Primary-Producer-Mediated Organic Complexation in Regional Variation in the Supply of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn to Oceanic, Non-Hydrothermal Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic, non-hydrothermal ferromanganese crusts and nodules are variably enriched in Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn. Comparison of the content of these elements in crusts and nodules with the level of primary productivity in the South Pacific Ocean suggests that primary-producer-mediated complexation of several of these elements by organic ligands in solution may contribute to explaining a pattern of

Philomene A. Verlaan



Organic wastes and biomass. perpetual sources of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey based mainly on the Institute of Gas Technology's research on the conversion of living (biomass) and waste organic materials to high-Btu SNG covers the potential fuel production from biomass, including land and water plants; the location of plants to produce the SNG; the available gasification processes, including pyrolysis, hydrogasification, and anaerobic digestion; bioconversion work at the Institute of

D. L. Klass; T. L. Cramer



Formation of long-lived reactive species of blood serum proteins by the action of heat.  


It has been previously established that heat induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aqueous solutions. In biological systems, ROS cause oxidative damage predominantly to proteins due to their abundance and sensitivity to oxidation. Proteins oxidized by the action of X-rays represent long-lived reactive species, which trigger the secondary generation of ROS (Bruskov et al. (2012) [25]). Here we studied the possibility of formation of long-lived species of the blood serum proteins bovine serum albumin and bovine gamma-globulin in air-saturated solutions under the action of heat. It is shown that heat induces the generation of long-lived protein species, which in turn generate ROS ((1)?2, (·)O2(-), (·)O?, and H2O2). The formation of the long-lived reactive species of BSA and BGG with a half-life of about 4h induced by moderate hyperthermia was revealed using the chemiluminescence of protein solutions. It was found that long-lived reactive species of BSA and BGG cause prolonged generation of H2O2. The results obtained suggest that H2O2 produced by proteins after heating represents a messenger in signaling pathways and produces therapeutic effects in living organisms. PMID:24361896

Bruskov, Vadim I; Popova, Nelly R; Ivanov, Vladimir E; Karp, Olga E; Chernikov, Anatoly V; Gudkov, Sergey V



[Vaccines: producers in countries of the Southern hemisphere].  


Vaccine producers in southern hemisphere countries now contribute significantly to global output. In 2006 southern hemisphere countries accounted for more than 10% of the total worldwide production with a progression approximately 70% greater than all producers combined in the two-year period between 2004 and 2006. Though difficult to measure, production in volume is higher due to lower prices practiced in most of these countries. For many years before the 1980s, production was scattered among numerous limited-scale companies. Most were founded at the initiative of governments striving to cover the needs of the population for essential vaccines. A number of institutions and private structures such as Institut Pasteur Production, Connaught Laboratories, and Institut Merieux have also set up production facilities. Today's producers can be divided into two categories, i.e., local producers that produce mainly monovalent vaccines and worldwide producers with strong R&D investment programs. Local producers are located mainly in large southern hemisphere countries such as China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia as well as in eastern countries. For the most dynamic companies, international development is focused on southern hemisphere countries excluding North America and Europe. With the support international organization such as WHO, UNICEF and GAVI, alliances are now being formed and networks are being organized in an effort to ensure reliable supplies of high quality vaccines at affordable prices in developing countries. The contribution of these producers will increase for the greater benefit of the people living in the southern hemisphere. PMID:17926792

Bertrand, J J