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1

DEMAND OVERVIEW FOR ORGANIC PRODUCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market for organic food has been growing 20% per year for the past nine years. Fruits and vegetables are a large part of the organic market, accounting for more than $670 million in retail sales annually. This presents an opportunity for entry of new agricultural producers, and the expansion of existing organic growers. Similarly to other businesses, organic producers

Jon C. Phillips; H. Christopher Peterson

2001-01-01

2

Producing a Live HDTV Program from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By the year 2000, NASA had flown HDTV camcorders on three Space Shuttle missions: STS-95, STS-93 and STS-99. All three flights of these camcorders were accomplished with cooperation from the Japanese space agency (then known as NASDA and now known as JAXA). The cameras were large broadcast-standard cameras provided by NASDA and flight certified by both NASA and NASDA. The high-definition video shot during these missions was spectacular. Waiting for the return of the tapes to Earth emphasized the next logical step: finding a way to downlink the HDTV live from space. Both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) programs were interested in live HDTV from space, but neither had the resources to fully fund the technology. Technically, downlinking from the ISS was the most effective approach. Only when the Japanese broadcaster NHK and the Japanese space agency expressed interest in covering a Japanese astronaut's journey to the ISS did the project become possible. Together, JAXA and NHK offered equipment, technology, and funding toward the project. In return, NHK asked for a live HDTV downlink during one of its broadcast programs. NASA and the ISS Program sought a US partner to broadcast a live HDTV program and approached the Discovery Channel. The Discovery Channel had proposed a live HDTV project in response to NASA's previous call for offers. The Discovery Channel agreed to provide addItional resources. With the final partner in place, the project was under way. Engineers in the Avionics Systems Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) had already studied the various options for downlinking HDTV from the ISS. They concluded that the easiest way was to compress the HDTV so that the resulting data stream would "look" like a payload data stream. The flight system would consist of a professional HDTV camcorder with live HD-SDI output, an HDTV MPEG-2 encoder, and a packetizer/protocol converter.

Grubbs, Rodney; Fontanot, Carlos; Hames, Kevin

2007-01-01

3

Just love in live organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or,\\u000a in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged\\u000a but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit\\u000a of the concept of just

Kristin Zeiler

2009-01-01

4

Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms  

DOEpatents

Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

Wong; Pak C. (Richland, WA), Wong; Kwong K. (Sugar Land, TX), Foote; Harlan P. (Richland, WA)

2006-06-06

5

Minors as living solid-organ donors.  

PubMed

In the past half-century, solid-organ transplantation has become standard treatment for a variety of diseases in children and adults. The major limitation for all transplantation is the availability of donors, and the gap between demand and supply continues to grow despite the increase in living donors. Although rare, children do serve as living donors, and these donations raise serious ethical issues. This clinical report includes a discussion of the ethical considerations regarding minors serving as living donors, using the traditional benefit/burden calculus from the perspectives of both the donor and the recipient. The report also includes an examination of the circumstances under which a minor may morally participate as a living donor, how to minimize risks, and what the informed-consent process should entail. The American Academy of Pediatrics holds that minors can morally serve as living organ donors but only in exceptional circumstances when specific criteria are fulfilled. PMID:18676567

Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard

2008-08-01

6

Organ Transplants from Living Donors - Halachic Aspects*  

PubMed Central

This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction. PMID:23908800

Halperin, Mordechai

2011-01-01

7

Living Organisms for the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication was prepared for elementary teachers and other local personnel responsible for providing, maintaining and using living organisms to enhance elementary science programs. The manual contains a foreword, general information, and an appendix. It gives information concerning equipment and supplies, establishing and maintaining an…

Hampton, Carolyn H.; Hampton, Carol D.

8

Form, function, and evolution of living organisms  

PubMed Central

Despite the vast diversity of sizes and shapes of living organisms, life’s organization across scales exhibits remarkable commonalities, most notably through the approximate validity of Kleiber’s law, the power law scaling of metabolic rates with the mass of an organism. Here, we present a derivation of Kleiber’s law that is independent of the specificity of the myriads of organism species. Specifically, we account for the distinct geometries of trees and mammals as well as deviations from the pure power law behavior of Kleiber’s law, and predict the possibility of life forms with geometries intermediate between trees and mammals. We also make several predictions in excellent accord with empirical data. Our theory relates the separate evolutionary histories of plants and animals through the fundamental physics underlying their distinct overall forms and physiologies. PMID:24550479

Banavar, Jayanth R.; Cooke, Todd J.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

2014-01-01

9

Finding extraterrestrial organisms living on thermosynthesis.  

PubMed

During thermal cycling, organisms could live on thermosynthesis, a theoretical mechanism applicable to the origin of life and the early evolution of biological energy conversion. All extraterrestrial ice may be a repository for frozen dead or dormant organisms from earlier stages of evolution. In the presence of a thermal gradient within the ice, organisms might still be harvesting energy from thermosynthesis. Possible habitats for thermosynthesizers can be found throughout the Solar System, particularly in the cold traps on Mercury and the Moon, convecting waters on Mars, the oceans on moons in the outer Solar System, and smaller bodies rotating in the sunlight such as cosmic dust, meteorites, asteroids, and comets. A general strategy for detecting thermosynthetic organisms on Earth is offered, and highlights of current and upcoming robotic exploratory missions relevant to the detection of thermosynthesis are reviewed. PMID:14678664

Muller, Anthonie W J

2003-01-01

10

Evolution of temporal order in living organisms  

PubMed Central

Circadian clocks are believed to have evolved in parallel with the geological history of the earth, and have since been fine-tuned under selection pressures imposed by cyclic factors in the environment. These clocks regulate a wide variety of behavioral and metabolic processes in many life forms. They enhance the fitness of organisms by improving their ability to efficiently anticipate periodic events in their external environments, especially periodic changes in light, temperature and humidity. Circadian clocks provide fitness advantage even to organisms living under constant conditions, such as those prevailing in the depth of oceans or in subterranean caves, perhaps by coordinating several metabolic processes in the internal milieu. Although the issue of adaptive significance of circadian rhythms has always remained central to circadian biology research, it has never been subjected to systematic and rigorous empirical validation. A few studies carried out on free-living animals under field conditions and simulated periodic and aperiodic conditions of the laboratory suggest that circadian rhythms are of adaptive value to their owners. However, most of these studies suffer from a number of drawbacks such as lack of population-level replication, lack of true controls and lack of adequate control on the genetic composition of the populations, which in many ways limits the potential insights gained from the studies. The present review is an effort to critically discuss studies that directly or indirectly touch upon the issue of adaptive significance of circadian rhythms and highlight some shortcomings that should be avoided while designing future experiments. PMID:15869714

Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

2005-01-01

11

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section 1205...Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.316 Cotton-Producer organization. Cotton-Producer organization means any organization...

2010-01-01

12

The most altruistic living organ donor: a best friend.  

PubMed

Living organ donors are growing in number and account for a substantial proportion of organs transplanted. Types of living organ donors include family members, anonymous donors, and friends. Although familial donation is the most common form of living organ donation, anonymous donation and donation among friends are gaining popularity. Society has placed living organ donors at the top of the altruistic ladder. However, one's altruistic motives for living organ donation may be affected by the type of relationship he or she has with the organ recipient. Although family relationships are close, pressure and coercion from family members may make informed consent difficult. Anonymous donors do not have the pressure associated with a familial donation, but psychological and self-worth issues may influence their choice to donate. Friendship incorporates the close relationships associated with familial donation and the freedom associated with anonymous donation. Using Aristotle's definition of true friendship, the author argues that best friends are the only true altruistic living organ donors and therefore may be preferable to family donors or anonymous donors. PMID:21803882

Hoffmann, Paul J

2011-07-01

13

Nature Methods Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via  

E-print Network

illumination microscopy Andrew G York, Sapun H Parekh, Damian Dalle Nogare, Robert S Fischer, Kelsey Temprine Figure 7 Apparent size of subdiffractive beads after multifocal structured illumination. SupplementaryNature Methods Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured

Cai, Long

14

Lectins of living organisms. The overview.  

PubMed

Occurrence, organization, and functioning of lectins as well as their current classifications are under investigation. Results indicate importance of symbiotic lectins for clinical microecology. Lectins and lectin-based approaches have wide perspectives for medical biotechnology. Lectin terms, relationships between lectins and enzymes are discussed. PMID:21723405

Lakhtin, Vladimir; Lakhtin, Mikhail; Alyoshkin, Vladimir

2011-12-01

15

Living organism imaging with the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM)  

E-print Network

Living organism imaging with the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM) Benjamin Potsaida is often hampered by a traditional microscope's small field of view at high resolution. This paper discusses a new optical microscope design, called the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM), which

Wen, John Ting-Yung

16

Priming effects: Interactions between living and dead organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this re-evaluation of our 10-year old paper on priming effects, I have considered the latest studies and tried to identify the most important needs for future research. Recent publications have shown that the increase or decrease in soil organic matter mineralization (measured as changes of CO2 efflux and N mineralization) actually results from interactions between living (microbial biomass) and

Yakov Kuzyakov

2010-01-01

17

Investigating Biological Classification: Organization of All Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will investigate the organization of all living things through and learn how to classify through process of classifying their own shoes. Students will complete the classification of a Jaguar and write their own pneumonic device to remember the order of biological classification. (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species)

Lindsey Oliver, Fridley Middle School, Fridley, MN

18

D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

Fujii, Noriko

2002-04-01

19

7 CFR 1212.23 - Qualified national organization representing producer interests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Qualified national organization representing producer...Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.23 Qualified national organization representing producer... “Qualified national organization representing producer...

2010-01-01

20

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2011-01-01

21

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2013-01-01

22

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2014-01-01

23

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2014-01-01

24

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

25

7 CFR 1205.316 - Cotton-Producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-Producer organization. 1205.316 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

26

7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205.341 Section...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification...

2012-01-01

27

7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

28

Living Organ Donation: An Ethical Evolution or Evolution of Ethics?  

PubMed Central

The disparity between available and needed organs is rapidly increasing, and the number of patients dying while still on the waiting list is growing exponentially. As a partial solution to this disparity, living unrelated transplantation is being performed more frequently, and some have proposed providing financial incentives to donors. The aim of this discussion is to illustrate that with an ever-increasing number of living unrelated transplantations, society and the transplant community should adopt a more active role in developing specific strategies to scrutinize the process. The current paper will also examine the viewpoint that medical ethics is not separable from the prevailing needs of society and involves a constant balancing of often opposing goods. Issues surrounding living unrelated donor transplantation illustrate ethics as a dynamically evolving field, which is often influenced by necessity and which evolves with progression of science and society. As part of this evolution, it is the collective responsibility of society and the transplant community to devise safeguards to guarantee adherence to basic principles of ethics and to avoid “situational ethics.” PMID:25013566

Ghahramani, N.

2010-01-01

29

Development of the National Living Donor Assistance Center: reducing financial disincentives to living organ donation.  

PubMed

Over the years, the transplant community has worked to advance the care of living organ donors; however, barriers remain, including the nonmedical expenses incurred by living donors. A new center, funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), was established to operate a nationwide system to remove these financial disincentives. The HRSA grant was awarded to an academic institution and the daily operations are managed by a transplant professional society. Expenses are reimbursed prospectively for financially needy living donors. Combining the legislative authority and economic resources of the federal government, the research experience of an academic institution, and the management know-how of a professional society has proven to be successful. To date, the center has received 3918 applications submitted by 199 different transplant centers and receives about 80 applications per month. On average, a donor spends $2767 for their travel expenses to the transplant center. Of the 3918 applications that have been submitted, 1941 of those applicants (50%) have completed their donor surgery. PMID:24598569

Warren, Patricia H; Gifford, Kimberly A; Hong, Barry A; Merion, Robert M; Ojo, Akinlolu O

2014-03-01

30

MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER Black beans #1 class produced  

E-print Network

#12;MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER ¢ Black beans #1 class produced ¢ Need to maximize/ha Oilseed radish `Groundhog' 12 kg/ha Rye `Wheeler' 100-125 kg/ha No cover #12;DRY BEAN VARIETIES Black Lansing, MI) ¢ Split plot design Main plot= Cover crop (4) Sub-plot= Bean variety (4) IMPACT OF COVER

31

Nutritional and antibacterial treatments of live food organisms : the influence on survival,  

E-print Network

Nutritional and antibacterial treatments of live food organisms : the influence on survival, growth-Pée-sur-Nivelle, F 64310 Ascain Summary After ingestion of nutrients and/or antibacterial drug, live food organisms the live food organisms had not been enriched, survival on day 45 was between 5 and 14 p. 100, and the mean

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Imaging of plasmonic heating in a living organism.  

PubMed

Controlling and monitoring temperature at the single cell level has become pivotal in biology and medicine. Indeed, temperature influences many intracellular processes and is also involved as an activator in novel therapies. Aiming to assist such developments, several approaches have recently been proposed to probe cell temperature in vitro. None of them have so far been extended to a living organism. Here we present the first in vivo intracellular temperature imaging. Our technique relies on measuring the fluorescence polarization anisotropy of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on a set of GFP expressing neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We demonstrate fast and noninvasive monitoring of subdegree temperature changes on a single neuron induced by local photoheating of gold nanoparticles. This simple and biocompatible technique is envisioned to benefit several fields including hyperthermia treatment, selective drug delivery, thermal regulation of gene expression and neuron laser ablation. PMID:24047507

Donner, Jon S; Thompson, Sebastian A; Alonso-Ortega, César; Morales, Jordi; Rico, Laura G; Santos, Susana I C O; Quidant, Romain

2013-10-22

33

General Method for Producing Organic Nanoparticles Using Nanoporous Membranes  

E-print Network

as a representative material for our process that can be adopted for the produc- tions of other organic nanoparticles. In the case of chitosan, we use the precipitation caused by pH change, but other precipitation methods by the pres- ence of permanent surface charges on the walls, whose electric field induces precipitation

Zare, Richard N.

34

Organic compounds in produced waters from shale gas wells.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis is reported of the organic composition of produced water samples from typical shale gas wells in the Marcellus (PA), Eagle Ford (TX), and Barnett (NM) formations. The quality of shale gas produced (and frac flowback) waters is a current environmental concern and disposal problem for producers. Re-use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing is being encouraged; however, knowledge of the organic impurities is important in determining the method of treatment. The metal content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Mineral elements are expected depending on the reservoir geology and salts used in hydraulic fracturing; however, significant levels of other transition metals and heavier main group elements are observed. The presence of scaling elements (Ca and Ba) is related to the pH of the water rather than total dissolved solids (TDS). Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the chloroform extracts of the produced water samples, a plethora of organic compounds were identified. In each water sample, the majority of organics are saturated (aliphatic), and only a small fraction comes under aromatic, resin, and asphaltene categories. Unlike coalbed methane produced water it appears that shale oil/gas produced water does not contain significant quantities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons reducing the potential health hazard. Marcellus and Barnett produced waters contain predominantly C6-C16 hydrocarbons, while the Eagle Ford produced water shows the highest concentration in the C17-C30 range. The structures of the saturated hydrocarbons identified generally follows the trend of linear > branched > cyclic. Heterocyclic compounds are identified with the largest fraction being fatty alcohols, esters, and ethers. However, the presence of various fatty acid phthalate esters in the Barnett and Marcellus produced waters can be related to their use in drilling fluids and breaker additives rather than their presence in connate fluids. Halogen containing compounds are found in each of the water samples, and although the fluorocarbon compounds identified are used as tracers, the presence of chlorocarbons and organobromides formed as a consequence of using chlorine containing oxidants (to remove bacteria from source water), suggests that industry should concentrate on non-chemical treatments of frac and produced waters. PMID:25162586

Maguire-Boyle, Samuel J; Barron, Andrew R

2014-09-24

35

Isolation of Antibiotic-Producing Organisms from Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lab experiment in which students attempt to isolate antibiotic-producing bacteria (of the genus Streptomyces ) from soil. Even though antibiotics have gotten a bad rap in the press lately because many disease-causing organisms are multiply resistant, it is still important to discover new antibiotics. This experiment replicates the first step in the search and screen research that is currently underway in many labs worldwide. This three-part experiment has three objectives: Students will Isolate an antibiotic-producing organism from soil, determine the number of colony forming units (CFU's) per gram of soil sample, And become proficient in the following techniques: aseptic technique, dilution series and plating, plate counting, streak plating, two assay methods, simple staining, and using oil immersion microscope.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Betsy Barnard N:Barnard;Betsy ORG:West High School REV:2005-04-13 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

36

Analysis of alternative marketing organizations for improving rice producer income  

E-print Network

of the Blue Ribbon Rice Mills, Inc. This gives ARI milling and storage facilities. Also, AGA has acquired control and ownership of the MGC facilities. Both of these actions are definite moves toward a fully integrated and producer operated organization.... S ACQUISITION OF BLUE RIBBON RICE MILLS& INC 36 American Rice, Incorporated. Method of Operation. Payments to Growers. Marketing Blue Ribbon Rice Mills, Incorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . Rough Rice Supplies. Marketing. Competition...

Guillot, Patrick Dale

2012-06-07

37

Comparison of the biosorption and desorption of hazardous organic pollutants by live and dead biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

and 2-chlorobiphenyl by living and dead cells of the fungus R. arrhizus and activated sludge was studied. A generalization concerning the relative magnitude of biosorptive uptake between live and dead biomass cannot be made using the experimental data. Uptakes by live and dead cells are similarly correlated to the octanol\\/water partition coefficient of the organic pollutants. The desorption of the

M. TSEZOS; J. P. BELL

1989-01-01

38

Shrinky Dink microbes! icrobes are living organisms smaller  

E-print Network

. Some kinds of microbes, called extremophiles, thrive in places that are freezing, super hot, deep it will resemble the life on Earth living in the extreme environments (extremophiles). On the back of this page

Maxwell, Bruce D.

39

Social organization in free-living prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding units (occupants of a nest including at least one reproductive female) within two free-living populations of the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, were monitored by live-trapping at nest during two 28-h periods each week from October 1980 to March 1984. Data are presented for 281 breeding units from all seasons, at high and low population densities and during breeding and

Lowell L. Getz; Joyce E. Hofmann

1986-01-01

40

Microbial sucrose isomerases: producing organisms, genes and enzymes.  

PubMed

Sucrose isomerase (SI) activity is used industrially for the conversion of sucrose into isomers, particularly isomaltulose or trehalulose, which have properties advantageous over sucrose for some food uses. All of the known microbial SIs are TIM barrel proteins that convert sucrose without need for any cofactors, with varying kinetics and product specificities. The current analysis was undertaken to bridge key gaps between the information in patents and scientific publications about the microbes and enzymes useful for sucrose isomer production. This analysis shows that microbial SIs can be considered in 5 structural classes with corresponding functional distinctions that broadly align with the taxonomic differences between producing organisms. The most widely used bacterial strain for industrial production of isomaltulose, widely referred to as "Protaminobacter rubrum" CBS 574.77, is identified as Serratia plymuthica. The strain producing the most structurally divergent SI, with a high product specificity for trehalulose, widely referred to as "Pseudomonas mesoacidophila" MX-45, is identified as Rhizobium sp. Each tested SI-producer is shown to have a single SI gene and enzyme, so the properties reported previously for the isolated proteins can reasonably be associated with the products of the genes subsequently cloned from the same isolates and SI classes. Some natural isolates with potent SI activity do not catabolize the isomer under usual production conditions. The results indicate that their industrial potential may be further enhanced by selection for variants that do not catabolize the sucrose substrate. PMID:22133441

Goulter, Ken C; Hashimi, Saeed M; Birch, Robert G

2012-01-01

41

Iron carbide nanoparticles produced by laser ablation in organic solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ablation of iron in an organic solvent (pentane, hexane, or decane) was performed using an air-tight cell to produce iron carbide nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectra of the nanoparticles were obtained at room temperature. They revealed that the nanoparticles consisted of two paramagnetic components and magnetic components. The two paramagnetic components were a high-spin Fe(II) species and an amorphous iron carbide containing a large amount of carbon. Whereas the magnetic components measured at room temperature exhibited superparamagnetism, those measured at low temperature were fitted by a combination of four sextets, which were assigned to Fe7 C 3. The Fe7 C 3 yield was higher in higher molecular weight solvents. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the samples showed that the nanoparticles were spherical with diameters in the range 10-100 nm.

Matsue, T.; Yamada, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.

2012-03-01

42

Development of a Reverse Genetics System to Produce Live, Attenuated Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Vaccine Candidates  

E-print Network

1 Development of a Reverse Genetics System to Produce Live, Attenuated Infectious Salmon Anemia and indirect job losses among communities near aquaculture operations. The goal of this project was to develop a reverse genetics system for ISAV to construct live viral particles from plasmid DNA molecules

43

Volatile organic compounds of polyethylene vinyl acetate plastic are toxic to living organisms.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products readily evaporate; as a result, hazardous gases enter the ecosystem, and cause cancer in humans and other animals. Polyethylene vinyl acetate (PEVA) plastic has recently become a popular alternative to PVC since it is chlorine-free. In order to determine whether PEVA is harmful to humans, this research employed the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a model to compare their oxygen intakes while they were exposed to the original stock solutions of PEVA, PVC or distilled water at a different length of time for one day, four days or eight days. During the exposure periods, the oxygen intakes in both PEVA and PVC groups were much higher than in the distilled water group, indicating that VOCs in both PEVA and PVC were toxins that stressed L. variegatus. Furthermore, none of the worms fully recovered during the24-hr recovery period. Additionally, the L. variegatus did not clump together tightly after four or eight days' exposure to either of the two types of plastic solutions, which meant that both PEVA and PVC negatively affected the social behaviors of these blackworms. The LD50 tests also supported the observations above. For the first time, our results have shown that PEVA plastic has adverse effects on living organisms, and therefore it is not a safe alternative to PVC. Further studies should identify specific compounds causing the adverse effects, and determine whether toxic effect occurs in more complex organisms, especially humans. PMID:25242410

Meng, Tingzhu Teresa

2014-01-01

44

"Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.  

PubMed

The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain. PMID:22574392

Moniruzzaman, Monir

2012-03-01

45

Doing harm: living organ donors, clinical research and The Tenth Man.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the ethical difficulties of organ donation from living donors and the problem of causing harm to patients or research subjects at their request. Graham Greene explored morally similar questions in his novella, The Tenth Man. PMID:7608947

Elliott, C

1995-01-01

46

[Iatrophics and iatrochemistry: physica, chemistry and models of living organization].  

PubMed

Medical secularization which develops in Europe since XVIth century allows the human body to be considered as an autonomous physical being. Consequently, medicine tries to explain illness and health through the general rules of mechanics and chemistry. The development of medical systems - seen in terms of the two leading theories of iatrochemistry and iatrophysics, was centered around the problem of control in living objects, whose analysis is still useful in the present debate. Past and present are linked by a common effort towards the explanation of life phenomena, health and illness - despite the obvious methodological gaps of the different cultural periods. PMID:11625403

Fantini, B

1997-01-01

47

In vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites of living organisms by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry. PMID:23811725

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

2013-01-01

48

In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

2013-07-01

49

In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry. PMID:23811725

Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

2013-01-01

50

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927...organic certification organization currently registered with the Oregon or Washington State Departments of Agriculture, or such...

2012-01-01

51

7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.  

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927...organic certification organization currently registered with the Oregon or Washington State Departments of Agriculture, or such...

2014-01-01

52

Quantum Mechanics Action of ELF Electromagnetic Fields on Living Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is presently an intense discussion if extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure has consequences for human health. This include exposure to structures and appliances from this range of frequency in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Biological effects of such exposures have been noted frequently, although the implications for specific health effects is not that clear. The basic interactions mechanisms between such fields and living matter is unknown. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested, although none is convincingly supported by experimental data. Various cellular components, processes, and systems can be affected by EMF exposure. Since it is unlikely that EMF can induce DNA damage directly, most studies have examined EMF effects on the cell membrane level, general and specific gene expression, and signal transduction pathways. Even more, a large number of studies have been performed regarding cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, metabolism, and various physiological characteristics of cells. The aim of this letter is present the hypothesis of a possible quantum mechanic effect generated by the exposure of ELF EMF, an event which is compatible with the multitude of effects observed after exposure. Based on an extensive literature review, we suggest that ELF EMF exposure is able to perform such activation restructuring the electronic level of occupancy of free radicals in molecules interacting with DNA structures.

Godina-Nava, J. J.

2010-10-01

53

CAON THE TRAIL OF LIVING MODIFIED ORGANISMS: Environmentalism within and against Neoliberal Order  

E-print Network

CAON THE TRAIL OF LIVING MODIFIED ORGANISMS: Environmentalism within and against Neoliberal Order-wire fence that surround a field of genetically modified (transgenic) cotton, planted and reproduced MODIFIED ORGANISMS Ana Julia and Miguel have periodically monitored D and PL activities as part

Wu, Mingshen

54

Islamic Sunni Mainstream Opinions on Compensation to Unrelated Live Organ Donors  

PubMed Central

This article focuses on contemporary Islamic attitudes towards the question of compensation to a non-relative live organ donor. This article presents the history of the debate on organ transplantation in Islam since the 1950s and the key ethical questions. It continues by presenting the opinions of the mainstream ulema such as Tantawi and Qaradawi. The article ends with a conclusion that there must be no compensation made to a non-related live organ donor, not even a symbolic gift of honor (ikramiyya). PMID:23908804

Natour, Ahmad; Fishman, Shammai

2011-01-01

55

Islamic sunni mainstream opinions on compensation to unrelated live organ donors.  

PubMed

This article focuses on contemporary Islamic attitudes towards the question of compensation to a non-relative live organ donor. This article presents the history of the debate on organ transplantation in Islam since the 1950s and the key ethical questions. It continues by presenting the opinions of the mainstream ulema such as Tantawi and Qaradawi. The article ends with a conclusion that there must be no compensation made to a non-related live organ donor, not even a symbolic gift of honor (ikramiyya). PMID:23908804

Natour, Ahmad; Fishman, Shammai

2011-04-01

56

Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach  

PubMed Central

Intermolecular interactions within living organisms have been found to occur not as individual independent events but as a part of a collective array of interconnected events. The problem of the emergence of this collective dynamics and of the correlated biocommunication therefore arises. In the present paper we review the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of microscopic units (atoms/molecules) has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field. Experimental corroboration of this scheme is presented. Some consequences for future biological developments are discussed. PMID:24288611

Bischof, Marco; Del Giudice, Emilio

2013-01-01

57

Circuits based on OTFT produced by self-organized process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eleven-stage ring oscillator with pentacene organic thin-film transistors has been developed. The OTFTs were made using the self-organized process on plastic substrate. It exhibited the frequency of 10.4 kHz and the stage delay of 4.4 ?s at an applied voltage of 40 V.

Jin Jang; Seung Hoon Han

2005-01-01

58

Probing transplant and living donor candidates about their participation in organ vending.  

PubMed

The selling of human organs for transplant is illegal in the United States and in most countries; however, such transactions still occur. Transplant hospitals and their personnel have multiple ethical duties, including (1) protecting the safety of their living donors and transplant recipients and (2) protecting the integrity of living donation and transplantation as clinical practices. To date, few psychosocial screening tools exist that pertain specifically to a person's risk or intent of pursuing organ vending (buying or selling). This article presents a series of transplant ethics case consultations that spawned the creation of a set of behavioral prompts for teams to probe with regard to organ vending when screening candidates about their suitability for participation as living donors or transplant recipients. PMID:20929116

Bramstedt, Katrina A

2010-09-01

59

Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.  

E-print Network

as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more of those currently on the market · Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel contributions of fuels and engine lubricating oil on PM and semi-volatile organic compound emissions from in-use

60

Single-Molecule Microscopy Reveals Membrane Microdomain Organization of Cells in a Living Vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Abstract It has been possible for several years to study the dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins by single-molecule microscopy, but until now this technology has been applied only to individual cells in culture. In this study, it was extended to stem cells and living vertebrate organisms. As a molecule of interest we used yellow fluorescent protein fused to the human H-Ras membrane anchor, which has been shown to serve as a model for proteins anchored in the plasma membrane. We used a wide-field fluorescence microscopy setup to visualize individual molecules in a zebrafish cell line (ZF4) and in primary embryonic stem cells. A total-internal-reflection microscopy setup was used for imaging in living organisms, in particular in epidermal cells in the skin of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos. Our results demonstrate the occurrence of membrane microdomains in which the diffusion of membrane proteins in a living organism is confined. This membrane organization differed significantly from that observed in cultured cells, illustrating the relevance of performing single-molecule microscopy in living organisms. PMID:19686669

Schaaf, Marcel J.M.; Koopmans, Wiepke J.A.; Meckel, Tobias; van Noort, John; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Schmidt, Thomas S.; Spaink, Herman P.

2009-01-01

61

Volatile Organic Compounds Produced During Irradiation of Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, Bacillus anthracis spores were delivered through the United States postal system in a series of bioterrorist acts. Controls proposed for this threat included sanitization with high-energy electrons. Solid phase microextraction was used with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry for field sampling and analysis of volatile compounds apparently produced from polymeric materials such as cellulose and plastics, immediately following processing of

Philip A. Smith; Michael V. Sheely; Shelly J. Hakspiel; Stephen Miller

2003-01-01

62

Calibration of organic signal in sedimentary lacustrine records. Molecular comparison between actual producers, dissolved  

E-print Network

witnessing the transfer of OM through the water column. The lipid composition of dissolved organic matter actual producers, dissolved organic matter and sedimentary organic matter (Lac Pavin; Massif Central of the signal (information on condition of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) incorporation). The preliminary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

The space exposure platforms BIOPAN and EXPOSE to study living organisms in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

BIOPAN and EXPOSE are two European space exposure platforms developed for the European Space Agency by Kayser-Threde GmbH Munich Germany to offer flight opportunities to the science community of exo astrobiology research in low earth orbit Both platforms are conceived for the research on the behaviour of living organisms in the environment of space and on simulated conditions of other

W. Schulte

2006-01-01

64

robably all of the organic beings which have ever lived on this  

E-print Network

"P robably all of the organic beings which have ever lived on this Earth have descended from some,such as a hydrothermal vent at the bottom of the ocean, or in cooler condi- tionsattheoceansurface was `thermophilic' or heat-loving. Not only was Earthprobablywarmer3.5billionyearsago2 , but the discovery

Fernando, Chrisantha

65

Making Nature's Wisdom Public: The Affirmation of Planet Earth as a Living Organism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planet Earth is a living organism that preserves and regenerates itself and shares information with humans through sensations, feelings, and actions. After early humans migrated from their tropical origins to colder climates, they developed technologies to impose their tropical memories on their new surroundings and lost touch with their ancient…

Cohen, Michael J.

66

Acoustic Observation of Living Organisms Reveals the Upper Limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone  

E-print Network

Abstract Background: Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate vast areas called oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) where subsurface layers are depleted in dissolved oxygenAcoustic Observation of Living Organisms Reveals the Upper Limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone Arnaud

67

PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION BY FREE-LIVING ORGANISMS: APPLICATIONS OF A SIGMOIDAL MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of contaminants by free-living organisms has traditionally been de- termined with permutations of the deterministic model: Ct = Ce(1 - e -kt). However, studies uti- lizing a variety of species and exposure scenarios now suggest that significant deviations may occur from this classic form. In many cases noted to date, these deviations have involved a sigmoidal pat- tern

I. Lehr Brisbin; Michael C. Newman; Susan G. McDowell; Eric L. Peters

1990-01-01

68

Incidence of Pieris rapae in Organic Broccoli Grown With Living Mulches Under Floating Row Cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating row covers and living mulches are two techniques that have been used individually as means of controlling the imported cabbage worm (Pieris rapae L.) in broccoli. They have, however, never been tested in combination. The present study investigated their combined use as a way to reduce P. rapae incidence in organic broccoli in 2006 and 2007. Using a combination

Frédéric Thériault; Katrine A. Stewart; Philippe Seguin

2009-01-01

69

Method of producing metal-filled organic coating  

SciTech Connect

This invention is directed to a coating method. In the preferred practice of this invention, the method includes the steps of selecting a ferrous substrate, such as steel sheet preferably containing a first coating having certain corrosion resistant and adhesion-promoting characteristics, applying thereto an outer coating of an organic resin containing a particulate metal selected from the group consisting of Al, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Co, Ag, Au and alloys thereof, where the particle size of said metal or alloy is prefereably no more than about 10 microns, and applying thereover a cathodic electrophoretic coating at voltages of at least 300 V. The product of such method is corrosion resistant, free of craters or pores, and is readily welable prior to the application of said cathodic electrophoretic coating.

Hart, R.G.; Townsend, H.E.

1985-02-19

70

Biogeochemical Processes That Produce Dissolved Organic Matter From Wheat Straw  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical reactions that lead to the formation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters are poorly understood. Studies on the formation of DOM generally are complicated because almost all DOM isolates have been derived from mixtures of plant species composed of a wide variety of different types of precursor compounds for DOM formation. This report describes a study of DOM derived mainly from bales of wheat straw that had been left in a field for several years. During this period of time, black water from the decomposing wheat straw accumulated in pools in the field. The nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra of the black water DOM indicate that it is composed almost entirely of lignin and carbohydrate polymeric units. Analysis by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser-light scattering detection indicates that the number average molecular weight of the DOM is 124,000 daltons. The results presented in this report indicate that the black water DOM is composed of hemicellulose chains cross-linked to lignin oligomers. These types of structures have been shown to exist in the hemicellulose matrix of plant cell walls. The cross-linked lignin-hemicellulose complexes apparently were released from partially degraded wheat-straw cell walls with little alteration. In solution in the black water, these lignin-hemicellulose polymers fold into compact globular particles in which the nonpolar parts of the polymer form the interiors of the particles and the polar groups are on the exterior surfaces of the particles. The tightly folded, compact conformation of these particles probably renders them relatively resistant to microbial degradation. This should be especially the case for the aromatic lignin structures that will be buried in the interiors of the particles.

Wershaw, Robert L.; Rutherford, David W.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Kennedy, Kay R.; Cox, Larry G.; Koci, Donald R.

2003-01-01

71

Method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism wherein a series of negative pressures are externally applied to successive length-wise sections of a lower limb of the organism. The pressures decreasing progressively with distance of said limb sections from the heart of the organism. A casing defines a chamber adapted to contain the limb of the organism and is rigidified to resist collapse upon the application of negative pressures to the interior of the chamber. Seals extend inwardly from the casing for effective engagement with the limb of the organism and, in cooperation with the limb, subdivide the chamber into a plurality of compartments each in negative pressure communicating relation with the limb.

Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

1983-01-01

72

Comparison of the virulence of exopolysaccharide-producing Prevotella intermedia to exopolysaccharide non-producing periodontopathic organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence in the literature suggests that exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacterial cells are essential for the expression of virulence in these organisms. Secreted EPSs form the framework in which microbial biofilms are built. Methods This study evaluates the role of EPS in Prevotella intermedia for the expression of virulence. This evaluation was accomplished by comparing EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 with non-producing P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains ATCC 33277, 381 and W83 for their ability to induce abscess formation in mice and evade phagocytosis. Results EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 induced highly noticeable abscess lesions in mice at 107 colony-forming units (CFU). In comparison, P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, 381 and W83, which all lacked the ability to produce viscous materials, required 100-fold more bacteria (109 CFU) in order to induce detectable abscess lesions in mice. Regarding antiphagocytic activity, P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 were rarely internalized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but other strains were readily engulfed and detected in the phagosomes of these phagocytes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the production of EPS by P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 could contribute to the pathogenicity of this organism by conferring their ability to evade the host's innate defence response. PMID:21864411

2011-01-01

73

Artificial cybernetic living individuals based on supramolecular-level organization as dispersed individuals.  

PubMed

One of the most characteristic features of spontaneously originating biological systems is that their most fundamental structure and especially functioning is based on molecular-level organization. This property is particularly important when natural living individuals composed of organic compounds of carbon are compared with (hypothetical) artificial living individuals based on metals, plastic, glass, silicon, and so on, whose most basic structural and functional units appear at the supramolecular level. The cybernetic definition of a living individual I proposed previously is used in the present work. I argue that artificial, supramolecular living individuals existing self-dependently in the environment of some distant planet must have the form of dispersed individuals composed of several separate subindividuals that are integrated functionally, but not structurally. These subindividuals would be analogous to such modules of human technical civilization as machines, robots, steelworks, chemical plants, electronic factories, power stations, and mines. Such dispersed individuals would resemble colonies of social insects and moles, which are also composed of separate subindividuals (particular insects and moles) carrying out different specialized functions. PMID:21087151

Korzeniewski, Bernard

2011-01-01

74

Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.  

PubMed

Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries. PMID:22435208

Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

2011-12-01

75

Responses of Living Organisms to Freezing and Drying: Potential Applications in Food Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many sugars are involved in the preservation of living organisms. Under thermal or hydric stress conditions, spores, yeasts,\\u000a and microscopic animals accumulate trehalose, whereas pollen, plant seeds, and resurrection plants synthesize sucrose and\\u000a oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose. These solutes also have proved to provide stabilization of dried or frozen\\u000a labile biomolecules in vitro and have potential technological applications

Maria del Pilar Buera

76

Symbiotic association between hoopoes and antibiotic-producing bacteria that live in their uropygial gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. It has been recently showed that one bacterial strain isolated from the uropygial gland of a nes- tling hoopoe Upupa epops produced antimicrobial peptides active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria. These bacteria might thus mediate antimicrobial properties of the uropygial secretions as a consequence of the symbiotic association with hoopoes. 2. We study antimicrobial properties of

J. J. Soler; M. Martín-Vivaldi; M. Ruiz-Rodríguez; E. Valdivia; A. M. Martín-Platero; M. Martínez-Bueno; J. M. Peralta-Sánchez; M. Méndez

2008-01-01

77

Sustainability assessment through analogical models: The approach of aerobic living-organism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most part of scientific discoveries of human being borrow ideas and inspiration from nature. This point gives the rationale of the sustainability assessment approach presented here and based on the aerobic living organism (ALO) already developed by the author, which funds on the basic assumption that it is reasonable and effective to refer to the analogy between an system organized by human (say, manufacturing system, enterprise, etc.) for several decision-making scopes. The critical review of the ALO conceptual model already developed is here discussed through an example of an Italian small enterprise manufacturing metal components for civil furniture to assess its feasibility for sustainability appraisal.

Dassisti, Michele

2014-10-01

78

Adsorption Characteristics of Bisphenol A onto Carbonaceous Materials Produced from Wood Chips as Organic Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organic by-products have been discharged by humans, and the development of technology for recycling organic by-products has attracted much interest. In this paper, the techniques for producing carbonaceous adsorbents from an organic by-product and an application to remove endocrine disruptors are described. Wood chips as an organic by-product were carbonized at 873 to 1073 K. The iodine adsorption capacity

Akio Nakanishi; Motoharu Tamai; Naohito Kawasaki; Takeo Nakamura; Seiki Tanada

2002-01-01

79

Emerging trends in free-living amebic infections of the brain: implications for organ transplantation.  

PubMed

This epidemiological review analyzed cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) and Balamuthia mandrillaris granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) for behavioral and demographic risk factors for pathogen exposures and potential transmission by organ transplantation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Naegleria Workgroup Registry provided 121 cases of laboratory-confirmed PAM over the period, 1937-2007. The CDC and the California Encephalitis Project provided 28 cases of GAE over the period, 1994-2010. There was a statistically significant increase in clusters of PAM cases between the periods, 1937-1996 and 1997-2007. Risk factors for PAM included male gender, freshwater exposures, summer exposures, and exposures in southern-tier US (United States) states. Risk factors for GAE included male gender, exposures in southern-tier US states, Hispanic ethnicity in California, occupational or recreational contacts with soil, and recent organ transplantation. Fatal free-living amebic infections of the brain are increasing today due to more frequent environmental, recreational, and occupational exposures; organ transplantation; and unanticipated clusters of PAM due to N. fowleri inoculations following nasal sinus irrigation using neti pots filled with municipal tap water. Potential organ donors dying from meningoencephalitis of unexplained causes should be screened for free-living amebic infections of the brain capable of hematogenous dissemination in organ recipients. PMID:25073256

Diaz, James H; Boudreaux, J Philip

2013-01-01

80

Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from < 1 to 100 ?g/L, but total PAHs (the dominant compound class for most CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 ?g/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of ?g/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

2014-01-01

81

Oral Administration of Live Exopolysaccharide-Producing Pediococcus parvulus, but Not Purified Exopolysaccharide, Suppressed Enterobacteriaceae without Affecting Bacterial Diversity in Ceca of Mice  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota could have an important role in the development of diet- and lifestyle-induced diseases. It has been shown that modulation of the gut microbiota by means of probiotics and prebiotics could improve host health. An oat-based product fermented by the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing organism Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 has been reported to have a bifidogenic effect. To find out whether the effect could be attributed to the EPS or the bacterium, mice were fed a diet supplemented with 2% purified EPS or 108 CFU/g of live P. parvulus 2.6 for 6 weeks. Both supplementations altered the gut microbiota composition but in different directions. Purified EPS not only significantly lowered the microbial diversity (P < 0.001) but decreased the bifidobacterial population (P = 0.01). In contrast, the live EPS-producing bacterium P. parvulus 2.6 antagonized Enterobacteriaceae without disturbing the homeostasis of the cecal microbiota. PMID:23770909

Xu, Jie; Oste, Rickard; Holst, Olle; Molin, Goran

2013-01-01

82

Outcomes of transplantation using organs from a donor infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Transmission of pathogens from donor to recipient is a potential complication of organ transplantation. Herein, we describe the clinical course and outcomes of 4 transplant recipients who received tissues from a donor with multi-organ infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae. Recipient 1 underwent simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and alcohol-related cirrhosis, and acute tubular necrosis, respectively. Soon after transplantation, he developed an infected hematoma and peritonitis due to KPC-producing K. pneumoniae despite receiving tigecycline prophylaxis. He was treated with a prolonged course of tigecycline, amikacin, and meropenem, in conjunction with surgical evacuation and percutaneous drainage of the infected fluid collections. Recipient 2 underwent living-donor liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma and primary sclerosing cholangitis using vein graft from the donor infected with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. Culture of the preservation fluid containing the vein graft was positive for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. The patient received preemptive amikacin and tigecycline, and he did not develop any infection (as evidenced by negative surveillance blood cultures). The isolates from the donor and Recipients 1 and 2 were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Recipients 3 and 4 underwent kidney and heart transplantation, respectively; both patients received perioperative tigecycline prophylaxis and did not develop infections due to KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. All transplant recipients had good short-term outcomes. These cases highlight the importance of inter-institutional communication and collaboration to ensure the successful management of recipients of organs from donors infected with multidrug-resistant organisms. PMID:22624726

Ariza-Heredia, E J; Patel, R; Blumberg, E A; Walker, R C; Lewis, R; Evans, J; Sankar, A; Willliams, M D; Rogers, J; Milano, C; Razonable, R R

2012-06-01

83

Distributions of Short-lived Radioactive Nuclei Produced by Young Embedded Star Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver short-lived radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (l ~ 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (l ~ 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ~10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of 26Al and 60Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM ? (where 1 pM ? = 10-12 M ?). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?SLR ~ 1-5 × 10-19 s-1. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?CR ~ 10-17 s-1, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).

Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco; Holden, Lisa

2014-07-01

84

Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant  

PubMed Central

In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

Iijima, Yoko

2014-01-01

85

Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant.  

PubMed

In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

Iijima, Yoko

2014-01-01

86

Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks  

PubMed Central

We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)–emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb3+ lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb3+ NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation. PMID:24108356

Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A.; White, Kiley A.; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnes; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J.; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Petoud, Stephane

2013-01-01

87

Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks.  

PubMed

We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)-emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb(3+) lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb(3+) NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation. PMID:24108356

Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A; White, Kiley A; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnès; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J; Rosi, Nathaniel L; Petoud, Stéphane

2013-10-22

88

Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms.

Oger, Phil M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

2008-04-01

89

Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic

Andreas F. Haas; Craig E. Nelson; Linda Wegley Kelly; Craig A. Carlson; Forest Rohwer; James J. Leichter; Alex Wyatt; Jennifer E. Smith

2011-01-01

90

SYNTHESIS Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the  

E-print Network

REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms such mobile-agent-based ecosystem service (MABES), pollination, is affected by land-use change land use, market forces and the biology of the organisms involved. Animal-mediated pollination

Vermont, University of

91

Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

Ando, Shin'ichiro; Beacom, John F.; Profumo, Stefano; Rainwater, David

2008-04-01

92

The ABC of ABCS: a phylogenetic and functional classification of ABC systems in living organisms.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the most abundant superfamilies of proteins. They are involved not only in the transport of a wide variety of substances, but also in many cellular processes and in their regulation. In this paper, we made a comparative analysis of the properties of ABC systems and we provide a phylogenetic and functional classification. This analysis will be helpful to accurately annotate ABC systems discovered during the sequencing of the genome of living organisms and to identify the partners of the ABC ATPases. PMID:11421270

Dassa, E; Bouige, P

2001-01-01

93

Could living unrelated renal transplantation ameliorate the actual shortage of organs in the Balkan region?  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the efforts for more transplants performed with organs from deceased donors, the living renal transplantation is still the predominant transplant activity in the Balkan region. In order to adress the severe organ shortage, we started accepting unrelated (emotionally related) living donors (LURD). Here we present our 10-year experience with living unrelated renal transplantation (LURT). Methods: Twenty four LURT were performed in our center in the last 10 years. The mean recipients and donors age was 41.7 and 47.2 years, respectively. As LURD spouses (n=17) and extended family members (n=7) were accepted predominantly. All donors went through careful psychological evaluation in order to confirm emotional relationship. The final decision was taken after both the recipient and the donor signed a consent in front of a judge. A quadruple sequential immunosuppressive protocol was used in all recipients. The 5-year Kaplan Meier graft survival rate, HLA mismatch, rejection episodes, delayed graft function, serum creatinine and Glomerular filtration rate-Modification of the diet in renal disease (GFR-MDRD) were analyzed. The results were compared with 30 living related renal transplants (LRT) performed during the same time with mean recipients and donors age of 35.9 and 58.5 years, respectively. Results: The mean follow up for LURT and LRT recipients were 81.4 and 79.6 months, respectively. There was a significant difference regarding recipients and donors age, HLA mismatch (5.07 and 2.9) and rejection episodes (16% vs. 11%) in LURT and LRT recipients. The 5 years graft survival rate was excellent in both groups (83 and 81%, respectively). There was no significant difference in 5 years serum creatinine (129.3 vs 121.1 ?mol/lit) and 5 years GFR-MDRD (56.6 and 58.6 ml/min). Conclusion: The authors present an excellent 5-year graft survival rate in both LURT and LRT recipients. Therefore, LURT could ameliorate the severe organ shortage in the region and could be recommended as a valuable source of organs in the countries with developed and underdeveloped deceased donor donation. PMID:24470735

Rambabova-Busljetic, I; Popov, Z; Masin-Spasovska, j; Sikole, A; Selim, Gj; Dohcev, S; Ivanovski, N

2013-01-01

94

Organ transplantation from donors (cadaveric or living) with a history of malignancy: review of the literature.  

PubMed

The evolution of organ transplantation has resulted in extended lifespan as well as better life quality of patients with end-stage diseases, which in turn causes an increased demand for organs. The persistent organ shortage requires a careful reconsideration of potential donors (living or cadaveric) that have current or historical malignancies. Donors with low-grade skin tumors, carcinomas in situ of the uterine cervix, and primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors can be considered as potential donors for recipients dying on wait list longing for organ transplantation. Recently, transplant centers have turned to other types of malignancies including low grade renal cell carcinoma, prostate, ureteral, endometrial and breast cancer, and favorable outcomes have been shown in such innovations. When considering donors with a history of malignancy, general biologic behavior of the tumor type, histology and stage at the time of diagnosis, and the length of disease-free interval should be considered (Transplantation 2002;74(12):1657-1663). With the review of literatures, we illustrate the organ utilization from donors with malignancies all around the world since earlier times and give some suggestions for decision making under the circumstance of whether to choose those marginal donors or not on the basis of reviewed literatures. PMID:25135838

Zhang, Sheng; Yuan, Jin; Li, Wei; Ye, Qifa

2014-10-01

95

Self-organized living systems: conjunction of a stable organization with chaotic fluctuations in biological space-time.  

PubMed

Living systems have paradoxical thermodynamic stability, the intrinsic property of self-organization, fluctuation and adaptation to their changing environment. Knowledge accumulated in the analytical reductionist framework has provided useful systematic descriptions of biological systems which appear to be insufficient to gain deep understanding of their behaviour in physiologic conditions and diseases. A state-of-the-art functional genomics study in yeast points to the current inability to appraise 'biological noise', leading to focus on few genes, transcripts and proteins subject to major detectable changes, while currently inaccessible small fluctuations may be major determinants of the behaviour of biological systems. We conjecture that biological systems self-organize because they operate as a conjunction between the relatively variable part of a stable organization and the relatively stable part of a chaotic network of fluctuations, and in a space with a changing number of dimensions: biological space-time. We propose to complement the precepts of the analytical reductionist framework with those of the biosystemic paradigm, in order to explore these conjectures for systems biology, combining in an iterative mode systemic modelling of biological systems, to generate hypotheses, with a high level of standardization of high-throughput experimental platforms, enabling detection of small changes of low-intensity signals, to test them. PMID:12816603

Auffray, Charles; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Roux-Rouquié, Magali; Hood, Leroy

2003-06-15

96

Medicinal Plants and Other Living Organisms with Antitumor Potential against Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. As a result, it is often associated with a significant amount of suffering and a general decrease in the quality of life. Herbal medicines are recognized as an attractive approach to lung cancer therapy with little side effects and are a major source of new drugs. The aim of this work was to review the medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. The assays were conducted with animals and humans, and Lewis lung carcinoma was the most used experimental model. China, Japan, South Korea, and Ethiopia were the countries that most published studies of species with antitumor activity. Of the 38 plants evaluated, 27 demonstrated antitumor activity. In addition, six other living organisms were cited for antitumor activity against lung cancer. Mechanisms of action, combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, and new technologies to increase activity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment are discussed. This review was based on the NAPRALERT databank, Web of Science, and Chemical Abstracts. This work shows that natural products from plants continue to be a rich source of herbal medicines or biologically active compounds against cancer. PMID:25147575

Monteiro, Luara de Sousa; Bastos, Katherine Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; de Athayde-Filho, Petronio Filgueiras; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

2014-01-01

97

Conflict of Interest Policies for Organizations Producing a Large Number of Clinical Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. Conclusions/Significance COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines. PMID:22629391

Norris, Susan L.; Holmer, Haley K.; Burda, Brittany U.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Fu, Rongwei

2012-01-01

98

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2013-01-01

99

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2014-01-01

100

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2012-01-01

101

7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market...produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1)...

2011-01-01

102

Sampling from living organisms: section 3 in Sampling and experiments with biofilms in the environment: chapter 6  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Living organisms, unlike inanimate surfaces, seem to exert some control over their surface microbiota, in many cases maintaining conserved, species-specific microbial communities. Microbial ecologists seek to characterize and identify these microbes to understand the roles they are playing in the larger organism's biology.

Kellogg, Christina A.

2014-01-01

103

Associations of free-living bacteria and dissolved organic compounds in a plume of contaminated groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Associations of free-living bacteria (FLB) and dissolved organic contaminants in a 4-km-long plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater were investigated. Abundance of FLB in the core of the plume (as delineated by maximum specific conductance) steadily decreased in the direction of flow from a point 0.25 km downgradient from the source to the toe of the plume. At 0.25 km downgradient, FLB comprised up to 31% of the total bacterial population, but constituted < 7% of the population at 2 km downgradient. Abundance of FLB correlated strongly (r = 0.80 n = 23) with total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in contaminated groundwater between 0.64 and 2.1 km downgradient, although distributions of individual contaminants such as di-, tri- and tetrachloroethene were highly variable, and their association with FLB less clear. Numbers of FLB in the downgradient portion of the plume which is contaminated with branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonate (ABS) surfactants were low (< 5??108/L) in spite of relatively high levels of DOC (up to 4 mg/L). However, abundance of FLB correlated strongly with non-surfactant DOC along vertical transects through the plume. The ratio of FLB to DOC and the ratio of FLB to attached bacteria generally decreased in the direction of flow and, consequently, with the age of the organic contaminants.

Harvey, R.W.; Barber, L.B., II

1992-01-01

104

Resolution Doubling in Live, Multicellular Organisms via Multifocal Structured Illumination Microscopy  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate 3D super-resolution in live multicellular organisms using structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Sparse multifocal illumination patterns generated by a digital micromirror device (DMD) let us physically reject out-of-focus light, enabling 3D subdiffractive imaging in samples 8-fold thicker than previously demonstrated with SIM. We imaged a variety of samples at one 2D image per second, at resolutions down to 145 nm laterally and 400 nm axially. In addition to dual-labeled, whole fixed cells, we imaged GFP-labeled microtubules in live transgenic zebrafish embryos at depths greater than 45 ?m. We also captured dynamic changes in the zebrafish lateral line primordium and observed the interactions between myosin IIA and F-actin in cells encapsulated within collagen gels, obtaining two-color 4D super-resolution datasets spanning tens of time points and minutes without apparent phototoxicity. Our method uses commercially available parts and open-source software and is simpler than existing SIM implementations, allowing easy integration with widefield microscopes. PMID:22581372

York, Andrew G.; Parekh, Sapun H.; Nogare, Damian Dalle; Fischer, Robert S.; Temprine, Kelsey; Mione, Marina; Chitnis, Ajay B.; Combs, Christian A.; Shroff, Hari

2012-01-01

105

Sphingolipid levels crucially modulate lateral microdomain organization of plasma membrane in living yeast.  

PubMed

We report sphingolipid-related reorganization of gel-like microdomains in the plasma membrane of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae using trans-Parinaric acid (t-PnA) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Compared to control, the gel-like domains were significantly reduced in the membrane of a sphingolipid-deficient lcb1-100 mutant. The same reduction resulted from sphingolipid depletion by myriocin. The phenotype could be reverted when a myriocin-induced block in sphingolipid biosynthesis was bypassed by exogenous dihydrosphingosine. Lipid order of less-ordered membrane regions decreased with sphingolipid depletion as well, as documented by DPH fluorescence anisotropy. The data indicate that organization of lateral microdomains is an essential physiological role of these structural lipids. PMID:24333335

Vecer, Jaroslav; Vesela, Petra; Malinsky, Jan; Herman, Petr

2014-01-31

106

Effect of flagellates on free-living bacterial abundance in an organically contaminated aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known about the role of protists in the saturated subsurface. Porous media microcosms containing bacteria and protists, were used to determine whether flagellates from an organically contaminated aquifer could substantively affect the number of free- living bacteria (FLB). When flagellates were present, the 3-40% maximum breakthrough of fluorescent y labelled FLB injected into the microcosms was much lower than the 60-130% observed for killed controls Grazing and clearance rates (3-27 FLB flag-1 h-1 and 12-23 nI flag-1 h-1, respectively) calculated from the data were in the range reported for flagellates in other aqueous environments. The data provide evidence that flagellate bacterivory is an important control on groundwater FLB populations.

Kinner, N.E.; Harvey, R.W.; Kazmierkiewicz-Tabaka, M.

1997-01-01

107

Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa: Role of Producers' Organizations in the Delivery of  

E-print Network

1 Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa: Role of Producers' Organizations Abstract. The emergence of Management Advice for Family Farms in West Africa is closely related to these developments, several experiments based on these concepts are going on in West Africa. Beyond the variety

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

The number is the beast: a political economy of organic-coffee certification and producer unionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author argues that organic-coffee certification enacted under the rubric of transnational certification norms alters the logic and practice of economic management and governance in an Oaxacan (Mexican) peasant producers' union. As the title indicates, these changes are productive of social and economic tensions. An economic and ethnographic analysis of 'certification labor' demonstrates (a) that the work of certification is

Tad Mutersbaugh

2002-01-01

109

Heavy metal contents of organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples from Kayseri, Turkey.  

PubMed

Organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples bought at organic markets in Kayseri, Turkey have been analyzed for their trace element contents. In the determinations, flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) was used. This pilot study is the first to be performed for organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples from Kayseri, Turkey. The copper, iron, manganese, and zinc concentrations were found to be 1.6-15.5, 10.3-144, 23.0-211, and 23.3-91.6 ?g/g, respectively. The cobalt, lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations in all analyzed organic fruit samples were below the quantification limits of FAAS. SRM 1570A spinach leaves and SRM 1515 apple leaves were used to check the accuracy of the procedure. The results for the dried fruit samples found in this work were compared with the values from some studies from the world. The results found in the presented work may also be useful for future studies about organically produced, harvested, and dried fruit samples. PMID:22736211

Soylak, Mustafa; Cihan, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Erkan

2013-03-01

110

Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

2008-01-01

111

Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.  

PubMed

Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h?¹ dm?²), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h?¹) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L?¹ h?¹ dm?²). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial dynamics and biogeochemical parameters (i.e., DOC and oxygen availability, bacterial abundance and metabolism) in coral reef communities. PMID:22125645

Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

2011-01-01

112

Immunogenicity of Live Attenuated B. pertussis BPZE1 Producing the Universal Influenza Vaccine Candidate M2e  

PubMed Central

Background Intranasal delivery of vaccines directed against respiratory pathogens is an attractive alternative to parenteral administration. However, using this delivery route for inactivated vaccines usually requires the use of potent mucosal adjuvants, and no such adjuvant has yet been approved for human use. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine, called BPZE1, and show here that it can be used to present the universal influenza virus epitope M2e to the mouse respiratory tract to prime for protective immunity against viral challenge. Three copies of M2e were genetically fused to the N-terminal domain of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and produced in recombinant BPZE1 derivatives in the presence or absence of endogenous full-length FHA. Only in the absence of FHA intranasal administration of the recombinant BPZE1 derivative induced antibody responses to M2e and effectively primed BALB/c mice for protection against influenza virus-induced mortality and reduced the viral load after challenge. Strong M2e-specific antibody responses and protection were observed after a single nasal administration with the recombinant BPZE1 derivative, followed by a single administration of M2e linked to a virus-like particle without adjuvant, whereas priming alone with the vaccine strain did not protect. Conclusions/Significance Using recombinant FHA-3M2e-producing BPZE1 derivatives for priming and the universal influenza M2e peptide linked to virus-like particles for boosting may constitute a promising approach for needle-free and adjuvant-free nasal vaccination against influenza. PMID:23555631

Kammoun, Hana; Roux, Xavier; Raze, Dominique; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; De Filette, Marina; Ysenbaert, Tine; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Saelens, Xavier; Fiers, Walter; Locht, Camille

2013-01-01

113

Modelling the mobility of living organisms in heterogeneous landscapes: does memory improve foraging success?  

PubMed

Thanks to recent technological advances, it is now possible to track with an unprecedented precision and for long periods of time the movement patterns of many living organisms in their habitat. The increasing amount of data available on single trajectories offers the possibility of understanding how animals move and of testing basic movement models. Random walks have long represented the main description for micro-organisms and have also been useful to understand the foraging behaviour of large animals. Nevertheless, most vertebrates, in particular humans and other primates, rely on sophisticated cognitive tools such as spatial maps, episodic memory and travel cost discounting. These properties call for other modelling approaches of mobility patterns. We propose a foraging framework where a learning mobile agent uses a combination of memory-based and random steps. We investigate how advantageous it is to use memory for exploiting resources in heterogeneous and changing environments. An adequate balance of determinism and random exploration is found to maximize the foraging efficiency and to generate trajectories with an intricate spatio-temporal order, where travel routes emerge without multi-step planning. Based on this approach, we propose some tools for analysing the non-random nature of mobility patterns in general. PMID:21078640

Boyer, Denis; Walsh, Peter D

2010-12-28

114

Ingestion of Salmonella enterica Serotype Poona by a Free-Living Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Protection against Inactivation by Produce Sanitizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living nematodes are known to ingest food-borne pathogens and may serve as vectors to contaminate preharvest fruits and vegetables. Caenorhabditis elegans was selected as a model to study the effectiveness of sanitizers in killing Salmonella enterica serotype Poona ingested by free-living nematodes. Aqueous suspensions of adult worms that had fed on S. enterica serotype Poona were treated with produce sanitizers.

Krishaun N. Caldwell; Barbara B. Adler; Gary L. Anderson; Phillip L. Williams; Larry R. Beuchat

2003-01-01

115

Organic salt-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite to produce high-quality graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain ordinary organic salts, such as edetate disodium, sodium tartrate, potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate were found to have universal and efficient assistant effect for liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite in common organic solvents to produce pristine graphene. Up to 123 times enhanced exfoliation efficiency was observed when sodium citrate was introduced into an exfoliation system consisting of natural graphite powder and dimethyl sulfoxide. TEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, EDX, TGA, and FTIR analysis showed graphite was successfully exfoliated into single or few-layer graphene nanosheets which were free of defects and oxides. The method is simple, effective, safe and economical.

Du, Wencheng; Lu, Jie; Sun, Peipei; Zhu, Yinyan; Jiang, Xiaoqing

2013-05-01

116

Koalas use a novel vocal organ to produce unusually low-pitched mating calls.  

PubMed

During the breeding season, male koalas produce 'bellow' vocalisations that are characterised by a continuous series of inhalation and exhalation sections, and an extremely low fundamental frequency (the main acoustic correlate of perceived pitch) [1]. Remarkably, the fundamental frequency (F0) of bellow inhalation sections averages 27.1 Hz (range: 9.8-61.5 Hz [1]), which is 20 times lower than would be expected for an animal weighing 8 kg [2] and more typical of an animal the size of an elephant (Supplemental figure S1A). Here, we demonstrate that koalas use a novel vocal organ to produce their unusually low-pitched mating calls. PMID:24309276

Charlton, Benjamin D; Frey, Roland; McKinnon, Allan J; Fritsch, Guido; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Reby, David

2013-12-01

117

Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization  

SciTech Connect

Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

Silvey, Andrea B. [Quality Improvement, Health Services Advisory Group, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Warrick, Louise H. [Healthcare Consultant, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: lwarrick@cox.net

2008-05-01

118

Fermentative metabolism to produce hydrogen gas and organic compounds in a cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non nitrogen-fixing and filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis NIES-46 produced hydrogen gas, ethanol, and low molecular organic acids auto-fermentatively under dark and anaerobic conditions. The fermentative productivity was enhanced by incubating the cyanobacterium under nitrogen-starved conditions. Cell-free extracts of the cyanobacterium catalyzed hydrogen production by the addition of acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate. Pyruvate-degrading and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were observed in

Katsuhiro Aoyama; Ieaki Uemura; Jun Miyake; Yasuo Asada

1997-01-01

119

Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.  

PubMed

Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

2014-12-15

120

Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter  

PubMed Central

Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a vast quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between organic and inorganic forms, directly impacting global cycles of these biologically important elements. Details regarding the chemical composition of DOM produced by marine phytoplankton are sparse, and while often assumed, it is not currently known if phylogenetically distinct groups of marine phytoplankton release characteristic suites of DOM. To investigate the relationship between specific phytoplankton groups and the DOM they release, hydrophobic phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMP) from eight axenic strains was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Identification of DOM features derived from Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Thalassiosira, and Phaeodactylum revealed DOMP to be complex and highly strain dependent. Connections between DOMP features and the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains were identified on multiple levels of phylogenetic distance, suggesting that marine phytoplankton produce DOM that in part reflects its phylogenetic origin. Chemical information regarding the size and polarity ranges of features from defined biological sources was also obtained. Our findings reveal DOMP composition to be partially conserved among related phytoplankton species, and implicate marine DOM as a potential factor influencing microbial diversity in the sea by acting as a link between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community structures. PMID:24748874

Becker, Jamie W.; Berube, Paul M.; Follett, Christopher L.; Waterbury, John B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

121

The space exposure platforms BIOPAN and EXPOSE to study living organisms in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BIOPAN and EXPOSE are two European space exposure platforms developed for the European Space Agency by Kayser-Threde GmbH Munich Germany to offer flight opportunities to the science community of exo astrobiology research in low earth orbit Both platforms are conceived for the research on the behaviour of living organisms in the environment of space and on simulated conditions of other planets Mars The conditions for a possible transfer of life between planets can be studied Both facilities can also be used for materials and components validation and as test bed for advanced technologies envisaged for future exploration missions radio-protection miniaturized devices electronic components Since 1992 BIOPAN has flown five times aboard the Russian FOTON re-entry capsule 25 experiments in exo astrobiology radiation biology and radiation dosimetry have been conducted so far The pan-shaped experiment container BIOPAN can be installed onto the outer surface of its carrier satellite The orbital flight duration is typically two weeks The re-entry capsule with its experiments is recovered after landing and the experiment samples are returned to the ground laboratories of the scientific investigators for post-flight analysis Experiments flown so far with BIOPAN include bacterial spores mixed with Martian soil analogues to test the alleged toxicity of the Martian soil while irradiated in space by solar UV at dose and wavelength levels comparable to those on Mars experiment MARSTOX permafrost soil samples with their embedded natural ancient

Schulte, W.

122

Surfomics: shaving live organisms for a fast proteomic identification of surface proteins.  

PubMed

Surface proteins play a critical role in the interaction between cells and their environment, as they take part in processes like signaling, adhesion, transport, etc. In pathogenic microorganisms, they can also participate in virulence or cytotoxicity. As these proteins have the highest chances to be recognized by the immune system, they are often the targets for the discovery of new vaccines. In addition, they can serve for the development of serological-based tools to diagnose infectious diseases. First-generation proteomic strategies for the identification of surface proteins rely on the biochemical fractionation and/or enrichment of this group of molecules or organelles containing them. However, in the last years, a novel second-generation approach has been developed, consisting of the digestion of live, intact cells with proteases, so that surface-exposed moieties (i.e. the "surfome" of a cell) are "shaved" and analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Here we review such a strategy, firstly set up and developed in Gram-positive bacteria, and further applied to Gram-negative bacteria, unicellular fungi, and also pluricellular organisms. We also discuss the advantages and inconvenients of the approach, and the still unresolved question about the intriguing presence of proteins predicted as cytoplasmic in the surfomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics. PMID:23624344

Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J

2014-01-31

123

The Thermodynamics of the living organisms: entropy production in the cell  

E-print Network

Trying to identify the entropy production within a cell has been part of debates and studies in the last century. First the idea was to make a resemblance of a cell with a Carnot engine, which is the most thermodynamically perfect machine. This approach was clearly not the best, since the yield achieved within a cell cannot be ideal, but can we even measure it? Several models approach the living cell, since the very simple one (e.g. Prigogine model) to more elaborated proposals. The concept of entropy has been the centre of discussions within several scientific fields. To interpret how entropy is produced in the complicated system of a cell is as hard as to understand how life originated at the first place. Understanding the way a cell works is key in biology, medicine, and multiple other scientific fields. Thermodynamics is essential in multitude of processes around us. Trying to identify the entropy production within a cell has been past of debates and studies in the last century. I give here an insight of ...

Gomez, Araceli Venegas

2014-01-01

124

Blood circulation laboratory investigations with video are less investigative than instructional blood circulation laboratories with live organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using microscopes (128 students) and 5 classes using digital video (131 students) to compare blood transport among invertebrates, fish, and humans. The "What Is Happening in this Class?" (WIHIC) questionnaire was used for assessment of microscope and video groups to detect students' perception of their learning environment following these teaching interventions. The use of microscopes had a clear effect on the perception of the investigative aspects of the learning environment that was not detected with the video treatment. Findings suggest that video should not replace investigations with live organisms.

Ms. Mildred A. Hoover (Curtin Univ Technol); PhD Nancy J. Pelaez (California State University Fullerton Department of Biological Science, MH282)

2007-07-26

125

Blood circulation laboratory investigations with video are less investigative than instructional blood circulation laboratories with live organisms.  

PubMed

Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using microscopes (128 students) and 5 classes using digital video (131 students) to compare blood transport among invertebrates, fish, and humans. The "What Is Happening in this Class?" (WIHIC) questionnaire was used for assessment of microscope and video groups to detect students' perception of their learning environment following these teaching interventions. The use of microscopes had a clear effect on the perception of the investigative aspects of the learning environment that was not detected with the video treatment. Findings suggest that video should not replace investigations with live organisms. PMID:18334569

Hoover, Mildred A; Pelaez, Nancy J

2008-03-01

126

Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for

William H. Orem; Calin A. Tatu; Harry E. Lerch; Cynthia A. Rice; Timothy T. Bartos; Anne L. Bates; Susan Tewalt; Margo D. Corum

2007-01-01

127

Bacterial mutagenicity of pyrolysis tars produced from chloro-organic fuels.  

PubMed Central

Droplets of toluene and three chlorinated organics, ortho-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and trichloroethylene, were pyrolyzed in pure nitrogen. The composition and bacterial mutagenicity of the product tars were measured. The presence of organic chlorine was found to affect both pyrolysis product tar composition and total tar mutagenicity. Pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine produced tars whose bacterial mutagenicity was found to be largely due to the presence of cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Small amounts of chlorine in the fuel (i.e., Cl/H molar ratios of less than 0.3) enhanced the formation of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including cyclopenta[cd]pyrene) and increased tar mutagenicity. Larger amounts of organic chlorine (Cl/H ratios of between 0.3 and 0.6) resulted in significant yields of mono- and dichlorinated aromatics and higher levels of tar mutagenicity, which could not be accounted for by the presence of mutagens produced by pyrolysis in the absence of chlorine. Furthermore, unlike tars containing little or no chlorine, tars containing aryl chlorine were more mutagenic in the absence of added enzymes (intended to mimic in vivo mammalian metabolism) than in their presence. We hypothesize that at least one of the chlorinated aromatic products is strongly mutagenic. Two specific conditions that gave notably different results were a) the low-temperature (i.e., below 1400 K) pyrolysis of ortho-dichlorobenzene, which produced tri- and tetrachlorinated biphenyls almost exclusively; and b) the chlorine-rich pyrolysis of trichloroethylene, during which mostly perchloroaromatics were formed. Neither of these tars was found to mutate bacteria. PMID:8187720

Mulholland, J A; Sarofim, A F; Longwell, J P; Lafleur, A L; Thilly, W G

1994-01-01

128

Surface enhanced Raman scattering on Tardigrada--towards monitoring and imaging molecular structures in live cryptobiotic organisms.  

PubMed

Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans which are able to survive extreme physical and chemical conditions by entering a stress tolerant state called cryptobiosis. At present, the molecular mechanisms behind cryptobiosis are still poorly understood. We show that surface enhanced Raman scattering supported by plasmonic gold nanoparticles can measure molecular constituents and their local distribution in live tardigrades. Surface enhanced Raman signatures allow to differentiate between two species and indicate molecular structural differences between tardigrades in water and in a dry state. This opens new avenues for exploring cryptobiosis by studying molecular changes in live cryptobiotic organisms. PMID:23225705

Kneipp, Harald; Møbjerg, Nadja; Jørgensen, Aslak; Bohr, Henrik G; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Katrin

2013-10-01

129

A Comparison of the Nutritional Value, Sensory Qualities, and Food Safety of Organically and Conventionally Produced Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. William Lockeretz, Professor, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 12155 Given the significant increase in consumer interest in organic food products, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic produce. Studies comparing foods derived from organic and conventional growing systems were assessed for

Diane Bourn; John Prescott

2002-01-01

130

Ingestion of Salmonella enterica serotype Poona by a free-living mematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and protection against inactivation by produce sanitizers.  

PubMed

Free-living nematodes are known to ingest food-borne pathogens and may serve as vectors to contaminate preharvest fruits and vegetables. Caenorhabditis elegans was selected as a model to study the effectiveness of sanitizers in killing Salmonella enterica serotype Poona ingested by free-living nematodes. Aqueous suspensions of adult worms that had fed on S. enterica serotype Poona were treated with produce sanitizers. Treatment with 20 microg of free chlorine/ml significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced the population of S. enterica serotype Poona compared to results for treating worms with water (control). However, there was no significant difference in the number of S. enterica serotype Poona cells surviving treatments with 20 to 500 microg of chlorine/ml, suggesting that reductions caused by treatment with 20 microg of chlorine/ml resulted from inactivation of S. enterica serotype Poona on the surface of C. elegans but not cells protected by the worm cuticle after ingestion. Treatment with Sanova (850 or 1,200 microg/ml), an acidified sodium chlorite sanitizer, caused reductions of 5.74 and 6.34 log(10) CFU/worm, respectively, compared to reductions from treating worms with water. Treatment with 20 or 40 microg of Tsunami 200/ml, a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer, resulted in reductions of 4.83 and 5.34 log(10) CFU/worm, respectively, compared to numbers detected on or in worms treated with water. Among the organic acids evaluated at a concentration of 2%, acetic acid was the least effective in killing S. enterica serotype Poona and lactic acid was the most effective. Treatment with up to 500 microg of chlorine/ml, 1% hydrogen peroxide, 2,550 microg of Sanova/ml, 40 microg of Tsunami 200/ml, or 2% acetic, citric, or lactic acid had no effect on the viability or reproductive behavior of C. elegans. Treatments were also applied to cantaloupe rind and lettuce inoculated with S. enterica serotype Poona or C. elegans that had ingested S. enterica serotype Poona. Protection of ingested S. enterica serotype Poona against sanitizers applied to cantaloupe was not evident; however, ingestion afforded protection of the pathogen on lettuce. These results indicate that S. enterica serotype Poona ingested by C. elegans may be protected against treatment with chlorine and other sanitizers, although the basis for this protection remains unclear. PMID:12839787

Caldwell, Krishaun N; Adler, Barbara B; Anderson, Gary L; Williams, Phillip L; Beuchat, Larry R

2003-07-01

131

Ingestion of Salmonella enterica Serotype Poona by a Free-Living Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Protection against Inactivation by Produce Sanitizers  

PubMed Central

Free-living nematodes are known to ingest food-borne pathogens and may serve as vectors to contaminate preharvest fruits and vegetables. Caenorhabditis elegans was selected as a model to study the effectiveness of sanitizers in killing Salmonella enterica serotype Poona ingested by free-living nematodes. Aqueous suspensions of adult worms that had fed on S. enterica serotype Poona were treated with produce sanitizers. Treatment with 20 ?g of free chlorine/ml significantly (? = 0.05) reduced the population of S. enterica serotype Poona compared to results for treating worms with water (control). However, there was no significant difference in the number of S. enterica serotype Poona cells surviving treatments with 20 to 500 ?g of chlorine/ml, suggesting that reductions caused by treatment with 20 ?g of chlorine/ml resulted from inactivation of S. enterica serotype Poona on the surface of C. elegans but not cells protected by the worm cuticle after ingestion. Treatment with Sanova (850 or 1,200 ?g/ml), an acidified sodium chlorite sanitizer, caused reductions of 5.74 and 6.34 log10 CFU/worm, respectively, compared to reductions from treating worms with water. Treatment with 20 or 40 ?g of Tsunami 200/ml, a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer, resulted in reductions of 4.83 and 5.34 log10 CFU/worm, respectively, compared to numbers detected on or in worms treated with water. Among the organic acids evaluated at a concentration of 2%, acetic acid was the least effective in killing S. enterica serotype Poona and lactic acid was the most effective. Treatment with up to 500 ?g of chlorine/ml, 1% hydrogen peroxide, 2,550 ?g of Sanova/ml, 40 ?g of Tsunami 200/ml, or 2% acetic, citric, or lactic acid had no effect on the viability or reproductive behavior of C. elegans. Treatments were also applied to cantaloupe rind and lettuce inoculated with S. enterica serotype Poona or C. elegans that had ingested S. enterica serotype Poona. Protection of ingested S. enterica serotype Poona against sanitizers applied to cantaloupe was not evident; however, ingestion afforded protection of the pathogen on lettuce. These results indicate that S. enterica serotype Poona ingested by C. elegans may be protected against treatment with chlorine and other sanitizers, although the basis for this protection remains unclear. PMID:12839787

Caldwell, Krishaun N.; Adler, Barbara B.; Anderson, Gary L.; Williams, Phillip L.; Beuchat, Larry R.

2003-01-01

132

Physico-chemical properties of Pd nanoparticles produced by Pulsed Laser Ablation in different organic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palladium nanoparticles are arousing an increasing interest because of their strong activity in heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of reactions. Driven by the interest of producing Pd nanoparticles to be deposited for catalysis over hydrophobic supports, we investigated their synthesis via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid in several organic solvents, as acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, toluene, n-hexane. The colloids were produced by using a Nd:YAG ns laser and without the addition of surfactant agents. The morphology, composition, stability and oxidation state of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by TEM-EDS analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results evidence that the nature of the solvent influences both the yield and the physico-chemical properties of the produced nanoparticles. While in acetone and alcohols spheroidal, non aggregated and stable particles are obtained, in case of toluene and n-hexane few unstable particles surrounded by a gel-like material are produced. Raman/XPS measurements suggest the presence of amorphous or graphitic carbon onto crystalline Pd nanoparticles, which could have hindered their growth and determined the observed smaller sizes if compared to nanoparticles produced in water. The stability of Pd colloids obtained in acetone and alcohols was attributed to adsorbed anions like enolates or alcoholates; non polar solvents like toluene and n-hexane, unable to give rise to adsorbed anionic species, cannot provide any stabilization to the palladium nanoparticles. XPS analyses also evidenced a partial oxidation of particles surface, with a ratio Pd 2+:Pd 0 of 1:2.5 and 1:4 in acetone and ethanol, respectively.

Cristoforetti, Gabriele; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Spiniello, Roberto; Ishak, Randa; Giammanco, Francesco; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Caporali, Stefano

2012-01-01

133

Reduced live organism recovery and lack of hydrosalpinx in mice infected with plasmid-free Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum fail to induce severe pathology. To evaluate whether the attenuated pathogenicity is due to insufficient infection or inability of the plasmidless chlamydial organisms to trigger pathological responses, we compared plasmid-competent and plasmid-free C. muridarum infections in 5 different strains of mice. All 5 strains developed hydrosalpinx following intravaginal inoculation with plasmid-competent, but not inoculation with plasmid-free, C. muridarum. The lack of hydrosalpinx induction by plasmid-free C. muridarum correlated with significantly reduced live organism recovery from the lower genital tract and shortened infection in the upper genital tract. The plasmid-free C. muridarum organisms failed to induce hydrosalpinx even when the organisms were directly inoculated into the oviduct via an intrabursal injection, which was accompanied by significantly reduced survival of the plasmidless organisms in the genital tracts. Furthermore, plasmid-competent C. muridarum organisms after UV inactivation were no longer able to induce hydrosalpinx even when directly delivered into the oviduct at a high dose. Together, these observations suggest that decreased survival of and shortened infection with plasmid-free C. muridarum may contribute significantly to its attenuated pathogenicity. We conclude that adequate live chlamydial infection in the oviduct may be necessary to induce hydrosalpinx. PMID:24343644

Lei, Lei; Chen, Jianlin; Hou, Shuping; Ding, Yiling; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zeng, Hao; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

2014-03-01

134

Lively Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2002-01-01

135

Organics Produced by Irradiation of Frozen and Liquid HCN Solutions: Implications for Chemical Evolution Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), an important precursor of organic compounds, is widely present in extraterrestrial environments. HCN is also readily synthesized in prebiotic simulation experiments. To gain insight into the radiation chemistry of one of the most important and highly versatile constituents of cometary ices, we examined the behavior of over-irradiated frozen and liquid HCN solutions under ionizing radiation. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at a dose range from 0 up to 419 kGy. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to follow the process. The analyses confirmed that gamma-ray irradiation of liquid HCN solutions generates several organic products. Many of them are essential to life; we verified the presence of carboxylic acids (some of them members of the Krebs cycle) as well as free amino acids and urea. These are the first studies to reveal the presence of these compounds in experiments performed at low temperatures and bulk irradiation. Organic material was produced even at low temperatures and low radiation doses. This work strongly supports the presumption that, as a parent molecule, HCN played a central essential role in the process of chemical evolution on early Earth, comets, and other extraterrestrial environments.

Colín-García, M.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

2009-04-01

136

Direct analysis of large living organism by megavolt electrostatic ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new ambient ionization method allowing the direct chemical analysis of living human body by mass spectrometry (MS) was developed. This MS method, namely Megavolt Electrostatic Ionization Mass Spectrometry, is based on electrostatic charging of a living individual to megavolt (MV) potential, illicit drugs, and explosives on skin/glove, flammable solvent on cloth/tissue paper, and volatile food substances in breath were readily ionized and detected by a mass spectrometer. PMID:24924518

Ng, Kwan-Ming; Tang, Ho-Wai; Man, Sin-Heng; Mak, Pui-Yuk; Choi, Yi-Ching; Wong, Melody Yee-Man

2014-09-01

137

Direct Analysis of Large Living Organism by Megavolt Electrostatic Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ambient ionization method allowing the direct chemical analysis of living human body by mass spectrometry (MS) was developed. This MS method, namely Megavolt Electrostatic Ionization Mass Spectrometry, is based on electrostatic charging of a living individual to megavolt (MV) potential, illicit drugs, and explosives on skin/glove, flammable solvent on cloth/tissue paper, and volatile food substances in breath were readily ionized and detected by a mass spectrometer.

Ng, Kwan-Ming; Tang, Ho-Wai; Man, Sin-Heng; Mak, Pui-Yuk; Choi, Yi-Ching; Wong, Melody Yee-Man

2014-09-01

138

Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

2011-09-01

139

Occurrence of type A trichothecenes in conventionally and organically produced oats and oat products.  

PubMed

Among cereals, oats are known to be very frequently contaminated with type A trichothecenes and so they can play a major role in the exposition of the consumer to these mycotoxins. Seventy representative oat samples of both conventional and organic production were drawn at mills and at wholesale stage according to Commissions Regulation (EC) No 401/2006 and analyzed for nine type A trichothecenes by LC-MS/MS. High contamination rates were found for most of the toxins in conventional as well as in organic products (e. g. 100% for T-2 toxin or 99% for HT-2 toxin). The mean concentration of T-2/HT-2 (sum of the toxins) was 17 +/- 18 microg/kg (mean +/- SD) in all samples, 27 +/- 21 microg/kg in conventional, and 7.6 +/- 4.6 microg/kg in organic products, respectively. The highest T-2/HT-2 level has been determined in conventionally produced oat flakes (85 microg/kg). The mean level of T-2 tetraol (9.5 +/- 7.7 microg/kg) in all samples was found to be even higher than that of T-2 (5.1 +/- 6.0 microg/kg), whereas levels of T-2 triol, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol were considerably lower. For oats and oat products from organic farming contamination levels of T-2, HT-2, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, and neosolaniol were significantly lower. The results are discussed with respect to possible health risks for the consumer. PMID:18030660

Gottschalk, Christoph; Barthel, Jörg; Engelhardt, Gabriele; Bauer, Johann; Meyer, Karsten

2007-12-01

140

Gut microbiota as a candidate for lifespan extension: an ecological\\/evolutionary perspective targeted on living organisms as metaorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging central concept in evolutionary biology suggests that symbiosis is a universal characteristic of living organisms\\u000a that can help in understanding complex traits and phenotypes. During evolution, an integrative circuitry fundamental for survival\\u000a has been established between commensal gut microbiota and host. On the basis of recent knowledge in worms, flies, and humans,\\u000a an important role of the gut

E. Ottaviani; N. Ventura; M. Mandrioli; M. Candela; A. Franchini; C. Franceschi

141

Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2?m filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10?M C6H12O6), ammonium (1?M NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1?M K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which can be linked to this bacterial production. FISH analysis showed percentage abundance of Pelagibacter ubique (SAR 11) and of Alteromonas. On-going and future work will ascertain if specific microbial communities produce CDOM more readily than others, and if these different populations produce varying fluorescence peaks, thus indicating a range of chromophoric groups being produced by bacteria. An additional suite of probes will be used for further FISH analysis to identify percentages of other populations, and seasonal/temporal variations will be investigated.

McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

2013-12-01

142

Search for stopped long-lived particles produced in pp collisions at sqrt {s} = {{7TeV}}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search has been performed for long-lived particles that have stopped in the CMS detector, during 7 TeV proton-proton operations of the CERN LHC. The existence of such particles could be inferred from observation of their decays when there were no proton-proton collisions in the CMS detector, namely during gaps between LHC beam crossings. Using a data set in which CMS recorded an integrated luminosity of 4.0 fb-1, and a search interval corresponding to 246 hours of trigger live time, 12 events are observed, with a mean background prediction of 8.6 ± 2.4 events. Limits are presented at 95% confidence level on long-lived gluino and stop production, over 13 orders of magnitude of particle lifetime. Assuming the "cloud model" of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass below 640 GeV and a stop with mass below 340 GeV are excluded, for lifetimes between 10 ?s and 1000 s.

Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, S.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.

2012-08-01

143

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

2011-01-01

144

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

2013-01-01

145

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

2010-01-01

146

7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and...organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that...

2012-01-01

147

Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to Pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms.  

PubMed

Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum vN. The antimicrobial substance produced by this bacterium was designated vN-1 and exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against many important pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Erwinia amylovova. vN-1 was determined to be thermostable, insensitive to pH values ranging from 2.0 to 8.0, resistant to various organic solvents and to enzymatic inactivation. The inhibition kinetics displayed a bactericidal mode of action. This study revealed an antimicrobial substance with low molecular mass of less than 1 kDa as determined by ultrafiltration and having features not previously reported for LAB isolated from chicken intestines. The detection of this antimicrobial substance addresses an important aspect of biotechnological control agents of spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp. and promises the possibility for preservation of refrigerated poultry meat. Practical Application:? The newly characterized antimicrobial substance and designated as vN-1 may have the potential to be used in food preservation. PMID:21913924

Hatew, Bayissa; Delessa, Tenagne; Zakin, Vered; Gollop, Natan

2011-10-01

148

Management of Intra-abdominal Infections due to Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms.  

PubMed

The prevalence of bacterial resistance to carbapenem antibiotics continues to increase because of bacteria producing metallo-?-lactamases (MBL), called carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO). Enterobacteriaceae, which can be a common cause of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), have become carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Updated international guidelines for the treatment of both IAIs and IAIs due to CRE have been published. Given the multifaceted nature of these infections, these recommendations have been jointly reviewed and endorsed by the Surgical Society and the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease. The aims of this review are to summarize the general and new generation of multimodal procedure to manage IAIs due to CRE and review the data available on the combination of interventions to reduce CRE. Future research should focus on the development of novel and safe antimicrobial therapies and the quantification of the incremental effect of infection control programmes and new methods to rapidly detect pathogens before patients enter the surgical setting. PMID:25129116

Di Carlo, Paola; Vitale, Francesco; O'Súilleabháin, Criostóir; Casuccio, Alessandra

2014-10-01

149

Laboratory Investigations of Complex Refractory Organic Material Produced from Irradiation of Pluto Ice Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of Pluto’s surface consists of N2 ice with smaller amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Despite the low temperature 45K), chemistry can be driven in the surface ices by radiation processing such as cosmic ray bombardment. When cosmic rays strike the surface, much of their energy is dispersed in the form of secondary electrons, which in turn drive much of the resulting chemical reactions. Laboratory experiments designed to simulate the conditions on these icy bodies may provide insight into this chemistry. Significant progress has been made in the laboratory toward understanding the smaller, simple compounds produced in the solid phase by radiation processing of (N2, CH4, CO) ices (Bohn et al. 1994; Moore & Hudson 2003; Hodyss et al. 2011; Kim and Kaiser 2012). Recently Materese et al. (2014) used a variety of techniques to better characterize the refractory materials produced from the UV photo-irradiation of N2:CH4:CO ices. However, because Pluto’s atmosphere is optically thick to Lyman-? UV radiation it is important to re-examine the results using an alternate radiation source. Our latest work has consisted of the analysis of refractory materials produced from the electron bombardment of low-temperature N2-, CH4-, and CO-containing ices (100:1:1). The ice mixture was chosen to be analogous to the known surface ices on Pluto and the radiation source was chosen to mimic the secondary electrons produced by cosmic rays bombardment. The residues were studied using multiple chemical techniques including, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic residues produced in these experiments can be seen as an analog for the refractory component of the surface of Pluto, and are compared with the residues previously obtained from UV photo-irradiation. UV and near-IR spectroscopy of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon during the encounter with NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft in 2015, will give the first close-up measurements of ices and their photoproducts. Laboratory measurements and experiments will provide a better context for the data returned by the spacecraft.

Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

2014-11-01

150

Distribution of uranium in human organs of an urban Indian population and its relationship with clearance half-lives  

SciTech Connect

This organ burdens of uranium were estimated for an urban Indian (Bombay) population living in a normal background environment, using the technique of neutron activation analysis, in combination with post-irradiation chemical separation. The total organ burdens were: skeleton > muscle > soft tissue > lungs > kidney > liver > heart. A comparison was made between the observed organ burdens of uranium for skeleton, kidney, and muscle with those obtained by applying the metabolic model of uranium as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to its daily intake by urban population. The observed organ burdens for kidney and muscle were found to be 4 and 70 times higher than the derived burden values; however, the two estimates were similar in the case of skeleton. This observation indicated that the clearance half-lives for uranium present in kidney and muscle tissue are likely to be longer than those reported by ICRP. For skeleton, however, the clearance half-life reported by the ICRP appeared to be reasonable. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

Dang, H.S.; Pullat, V.R.; Sharma, R.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

1995-03-01

151

75 FR 873 - Extramural Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reimbursement to living donors for travel and subsistence expenses, as...donors based on the estimated travel expenses related to the donation...expenses are monitored in real time by NLDAC to ensure that donors...to provide reimbursement of travel and subsistence expenses...

2010-01-06

152

CHI 2000 1-6 APRIL 2000 Organization Overviews ,Living Laboratories  

E-print Network

living laboratories where their research is applied to everyday life in the classroom (Classroom 2000 constitutes an effective, everyday partnership between humans and emerging computing technology. A critical into the ebb and flow of everyday activity. Our view of the major application themes for HCI research

Starner, Thad E.

153

Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05). Most respondents, 303 (79.1%), were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation. PMID:24434412

Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

2014-01-01

154

Impact of support services provided by a community-based AIDS service organization on persons living with HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

This study examined demographic, health-related, social support, and service utilization characteristics of clients with high and low use of a community-based AIDS service organization in Canada. The study confirmed that the organizations' services were reaching the most vulnerable persons living with HIV/AIDS. It found that a significantly greater number of high users compared with low users were single, lived alone, and reported poorer health. The similarity in functional health status and depression between user groups, despite high users' poorer health and greater social vulnerability, supports client reports that services have reduced client isolation and improved health-related quality of life. Finally, high users had lower expenditures for government-provided health and social services overall, particularly HIV specialists and AIDS medication, but significantly more expenditures for emergency room services and complementary therapies. The results suggest community-based services can enhance health-related quality of life for persons living with HIV/AIDS by increasing providers' capacity to identify and address client depression and its consequences. PMID:16435529

Crook, Joan; Browne, Gina; Roberts, Jacqueline; Gafni, Amiram

2005-01-01

155

Food system orientation and quality perception among consumers and producers of organic food in Hedmark County, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the potentials of organic agriculture, it is important to know how consumers, as well as producers, relate to food quality and food system issues. A consumer survey from the Hamar region in Southern Norway provided information on a number of these issues, and a rapid food system appraisal and a seminar revealed concerns among organic farmers in the

Hanne Torjusen; Geir Lieblein; Margareta Wandel; Charles A Francis

2001-01-01

156

The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire  

E-print Network

The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which, primarily owing to milk's nutritional and antimicrobial content1 . Lactation, the synthesis and secretion of milk, is made possible by the architecture of the gland. Like other organs used for fluid transport

Nelson, Celeste M.

157

Price Premiums Hold on as U.S. Organic Produce Market Expands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fresh fruits and vegetables have long been an important component of the organic food sector. Price premiums for organic products have contributed to growth in certified organic farmland and, ultimately, market expansion. This report examines trends in or...

L. Oberholtzer, C. Dimitri, C. Greene

2005-01-01

158

Zn\\/Pb-tolerant lichens with higher content of secondary metabolites produce less phytochelatins than specimens living in unpolluted habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many lichens can cope with heavy-metal stress, however, the mechanisms of lichen tolerance are still not fully understood. Some lichen secondary metabolites (depsides and depsidones), produced in lichens by the fungal symbiont and accumulated on the outer surface of its hyphae, are supposed to play an important role in the extracellular immoblilization of heavy metals. Lichen photobionts (algal partners in

B. Pawlik-Skowro?ska; M. Ba?kor

2011-01-01

159

A Graphical Journey of Innovative Organic Architectures that Have Improved Our Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new free graphical teaching tool that highlights the beautiful organic architectures of the top selling pharmaceuticals is detailed on two posters. In addition to the multitude of teaching and data-mining opportunities these posters offer, they were also created to emphasize the central role organic chemists play in the development of new…

McGrath, Nicholas A.; Brichacek, Matthew; Njardarson, Jon T.

2010-01-01

160

Estimation and characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutant emission from converter steelmaking processes.  

PubMed

Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were characterized and quantified in stack gas and fly ash from the second ventilation systems in five typical converters in five different steelmaking plants. The 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs (2378-PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCBs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 1.84-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 5.59-87.6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash, and the PCN TEQs were 0.06-0.56 pg TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 0.03-0.08 pg TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash. The concentrations of UP-POPs in the present study were generally lower than those in other metallurgical processes, such as electric arc furnaces, iron ore sintering, and secondary metallurgical processes. Adding scrap metal might increase UP-POP emissions, indicating that raw material composition was a key influence on emissions. HxCDF, HpCDF, OCDF, HpCDD, and OCDD were the dominant PCDD/Fs in the stack gas and fly ash. TeCB and PeCB were dominant in the stack gas, but HxCB provided more to the total PCB concentrations in the fly ash. The lower chlorinated PCNs were dominant in all of the samples. The 2378-PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN emission factors in stack gases from the steelmaking converter processes (per ton of steel produced) were 1.88-2.89, 0.14-0.76, and 229-759 ?g t(-1), respectively. PMID:24682712

Li, Sumei; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang

2014-06-01

161

7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

2013-01-01

162

7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

2012-01-01

163

7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

2010-01-01

164

7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.  

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

2014-01-01

165

7 CFR 1220.114 - National nonprofit producer-governed organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions...directors of agricultural producers representing soybean producers on a national...

2011-01-01

166

Micro-Radiography of Living Biological Organisms with MEDIPIX2 Detector and Application of Various Contrast Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a newly developed radiographic system equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector and a micro-focus FeinFocus X-ray tube tabletop. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by the X-ray tube. The digital pixel detectors of the Medipix family represent a highly efficient type of imaging devices with high spatial resolution better than 1?m, and unlimited dynamic range allowing single particle of radiation and to determine their energies. The setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in vivo observations with various contrast agents (iodine and lanthanum nitrate). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of application of iodine and lanthanum nitrate contrast agents as tracers in various insects as model organisms. The iodine contrast agent increases the absorption of X-rays and this leads to better resolution of internal structures of biological organisms, and especially the various cavities, pores, etc. Micro-radiographic imaging helps to detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

Dammer, Jiri; Sopko, Vit; Jakubek, Jan; Weyda, Frantisek; Benes, Jiri; Zahorovsky, Julian

2012-08-01

167

Synergistic activity of biocides and antibiotics on resistant bacteria from organically produced foods.  

PubMed

Synergism between biocides and antibiotics was investigated in 20 biocide and antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that were previously isolated from organically produced foods, according to their antimicrobial resistance profiles. Most of the antibiotic/biocide combinations yielded synergistic interactions, reducing the inhibitory concentrations of biocides and antibiotics by 4- to 16-fold. Among enterococci, synergism with biocides was detected for amoxicillin (AM), cefuroxime (CX), erythromycin (EM), ciprofloxacin (CP), and trimethoprim/sulphametoxazol (T/S). Among staphylococci, interactions were synergistic (AM) and either synergistic or indifferent (CX and EM, depending on biocide). Among the three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains included in the study, the combinations of methicillin and triclosan or hexachlorophene acted synergistically in all strains, but interactions were either synergistic or indifferent for the other biocides, depending on the strain. All combinations tested were synergistic for Lactobacillus (AM, CX, EM, and CP) and Micrococcus (AM, EM). In Salmonella, interactions were indifferent (AM, CX, EM, and CP) or synergistic (T/S). Synergism with biocides was also detected in Klebsiella isolates (AM, CX, and T/S), Enterobacter sp. (AM, CX, EM, and T/S), Pantoea (AM, CX, EM, CP, and T/S), and Chryseobacterium sp. (EM). These results suggest that combinations of biocides and antibiotics may open new possibilities to combat antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24660956

Fernández Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Gadea, Rebeca; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Ortega, Elena

2014-10-01

168

A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres.  

PubMed

Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO(2)-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering. PMID:22992681

Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F

2012-10-21

169

Studies on the biology of the crisamicin-producing organism Micromonospora purpureochromogenes subsp. celinoensis  

SciTech Connect

A Micromonospora isolate, RV-101, obtained from the Red V Coconut Company in the Philippines, produces a new complex of antibiotics, the crisamicins. Using standard taxonomic methods for the genus Micromonospora, including micromorphology, growth characteristics on select media, whole cell analysis of chemical composition, and carbohydrate utilization patterns, the organism was classified as Micromonospora purpureochromogenes subsp. celinoensis. The chief character used in this classification was the production of a dark-brown diffusible pigment on media containing complex sources of nitrogen. The biosynthesis of crisamicin A was investigated by the technique of /sup 13/C acetate feeding and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. Crisamicin A was found to be synthesized from acetate via the polyketide biosynthetic pathway. In addition, the assignment of one of two possible structures, differing in the position of phenolic hydroxyl groups, and in the point of linkage between the two monomers of the molecule, was made using the labeling data. The structure determined demonstrates that crisamicin A is unique among the benzoisochromanequinone antibiotics, in that it lacks an oxygen atom at position C-8.

Pope, J.A. Jr.

1985-01-01

170

Demographic consequences of adaptive growth and the ramifications for conservation of long-lived organisms  

E-print Network

impact Invasive species Density-dependent selection Elasticity analyses, Emydura macquarii, Chrysemys picta a b s t r a c t Understanding how organisms respond to human impacts is increasingly challenging

Janzen, Fredric

171

Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter  

E-print Network

Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a ...

Becker, Jamie William

172

Producing the natural fiber naturally: Technological change and the US organic cotton industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic cotton productionboomed in the early 1990s only to fall steeplymid-decade. Production is currently rising, butslowly, and has yet to reach previous levels.This is in marked contrast to the steady growthin organic food production during the 1990s.Why, when other areas of organic productionexperienced steady growth, did organic cottonexperience a boom and bust? A study of thecotton production and processing industryreveals

Mrill Ingram

2002-01-01

173

Prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in humans living in municipalities with high and low broiler density.  

PubMed

Prevalence of, and risk factors for, carriage of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae were determined for 1025 Dutch adults in municipalities with either high or low broiler densities. Overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 5.1%. The hypothesis that individuals in areas with high broiler densities are at greater risk for ESBL carriage was rejected, as the risk was lower (OR = 0.45; p 0.009) for these individuals. Owning a horse increased the risk (OR = 4.69; p ?0.0001), but horse owners often owned multiple species of companion animals. Routes of transmission from animals to humans in the community, and the role of poultry in this process, remain to be elucidated. PMID:23397953

Huijbers, P M C; de Kraker, M; Graat, E A M; van Hoek, A H A M; van Santen, M G; de Jong, M C M; van Duijkeren, E; de Greeff, S C

2013-06-01

174

Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

2005-01-01

175

Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 ?F) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ? = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

2010-10-01

176

Narrating Lives, Narrating Faith: "Organic Hybridity" for Contemporary Christian Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes that Christian Religious Education (CRE) today requires the practice of "organic hybridity" in fluid and shifting "diasporic spaces," the prerequisite for which is the recognition that "hybrid subjectivities" is characteristic of our current postmodern, postcolonial, transnational, globalized world. Toward this aim, CRE must…

Tran, Mai-Anh Le

2010-01-01

177

Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

Allometric equations are often used to extrapolate traits in animals for which only body mass estimates are known, such as dinosaurs. One important decision can be whether these equations should be based on mammal, bird or reptile data. To address whether this choice will have a relevant influence on reconstructions, we compared allometric equations for birds and mammals from the literature to those for reptiles derived from both published and hitherto unpublished data. Organs studied included the heart, kidneys, liver and gut, as well as gut contents. While the available data indicate that gut content mass does not differ between the clades, the organ masses for reptiles are generally lower than those for mammals and birds. In particular, gut tissue mass is significantly lower in reptiles. When applying the results in the reconstruction of a sauropod dinosaur, the estimated volume of the coelomic cavity greatly exceeds the estimated volume of the combined organ masses, irrespective of the allometric equation used. Therefore, substantial deviation of sauropod organ allometry from that of the extant vertebrates can be allowed conceptually. Extrapolations of retention times from estimated gut contents mass and food intake do not suggest digestive constraints on sauropod dinosaur body size. PMID:19324837

Franz, Ragna; Hummel, Jurgen; Kienzle, Ellen; Kolle, Petra; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Clauss, Marcus

2009-01-01

178

Tropical Coastal Organisms as Qualitative Indicators of Mercury and Organomercury for Sustainable Use of Living Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms sensitive to ambient environment are used as bioindicators in monitoring pollution. The present investigation is designed to measure the extent of mercury and organomercury levels in selective biota of different trophic levels inhabiting in the coastal environment of Sunderban Biosphere Reserve, eastern part of India. The primary objective of this work is to provide baseline data for future environmental

S. K. Sarkar; B. Bhattacharya; G. Bandopadhaya; Sankar Giri; S. Debnath

1999-01-01

179

Living organ procurement from the mentally incompetent: the need for more appropriate guidelines.  

PubMed

With the case of Belgium as a negative example, this paper will evaluate the legitimacy of using mentally incompetents as organ sources. The first section examines the underlying moral dilemma that results from the necessity of balancing the principle of respect for persons with the obligation to help people in desperate need. We argue for the rejection of a radical utilitarian approach but also question the appropriateness of a categorical prohibition. Section two aims to strike a fair balance between the competing interests at stake and to define the conditions under which organ harvest from mentally incompetents might be morally acceptable. To this end, we morally assess the main requirements that have been put forward to allow organ removal from incompetent donors. We conclude that the current Belgian legislation is far too permissive and that national regulations that do not permit the harvest of non-regenerable organs from mentally incompetents in exceptional circumstances are too restrictive. On the basis of this discussion, we propose a number of guiding principles for decision-making in this area. PMID:22762369

Van Assche, Kristof; Genicot, Gilles; Sterckx, Sigrid

2014-03-01

180

Ozone Depleting Substances: An Update on Fractional Halogen Release Rates and Short Lived Organic Halogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future stratospheric ozone loss may be calculated from various organic halogen production\\/emission scenarios and inorganic halogen release rates. Effective equivalent stratospheric chlorine (EESC) is a calculation of the amount of inorganic chlorine and the equivalent amount of inorganic bromine available for reaction with stratospheric ozone. Calculations of EESC require values for the release of inorganic halogen for each ozone depleting

S. M. Schauffler; E. L. Atlas

2005-01-01

181

Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

182

Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel technique for sorting and identification of single biological cells and food-borne bacteria based on laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). With this technique, biological cells of different physiological states in a sample chamber were identified by their Raman spectral signatures and then they were selectively manipulated into a clean collection chamber with optical tweezers through a microchannel. As an example, we sorted the live and dead yeast cells into the collection chamber and validated this with a standard staining technique. We also demonstrated that bacteria existing in spoiled foods could be discriminated from a variety of food particles based on their characteristic Raman spectra and then isolated with laser manipulation. This label-free LTRS sorting technique may find broad applications in microbiology and rapid examination of food-borne diseases.

Xie, Changan; Chen, De; Li, Yong-Qing

2005-07-01

183

Development of a simplified, mass producible hybridized ambient, low frequency, low intensity vibration energy scavenger (half-lives)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scavenging energy from environmental sources is an active area of research to enable remote sensing and microsystems applications. Furthermore, as energy demands soar, there is a significant need to explore new sources and curb waste. Vibration energy scavenging is one environmental source for remote applications and a candidate for recouping energy wasted by mechanical sources that can be harnessed to monitor and optimize operation of critical infrastructure (e.g. Smart Grid). Current vibration scavengers are limited by volume and ancillary requirements for operation such as control circuitry overhead and battery sources. This dissertation, for the first time, reports a mass producible hybrid energy scavenger system that employs both piezoelectric and electrostatic transduction on a common MEMS device. The piezoelectric component provides an inherent feedback signal and pre-charge source that enables electrostatic scavenging operation while the electrostatic device provides the proof mass that enables low frequency operation. The piezoelectric beam forms the spring of the resonant mass-spring transducer for converting vibration excitation into an AC electrical output. A serially poled, composite shim, piezoelectric bimorph produces the highest output rectified voltage of over 3.3V and power output of 145muW using ¼ g vibration acceleration at 120Hz. Considering solely the volume of the piezoelectric beam and tungsten proof mass, the volume is 0.054cm3, resulting in a power density of 2.68mW/cm3. Incorporation of a simple parallel plate structure that provides the proof mass for low frequency resonant operation in addition to cogeneration via electrostatic energy scavenging provides a 19.82 to 35.29 percent increase in voltage beyond the piezoelectric generated DC rails. This corresponds to approximately 2.1nW additional power from the electrostatic scavenger component and demonstrates the first instance of hybrid energy scavenging using both piezoelectric and synchronous electrostatic transduction. Furthermore, it provides a complete system architecture and development platform for additional enhancements that will enable in excess of 100muW additional power from the electrostatic scavenger.

Khbeis, Michael Tawfik

184

A comparison of the nutritional value and food safety of organically and conventionally produced wheat flours.  

PubMed

Growing interest in organic agriculture has prompted this study aiming to evaluate nutritional content of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional production systems. Obtained results showed that organic samples had significantly lower protein content and lower levels of Ca, Mn and Fe compared to conventional samples. Protein digestibility and levels of K, Zn and Mo were significantly higher in organic than in conventional wheat flours. Regarding undesirable metals, significantly higher levels of As and Cd were found in conventional compared to organic wheat flours. Although the mean concentrations of zearalenone and ochratoxin A were higher in conventional than in organic flours, this difference was not significant. This study revealed that organic agriculture has the potential to yield products with some relevant improvements in terms of high quality proteins and microelements contents, while the reduction in contamination with toxic elements and mycotoxins may be accomplished. PMID:24054276

Vr?ek, Ivana Vinkovi?; ?epo, Dubravka Vitali; Raši?, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja; Žuntar, Irena; Boji?, Mirza; Mendaš, Gordana; Medi?-Šari?, Marica

2014-01-15

185

Infection of Semen-Producing Organs by SIV during the Acute and Chronic Stages of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough indirect evidence suggests the male genital tract as a possible source of persistent HIV shedding in semen during antiretroviral therapy, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to the difficulty of sampling semen-producing organs in HIV+ asymptomatic individuals.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing a range of molecular and cell biological techniques, this study investigates SIV infection within reproductive organs of macaques during the acute

Anna Le Tortorec; Roger Le Grand; Hélène Denis; Anne-Pascale Satie; Karim Mannioui; Pierre Roques; Anne Maillard; Sylvanne Daniels; Bernard Jégou; Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford; Peter Sommer

2008-01-01

186

Can Organized Youth Activities Protect Against Internalizing Problems Among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?  

PubMed Central

Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and white youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during adolescence. We also examined the extent to which participation in organized activities protected youth against the internalizing consequences of domestic violence. We found that intensive participation in either afterschool programs or extracurricular activities was inversely associated with youth internalizing problems. Moreover, we found that intensive participation in afterschool programs weakened the association between parents’ domestic violence and youths’ internalizing problems. PMID:23162370

Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

187

Imaging of light emission from the expression of luciferases in living cells and organisms: a review.  

PubMed

Luciferases are enzymes that emit light in the presence of oxygen and a substrate (luciferin) and which have been used for real-time, low-light imaging of gene expression in cell cultures, individual cells, whole organisms, and transgenic organisms. Such luciferin-luciferase systems include, among others, the bacterial lux genes of terrestrial Photorhabdus luminescens and marine Vibrio harveyi bacteria, as well as eukaryotic luciferase luc and ruc genes from firefly species (Photinus) and the sea pansy (Renilla reniformis), respectively. In various vectors and in fusion constructs with other gene products such as green fluorescence protein (GFP; from the jellyfish Aequorea), luciferases have served as reporters in a number of promoter search and targeted gene expression experiments over the last two decades. Luciferase imaging has also been used to trace bacterial and viral infection in vivo and to visualize the proliferation of tumour cells in animal models. PMID:11816060

Greer, Lee F; Szalay, Aladar A

2002-01-01

188

CytoViz: an artistic mapping of network measurements as living organisms in a VR application  

Microsoft Academic Search

CytoViz is an artistic, real-time information visualization driven by statistical information gathered during gigabit network transfers to the Scalable Adaptive Graphical Environment (SAGE) at various events. Data streams are mapped to cellular organisms defining their structure and behavior as autonomous agents. Network bandwidth drives the growth of each entity and the latency defines its physics-based independent movements. The collection of

Brenda A. López Silva; Luc Renambot

2007-01-01

189

Acoustic Observation of Living Organisms Reveals the Upper Limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution.Methodology\\/Principal

Arnaud Bertrand; Michael Ballón; Alexis Chaigneau

2010-01-01

190

Progress in developing a living human tissue-engineered tri-leaflet heart valve assembled from tissue produced by the self-assembly approach.  

PubMed

The aortic heart valve is constantly subjected to pulsatile flow and pressure gradients which, associated with cardiovascular risk factors and abnormal hemodynamics (i.e. altered wall shear stress), can cause stenosis and calcification of the leaflets and result in valve malfunction and impaired circulation. Available options for valve replacement include homograft, allogenic or xenogenic graft as well as the implantation of a mechanical valve. A tissue-engineered heart valve containing living autologous cells would represent an alternative option, particularly for pediatric patients, but still needs to be developed. The present study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a living tissue sheet produced by the self-assembly method, to replace the bovine pericardium currently used for the reconstruction of a stented human heart valve. In this study, human fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of sodium ascorbate to produce tissue sheets. These sheets were superimposed to create a thick construct. Tissue pieces were cut from these constructs and assembled together on a stent, based on techniques used for commercially available replacement valves. Histology and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the fibroblasts were embedded in a dense extracellular matrix produced in vitro. The mechanical properties measured were consistent with the fact that the engineered tissue was resistant and could be cut, sutured and assembled on a wire frame typically used in bioprosthetic valve assembly. After a culture period in vitro, the construct was cohesive and did not disrupt or disassemble. The tissue engineered heart valve was stimulated in a pulsatile flow bioreactor and was able to sustain multiple duty cycles. This prototype of a tissue-engineered heart valve containing cells embedded in their own extracellular matrix and sewn on a wire frame has the potential to be strong enough to support physiological stress. The next step will be to test this valve extensively in a bioreactor and at a later date, in a large animal model in order to assess in vivo patency of the graft. PMID:24813743

Dubé, Jean; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Gauvin, Robert; Lafrance, Hugues; Roberge, Charles J; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

2014-08-01

191

Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy of secondary organic material produced by condensational growth from ?-pinene ozonolysis.  

PubMed

Secondary organic material (SOM) was produced in a flow tube from ?-pinene ozonolysis, and collected particles were analyzed spectroscopically via a nonlinear coherent vibrational spectroscopic technique, namely sum frequency generation (SFG). The SOM precursor ?-pinene was injected into the flow tube reactor at concentrations ranging from 0.125 ± 0.01 ppm to 100 ± 3 ppm. The oxidant ozone was varied from 0.15 ± 0.02 to 194 ± 2 ppm. The residence time was 38 ± 1 s. The integrated particle number concentrations, studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), varied from no particles produced up to (1.26 ± 0.02) × 10(7) cm(-3) for the matrix of reaction conditions. The mode diameters of the aerosols increased from 7.7 nm (geometric standard deviation (gsd), 1.0) all the way to 333.8 nm (gsd, 1.9). The corresponding volume concentrations were as high as (3.0 ± 0.1) × 10(14) nm(3) cm(-3). The size distributions indicated access to different particle growth stages, namely condensation, coagulation, or combination of both, depending on reaction conditions. For filter collection and subsequent spectral analysis, reaction conditions were selected that gave a mode diameter of 63 ± 3 nm and 93 ± 3 nm, respectively, and an associated mass concentration of 12 ± 2 ?g m(-3) and (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10(3) ?g m(-3) for an assumed density of 1200 kg m(-3). Teflon filters loaded with 24 ng to 20 ?g of SOM were analyzed by SFG. The SFG spectra obtained from particles formed under condensational and coagulative growth conditions were found to be quite similar, indicating that the distribution of SFG-active C-H oscillators is similar for particles prepared under both conditions. The spectral features of these flow-tube particles agreed with those prepared in an earlier study that employed the Harvard Environmental Chamber. The SFG intensity was found to increase linearly with the number of particles, consistent with what is expected from SFG signal production from particles, while it decreased at higher mass loadings of 10 and 20 ?g, consistent with the notion that SFG probes the top surface of the SOM material following the complete coverage of the filter. The linear increase in SFG intensity with particle density also supports the notion that the average number of SFG active oscillators per particle is constant for a given particle size, that the particles are present on the collection filters in a random array, and that the particles are not coalesced. The limit of detection of SFG intensity was established as 24 ng of mass on the filter, corresponding to a calculated density of about 100 particles in the laser spot. As established herein, the technique is applicable for detecting low particle number or mass concentrations in ambient air. The related implication is that SFG is useful for short collection times and would therefore provide increased temporal resolution in a locally evolving atmospheric environment. PMID:23876044

Shrestha, Mona; Zhang, Yue; Ebben, Carlena J; Martin, Scot T; Geiger, Franz M

2013-09-01

192

Independent synchronized control and visualization of interactions between living cells and organisms.  

PubMed

To investigate the early stages of cell-cell interactions occurring between living biological samples, imaging methods with appropriate spatiotemporal resolution are required. Among the techniques currently available, those based on optical trapping are promising. Methods to image trapped objects, however, in general suffer from a lack of three-dimensional resolution, due to technical constraints. Here, we have developed an original setup comprising two independent modules: holographic optical tweezers, which offer a versatile and precise way to move multiple objects simultaneously but independently, and a confocal microscope that provides fast three-dimensional image acquisition. The optical decoupling of these two modules through the same objective gives users the possibility to easily investigate very early steps in biological interactions. We illustrate the potential of this setup with an analysis of infection by the fungus Drechmeria coniospora of different developmental stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. This has allowed us to identify specific areas on the nematode's surface where fungal spores adhere preferentially. We also quantified this adhesion process for different mutant nematode strains, and thereby derive insights into the host factors that mediate fungal spore adhesion. PMID:24853738

Rouger, Vincent; Bordet, Guillaume; Couillault, Carole; Monneret, Serge; Mailfert, Sébastien; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Pujol, Nathalie; Marguet, Didier

2014-05-20

193

Consumer response to functional foods produced by conventional, organic, or genetic manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agro-food industry is developing a “second generation” of genetically modified (GM) foods that can offer functional health benefits to consumers. Many consumers, however, are turning to organic foods in order to avoid GM foods. This report attempts to differentiate consumer valuation of functional health properties in conventional, organic, and GM foods. A representative sample of 1,008 Canadian household food

Bruno Larue; Gale E. West; Carole Gendron; Rémy Lambert

2004-01-01

194

Consumers' Perception of Sustainably Produced Food: The case of local and organic production technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies ways to improve on the current literature regarding sustainable production technologies, in this case, organic and local products. A survey method is used to examine organic and local markets in place of a single product to gain a better understanding of consumers? response to these products, their reactions to price differences of these products, and how their

Carly S. Whorton; Vincent Amanor-Boadu

2011-01-01

195

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF CANCER RATES IN PRIMARY ORGANIC CHEMICAL-PRODUCING COUNTIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The study is designed to determine whether there is an association between cancer mortality and the production of environmental carcinogens. Mortality rates of counties containing organic chemical production facilities are compared to rates of control counties. Twelve different c...

196

Reduction in faecal excretion of Salmonella typhimurium strain F98 in chickens vaccinated with live and killed S. typhimurium organisms.  

PubMed Central

Chickens given orally at 4 days of age a smooth spectinomycin resistant mutant (Spcr) of Salmonella typhimurium strain F98 excreted the organism in their faeces for approximately 4 weeks. Following oral administration of a nalidixic acid resistant (Nalr) mutant of the same strain 4 weeks later when the chickens had virtually cleared themselves of the first infection, these chickens excreted far fewer salmonella organisms and for a shorter time than did a previously uninfected control group of chickens which were infected at the same time with the Nalr mutant. Chickens inoculated intramuscularly at 4 days developed a similar immunity to challenge and also excreted the immunizing strain in their faeces. In contrast intramuscular inoculation or incorporation into the food of formalin-killed S. typhimurium organisms had little lasting effect on the faecal excretion of the challenge strain. Two attenuated mutants of strain F98 Nalr were produced: one was a rough strain produced by lytic bacteriophage and the other was an aro A auxotrophic mutant which had been cured of the 85 kilobase-pair virulence-associated plasmid. These mutants were avirulent for chickens, mice, calves and man and when ingested by human volunteers did not persist in the faeces. When inoculated intramuscularly into chickens they produced an early reduction in faecal excretion of the challenge strain (Spcr) which was not maintained. Oral administration of both strains produced reductions in faecal excretion of the challenge strain. This was much more noticeable with the rough strain which was itself excreted for a much longer period than the parent strain. PMID:2189743

Barrow, P. A.; Hassan, J. O.; Berchieri, A.

1990-01-01

197

Spike-Time-Dependent Plasticity and Heterosynaptic Competition Organize Networks to Produce Long  

E-print Network

), and the songbird HVC (Hahnloser et al., 2002; Kozhevni- kov and Fee, 2007), under various behavioral states. In this work, we investi- gate plasticity rules that could sculpt sequence-producing neural circuits out

Senn, Walter

198

Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

2013-01-01

199

Estimating screening-level organic chemical half-lives in humans.  

PubMed

Relatively few measured data are available for the thousands of chemicals requiring hazard and risk assessment. The whole body, total elimination half-life (HLT) and the whole body, primary biotransformation half-life (HLB) are key parameters determining the extent of bioaccumulation, biological concentration, and risk from chemical exposure. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic (1-CoPK) mass balance model was developed to estimate organic chemical HLB from measured HLT data in mammals. Approximately 1900 HLs for human adults were collected and reviewed and the 1-CoPK model was parametrized for an adult human to calculate HLB from HLT. Measured renal clearance and whole body total clearance data for 306 chemicals were used to calculate empirical HLB,emp. The HLB,emp values and other measured data were used to corroborate the 1-CoPK HLB model calculations. HLs span approximately 7.5 orders of magnitude from 0.05 h for nitroglycerin to 2 × 10(6) h for 2,3,4,5,2',3',5',6'-octachlorobiphenyl with a median of 7.6 h. The automated Iterative Fragment Selection (IFS) method was applied to develop and evaluate various quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) to predict HLT and HLB from chemical structure and two novel QSARs are detailed. The HLT and HLB QSARs show similar statistical performance; that is, r(2) = 0.89, r(2-ext) = 0.72 and 0.73 for training and external validation sets, respectively, and root-mean-square errors for the validation data sets are 0.70 and 0.75, respectively. PMID:24298879

Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank

2014-01-01

200

Oysters produce an organic-inorganic adhesive for intertidal reef construction.  

PubMed

Coastal ecosystems rely upon oyster reefs to filter water, provide protection from storms, and build habitat for other species. From a chemistry perspective, few details are available to illustrate how these shellfish construct such extensive reef systems. Experiments presented here show that oysters generate a biomineralized adhesive material for aggregating into large communities. This cement is an organic-inorganic hybrid and differs from the surrounding shells by displaying an alternate CaCO(3) crystal form, a cross-linked organic matrix, and an elevated protein content. Emerging themes and unique aspects are both revealed when comparing oyster cement to the adhesives of other marine organisms. The presence of cross-linked proteins provides an analogy to mussel and barnacle adhesives whereas the high inorganic content is exclusive to oysters. With a description of oyster cement in hand we gain strategies for developing synthetic composite materials as well as a better understanding of the components needed for healthy coastal environments. PMID:20722392

Burkett, Jeremy R; Hight, Lauren M; Kenny, Paul; Wilker, Jonathan J

2010-09-15

201

Beyond Susceptible and Resistant, Part II: Treatment of Infections Due to Gram-Negative Organisms Producing Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases  

PubMed Central

The production of ?-lactamase is the most common mechanism of resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) are capable of hydrolyzing most penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and aztreonam, but their activity is suppressed in the presence of a ?-lactamase inhibitor. Serious infections with ESBL-producing isolates are associated with high rates of mortality, making early detection and adequate medical management essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Much controversy has centered on the recommendations for testing and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility of potential ESBL-producing organisms. The latest version of the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) susceptibility reporting guidelines, published in 2010, no longer advocates for phenotypic testing of ESBL-producing isolates. From newer studies demonstrating a correlation between organism minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and clinical outcome, along with pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling demonstrating the importance of the MIC to achieving therapeutic targets, the CLSI has assigned lower susceptibility breakpoints for aztreonam and most cephalosporins. The new guidelines recommend using the lower MIC breakpoints to direct antibiotic selection. This article reviews the microbiology and epidemiology of ESBLs, the recent change in CLSI susceptibility reporting guidelines for ESBLs, and the clinical and PK/PD data supporting the relationship between in vitro susceptibility and clinical outcome. Finally, considerations for antimicrobial selection when treating patients with infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms from various sources are discussed.

Curello, Jennifer

2014-01-01

202

Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross.  

PubMed

Seabirds are top predators of the marine environment that accumulate contaminants over a long life-span. Chronic exposure to pollutants is thought to compromise survival rate and long-term reproductive outputs in these long-lived organisms, thus inducing population decline. However, the demographic consequences of contaminant exposure are largely theoretical because of the dearth of long-term datasets. This study aims to test whether adult survival rate, return to the colony and long-term breeding performance were related to blood mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), by using a capture-mark-recapture dataset on the vulnerable wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. We did not find evidence for any effect of contaminants on adult survival probability. However, blood Hg and POPs negatively impacted long-term breeding probability, hatching and fledging probabilities. The proximate mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects are likely multifaceted, through physiological perturbations and interactions with reproductive costs. Using matrix population models, we projected a demographic decline in response to an increase in Hg or POPs concentrations. This decline in population growth rate could be exacerbated by other anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate change, disease and fishery bycatch. This study gives a new dimension to the overall picture of environmental threats to wildlife populations. PMID:24920477

Goutte, Aurélie; Barbraud, Christophe; Meillère, Alizée; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Delord, Karine; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

2014-07-22

203

Sensitivity of Narrative Organization Measures Using Narrative Retells Produced by Young School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of children's productions of oral narratives provides a rich description of children's oral language skills. However, measures of narrative organization can be directly affected by both developmental and task-based performance constraints which can make a measure insensitive and inappropriate for a particular population and/or sampling…

Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

2010-01-01

204

Oil desorption from mineral and organic materials using biosurfactant complexes produced by Rhodococcus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodococcus strains from the culture collection at the Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Perm, Russia were examined for biosurfactant production during growth on n-alkanes and the ability to remove oil associated with contaminated sands and oil shale cuttings. Members of the genus, particularly R. ruber, were shown to produce low toxicity surfactants effective in removing oil from surfaces.

I. B. Ivshina; M. S. Kuyukina; J. C. Philp; N. Christofi

1998-01-01

205

The overarching influence of the gut microbiome on end-organ function: the role of live probiotic cultures.  

PubMed

At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality) state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with a metabolic disease for end organs such as the kidney and liver. A profile emerges that shows that bacteria are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous and have significantly influenced the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:25244509

Vitetta, Luis; Manuel, Rachel; Zhou, Joyce Yusi; Linnane, Anthony W; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

2014-01-01

206

New epistemological foundations for cultural psychology: from an atomistic to a self-organizing view of living systems.  

PubMed

An epistemological foundation for cultural psychology is essential to neuro- and behavioural sciences for the challenge psychological sciences must currently face: searching for an explanation of how a brain can become a mind and how individuals assign a sense to the world and their life. Biological systems are very likely determined by physical and chemical laws of spontaneous self-organization and endogenous constraints but, even if the major result of the Darwinian revolution is "the discovery that living species are their story", the modern synthesis of the evolution theory adopted only continuist and gradualist hypotheses. This nourished the analogy between the theory of natural selection and the theory of operant conditioning, thereby supporting empiricist associationism and the methodological positivism of behavioural and "classical" cognitive psychologists. Current scientific contributions provide evidence to the need for psychotherapy and psychopathology of a new epistemological approach in order to connect research stemming from animal models, up to the most abstract levels of personal meaning. The complex system oriented approach, here described, called "post-rationalism", shaped by a change initiated by evolutionary epistemology. The regulation of emotions initially develops within interpersonal relationships and evolves during both phylogeny and ontogeny, according to complex self-organization processes, leading to the acquisition of Self-organizing abilities and the construction of personal meaning. Endorsing the epistemological similarities of neo-Darwinism and behaviourism, and differentiating from this, the above mentioned approach, emphasises the fact that clinical and psycho-therapeutical practice must be founded on the laws of biological organisation: the ongoing activity of neurobiological systems, including the more abstract domains of thought and language. PMID:25292274

De Pascale, Adele

2014-01-01

207

The Overarching Influence of the Gut Microbiome on End-Organ Function: The Role of Live Probiotic Cultures  

PubMed Central

At the time of birth, humans experience an induced pro-inflammatory beneficial event. The mediators of this encouraged activity, is a fleet of bacteria that assault all mucosal surfaces as well as the skin. Thus initiating effects that eventually provide the infant with immune tissue maturation. These effects occur beneath an emergent immune system surveillance and antigenic tolerance capability radar. Over time, continuous and regulated interactions with environmental as well as commensal microbial, viral, and other antigens lead to an adapted and maintained symbiotic state of tolerance, especially in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) the organ site of the largest microbial biomass. However, the perplexing and much debated surprise has been that all microbes need not be targeted for destruction. The advent of sophisticated genomic techniques has led to microbiome studies that have begun to clarify the critical and important biochemical activities that commensal bacteria provide to ensure continued GIT homeostasis. Until recently, the GIT and its associated micro-biometabolome was a neglected factor in chronic disease development and end organ function. A systematic underestimation has been to undervalue the contribution of a persistent GIT dysbiotic (a gut barrier associated abnormality) state. Dysbiosis provides a plausible clue as to the origin of systemic metabolic disorders encountered in clinical practice that may explain the epidemic of chronic diseases. Here we further build a hypothesis that posits the role that subtle adverse responses by the GIT microbiome may have in chronic diseases. Environmentally/nutritionally/and gut derived triggers can maintain microbiome perturbations that drive an abnormal overload of dysbiosis. Live probiotic cultures with specific metabolic properties may assist the GIT microbiota and reduce the local metabolic dysfunctions. As such the effect may translate to a useful clinical treatment approach for patients diagnosed with a metabolic disease for end organs such as the kidney and liver. A profile emerges that shows that bacteria are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous and have significantly influenced the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:25244509

Vitetta, Luis; Manuel, Rachel; Zhou, Joyce Yusi; Linnane, Anthony W.; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

2014-01-01

208

Identification of a Vibrio strain producing antimicrobial agents in the excretory organs of Nautilus pompilius (Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize bacteria producing antimicrobial compounds in the excretory\\u000a organs of Nautilus pompilius. Culture-dependent and culture-independent complementary approaches were used for bacterial identification such as: culture\\u000a on selective media, Gram staining, CARD-FISH, direct DNA extraction from host tissue, PCR amplification and sequencing of\\u000a the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Results show presence

M. Pernice; D. Destoumieux-Garzón; J. Peduzzi; S. Rebuffat; R. Boucher-Rodoni

2007-01-01

209

Estuarine Primary Producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine primary producers exist in a very large variety of sizes and shapes and live in many different habitats (Sand-Jensen\\u000a and Borum 1991, Hemminga and Duarte 2000). It may therefore seem almost unmanageable to build an overview and to formulate\\u000a general relationships between organism size, shape and habitat on the one hand and functional properties of species and plant

Kaj Sand-Jensen; Søren Laurentius Nielsen

210

Microbial Production of Glyceric Acid, an Organic Acid That Can Be Mass Produced from Glycerol ? †  

PubMed Central

Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process. PMID:19837846

Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

2009-01-01

211

Microbial production of glyceric acid, an organic acid that can be mass produced from glycerol.  

PubMed

Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process. PMID:19837846

Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

2009-12-01

212

When organ donation from living donors serves as the main source of organ procurement: a critical examination of the ethical and legal challenges to Turkey's recent efforts to overcome organ shortage.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that Turkey has implemented a number of legislative and regulatory efforts to increase cadaveric donations, live donors still serve as the main source of organ procurement in this country. To address this problem, Turkey's regulatory authorities have sought to increase the number of brain death declarations. A new regulation issued in 2012 repeats the criteria for brain death that were first issued in 1993. This paper argues that these efforts are far from adequate owing to a number of complicated, ethical, and legal challenges that must be addressed to increase cadaveric organ donations. After examining these factors, which are completely neglected in current policies, we conclude that Turkey needs a realistic ethically justifiable organ procurement policy that must be supported by a framework of patient rights to implement the concept of patient autonomy and respect for human dignity in health care services as the primary goal. PMID:23953519

Sert, G; Guven, T; Gorkey, S

2013-01-01

213

GC/MS analysis of volatile organic selenium species produced during phytoremediation.  

PubMed

The use of plants and microorganisms that can naturally volatilize selenium and remove it from the soil or water has been studied with promising results. It has been shown that selenium can be removed from soils by plant uptake and accumulation, plant volatilization, and removal in the rhizosphere. Preliminary studies indicated that Hydrilla verticillata Royle removed selenium by means of phytovolatilization. Therefore, studies were conducted to examine the volatile products produced during phytoremediation of selenium by hydrilla. Samples were obtained and analyzed by GC/MS. Organoselenium compounds found were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and diethyl diselenide. PMID:11545362

Carvalho, K M; McGettigan, M J; Martin, D F

2001-01-01

214

Organic solids produced by electrical discharge in reducing atmospheres - Tholin molecular analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex dark brown solid of a class called tholins, produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a roughly equimolar mixture of methane and ammonia with 2.6% water vapor, is analyzed by vacuum pyrolysis followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrrole, and pyridine. This tholin is remarkably stable to 950 C. It and its degradation products are candidate constituents of planetary aerosols in the outer solar system and of the grains in the interstellar medium.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Zumberge, J. E.; Sklarew, D. S.; Nagy, B.

1981-01-01

215

Organic solids produced by electrical discharges in reducing atmospheres: Molecular analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex brown polymer produced on passage of an electrical discharge through a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water, is analyzed by pyrolytic GC/MS. Pyrolyzates include a wide range of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic and aromatic nitriles, pyrroles, and pyridine. Similar pyrolyzates are obtained from polypeptides and polynucleotides with hydrocarbon moieties. This polymer is remarkably stable up to 950 C; its degradation products are candidate constituents of planetary aerosols in the outer solar system and the grains and gas in the interstellar medium.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Zumberge, J. E.; Sklarew, D.; Nagy, B.

1978-01-01

216

Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

2011-12-13

217

Short-lived charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent.  

PubMed

The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves short-lived charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes. PMID:25073082

Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan

2014-01-01

218

A Quantitative Index of Sociality and Its Application to Group-Living Spiders and Other Social Organisms  

PubMed Central

Species are often classified in discrete categories, such as solitary, subsocial, social and eusocial based on broad qualitative features of their social systems. Often, however, species fall between categories or species within a category may differ from one another in ways that beg for a quantitative measure of their sociality level. Here, we propose such a quantitative measure in the form of an index that is based on three fundamental features of a social system: (1) the fraction of the life cycle that individuals remain in their social group, (2) the proportion of nests in a population that contain multiple vs. solitary individuals and (3) the proportion of adult members of a group that do not reproduce, but contribute to communal activities. These are measures that should be quantifiable in most social systems, with the first two reflecting the tendencies of individuals to live in groups as a result of philopatry, grouping tendencies and intraspecific tolerance, and the third potentially reflecting the tendencies of individuals to exhibit reproductive altruism. We argue that this index can serve not only as a way of ranking species along a sociality scale, but also as a means of determining how level of sociality correlates with other aspects of the biology of a group of organisms. We illustrate the calculation of this index for the cooperative social spiders and the African mole-rats and use it to analyse how sex ratios and interfemale spacing correlate with level of sociality in spider species in the genus Anelosimus. PMID:23335829

Aviles, Leticia; Harwood, Gyan; Koenig, W

2012-01-01

219

Short-lived charge-transfer excitons in organic photovoltaic cells studied by high-field magneto-photocurrent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main route of charge photogeneration in efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on bulk hetero-junction donor-acceptor blends involves short-lived charge-transfer excitons at the donor-acceptor interfaces. The cell efficiency is critically affected by the charge-transfer exciton recombination and dissociation processes. By measuring the magneto-photocurrent under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that magnetic field-induced spin-mixing among the charge-transfer exciton spin sublevels occurs in fields up to at least 8.5?Tesla. The resulting magneto-photocurrent increases at high fields showing non-saturating behaviour up to the highest applied field. We attribute the observed high-field spin-mixing mechanism to the difference in the donor-acceptor g-factors. The non-saturating magneto-photocurrent response at high field indicates that there exist charge-transfer excitons with lifetime in the sub-nanosecond time domain. The non-Lorentzian high-field magneto-photocurrent response indicates a dispersive decay mechanism that originates due to a broad distribution of charge-transfer exciton lifetimes.

Devir-Wolfman, Ayeleth H.; Khachatryan, Bagrat; Gautam, Bhoj R.; Tzabary, Lior; Keren, Amit; Tessler, Nir; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Ehrenfreund, Eitan

2014-07-01

220

Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation.  

PubMed

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2? ?m ?h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (?100? nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature. PMID:21107443

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

2011-04-01

221

Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation  

SciTech Connect

Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

2011-07-01

222

Multiple organ damage caused by a new toxin azaspiracid, isolated from mussels produced in Ireland.  

PubMed

A new type of food poisoning resulting from ingestion of mussels produced in Ireland occurred in the Netherlands in 1995 and then reoccurred in Ireland in 1997. As the causative agent, azaspiracid, was isolated in pure form and revealed to have a structure entirely unlike other known algal toxins, in vivo studies with mice were carried out to elucidate the pathological injuries caused by the toxin. By per os administration, the toxin caused necrosis in the lamina propria of the small intestine and in lymphoid tissues such as thymus, spleen and the Peyer's patches. Both T and B lymphocytes were injured. Additionally a fatty change was observed in the liver. These injuries distinctly differed from those caused by the representative diarrhetic shellfish toxin, okadaic acid. PMID:10728830

Ito, E; Satake, M; Ofuji, K; Kurita, N; McMahon, T; James, K; Yasumoto, T

2000-07-01

223

Living Drugs for Gastrointestinal Diseases: The Case for Probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpathogenic micro-organisms may contain or produce molecules of potential therapeutic interest. This led to the concept of using ingested living micro-organisms to produce and transport these molecules to targets in the proximal or distal intestine. Several characteristics of this pharmacological approach are very original: potential for in vivo production of active molecules, for targeting immune cells, for presenting immunogenic molecules

Philippe Marteau

2006-01-01

224

Responsive hydrogels produced via organic sol-gel chemistry for cell culture applications.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the synthesis of novel environmentally responsive polyurea hydrogel networks prepared via organic sol-gel chemistry and demonstrate that the networks can stabilize pH while releasing glucose both in simple aqueous media and in mammalian cell culture settings. Hydrogel formulations have been developed based on the combination of an aliphatic triisocyanate with pH-insensitive amine functional polyether and pH-sensitive poly(ethyleneimine) segments in a minimally toxic solvent suitable for the sol-gel reaction. The polyether component of the polyurea network is sufficiently hydrophilic to give rise to some level of swelling independent of environmental pH, while the poly(ethyleneimine) component contains tertiary amine groups providing pH sensitivity to the network in the form of enhanced swelling and release under acidic conditions. The reaction of these materials to form a network is rapid and requires no catalyst. The resultant material exhibits the desired pH-responsive swelling behavior and demonstrates its ability to simultaneously neutralize lactic acid and release glucose in both cell-free culture media and mammalian cell culture, with no detectable evidence of cytotoxicity or changes in cell behavior, in the case of either SA-13 human hybridomas or mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, pH is observed to have a clear effect on the rate at which glucose is released from the hydrogel network. Such characteristics promise to maintain a favorable cell culture environment in the absence of human intervention. PMID:22561670

Patil, Smruti; Chaudhury, Pulkit; Clarizia, Lisa; McDonald, Melisenda; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Gaines, Peter; Schmidt, Daniel F

2012-08-01

225

In-Situ Cold Temperature XRD of Calcium Phosphate Produced From Organic Phosphoric Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we synthesized calcium phosphate from an organic phosphoric acid, diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and calcium hydroxide solution. The reaction involves a sol-gel process with a whitish gel formed. In-situ XRD analysis was then performed on the sample from room temperature to -140° C. At room the XRD diffractogram shows the sample as an amorphous material and as the temperature was further lowered sharp peaks begins to form indicating that the material had becomes crystalline. The peaks were identified to be that calcium hydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) and this indicates that there is no hydroxyl group removal during the cooling process. The relative crystallinity values obtained for the different cooling temperatures show a slow exponential increase on the initial cooling of 0 to -100° C and at further cooling temperatures resulted fast and linear process. Also unlike the in-situ XRD analysis performs at high temperature no phase transformation occurred at this low temperature.

Yusoff, M. S. Meor; Paulus, Wilfred; Muslimin, Masliana

2010-01-01

226

Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosols Produced by Photo-Oxidation of Biomass Burning Emissions in a Smog Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) is essential for accurate representation of OA in air quality and climate models. Both the sources of OA and their properties and effects remain poorly understood. In particular, we still know relatively little about the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). There is growing interest in the impact of biomass burning emissions on air quality, human health, and radiative forcing. Through a series of experiments, we are working to quantify changes in the chemical composition of wood smoke particles as a result of photochemical aging under well-controlled laboratory conditions. One specific objective of this study is to identify markers for biomass burning SOA and test whether these markers can be used in atmospheric samples to quantify SOA formation from aging of biomass burning emissions. We analyzed SOA generated in a smog chamber by photooxidation of smoke produced by burning oak wood. In order to initiate photochemistry, the chamber was irradiated with UV light. Aqueous extracts of collected aerosol samples were analyzed with Electrospray Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The high mass accuracy of these measurements reduces ambiguity in the assignment of elemental compositions for observed ions. Analysis has shown that primary oak smoke aerosol includes products of the thermal decomposition of cellulose (levoglucosan, cyclotene etc.) and lignin (guaiacol and syringol derivatives, mostly aldehydes and alcohols). After 2 hours of aging at typical summertime hydroxyl radical concentrations, the aerosol mass increased 2.5 fold due to the production of secondary organic aerosol. Mass spectra of the secondary organic aerosol formed are dominated by organic nitrates (nitrophenol, nitrocresol, nitrocatechol, and nitroguaiacol) and aromatic acids (benzoic acid, mono and di-hydroxybenzoic acid). Both nitrates and acids most likely are formed due to oxidation of the lignin decomposition products (guaiacol and syringol derivatives) by reaction with OH and NO2. This research highlights the dynamic nature of fire emissions and atmospheric organic aerosols in general.

Desyaterik, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Robinson, A. L.; Collett, J. L.

2009-12-01

227

Preharvest Evaluation of Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Organic and Conventional Produce Grown by Minnesota Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological analyses of fresh fruits and vegetables produced by organic and conventional farmers in Minnesota were conducted to determine the coliform count and the prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7. A total of 476 and 129 produce samples were collected from 32 organic and 8 conventional farms, respectively. The samples included tomatoes, leafy greens, lettuce, green peppers,

AVIK MUKHERJEE; DORINDA SPEH; ELIZABETH DYCK; FRANCISCO DIEZ-GONZALEZ

228

Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes.  

PubMed

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25-1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r(2) = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r(2) = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 ?m between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

Tartarotti, Barbara; Baffico, Gustavo; Temporetti, Pedro; Zagarese, Horacio E

2004-07-01

229

Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes  

PubMed Central

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25–1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r2 = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r2 = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 ?m between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

TARTAROTTI, BARBARA; BAFFICO, GUSTAVO; TEMPORETTI, PEDRO; ZAGARESE, HORACIO E.

2011-01-01

230

Quick, Easy Method to Show Living Soil Organisms to High School or Beginning-Level College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The living component of soil is difficult for students to learn about and understand because students have difficulty relating to things they cannot see (beyond sight, beyond mind). Line drawings from textbooks help explain conceptual relationships but do little to stimulate an active interest in the living component of soil. Alternatively,…

Loynachan, Thomas E.

2006-01-01

231

Living Non-Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fill out your worksheet as you learn more about living and non-living things. 1. First take this pretest to test your knowledge of living and non living things.Beginning Quiz 2. So, you know what is alive and what is not. But why are those things alive or not? Read the information on this site to learn the 7 characteristics that make things ...

Benson, Mrs.

2010-02-23

232

Characterization of photons produced in solid films of organic molecules by the impact of 252Cf-fission fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on photon production in solid films of organic molecules by the impact of 252Cf-fission fragments are presented. The samples were mainly prepared with Coronene or POPOP sprayed onto an aluminized polyester foil using the nebulizer spray technique. It is demonstrated by scanning electron micrographs that this technique is a suitable method to prepare homogeneous solid films of organic compounds by producing layers of microcrystals. Time profiles and photon spectra have been determined by bombarding these samples with 252Cf-fission fragments as well as, for comparison, by exciting with light. The results give evidence that the photons induced by fission fragment bombardment originate from molecular fluorescence in the solid sample. Approximately 500 photons per fission fragment have been produced within a 100 ns time window in about 2 ?m thick POPOP samples. The photon yield has been observed to increase linearly with the thickness of the sample up to about 16 ?m. Only very few photons per fission fragment has been obtained with Rhodamine 6G samples and the same low photon yield has been observed under the bombardment with 2 keV electrons. These results probably indicate that the excitation of molecular species by energetic ?-electrons is the necessary step in the process of photon production by fast heavy ions. Photons which have been additionally produced when extracting positive ions come also from molecular fluorescence in the samples. But this fluorescence is excited by electrons which originate from impacts of fission fragments on components of the acceleration system and which are accelerated back to the sample.

Wehofsky, M.; Martin, D.; Koch, K.; Tuszynski, W.; Hilf, E. R.

1997-04-01

233

Isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of fluid migration and escape from intentionally altered subsurface geologic systems, such as in hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and carbon sequestration activities, is an important issue for environmental regulators based on the traction that the "fracking" process is gathering across the United States. Given diverse injected fluid compositions and the potential for toxic or regulated compounds to be released, one of the most important steps in the process is accurately identifying evidence of injected fluid escape during and after injection processes. An important tool in identifying differences between the natural groundwater and injected fluid is the isotopic composition of dissolved constituents including inorganic components such as Sr and carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds. Since biological processes in the mesothermal subsurface can rapidly alter the organic composition of a fluid, stable carbon isotopes of the dissolved organic compounds (DOC) are an effective means to identify differences in the origin of two fluids, especially when coupled with inorganic compound analyses. The burgeoning field of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for isotopic analysis presents an opportunity to obtain rapid, reliable and cost-effective isotopic measurements of DOC in potentially affected groundwater for the identification of leakage or the improvement of hydrogeochemical pathway models. Here we adapt the use of the novel hyphenated TOC-CRDS carbon isotope analyzer for the analysis of DOC in produced water by wet oxidation and describe the methods to evaluate performance and obtain useful information at higher salinities. Our methods are applied to a specific field example in a CO2-enhanced EOR field in Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) as a means to demonstrate the ability to distinguish natural and injected DOC using the stable isotopic composition of the dissolved organic carbon when employing the novel TOC-CRDS instrumentation set up.

Thomas, Randal; Conaway, Christopher; Saad, Nabil; Kharaka, Yousif

2013-04-01

234

Quantum mechanical modeling of self-assembly and photoinduced electron transfer in PNA-based artificial living organisms.  

PubMed

In order to support the creation of both artificial living organisms in the USA LANL "Protocell Assembly" project and programmable nano-biorobots in the EU "Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution" project, we used quantum mechanical (QM), density functional theory (DFT), the semiempirical PM3 method, and molecular mechanics (MM) software to investigate various complex photosynthetic systems based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in a water environment. Quantum mechanical DFT PBEPBE simulations, including electron correlations, confirm that water molecules that surround all the photosynthetic complex of the LANL protoorganism are main constructing factors and stabilize this system consisting of: PNA fragment attached by covalent bond sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule, lipid precursor molecule and fragment of lipid molecules mono layer. The absorption spectrum shift to the red wavelengths in the complex artificial protocell photosynthetic center might be used as the measure of the complexity of this system. The electron pi-pi* transitions in the first and third excited states are from HOMO and HOMO-1 located on the conjugated water molecules and sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the LUMO of the lipid precursor molecule as calculated using the time dependent (TD) PBEPBE/6-31G model. Electron charge tunneling in the first and third excited states should induce metabolic photodissociation of the lipid precursor molecule because of localization of the transferred electron cloud on the head (waste) of the lipid precursor molecule. TD electron correlation PBEPBE/6-31G calculations show that in the different energies of excitation, the charge transfer tunneling is from sensitizer to lipid precursor and cytosine molecules. One should note that in a water solvent, the electron charge transfer pi-pi* transition in the fifth and sixth excited state is from the HOMO and HOMO-1 located on the sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the LUMO+2 located on the cytosine-PNA fragment molecule. Investigation results indicate that strong back electron tunneling from the sensitizer 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene molecule to the cytosine molecule in the LANL artificial photosynthetic system exists. PMID:16736752

Tamulis, A; Tamulis, V; Graja, A

2006-04-01

235

BIOCHEMISTRY: Zooming Into Live Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. High-resolution optical imaging is providing real-time data on molecular processes in live cells. As reported by Westphal et al., optical techniques are now producing image sequences in which the dynamics of molecules or supramolecular assemblies are recorded with nanometer-scale accuracy in real time. By opening a window to molecular-scale processes, the techniques promise to elucidate many aspects of cell organization.

Fabien Pinaud (Université Pierre et Marie Curie; Laboratoire Kastler Brossel;Physics and Biology Department); Maxime Dahan (Université Pierre et Marie Curie; Laboratoire Kastler Brossel;Physics and Biology Department)

2008-04-11

236

[Rifampicin use for potency stabilization in Rif(r) mutants of Streptomyces recifensis subsp. lyticus, an organism producing lytic enzymes].  

PubMed

Rif(r) mutants 1P-92 and 2P-15 were isolated as a result of selection of Streptomyces recifensis subsp. lyticus, an organism producing lytic enzymes. The effect of rifampicin on the biosynthetic potency of the mutants was studied. When added to the medium for cultivation of Rif(r) mutants 1P-92 and 2P-15 in the optimal concentrations (7.5 and 10.0 mcg/ml respectively), the antibiotic showed stabilizing effect on their potency in successive subcultures and recovered the initial potency of the old laboratory strains. Preliminary cultivation of strain 2P-15 after its storage for 6 years at a temperature of -20 degrees C made it possible to increase the efficiency of the initial potency recovery in the analytical selection. PMID:15285405

Zhernosekova, I V; Vinnikov, A I

2004-01-01

237

The study of organic removal efficiency and halophilic bacterial mixed liquor characteristics in a membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline produced water at varying organic loading rates.  

PubMed

In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water - at varying organic loading rates (OLR) from 0.3 to 2.6 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) - were considered. The oil and grease (O&G) and COD removal efficiency were 95-99% and 83-93%, respectively with only transient O&G (mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and soluble microbial products accumulation being observed. With increasing OLR, in the range 0.9-2.6 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), as a result of change in both extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and zeta potential, bioflocculating ability improved but the compressibility of the flocs decreased resulting in the occurrence of EPS bulking at the highest OLR studied. The latter resulted in a change in the rheology of the mixed liquor from Newtonian to non-Newtonian and the occurrence of significant membrane fouling. PMID:24140854

Sharghi, Elham Abdollahzadeh; Bonakdarpour, Babak

2013-12-01

238

Live foraminiferal faunas from a 2800 m deep lower canyon station from the Bay of Biscay: Faunal response to focusing of refractory organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2800 m deep station was sampled on three occasions, in January 1999, June 1999 and April 2000, in the lower part of Cap-Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay). This area is characterised by a rapid accumulation of fine-grained sediments and by important inputs of reworked organic matter in an intermediate state of decay. Diagenetic reactions within the sediment follow the well-established depth sequence resulting from the oxidation of organic deposits by different electron acceptors. At our station, live benthic foraminiferal faunas differ strongly from faunas previously collected at nearby open slope sites at a comparable water depth. Spectacularly high densities of deep infaunal species are observed in the deeper parts of the sediment for all three sampling periods. In our opinion, these high deep infaunal densities are a direct response to the massive flux of partially degraded organic matter, which is slowly introduced into the deeper parts of the sediment, where it induces a rather stable succession of redox gradients. Melonis barleeanus lives in the dysoxic part of the sediment whereas Globobulimina affinis appears preferentially close to the zero oxygen boundary. Both taxa occupy niches where the highest content of Mn (III, IV)-oxides and -oxihydroxides and Fe (III)-oxides are recorded. The fact that most of the geochemical reactions within the sediment are directly or indirectly catalysed by heterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic bacterial consortia could suggest that deep infaunal foraminifera may be highly specialised protozoans able to feed on, or live in symbiosis with these prokaryotic communities.

Fontanier, C.; Jorissen, F. J.; Chaillou, G.; Anschutz, P.; Grémare, A.; Griveaud, C.

2005-07-01

239

The effect of organic matter on CCN properties of particles produced in laboratory simulations of bubble bursting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we measure the submicron size distributions and cloud condensation nucleus properties of aerosol particles produced from a laboratory system that simulates particle formation from bubble bursting. The experimental method consists of a plunging water jet into a stainless steel tank filled with 10 L of artificial seawater, with and without added organic compounds. The tank is equipped with a water pump that can be set at variable speeds. Preliminary results from size distribution measurements agree with previous studies, in that the number concentration and size of particles produced depend on the water jet flux. Observations of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity are also affected by the water pump speed. The CCN activity of artificial seawater, at a salinity of 35‰ and with no added organic compounds, is similar to that of pure sodium chloride. Addition of as much as 1 g/L of D-mannitol does not considerably alter the particle size distribution, nor does it alter the observed CCN activity. Addition of less than 5 mg/L of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate leads to shifts in size distribution roughly similar to those from published results, in which other methods of simulating bubble bursting were used. The growing use of experimental methods for the reproduction of bubble bursting in aerosol laboratories gives us reason to explore possible differences in the properties of particles generated from similar systems. Comparisons between observations from the above-mentioned 10-L tank and those from a larger tank filled with approximately 100 L of identical artificial seawater will also be presented.

King, S.; Rosenoern, T.; Nilsson, D.; Bilde, M.

2010-12-01

240

Does electrical stimulation of the crossed olivo-cochlear bundle produce movement of the organ of Corti?  

PubMed

Low-frequency microphonic waveforms have been recorded in the basal turn of the guinea pig cochlea with and without electrical stimulation of the crossed olivocochlear bundle (COCB) at the floor of the fourth ventricle. Stimulation of the COCB increased the amplitude of the microphonic waveforms as described previously, but did not alter the shape of the waveforms markedly. The changes observed with COCB stimulation are consistent with a reduction in the impedance of the basolateral wall of the outer hair cells by about 50%, and possibly a 20% increase in the vibration of the organ of Corti at low frequencies, but suggest little or no change in the operating point on the transfer curve relating deflection of the hair bundles to the receptor current through the hair cells. It therefore seems that if slow contraction of the outer hair cells occurs during acute efferent stimulation in vivo, then it produces only a small deflection of the outer hair cell stereocilia, equivalent to a transverse displacement of the organ of Corti of less than 1.5 nm. PMID:2345114

Patuzzi, R; Rajan, R

1990-04-01

241

Living Longer, Living Better  

E-print Network

Living Longer, Living Better ­ Functional Longevity Our mission is to promote long, healthy.azgec.arizona.edu - Arizona Reynolds Program of Applied Geriatrics: www.reynolds.med.arizona.edu - UA Studies on Aging Program with conference planning; provide technical support, including needs assessment and evaluation; and offer monthly

Arizona, University of

242

Molecules in Living Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the difference between molecules in living systems and inanimate objects. In living systems, atoms and molecules are organized to a much greater degree and provide the structure of the organism. Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are also discussed.

2012-06-19

243

Organic solids produced from simple C/H/O/N ices by charged particles: applications to the outer solar system.  

PubMed

CH4, CO, and CO2 are all potential one-carbon molecular repositories in primitive icy objects. These molecules are all found in the Comet Halley coma, and are probable but, (except for CH4 detected on Triton and Pluto) undetected subsurface constituents in icy outer solar system objects. We have investigated the effects of charged particle irradiation by cold plasma discharge upon surfaces of H2O:CH4 clathrate having a 200:1 ratio, as well as upon ices composed of H2O plus C2H6 or C2H2 (sometimes plus NH3) which are also plausible constituents. These materials color and darken noticeably after a dose 10(9) - 10(10) erg cm-2, which is deposited rapidly (< or = 10(4) yr.) in solar system environments. The chromophore is a yellowish to tan organic material (a tholin) which we have studied by UV-VIS reflection and transmission, and IR transmission spectroscopy. Its yield, -1 C keV-1, implies substantial production of organic solids by the action of cosmic rays and radionuclides in cometary crusts and interiors, as well as rapid production in satellite surfaces. This material shows alkane bands which Chyba and Sagan have shown to well match the Halley infrared emission spectrum near 3.4 microns, and also bands due to aldehyde, alcohol and perhaps alkene/aromatic functional groups. We compare the IR spectral properties of these tholins with the spectra of others produced by irradiation of gases and ices containing simple hydrocarbons. PMID:11537360

Khare, B N; Thompson, W R; Chyba, C F; Arakawa, E T; Sagan, C

1989-01-01

244

Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reaction of Phenols with an Organic Excited Triplet State and Hydroxyl Radical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although reactions in atmospheric condensed phases can form and transform secondary organic aerosol (SOA), these reactions are not well represented in many air quality models. Previous experiments have focused on hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of low molecular weight precursors such as gyloxal and methylglyoxal. In our work we are examining aqueous SOA formed from phenols, which are emitted from biomass burning and formed from the oxidation of anthropogenic aromatics such as benzene and toluene. In this work we examine aqueous SOA production from oxidation of three phenols (phenol, guaiacol, syringol) and three benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, 1,4-hydroquinone) by hydroxyl radical (OH) and the triplet excited state of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (DMB). Our focus is on light absorption by the reaction products, which we characterized by measuring UV-Vis spectra and calculating mass absorption coefficients. To understand the elemental and molecular composition of the SOA, we also analyzed the samples with high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. Our results indicate that aqueous oxidation of phenols and benzene-diols via OH and triplet excited states efficiently produce SOA that is highly absorbing in the UV-A wavelengths, consists of both small and large molecular weight products, and is highly oxidized.

Smith, J.; Yu, L.; George, K.; Ruthenburg, T. C.; Dillner, A. M.; Zhang, Q.; Anastasio, C.

2012-12-01

245

Achieving a co-produced and personalised approach to enable people to live well with dementia: the strategic challenge for commissioners in health and social care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising demographics of people living with dementia amount to an estimated 821,8841 (Luengo-Fernandez et al, 2010) The cost of providing care and treatment to these people is marked; the cost of long-term care alone amounts to an estimated £9 billion per year in social care and health care costs are estimated to be about £1.2 billion - of this,

Simon Rippon

2010-01-01

246

The Effect of Altered Habitat on Nitrogen Metabolism in Some Free-Living and Symbiotic Relationships Involving Nitrogen Fixing Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrulline, one of the forms in which fixed nitrogen is assimilated in free-living blue-green algae and additionally in the blue-green algae\\/cycad symbiosis in Macrozamia, is similarly assimilated in the nitrogen fixing root nodules of Alnus glutinosa. By investigating the localisation of ornithine carbamoyl transferase in both cases it has been shown that in these symbiotic systems the ornithine carbamoyl transferase

Isobel C. Gardner; A. Scott

1982-01-01

247

Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 ?C. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

2012-09-01

248

Ultrastructural organization of the transverse tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a fish sound-producing muscle.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural basis for the extremely rapid contraction-relaxation cycle (up to 300 s(-1)) in the swim-bladder muscle (SBM) of a scorpionfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus), producing characteristic sounds for communication, was investigated by electron microscopy. The SBM fibres contained well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) showing triadic contacts with well-organized transverse tubules (T tubules). It was newly found that different types of triadic contacts were present within the single SBM fibre. In the middle region of the fibre (approximately 54% of the fibre length), the triadic contacts were located around the level of boundary between the A- and I-bands (AI-type triad). However in the two end regions of the fibre (approximately 21% and approximately 12% of the fibre length), the triadic contacts were seen around the level of the Z-band (Z-type triad). Between the middle and end regions of the fibre, T tubule-SR contacts exhibited the form of pentads composed of a pair of T tubules and three SR elements, and newly found heptads composed of three T tubules and four SR elements. The fractional volume of SR relative to the fibre volume was estimated to be approximately 26% in the middle region of the fibre with the AI-type triads and approximately 15% in the fibre ends with the Z-type triads. These results are discussed in connection with the mechanism, by which the mechanical activity of the SBM muscle is neurally controlled. PMID:12892224

Suzuki, Suechika; Nagayoshi, Hayato; Ishino, Kohsuke; Hino, Naoki; Sugi, Haruo

2003-01-01

249

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Assisted Living Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... t need round-the-clock nursing care. Assisted living facilities provide an alternative. Assisted living is for ...

250

EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

251

Cellular delivery and site-specific targeting of organic fluorophores for super-resolution imaging in living cells  

E-print Network

Recent advances in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy have pushed the spatial resolution of biological imaging down to a few nanometers. The key element to the development of such imaging modality is synthetic organic ...

Uttamapinant, Chayasith

2013-01-01

252

Frequency and Characteristics of Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Organisms in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the frequency of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms, various bacteria producing ESBL, antibiotic susceptibility of these organisms, and the risk factors associated with these infections in a neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital in North India. Of the 150 neonates enrolled in the study, 47 culture-positive neonates were included in the study cohort and were divided into two groups: ESBL-positive (8 neonates) and ESBL-negative (39 neonates) cohorts. Various organisms were isolated from 72 culture samples in these 47 neonates. Of these, 10 culture samples grew ESBL-positive organisms and 62 samples grew ESBL-negative organisms. The frequency of ESBL-producing organisms was found to be 5.3%. ESBL infection incidence densities were found to be 3.4 per 1000 patient-days. Klebsiella (60%) was the most common organism producing ESBL followed by Escherichia coli (30%) and Pseudomonas (10%). Eighty percent of the ESBL-producing organisms were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam. Risk factors found significant by univariate analysis (P < 0.05) were preterm, low birthweight, perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, anaemia, metabolic acidosis, prolonged mechanical ventilation (>7 days), length of hospitalization, length of level 3 stay, prior antibiotic use, central venous catheter duration, peripherally inserted central venous catheter duration, and total parenteral nutrition duration. Factors that retained significance in the logistic regression model were duration of hospital stay (adjusted OR: 0.958, CI: 0.920–0.997, and P value = 0.037) and gestational age (adjusted OR: 1.39, CI: 1.037–1.865, and P value = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two groups. PMID:24175299

Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Bahl, Dheeraj; Kaur, Nirmaljit; Maria, Arti; Dubey, Nand Kishore

2013-01-01

253

Seaweeds live in habitats characterized by continuous, time-varying water motion. In the intertidal zone, organisms must  

E-print Network

), but produce rigid tests or shells and strong adhesives (Murdock and Currey, 1978; Gubbay, 1983; Yule to be two dissimilar but equally effective themes in intertidal life (Koehl, 1984). Marine macroalgae

Denny, Mark

254

A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10¿µg¿C¿m-2¿hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

255

Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level. 1. Using the LASCA method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in

O V Ulianova; S S Uianov; Li Pengcheng; Luo Qingming

2011-01-01

256

Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level.1. Using the LASCA method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in

O. V. Ulianova; S. S. Uianov; Pengcheng Li; Qingming Luo

2011-01-01

257

Estimation of reactogenicity of preparations produced on the basis of photoinactivated live vaccines against brucellosis and tularaemia on the organismic level. 1. Using the LASCA method  

SciTech Connect

A new method of photoinactivation of bacteria aimed at producing prototypes of vaccine preparations against extremely dangerous infections is described. The reactogenicity of the new prophylactic preparations was studied using the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). The performed experimental studies show that bacterial suspensions, irradiated using different regimes of photoinactivation, do not cause detrimental effect on the blood microcirculation in laboratory animals. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Ulianova, O V; Uianov, S S; Li Pengcheng; Luo Qingming

2011-04-30

258

Living Longer, Healthier Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to popular images that portray a bleak future, important life tasks and accomplishments characterize the lives of\\u000a older women. Midlife women are more likely than not to work full-time, and some will earn the highest salaries of their careers.\\u000a A high percentage of women in public service or elected office are in their 50s and 60s. Bernadine Healy was

Susan D. Lonborg; Cheryl B. Travis

259

Impact of Amorphous SiO2 Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioral, and Molecular Biology Implications  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that silica (SiO2) is not toxic. But the increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many different industrial fields has prompted the careful investigation of their toxicity in biological systems. In this report, we describe the effects elicited by SiO2NPs on animal and cell physiology. Stable and monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles, 25?nM in diameter, were administered to living Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria). The dose-related effects were defined by morphological and behavioral assays. The results revealed an all-or-nothing lethal toxicity with a rather high threshold (35?nM NPs) and a LT50 of 38?h. At sub lethal doses, the morphophysiological effects included: animal morphology alterations, paralysis of the gastric region, disorganization and depletion of tentacle specialized cells, increase of apoptotic and collapsed cells, and reduction of the epithelial cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome analysis (RNAseq) revealed 45 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in stress response and cuticle renovation. Our results show that Hydra reacts to SiO2NPs, is able to rebalance the animal homeostasis up to a relatively high doses of SiO2NPs, and that the physiological modifications are transduced to gene expression modulation. PMID:25325055

Ambrosone, Alfredo; Scotto di Vettimo, Maria Rosaria; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren; Marchesano, Valentina; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Tortiglione, Claudia; Tino, Angela

2014-01-01

260

Impact of Amorphous SiO2 Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioral, and Molecular Biology Implications.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that silica (SiO2) is not toxic. But the increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many different industrial fields has prompted the careful investigation of their toxicity in biological systems. In this report, we describe the effects elicited by SiO2NPs on animal and cell physiology. Stable and monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles, 25?nM in diameter, were administered to living Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria). The dose-related effects were defined by morphological and behavioral assays. The results revealed an all-or-nothing lethal toxicity with a rather high threshold (35?nM NPs) and a LT50 of 38?h. At sub lethal doses, the morphophysiological effects included: animal morphology alterations, paralysis of the gastric region, disorganization and depletion of tentacle specialized cells, increase of apoptotic and collapsed cells, and reduction of the epithelial cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome analysis (RNAseq) revealed 45 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in stress response and cuticle renovation. Our results show that Hydra reacts to SiO2NPs, is able to rebalance the animal homeostasis up to a relatively high doses of SiO2NPs, and that the physiological modifications are transduced to gene expression modulation. PMID:25325055

Ambrosone, Alfredo; Scotto di Vettimo, Maria Rosaria; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren; Marchesano, Valentina; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Tortiglione, Claudia; Tino, Angela

2014-01-01

261

Interior Air Pollution in Automotive Cabins by Volatile Organic Compounds Diffusing from Interior Materials: I. Survey of 101 Types of Japanese Domestically Produced Cars for Private Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The types and concentrations of organic compounds in the interior air of 101 different types of Japanese domestically produced private-use cars were examined. All the vehicles had been registered in the summer season as new cars and were less than 3 years old. The airborne compounds in the cabins were collected for 24h under static condition with the engine stopped

Toshiaki Yoshida; Ichiro Matsunaga; Kimiko Tomioka; Shinji Kumagai

2006-01-01

262

Soil retention of 15 N in a simulated N deposition study: effects of live plant and soil organic matter content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  The impacts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on terrestrial ecosystem processes remain controversial, mostly because\\u000a of the uncertainty regarding the fates of deposited N. We conducted a 16-week simulated deposition study to experimentally\\u000a trace N in a greenhouse plant-soil system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using a two-way factorial design, we added (15NH4)2SO4 solution twice a week to pots containing different soil organic

Wenwen Wang; Weixing Zhu

263

Assisted Living Services and Amenities  

MedlinePLUS

... operated by nonprofit or for-profit organizations. Personal Space Senior living communities offer a variety of design ... assistance now or may in the future. Community Space Common areas in senior living residences typically include ...

264

Detection of live Salmonella sp. cells in produce by a TaqMan-based quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR targeting invA mRNA.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica contamination in foods is a significant concern for public health. When DNA detection methods are used for analysis of foods, one of the major concerns is false-positive results from the detection of dead cells. To circumvent this crucial issue, a TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay with an RNA internal control was developed. invA RNA standards were used to determine the detection limit of this assay as well as to determine invA mRNA levels in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase cells. This assay has a detection limit of 40 copies of invA mRNA per reaction. The levels of invA mRNA in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase S. enterica cells was approximately 1 copy per 3 CFU, 1 copy per CFU, and 4 copies per 10(3) CFU, respectively. Spinach, tomatoes, jalapeno peppers, and serrano peppers were artificially contaminated with four different Salmonella serovars at levels of 10(5) and less than 10 CFU. These foods were analyzed with qRT-PCR and with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method (W. A. Andrews and T. S. Hammack, in G. J. Jackson et al., ed., Bacteriological analytical manual online, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/ approximately ebam/bam-5.html, 2007). Comparable results were obtained by both methods. Only live Salmonella cells could be detected by this qRT-PCR assay, thus avoiding the dangers of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of the PCR) were also ruled out through the use of an RNA internal control. This assay allows for the fast and accurate detection of viable Salmonella spp. in spinach, tomatoes, and in both jalapeno and serrano peppers. PMID:19376910

González-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S; Russell, Mindi; Jacobson, Andrew P; De Jesús, Antonio J; Brown, Eric W; Lampel, Keith A

2009-06-01

265

Living and Nonliving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is it that distinguishes a living organism from a nonliving object? This collection of images presents examples that aren't as clear-cut as one might think, enticing students to question the meaning of life.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

266

Efficiency of transfer of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids versus organic carbon from producers to consumers in a eutrophic reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central paradigms of ecology is that only about 10% of organic carbon production of one trophic level is incorporated\\u000a into new biomass of organisms of the next trophic level. Many of energy-yielding compounds of carbon are designated as ‘essential’,\\u000a because they cannot be synthesized de novo by consumers and must be obtained with food, while they play

Michail I. Gladyshev; Nadezhda N. Sushchik; Olesia V. Anishchenko; Olesia N. Makhutova; Vladimir I. Kolmakov; Galina S. Kalachova; Anzhelika A. Kolmakova; Olga P. Dubovskaya

2011-01-01

267

Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer  

PubMed Central

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach ‘special advice’ for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed the threshold limit value of the mixture (P > 1 = 0.2375), the expected personal exposure after adjusting for the assigned protection factor for the respirators in use would be considerably lower (P > 1 = 0.0161). Thus, our findings suggested that the COSHH essentials model worked reasonably well for the volatile organic chemicals at the plant. However, it was difficult to override the reproductive hazard even though it was meant to be possible in principle. Further, it became apparent that an input of existing controls, which is not possible in the web-based model, may have allowed the model be more widely applicable. The experience of using the web-based COSHH Essentials model generated some suggestions to provide a more user-friendly tool to the model users who do not have expertise in occupational hygiene. PMID:21047985

Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

2011-01-01

268

Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials model with a mixture of organic chemicals at a medium-sized paint producer.  

PubMed

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach 'special advice' for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed the threshold limit value of the mixture (P > 1 = 0.2375), the expected personal exposure after adjusting for the assigned protection factor for the respirators in use would be considerably lower (P > 1 = 0.0161). Thus, our findings suggested that the COSHH essentials model worked reasonably well for the volatile organic chemicals at the plant. However, it was difficult to override the reproductive hazard even though it was meant to be possible in principle. Further, it became apparent that an input of existing controls, which is not possible in the web-based model, may have allowed the model be more widely applicable. The experience of using the web-based COSHH Essentials model generated some suggestions to provide a more user-friendly tool to the model users who do not have expertise in occupational hygiene. PMID:21047985

Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B; Harper, Martin

2011-01-01

269

Molecular evidence that plastids in the toxin-producing dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis originate from the free-living cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia.  

PubMed

Some species of the dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis form red tides and are toxin producers with a great environmental impact. The dinoflagellates as a group display high plastid diversity. Several cases indicate that plastids have been replaced. In the case of the genus Dinophysis, the plastids show characteristics of a plastid originating from a cryptophyte. Recent molecular evidence showed that the plastid indeed originates from a cryptophyte, but the source could not be identified to species or genus level. The data presented here show that both a 799 bp region of the psbA gene and 1,221 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene from Dinophysis spp. are identical to the same loci in Teleaulax amphioxeia SCCAP K434. This strongly indicates that the plastid was acquired recently in Dinophysis and may be a so-called kleptoplastid, specifically originating from a species of Teleaulax. PMID:15344936

Janson, Sven

2004-10-01

270

A high-frequency response relaxed eddy accumulation flux measurement system for sampling short-lived biogenic volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m-2 hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozone removal procedure to allow for the measurement of highly reactive species such as ?-caryophyllene and polar terpenoids such as linalool. A two-component internal standard continuously added to the accumulators was used to correct for switching-induced volumetric errors and as a check on VOC losses exceeding accumulator tube adsorption limits. In addition, the internal standards were used to demonstrate that accumulators quickly return to target flow rates at segregation valve switching frequencies up to at least 0.8 Hz. The system was able to measure daytime hourly fluxes of individual biogenic VOC including oxygenated terpenoids, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes.

Arnts, Robert R.; Mowry, Fred L.; Hampton, Gary A.

2013-05-01

271

Urea, Glycolic Acid, and Glycerol in an Organic Residue Produced by Ultraviolet Irradiation of Interstellar/Pre-Cometary Ice Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 50 stable organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), from ground-based and onboard-satellite astronomical observations, in the gas and solid phases. Some of these organics may be prebiotic compounds that were delivered to early Earth by comets and meteorites and may have triggered the first chemical reactions involved in the origin of life. Ultraviolet irradiation of ices simulating photoprocesses of cold solid matter in astrophysical environments have shown that photochemistry can lead to the formation of amino acids and related compounds. In this work, we experimentally searched for other organic molecules of prebiotic interest, namely, oxidized acid labile compounds. In a setup that simulates conditions relevant to the ISM and Solar System icy bodies such as comets, a condensed CH3OH:NH3â = 1:1 ice mixture was UV irradiated at ˜80 K. The molecular constituents of the nonvolatile organic residue that remained at room temperature were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol were detected in this residue, as well as hydroxyacetamide, glycerolic acid, and glycerol amide. These organics are interesting target molecules to be searched for in space. Finally, tentative mechanisms of formation for these compounds under interstellar/pre-cometary conditions are proposed.

Nuevo, Michel; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.

2010-03-01

272

Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol in an organic residue produced by ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs.  

PubMed

More than 50 stable organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), from ground-based and onboard-satellite astronomical observations, in the gas and solid phases. Some of these organics may be prebiotic compounds that were delivered to early Earth by comets and meteorites and may have triggered the first chemical reactions involved in the origin of life. Ultraviolet irradiation of ices simulating photoprocesses of cold solid matter in astrophysical environments have shown that photochemistry can lead to the formation of amino acids and related compounds. In this work, we experimentally searched for other organic molecules of prebiotic interest, namely, oxidized acid labile compounds. In a setup that simulates conditions relevant to the ISM and Solar System icy bodies such as comets, a condensed CH(3)OH:NH(3) = 1:1 ice mixture was UV irradiated at approximately 80 K. The molecular constituents of the nonvolatile organic residue that remained at room temperature were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol were detected in this residue, as well as hydroxyacetamide, glycerolic acid, and glycerol amide. These organics are interesting target molecules to be searched for in space. Finally, tentative mechanisms of formation for these compounds under interstellar/pre-cometary conditions are proposed. PMID:20402585

Nuevo, Michel; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Thiemann, Wolfram H-P

2010-03-01

273

Living Liquid Crystals  

E-print Network

Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles often termed active fluid has attracted enormous attention in broad scientific community because of it fundamentally non-equilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here we introduce a new class of active matter, living liquid crystals (LLCs) that combine living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of new intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (a) non-linear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by non-uniform director, (b) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (c) activity-triggered transition from a non-flowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, (d) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications.

Shuang Zhou; Andrey Sokolov; Oleg D Lavrentovich; Igor S Aranson

2013-12-18

274

Synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy as a novel bioanalytical microprobe for individual living  

E-print Network

techniques. Using the information produced by these tech- niques, the attention of biomedical researchers is now increas- ingly focused on understanding how chemical species interact in living organisms instrumen- tation is seeking new ways to image chemical information within living cells. For correct

275

Differential organ infection studies, potyvirus elimination, and field performance of virus-free garlic plants produced by tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence of potyvirus in single garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves from the same bulb, and in five single leaves excised from commercial field-grown individual plants was studied using ELISA. It was found that the viruses were not present in all organs of the same plant, since some cloves of the same bulb were infected with potyvirus but some others were

R. Ramírez-Malagón; L. Pérez-Moreno; A. Borodanenko; G. J. Salinas-González; N. Ochoa-Alejo

2006-01-01

276

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

277

Living Vs. Non-Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fill out your worksheet as you learn more about living and non-living things. 1. First mouse over the objects to see some of the characteristics of living and non living things.Living Nonliving Characteristics 2. So, you know what is alive and what is not. But why are those things alive or not? Read the information on this site to learn the 7 characteristics that make things ...

Benson, Carrie

2012-10-08

278

Living Wage Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In many parts of the United States, families working in low-wage jobs make insufficient income to live locally given the high cost of living. Some of this can be due to rising real estate costs and the like and a number of organizations have worked to craft living wage legislation in a number of cities. This Living Wage calculator helps visitors estimate the cost of living in their community or region. Visitors can get started by selecting a location from the list presented here. Additionally, they can also use the search engine to look for specific places. For each place, visitors can learn about the living wage, typical expenses, and so on. It's an interesting policy tool and it can be used to teach students about economics, the job market, and much more.

Glasmeier, Amy

279

Secondary organic aerosol produced from aircraft emissions at the Atlanta Airport: An advanced diagnostic investigation using process analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to investigate the impacts of aircraft emissions from the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport have previously shown aircraft emissions increased total daily PM2.5 concentrations by up to 9.4% (0.94 ?g m-3) with overall impacts varying by modeled grid resolution. However, those results also indicated that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in the airport grid cell were reduced due to aircraft emissions at coarser grid resolutions (36-km and 12-km) but not at a finer resolution (4-km). To investigate this anomaly, this study instruments the CMAQ model with process analysis, an advanced diagnostic modeling tool, and focuses on changes to SOA concentrations due to aircraft emissions in the grid cells containing the Atlanta airport at grid resolutions of 36-km, 12-km, and 4-km. Model results indicated aircraft emissions reduced hourly anthropogenic and biogenic SOA concentrations at the 36-km and 12-km grid resolutions by up to 6.2% (0.052 ?g m-3) by removing nitrate, hydroxyl, and hydroperoxy radicals through chemistry. At the 4-km resolution, however, hourly modeled SOA concentrations increased (primarily due to changes in biogenic SOA) by up to 11.5% (0.081 ?g m-3) due to primary organic aerosol emissions from aircraft, with the additional organic mass shifting partitioning of SOA semi-volatile gas phase species into the particle phase.

Woody, Matthew C.; Arunachalam, Saravanan

2013-11-01

280

Use of on-farm produced biofuels on organic farms – Evaluation of energy balances and environmental loads for three possible fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate systems making organic farms self-sufficient in farm-produced bio-based fuels. The energy balance and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Complete LCAs were not performed. Important constraints when implementing the systems in practice were also identified.The RME scenario showed

H. Fredriksson; A. Baky; S. Bernesson; Å. Nordberg; O. Norén; P.-A. Hansson

2006-01-01

281

Positive Autoregulation and Signaling Properties of Pyoluteorin, an Antibiotic Produced by the Biological Control Organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere bacterium, produces a suite of secondary metabolites that are toxic to seed- and root-rotting plant pathogens. Among these are the polyketide compounds pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. We provide evidence that pyoluteorin production is influenced by positive autoreg- ulation. Addition of pyoluteorin to liquid cultures of Pf-5 enhanced pyoluteorin production. In addition, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol mutually inhibit

Marion Brodhagen; Marcella D. Henkels; Joyce E. Loper

2004-01-01

282

Two-dimensional organic molecules for two-photon absorption, aluminum alkyl complexes initiated polymerizations, and unimolecular living radical polymerization initiators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of structure-property relationship on two-photon absorbing chromophores showed that highly symmetric and conjugated molecular structures exhibited larger two-photon absorption cross-section in comparison to their counterparts with lower symmetry. A number of symmetric two-photon absorbing chromophores were developed. Measurements of their optical properties showed that cross-sections were further enhanced upon (i) attachment of electron donating groups, such as substituted amino groups, to the symmetric structures; (ii) extension of the conjugation length; and (iii) replacement of conjugated pi center with an sp3 hybridized nitrogen atom. Two-photon absorbing polymers and a dendritic structure of symmetric molecules were also synthesized and characterized. A series of bulky aluminum complexes were synthesized and characterized. For the first time, they were found to be active initiators towards the polymerization of acrylates. Coordination of methyl acrylate to aluminum complexes was observed by variable-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Adducts of methyl acrylate to aluminum complexes were isolated and characterized by both 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The proposed mechanism involved a radical process where the radicals were produced by an assisted homolysis of the Al-alkyl bond. A kinetic study of the methyl acrylate polymerization initiated by bulky aluminum complex showed that the rate of polymerization was first-order with respect to the monomer concentration and half-order with respect to the concentration of aluminum initiator. Further investigation showed bulky aluminum complexes were also active in the initiation of the polymerization of styrene and some other monomers. A facile one-step synthesis of an unimolecular initiator, 2,3-dimethyl-4-phenyl-4-(2 ',2',6',6' -tetramethylpiperidinoxy)butanitrile, was developed for "living" radical polymerization study. A "living" polymerization of styrene was observed by the initiation of the synthesized initiator. Functional polymers, such as polyacrylamide and polyacrylic anhydride, were also synthesized in the presence of the above initiator. However, further study showed that the polymerizations were not "living".

Bi, Xiangdong

283

In vitro synthesis and characterization of bacteriochlorophyll-f and its absence in bacteriochlorophyll-e producing organisms.  

PubMed

Bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)-f which has not yet been found in natural phototrophs was prepared by chemically modifying chlorophyll-b. The retention time of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the synthetic monomeric BChl-f as well as its visible absorption and fluorescence emission spectra in a solution were identified and compared with other naturally occurring chlorophyll pigments obtained from the main light-harvesting antenna systems of green sulfur bacteria, BChls-c/d/e. Based on the above data, BChl-f was below the level of detection in three strains of green photosynthetic bacteria producing BChl-e. PMID:21161597

Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Komada, Jun; Kunieda, Michio; Fukai, Kazuhiro; Yoshitomi, Taichi; Harada, Jiro; Mizoguchi, Tadashi

2011-02-01

284

A case study on co-exposure to a mixture of organic solvents in a Tunisian adhesive-producing company  

PubMed Central

Objectives to assess environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to organic solvents in a glue-manufacturing company in Sfax, Tunisia. Methods Exposure of volunteer workers, in the solvented glue-work-stations, in the control laboratory and in the storage rooms of the finished products, was assessed through indoor-air and urine measurements. Informed consent of the workers was obtained. Results and discussion The exposure indexes were found with high values in the solvented workshop as well as in the control laboratory and were respectively, 8.40 and 3.12. These indexes were also correlated with hexane and toluene indoor air concentrations. As to urine, the obtained results for the 2,5-hexandione and hippuric acid, metabolites of hexane and toluene, respectively, were in accord with the indoor-air measurements, with an average of 0.46 mg/l and 1240 mg/g of creatinine. Conclusion This study assessed for the first time biological exposure to organic solvents used in Tunisian adhesive industries. Although values are likely to underestimate true exposure levels, some figures exceed European and American occupational exposure guidelines. PMID:22082240

2011-01-01

285

Tumor target organs and rate of survival in long-living transgenic mice and their parental wild-type counterparts exposed to the carcinogen dimethylbenz(a)anthracene.  

PubMed

Two-year-old mice of the long-living transgenic mice of the alphaMUPA strain were previously found to show higher tumor resistance than the their initial wild-type (WT) strain (Tirosh, 2003). To better understand the mechanism underlying the differences in tumorigenesis rates between the two mouse lines, the rate of tumorigenesis and survival effects were studied in alphaMUPA mice and parental WT mice exposed to dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Each animal received three intragastric feedings of DMBA, each one week apart, at doses of 2, 1, and 1 mg dissolved in 0.2 ml corn oil; thus, the total amount of the carcinogen was 4 mg/mouse. Control mice received corn oil. The alphaMUPA mice exhibited distinctly higher survival rates in experimental chemically-induced tumorigenesis compared to their WT counterparts: 93% vs. 67%, p =2.7. The rate of tumorigenesis differed between the mouse lines (yield was 1.5 and 2.1), owing to a distinct tendency toward decreased tumor frequency in the skin and forestomach in the alphaMUPA mice. The experimental duration was also significantly higher for transgenic mice: 35.9 +/- 1.2 weeks compared to 30.5 +/- 1.3 weeks in WT mice, p <0.01. The lungs, forestomach and skin were target organs for the carcinogenic effect of DMBA. Our observations suggest that aging promotes the rate of spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. PMID:16900787

Kossoy, George; Ben-Hur, Herzl; Miskin, Ruth; Miskin, Rut; Zusman, Itshak

2006-01-01

286

Impacts of Organic and Conventional Crop Management on Diversity and Activity of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria and Total Bacteria Are Subsidiary to Temporal Effects  

PubMed Central

A three year field study (2007–2009) of the diversity and numbers of the total and metabolically active free-living diazotophic bacteria and total bacterial communities in organic and conventionally managed agricultural soil was conducted using the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study, in northeast England. Fertility management appeared to have little impact on both diazotrophic and total bacterial communities. However, copy numbers of the nifH gene did appear to be negatively impacted by conventional crop protection measures across all years suggesting diazotrophs may be particularly sensitive to pesticides. Impacts of crop management were greatly overshadowed by the influence of temporal effects with diazotrophic communities changing on a year by year basis and from season to season. Quantitative analyses using qPCR of each community indicated that metabolically active diazotrophs were highest in year 1 but the population significantly declined in year 2 before recovering somewhat in the final year. The total bacterial population in contrast increased significantly each year. It appeared that the dominant drivers of qualitative and quantitative changes in both communities were annual and seasonal effects. Moreover, regression analyses showed activity of both communities was significantly affected by soil temperature and climatic conditions. PMID:23285218

Orr, Caroline H.; Leifert, Carlo; Cummings, Stephen P.; Cooper, Julia M.

2012-01-01

287

Medicago truncatula increases its iron-uptake mechanisms in response to volatile organic compounds produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti.  

PubMed

Medicago truncatula represents a model plant species for understanding legume-bacteria interactions. M. truncatula roots form a specific root-nodule symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation generates high iron (Fe) demands for bacterial nitrogenase holoenzyme and plant leghemoglobin proteins. Leguminous plants acquire Fe via "Strategy I," which includes mechanisms such as rhizosphere acidification and enhanced ferric reductase activity. In the present work, we analyzed the effect of S. meliloti volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the Fe-uptake mechanisms of M. truncatula seedlings under Fe-deficient and Fe-rich conditions. Axenic cultures showed that both plant and bacterium modified VOC synthesis in the presence of the respective symbiotic partner. Importantly, in both Fe-rich and -deficient experiments, bacterial VOCs increased the generation of plant biomass, rhizosphere acidification, ferric reductase activity, and chlorophyll content in plants. On the basis of our results, we propose that M. truncatula perceives its symbiont through VOC emissions, and in response, increases Fe-uptake mechanisms to facilitate symbiosis. PMID:23564626

Orozco-Mosqueda, Maria del Carmen; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes I; Santoyo, Gustavo; Farías-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

2013-11-01

288

Living Stock Collections (LSC)  

NSF Publications Database

The Living Stock Collections (LSC) program supports operation of and improvements in outstanding collections of living organisms used in basic biological research. The program provides support for two types of projects. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) ...

289

Passive dosing for producing defined and constant exposure of hydrophobic organic compounds during in vitro toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in plastic cell culture plates is problematic due to compound losses through volatilization and sorption to the wells and culture medium constituents. This leads to poorly defined exposure and reduced test sensitivity. Passive dosing can overcome these problems by the continual partitioning of HOCs from a dominating reservoir loaded in a biologically inert polymer such as silicone, providing defined and constant freely dissolved concentrations and also eliminating spiking with cosolvents. This study aimed to select a suitable passive dosing format for in vitro tests in multiwell plates and characterize its performance at 37 degrees C. Silicone O-rings were the most suitable format; they were both practical and demonstrated excellent passive dosing performance. (1) The rings were loaded by partitioning from a methanol solution containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (log K(OW), 3.33-6.43) that served as model compounds, followed by removal of the methanol with water. This resulted in highly reproducible HOC concentrations in the silicone O-rings. (2) The release of PAHs into aqueous solutions was rapid and reproducible, with equilibrium partitioning being reached within hours. (3) The buffering capacity of the O-rings was sufficient to maintain stable concentrations over more than 72 h. The O-rings were then applied to test a range of PAHs at their aqueous solubility in an array of established in vitro cell culture assays with human cells and cell lines. These included the formation of reactive oxygen species, induction of the IL-8 cytokine promoter, and secretion of MCP-1 by the cells. The biological responses depended on the melting point of the individual PAHs and their maximum chemical activities (a(max)). Only those PAHs with the highest a(max) stimulated the formation of reactive oxygen species and MCP-1 secretion, while they inhibited the induction of the IL-8 cytokine promoter. PMID:19928796

Smith, Kilian E C; Oostingh, Gertie J; Mayer, Philipp

2010-01-01

290

The lobster mandibular organ produces soluble and membrane-bound forms of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase  

PubMed Central

In a previous study [Li, Wagner, Friesen and Borst (2003) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 134, 147–155], we showed that the MO (mandibular organ) of the lobster Homarus americanus has high levels of HMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) and that most (approx. 75%) of the enzyme activity is soluble. In the present study, we report the biochemical and molecular characteristics of this enzyme. HMGR had two forms in the MO: a more abundant soluble form (66 kDa) and a less abundant membrane-bound form (72 kDa). Two cDNAs for HMGR were isolated from the MO. A 2.6-kb cDNA encoded HMGR1, a 599-amino-acid protein (63 kDa), and a 3.2-kb cDNA encoded HMGR2, a 655-amino-acid protein (69 kDa). These two cDNAs had identical 3?-ends and appeared to be products of a single gene. The deduced amino acid sequences of these two proteins revealed a high degree of similarity to other class I HMGRs. Hydropathy plots indicated that the N-terminus of HMGR1 lacked a transmembrane region and HMGR2 had a single transmembrane segment. Recombinant HMGR1 expressed in Sf9 insect cells was soluble and had kinetic characteristics similar to native HMGR from the MO. Treatment with phosphatase did not affect HMGR activity, consistent with the observation that neither HMGR1 nor HMGR2 has a serine at position 490 or 546, the position of a conserved phosphorylation site found in class I HMGR from higher eukaryotes. Other lobster tissues (i.e. midgut, brain and muscles) had low HMGR activities and mRNA levels. MO with higher HMGR activities had higher HMGR mRNA levels, implying that HMGR is regulated, in part, at the transcription level. PMID:15086315

2004-01-01

291

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments—nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed.

Zima, Tatyana; Baklanova, Natalya; Bataev, Ivan

2013-02-01

292

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

Zima, Tatyana, E-mail: Zima@solid.nsc.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Baklanova, Natalya [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Bataev, Ivan [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15

293

The third chains of living organisms--a trail of glycobiology that started from the third floor of building 4 in NIH.  

PubMed

Application of a finger-printing method to the analysis of human milk oligosaccharides led to the finding that several oligosaccharides were missing in the milk of non-secretor or Lewis-negative individuals. This finding helped us in opening the door of elucidating the enzymatic basis of blood types in human. Based on these successful studies, a strategy to establish reliable techniques to elucidate the structures and functions of the N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins was devised. It was to contrive enzymatic and chemical means to release quantitatively the N-linked sugar chains as oligosaccharides, and finger-print them by using appropriate methods to demonstrate the sugar pattern of a glycoprotein. These methods enabled us to determine that the N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins can be classified into three subgroups: high mannose-type, complex-type, and hybrid-type. By comparative studies of the sugar patterns of a glycoprotein produced by different organs and different animals, occurrences of organ- and species-specific glycosylation were found in many glycoproteins. By comparative studies of the glycosylation patterns of the subunits constructing human chorionic gonadotropin and other glycoproteins, occurrence of site-directed N-glycosylation was also found, indicating that the processing and maturation of the N-linked sugar chains of a glycoprotein might be controlled by the structure of polypeptide moiety. Furthermore, these methods enabled us to elucidate the structural alteration of the sugar chains of a glycoprotein induced by diseased state of the producing cells, such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignancy. Recent studies of glycoproteins in the brain-nervous system through aging revealed that N-glycosylation of P(0) in the rat spinal cord is induced by aging. Therefore, glycobiology is expanding tremendously into fields such as pathological and gerontological research. PMID:15158661

Kobata, Akira

2004-06-15

294

IL-2 protects lupus-prone mice from multiple end-organ damage by limiting CD4-CD8- IL-17-producing T cells.  

PubMed

IL-2, a cytokine with pleiotropic effects, is critical for immune cell activation and peripheral tolerance. Although the therapeutic potential of IL-2 has been previously suggested in autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms whereby IL-2 mitigates autoimmunity and prevents organ damage remain unclear. Using an inducible recombinant adeno-associated virus vector, we investigated the effect of low systemic levels of IL-2 in lupus-prone MRL/Fas(lpr/lpr) (MRL/lpr) mice. Treatment of mice after the onset of disease with IL-2-recombinant adeno-associated virus resulted in reduced mononuclear cell infiltration and pathology of various tissues, including skin, lungs, and kidneys. In parallel, we noted a significant decrease of IL-17-producing CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative T cells and an increase in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) immunoregulatory T cells (Treg) in the periphery. We also show that IL-2 can drive double-negative (DN) T cell death through an indirect mechanism. Notably, targeted delivery of IL-2 to CD122(+) cytotoxic lymphocytes effectively reduced the number of DN T cells and lymphadenopathy, whereas selective expansion of Treg by IL-2 had no effect on DN T cells. Collectively, our data suggest that administration of IL-2 to lupus-prone mice protects against end-organ damage and suppresses inflammation by dually limiting IL-17-producing DN T cells and expanding Treg. PMID:25063876

Mizui, Masayuki; Koga, Tomohiro; Lieberman, Linda A; Beltran, Jessica; Yoshida, Nobuya; Johnson, Mark C; Tisch, Roland; Tsokos, George C

2014-09-01

295

Family Living and Personal Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links for various projects for Family Living and Personal Living classes. FAMILY LIVING Wayne County Clerk - Marriage License The Knot Martha Stewart Weddings *Travel Planning Sites* Northwest Airlines Amtrak Travelocity Spirit Air Orbitz PERSONAL LIVING (and Parenting): *Alcohol Research* Alcohol and Public Health - CDC MedlinePlus: Alcoholism NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism *Birth Control* Health and Wellness Resource Center - - start at this site by typing Birth Control in the search bar on the right of the screen and select "full text articles" and consumer heatlh. It will list a range of birth ...

Schultz, Ms.

2007-11-05

296

Orca Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brainchild of orca biologist Dr. Paul Spong, this Nature Network Web site aims to "relay live sound and images of the orcas in the natural environment of Hanson Island," near Vancouver Island, Canada. Live sound and image feeds are available at 56K and 300K connections, and, by completing a simple registration, visitors will be alerted via email whenever orcas are near the cameras and mikes. Click on Highlights 2000 to see and hear past Web casts of orcas activity. This Web site links to others that relay live images and sounds from animals located around the world.

297

Is it living or non living?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once completed, students will have a deeper understanding of what is living and non living. Students will be able to identify the characteristics of non living and living things and will be able to classify them in an environment. Take this pretest to test your knowlege of living and non living things.Beginning Quiz Read this to learn more about living and non living things.Living vs Non Living Things Living things need 7 characteristics of life. Click on this link to learn more about what they are.7 Characteristics of Living Things Living and non living things have different characteristics. Look ...

Aitken, Miss

2009-04-17

298

Live Well  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV, following a healthy diet offers several benefits. Physical Activity - Exercise offers benefits that can help you maintain ... Well Mental Health Substance Use Smoking Healthy Diet Physical Activity Family Planning Living with HIV: Travel Abroad Resources ...

299

Living Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

Mules, B. R.

1976-01-01

300

Assisted Living  

MedlinePLUS

... of residences participating in the research have lower fees and half have higher fees. The rental rate includes the base rent and service fees charged by the assisted living community. While 86. ...

301

Volcano Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcano Live contains maps of volcanoes from around the world, a kids' page that provides volcano education links for teachers and students, a volcano glossary, volcano news, links to live video cams of volcanoes, geography and volcano information of countries around the world, and video clips of active volcanoes. There is also information for travelling to volcanoes, a volcano photo section, a section on the destruction of Pompeii, a volcanology section, and volcano safety rules.

Seach, John

302

A new physiological role for Pdr12p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: export of aromatic and branched-chain organic acids produced in amino acid catabolism.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use a broad range of compounds as sole nitrogen source. Many amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and methionine, are utilized through the Ehrlich pathway. The fusel acids and alcohols produced from this pathway, along with their derived esters, are important contributors to beer and wine flavor. It is unknown how these compounds are exported from the cell. Analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcript profiles via microarray analysis of glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures revealed a common upregulation of PDR12 in cultures grown with leucine, methionine or phenylalanine as sole nitrogen source. PDR12 encodes an ABC transporter involved in weak-organic-acid resistance, which has hitherto been studied in the context of resistance to exogenous organic acids. The hypothesis that PDR12 is involved in export of natural products of amino acid catabolism was evaluated by analyzing the phenotype of null mutants in PDR12 or in WAR1, its positive transcriptional regulator. The hypersensitivity of the pdr12Delta and war1Delta strains for some of these compounds indicates that Pdr12p is involved in export of the fusel acids, but not the fusel alcohols derived from leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. PMID:16911515

Hazelwood, Lucie A; Tai, Siew Leng; Boer, Viktor M; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean Marc

2006-09-01

303

Effects of the organic acids produced by a lactic acid bacterium in Apis mellifera colony development, Nosema ceranae control and fumagillin efficiency.  

PubMed

The European honey bee Apis mellifera is known to be affected by many parasites and pathogens that have great impact over the insect development. Among parasites affecting bee health, Nosema ceranae is one of the main biotic factors affecting colony populations. As honey bee populations decline, interest in pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bees and microorganisms has increased. The main goal of the current study was to assess the effect of the oral administration of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 (mainly organic acids) supplemented in syrup, on: (I) N. ceranae sporulation dynamics before and after fumagillin application, and (II) performance of A. mellifera colonies. Different experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these bacterial metabolites on bees: in vitro administration revealed no toxic effects against bees. Colonies fed with the lactic acids incremented their beehive population and also the amount of fat bodies per bee. Finally, the organic acids reduced the intensity of the pathogen after the second application of treatment as well as enhanced the fumagillin efficiency. This study provides important information for the development of new control substances against nosemosis. PMID:23978352

Maggi, Matías; Negri, Pedro; Plischuk, Santiago; Szawarski, Nicolás; De Piano, Fiorella; De Feudis, Leonardo; Eguaras, Martín; Audisio, Carina

2013-12-27

304

Living T9 glioma cells expressing membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor produce immediate tumor destruction by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages via a "paraptosis"-induced pathway that promotes systemic immunity against intracranial T9 gliomas.  

PubMed

Cloned T9-C2 glioma cells transfected with membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) never formed subcutaneous tumors when implanted into Fischer rats, whereas control T9 cells did. The T9-C2 cells were completely killed within 1 day through a mechanism that resembled paraptosis. Vacuolization of the T9-C2 cell's mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum started within 4 hours after implantation. By 24 hours, the dead tumor cells were swollen and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive. Bcl2-transduced T9-C2 cells failed to form tumors in rats. Both T9 and T9-C2 cells produced cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant that recruited the granulocytes into the tumor injection sites, where they interacted with the tumor cells. Freshly isolated macrophages killed the T9-C2 cells in vitro by a mechanism independent of phagocytosis. Nude athymic rats treated with antiasialo GM1 antibody formed T9-C2 tumors, whereas rats treated with a natural killer cell (NK)-specific antibody failed to form tumors. When treated with antipolymorphonuclear leukocyte (anti-PMN) and antimacrophage antibodies, 80% of nude rats formed tumors, whereas only 40% of the rats developed a tumor when a single antibody was used. This suggests that both PMNs and macrophages are involved in the killing of T9-C2 tumor cells. Immunocompetent rats that rejected the living T9-C2 cells were immune to the intracranial rechallenge with T9 cells. No vaccinating effect occurred if the T9-C2 cells were freeze-thawed, x-irradiated, or treated with mitomycin-C prior to injection. Optimal tumor immunization using mM-CSF-transduced T9 cells requires viable tumor cells. In this study optimal tumor immunization occurred when a strong inflammatory response at the injection of the tumor cells was induced. PMID:12149220

Chen, Yijun; Douglass, Thomas; Jeffes, Edward W B; Xu, Qingcheng; Williams, Christopher C; Arpajirakul, Neary; Delgado, Christina; Kleinman, Michael; Sanchez, Ramon; Dan, Qinghong; Kim, Ronald C; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R

2002-08-15

305

Predictors of hospital surface contamination with Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: patient and organism factors  

PubMed Central

Background The role of the hospital environment in transmission of ESBL-Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and ESBL-Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is poorly defined. Recent data however suggest that in the hospital setting, ESBL-KP is more transmissible than ESBL-EC. We sought therefore to measure the difference in hospital contamination rates between the two species and to identify key risk factors for contamination of the hospital environment with these organisms. Methods We systematically sampled 8 surfaces in the rooms and bathrooms of adult patients colonized or infected with ESBL-EC or ESBL-KP throughout their hospital stay. Data were collected on factors potentially affecting contamination rates. Environmental contamination was defined as recovery of an ESBL-producing organism matching the source patient’s isolate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed at the level of the patient visit using generalized estimating equations to identify independent predictors of environmental contamination. Results 24 patients (11 with ESBL-KP, 11 ESBL-EC and 2 with both organisms) had 1104 swabs collected during 138 visits. The overall contamination rate was 3.4% (38/1104) and was significantly higher for ESBL-KP than ESBL-EC (5.4% versus 0.4%; p?producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is inversely associated with carbapenem exposure. Predictors of hospital contamination with ESBL-E include: indwelling urinary catheters and ESBL-KP. Rooms of patients with ESBL-KP have substantially higher contamination rates than those with ESBL-EC. This finding may help explain the apparently higher transmissibility of ESBL-KP in the hospital setting. PMID:24491119

2014-01-01

306

Positive Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.

307

Living and Non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is intended to help students understand the difference between living and non-living things by teaching them the characteristics of living things. Introduction: We know what living things are, right? People are living things, aren't they? Can you think of any other living things? How do you know they are living? Task: If you were asked to explain what the difference between living and non-living things, how would you? This ...

Davies, Mrs.

2010-02-11

308

Interpersonal and Inter?organizational Networks in the Performing Arts: The Case of Project?Based Organizations in the Live Music Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of the paper is to contribute to the literature on project?based organizations (PBOs), concerning how temporary organizations are nested in an organizational setting that involves interpersonal and inter?organizational networks. Special attention is paid to the performing arts. A PBO is defined here as an organization that uses a one?shot method of organizing transactions, created by the ability

Silvia R. Sedita

2008-01-01

309

Retiring Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

2009-01-01

310

Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy

311

Color tunable organic light-emitting devices with external quantum efficiency over 20% based on strongly luminescent gold(III) complexes having long-lived emissive excited states.  

PubMed

Gold(III) complexes supported by C-deprotonated fluorene-C^N^C ligands having high emission quantum yield up to 0.61 and long-lived emissive excited states are used as yellow emitters in color tunable PLEDs and OLEDs. High EQEs of 13.16% and 22.02% are achieved in the best PLED and OLED, respectively. PMID:24497411

Cheng, Gang; Chan, Kaai Tung; To, Wai-Pong; Che, Chi-Ming

2014-04-23

312

Organ Harvesting and Transplants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

2010-01-01

313

Living and non-living things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things often rely on non-living things to accomplish daily tasks. Living things have several characteristics that non-living things do not, such as the ability to move, eat, breathe, and reproduce. Living things and non-living things can interact even though they do not have the same characteristics.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

314

Human Simulated Studies of Aztreonam and Aztreonam-Avibactam To Evaluate Activity against Challenging Gram-Negative Organisms, Including Metallo-?-Lactamase Producers  

PubMed Central

Secondary to the stability of aztreonam against metallo-?-lactamases, coupled with avibatam's neutralizing activity against often coproduced extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC enzymes, the combination of aztreonam and avibactam has been proposed as a principal candidate for the treatment of infections with metallo-?-lactamase-producing Gram-negative organisms. Using the neutropenic-mouse thigh infection model, we evaluated the efficacy of human simulated doses of aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam against 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 13 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which 25 produced metallo-?-lactamases. Additionally, six P. aeruginosa isolates were also evaluated in immunocompetent animals. A humanized aztreonam dose of 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) was evaluated alone and in combination with avibactam at 375 or 600 mg every 6 h (1-h infusion), targeting the percentage of the dosing interval in which free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC (fT>MIC). Efficacy was evaluated as the change in bacterial density after 24 h compared with the bacterial density at the initiation of dosing. Aztreonam monotherapy resulted in reductions of two of the Enterobacteriaceae bacterial isolates (aztreonam MIC, ?32 ?g/ml; fT>MIC, ?38%) and minimal activity against the remaining isolates (aztreonam MIC, ?128 ?g/ml; fT>MIC, 0%). Alternatively, aztreonam-avibactam therapy resulted in the reduction of all 14 Enterobacteriaceae isolates (aztreonam-avibactam MICs, ?16 ?g/ml; fT>MIC, ?65%) and no difference between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was noted. Similar pharmacodynamically predictable activity against P. aeruginosa was noted in studies with neutropenic and immunocompetent mice, with activity occurring when the MICs were ?16 ?g/ml and variable efficacy noted when the MICs were ?32 ?g/ml. Again, no difference in efficacy between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was observed. Aztreonam-avibactam represents an attractive treatment option for infections with metallo-?-lactamase-producing Gram-negative pathogens that coproduce ESBLs or AmpC. PMID:23650162

Crandon, Jared L.

2013-01-01

315

Carbon isotopic analysis of dissolved organic carbon in produced water brines by wet chemical oxidation and cavity ring-down spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have adapted the Picarro iTOC CRDS isotope analyzer for analysis of produced water brines via wet chemical persulfate oxidation. In particular, we developed strategies and techniques for overcoming the limitation imposed by low oxidation efficiencies due to the chloride ion interference with persulfate oxidation. These techniques are important for understanding the origin of dissolved organic carbon in subsurface fluids from oilfields, as a tracer of fracking fluids in groundwater, and in interpreting changes in groundwater DOC as a result of microbial activity including oil biodegradation or microbially enhanced oil recovery. We describe the limitations of this new instrument for the analysis of DOC in brines including sample requirements, matrix effects, and the effect of DOC composition on reaction efficiency and isotopic measurements. We compare strategies including anion exchange cartridges, persulfate reactant concentrations, and reaction time. The CRDS analysis of DOC in brines is a useful tool for understanding the origin and fate of DOC and is a potentially powerful tool to identifiy evidence of contamination due to hydrofracturing chemicals that have a distinctive carbon isotopic signature relative to natural brine.

Thomas, B.; Conaway, C.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Saad, N.

2012-12-01

316

The Living Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living Lakes Partnership, a nonprofit organization has a goal to "create and support a network within which local lake organizations can find critical kinds of assistance for promoting sustainable development in lake areas." Their award winning site highlights nearly twenty lakes around the world, describing their individual, watershed, and biological characteristics as well as the geologic and human history of the area. The Living With Lakes section discusses lake management and conservation issues dealing with agriculture and urban areas (such as pollution and habitat loss). Other links include a photo gallery, news and events section, discussion groups, and much more. Visitors will enjoy the rich content and visuals that make up this site and will find themselves exploring it for some time and learning along the way.

2002-01-01

317

These Women Make a Difference in Our Lives | Poster  

Cancer.gov

Producing viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo studies, evaluating new technologies, organizing outreach and internal events and special programs, preparing site visit reports, helping make newcomers feel comfortable, collaborating on statistics and other projects—these are just some of the ways that the women of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research go about their everyday work lives—and in the process, make history.

318

Bioluminescence: Living Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent creatures and the underwater world in which they live. Using shoeboxes and black paint, students are directed to build a deep-sea model and inhabit it with fish made out of black construction paper. Students then use the model to describe how organisms use bioluminescence and learn about its use as camouflage. In addition to a detailed protocol, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessments and links to additional information.

Xpeditions, National G.

319

Estuary Live!!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Intended for elementary, middle, and high school students, this electronic estuary excursion, Estuary Live!!!, will take place May 8-12, 2000. Free to participants (but please sign up in advance), the field trip will explore the Rachel Carson Site of the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve, covering four islands and salt marshes off the North Carolina coast. The site features useful educational materials, including a photo-illustrated field guide (of the "ecology, habitats and specific plants and animals found in North Carolina's estuaries"); lesson plans (covering highschool biology, estuary habitats, species interactions, and adaptations and communities); and a series of related links. The interactive field trip will require a java-enabled browser, RealVideo (to see a moving image and hear sound), and/or Chatvideo, to see a moving image, ask questions of the naturalist leading the trip, and receive responses via a chat window. Note that ChatVideo requires Netscape 4.0 or better and will not work with AOL or Internet Explorer, and pages "look best" on a screen with resolution of 800x600. The Estuary Live!!! Website is provided by the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, and The Center for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at East Carolina University.

320

UNM Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you can't make it to the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, why not tune in to their events online? This is now possible, courtesy of the UNM Live website. The function of this site is to bring "educational resources to a wider audience", and their focus is quite catholic, with talks on student aid, podcasts on anthropology, and so on. Visitors can learn about the initiative via the "About UNM Live" section of the site, and for more general information, they can look over the "What is a podcast? How do I subscribe?" area. First-time visitors should start by listening to Professor Jerry Shea talk about the Swahili terms "Sasa" and "Zamani" for a good introduction to the site. The social networking media options are quite easy to use, and visitors can recommend various media clips and programs to friends and others. Also, visitors can use the "Categories" area to look for materials related to campus life, arts, business, education, and current affairs.

321

Application of novel low-intensity nonscanning fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for monitoring excited state dynamics in individual chloroplasts and living cells of photosynthetic organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Picosecond fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides a most valuable tool to analyze the primary processes of photosynthesis in individual cells and chloroplasts of living cells. In order to obtain correct lifetimes of the excited states, the peak intensity of the exciting laser pulses as well as the average intensity has to be sufficiently low to avoid distortions of the kinetics by processes such as singlet-singlet annihilation, closing of the reaction centers or photoinhibition. In the present study this requirement is achieved by non-scanning wide-field FLIM based on time- and space-correlated single-photon counting (TSCSPC) using a novel microchannel plate photomultiplier with quadrant anode (QA-MCP) that allows parallel acquisition of time-resolved images under minimally invasive low-excitation conditions. The potential of the wide-field TCSPC method is demonstrated by presenting results obtained from measurements of the fluorescence dynamics in individual chloroplasts of moss leaves and living cells of the chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

Eckert, Hann-Jörg; Petrášek, Zden?k; Kemnitz, Klaus

2006-10-01

322

Active Living by Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Members of the public health community and those from the world of urban planning have teamed up to create the Active Living By Design program, and by extension, this fine website. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and an academic home at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, the program was created âÂÂto increase physical activity through community design, public policies and communications strategies.â On the siteâÂÂs homepage, visitors can browse through sections that include information on âÂÂActive Living EssentialsâÂÂ, âÂÂActive Living ProgramsâÂÂ, and âÂÂActive Living ResourcesâÂÂ. The âÂÂEssentialsâ section is a good place to start as visitors can learn about the organizationâÂÂs major fields, which include information on the links between physical activity, urban design, and health. Visitors who are looking to learn about the specific âÂÂon the groundâ programs will want to look over the âÂÂCommunity Partnershipsâ area, as it contains information on initiatives in Chicago, Nashville, Orlando, and Cleveland.

323

Dietary Energy and Protein for Growing Pigs: 2. Protein and Fat Accretion and Organ Weights of Animals Slaughtered at 20, 50, 80 and 110 kg Live Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was performed to study the effects of restricted versus ad libitum feeding on carcass composition, on protein and fat accretion and on body development and organ weights. The carcass composition was evaluated on 168 pigs by serial slaughter at 20, 50, 80 and 110 kg LW. The chemical composition was examined in only 62 of these animals. The

Sigvard Thomke; Timo Alaviuhkola; Arne Madsen; Frik Sundstøl; Hans Peder Mortensen; Odd Vangen; Kristina Andersson

1995-01-01

324

London Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"London Lives: Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis" is a project with the goal of "assessing the role of plebeians in the evolution of social practices in the modern metropolis." In other words, the website aims to make accessible the records of non-elite individuals in order to show how those users of particular social institutions charities, the penal system, and others shaped their development. Visitors can choose "Browse Documents" to see the types of documents available, such as "Parish Archives", "Criminal Records", and "Coroners' Records". The "City of London Coroners" records from the 1780s include an inquest into a suspicious death, with no less than a dozen interviews with people who knew the man who died, and one of whom attested to him being "a little touched in the head". The "Additional Datasets" link contains 16 other datasets, including one of boys recruited to serve at sea for the Marine Society.

325

Living Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center at Emory University, the Living Links site specializes in "comparisons of the social life, ecology, cognition, neurology, and molecular genetics of apes and humans." With an emphasis on the four extant great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans), this educational site attempts "1) to reconstruct human evolution, 2) pinpoint the differences and similarities between humans and apes, and 3) educate the public about apes, and promote their well-being and conservation." The Info section provides a long (hyperlinked) list of general information on apes, from Allogrooming to Wooly spider monkeys. The Research section gives a brief overview of the Yerkes Center's research questions (and their evolutionary context), and Animals describes the Center's study animals -- three main social groups of chimpanzees -- with a special vocalizations feature. For those interested in learning more about apes and how our ancestry is intertwined with theirs, this site will be of interest.

326

Prevention of Poor Psychosocial Outcomes in Living Organ Donors: From Description to Theory-Driven Intervention Development and Initial Feasibility Testing  

PubMed Central

Context Although some living donors experience psychological, somatic, and interpersonal difficulties postdonation, interventions to prevent such outcomes have not been developed or evaluated. Objective To (a) summarize empirical evidence on postdonation psychosocial outcomes, (b) describe a theoretical framework to guide development of an intervention to prevent poor outcomes and (c) describe development and initial evaluation of feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Methods Based on a narrative literature review suggesting that individuals ambivalent about donation are at risk for poor postdonation psychosocial outcomes, the intervention targeted this risk factor. Intervention structure and content drew on motivational interviewing principles in order to assist prospective donors to resolve ambivalence. Data were collected on donor characteristics at our institution to determine whether they constituted a representative population in which to evaluate the intervention. Study participants were then recruited to assess intervention feasibility and acceptability. They were required to have scores > 0 on the Simmons Ambivalence Scale (indicating at least some ambivalence about donation). Results Our population was similar to the national living donor population on most demographic and donation-related characteristics. Eight individuals approved to donate either a kidney or liver segment were enrolled for intervention pilot testing. All successfully completed the 2-session telephone-based intervention before scheduled donation surgery. Participant ratings of acceptability and satisfaction were high. Open-ended comments indicated that the intervention addressed participants’ thoughts and concerns about the decision to donate. Conclusions The intervention is feasible, acceptable, and appears relevant to donor concerns. A clinical trial to evaluate intervention efficacy is warranted. PMID:22951506

Dew, Mary Amanda; Zuckoff, Allan; DiMartini, Andrea F.; DeVito Dabbs, Annette J.; McNulty, Mary L.; Fox, Kristen R.; Switzer, Galen E.; Humar, Abhinav; Tan, Henkie

2012-01-01

327

Formation and reactions of negative ions relevant to chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. Cl mass spectra of organic compounds produced by F? reactions  

PubMed Central

A systematic study of the negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectra produced by the reaction of F? with a wide variety of organic compounds has been accomplished. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with a modified high pressure ion source was employed for these experiments. The F? reagent ion was generated from CF3H or NF3, typically at an ion source pressure of 100 ?m. In pure NF3, F? is the major ion formed and constitutes more than 90% of the total ion intensity. While F? is also the major primary ion formed in pure CF3H, it undergoes rapid ion-molecule reactions at elevated source pressures, yielding (HF)nF? (n = 1?3) ions, which makes CF3H less suitable as a chemical ionization reagent gas. Among the organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, phenols, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene, ethers, amines and hydrocarbons. An intense (M ? 1)? ion was observed in the F? chemical ionization mass spectra of carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Alcohols yield only (M + F)? ions upon reaction with F?. A weaker (M + F)? ion was also detected in the F? chemical ionization spectra of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and nitriles. The F? chemical ionization mass spectra of esters, halides, nitriles, nitrobenzene and ethers are characterized primarily by the ions, RCOO?, X?, CN?, NO2?, and OR?, respectively. In addition, esters show a very weak (M ? 1)? ion (except formates). In the F? chemical ionization spectra of some aliphatic alkanes and o-xylene, a very weak (M + F)? ion was observed. Amines and aliphatic alkenes exhibit only insignificant fragment ions under similar conditions, while aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene are not reactive at all with the F? ion. The mechanisms of the various reactions mentioned are discussed, and several experimental complications are noted. In still other studies, the effects of varying several experimental parameters, including source pressure, relative proportions of the reagent and analyte, and other ion source parameters, on the observed chemical ionization mass spectra were also investigated. In a mixture of NF3 and n-butanol, for example, the ratio of the intensities of the ions characteristic of the alcohol to that of the (HF)nF? ion was found to decrease with increasing sample pressure, with increasing NF3 pressure, and with increasing electron energy. No significant effects on the spectra were observed to result from variation of the source repeller field or the source temperature. The addition of argon to the source as a potential moderator did not alter the F? chemical ionization spectrum significantly, but the use of oxygen appears to inhibit formation of the (HF)nF? cluster ion. The advantages of using F? as a chemical ionization reagent are discussed, and comparisons are made with other reagent ions. PMID:7428746

Tiernan, T. O.; Chang, C.; Cheng, C. C.

1980-01-01

328

Draft Genome Sequence of the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Antarctic Bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Strain TB23, Able To Inhibit Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens Belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia Complex  

PubMed Central

Arthrobacter sp. strain TB23 was isolated from the Antarctic sponge Lissodendoryx nobilis. This bacterium is able to produce antimicrobial compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that inhibit the growth of other Antarctic bacteria and of cystic fibrosis opportunistic pathogens, respectively. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. TB23. PMID:23105071

Fondi, Marco; Orlandini, Valerio; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Emiliani, Giovanni; de Pascale, Donatella; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina

2012-01-01

329

Live Your Life Well  

MedlinePLUS

... Living Well » Live Your Life Well Live Your Life Well The 10 Tools These proven tools can ... build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's ...

330

Helical insertion of peptidoglycan produces chiral ordering of the bacterial cell wall  

E-print Network

to twisting of the cell body of rod-shaped bacteria during elongation. In this work, we show that the cell the helical orientation of MreB in live cells. We then track the motion of beads attached to the top of the glycan strands. This organization produces a left-handed twisting of the cell body during elongational

Zhuang, Xiaowei

331

Perceptions of rewards among volunteer caregivers of people living with AIDS working in faith-based organizations in South Africa: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Volunteer caregivers are a critical source of support for the majority of people living with HIV and AIDS in southern Africa, which has extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates. While studies have shown that volunteer caregiving is associated with negative health and socio-economic outcomes, little is known about the positive experiences of volunteers in the home-based care context in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of rewards among volunteers working in home-based care settings. Methods This study uses a qualitative design. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 55 volunteer caregivers using an interview schedule containing open-ended questions. Results Volunteer caregivers derived intrinsic rewards related to self-growth and personal (emotional and psychological) development on the job; they also derived satisfaction from community members taking a liking for them and expressing a need for their services. Volunteers felt gratified by the improvements in their health behaviours, which were a direct consequence of the experiences of caring for terminally ill patients with AIDS. Extrinsic rewards came from appreciation and recognition shown by patients and community members. Extrinsic rewards also accrued to volunteers when the services they rendered made their patients happy. Perhaps the greatest sources of extrinsic rewards are skills and competencies acquired from training and experience while caring for their patients, and volunteers' ability to make a difference in the community. Conclusions Insights into volunteer caregiver rewards provide opportunities for policy makers and programme managers to develop a model of home-based care that facilitates the accrual of rewards to volunteers alongside volunteers' traditional duties of patient care. Programme managers could employ these insights in recruiting and assisting volunteers to identify and reflect on rewards in the caregiving situation as a means of reducing the burden of care and sustaining volunteer interest in caregiving. PMID:20546580

2010-01-01

332

Enrichment and adaptation of extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) hydrogen producing bacteria to organic household solid waste by repeated batch cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation of biohydrogen producing extreme-thermophilic bacteria to household solid waste (HSW) at extreme-thermophilic temperature (70°C) was investigated. Inocula received from an extreme-thermophilic glucose fermentation reactor were exposed to increasing HSW concentrations from 1g-VS\\/L to 10g-VS\\/L via repeated batch cultivation. It was found that repeated batch cultivation was a very useful method to adapt and enrich biohydrogen producing mixed cultures that

D. W. Liu; R. J. Zeng; I. Angelidaki

2008-01-01

333

Periodic Table Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Periodic Table Live!, produced by the Division of Chemical Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, allows users "to explore a broad range of information about the elements, their reactions, their properties, their structures and their histories." After selecting an element from the periodic table, users can access a myriad of information divided into three sections: Description, Physical, and Atomic. Students can view short videos of many of the elements' reactions with air, water, acids, and bases. The website is equipped with a helpful glossary and images of the elements, scientists, and other related items.

334

Detection of persistent organic compounds from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) and their degradation by manganese peroxidase and laccase producing bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) retains dark black colour with complex persistent organic pollutants even after anaerobic treatment. The specific ratio (4:3:1:1) of Proteus mirabilis (FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (FJ581031) decolourised BMDS up to 76% within 192 hr along with degradation of persistent organic compounds in presence of glucose (1%) and peptone (0.1%). The colour removal ability was noted due to ligninolytic enzyme activity. Where the maximum manganese peroxidase was 1.93 U ml(-1) and laccase activity equalled 0.84 U ml(-1). The gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the direct correlation between colourant and persistent organic pollutants due to simultaneous reduction of colour and pollutants present in BMDS. The seed germination test showed reduction of 75% toxicity after bacterial treatment process. PMID:24640253

Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

2013-07-01

335

Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assembling non-biological materials (geomaterials) into a proto-organism constitutes a bridge between nonliving and living matter. In this article we present a simple step-by-step route to assemble a proto-organism. Many pictures have been proposed to describe this transition within the origins-of-life and artificial life communities, and more recently alternative pictures have been emerging from advances in nanoscience and biotechnology. The proposed

Steen Rasmussen; Liaohai Chen; Martin Nilsson; Shigeaki Abe

2003-01-01

336

Bacteria Marinobacter aquaeolei. Community Living. Microbes living in coral provide  

E-print Network

Cleaning up. Bacteria are being tested for use as cleaning agents of toxic chemicals and pollutants in our plants, use chlorophyll and sunlight to live and grow through a process called photosynthesis. Other the majority of the sun's ultraviolet rays that may be harmful to life on Earth. Phytoplankton produce about

337

Assessing the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development in rural Costa Rican children living in organic and conventional coffee farms.  

PubMed

We examined the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development among rural Costa Rican children in a cross-sectional study. Study participants aged 4-10 years included 17 children whose parents worked in La Amistad organic coffee plantation and 18 Las Mellizas children whose parents worked in their own small conventional coffee farms. Two spot-urine samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticide metabolites. We administered the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS), a figure-drawing task, and a long-term memory test to evaluate study participant's cognitive development. Although urinary pesticide metabolite levels did not vary considerably between these two groups of children, we found that Las Mellizas children performed better in BARS and the figure drawing tests than did La Amistad. The results from the linear mixed-effects models suggested that family socioeconomic status (SES) might be a significant contributor to the variation of the outcomes of the neurobehavioral tests. The effect of pesticide exposure, however, as measured in a snapshot fashion, did not play a significant role to the performance of the cognitive development evaluation. Regardless of the study limitations, needed effort should be devoted to the improvement of the SES on the La Amistad families so that their children's cognitive development would not be compromised further. Additionally, future studies should focus on addressing the limitations imposed on the snapshot assessment of pesticide exposure and on conducting cognitive development evaluation so the link between childhood pesticide exposure and their cognitive development can be thoroughly investigated. PMID:20306773

Lu, Chensheng; Essig, Christa; Root, Christa; Rohlman, Diane S; McDonald, Tom; Sulzbacher, Stephen

2009-01-01

338

Biology: Study of the Living or the Dead?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching of biology can be more exciting in schools if students are given experience with living animals and plants. Many living organisms can be maintained without much expense and care. Prospective teachers should be taught about taking care of living organisms. (PS)

Mayer, William V.

1973-01-01

339

Measurement and Deduction of Emissions of Short-lived Atmospheric  

E-print Network

organics have centered on long lived halocarbons due to their effect on stratospheric ozone. Now, and speculation about the safety of many short-lived chlorinated organic molecules has been raised, there has beenMeasurement and Deduction of Emissions of Short-lived Atmospheric Organo-chlorine Compounds Gary

340

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment includes knowledge of the precise function and genetic location of the genes to be mutated, their genetic stability, potential reversion mechanisms, possible recombination events with dormant genes, gene transfer to other organisms as well as gene acquisition from other organisms by phage transduction, transposition or plasmid transfer and cis- or trans-complementation. For this, GMOs that are constructed with modern techniques of genetic engineering display a significant advantage over random mutagenesis derived live organisms. The selection of suitable GMO candidate strains can be made under in vitro conditions using basic knowledge on molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity of the corresponding bacterial species rather than by in vivo testing of large numbers of random mutants. This leads to a more targeted safety testing on volunteers and to a reduction in the use of animal experimentation. PMID:17239999

Frey, Joachim

2007-07-26

341

Direct plasma interaction with living tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

Fridman, Gregory

342

Short-chain organic acids produced on glucose, lactose, and citrate media by Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus casei, and Enterobacter aerogenes strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of Enterococcus faecalis, three of Lactobacillus casei and two of Enterobacter aerogenes, isolated from commercial Palmita-type cheese were cultured in peptone-yeast extract broth with glucose (PYG), lactose (PYL), or citrate (PYC) added as the main carbon sources. The short-chain volatile and non-volatile organic acids were extracted and their concentration determined by GC with a FID detector. The identity

D. Urdaneta; D. Raffe; A. Ferrer; B. Sulbarán de Ferrer; L. Cabrera; M. Pérez

1995-01-01

343

Potential of BAC combined with UVC/H2O2 for reducing organic matter from highly saline reverse osmosis concentrate produced from municipal wastewater reclamation.  

PubMed

The organic matter present in the concentrate streams generated from reverse osmosis (RO) based municipal wastewater reclamation processes poses environmental and health risks on its disposal to the receiving environment (e.g., estuaries, bays). The potential of a biological activated carbon (BAC) process combined with pre-oxidation using a UVC/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for treating a high salinity (TDS~10000 mg L(-1)) municipal wastewater RO concentrate (ROC) was evaluated at lab scale during 90 d of operation. The combined treatment reduced the UVA254 and colour of the ROC to below those for the influent of the RO process (i.e., biologically treated secondary effluent), and the reductions in DOC and COD were approximately 60% and 50%, respectively. UVC/H2O2 was demonstrated to be an effective means of converting the recalcitrant organic compounds in the ROC into biodegradable substances which were readily removed by the BAC process, leading to a synergistic effect of the combined treatment in degrading the organic matter. The tests using various BAC feed concentrations suggested that the biological treatment was robust and consistent for treating the high salinity ROC. Using Microtox analysis no toxicity was detected for the ROC after the combined treatment, and the trihalomethane formation potential was reduced from 3.5 to 2.8 mg L(-1). PMID:23820538

Lu, Jie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity A

2013-10-01

344

Homeostasis: From Living Creatures to Living Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Problem: While many robots in industry and research have proven capable of operating in com- plex environments, most robots still fall well short of living creatures in their ability to deal with extreme variations in their environment. Living creatures, by contrast, will typically cope in any environment to the extent that their physical bodies allow. Living creatures never give

Bryan Adams

2001-01-01

345

[Living donor kidney transplantation: new modalities and future directions].  

PubMed

Due to the scarce supply of deceased donor kidneys, living donor kidney transplantation is becoming an increasingly important resource of organs for patients with end-stage renal disease. Laparoscopic nephrectomy, now the most common form of surgical procedure, produces better cosmetic results, less pain, and shorter hospital stay compared to open surgery. Therefore it represents an incentive to improve rates of living kidney donation. Since surgery is scheduled in advance, living donor kidney transplantation offers an unique opportunity to overcome immunological barriers, such as ABO-incompatibility and HLA-incompatibility. Unfortunately, unlike ABO-incompatibility, HLA-incompatibility (i.e. kidney transplantation in a recipient with positive complement-dependent cytotoxic or flow-cytometric crossmatch against the donor) it still leaves many unresolved issues nowadays, concerning the long-term efficacy, safety, and costs of the current treatment protocols. Kidney paired donation represents the ideal solution to immunological barriers, since it avoids the costs and side effects associated with ABO- and HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation. Living donor kidney transplantation also represents the ideal condition for developing tolerance-induction protocols. Indeed, a dramatic progress in this line of research has recently been made with the publication of the results of an apparently safe and efficacious protocol inducing durable high-level hematopoietic chimerism in recipients of living donor kidney transplantation. PMID:25098467

Cremaschi, Elena; Maggiore, Umberto

2014-01-01

346

Time of flight mass spectra of ions in plasmas produced by hypervelocity impacts of organic and mineralogical microparticles on a cosmic dust analyser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionic plasma produced by a hypervelocity particle impact can be analysed to determine compositional information for the original particle by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Such methods have been adopted on interplanetary dust detectors to perform in-situ analyses of encountered grains, for example, the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA). In order to more fully understand the data returned by

B. J. Goldsworthy; M. J. Burchell; M. J. Cole; S. P. Armes; M. A. Khan; S. F. Lascelles; S. F. Green; J. A. M. McDonnell; R. Srama; S. W. Bigger

2003-01-01

347

Time of flight mass spectra of ions in plasmas produced by hypervelocity impacts of organic and mineralogicalmicroparticles on a cosmic dust analyser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionic plasma produced by a hypervelocity particle impact can be analysed to determine compositional informa- tion for the original particle by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Such methods have been adopted on interplanetary dust detectors to perform in-situ analyses of encountered grains, for example, the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA). In order to more fully understand the data returned

B. J. Goldsworthy; M. J. Burchell; M. J. Cole; S. P. Armes; M. A. Khan; S. F. Lascelles; S. F. Green; J. A. M. McDonnell; R. Srama; S. W. Bigger

2003-01-01

348

Improving the health and lives of people living in slums.  

PubMed

Urban poverty, ill health, and living in slums are intrinsically interwoven. Poverty is multidimensional and there is no agreement on a universal definition. UN-HABITAT has introduced an operational definition of slums that is restricted to legal aspects and excludes the more difficult social dimensions. The World Health Organization definition is more comprehensive and uses a health and social determinants approach that is strongly based on the social conditions in which people live and work. Health and improving the lives of people living in slums is at the top of international development agenda. Proactive strategies to contain new urban populations and slum upgrading are the two key approaches. Regarding the latter, participatory upgrading that most often involves the provision of basic infrastructure is currently the most acceptable intervention in developing countries. In urbanization of poverty, participatory slum upgrading is a necessary but not sufficient condition to reduce poverty and improve the lives of slum dwellers. Empowering interventions that target capacity development and skill transfer of both individuals and community groups--as well as meaningful negotiations with institutions, such as municipal governments, which can affect slum dwellers' lives--appear to be the most promising strategies to improve the slum dwellers' asset bases and health. Non-governmental organizations, training institutions, and international development partners are best placed to facilitate horizontal relationships between individuals, community groups, and vertical relationships with more powerful institutions that affect the slum dwellers' lives. The main challenge appears to be lack of commitment from the key stakeholders to upgrade interventions citywide. PMID:17954669

Sheuya, Shaaban A

2008-01-01

349

Assisted Living Community Profile  

MedlinePLUS

... of all residents live in small communities. 2 Fee Structures - The costs for assisted living residences vary ... inclusive rate model, and 17 percent use a fee-for-service model. 1 Services - Assisted living residences ...

350

Lymphostin (LK6-A), a novel immunosuppressant from Streptomyces sp. KY11783: taxonomy of the producing organism, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.  

PubMed

In the course of screening for inhibitors of the lymphocyte kinase, Lck (p56lck), aiming at novel immunosuppressants, we isolated a novel alkaloid, lymphostin (LK6-A), from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KY11783. Lymphostin was produced in a fermentation medium supplemented with a highly porous polymer resin, which prevented the degradation of this compound in the culture broth. Lymphostin inhibited the kinase activity of Lck with an IC50 value of 0.05 microM, and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with an IC50 value of 0.009 microM. PMID:9711243

Nagata, H; Ochiai, K; Aotani, Y; Ando, K; Yoshida, M; Takahashi, I; Tamaoki, T

1997-07-01

351

Comparison of four hemolysin-producing organisms (Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Listeria monocytogenes) for release of inflammatory mediators from various cells.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the role of various hemolysin-producing strains (Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Listeria monocytogenes) in induction of inflammatory mediators, e.g., histamine release from rat mast cells as well as the chemiluminescence response and the release of lipoxygenase transformation products from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Our data show that the hemolysin-positive bacteria as well as the hemolysin-positive culture supernatants were active in inducing the chemiluminescence response, leukotriene (LTB4 and LTC4) release from human granulocytes, and histamine release from rat mast cells. The degree of leukotriene release was dependent on the hemolysin type and on the expression of hemolysin activity. The E. coli alpha-hemolysin and the aerolysin-producing A. hydrophila were the most potent stimuli whether washed bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used. Bacteria expressing the S. marcescens hemolysin and the listeriolysin were only poor inducers of leukotriene generation. In contrast to leukotriene generation, all hemolysin-positive strains induced nearly the same histamine release in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest a potent role for various hemolysins as virulence factors in inducing the release of inflammatory mediators. PMID:2451679

Scheffer, J; Konig, W; Braun, V; Goebel, W

1988-01-01

352

GIS Live and Web Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. The challenges that problem-based learning affords can engage teachers and students in research, and the use of technology can serve

Rita Hagevik; Diana Hales; Julia Harrell

353

Solid organic residues produced by irradiation of hydrocarbon-containing H2O and H2O/NH3 ices - Infrared spectroscopy and astronomical implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma-discharge irradiations were conducted for the methane clathrate expected in outer solar system satellites and cometary nuclei; also irradiated were ices prepared from other combinations of H2O with CH4, C2H6, or C2H2. Upon evaporation of the yellowish-to-tan irradiated ices, it is found that a colored solid film adheres to the walls of the reaction vessel at room temperature. These organic films are found to exhibit IR band identifiable with alkane, aldehide, alcohol, and perhaps alkene, as well as substituted aromatic functional groups. These spectra are compared with previous studies of UV- or photon-irradiated nonclathrated hydrocarbon-containing ices.

Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Chyba, C. F.; Sagan, C.

1989-01-01

354

Producer Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article written for children, this reading explains the role of plants as producers. It is written at a grade 4-5 reading level, and it is a good supplement to the evidence that students can observe and record through experimentation with photosynthesis.

Program, The W.

355

Project Produce  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this science- and social studies-integrated lesson, students researched the produce found at their local grocery store. The class learned the difference between fruits and vegetables and learned the origins of various "exotic" food items. Students also interviewed local gardeners and prepared ethnic foods in the classroom.

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

356

Project Produce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

Wolfinger, Donna M.

2005-01-01

357

EXPERIMENTAL FOCALIZED MYOCARDIAL LESIONS PRODUCED WITH STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS  

PubMed Central

1. By the intravenous injection into rabbits of Streptococcus mitis, we have produced focalized myocardial lesions which are identical with those caused by the injection of Streptococcus rheumaticus, and with those produced by Bracht and Wächter with Streptococcus viridans. 2. The lesions differ from those which we produced by injections of streptococci from the Chicago epidemic of sore throat (epidemic streptococcus). 3. The lesions are not identical with Aschoff bodies and are easily differentiated from them. They also differ from the foci produced by Jackson and Coombs, who describe their lesions as being either Aschoff bodies or similar formations. 4. The myocardial lesions of the rabbit appear to be caused by toxins liberated by the streptococci injected and not by the living organisms themselves. 5. The only point of similarity between the experimental lesions and those found in cases of rheumatic carditis in man is their focalized nature. PMID:19867783

Thalhimer, William; Rothschild, M. A.

1914-01-01

358

The worm that lived  

PubMed Central

Organisms age because of the “selection shadow”—the decline of the force of natural selection with age. Seemingly straightforward corollary of this theory is the Medawar-Williams prediction, which maintains that increased extrinsic (non-aging) mortality will result in the evolution of accelerated aging and decreased longevity. Despite its centrality to modern thinking about the ultimate causes of aging, this prediction ignores the fact that mortality is often a non-random process depending on individual condition. Increased condition-dependent mortality inescapably results in increased selection for resistance against the agent of mortality. Provided that resistance to various stressors is commonly associated with increased longevity, the evolutionary outcome is no longer certain. We recently documented this experimentally by showing that populations of Caenorhabditis remanei evolved to live shorter under high extrinsic mortality, but only when mortality was applied haphazardly. On the contrary, when extrinsic mortality was caused by heat-shock, populations experiencing the same rate of increased mortality evolved greater longevities, notwithstanding increased “selection shadow.” Intriguingly, stress-resistant and long-lived worms were also more fecund. We discuss these results in the light of recent theoretical developments, such as condition-environment interactions and hyperfunction theory of aging. PMID:24778930

Chen, Hwei-yen; Maklakov, Alexei A

2013-01-01

359

NASA LIVE Creating a Global Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes NASA LIVE (Learning through Interactive Videoconferencing Experiences), a free series of videoconferencing programs produced by NASA's Langley Center for Distance Learning in Hampton, Virginia. NASA LIVE is designed for K-12 educators and students, allowing teachers and students to interact with NASA experts in a virtual…

Townes-Young, Katrina L.; Ewing, Virginia R.

2005-01-01

360

Informational biopolymer structure in early living forms.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some studies devoted to the search in various organisms for 'relics' of the biochemical nature of ancient organisms, preserved by the conservative nature of the evolutionary process in all living species, are reviewed. Investigations of five families of informational molecules constituting such 'relics' in very diverse organisms are reported. They include: cytochrome c, ferredoxin, trypsin, transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA), and 5S ribosomal RNA. It is shown that, even from these few informational molecules, some interesting inferences about early living organisms can be drawn.

Dayhoff, M. O.; Mclaughlin, P. J.; Barker, W. C.; Hunt, L. T.

1972-01-01

361

MOBILE TELEPHONY RADIATION EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of serious non thermal biological effects, ranging from changes in cellular function like proliferation rate changes or gene expression changes to cell death induction, decrease in the rate of melatonin production and changes in electroencephalogram patterns in humans, population declinations of birds and insects, and small but statistically significant increases of certain types of cancer, are attributed in

Dimitris J. Panagopoulos; Lukas H. Margaritis

2008-01-01

362

Methylglyoxal in food and living organisms.  

PubMed

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive alpha-oxoaldehyde formed endogenously in numerous enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. It modifies arginine and lysine residues in proteins forming advanced glycation end-products such as N(delta)-(5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-L-ornithine (MG-H1), 2-amino-5-(2-amino-5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-1-yl)pentanoic acid (MG-H2), 2-amino-5-(2-amino-4-hydro-4-methyl-5-imidazolon-1-yl)pentanoic acid (MG-H3), argpyrimidine, N(delta)-(4-carboxy-4,6-dimethyl-5,6-dihydroxy-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-yl)-L-ornithine (THP), N(epsilon)-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), MG-derived lysine dimer (MOLD), and 2-ammonio-6-({2-[4-ammonio-5-oxido-5-oxopently)amino]-4-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-5-ylidene}amino)hexanoate (MODIC), which have been identified in vivo and are associated with complications of diabetes and some neurodegenerative diseases. In foodstuffs and beverages, MG is formed during processing, cooking, and prolonged storage. Fasting and metabolic disorders and/or defects in MG detoxification processes cause accumulation of this reactive dicarbonyl in vivo. In addition, the intake of low doses of MG over a prolonged period of time can cause degenerative changes in different tissues, and can also exert anticancer activity. MG in biological samples can be quantified by HPLC or GC methods with preliminary derivatization into more stable chromophores and/or fluorophores, or derivatives suitable for determination by MS by use of diamino derivatives of benzene and naphthalene, 6-hydroxy-2,4,5-triaminopyrimidine, cysteamine, and o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine. The methods include three basic steps: deproteinization, incubation with derivatization agent, and chromatographic analysis with or without preliminary extraction of the formed products. PMID:17103372

Nemet, Ina; Varga-Defterdarovi?, Lidija; Turk, Zdenka

2006-12-01

363

DNA Patents Create Monopolies on Living Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused position statement from the Council for Responsible Genetics reflects on how patenting of life forms should be considered unethical because: it fosters biopiracy of indigenous resources, turns life forms into commodities to be used for profit, hinders the free-flow of scientific research, and destroys economic sustainability of developing nations.

Council for Responsible Genetics (;)

2000-04-01

364

3D Hierarchical Rutile TiO2 and Metal-free Organic Sensitizer Producing Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 8.6% Conversion Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of `next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously.

Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

2014-08-01

365

Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion equation which represents the mental dynamics. It has been demonstrated that coupled mental-motor dynamics can simulate emerging self-organization, prey-predator games, collaboration and competition, "collective brain," etc.

Zak, M.

1999-01-01

366

Semantic annotation for live and posterity logging of video documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadcasters usually envision two basic applications for video databases: Live Logging and Posterity Logging. The former aims at providing effective annotation of video in quasi-real time and supports extraction of meaningful clips from the live stream; it is usually performed by assistant producers working at the same location of the event. The latter provides annotation for later reuse of video material and is the prerequisite for retrieval by content from video digital libraries; it is performed by trained librarians. Both require that annotation is performed, at a great extent, automatically. Video information structure must encompass both low-intermediate level video organization and event relationships that define specific highlights and situations. Analysis of the visual data of the video stream permits to extract hints, identify events and detect highlights. All of this must be supported by a-priori knowledge of the video domain and effective reasoning engines capable to capture the inherent semantics of the visual events.

Bertini, Marco; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Nunziati, W.

2003-06-01

367

Secondary Organic Material Produced via Condensational and Coagulational Growth from ?-pinene Ozonolysis in a Flow Tube Reactor and Its Spectroscopic Analysis by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flow tube reactor was developed and used to simulate secondary organic aerosol formation from ?-pinene ozonolysis under different reactant conditions. Aerosol particles generated from the reactor were collected on Teflon filters and were analyzed via a non-linear coherent vibrational spectroscopy, namely Sum Frequency Generation (SFG). The flow tube reactor has a movable injector and the longest residence time is 38 s. A temperature control box was also made to precisely control the temperature down to 0.1 °C for the flow tube reactor. The reactants were injected into the flow tube reactor in different concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 10 ppm for ?-pinene and from 0.15 to 194 ppm for ozone. The number concentrations of the particles were measured by Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and it increased from 0 to (1.3×0.02)×107 cm-3. The size distributions of the secondary organic aerosol particles were studied using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The mass concentration increased from 0 to (4.0×0.1)×105 ug m-3. Changes in the particle number concentrations and size distributions under different reaction conditions suggested that the growth mechanisms of the particles may vary at different precursor concentrations. As an example, for an ?-pinene concentration of 0.125 ppm reacted with excess ozone, the measured particle mode diameter was 35 nm and both coagulation and condensational growth were significant. When the ?-pinene concentration was increased to 10 ppm, the particle mode size increased to 245 nm and coagulation between particles became the dominant growth mechanism. These results show that the dominant particle growth mechanism can shift between condensation and coagulation, which may be useful for studying the particle growth processes and their role, if any, in determining particle properties. Particle number-diameter distributions at different residence times were also measured through the movable injector to calculate the particle growth rate. SFG analyses show that the signal increases linearly with the number of particles at low mass loadings, consistent with what is expected from SFG signal production from particles that are randomly distributed. At higher filter mass loadings of 10 and 20 ?g, the SFG intensity started to decrease, consistent with the notion that SFG probes the top surface of the SOA material following the complete coverage of the filter. The limit of detection of SFG intensity could be as low as 24 ng of mass on filter, corresponding to a calculated density of 100 to 200 particles in the laser spot. The high sensitivity and non-destructive nature of the SFG method indicates that it could be used for fast, quantitative sampling approaches, which can be coupled together with the flow tube reactor to study the SOA formation including nucleation and condensational growth processes under conditions that are difficult to sample with other non-destructive methods that require higher mass loadings.

Zhang, Y.; Shrestha, M.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Martin, S. T.

2013-12-01

368

NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body; Genome sequencing creates first reference data for microbes living with healthy adults  

Cancer.gov

Microbes inhabit just about every part of the human body, living on the skin, in the gut, and up the nose. Sometimes they cause sickness, but most of the time, microorganisms live in harmony with their human hosts, providing vital functions essential for human survival. For the first time, a consortium of researchers organized by the National Institutes of Health has mapped the normal microbial make-up of healthy humans, producing numerous insights and even a few surprises.

369

Helping Students Live Longer and Healthier Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which was written for adult educators in Georgia, offers instructional plans and practical strategies for helping students in adult literacy, adult basic education (ABE), General Educational Development, and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs live longer and healthier lives. The document begins with a discussion of why…

Valentine, Tom, Ed.; Sandlin, Jenny, Ed.

1997-01-01

370

Anesthetic management of living transplantation.  

PubMed

Living donor transplantation has helped to partially relieve the refractory shortage of deceased donor grafts. However, living related donation exposes healthy donors to a certain risk of morbidity and even mortality. Anesthetic management of elective live donation surgery with a relatively young and healthy patient is apparently simple; nonetheless, it requires both knowledge and diligence from the anesthesiologist. Some concerns persist regarding the appropriate intraoperative organ protection strategy and potential negative effects of certain surgical maneuvers on graft function. Even when careful attention is paid to maintaining intraoperative cardiorespiratory and metabolic homeostasis, preventing blood loss, preserving renal function, and assuring adequate postoperative analgesia, among other things, these procedures are not completely devoid of some major risks related to anesthesia and surgery. Maximal effort should be applied to minimize the perioperative risks for the donor, every minimal impending complication should be promptly recognized, and a timely treatment implemented. Some anesthetic considerations regarding the most frequently performed living organ transplantations are briefly reported in this article. PMID:20613693

Feltracco, P; Ori, C

2010-07-01

371

Measurement of Organic Acids Produced By The Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Simple Olefins Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) as a Function of Temperature And Humidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) form an important trace component of the atmosphere and are of particular environmental interest because of their deleterious effects on air quality, their numerous (and potentially counteractive) effects on Earth’s climate system and their sophisticated semiochemical roles in the world’s ecosystems. NMHCs are also important precursors to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g. Pandis et al., 1991; Kavouras et al., 1999). The ozonolysis reactions of olefins result in complex menageries of products, of which the acids are ubiquitous. Although the gas phase acid concentrations are small, they are thought to be key species in SOA formation as a result of their low volatility (e.g., Ma et al., 2009). Despite this, the factors that control acid formation are not well understood, especially with regards to humidity and temperature. Acid yields will be measured using the newly commissioned EXTreme RAnge (EXTRA) chamber (Leather et al., 2009). EXTRA is a 125 L stainless steel chamber, which can be temperature controlled using a commercial chest freezer unit (for T ? -20 °C) or a purpose built oven for T > 25 °C. The EXTRA chamber can be operated at pressures from 10-3800 Torr and at temperatures from 180-473 K. The stainless steel chamber walls have been coated with PFA to minimize wall loss of radicals. Fans, located at both ends of the cylinder, promote rapid mixing of reactants. Six sample ports are located at either end of the chamber for connection to ADS-GC-ECD, CIMS and commercial sensors such as a Thermo Electron Corporation 49i Ozone Analyzer, an Edinburgh Instruments Gascard CO2 sensor and a Trace Analytical inc. RGA3 CO analyzer. Experiments will be performed as a function of atmospherically relevant temperatures (T= 180-300 K). The field CIMS has sub ppt(v) L.O.D.s with a sub 1 Hz time response so will enable products to be quantified at very low concentrations in real time. Acid products will be detected using both the acetate ion (Verez et al., 2008) and silicon pentafluoride ion (Huey et al., 1998) reaction schemes, both of which have been used previously in atmospheric measurements, with little interference from water vapour. References Kavouras, I.G., Mihalopoulos N., Stephanou, E.G., 1999, Environ. Sci. Technol. 33: 1028-1037. Huey, L. G., E. J. Dunlea, E. R. Lovejoy, D. R. Hanson, R.B. Norton, F.C. Fehsenfeld and C. J. Howard, 1998, J. Geophys. Res, 103(D3), 3355-3360. Leather, K.E., Mcgillen, M.R. and Percival, C.J., 2009, Submitted to PCCP. Ma, Y., Porter, R.A., Chappell, D., Russell, A.T., Marston, G., 2009,. PCCP, 21, 4184-4197. Pandis, S. N., Paulson, S.E., Seinfeld, J.H., Flagan, R.C. 1991, Atmos. Environ. A, 1991, 25, 997-1008. Veres, P., Roberts, J.M., Warneke, C., Welsh-Bon, D., Zahniser, M., Herndon, S., Fall,R., de Gouw, J., 2008, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 274, 48-55.

Percival, C. J.; Bacak, A.; Leather, K. E.; McGillen, M. R.

2009-12-01

372

Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

Schubert, Wayne W.

1988-01-01

373

Corporate reputation management: “living the brand”  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is recognised that an organization’s corporate reputation is affected by the actions of every business unit, department and employee that comes into contact with another stakeholder. However, the means by which employees can be directed or encouraged to “live the brand” is an area which has received relatively limited coverage. This article explores the management actions that are required

Manto Gotsi; Alan Wilson

2001-01-01

374

Living with Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Block First-degree heart block may ... whether you need ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree ...

375

Living with Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart ... suddenly faint, collapse, or have other severe symptoms. Living With Broken Heart Syndrome Most people who have ...

376

FUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY  

E-print Network

logistics operations and secondary services in the area of insurance, customs and carbon footprint trackingFUTURE LOGISTICS LIVING LABORATORY Delivering Innovation The Future Logistics Living Lab that will provide logistics solutions for the future. The Living Lab is a demonstration, exhibition and work space

Heiser, Gernot

377

Living related liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver transplantation from a brain death donor has not yet been accepted in Japan. The only alternative method at present is transplantation from a living donor. After the first successful living related liver transplantation was performed by Strong in Brisbane, Australia, Japanese hepatic and transplant surgeons also began to perform such operations. As of February 1991, 16 living related liver

Masatoshi Makuuchi; Hideo Kawarazaki; Tadashi Iwanaka; Naoshi Kamada; Tadatoshi Takayama; Masamitsu Kumon

1992-01-01

378

Living Willow Huts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living

Keeler, Rusty

2007-01-01

379

Metrics for a Sustainable Produced By  

E-print Network

Metrics for a Sustainable EcoVillage #12;2 Produced By: Nam Nguyen Master of Urban and Regional Project Manager Project for Pride in Living (PPL) Jeffrey Skrenes Housing Director Hawthorne Neighborhood Council Photo source: Unless otherwise noted, photos are provided by People for Pride in Living

Levinson, David M.

380

A Framework Linking NonLiving and Living Systems: Classification of Persistence, Survival and Evolution Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a framework for analyzing the development, operation and failure to survive of all things, living, non-living or\\u000a organized groupings. This framework is a sequence of developments that improve survival capability. Framework processes range\\u000a from origination of any entity\\/system, to the development of increased survival capability and development of life-forms and\\u000a organizations that use intelligence. This work deals with

L. Dennis; R. W. Gray; J. Brender McNair; N. J. Woolf

2009-01-01

381

LIVESTOCK FUTURES MARKETS AND RATIONAL PRICE FORMATION: EVIDENCE FOR LIVE CATTLE AND LIVE HOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of livestock futures markets continues to receive attention, particularly with regard to their forward pricing or forecasting ability. The purpose of this paper is to present a more general theory that encompasses the forward pricing concept. It is argued that futures contract prices for competitively produced nonstorable commodities, such as live cattle and live hogs, follow a rational

Stephen R. Koontz; Michael A. Hudson; Matthew W. Hughes

1992-01-01

382

Assignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data  

E-print Network

snow cover. Is the value 12 million square kilometers? (g) What does you findings in part (f) tell you? 3. Recall the data on the global consumption of oil. Download these data into R using the command > oil.txt") (a) To examine worldwide oil consumption

Watkins, Joseph C.

383

Institutional Producers of Physics Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to identify producers of physics research and to determine their relative productivity, institutional affiliations of authors as given in nine physics journals were studied. Organizations were classified and analyzed by type and geographical location, and productivity established. Findings indicate that organizations differ in their rate…

Cooper, Marianne; Watterson, Hermine M.

384

Shared lives, shared energy  

SciTech Connect

A social experiment in Denmark is described in which 25 families combine private ownership (each family owns its own home) and collectivism (each family owns 1/25 of the grounds, large common house and other facilities). The superinsulated individual homes are small (< 1000 ft/sup 2/) but the common house (7800 ft/sup 2/) provides dining and meeting facilities for all 25 families as well as a central heating plant. Heat may be supplied from solar, wind and/or oil-fired boiler. Adequate hot water storage is provided using solar collectors and a 55 kW Vesta wind generator (surplus power is sold). All south facing roof surfaces are fitted with solar collectors (4455 ft/sup 2/ total). A total of 70% of the energy used is produced on site (solar and wind). The manner of living and sharing (child care, automobiles, cooking, etc.) is described as well as typical floor plans for the units. Other collective housing in Denmark is described and it is postulated that overdrevet may serve as a model. (MJJ)

Madsen, P.; Goss, K.

1982-07-01

385

Treatment of hypersaline produced water employing a moderately halophilic bacterial consortium in a membrane bioreactor: effect of salt concentration on organic removal performance, mixed liquor characteristics and membrane fouling.  

PubMed

In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a moderately halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water containing 100-250 g L(-1) NaCl were considered. The COD and oil and grease (O&G) removal efficiencies in the range 81.6-94.6% and 84.8-94.0% respectively and MBR effluent turbidity lower than 2NTU were achieved. There was no pronounced membrane fouling at any salt concentration. O&G accumulation (less than 11% of the influent O&G) occurred in the mixed liquor at all salt concentrations, but biodegradation was identified as the major organic removal mechanism. With increasing salt concentration, initially increase in SVI and later formation of oil/biomass bodies took place but due to the presence of the membrane biomass washout did not occur. The mixed liquor was pseudoplastic and the apparent viscosity and flow behavior index generally increased with salt concentration. PMID:24859212

Abdollahzadeh Sharghi, Elham; Bonakdarpour, Babak; Pakzadeh, Mehrzad

2014-07-01

386

Astronomy Cast Live: Live Blogging Today's Science to the World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's digital, on-demand society, consumers of information both want to know exactly what is happening as it is happening, and to be able to subscribe to content of their choosing. Meeting the needs of these tech savvy individuals are bloggers, podcasters and vodcasters. Using text, audio, and video to reach their respective audiences, these communicators are the new face of public outreach and journalism, but even their communications means are starting to become passé in the face of live blogging. The idea behind live blogging is simple: Take any person - even an undergraduate - with an Internet connected device, put them someplace interesting, and have them report on what they are seeing and experiencing online in real-time. This new tool is bringing astronomy enthusiasts around the world the thrill of live astronomy announcements, attending talks in real, and being "in the room" with astronomers via an Internet connection. These audiences can be anyone, from any nation, with any age. Beyond the public communications benefits of this program, it is also a program that allows the participation of early undergraduate students in science conferences. To date, two undergraduate students and five E/PO professionals have live blogged text, audio, and video content from three science conferences and a shuttle launch. Together, they have produced over 200 hundred stories that have reached tens of thousands of people around the world. In this poster we describe how we have made astronomy live blogging a reality from both the technical and personal standpoint. This project is funded through NSF grant # 0744944.

Bemrose-Fetter, Rebecca; Gay, P. L.; Astronomy Cast LIVE Team

2008-05-01

387

Family planning saves lives.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) saves lives through planned management of pregnancy. Healthy mothers produce healthy infants. Maternal mortality in developing countries was estimated in 1990 at 500,000 and infant and child mortality at 14 million. Empirical evidence shows that spacing births 2 years apart reduces the risk of infant mortality. FP also gives women the option of avoiding unwanted pregnancy, dangerous illegal abortions, and unhealthy childbearing conditions. The issues of infant and child survival maternal survival, the interaction between maternal and child health (MCH), program costs, and suggested actions are each discussed separately. Child deaths are mainly attributed to respiratory and diarrheal diseases, which are complicated by malnutrition: 23,000 child deaths/day in developing countries. Prevention is possible through breast feeding, immunization, adequate nutrition and hygiene, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing. Birth spacing is possible through prolonged breast feeding and/or use of oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the IUD, condoms, and sterilization. The primary causes of maternal mortality are induced abortion (19%), toxemia (17%), hemorrhage (28%), infection (11%), obstructed labor (11%), and other 15%). The risks are related to a woman's health status and prior pregnancies and the quality and availability of prenatal and delivery care. The relationship between repeated childbearing and breast feeding and women's nutritional status is still being researched. Mortality in developing countries is due to more pregnancies and less access to medical care; advances in technology permit women to plan healthy reproductive lives. The Safe Motherhood Initiative is at work to remedy this situation. Childbearing is safer when women are aged 18-35 years, have fewer than 5 births, space births every 3 years, and do not have existing health problems. FP is cost-effective. The World Bank estimates that an increase in funding to US$10.50/capita would reduce maternal mortality by 50% and reduce infant mortality. Effective programs are characterized by 1) integrated MCH and FP programs, 2) expanded, quality services, 3) community-based distribution, 4) availability from all sectors, public and private, 5) IEC, 6) cultural sensitivity, 7) promotion of full breast feeding, and 8) AIDS education, information, and testing. PMID:12317826

1992-12-01

388

Living with Cough  

MedlinePLUS

... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Pneumonia Asthma COPD Bronchitis Bronchiectasis Related Media Videos Quizzes Send a ...

389

Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits  

PubMed Central

International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10–500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits. PMID:17190819

Keller, Reuben P.; Lodge, David M.; Finnoff, David C.

2007-01-01

390

Encapsulation of cells within silica matrixes: Towards a new advance in the conception of living hybrid materials.  

PubMed

Living cells can be considered as a highly efficient molecular engines spatially enclosed, remaining however fragile. By combining cells with silica materials in an appropriate way, novel living hybrid material technologies can be designed. After showing the real interplay between silica species and living organisms in nature, this featuring article summarizes the considerable progress in cell encapsulation into silica matrixes. Generally speaking, bioencapsulation allows protecting cells from harsh environment and controlling their surrounding as well as their concentration. This combination produces ultimately a device that can be oriented to drive the desired biochemical reactions. Particularly, this article highlights that functional living matters are very promising in the development of new eco-friendly processes. Compared to conventional chemical process, these hybrid systems would be enabled to use greater and in more efficient way renewable resources (i.e. solar energy) to produce a vast array of chemicals. Additionally, encapsulated cell technology has opened the possibility to design various other kinds of bioactive materials such as cleaning systems, biosensors and artificial organs. Through different examples, including the immobilization of microorganisms, photosynthetic organelles, plant cells and animal cells, the interests and the preparation methods of these living hybrid materials are discussed. PMID:19944428

Meunier, Christophe F; Dandoy, Philippe; Su, Bao-Lian

2010-02-15

391

Bioethics of organ transplantation.  

PubMed

As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate. PMID:24478386

Caplan, Arthur

2014-03-01

392

History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.  

PubMed

The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

2012-03-01

393

Empathetic living media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new form of interactive living media used to communicate social or ecological information in the form of an empathetic ambient media. In the fast paced modern world people are generally too busy to monitor various significant social or human aspects of their lives, such as time spent with their family, their overall health, state of the ecology,

Adrian David Cheok; Roger Thomas Kok; Chuen Tan; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Tim Merritt; Janyn Yen Ping Sen

2008-01-01

394

Is It Living?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

Keeley, Page

2011-01-01

395

Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas  

MedlinePLUS

... related information and convenient access to the data resources. UNOS is not affiliated with any one product nor does UNOS assume ... organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA ...

396

Characteristics of Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome to an internet program that is all about life. Just what is life? This seems like a strange question. We all know what is meant by the word \\"life\\". But how do we define it? Are all living things alike? In this internet program, you will watch several short movies and some slides. After you see each movie and slide, you will write something about the movie and slide. Our learning goal is to make a list of the traits that all living things have in common. Get out a pencil and a piece of paper. We are off on a great adventure to learn about living things! This first movie is called, \\"Is It Alive?\\" It will help you begin thinking about living things and what they all have in common. Write on your paper: \\"Living Things\\". As you watch this movie, write the names of the things that you think are alive. Copy the ...

Melenson, Richard S.

2005-11-21

397

Ebola Virus Outbreak among Wild Chimpanzees Living in a Rain Forest of Co^te Pierre Formenty, Christophe Boesch, Monique Wyers, World Health Organization (WHO), TaiF Forest Project, and Centre  

E-print Network

S120 Ebola Virus Outbreak among Wild Chimpanzees Living in a Rain Forest of Co^te d'Ivoire Pierre, Paris, France An outbreak of Ebola in nature is described for the first time. During a few weeks. Laboratory procedures included histology, immunohistochemistry, bacteriology, and serology. Ebola

398

Living things and non-living things interact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Living things and non-living things interact on a daily basis. The man is a human, a living thing. The corn crop and grass are also living things. The soil that the grass and corn crops are rooted in is a non-living thing.

Ken Hammond (USDA-ARS;)

2006-05-23

399

Environmental assessment requirements for live biological drugs.  

PubMed

Marketing approval of biological products by the US Food and Drug Administration must comply with requirements of Code of Federal Regulations title 21 part 25, "Environmental Impact Considerations." An environmental impact statement is usually not required. Environmental assessment is required unless excluded. As naturally occurring substances, biological products qualify for categorical exclusion if manufacture and use do not significantly alter their concentration or distribution in the human environment. The manufacturing process and establishment descriptions in the license application should include enough detail to ensure that waste is controlled and inactivated. During clinical development of a live biotherapeutic product, data should be collected regarding the shedding of live organisms from treated patients. The ability of the live organism to persist in the environment should be assessed, and instructions for safe handling by health care providers and consumers should be incorporated into the package insert. PMID:18181713

Sutton, Ann

2008-02-01

400

Improving Health Care for Assisted Living Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore how medical care is delivered to older people in assisted living (AL) settings and to suggest ways for improving it. Design and Methods: We present a review of the limited research available on health care for older AL residents and on building testable models of better ways to organize primary health

Robert L. Kane; John R. Mach

401

Living with Cardiomyopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Cardiomyopathy Explore Cardiomyopathy What Is ... Types Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Heart Failure Arrhythmia Heart Valve Disease Sudden Cardiac Arrest Heart Murmur Related Media ...

402

Pathways to Assisted Living  

PubMed Central

This article examines how race and class influence decisions to move to assisted living facilities. Qualitative methods were used to study moving decisions of residents in 10 assisted living facilities varying in size and location, as well as race and socioeconomic status of residents. Data were derived from in-depth interviews with 60 residents, 43 family members and friends, and 12 administrators. Grounded theory analysis identified three types of residents based on their decision-making control: proactive, compliant, and passive/resistant. Only proactive residents (less than a quarter of residents) had primary control. Findings show that control of decision making for elders who are moving to assisted living is influenced by class, though not directly by race. The impact of class primarily related to assisted-living placement options and strategies available to forestall moves. Factors influencing the decision-making process were similar for Black and White elders of comparable socioeconomic status. PMID:19756172

Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.; Hollingsworth, Carole; Whittington, Frank J.; King, Sharon V.

2009-01-01

403

Living with Fanconi Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... FA can be costly). Rate This Content: Fanconi Anemia Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

404

Living with Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

405

Living with Kawasaki Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Tumblr. Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Kawasaki Disease Most children who have Kawasaki disease recover—usually within weeks of getting symptoms. Further problems are rare. Early treatment reduces the risk of ...

406

Living Now: For Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... Match®. Each issue of Living Now addresses various aspects of life after transplant. This collection of observations, ... emotional support • Prepare your child for the social aspects of returning to school • Keep other family members, ...

407

Assisted Living Resident Profile  

MedlinePLUS

... NCAL NCAL Membership State Affiliates of NCAL NCAL Governance Faces of Assisted Living News & Media News Releases ... NCAL NCAL Membership State Affiliates of NCAL NCAL Governance NCAL Committees NCAL Staff News & Media News Releases ...

408

Administration for Community Living  

MedlinePLUS

... Self-Management Empowers Healthy Aging (09/22/2014) News and Information (view full listing) Technical Assistance on the Independent Living Programs and Informational Update regarding the Transition ...

409

Living with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Caring for a premature infant can be challenging. ... Care and Health Issues Infants who have bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) may have health problems even after they ...

410

Next Generation Living  

E-print Network

of mechanical systems, and our perceived outlook of sustainability can collaborate and aid each other toward sustainable architecture. This collaboration will take form through the proposal or a living and learning community for the students and faculty of Texas...

Vaughn, Caroline Elizabeth

2013-02-06

411

The Living Cosmos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. The unfinished revolution; 2. Life's origins; 3. Extreme life; 4. Shaping evolution; 5. Living in the Solar System; 6. Distant worlds; 7. Are we alone?; Notes; Glossary; Reading list; Media resources; Illustration credits; Index.

Impey, Chris

2011-06-01

412

Living with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... family, including dad Bob, have adapted to her hearing impairment. Photo courtesy of Stefan Radtke, www.stefanradtke. ...

413

Healthy Living after Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce your risk of having another stroke. Find ... was last reviewed on 04/30/2014. My Life Check® To find out where you stand with ...

414

Living in the moment.  

PubMed

In a society that is probably the most fast-paced and frenetic society on earth, the practice of medicine is arguably among the most hectic professions. For many physicians, patient loads are increasing and hours are growing longer. Less time is being spent with patients because more time must be spent hassling with business matters and dealing with third-party payors. Our work lives are scheduled and then overscheduled, leaving less time and energy for personal lives. PMID:16296206

Krishna, R Murali

2005-10-01

415

Far-red organic fluorophores contain a fluorescent impurity  

PubMed Central

Far-red organic fluorophores commonly used in traditional and super-resolution localization microscopy are found to contain a fluorescent impurity with green excitation and near-red emission. This near-red fluorescent impurity can interfere with some multi-color STORM/PALM measurements in live cells and produce subtle artifacts in chemically fixed cells. We additionally describe alternatives to avoid artifacts in super-resolution localization microscopy. PMID:24782148

Stone, Matthew B.

2014-01-01

416

East Carolina University Student Organization  

E-print Network

for Student Organizations Entering into Contractual Relationships 22 Posting Guidelines 23 Campus Living Email Address for your Organization 30 Organization Conduct Procedures 30 Hazing Policy 31 Equal registered, student organizations may reserve campus facilities, apply for SGA funding, receive a mailbox

417

Magnetic Manipulation of Nanorods in the Nucleus of Living Cells  

PubMed Central

The organization of chromatin in the cell nucleus is crucial for gene expression regulation. However, physically probing the nuclear interior is challenging because high forces have to be applied using minimally invasive techniques. Here, magnetic nanorods embedded in the nucleus of living cells are subjected to controlled rotational forces, producing micron-sized displacements in the nuclear interior. The resulting time-dependent rotation of the nanorods is analyzed in terms of viscoelastic parameters of the nucleus, in wild-type and Lamin A/C deficient cells. This method and analysis reveal that Lamin A/C knockout, together perhaps with other changes that result from the knockout, induce significant decreases in the nuclear viscosity and elasticity. PMID:22004741

Celedon, Alfredo; Hale, Christopher M.; Wirtz, Denis

2011-01-01

418

Living Liver Donor Mortality: Where Do We Stand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To explore the use of medical journals, lay media, registries, and transplant center websites to discuss living liver donor mortality.METHODS:To study the incidence of and circumstances relating to living liver donor death, medical journals and lay print media were searched to create a case summary of worldwide living liver donor deaths. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and European

Katrina A. Bramstedt

2006-01-01

419

Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose by the rumen anaerobic  

E-print Network

Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose France, 92300 Levallois-Perret, France Some live micro-organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (SC) were investigated, in vitro, on degradation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Live Hope Love: Living & Loving with HIV in Jamaica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting is the support organization behind this moving website on the HIV crisis in Jamaica. Dedicated to independent international journalism on under-reported topics, the Pulitzer Center also aims to reach a broad and diverse audience, and it does so successfully with this website. Visitors will enjoy the introductory video, as it features an appealing montage that explains the artistic focus of the site. In the "Poem Gallery" and "Featured Poems" there are poems written by those living with HIV, along with photographs inspired by the poems which visitors can find in the "Image Gallery". In the "Vital Voices" link, visitors will hear brief audio clips of people with HIV, caretakers, medical personnel, and other supporters. Visitors shouldn't miss the clip of Carla Legister, who issues a short but strong message to parents, and the clip of Lascelles Graham, who sings a few of his thoughts.

421

The Living Labs: Innovation in Real-Life Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The living lab (LL) is an open innovation ecosystem serving to provide opportunities for local stakeholders to practice research and to experiment with meaningful improvements for cities and other organizations. Living labs aim at involving the user as a cocreator. In this article the relationship between the LLs and a variety of stakeholders is…

Hawk, Nathan; Bartle, Gamin; Romine, Martha

2012-01-01

422

Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity

Joachim Frey

2007-01-01

423

Dynamic Multiphoton Imaging: A Live View from Cells to Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The application of multiphoton microscopy to the biological sciences has led to a new generation of imaging-based studies extending from the tracking of individual molecules within living cells to the observation of whole organisms

PhD Grace E. Stutzmann (University of California-Irvine); PhD Ian Parker (University of California-Irvine Department of Neurobiology and Behavior)

2005-02-01

424

Biofeedback & Bowel Disorders: Teaching Yourself to Live without the Problem  

MedlinePLUS

... We Are Contact Us Donate Biofeedback & Bowel Disorders: Teaching Yourself to Live Without the Problem What is ... This Article Help You? IFFGD is a nonprofit education and research organization. Our mission is to inform, ...

425

Living in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

426

Psychoanalysis and creative living.  

PubMed

Psychoanalysis is ambivalent about creativity and its own creative potential. On the one hand, psychoanalysis offers enormous resources for elucidating obstacles to creativity, that way of living, making and relating to self and others that is fresh, vital, unpredictable and open to feedback and evolution. On the other hand, when we analysts know too much beforehand about what a work of art really means or the fundamental and singular motives of creativity, then psychoanalysis unconsciously partakes of a perverse scenario in which the work of art serves as merely a means to the author's ends and is psychologically colonized. When psychoanalysis is The Discipline That Knows, then art has nothing new to teach psychoanalysts and our field is impoverished. "Psychoanalysis and Creative Living" attempts to elucidate how psychoanalysis could work through this tension between its creative and perverse possibilities and foster creative living. PMID:12866697

Rubin, Jeffrey B

2003-01-01

427

Consuming lives, consuming landscapes: interpreting advertisements for cafédirect coffees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses newspaper advertising for the fairtrade coffee company Cafédirect, focusing particularly on the ways UK consumers are urged to transform unequal social relations with coffee producers through consumption. The paper argues that whilst producers' lives are rendered 'knowable' to potential consumers, the reverse is not true. In addition, consumer gain is privileged over producer gain, with the commodity

Caroline Wright

2004-01-01

428

FROM MATHEMATICS FOR LIVING TO LIVING FOR MATHEMATICS  

E-print Network

FROM MATHEMATICS FOR LIVING TO LIVING FOR MATHEMATICS George Malaty, University of Joensuu, Finland "Life is good for only two things, discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics". Siméon Poisson (1781-1840) Mathematics for living and living for mathematics are related to the goals of mathematics

Spagnolo, Filippo

429

Calit2: Live Webcasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) conducts research on the scientific and technological components needed to "extend the reach of the Internet throughout the physical world." (See also report on Mathematics, Engineering and Technology, March 15, 2002) This section of the Institute website features live webcasts and video footage of guest speakers who visited the Institute. Topics range from robot design to Internet plagues, and from Telematics to the Internet marketplace. Upcoming live webcasts for May 2005 will address Non-Magnetic Data Storage Principles, Potential and Problems; Quantum Codes: Constructions and Parameters; and Biotechnology Entrepreneurship.

430

Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

None

1993-08-01

431

Effects on growth and cost of production of Arizona ash, Indian hawthorn, Southern waxmyrtle, and live oak sequentially produced in combinations of Cu-treated and non-treated 0.24 L., 2.7 L and 10.4 L or 12.7 L containers  

E-print Network

velutina Torr. (Arizona ash), Quercus virginians Mill. (live oak), and Rapheolepis indica Lindl. (lndian hawthorn) and two-hundred forty seedlings of Myrica cerebra L. (waxmyrtle) were grown in College Station, Texas in 0.24 L containers half...

Obst, Steven Paul

2012-06-07

432

Living the Dream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes one elementary school's "Living the Dream" award program named in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Students read and reviewed books and presented the award to the author of a recent picture book that focused on multicultural awareness. A list of suggested titles is included. (SM)

Rogers, Cynthia; Lemay, Carol

1991-01-01

433

You Live, You Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

Biesta, Gert

2008-01-01

434

Science Oxford Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first things visitors will see when visiting the Science Oxford Live website are a few shots from the Wildlife Photographer of the Year exhibit that will soon be at the brick and mortar location of Science Oxford Live. It's hard to decide which is cuter: the hippo, the monkey, or the giraffe's tail. Visitors will certainly want to check out the video podcasts available through iTunes, and even may even subscribe to the podcasts to receive the latest episodes. These webcasts, found under the Watch Us tab, are recordings of live events that took place at Science Oxford Live. They cover topics such as Parkinson's disease, the sleep versus wake balance, the science and history of chocolate, the curse of consciousness, and how "doctors and other health professionals sometimes do more harm than good to patients, despite acting with the best of intentions." The Discovery Zone is a place for kids which is best experienced in person, but online it still has valuable lessons to teach, and it's worth a look.

2012-02-10

435

Living with Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

Living with Parkinson’s “Parkinson’s is a part of my life, but it is not life itself.” --David, 56, three years after diagnosis While your journey with Parkinson’s is different from anyone else's, from age of ...

436

Live Science: Robots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Live Science looks at developments in robotics. The site includes interactive features, images, multimedia and news items. Teachers interested in beginning a unit on robotics will find many useful resources on the site to use as a starting point.

2010-06-07

437

Sustaining living rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rivers cannot continue to meet society's needs, or the needs of living things, if humans continue to regard river management as a purely political or engineering challenge. The flow of rivers is part of a greater flow, the planet's water cycle, which sustains not only the flow of water but the entire web of life. Ultimately, the condition, or health,

James R. Karr; Ellen W. Chu

2000-01-01

438

Lives Together, Worlds Apart?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lives of multicultural Muslim couples is the focus of this paper. It is based on interviews with couples in which the husband is a Muslim of Middle Eastern descent with a wife of European-American or Asian-American descent. These women converted to Islam before or after marriage, or have remained Christian. The opportunities, strengths and challenges in such relationships are

Manijeh Daneshpour

2003-01-01

439

Families living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the historical emergence of the AIDS epidemic first among gay men in the developed world, HIV interventions have primarily focused on individuals rather than families. Typically not part of traditional family structures, HIV-positive gay men in Europe and the US lived primarily in societies providing essential infrastructure for survival needs that highly value individual justice and freedom. Interventions were

M. J. Rotheram-Borus; D. Flannery; E. Rice; P. Lester

2005-01-01

440

Living with Cystic Fibrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... disease should still have protected sex to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. Emotional Issues Living with CF may cause fear, ... Closer to Widely Available Cure for Sickle Cell Disease Read all Director's ... NHLBI updates Health Topics articles on a biennial cycle based on a thorough review of research findings and ...

441

Living Through A Drought  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will practice map-reading skills by using a drought map of Afghanistan from the 'Afghanistan: Land in Crisis' site. Students will learn how to recognize drought, where drought can occur, and how drought affects the people who live in those places.

442

Moab's Living Room  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a sizable group…

Berry, John N., III

2007-01-01

443

Living Systems Energy Module  

SciTech Connect

The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

NONE

1995-09-26