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Sample records for living quail coturnix

  1. Cellulitis in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Burns, Karen E; Otalora, Raul; Glisson, John R; Hofacre, Charles L

    2003-01-01

    A case of cellulitis was observed in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reared for commercial meat production. This condition in Japanese quail has not been reported in the literature. This incident was the first, and to date only, occurrence of cellulitis in this processing plant. The cellulitis lesions were localized to the subcutis overlying the breast and inner thigh. Carcasses of processed birds and live birds from the affected farm were presented to the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia. Escherichia coli was cultured from the lesion. The affected live birds displayed lameness and had osteomyelitis. Pasteurella multocida serotype 3,4 was cultured from the liver and bone marrow of affected birds. Approximately 4.61% of the processed carcasses from the flock were condemned because of cellulitis. This represented a 10fold increase from the typical condemnation rate. Further investigation revealed birds were placed in higher than normal density; therefore, we theorize that the concurrent pasteurellosis and increased placement density resulted in the cellulitis condition. PMID:12713180

  2. Ancient DNA Resolves Identity and Phylogeny of New Zealand's Extinct and Living Quail (Coturnix sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Seabrook-Davison, Mark; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M.; Brunton, Dianne H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The New Zealand quail, Coturnix novaezealandiae, was widespread throughout New Zealand until its rapid extinction in the 1870's. To date, confusion continues to exist concerning the identity of C. novaezealandiae and its phylogenetic relationship to Coturnix species in neighbouring Australia, two of which, C. ypsilophora and C. pectoralis, were introduced into New Zealand as game birds. The Australian brown quail, C. ypsilophora, was the only species thought to establish with current populations distributed mainly in the northern part of the North Island of New Zealand. Owing to the similarities between C. ypsilophora, C. pectoralis, and C. novaezealandiae, uncertainty has arisen over whether the New Zealand quail is indeed extinct, with suggestions that remnant populations of C. novaezealandiae may have survived on offshore islands. Methodology/Principal Findings Using fresh and historical samples of Coturnix sp. from New Zealand and Australia, DNA analysis of selected mitochondrial regions was carried out to determine phylogenetic relationships and species status. Results show that Coturnix sp. specimens from the New Zealand mainland and offshore island Tiritiri Matangi are not the New Zealand quail but are genetically identical to C. ypsilophora from Australia and can be classified as the same species. Furthermore, cytochrome b and COI barcoding analysis of the New Zealand quail and Australia's C. pectoralis, often confused in museum collections, show that they are indeed separate species that diverged approximately 5 million years ago (mya). Gross morphological analysis of these birds suggests a parallel loss of sustained flight with very little change in other phenotypic characters such as plumage or skeletal structure. Conclusion/Significance Ancient DNA has proved invaluable for the detailed analysis and identification of extinct and morphologically cryptic taxa such as that of quail and can provide insights into the timing of evolutionary changes

  3. Production of live offspring from testicular tissue cryopreserved by vitrification procedures in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-05-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue can be used for ex situ conservation of male germplasm of avian species. The possibility of using vitrification and transplantation of testicular tissue for fertility preservation and recovery was tested in Japanese quail. Testes were removed from 1-wk-old Japanese quail; transfixed on acupuncture needles; equilibrated with dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose; plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored in 2-ml straws. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed in sucrose solution at room temperature or at 40°C. Fresh and cryopreserved tissue were transplanted subcutaneously into castrated, 1-wk-old recipients. Twenty of 21 recipients survived the surgery, and 18 had viable transplants at maturity, with no difference in transplantation success between fresh and cryopreserved tissue. Fluid extrusion from 11 of the transplants was collected and inseminated surgically into the magnum of 22 quail hens, and 10 inseminations included foam from the proctodeal gland of the same recipients. Egg production in the 2 wk after insemination was reduced, and none of the hens inseminated with foam produced fertile eggs. Five hens inseminated without foam produced a total of eight live offspring; four of these hens had been inseminated with fluid extrusion from cryopreserved tissue. Histological examination showed spermatogenesis in the transplants, and the tubules, lumens, and epithelium of the seminiferous tubules were of comparable size to those of testicular tissue from intact males. These results demonstrate that testicular tissue of Japanese quail can be preserved using vitrification procedures and recovered through transplantation. PMID:23575148

  4. Are Farm-Reared Quails for Game Restocking Really Common Quails (Coturnix coturnix)?: A Genetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Donoso, Ines; Vilà, Carles; Puigcerver, Manel; Butkauskas, Dalius; Caballero de la Calle, José Ramón; Morales-Rodríguez, Pablo Antonio; Rodríguez-Teijeiro, José Domingo

    2012-01-01

    The common quail (Coturnix coturnix) is a popular game species for which restocking with farm-reared individuals is a common practice. In some areas, the number of released quails greatly surpasses the number of wild breeding common quail. However, common quail are difficult to raise in captivity and this casts suspicion about a possible hybrid origin of the farmed individuals from crosses with domestic Japanese quail (C. japonica). In this study we used a panel of autosomal microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic origin of quails reared for hunting purposes in game farms in Spain and of quails from an experimental game farm which was founded with hybrids that have been systematically backcrossed with wild common quails. The genotypes of these quail were compared to those of wild common quail and domestic strains of Japanese quail. Our results show that more than 85% of the game farm birds were not common quail but had domestic Japanese quail ancestry. In the experimental farm a larger proportion of individuals could not be clearly separated from pure common quails. We conclude that the majority of quail sold for restocking purposes were not common quail. Genetic monitoring of individuals raised for restocking is indispensable as the massive release of farm-reared hybrids could represent a severe threat for the long term survival of the native species. PMID:22701745

  5. Hepatic biotransformation in the buzzard (Buteo buteo) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix): effect of PCBs.

    PubMed

    Rivière, J L; Grolleau, G; Bach, J

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic biotransformation was studied in microsomal (cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities) and cytosolic (glutathione S-transferase activities) fractions from Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and buzzard (Buteo buteo). Monooxygenase activities were not very different apart from a high 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase activity in quail as compared to buzzard. Glutathione S-transferase activities were higher in quail than in buzzard. DP5 (a commercial mixture of PCBs containing 50% chlorine) produced a marked increase in monooxygenase activity from quail liver. In contrast, no induction was found in buzzard under the same conditions. Glutathione S-transferase activities were not modified in both species. PMID:2866918

  6. Effects of 2 G hypergravity exposure on Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Everett, Erin M.; Shaughnessey, Rebecca; Foushee, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared reproductive fitness and early postnatal growth of Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese (Coturnix coturnix japonica) quail incubated and hatched during 2 G centrifugation. Fertilized Bobwhite and Japanese quail eggs were placed in portable incubators on the 8-ft International Space Station Test Bed (ISSTB) Centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The quail eggs were incubated throughout hatching and reared until Postnatal day (P)4 at either 1.0, 1.2 or 2.0 G. Two days before hatching, candling revealed significantly greater numbers of viable Bobwhite than Japanese quail eggs at all g-loads. Bobwhite quail exhibited significantly better hatching success at all g-loads than did Japanese quail. Bobwhite hatchlings were sensitive to gravitational loading as evidenced by reduced postnatal body mass and length of 2 G hatchlings relative to 1 G control hatchlings. In contrast, mass and length of Japanese quail hatchlings were unaffected by 1.2 or 2 G exposure. Together, our findings provide evidence for superior viability and hatching success in Bobwhite quail relative to Japanese quail, coupled with greater sensitivity of postnatal body growth and development to 2 G loading. Bobwhite quail may be better suited than Japanese quail for scientific studies on space biology platforms.

  7. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9–10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  8. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  9. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty. PMID:26949140

  10. Concentration of cadmium in Coturnix quail fed earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Stoewsand, G.S.; Bache, C.A.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbriscus terrestris), collected from soils in southern Ontario, Canada, that had no previous history of cadmium application, contained 3 ppm cadmium. They were fed to Coturnix quail as 60% dry weight of their diet for 63 d to examine the extent of deposition of native cadmium. Cadmium in kidney, liver, and excreta was greatly elevated above that of birds fed a control diet without worms. No increase in the level of cadmium in eggs was found. The factors affecting the association of cadmium in soils and worms and their assimilation and possible toxic effects in foraging birds are discussed.

  11. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections. PMID:26758298

  12. DDE increased the toxicity of parathion to coturnix quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) were exposed to DDE or chlordane in the diet and subsequently dosed with parathion or paraoxon. Pretreatment with 5 or 50 ppm DDE in the diet for 12 weeks resulted in increased cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma, but not in the brain. Dietary concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm DDE caused increased susceptibility of quail that were challenged with parathion or paraoxon. The increased mortality resulting from DDE pretreatment was reflected in brain ChE inhibition. The synergistic action of DDE was apparent after 3 days of exposure to 50 ppm DDE and 1 week of exposure to 5 ppm DDE. Birds exposed for 3 weeks to 5 or 50 ppm DDE retained their DDE-potentiated sensitivity to parathion after 2 weeks on clean diet. Chlordane pretreatment resulted in decreased susceptibility (antagonism) to parathion, but not to paraoxon dosage. Implications of differing responses in ChE and mortality among controls, DDE-, and chlordane-pretreated birds after parathion or paraoxon dosage are discussed.

  13. Pathobiology and transmission of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) may share with Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) its potential as an intermediate host and reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). To elucidate this question, European quail were experimentally challenged with two highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) (H7N1/HP and H5N1/HP) and one low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) (H7N2/LP). Contact animals were also used to assess the viral transmission among birds. Severe neurological signs and mortality rates of 67% (H7N1/HP) and 92% (H5N1/HP) were observed. Although histopathological findings were present in both HPAIV-infected groups, H5N1/HP-quail displayed a broader viral antigen distribution and extent of microscopic lesions. Neither clinical nor pathological involvement was observed in LPAIV-infected quail. Consistent long-term viral shedding and effective transmission to naive quail was demonstrated for the three studied AIV. Drinking water arose as a possible transmission route and feathers as a potential origin of HPAIV dissemination. The present study demonstrates that European quail may play a major role in AI epidemiology, highlighting the need to further understand its putative role as an intermediate host for avian/mammalian reassortant viruses. PMID:23537387

  14. Identification of a putatively novel trichomonad species in the intestine of a common quail (Coturnix coturnix)

    PubMed Central

    Mostegl, Meike M.; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Maderner, Anton; Dinhopl, Nora; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    A common quail (Coturnix coturnix) from a private keeping died unexpectedly and showed a moderate lymphocytic infiltration of the colonic mucosa associated with numerous protozoa-like objects at the pathological examination. These organisms were further identified using chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) and gene sequencing. ISH was performed on paraffin embedded tissue sections and produced a positive signal using a probe specific for the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the order Trichomonadida, but remained negative with probes specific for the 18S rRNA gene of the common bird parasites Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum or Trichomonas gallinae. The trichomonads were found on the mucosal surface, inside the crypts and also immigrating into the lamina propria mucosae. DNA was extracted from the paraffin embedded tissue and the entire 18S rRNA gene, ITS-1 region, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2 region and a part of the 28S rRNA gene were sequenced using primer walking. The acquired sequence showed 95% homology with Tritrichomonas foetus, a trichomonad never described in birds. A phylogenetic analysis of a part of the 18S rRNA gene or of the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 region clearly placed this nucleotide sequence within the family of Tritrichomonadidae. Therefore, the authors propose the detection of a putative new Tritrichomonas sp. in the intestine of a common quail. PMID:21839582

  15. Impact of vinclozolin on reproductive behavior and endocrinology in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGary, S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been demonstrated in mammalian models, but less research is available for avian species. The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, on sexual differentiation and maturation were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). On day 4 of incubation, embryos were exposed to no treatment, oil, or 25, 50, or 100 ppm of VIN. Endpoints measured included adult male reproductive behavior, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) content in hatchlings and adults, plasma steroid levels in hatchlings and adults, proctodeal gland growth during maturation, and relative testicular weight at seven weeks of age. Results showed that exposure to VIN significantly (p < 0.05) altered GnRH-I in male hatchlings, whereas GnRH-I levels in females remained unaffected. Although steroid levels were unaltered by any VIN treatment, the display of male reproductive behavior seemed delayed, with the number of mounts and the number of cloacal contacts being significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the VIN-treated males. This could have an extreme negative impact on wild avian species that are routinely exposed to similar EDCs.

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

    2013-03-01

    A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail. PMID:23772453

  17. Scierai ectasia associated with hereditary retinal dysplasia in a mutant strain of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Nunoya, T; Tajima, M; Mizutani, M

    1997-01-01

    Ocular defects and age-related lesions in mutant (GUB strain) Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), phenotypically characterised by silver plumage, are described. Grossly, a circular area of hypopigmentation in the posterior retina with thinning of the subjacent sciera was observed in all GUB quails. As the birds matured, the thinned sciera progressed to scierai ectasia. Histologically, the sciera at the ectatic area consisted of an outer fibrous layer and was devoid of the inner cartilaginous shell. Atypical differentiation and duplication of the retina with absence of the choroid was common at the ectatic area. The retina, choroid, ciliary body and iris were all poorly pigmented. With increasing age, the ectatic area became cystic, and the duplicated retina degenerated and atrophied. In addition, there were mononuclear cell infiltration in the stroma of the iris and ciliary body, anterior and posterior synechiae, cataract and/or glaucoma in aged GUB quails. These findings suggest that posterior scierai ectasia in the GUB strain of Japanese quails may have developed secondarily to a congenital structural defect of the posterior portion of sciera associating with general ocular defects. PMID:18483890

  18. Deposition of cadmium in tissues of Coturnix quail fed honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Stoewsand, G.S.; Morse, R.A.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-05-01

    Insects have been reported to concentrate cadmium probably through food or water intake or by contact with contaminated surfaces. It is conceivable that avian species consuming such insects could concentrate cadmium in their tissues. In the work reported here, domesticated honey bees were found to contain appreciable levels of cadmium. The bees were collected in quantity and fed to Coturnix quail to study the extent to which an avian species may accumulate cadmium in liver and kidney as well as in their eggs.

  19. The effect of embryonic development on the thickness of the eggshells of the coturnix quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    The average thickness of the shells from 75 unincubated coturnix quail eggs was found to be 0.193 mm. This was 7.3 percent greater than the average thickness (0.179 mm.) of the shells from 60 fully incubated eggs from the same hens. The two sets of eggs were collected simultaneously. This thickness difference was statistically significant (t-test:p< 0.005).

  20. Nicotine Induces a Conditioned Place Preference in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, B. Levi; Cornett, Heather L.; Barnes, Amanda F.; Gill, Karin E.; Akins, Chana K.

    2012-01-01

    Visual stimuli may play an important role in the development and maintenance of addiction in humans. Research with a visually oriented animal model such as Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) may provide insight into how visual cues contribute to the addiction process. The aim of the current study was to investigate the rewarding properties of nicotine in male Japanese quail using a biased conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Adult male quail (N = 30) were allowed to freely explore the entire CPP apparatus during a place preference pre-test and time spent in each chamber was measured. During nicotine conditioning sessions, quail were administered nicotine (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg) or saline and were then confined to their initially least preferred chamber. On alternating days, all quail received saline and were confined to their initially preferred chamber. Locomotor activity was assessed in both chambers. The conditioning chambers had yellow or green walls to enhance the visual salience of each context. Following 8 conditioning sessions (4 nicotine; 4 saline), quail were allowed to explore the entire apparatus during a CPP post-test and time spent in each chamber was measured. The results indicated that quail treated with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg nicotine significantly increased the amount of time they spent in the nicotine-paired chamber compared to saline controls, suggesting that nicotine produced a CPP. Furthermore, quail treated with 0.5 mg/kg nicotine showed a significant increase in locomotor activity with repeated treatments. The current findings suggest that nicotine may have a rewarding effect in quail and may tentatively suggest that the neuropharmacological mechanisms that mediate CPP for nicotine are conserved in birds. PMID:22939765

  1. Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in seminal plasma of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Pandey, N K; Shit, N; Agrawal, R; Singh, K B; Mohan, Jag; Saxena, V K; Moudgal, R P

    2011-02-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme present in quail seminal plasma has been characterized. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently with LDH specific staining of seminal plasma revealed a single isozyme in quail semen. Studies on substrate inhibition, pH for optimum activity and inhibitor (urea) indicated the isozyme present in the quail semen has catalytic properties like LDH-1 viz. H-type. Furthermore, unlike other mammalian species, electrophoretic and kinetic investigations did not support the existence of semen specific LDH-X isozyme in quail semen. The effect of exogenous lactate and pyruvate on sperm metabolic activity was also studied. The addition of 1 mM lactate or pyruvate to quail semen increased sperm metabolic activity. Our results suggested that both pyruvate and lactate could be used by quail spermatozoa to maintain their basic functions. Since the H-type isozyme is important for conversion of lactate to pyruvate under anaerobic conditions it was postulated that exogenous lactate being converted into pyruvate via LDH present in semen may be used by sperm mitochondria to generate ATP. During conversion of lactate to pyruvate NADH is being generated that may be useful for maintaining sperm mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21074838

  2. Effect of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa sp.) Inclusion to the Diet on Performance, Carcass and Antioxidative Activity in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Cimen, Behzat; Yalcin, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of hempseed (H) on performance, carcass traits, and antioxidant activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 192 quail with seven-days old were divided into four experimental groups with four replicates. The treatments were; i) Control diet (C, no hempseed); ii) 5% hempseed in diet (H5); iii) 10% hempseed in diet (H10); and iv) 20% hempseed in diet (H20). The body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) of quail was determined at 7, 21 and 42 d of age. At 42 d of age four quail were slaughtered and the carcass and internal organ traits were determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO) and total protein were determined in the blood serum end of the experiment. The BW of the groups were not significant at 7 and 21 d, however in the 20% hempseed group BW decreased at 42 d (p<0.05). The FI and feed conversion ratio were not significant among the treatment groups. The carcass, liver, intestine and heart weight and their percentage to carcass were significantly differ in treatment groups (p<0.05). The serum MDA and NO decreased in hempseed addition (p <0.001). The serum SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were increased by hempseed supplementation (p<0.001). In conclusion, hempseed supplementation to quail diets may not improve quail performance traits but increase antioxidant activity in blood. PMID:26760931

  3. Plasma and Tissue Disposition of Moxifloxacin in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica ).

    PubMed

    Goudah, Ayman; Hasabelnaby, Sherifa

    2016-06-01

    Plasma disposition and depletion of moxifloxacin were investigated in Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) after single intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of 5 mg/kg and after intramuscular and oral administration of 5 mg/kg q24h for 5 consecutive days, respectively. Drug concentrations in plasma and tissues were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. After intravenous injection, plasma drug concentration-time curves were best described by a 2-compartment open model. The decline in plasma drug concentration was biexponential with half-lives of 0.3 hours and 2.18 hours for distribution and elimination phases, respectively. Steady-state volume of distribution and total body clearance after intravenous administration were estimated to be 1.12 L/kg and 0.41 L/h per kilogram, respectively. After intramuscular and oral administration of moxifloxacin at the same dose, the peak plasma concentrations were 2.14 and 1.94 μg/mL and were obtained at 1.4 and 1.87 hours, respectively, and the elimination half-lives were 2.56 and 1.97 hours, respectively. The systemic bioavailabilities were 92.48% and 87.94%, respectively. Tissue levels after intramuscular and oral administration were highest in liver and kidneys, respectively, and decreased in the following order: plasma, lungs, and muscle. Moxifloxacin concentrations after intramuscular and oral administration were below the detection limit of the assay in tissues and plasma after 120 hours. PMID:27315376

  4. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Pourlis, Aris F.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies. PMID:24198967

  5. Photoinduced changes in subcellular structures of the retinal pigment epithelium from the Japanese quail Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Zak, P P; Serezhnikova, N B; Pogodina, L S; Trofimova, N N; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A

    2015-06-01

    Fifteen-week-old sexually mature female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) grown under various lighting conditions were used in the study. It was found that the number of mitochondria and phagosomes was increased by 1.5-fold in the retinal pigment epithelium from birds reared for 95 days under blue light (440-470 nm) vs. reduced blue light component conditions. Also, it was found that egg production was increased by 15% in birds reared under blue light compared to other lightning conditions. Thus, we concluded that blue light conditions resulted in elevating metabolic activity and accelerating pace of life in Japanese quails. It is assumed that the blue light-induced effects are probably due to inhibition of melatonin synthesis. PMID:26531024

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  7. The effects of transportation stress on Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) fed corn-based diet in comparison with wheat-based diet supplemented with xylanase and phytase.

    PubMed

    Mehraei Hamzekolaei, M H; Zamani Moghaddam, A K; Tohidifar, S S; Dehghani Samani, A; Heydari, A

    2016-08-01

    Harvesting, handling and transporting quails to the slaughterhouses, other farms and laboratories might covertly reduce their welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two major sources of energy in poultry nutrition on reducing transportation stress in Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica). Male quails (n = 60) were divided into two groups. The first group was fed corn-based diet, and the second was fed wheat-based diet supplemented with xylanase and phytase. At the end of the experiment (day 35), quails were subjected to 80 km of transportation. Immediately on arrival and after 24 h, heterophil counts, lymphocyte counts and H:L ratios were measured. On arrival, H counts were lower, L counts were higher, and H:L ratios were lower for corn-fed group. After 24 h, wheat-fed group showed lower increment of H counts, greater increment of L counts and also decrement of H:L ratios rather than corn-fed group which showed increment of H:L ratios. However, these ratios were still lower in corn-fed group. Results indicate that corn-based diets can help Japanese quail to better resist transportation stress, although it seems that feeding wheat-based diets supplemented with xylanase and phytase could have positive effects for coping better with stress after journeys. PMID:26459218

  8. Hypocholesterolemic effect of karaya saponin in Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2011-12-01

    The effect of karaya saponin supplementation on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in egg yolk were investigated in Japanese quails. A total of 80 Japanese quails aged 5 weeks were equally divided into four groups of 20. Four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg feed) of karaya saponin were included in the basal diet and experiment was lasted for 6 weeks. The cholesterol fractions in the egg yolk and serum were measured by enzymatic assay, and the fatty acid composition in egg yolk was determined by gas chromatography. The results revealed that the supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin significantly reduced (p < 0.05) cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum and egg yolk. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was increased, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and the atherogenic index were decreased (p < 0.05) by the dietary supplementations. Hepatic cholesterol was reduced (p < 0.05) by the 25 mg/kg karaya saponin. A higher degree of yolk colour was improved (p < 0.05) when 75 mg/kg saponin was supplemented in the diet. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in egg yolk was increased (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in quails fed the supplemented diet than the control diet. The ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acids in egg yolk was improved (p < 0.05) by 75 mg/kg feed karaya saponin-supplemented diet. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin may be a feasible means of producing quail eggs with lower cholesterol and higher PUFA content for health conscious consumers. PMID:21114549

  9. Adjustments of global and local hindlimb properties during terrestrial locomotion of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix).

    PubMed

    Andrada, Emanuel; Nyakatura, John A; Bergmann, Florian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-15

    Previous research has resulted in increasing insight into neuro-mechanical control strategies during perturbed locomotion. In contrast, more general analyses on simple model (template)-related parameters during avian terrestrial locomotion are still rare. Quail kinematic data obtained using X-ray videography combined with ground reaction force measurements were used as a basis to investigate how 'global' template and 'local' leg joint parameters in this small, predominantly terrestrial bird change with speed and gait. Globally, quail locomotion approximates a spring-like behavior in all investigated gaits. However, ground reaction forces are more vertically oriented, which may help to balance the trunk. At the joint level, practically all the spring-like work was found to occur in the intertarsal joint (ITJ). From walking to grounded running, the local stiffness of the ITJ decreases similarly to the reduction observed in global leg stiffness. Thus, in gaits without aerial phases the quails may modulate ITJ stiffness to regulate global leg stiffness, and therefore gait changes, to a significant degree. At higher speeds both global leg compression and stiffness are increased (the latter to values not significantly different to those obtained during walking). This enables the animals to shorten contact time and to generate aerial phases (running). However, we did not observe a change in the stiffness in the ITJ with a change of gait from grounded running to running. We hypothesize that a more extended leg at touch-down, controlled by the joint angles in the knee and ITJ, has an important influence in the leg stiffness adjustment process during running. PMID:23868846

  10. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate for reduction of aflatoxin in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sehu, A; Ergün, L; Cakir, S; Ergün, E; Cantekin, Z; Sahin, T; Essiz, D; Sareyyüpoğlu, B; Gürel, Y; Yiğit, Y

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance and various processing parameters of quails and to determine the preventive efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). One hundred and eighty 1-d-old quails of both sexes were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups with 5 replicates and 45 birds following weighing. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments: 1) control with 0 mg AF/kg of diet and 0% HSCAS; 2) 0.5% HSCAS; 3) 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet; 4) 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet plus 0.5% HSCAS. The chicks were housed in electrically heated battery cages and exposed to light for 24 h from hatching to 3 weeks of age. Quails consumed the diets and water ad libitum. Body weight (BW) was significantly (p < 0.001) increased by addition of HSCAS to AF diet. The lowest BW gains in groups received AF alone was observed at all periods. The reduction in BW gain caused by 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet was significantly (p < 0.001) diminished by the addition of 0.5% HSCAS to the diet. The addition of HSCAS to the AF diet significantly (p < 0.001) protected against decrease of feed intake at all periods with exception of the first period. None of the treatments altered significantly the feed conversion ratio (FCR). The relative weights of the liver, kidney and spleen were increased in the chickens consuming the AF alone diet. However, light microscopic examination demonstrated the addition of HSCAS to quail feed to partially decrease fat deposition caused by the toxin, and besides, electron microscopic examination of indicated a reorganization in the endoplasmic reticulum and increase in the number of ribosomes and polisomes. Furthermore, the decrease in the antibody titre induced by Newcastle vaccine, due to aflatoxins, was relatively prevented. No significant differences were observed for serum total protein, total cholesterol and glucose levels. The results of indicate that HSCAS is effective in

  11. Development of embryos from in vitro ovulated and fertilized oocytes of the quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Olszańska, Bozenna; Stepińska, Urszula; Perry, Margaret M

    2002-05-01

    The development of quail embryos obtained after in vitro fertilization of oocytes ovulated in vitro was investigated. About 40% of the specimens, after 18-20 hr of incubation, had undergone cleavage to reach stages IV-VI when viewed under a stereo microscope. However, only 36% of these embryos contained normal, DAPI-stained nuclei when observed under a fluorescent microscope; the other 64% showing a morphologically normal cleavage pattern did not contain nuclei. Control unfertilized oocytes, ovulated in vitro and cultured for the same time, also sometimes attained the morphologically correct stages IV-VI but their "blastomeres" were always devoid of nuclei. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor early avian embryos for the presence of nuclei when assessing development in culture. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that cytoplasmic segmentation can occur in the absence of nuclear divisions in the germinal disc of the quail and show the existence and significance of ooplasmic maternal information in birds. This phenomenon is also known for sea urchin and frogs. It is indicative of the role of maternal information in early development. The in vitro method presented here links the steps of ovulation and fertilization with the early cleavage stages under in vitro conditions and may be useful in studying mechanisms of fertilization and differentiation in birds as well as in obtaining transgenic birds by DNA injection or application of foreign, DNA-carrying sperm. PMID:12115941

  12. Neurotrophins and specific receptors in the oviduct tracts of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Maruccio, L; Castaldo, L; D'Angelo, L; Gatta, C; Lucini, C; Cotea, C; Solcan, C; Nechita, E L

    2016-09-01

    Neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF and NT-3) and their specific receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) were studied in the oviduct of egg laying quails. Neurotrophins (NTs) are mainly involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal populations in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also in reproductive system. In this survey, we first studied the morphological organization of the quail oviduct, distinguished in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina, and then we analyzed the expression and localization of NTs and Trks receptors in the whole tracts. By western blotting we detected that the investigated NTs and Trks receptors are expressed in all oviductal tracts. By immunohistochemistry we were able to define the distribution of NTs and Trks. Specifically, NGF, BDNF and NT3 were localized in lining and ductal epithelial cells, and NGF was also detected in secretory cells of tubular glands and in nervous fibers of vessel wall. TrkA and TrkB were present in the lining and ductal epithelium; TrkA and TrkC were present in nervous fibers of vessel wall in all oviductal tracts. Furthermore, we also observed NGF and BDNF co-localized with TrkA and TrkB in cells of the lining and ductal epithelium, suggesting an autocrine mechanism of action. PMID:27167968

  13. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Shukla, R.

    1997-01-01

    Short-latency vestibular-evoked potentials to pulsed linear acceleration were characterized in the quail. Responses occurred within 8 ms following the onset of stimuli and were composed of a series of positive and negative peaks. The latencies and amplitudes of the first four peaks were quantitatively characterized. Mean latencies at 1.0 g ms-1 ranged from 1265 +/- 208 microseconds (P1, N = 18) to 4802 +/- 441 microseconds (N4, N = 13). Amplitudes ranged from 3.72 +/- 1.51 microV (P1/N1, N = 18) to 1.49 +/- 0.77 microV (P3/N3, N = 16). Latency-intensity (LI) slopes ranged from -38.7 +/- 7.3 microseconds dB-1 (P1, N = 18) to -71.6 +/- 21.9 microseconds dB-1 (N3, N = 15) and amplitude-intensity (AI) slopes ranged from 0.20 +/- 0.08 microV dB-1 (P1/N1, N = 18) to 0.07 +/- 0.04 microV dB-1 (P3/N3, N = 11). The mean response threshold across all animals was -21.83 +/- 3.34 dB re: 1.0 g ms-1 (N = 18). Responses remained after cochlear extirpation showing that they could not depend critically on cochlear activity. Responses were eliminated by destruction of the vestibular end organs, thus showing that responses depended critically and specifically on the vestibular system. The results demonstrate that the responses are vestibular and the findings provide a scientific basis for using vestibular responses to evaluate vestibular function through ontogeny and senescence in the quail.

  14. Comparative metabolism and fate of fenvalerate in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and rats (Rattus norwegicus)

    SciTech Connect

    Mumtaz, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution, elimination and metabolism of fenvalerate, ..cap alpha..-cyano-3-phenoxy-benzyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl) isovalerate, was studied in Japanese quail. Adult birds were administered 100 mg/kg chlorophenyl labeled (/sup 14/C)-fenvalerate and the excreta collection at designated time intervals. At the termination of the study, 72 hours post-dosing, tissues were removed for residue analysis. It was found that 90% of the administered dose was eliminated in the excreta within the first 24 hours. Chloroform extracts of the excreta samples were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) and radioautography. Radioassay following combustion analysis of tissues showed the presence of extremely low residue levels in brain, heart, lung, kidney and liver. Fat and skin appear to accumulate residues but still the levels were very low. Time-course studies of fenvalerate reveal that the radiocarbon peaks at 3 hours (9 ..mu..g/g) in the liver and gradually declines while in the blood it peaks within 2 hours and falls quickly to an equilibrium value of 1.5 ..mu..g/ml blood. The rapid excretion, lesser absorption and faster metabolism of fenvalerate probably explain the lower toxicity of this pesticide to birds compared to rats.

  15. Drinking induced by cellular dehydration in the quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Takei, Y; Okawara, Y; Kobayashi, H

    1988-01-01

    1. Drinking was induced in water-replete quail 5-10 min after intravenous injection of hypertonic NaCl (0.69 osmol/l) or sucrose (1.06 osmol/l), but hypertonic urea (2.78 osmol/l) failed to induce drinking. 2. The birds drank approximately the amount required to dilute the injected solutes to isotonicity for each given dose of NaCl or sucrose. 3. The plasma angiotensin II level decreased after injection of 7% NaCl (2.5 osmol/l), but it increased after injection of an equi-osmolar solution of sucrose (65%). 4. Plasma osmolality and Na+ concentration returned quickly to control levels, and then decreased further, after injection of 7% NaCl or 65% sucrose. 5. Blood volume and blood pressure increased immediately after injection of 7% NaCl or 65% sucrose. 6. These results show that drinking is induced after injection of hypertonic solutions exclusively by cellular dehydration, and other regulatory mechanisms for thirst, such as extracellular dehydration and the renin-angiotensin system, are rather inhibitory after injection of hypertonic NaCl. PMID:2900120

  16. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Oh, Jae-Don; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Tae Sub; Shin, Sangsu; Jiao Jiao, Zhang; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight). Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2), and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2). Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP), as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87) in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1) shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis) indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production. PMID:26418419

  17. Female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) mated with males that harassed them are unlikely to lay fertilized eggs.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Kamini N; Galef, Bennett G

    2005-11-01

    Results of previous studies of courtship and mating in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) suggest that females avoid conspecific males because, while courting and mating, males engage in behaviors that are potentially injurious to females. However, prior experiments provided no direct evidence that females avoided harassing males. Here the authors show that a female quail choosing between a previous sex partner and an unfamiliar male avoids the former if he engaged in relatively many potentially injurious acts while courting and mating, (Experiments 1 and 2) and that males behaving aggressively toward mates are less likely than are gentler males to fertilize the females' eggs (Experiment 3). Male sexual harassment appears to be a tactic both aversive to female quail and relatively ineffective in fertilizing them. PMID:16366777

  18. Basic characterization of avian β-defensin genes in the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Ishige, Taichiro; Hara, Hiromi; Hirano, Takashi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Kono, Tomohiro; Hanzawa, Kei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we identified a cluster of 14 avian β-defensins (AvBD; approximately 66 kbp) in the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Except for AvBD12 (CjAvBD12) and -13, the CjAvBDs coding sequences exhibited greater than 78.0% similarity to the respective orthologous chicken AvBD genes (GgAvBD). The putative amino acid sequence encoded by each CjAvBD contained six cysteine residues and the GXC (X1-2) motif considered essential for the β-defensin family. Each CjAvBDs also formed a sub-group with the respective orthologous genes of various bird species in a phylogenetic tree analysis. Synteny between the CjAvBD cluster and GgAvBD cluster was confirmed. The CjAvBD cluster was mapped on the long-arm end of chromosome 3 by linkage analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CjAvBD1 and CjAvBD12 (approximately 46 kbp), as well as GgAvBD cluster. We also confirmed that CjAvBD1, -4, -5, -9, and -10 are transcribed in 20 tissues, including immune and digestive tissues. However, our experimental data indicated that the CjAvBD cluster lacks the AvBD3 and -7 loci, whereas the CjAvBD101α, -101β, and -101θ loci arose from gene duplication of the AvBD6 orthologous locus in the CjAvBD cluster after differentiation between Coturnix - Gallus. PMID:26338292

  19. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  20. Discovery and functional characterization of leptin and its receptors in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Li, Hong; Li, Yanmin; Ren, Junxiao; Tian, Yadong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiao, Yuping; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an important endocrine regulation factor of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals; however, the existence of a poultry leptin gene (LEP) is still debated. Here, for the first time, we report the cloning of a partial exon 3 sequence of LEP (qLEP) and four different leptin receptor splicing variants, including a long receptor (qLEPRl) and three soluble receptors (qLEPR-a, qLEPR-b and qLEPR-c) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The qLEP gene had high GC content (64%), which is similar to other reported avian leptin genes. The encoded qLEP protein possessed the conserved pair of cysteine residues that are required to form a lasso knot for full biological activity, but shared relatively low identities with LEPs of other vertebrates. The translated qLEPRl protein contained 1143 amino acids and shared high amino acid sequence identity with a chicken homolog (89% identity). qLEPRl also contained all the motifs, domains, and basic tyrosine residues that are conserved in the LEPRl proteins of other vertebrates. qRT-PCR analysis showed that LEP and the four LEPR variants were expressed extensively in all tissues examined; the expression levels of LEP were relatively high in hypothalamus, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, while the expression levels of the LEPRs were highest in the pituitary. Compared with the expression levels of juvenile qLEP and total qLEPR (including all LEPR variants), the expression levels of mature qLEP and total qLEPR were up-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary, and down-regulated in the ovary. The expressions of LEP/LEPR increased when fasting and decreased when refeeding in the brain and peripheral tissues of juvenile quail, which suggested that the LEP/LEPR system modulated food intake and energy expenditure, although, unlike in mammals, LEP may actually act to inhibit food intake during fasting, at least in juvenile quail. The results indicate that qLEP and qLEPR have unique expression patterns and that the encoded

  1. Comparative cytogenomics of poultry: mapping of single gene and repeat loci in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marla C; Robinson, Charmaine M; Gehlen, Lida P; Delany, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA probes and conduct a comparative study among the three genomes. Chicken and turkey clones were used as probes on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene stage chromosomes of the three species for the purpose of high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The genes and complexes studied included telomerase RNA (TR), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), 5S rDNA, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA (i.e., nucleolus organizer region (NOR)), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The telomeric profile of Japanese quail was investigated through the use of FISH with a TTAGGG-PNA probe. A range of telomeric array sizes were confirmed as found for the other poultry species. Three NOR loci were identified in Japanese quail, and single loci each for TR, TERT, 5S rDNA and the MHC-B. The MHC-B and one NOR locus were linked on a microchromosome in Japanese quail. We confirmed physical linkage of 5S rDNA and the TR gene on an intermediate-sized chromosome in quail, similar to both chicken and turkey. TERT localized to CJA 2 in quail and the orthologous chromosome region in chicken (GGA 2) and in turkey (MGA 3). The cytogenetic profile of Japanese quail was further developed by this study and synteny was identified among the three poultry species. PMID:24604153

  2. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial Salmonella typhimurium to increase productivity of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Retnani, Y; Dan, T M Wardiny; Taryati

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment). Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consist of level of biscuit Morinda citrifolia L. Citrifolia L. leaf extract i.e R1 = 0%, R2 = 5%, R3 = 10%, R4 = 15%. The results indicated the treatments had significant effect (p < 0.05) on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf were R1 (4.00%), R2 (1.00%), R3 (1.33%), R4 (0.67%). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given 15% extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (R4) was lowest than control treatment (R1). The results of the analysis indicated that Morinda citrifolia L. leaf of quail drink had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on egg production, hen day and hatchability. It was concluded that the Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract 15% can reduce mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) and can increase its egg production, hen day and hatchability. PMID:25911847

  3. Plasma enzyme activities in coturnix quail fed graded doses of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl, malathion, and mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.

    1974-01-01

    Male Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed diets for 12 weeks containing graded levels of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254), malathion, and mercuric chloride. Birds were bled prior to exposure and at 2, 4 and 12 weeks, and the plasma used to measure the activities of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholinesterase, fructose-diphosphate aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Abnormal activity of certain plasma enzymes was noted in birds after 2 and 4 weeks, but these changes were not proportional to dose or exposure time. At 12 weeks increases in each of the activities of plasma enzymes of birds fed organochlorines, and decreases in cholinesterase activity of birds fed malathion or mercuric chloride, were proportional to the log dose of the respective agents. In addition, the pattern of enzyme responses in the 4 experimental groups had changed, and was illustrative of the specific type of substance that had been fed. The data suggest that qualitative and quantitative identification of environmental contaminants in birds, and perhaps a variety of wild animals, may be possible by utilization of multiple plasma enzyme assays. Residue analyses after 12 weeks of feeding showed that DDE accumulated in carcasses and livers at concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those in the diets. In contrast residues of Aroclor 1254 attained in carcasses were identical to, and in livers one-half of, the concentration in the feed. Mercury did not accumulate as much in the tissues; residues attained were one-twentieth or less of those in the feed.

  4. Diagnosis and Control of a LPAI H5N8 Outbreak in a Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Commercial Flock in the Central Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, Silvia; Crossley, Beate; Breitmeyer, Richard; Charlton, Bruce R; Bland, Mark; Fowler, Kent; De La Torre, Felicia; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Wong, Sook-San; Wilson, Dennis; Jones, Annette; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    In April 2014 an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 North American genetic lineage was diagnosed in a commercial quail operation in Stanislaus County, California. Sudden increase in mortality prompted the submission of 20 Japanese quail hens (Coturnix c. japonica) to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock Branch. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs tested positive for influenza A virus H5N8 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The virus was subsequently isolated. In vivo assay and sequencing of the hemagglutinin protein cleavage site classified the virus as a North American genetic lineage of low pathogenicity for chickens. Following the diagnosis, a rapid and coordinated response took place to contain the outbreak. The affected premise was depopulated, cleaned, and disinfected. Three areas from the affected premises-a 3 kilometer (km) radius (High Risk Zone), a 3-10 km area (Buffer Zone), and a 10-20 km (Surveillance Zone)-were established for avian influenza testing of commercial and noncommercial poultry operations. Surveillance testing and rapid control measures were successful in the control and eradication of the outbreak and revealed no area of spread of the virus from the index flock. This report describes the history, diagnosis, surveillance, and control measures applied to manage this outbreak. PMID:26473689

  5. [Thr arteries of the male sex organs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and their development after hatching].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Vollmerhaus, B; Roos, H; Waibl, H; König, H E

    1992-06-01

    A total of 83 male Japanese quails of the following age groups were used for this study: 11, 18, 25, 32, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43 days, and 7, 9, 17 weeks after hatching. Neoprene-Latex, Tensol-Cement, and the china ink were injected via the aortic arch. In most of male Japanese quails, the testes are supplied by the A. testicularis originated from the Aorta descendens through a common trunk with the A. renalis cranialis. But in only 3 quails had this artery originated directly from the Aorta descendens on either side. In 9 quails had the A. testicularis accessoria originating independently from the Aorta descendens and running cranially or caudally in short distance to the normal A. testicularis. The arteries for the Ductus deferens were divided into 3 categories. The Rami ureterodeferentiales craniales were spread out from A. testicularis or Rami epididymales. The Rami ureterodeferentiales medii came from the A. renalis media and the A. renalis caudalis. The Rami ureterodeferentiales caudales originated from the A. caudae lateralis and A. pudenda. The Receptaculum ductus deferentis, the Corpus vasculare paracloacalis and the Phallus nonprotrudens in the Cloaca were supplied from the thick Ramus cloacalis of the A. pudenda. The Ramus bursalis of this artery supplied the Glandula proctodaealis and the Bursa cloacalis, and was also thick. The arteries to the genital organs were observed in the 11 day old male quail. The A. pudenda began developing at about 30 days after hatching when the quail's body matured. While the A. testicularis began developing at about 40 days after hatching when the male Japanese quail was full of the spermatogenic activity. PMID:1497141

  6. Toxico-pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hamdullah; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

    2010-09-01

    Fifty female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) at 40 days were divided into five equal groups. Sodium hypochlorite was added in drinking water to provide 0, 25, 50, 200, 400 mg chlorine/L for 6 weeks. At week 7, the chlorine concentration of 25 and 50 mg groups was increased to 100 mg and further increased to 400, 1600 and 6400 mg at weeks 8, 9 and 10, respectively. At the end the experiment (week 10), all the birds were sacrificed. No clinical signs were observed in quail given 50 mg chlorine/L. Quail given 200-400 mg/L chlorine exhibited decreased feed intake, body weight and egg production. In addition, those given 1600-6400 mg/L chlorine also exhibited depression. Decreased hematocrit, erythrocyte, hemoglobin, leukocytes, plasma proteins and globulin were observed at 200 mg/L chlorine and higher concentration. Gross lesions were not observed in quail offered 200-400 mg/L chlorine for 6 weeks; however, those offered 1600-6400 mg/L chlorine exhibited atrophied pectoral muscles, prominently protruding keel bones, decreased weight of ovary and oviduct and a reduction in an area of the different segments of oviduct. The histopathological picture in mucosa of oviduct consisted of degenerated glandular cells. In some cases, glandular tissue was replaced by cord of cells and fibroblast. The present study suggested that sodium hypochlorite in drinking water yielding 50 mg/L chlorine was not toxic for 6 weeks. However, sodium hypochlorite providing 200 mg/L chlorine or higher concentrations in drinking water was toxic to the quail. PMID:20729259

  7. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC HIGH-LEVEL MANGANESE EXPOSURE ON MALE BEHAVIOR IN THE JAPANESE QUAIL 'COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male Japanese quail were chronically exposed to 5000 ppm manganese (Mn) as particulate manganese oxide (Mn3O4) in their diet from hatching to 75 days of age. No decrements in growth or in other indices of general toxicity were noted. There were significant (P<.05) age-related inc...

  8. Morphometric Identification, Gross and Histopathological Lesions of Eimeria Species in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Zaria, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umar, H. A.; Lawal, I. A.; Okubanjo, O. O.; Wakawa, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the species, gross and histopathological lesions of Eimeria in Japanese quails in Zaria. A total of 400 fresh faecal samples were collected and 10 quail birds were purchased from a quail farm. The faecal samples were processed using simple floatation technique. Oocysts shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. The intestines were observed for gross lesions and segments were analyzed using Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and then observed microscopically for the developmental stages of the parasite. Four species of Eimeria were identified in the study. Eimeria bateri of shape index of 1.36 conformed to the guidelines used while the other three Eimeria species with shape indices of 1.48, 1.03, and 1.40 were not confirmed. The main gross lesion seen was nonhaemorrhagic ballooning of the caeca. Intestinal scrapping smear revealed a developmental stage of the parasite (merozoites) in the jejunum. Histopathology also revealed a developmental stage (schizont) of the parasite in the caecum and desquamation of the epithelial lining with areas of necrosis. Further study is required using molecular techniques to properly identify the unknown species of Eimeria that were detected in the study. PMID:26464933

  9. Ambient temperature and nutritional stress influence fatty acid composition of structural and fuel lipids in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) tissues.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2013-10-01

    In birds, fatty acids (FA) serve as the primary metabolic fuel during exercise and fasting, and their composition affects metabolic rate and thus energy requirements. To ascertain the relationship between FAs and metabolic rate, a distinction should be made between structural and fuel lipids. Indeed, increased unsaturation of structural lipid FAs brings about increased cell metabolism, and changes in the FA composition of fuel lipids affects metabolic rate through selective mobilization and increasing availability of specific FAs. We examined the effects of acclimation to a low ambient temperature (Ta: 12.7±3.0°C) and nutritional status (fed or unfed) on the FA composition of four tissues in Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Differentiating between neutral (triglycerides) and polar (phospholipids) lipids, we tested the hypothesis that both acclimation to low Ta and nutritional status modify FA composition of triglycerides and phospholipids. We found that both factors affect FA composition of triglycerides, but not the composition of phospholipids. We also found changes in liver triacylglyceride FA composition in the low-Ta acclimated quail, namely, the two FAs that differed, oleic acid (18:1) and arachidonic acid (20:4), were associated with thermoregulation. In addition, the FAs that changed with nutritional status were all reported to be involved in regulation of glucose metabolism, and thus we suggest that they also play a role in the response to fasting. PMID:23796822

  10. Carbon-14-ochratoxin A distribution in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) monitored by whole body autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.E.; Hagelberg, S.; Hult, K.

    1988-05-01

    Tissue distribution of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was characterized in laying Japanese quail by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting using /sup 14/C-labelled toxin. Periodically for 8 days after one intravenous injection of 14 microCi/bird, corresponding to 70 ng/g body weight, birds were killed, frozen, and sagittal sections of the whole body were placed on X-ray film. In general, the ochratoxin disappeared from the avian body rapidly. Specific retention of radioactivity was seen as a ring-like distribution in yolks and growing follicles. After sectioning, organs and intestinal contents were removed from carcasses in a frozen condition, homogenized, extracted, chromatographed, and the radioactivity in fractions was measured by scintillation spectroscopy. High concentrations of ochratoxin A were found in gastric intestinal contents, probably originating from toxin excreted in the bile.

  11. Amino acid sequence of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Goodson, John; Beckstead, Robert B; Payne, Jason; Singh, Rakesh K; Mohan, Anand

    2015-08-15

    Myoglobin has an important physiological role in vertebrates, and as the primary sarcoplasmic pigment in meat, influences quality perception and consumer acceptability. In this study, the amino acid sequences of Japanese quail and northern bobwhite myoglobin were deduced by cDNA cloning of the coding sequence from mRNA. Japanese quail myoglobin was isolated from quail cardiac muscles, purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel-filtration, and subjected to multiple enzymatic digestions. Mass spectrometry corroborated the deduced protein amino acid sequence at the protein level. Sequence analysis revealed both species' myoglobin structures consist of 153 amino acids, differing at only three positions. When compared with chicken myoglobin, Japanese quail showed 98% sequence identity, and northern bobwhite 97% sequence identity. The myoglobin in both quail species contained eight histidine residues instead of the nine present in chicken and turkey. PMID:25794748

  12. Effects of propolis on eggshell microbial activity, hatchability, and chick performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs.

    PubMed

    Aygun, A; Sert, D; Copur, G

    2012-04-01

    Propolis is a sticky resin produced by worker honeybees from substances collected from plants, and it has strong antibacterial and antifungal properties. The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of propolis on egg weight loss, hatchability, chick performance, and to control microbial activity naturally occurring on eggshells. A total of 750 fresh eggs was randomly divided into 5 groups. Eggs from the first group were sprayed with ethyl alcohol (70%, A), the second group was sprayed with benzalkonium chloride (B), and the third, fourth, and fifth groups were sprayed with propolis at 3 doses: 5, 10, and 15%. Eggs sprayed with propolis had lower egg weight loss than eggs from groups A and B (P < 0.001). Bacterial activity was reduced significantly in all propolis groups. There were no significant differences between treatments for hatchability, embryonic mortality, BW gain, and relative growth. Results of the present study indicated that propolis could be an alternative hatching egg disinfectant versus a chemical disinfectant, without adverse effects on hatchability and performance of quail chicks. PMID:22399742

  13. Effects of preincubation application of low and high frequency ultrasound on eggshell microbial activity, hatchability, supply organ weights at hatch, and chick performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Iskender; Aygun, Ali; Sert, Durmus

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the effects of preincubation application of low and high frequency ultrasound on egg weight loss, hatchability, supply organ weights, chick performance, and eggshell microbial activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 630 fresh eggs were randomly divided into 3 groups. Treatments were no ultrasound but eggs were sprayed with benzalkonium chloride solution (B), 35 kHz ultrasound applied for 30 min (U35), and 130 kHz ultrasound applied for 30 min (U130). At the beginning of the incubation, the eggs in the U130 treatment had lower coliform, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus counts than those in the B group. However, no significant differences were found in coliform, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus counts among treatments at d 14 of incubation. Among treatments, there were no significant differences in egg weight loss, hatchability, embryonic mortality, supply organ weights, spread of hatch, or relative growth. PMID:25971949

  14. A model for cryobanking female germplasm in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-10-01

    Cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue can be used for cryobanking female germplasm of avian species. Here we report a model of cryobanking ovarian tissue of Japanese quail. Ovaries of 1-wk-old quail chicks from the recessive white-breasted (WB) line were cryopreserved using a vitrification method. The cryopreserved tissue was warmed and transplanted orthotopically into ovariectomized, 1-wk-old female quail chicks from the homozygous wild-type QO line. At sexual maturation, recipients were mated with WB males and the plumage coloration was used as a marker to determine the origin of their ovaries. Seven of the 15 recipients laid eggs and produced donor-derived offspring, and 5 produced 100% donor-derived offspring. No difference was seen in egg production between recipients and untreated birds. The high efficiency of the vitrification and transplantation procedures in preserving and recovering quail ovarian tissue shows that this model can be used for maintaining commercial and experimental quail strains and may benefit other poultry species and endangered avian species. PMID:24046426

  15. Cloacal gland foam enhances motility and disaggregation of spermatozoa in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Shit, N; Pandey, N K; Singh, K B; Mohan, J; Moudgal, R P

    2011-02-01

    The adult male Japanese quail produces white foam from the cloacal gland, which is transferred to the female proctodeum during natural mating. The physiological role of foam on quail spermatozoa is still unclear. Therefore, attempts have been made to understand the effect of cloacal foam on motility and metabolism of quail spermatozoa. The profile of various biochemical constitutes in the foam extract was investigated. The addition of foam extract to neat semen completely disaggregated the clumps of spermatozoa leading to vigorous motility. The metabolic rate (MBRT) of the spermatozoa was significantly increased with the addition of foam extract. The foam extract was sub fractionated into seven different fractions by using the molecular cut off devices. Among all the seven sub-fractions from the foam extract, the addition of < 1 KDa sub-fraction contained lactate and has enhanced sperm motility and metabolism. Another fraction (3-10 KDa) has non-protein and non-heparin components which completely disaggregated the clumped quail spermatozoa. However, the remaining fractions did not show any effect on quail spermatozoa. It can be concluded from the present investigation that the lactate present in foam might be a fuel for sperm metabolism and motility. Furthermore, low molecular weight (3-10 KDa) components in the foam may responsible for sperm disaggregation. PMID:21074832

  16. Diagnosis of Marek's Disease From a Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica) Using Paraffin-embedded Liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single paraffin-embedded liver section was submitted from a research flock of Japanese quail that had revealed focal infiltrations of immature lymphocytes within multiple visceral organs. Tumor cells were characterized as T-cells positive for Marek's disease virus (MDV) pp38 antigen by IHC dual st...

  17. Effect of 17ß trenbolone on male and female reproduction in japanese quail (Coturnix japonica japonica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anabolic steroid 17ß trenbolone (17ß-TB), a known endocrine disruptive chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17ß-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturati...

  18. Pavlovian Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Methamphetamine in Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, B. Levi; Singleton, Destiny L.; Akins, Chana K.

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian drug discrimination (DD) procedures demonstrate that interoceptive drug stimuli may come to control behavior by informing the status of conditional relationships between stimuli and outcomes. This technique may provide insight into processes that contribute to drug-seeking, relapse, and other maladaptive behaviors associated with drug abuse. The purpose of the current research was to establish a model of Pavlovian DD in male Japanese quail. A Pavlovian conditioning procedure was used such that 3.0 mg/kg methamphetamine served as a feature positive stimulus for brief periods of visual access to a female quail and approach behavior was measured. After acquisition training, generalization tests were conducted with cocaine, nicotine, and haloperidol under extinction conditions. SCH 23390 was used to investigate the involvement of the dopamine D1 receptor subtype in the methamphetamine discriminative stimulus. Results showed that cocaine fully substituted for methamphetamine but nicotine only partially substituted for methamphetamine in quail. Haloperidol dose-dependently decreased approach behavior. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 modestly attenuated the methamphetamine discrimination suggesting that the D1 receptor subtype may be involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. The findings are discussed in relation to drug abuse and associated negative health consequences. PMID:24965811

  19. COMPARISON OF TWO 4.7-MILLIGRAM TO ONE 9.4-MILLIGRAM DESLORELIN ACETATE IMPLANTS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND PLASMA PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA).

    PubMed

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Conley, Alan J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive disease in captive avian species is common, and medical management is often chosen over surgical removal of the reproductive tract. In a previous study with Japanese quail, a single 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant reversibly decreased egg production in 6 out 10 birds for 70 days. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants versus one 9.4-mg implant on egg production and plasma progesterone concentrations in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica). Following a 10-day period of consistent egg laying, 30 adult female Japanese quail were anesthetized and received two 4.7-mg deslorelin implants (n = 10), one 9.4-mg deslorelin implant (n = 10), or a single, identical placebo implant (n = 10) s.c. between the scapulae. Egg production was monitored daily, and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on days 0, 14, 29, 120, 148, and 182 via enzyme-linked immunoassay. All birds were weighed periodically and euthanized at day 182, after which their reproductive tracts were evaluated at gross necropsy. Seven out of 10 birds treated with two 4.7-mg implants ceased egg laying 1 wk after implantation and remained nonovulatory for approximately 100 days. Cessation of egg laying for the 9.4-mg treatment group occurred in 7 out of 10 birds; onset was variable (weeks 5-12) and continued for the remainder of the study period. Plasma progesterone concentrations for deslorelin treatment groups were not significantly different compared to the placebo group at any time point. In conclusion, the two 4.7-mg and the one 9.4-mg implant treatments ceased egg laying in a similar number of birds, but the 9.4-mg implant had a slower onset of action and the effects on egg laying were inconsistent throughout the study period. Further studies evaluating use of deslorelin acetate in other avian species are needed. PMID:26667535

  20. Neuroanatomical localization of endocrine control of reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.T. III.

    1989-01-01

    Steroid autoradiography and systematic and intracranial steroid treatment were undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which are sufficient to activate steroid sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail. (1) Autoradiographic localization of steroid binding cells was performed on male and female quail brains using tritiated ({sup 3}H) testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), or 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The distributions of labelled cells in the quail brain following {sup 3}H-T or {sup 3}H-E2 injection and autoradiography were similar to one another. The distribution of labelled cells following {sup 3}H-DHT autoradiography was limited in comparison to that following {sup 3}H-T autoradiography. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in nucleus taeniae. (2) Intracranial implantation of minute pellets of testoterone propionate (TP) and estradiol benzoate (EB) was performed to determine neuroanatomical loci at which steroids activate sexual behavior. Both TP and EB implants in the preoptic area (POA) activated male copulatory behavior. (3) Systematic injection of aromatase inhibitor prior to and concurrent with implantation completely blocked copulatory behavior in males with TP implants in the POA but failed to block copulation in males with EB implants in the POA. (4) Intact males and castrated males given 5 dosages of systematic EB treatment were tested for sexual behavior, and blood samples from each group were assayed for E2 concentration. (5) Midbrain DHTP implants were activated crowing without significantly stimulating peripheral androgen-sensitive tissues, but the effect on crowing was not localized to any one nucleus.

  1. Studies on combined effects of organophosphates and heavy metals in birds. I. Plasma and brain cholinesterase in Coturnix quail fed methyl mercury and orally dosed with parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Ludke, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    We found that mercury potentiated the toxicity and biochemical effects of parathion. Male Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed a sublethal concentration of morsodren (4 ppm as methyl mercury) for 18 weeks. This resulted in an accumulation of 21.0 ppm of mercury in the liver and 8.4 ppm in the carcass. Birds fed clean feed and those fed morsodren-treated feed were orally dosed with 2, 4, 6, 8,and 10 mg/kg parathion, and their 48-h survival times compared. The computed LD50 was 5.86mg/kg in birds not fed morsodren and 4.24 in those fed the heavy metal. When challenged with a sublethal, oral dose of parathion (1.0 mg/kg), morsodren-fed birds exhibited significantly greater inhibition of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity than controls dosed with parathion. Brain cholinesterase activity was inhibited 41% in morsodren-fed birds and 26in clean-fed birds dosed with parathion, which suggested that the increase in parathion toxicity in the presence of morsodren was directly related to the inhibitation of brain cholinesterase.

  2. Pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Ullah, M; Khan, Mz

    2008-10-01

    Fifty male Japanese quails of 40 days of age were divided into five equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, and E. Drinking water supplemented with sodium hypochlorite at dose level of 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 mg chlorine/L, respectively was offered for 6 weeks. At the end of week 6 when no clinical signs of toxicity of sodium hypochlorite appeared, the birds in groups B and C were shifted to 100 mg chlorine/L drinking water, and this level was increased fourfold (400, 1600, 6400 mg chlorine/L drinking water) every week, till i.e., 10th week (70 day). Afterwards all the birds were killed. Depression and anorexia were prominent clinical signs observed. Reduction in feed intake, body weight, and hematological parameters appeared in a dose-dependant manner. Decreased serum total proteins and weights of liver, heart, and kidneys were recorded in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. Intoxicated birds were emaciated. Decreased weight and volume of the testes were observed in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. However, birds receiving 400 mg chlorine (group E) had smaller but functional testes. Birds receiving higher level of chlorine (groups B and C) had decreased weight and volume of testes, atrophied seminiferous tubules, and arrested spermatogenesis. It was concluded that sodium hypochlorite at high levels, that is, 6400 mg/L in drinking water is toxic to the quails; therefore, it should be used with caution in poultry farming as drinking water disinfectant. PMID:19042964

  3. MULTILEVEL SELECTION WITH KIN AND NON-KIN GROUPS, EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS WITH JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M; Bijma, P; Schinckel, A

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless of group composition. Thus, in nature the conditions for multilevel selection to be effective in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups. PMID:23730755

  4. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  5. Effect of alliums on total lipid in plasma and tissues of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to age and sex.

    PubMed

    Girish Kumar, V; Surendranathan, K P; Gayathri Devi, D R; Belwadi, M R Sandhya

    2005-02-01

    Dietary onion and garlic caused an increase in the level of liver and plasma total lipids in Coturnix coturnix japonica. This increase could be due to the effect of an increased feed intake, bile production, digestion and absorption that in turn caused an increased utilisation of dietary fat, increased transfer of dietary lipids to the liver and/or due to increased lipogenesis as such. However, there was no increase in the muscle lipid content. This effect in the muscle could be due to inhibitory effect of onion or garlic on lipoprotein lipase activity. Further, the changes in the tissue total lipid level in the control group due to change in age and sex were also observed. PMID:15782822

  6. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Young, Jay A; Young, Joanne A; Jefferies, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts) and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans). The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that potentiates infection

  7. A low dose of an organophosphate insecticide causes dysbiosis and sex-dependent responses in the intestinal microbiota of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Moreno-Moyano, Laura T; Wilkinson, Ngare; Prasai, Tanka; Brown, Philip H; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate insecticides have been directly or indirectly implicated in avian populations declining worldwide. Birds in agricultural environments are commonly exposed to these insecticides, mainly through ingestion of invertebrates after insecticide application. Despite insecticide exposure in birds occurring mostly by ingestion, the impact of organophosphates on the avian digestive system has been poorly researched. In this work we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as an avian model to study short-term microbial community responses to a single dose of trichlorfon at low concentration in three sample origins of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): caecum, large intestine and faeces. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons as bacterial markers, the study showed that ingestion of insecticide caused significant changes in the GIT microbiome. Specifically, microbiota composition and diversity differed between treated and untreated quail. Insecticide-associated responses in the caecum showed differences between sexes which did not occur with the other sample types. In caecal microbiota, only treated females showed significant shifts in a number of genera within the Lachnospiraceae and the Enterobacteriaceae families. The major responses in the large intestine were a significant reduction in the genus Lactobacillus and increases in abundance of a number of Proteobacteria genera. All microbial shifts in faeces occurred in phylotypes that were represented at low relative abundances. In general, changes in microbiota possibly resulted from contrasting responses towards the insecticide, either positive (e.g., biodegrading bacteria) or negative (e.g., insecticide-susceptible bacteria). This study demonstrates the significant impact that organophosphate insecticides have on the avian gut microbiota; showing that a single small dose of trichlorfon caused dysbiosis in the GIT of the Japanese quail. Further research is necessary to understand the

  8. A low dose of an organophosphate insecticide causes dysbiosis and sex-dependent responses in the intestinal microbiota of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Moyano, Laura T.; Wilkinson, Ngare; Prasai, Tanka; Brown, Philip H.; Moore, Robert J.; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate insecticides have been directly or indirectly implicated in avian populations declining worldwide. Birds in agricultural environments are commonly exposed to these insecticides, mainly through ingestion of invertebrates after insecticide application. Despite insecticide exposure in birds occurring mostly by ingestion, the impact of organophosphates on the avian digestive system has been poorly researched. In this work we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as an avian model to study short-term microbial community responses to a single dose of trichlorfon at low concentration in three sample origins of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): caecum, large intestine and faeces. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons as bacterial markers, the study showed that ingestion of insecticide caused significant changes in the GIT microbiome. Specifically, microbiota composition and diversity differed between treated and untreated quail. Insecticide-associated responses in the caecum showed differences between sexes which did not occur with the other sample types. In caecal microbiota, only treated females showed significant shifts in a number of genera within the Lachnospiraceae and the Enterobacteriaceae families. The major responses in the large intestine were a significant reduction in the genus Lactobacillus and increases in abundance of a number of Proteobacteria genera. All microbial shifts in faeces occurred in phylotypes that were represented at low relative abundances. In general, changes in microbiota possibly resulted from contrasting responses towards the insecticide, either positive (e.g., biodegrading bacteria) or negative (e.g., insecticide-susceptible bacteria). This study demonstrates the significant impact that organophosphate insecticides have on the avian gut microbiota; showing that a single small dose of trichlorfon caused dysbiosis in the GIT of the Japanese quail. Further research is necessary to understand the

  9. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma-testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values. PMID:23780874

  10. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  11. The effect of different high-fat diets on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in male, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, J; Pillay, K; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

    2015-04-01

    Poultry diets are formulated with additional animal fat or vegetable oils to improve growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. High-fat diet feeding in rats and fish has been shown to result in alterations in the phospholipid composition and cholesterol content of the erythrocyte membrane, in turn affecting erythrocyte osmotic fragility. In contrast, the few studies performed using high-fat diet feeding in avian species show no changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. This study made use of the Japanese quail as no data exists on investigation of this species with respect to high-fat diet feeding and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Fifty-seven male quail were randomly divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet (commercial poultry feed) or one of five high-fat diets (commercial poultry feed with 22% of either coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soya bean oil or sunflower oil on a weight/weight basis) for 12 weeks. All birds on the high-fat diets were significantly heavier (p < 0.05) after the 12-week feeding period, than when commencing the dietary intervention. Serum triglyceride concentrations of birds in all high-fat diet groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than birds in the standard diet group, whereas only birds in the palm oil group had significantly lower (p < 0.05) serum cholesterol concentrations compared to the standard diet group. Fragiligrams of erythrocytes from birds in the various dietary groups were similar. High-fat diet feeding with different types of additional fat did not affect the osmotic fragility of the quail erythrocytes. Feeding quail high-energy diets of varying degrees of fatty acid saturation was well tolerated and did not seem to affect the overall health status of the birds. Resistance of avian erythrocytes to modification by excess dietary fat may be a general characteristic of avian erythrocytes. PMID:25244110

  12. Use of transcutaneous ultrasonography to characterize ovarian status, size distribution, and hierarchical status of follicles in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sreesujatha, R M; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, A; Balasundaram, Chellam

    2016-09-15

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ovarian status of matured breeding female Japanese quail by means of B Mode portable ultrasound scanning. Active ovaries in various stages of hierarchical development and different morphological structure were observed. The large yellow follicles appeared as a cluster of dark circles with various intensity of hyperechoic concentric ring. Sonographically, these follicles were classified into F1, F2, and F3 measuring 16.20 ± 0.06 mm, 12.48 ± 0.09 mm, and 7.95 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. A comparative study on preslaughter and postslaughter ovarian follicular status revealed accuracy of follicles less than 10 mm, 10-15 mm, 15-18 mm, and greater than 18 mm as 26.31%, 78.9%, 93.75%, and 100%, respectively, with an overall accuracy of 71%. This is the first report on the application of transcutaneous ultrasonographic technique to monitor ovarian status on Japanese quail reporting that the ovarian follicular activity and morphological structure can be monitored nonintrusively throughout quail life which can used as model for reproductive and biomedical research. PMID:27233352

  13. A Method for Fast Assessment of OP/CB Exposure in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Using Combined Esterases Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Kasim Sakran

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of different esterase activities in plasma and liver for Japanese quail and to combine determination of both carboxylesterase and cholinesterase as biochemical biomarker in order to identify the effects of carbamate and organophosphate compounds exposure. Carboxylesterase exhibits larger sensitivity to carbamate and organophosphate compounds than to cholinesterase and is present at higher levels. This permitted nature and distribution of carboxylesterase or cholinesterase to be measured. One predominant toxicological form of enzyme level constant in its patterns of motivation and inhibition with cholinesterase was identified in plasma with an apparent Michaelis constant for butyrylthiocholine iodide of 0.394 mM. Carboxylesterase activity in liver was considered by its preferential hydrolysis of the S-phenyl thioacetate. A concentration dependent decrease of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase has demonstrated during in vitro incubation of malathion, parathion, and trichlorfon in the range 0.125–2 mM, while with methomyl was in the range 0.25–4 mM. When quail (n = 15) was exposed orally for 48 h to concentrations of carbamate or organophosphate compounds of 3–200 mg/kg, the percentage inhibition of cholinesterase was in each case larger than that of carboxylesterase and reached statistical significance (P < 0.05) at lower concentrations. PMID:24527206

  14. Validation of a disease model in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with the use of Escherichia coli serogroup O2 isolated from a turkey

    PubMed Central

    Nain, Sukhbir; Smits, Judit E.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study established a disease model and protocol for bacterial challenge with Escherichia coli serogroup O2 strain EC317 in Japanese quail. Five groups of 10 birds each were injected subcutaneously in the breast with 200 μL of a brain–heart infusion (BHI) culture containing 1 × 108, 1 × 107, 1 × 106, 1 × 105, or 1 × 104 colony-forming units/mL of the test organism, which had been isolated from a turkey with cellulitis and septicemia. Birds in a 6th group were controls that received sterile BHI alone. Localized lesions of cellulitis developed in all of the birds that received E. coli. The morbidity and mortality rates were highest (100%) in the birds receiving the highest dose of E. coli and decreased linearly with decreasing dose (P < 0.05). Severity of disease, including lesions of pericarditis and perihepatitis, was also directly proportional to the dose of E. coli. These findings indicate that this disease challenge protocol can be used to study disease resistance and immunologic consequences of contaminant exposure or other stressors in birds. PMID:22210992

  15. Association of a Glu92Lys substitution in MC1R with extended brown in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Nadeau, N J; Minvielle, F; Mundy, N I

    2006-06-01

    We investigated melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as a candidate locus for the Extended brown phenotype in quail, in which there is a general darkening throughout the plumage. An initial screen of variation in MC1R in Extended brown and in wild-type quails revealed two polymorphic non-synonymous sites. One of these sites, a G-to-A substitution leading to a Glu92Lys mutation, was perfectly associated with plumage phenotype; all Extended brown birds were homozygous for Lys92. Co-segregation of the Glu92Lys mutation with the Extended brown phenotype was confirmed in 24 progeny of an E/e(+) x E/e(+) cross. Glu92Lys is likely to be the causative mutation for the increased melanism in Extended brown, given that the same mutation is associated with melanic plumage in many breeds of domestic chicken, as well as in a wild passerine bird (the bananaquit, Coereba flaveola) and laboratory mice. Interestingly, the increase in melanization with the Glu92Lys mutation is less marked in quails than in most other birds and mammals. Phylogenetic results indicate that the Glu92Lys mutation has independently occurred in quail and chicken lineages. PMID:16734695

  16. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed

    PubMed Central

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5–10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  17. Steroid receptor coactivator 2 modulates steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and neuroplasticity in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Niessen, Neville-Andrew; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Charlier, Thierry D

    2011-11-01

    Steroid receptor coactivators are necessary for efficient transcriptional regulation by ligand-bound nuclear receptors, including estrogen and androgen receptors. Steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2) modulates estrogen- and progesterone-dependent sexual behavior in female rats but its implication in the control of male sexual behavior has not been studied to our knowledge. We cloned and sequenced the complete quail SRC-2 transcript and showed by semi-quantitative PCR that SRC-2 expression is nearly ubiquitous, with high levels of expression in the kidney, cerebellum and diencephalon. Real-time quantitative PCR did not reveal any differences between intact males and females the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), optic lobes and cerebellum. We next investigated the physiological and behavioral role of this coactivator using in vivo antisense oligonucleotide techniques. Daily injections in the third ventricle at the level of the POM of locked nucleic acid antisense targeting SRC-2 significantly reduced the expression of testosterone-dependent male-typical copulatory behavior but no inhibition of one aspect of the appetitive sexual behavior was observed. The volume of POM, defined by aromatase-immunoreactive cells, was markedly decreased in animals treated with antisense as compared with controls. These results demonstrate that SRC-2 plays a prominent role in the control of steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and its associated neuroplasticity in Japanese quail. PMID:21854393

  18. STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR 2 (SRC-2) MODULATES STEROID-DEPENDENT MALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND NEUROPLASTICITY IN JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, Neville-Andrew; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.; Charlier, Thierry D.

    2011-01-01

    Steroid receptor coactivators are necessary for efficient transcriptional regulation by ligand-bound nuclear receptors, including estrogen and androgen receptors. SRC-2 modulates estrogen- and progesterone-dependent sexual behavior in female rats but its implication in the control of male sexual behavior has not been studied to our knowledge. We cloned and sequenced the complete quail SRC-2 transcript and showed by semi-quantitative PCR that SRC-2 expression is nearly ubiquitous, with high levels of expression in the kidney, cerebellum and diencephalon. Real time quantitative PCR did not reveal any differences between intact males and females the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), optic lobes and cerebellum. We next investigated the physiological and behavioral role of this coactivator using in vivo antisense oligonucleotide (AS) techniques. Daily injections in the third ventricle at the level of the POM of locked nucleic acid antisense targeting SRC-2 significantly reduced the expression of testosterone-dependent male-typical copulatory behavior but no inhibition of one aspect of the appetitive sexual behavior was observed. The volume of POM, defined by aromatase-immunoreactive cells, was markedly decreased in animals treated with AS as compared to controls. These results demonstrate that SRC-2 plays a prominent role in the control of steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and its associated neuroplasticity in Japanese quail. PMID:21854393

  19. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed.

    PubMed

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5-10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  20. A model for treating avian aspergillosis: serum and lung tissue kinetics for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) following single and multiple aerosol exposures of a nanoparticulate itraconazole suspension.

    PubMed

    Rundfeldt, Chris; Wyska, Elżbieta; Steckel, Hartwig; Witkowski, Andrzej; Jeżewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    Aspergillosis is frequently reported in parrots, falcons and other birds held in captivity. Inhalation is the main route of infection for Aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in both acute and chronic disease conditions. Itraconazole (ITRA) is an antifungal commonly used in birds, but administration requires repeated oral dosing and the safety margin is narrow. We describe lung tissue and serum pharmacokinetics of a nanoparticulate ITRA suspension administered to Japanese quail by aerosol exposure. Aerosolized ITRA (1 and 10% suspension) administered over 30 min did not induce adverse clinical reactions in quail upon single or 5-day repeated doses. High lung concentrations, well above the inhibitory levels for A. fumigatus, of 4.14 ± 0.19 μg/g and 27.5 ± 4.58 μg/g (mean ± SEM, n = 3), were achieved following single-dose inhalation of 1% and 10% suspension, respectively. Upon multiple dose administration of 10% suspension, mean lung concentrations reached 104.9 ± 10.1 μg/g. Drug clearance from the lungs was slow with terminal half-lives of 19.7 h and 35.8 h following inhalation of 1% and 10% suspension, respectively. Data suggest that lung clearance is solubility driven. Lung concentrations of hydroxy-itraconazole reached 1-2% of the ITRA lung tissue concentration indicating metabolism in lung tissue. Steady, but low, serum concentrations of ITRA could be measured after multiple dose administration, reaching less than 0.1% of the lung tissue concentration. This formulation may represent a novel, easy to administer treatment modality for fungal lung infection, preventing high systemic exposure. It may also be useful as metaphylaxis to prevent the outbreak of aspergillosis in colonized animals. PMID:23815436

  1. Investigation of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a pharmacokinetic model for cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Poicephalus parrots via comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, A; Tell, L A; Kass, P H; Wetzlich, S E; Nugent-Deal, J; Craigmill, A L

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) would serve as a pharmacokinetic animal model for two small companion parrots: cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Poicephalus parrots. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was the pharmacologic agent chosen for this study as it is eliminated primarily by renal glomerular filtration and undergoes minimal metabolism. A single intravenous injection of 20 mg/kg oxytetracycline hydrochloride was administered to the three study groups and blood samples were obtained at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min post-OTC injection as well as 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h post-OTC injection. Quantification of plasma OTC was accomplished using a standardized microbial inhibition assay. Naïve-pooled data (NPD) analysis of the plasma concentration-time profile of OTC best fit a two-compartment open model for all three avian species. Noncompartmental analysis of the mean data yielded the following parameters for quail, cockatiels and Poicephalus parrots respectively: lambda(z) = 3.14, 4.57, 3.71 h; AUC = 38.9, 42.7, 49.6 microg x h/mL; and Cl = 514, 468, 403 mL/h/kg. Based on the similarity of these pharmacokinetic parameters, it appears that quail could be used as a model species to predict the appropriate OTC dosing regimen for small psittacine birds. A bootstrap procedure was also applied to these sparse data sets for both compartmental and noncompartmental analysis. The bootstrap procedure allowed for the calculation of variability of parameters; however, the estimates of the parameters were very similar to those calculated using the NPD and the data mean values. PMID:16343282

  2. Sensitivity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos to in ovo exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Hervé, Jessica C; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Yang, Yinfei; Jones, Paul D; Wan, Yi; Collins, Brian; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Egg injection studies were performed to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of birds to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In this model, species are classified as belonging to one of three categories of sensitivity based on amino acid substitutions in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Embryo lethality and relative potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) were compared with TCDD for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; least sensitive), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; moderately sensitive), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus; most sensitive). Doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 pmol/g egg (0.015-12 ng/g egg) were injected into the air cell of eggs prior to incubation. LD(50) (95% confidence intervals) values, based on rate of hatching for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, were 30 (25-36), 4.9 (2.3-9.2), and 15 (11-24) pmol/g egg for the quail, 3.5 (2.3-6.3), 0.61 (0.28-1.2), and 1.2 (0.62-2.2) pmol/g egg for pheasant, and 0.66 (0.47-0.90), 0.75 (0.64-0.87), and 0.33 (0.23-0.45) pmol/g egg for chicken, respectively. LD(50)-based relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF were 6.1 and 2.0 for quail, 5.7 and 2.9 for pheasant, and 0.88 and 2.0 for chicken, respectively. TCDD was not the most potent compound among the species tested, with PeCDF and TCDF being more potent than TCDD in the quail and pheasant. TCDF was the most potent in chicken. Species sensitivity was as expected for TCDD and TCDF, whereas for PeCDF, the chicken and pheasant were similar in sensitivity and both were more sensitive than the quail. Results from companion in vitro studies are generally similar to those reported here with a few exceptions. PMID:20861070

  3. Droppings from captive Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) as a fly breeding resource.

    PubMed

    Horenstein, M Battán; Lynch-Ianniello, I; de Dio, B; Gleiser, R M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fauna of flies associated with captive Coturnix coturnix (L.) (Galliformes: Phasianidae) droppings. Samples of 150 g of quail droppings were exposed in the quail house for 48 h in plastic containers to promote eventual access of flies, and then placed in emergence traps. The number of adults and species emerging was recorded daily. This procedure was carried out in spring 2008 and spring and autumn 2009. In total, 2,138 adults belonging to Muscidae, Calliphoridae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Fanniidae, and Milichiidae families were collected. The most numerous family was Muscidae (representing >82% of the total specimens), with Musca domestica L. being the most abundant species followed by Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann) (both Diptera: Muscidae). Quail breeding should include adequate droppings management policies to avoid potential sanitary issues related to fly production. PMID:25347840

  4. Developmental and posthatch effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF, and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-07-01

    An egg injection study was conducted to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of three avian species to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals. It was previously reported that the order of species sensitivity to in ovo exposure to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 picomoles (pmol)/g egg was the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) based on embryo mortality and hepatic enzyme induction. In the present study, the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses, and organ pathology of hatchlings as additional indicators of species sensitivity were assessed; in addition, embryo mortality in the three species was categorized by stage of development. Embryo mortality varied temporally with significant increases generally occurring after organogenesis and just prior to hatching. A significant increase in the percentage of developmental deformities was observed only in Japanese quail exposed to TCDF. Body and relative organ masses of quail, pheasants, and chickens dosed in ovo with TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF were not consistently affected. Chemical-related pathology occurred only in livers of quail at the greatest doses of each compound. These results indicated that the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses and organ pathology could not be used as indicators of species sensitivity or chemical potency. PMID:21509806

  5. Applicability of lectin histochemistry in a test system with in ovo treatment for detecting androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemicals in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Utsumi, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether analysis of the appearance of specific lectin-positive substances in the quail embryonic cloacal gland would be useful for evaluating the androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemicals. Fertilized Japanese quail eggs were injected with 0 to 75 µg of cyproterone acetate (CA), an antiandrogenic compound, on d 12 of incubation (d 12), followed by injection of 0 to 300 µg of testosterone propionate (TP) on d 13. Experimental groups consisted of a control group (corn oil injections on d 12 and 13), a TP-L group [corn oil and a low dose (L; 30 µg) of TP], a TP-H group [corn oil and a high dose (H; 300 µg) of TP], a CA-L + TP-H group [a low dose (L;7.5 µg) of CA + TP-H], and a CA-H + TP-H group [a high dose (H; 75 µg) of CA + TP-H]. The cloacal tissues were collected on d 16, processed into paraffin sections, and stained using 14 different biotinylated lectins. The Vicia villosa (VVA) lectin most strongly stained the developing cloacal glandular cells in TP-H. Western blotting analysis showed 1 VVA-positive band of approximately 75 kDa. The ratio of VVA-positive areas per unit square examined microscopically by image analysis was significantly greater in the TP-H group than in the control group in both males and females. The ratio was significantly decreased in the CA-L + TP-H and CA-H + TP-H groups compared with the TP-H group in both males and females. Furthermore, the ratio was smaller in females than in males within a TP-L or TP-H treatment group. These results suggest that lectin histochemistry on quail embryonic cloaca using VVA is useful for evaluating the androgenic and antiandrogenic effects of chemical compounds. PMID:21177456

  6. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA) on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) at Low Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Shit, N; Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Agarwal, R; Singh, R; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2012-07-01

    Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body's homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks) were equally divided into three groups (20/group) based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm) and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1) obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05) in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01) to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail. PMID:25049657

  7. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb, we incorporated Pb-contaminated soils or Pb acetate into diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), fed the quail for 15 days, and ...

  8. Novel needle-in-straw vitrification can effectively preserve the follicle morphology, viability, and vascularization of ovarian tissue in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2012-10-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been the only effective way of ex situ conservation of female germplasm in avian species. A novel needle-in-straw (NIS) vitrification method was developed to store tissue in straws instead of cryovials. Fragments of ovarian tissue from one-week old Japanese quail were transfixed on an acupuncture needle. They were immersed in equilibration and vitrification solutions containing dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol and sucrose. A layer of tin foil was rolled over the tissue fragments and the tin foil package was plunged into liquid nitrogen and inserted into a pre-cooled, 0.5-ml straw which was stored in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was also preserved using a needle immersed vitrification (NIV) method, in which tissue fragments transfixed on needles without tin foil and were stored in cryovials filled with liquid nitrogen. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed at room temperature (RT) or 37°C and the ratio of normal follicles to total visible follicles was determined by histological methods. In addition, cryopreserved and warmed tissue was cultured on the chorioallantoic membranes of fertilized chicken eggs for 5-6 days. The viability and vascularization of the grafts were evaluated. The tissue cryopreserved by NIS and warmed at RT showed comparable follicle morphology to fresh tissue and to that preserved by NIV and warmed at RT. No significant impairment on the viability or vascularization of the grafted tissue was observed. The NIS method allows tissue to be stored and transported safely and efficiently and can be used instead of cryovials in tissue cryobanking. PMID:22921390

  9. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulism toxin serotypes A, B E and F activity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng and chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  10. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  11. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  12. Cholinesterase activity in Japanese quail dusted with carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were dusted with 5% carbaryl to determine if this topical treatment would alter plasma and brain cholinesterase activities. Within 6 hours after dusting, plasma cholinesterase activity was depressed compared with controls, the depression averaging 20% for females and 27% for males. By 24 hours the cholinesterase activity of females had returned to normal, but the cholinesterase activity of males remained depressed. Brain cholinesterase activity was not affected by the treatment, and there were no overt toxic signs.

  13. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon β from Coturnix.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bei; Chang, Wei-Shan

    2014-01-01

    One pair of primers was designed according to Gallus and Meleagris gallopavo interferon β (IFN-β) sequences published in GenBank. The primers and RNA extraction from the spleen of Coturnix were used to amplify Coturnix IFN-β cDNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The product was cloned into pEasy-T1 vector. Evaluating recombinant plasmid by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Sequence the cloning sequences, comparing the sequencing results by NCBI. We successfully got a Coturnix IFN-β partial sequence. The sequence was subtyped and put to homologous analysis. The results suggested the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and gene of Coturnix and chicken (88.7%), the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and chicken (88.7%), the homology of IFN-β gene of Coturnix and Anas platyrhynchos (72.5%), the homology of IFN-β sequence registered in GenBank. The analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Coturnix and chicken IFN-β had a high homology. It can be seen that in this study we successfully got a partial sequence of IFN-β of quail. PMID:26155095

  14. SERUM CHEMISTRIES OF COTURNIX JAPONICA GIVEN DIETARY MANGANESE OXIDE (MN3O4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasma creatinine and inorganic phosphorus were increased in manganese oxide (Mn3O4)-treated adult male Coturnix quail, but BUN, BUN/creatinine ratio, uric acid, and total calcium were decreased. 2. Serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic p...

  15. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  16. Cooling rates of living and killed chicken and quail eggs in air and in helium-oxygen gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, H; Turner, J S; Paganelli, C V

    1988-01-01

    1. In a helium atmosphere, heat is dissipated from a surface 3.5 times faster than it is in air. Eggs in a helium-oxygen atmosphere cool only 1.4 times faster than they cool in air. This signifies that internal resistance to heat flow is a significant factor in the cooling rates of eggs. 2. Heat flow occurs inside an egg in two ways: by conduction through the tissues and in flowing blood. Killing an embryo stops the latter, but not the former. Eggs cool more slowly after they have been killed, signifying that blood flow can be an important component in an egg's internal flows of heat. 3. Blood flow should be a relatively more important component of heat flow in large eggs than in small eggs. The difference in conductance between living and killed eggs is larger in 60 g chicken eggs than it is in 10 g quail eggs. PMID:2900113

  17. Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in blood plasma of quail, pheasants, and cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, R.S.; Bush, M.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Rate of appearance, peak concentration, and the biological half-life of gentamicin in the plasma of quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were studied. Gentamicin was given IM in doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of body weight. Peak plasma concentrations occurred earliest in the quail, latest in the cranes. The peak concentrations varied directly with the administered doses in all species. The biological half-life of gentamicin was 42 +/- 12 minutes in the quail, 75 +/- 15 minutes in the pheasants, and 165 +/- 37 minutes in the cranes. On the basis of the present data, dosage regimens for gentaminic of 5 mg/kg every 8 hours in pheasants and cranes, and 10 mg/kg every 6 hours in quail, would be expected to give constant plasma concentrations greater than 4.0 micrograms/ml.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in blood plasma of quail, pheasants, and cranes.

    PubMed

    Custer, R S; Bush, M; Carpenter, J W

    1979-06-01

    Rate of appearance, peak concentration, and the biological half-life of gentamicin in the plasma of quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were studied. Gentamicin was given IM in doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of body weight. Peak plasma concentrations occurred earliest in the quail, latest in the cranes. The peak concentrations varied directly with the administered doses in all species. The biological half-life of gentamicin was 42 +/- 12 minutes in the quail, 75 +/- 15 minutes in the pheasants, and 165 +/- 37 minutes in the cranes. On the basis of the present data, dosage regimens for gentaminic of 5 mg/kg every 8 hours in pheasants and cranes, and 10 mg/kg every 6 hours in quail, would be expected to give constant plasma concentrations greater than 4.0 micrograms/ml. PMID:475144

  19. Production of Functional Gametes from Cryopreserved Primordial Germ Cells of the Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki; TASAI, Mariko; TAKEDA, Kumiko; NIRASAWA, Keijiro; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a valuable bird as both an experimental animal, for a wide range of scientific disciplines, and an agricultural animal, for the production of eggs and meat. Cryopreservation of PGCs would be a feasible strategy for the conservation of both male and female fertility cells in Japanese quail. However, the effects of freeze-thaw treatment on viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of quail PGCs still remain unclear. In the present study, male and female PGCs were isolated from the blood of 2-day-old embryos, which were cooled by slow freezing and then cryopreserved at –196 C for 77–185 days, respectively. The average recovery rate of PGCs after freeze-thawing was 47.0%. The viability of PGCs in the frozen group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) (85.5% vs. 95.1%). Both fresh and Frozen-thawed PGCs that were intravascularly transplanted into recipient embryos migrated toward and were incorporated into recipient gonads, although the number of PGCs settled in the gonads was 48.5% lower in the frozen group than in the unfrozen control group (P<0.05). Genetic cross analysis revealed that one female and two male recipients produced live progeny derived from the frozen-thawed PGCs. The frequency of donor-derived offspring was slightly lower than that of unfrozen controls, but the difference was not significant (4.0 vs. 14.0%). These results revealed that freeze-thaw treatment causes a decrease in viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of PGCs in quail. PMID:24077020

  20. Immune Neuroendocrine Phenotypes in Coturnix coturnix: Do Avian Species Show LEWIS/FISCHER-Like Profiles?

    PubMed Central

    Nazar, F. Nicolas; Barrios, Bibiana E.; Kaiser, Pete; Marin, Raul H.; Correa, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoneuroendocrinology studies have identified conserved communicational paths in birds and mammals, e.g. the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by glucocorticoids. Immune neuroendocrine phenotypes (INPs) have been proposed for mammals implying the categorization of a population in subgroups underlying divergent immune-neuroendocrine interactions. These phenotypes were studied in the context of the LEWIS/FISCHER paradigm (rats expressing high or low pro-inflammatory profiles, respectively). Although avian species have some common immunological mechanisms with mammals, they have also evolved some distinct strategies and, until now, it has not been studied whether birds may also share with mammals similar INPs. Based on corticosterone levels we determined the existence of two divergent groups in Coturnix coturnix that also differed in other immune-neuroendocrine responses. Quail with lowest corticosterone showed higher lymphoproliferative and antibody responses, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β mRNA expression levels and lower frequencies of leukocyte subpopulations distribution and interleukin-13 levels, than their higher corticosterone counterparts. Results suggest the existence of INPs in birds, comparable to mammalian LEWIS/FISCHER profiles, where basal corticosterone also underlies responses of comparable variables associated to the phenotypes. Concluding, INP may not be a mammalian distinct feature, leading to discuss whether these profiles represent a parallel phenomenon evolved in birds and mammals, or a common feature inherited from a reptilian ancestor millions of years ago. PMID:25793369

  1. Assessment of toxicity and coagulopathy of brodifacoum in Japanese quail and testing in wild owls.

    PubMed

    Webster, Kirstin H; Harr, Kendal E; Bennett, Darin C; Williams, Tony D; Cheng, Kimberly M; Maisonneuve, France; Elliott, John E

    2015-07-01

    Based on detection of hepatic residues, scavenging and predatory non-target raptors are widely exposed to second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs). A small proportion, generally <10%, of tested birds are diagnosed as acutely poisoned. Little is known, however, of sub-lethal effects of SGARs, such as interaction of clotting capacity with traumatic injury. Assessment of coagulation function of birds submitted live to wildlife rehabilitators or veterinarians may provide a means of establishing the proportion of animals suffering sub-lethal coagulopathies, as well as identifying individuals requiring treatment. As a first step in exploring the potential of this approach, we dosed Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) with the SGAR, brodifacoum, at 0, 0.8, 1.4, 1.9, and 2.5 mg/kg and sampled birds at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-dosing. Prothrombin time (PT), which measures the extrinsic coagulation pathway, was significantly prolonged in 98% of brodifacoum-exposed quail in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 50-fold prolongation of PT occurred at higher brodifacoum dosages and correlated to hemorrhage found at necropsy. Activated clotting time (ACT), a measure of the intrinsic pathway also increased with dose and time. Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) decreased dose- and time-dependently at doses ≥1.4 mg/kg with no significant change at 0.8 mg/kg. Reference intervals for PT (10.0-16.2 s), ACT (30-180 s), Hb (9.6-18.4 g/dl), and Hct (34-55%) were established in Japanese quail. Species-specific reference intervals are required as barn owl PT (17-29 s) and quail PT were different. The proportion of brodifacoum-exposed quail with hemorrhage was not correlated with liver residues, but was correlated with PT, suggesting that this assay is a useful indicator of avian anticoagulant rodenticide exposure. PTs measured in free-living barn owls sampled between April 2009 and August 2010 in the lower Fraser Valley of BC do not suggest significant exposure to SGARs. PMID

  2. Cocaine-induced sensitization correlates with testosterone in male Japanese quail but not with estradiol in female Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Gill, Karin E; Madison, Farrah N; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that gonadal hormones may mediate behavioral and biological responses to cocaine. Estrogen, in particular, has been shown to increase behavioral responding to cocaine in female rats relative to male rats. The current study investigated the effect of cocaine on locomotor activity and hormonal correlates in male and female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In Japanese quail, circulating hormone levels can be manipulated without surgical alterations via modifying the photoperiod. Male and female quail were housed on either 8L:16D (light:dark) or 16L:8D (light:dark) cycle for 21days. Blood samples were taken prior to the beginning of the experiment and assays were performed to determine the levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2). Quail were given injections of saline or cocaine (10 or 20mg/kg) once a day for 10days. Immediately after each injection, birds were placed in open field arenas and distance traveled was measured for 30min. Results showed that male quail housed under long-light conditions exhibited cocaine-induced sensitization to 10mg/kg cocaine which was correlated with the high levels of plasma T. Female quail housed under short-light conditions demonstrated sensitization to 10mg/kg cocaine, but this was not correlated with the levels of plasma E2. The current findings suggest that cocaine-induced locomotor activity was associated with T in males but not with E2 in females. PMID:25456105

  3. Stable individual profiles of daily timing of migratory restlessness in European quail.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Guyomarc'h, Catherine; Lumineau, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Temporal characteristics of migratory behavior in birds are usually studied at the species and population levels, and rarely at the individual level. Variations among species and populations of the seasonal onset of migratory behavior have been widely investigated, but very little is known about its daily organization or whether birds are conservative in their behavior. The determination of intra- and inter-individual variability is important for the study of genetic variations and can reveal the existence of different adaptation capacities within populations. This laboratory study analyzed intra- and inter-individual variability of daily initiation and time course of nocturnal restlessness in partial-migrant European quail (Coturnix coturnix coturnix). Thirty-five quail were selected randomly from a captive stock, and their spring activity was recorded under natural daylenghs. Eighteen of the thirty-five quail presented behavioral profiles of migrant birds. Migrant birds initiated their nocturnal activity punctually, and the time courses of the nocturnal activity of 88% of them revealed intra-individual stability over six consecutive nights. All birds initiated their nocturnal activity after sunset and civil twilight, and they were more active at the beginning than the middle or end of the night, suggesting that their drive to migrate could be synchronized with particular skylight conditions. For the first time, stable individual profiles in the daily time course of migratory restlessness are shown. These results support previous findings concerning biological rhythms of quail and raise questions concerning the timing of migratory behavior. PMID:17453846

  4. Transgenic Quail as a Model for Research in the Avian Nervous System – A Comparative Study of the Auditory Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.; Sanchez, Jason Tait; Schecterson, Leslayann; Tabor, Kathryn M.; Wang, Yuan; Kashima, Daniel T.; Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Fraser, Scott E.; Lansford, Rusty; Rubel, Edwin W

    2012-01-01

    Research performed on transgenic animals has led to numerous advances in biological research. However, using traditional retroviral methods to generate transgenic avian research models has proven problematic. As a result, experiments aimed at genetic manipulations on birds remained difficult for this popular research tool. Recently, lentiviral methods have enabled production of transgenic birds, including a transgenic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) line showing neuronal-specificity and stable expression of eGFP across generations (termed here as GFP quail). To test whether the GFP quail may serve as a viable alternative to the popular chicken model system, with the additional benefit of gene manipulation, we compared the development, organization, structure and function of a specific neuronal circuit in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) to that of the GFP quail. This study focuses on a well-defined avian brain region, the principal nuclei of the sound localization circuit in the auditory brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL). Our results demonstrate that structural and functional properties of NM and NL neurons in the GFP quail, as well as their dynamic properties in response to changes in the environment, are nearly identical to those in chickens. These similarities demonstrate that the GFP quail, as well as other transgenic quail lines, can serve as an attractive avian model system, with the advantage of being able to build on the wealth of information already available from the chicken. PMID:22806400

  5. Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for young coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel). The report provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian subacute dietary toxicity tests and is primarily intended for use in ranking toxicities by a standard method that has a reasonable degree of environmental relevance. Findings are presented in two parts: Part I is a critique of selected drugs that includes discussion of subacute toxicity in relation to chemical class and structure, pesticide formulation, and age of animals; Part II is a summary of toxicologic findings for each test substance and provides a statistically basis for comparing toxicities. Data presented include the median lethal concentration (LC50), slope of the probit regression curve (dose-response curve), response chronology, and food consumption. We observed that: 1) fewer than 15% of the compounds were classed 'very' or 'highly' toxic (i.e, LC50 < 200 ppm) and all of these were either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, or organometallics; 2) subacute toxicity may vary widely among structurally similar chemicals and between different formulations of the same chemical; therefore, conclusions about lethal hazard must be made cautiously until the actual formulation of inset has been tested: 3) inclusion of a general standard in each battery of tests is useful for detection of atypical trials and monitoring population changes but should not be used indiscriminantly for adjusting LC50's for intertest differences unless the chemicals of concern and the standard elicit their toxicities through the same action; 4) although other species have been tested effectively under the subacute protocol, coturnix were ideal for the stated purpose of this research because they are inexpensive, well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and yield good intertest

  6. Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Stouvenakers, N.; Kremers, P.

    1996-05-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Experiment K-313: Rat and quail ontogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of spaceflight on the processes of mammalian fertilizaton, implantation and embryonic development are investigated. Five female and two male rats were placed together on Day 2 of the flight. By R+17, it was determined that both flight and synchronous females were not carrying normal pregnancies and three of the flight animals were laparotomized. The uterus and ovaries were processed for microscopic analyses. The two remaining flight females were allowed to recover from the exploratory operation, rebred with flight males and delivered normal litters. As a control for potential transplacental effects that might be interpreted as direct spaceflight effects, a series of fertilized Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs was flown on Cosmos 1129. Although all of the eggs were adversely impacted by an inflight failure of the incubator humidifier on flight Day 13, several embryos were able to progress to a developmental stage equivalent to that of a control 10-12 Day embryo.

  8. Living systems in hypomagnetic conditions of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Kirill; Gurieva, Tamara; Dadasheva, Olga; Spassky, Andrey; Lebedev, Viktor; Kruglov, Oleg

    Living Systems in Hypomagnetic Conditions of Space Trukhanov К. A.1, Guryeva T.S.1, Dadasheva О.А.1, Spassky А.V.2, Lebedev V.М.2, Kruglov О.S.1 1 SSC RF - Institute of bio-medical problems RAS, Moscow 2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow When working at a long-term lunar base, at stations in the near-moon space and during interplanetary missions cosmonauts will be continuously exposed to an entirely new environmental factor - hypomagnetic conditions (HMC). Interplanetary magnetic field and the field on the Lunar surface is three-five orders of magnitude below the usual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that exposure to even a slightly decreased GMF adversely affect human and other living systems. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems and blood are considered to be the most sensitive to reduced GMF. There are some data in literature about the significant vulnerability of developing organism to the HMC. In this paper we present the results of further studies on the impact of the HMC on the embryogenesis of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including the works performed as the development of studies reported at the conferences COSPAR 37 and COSPAR 39. Duration of quail embryos exposure to different values of attenuation HMC (till thousandfold and more) came up to 18 days. It is shown that the prolonged exposure to the HMC heightens the adverse effects on embryogenesis. The background of alternating electromagnetic fields of the systems and equipment will exist at the habitable base or on the board of the spacecraft. The results of studies on the combined effects of HMC and weak alternating magnetic fields are also presented.

  9. Thermoregulatory and metabolic responses of Japanese quail to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, Dylan S.; Foster, Jennifer A.; Bavis, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Common responses to hypoxia include decreased body temperature (Tb) and decreased energy metabolism. In this study, the effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on Tb and metabolic oxygen consumption (V̇o2) were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). When exposed to hypoxia (15, 13, 11 and 9% O2), Tb decreased only at 11% and 9% O2 compared to normoxia; quail were better able to maintain Tb during acute hypoxia after a one-week acclimation to 10% O2. V̇o2 also decreased during hypoxia, but at 9% O2 this was partially offset by increased anaerobic metabolism. Tb and V̇o2 responses to 9% O2 were exaggerated at lower ambient temperature (Ta), reflecting a decreased lower critical temperature during hypoxia. Conversely, hypoxia had little effect on Tb or V̇o2 at higher Ta (36°C). We conclude that Japanese quail respond to hypoxia in much the same way as mammals, by reducing both Tb and V̇o2. No relationship was found between the magnitudes of decreases in Tb and V̇o2 during 9% O2, however. Since metabolism is the source of heat generation, this suggests that Japanese quail increase thermolysis to reduce Tb. During hypercapnia (3, 6 and 9% CO2), Tb was reduced only at 9% CO2 while V̇o2 was unchanged. PMID:18727957

  10. Effects of recombinant lycopene dietary supplement on the egg quality and blood characteristics of laying quails.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Chang, Chi-Huan; Lin, Li-Jen; Yu, Bi; Lee, Tzu-Tai

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplement of bacterial lycopene (BL) produced by Escherichia coli on the egg quality and blood characteristics of laying quails. The antioxidant activity measurement showed that BL exhibited 100% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity at a concentration of 4.65 μg/ml, which was more effective than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and commercial lycopene (CL). Moreover, seven dietary groups of laying quails consisting of 10 100-day-old quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) each were fed with the basal diet supplemented with BL, CL or canthaxanthin (CA) for 4 weeks. Consequently, the triglyceride content of yolk was significantly lower in the group with BL and CL supplement. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the BL- and CA-supplemented groups at 18 mg/kg was lower than the control group. In conclusion, BL has a high antioxidant activity and is promising as a feed additive in the diet of laying quails. PMID:26100321

  11. The quail anatomy portal.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123). PMID:24715219

  12. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...

  13. Effect of cyclic sound cues on sexual development in nonphotostimulated Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Millam, J R; El Halawani, M E; Burke, W H

    1985-01-01

    The influence of cyclic ambient sound stimuli on sexual development was studied in nonphotostimulated [6 hr light:18 hr dark (16L:18D)] Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The incidence of accelerated gonadal development was reduced when ambient daily sound stimuli were attenuated by the presence of a white noise mask in the animal quarters. In a second experiment nonphotostimulated (9L:15D) male quail showed a phase-dependent testicular response to a daily 3-hr radio broadcast presented at different portions of the day. The radio sound stimulus induced a higher incidence of accelerated gonadal development when presented 6 hr prior to the photophase than when presented either 3 hr prior to the photophase or when presented coincidently with the photophase onset. In a third experiment locomotion was monitored in nonphotostimulated quail (9L:15D) with a 3-hr radio sound stimulus presented 6 hr prior to photophase onset. The onset of a daily locomotor activity pattern was associated with radio sound in some individuals, but sound-induced locomotion was not consistently associated with sound-induced accelerated gonadal development. PMID:3975196

  14. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings. PMID:27236304

  15. Staphylococcal dermatitis in quail with a parakeratotic hyperkeratotic dermatosis suggestive of pantothenic acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Raidal, S R

    1995-09-01

    This report describes an outbreak of Staphylococcal dermatitis which occurred in commercial Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with a history and clinico-pathological evidence suggestive of pantothenic acid deficiency. The flock had a low hatchability rate (40 to 43%) and a high percentage (50%) of dead-in-shell embryos. Approximately 5 to 15% of the grower flock developed crusty facial scabs and conjunctivitis from 4 days of age. Culture of eyelid skin yielded pure growths of non-haemolytic, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. Histological examination revealed a generalised hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis of feathers, feather follicles and non-follicular skin. There was invasion of feather follicles by cocci and focal areas of suppurative exudative dermatitis and subcutaneous abscesses particularly in the eyelids and commissures of the beak. Clinical signs were alleviated by treatment with amoxycillin and a change in ration formulation. PMID:18645814

  16. Tissue lead concentrations in Japanese quail ingesting lead Pellets or shot with lead pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.J.; Scanlon, P.F.

    1981-05-01

    Data obtained from birds shot by hunters warrant the consideration that shooting with lead pellets may contrbute to the quantity of lead detected in tissues. Information on the effects of shooting avian species with lead shot on tissue concentrations of lead is, therefore, of considerable importance in assessing the value of birds shot by hunters as a source of samples for studying lead contamination. Kendall found that liver and bone lead concentrations of mourning doves were substantially increased after ingestion of a lead shot. Waterfowl shot by hunters and with direct evidence of ingested lead shot had significantly higher liver lead concentrations than did waterfowl without ingested lead shot. As little information on the effects of shooting with lead projectiles on tissue lead concentrations exists, the present study was designed to measure the effects of shooting Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with lead pellets on lead concentrations in livers and in bones).

  17. Japanese Quail as a Model System for Studying the Neuroendocrine Control of Reproductive and Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; referred to simply as quail in this article) readily exhibit sexual behavior and related social behaviors in captive conditions and have therefore proven valuable for studies of how early social experience can shape adult mate preference and sexual behavior. Quail have also been used in sexual conditioning studies illustrating how natural stimuli predict successful reproduction via Pavlovian processes. In addition, they have proven to be a good model to study how variation in photoperiod regulates reproduction and how variation in gonadal steroid hormones controls sexual behavior. For example, studies have shown that testosterone activates male-typical behaviors after being metabolized into estrogenic and androgenic metabolites. A critical site of action for these metabolites is the preoptic medial nucleus (POM), which is larger in males than in females. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol and is enriched in the POM in a male-biased fashion. Quail studies were the first to show that this enzyme is regulated both relatively slowly via genomic actions of steroids and more quickly via phosphorylation. With this base of knowledge and the recent cloning of the entire genome of the closely related chicken, quail will be valuable for future studies connecting gene expression to sexual and social behaviors. PMID:21131709

  18. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  19. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  20. Enhancement of parathion toxicity to quail by heat and cold exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Becker, J.M.; Nakatsugawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of ambient temperature on the acute oral toxicity of parathion were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) maintained at thermoneutral temperature (26.degree. C) or exposed to elevated (37.degree. C) or reduced (4.degree. C) temperatures commonly encountered by free-ranging wild birds. Based upon estimates of the median lethal dosage, there was up to a two-fold enhancement of parathion toxicity in birds chronically exposed to heat or cold. Twenty-four hours after administration of a low dosage (4 mg/kg body wt, po), there was markedly greater cholinesterase inhibition in surviving heat-exposed quail compared with those reared at 26.degree. C (e.g., brain acetylcholinesterase depression of 42% versus 12%). There were no differences in hepatic activities of parathion oxidase, paraoxonase, or paraoxon deethylase which could account for greater toxicity to chronically heat-exposed birds. In contrast, 4 mg parathion/kg wt elicited less plasma cholinesterase inhibition in cold-exposed quail compared to thermoneutral controls (e.g., < 10% versus 48% depression after 24 hr). Increased liver weight and a doubling of paraoxonase activity may have been associated with greater tolerance to sublethal doses of parathion in chronically cold-exposed quail. These findings, together with limited field observations, indicate that the hazard associated with anticholinesterase exposure of wild birds is substantially influenced by environmental temperature.

  1. Ultrastructural modifications in cultured fetal quail hepatocytes exposed to pesticides and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Hugla, J L; Goffinet, G; Kremers, P; Dubois, M; Lambert, V; Stouvenakers, N; Thome, J P

    1996-07-01

    There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal hepatocytes from the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used as an in vitro alternative model for evaluating the effects of PCBs and various pesticide-type chemicals on cell ultrastructure. Major alterations were demonstrated. The most striking effects of toxicants were an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), various alterations of mitochondrial morphology, a decreased glycogen content, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, and the appearance of concentric membrane arrays (CMA's), also called myelin-like figures. Other changes were sometimes observed, such as altered cell junctions, an increased lipid content, deformations of the nuclei, or the appearance of crystalline structures. These ultrastructural modifications seem to be dose-dependent. The present in vitro findings are validated by similar observations previously made in vivo on Japanese quail. They confirm the effectiveness of this technique as a biomonitoring tool for the evaluation of environmental quality. Yet the multiplicity of possible toxic effects, even for xenobiotics of a same category, makes it necessary to screen additional indicators of toxicity, such as the detoxifying activity of monooxygenases. PMID:8812180

  2. Reproduction in male Japanese quail exposed to microwave radiation during embryogeny

    SciTech Connect

    McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, J.P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos were exposed continuously to 2.45 GHz CW microwave radiation during the first 12 days of embryogenesis. The incident power density was 5 mW/cm/sup 2/, and the specific absorption rate (SAR) was 4.03 mW/g. At 23 weeks of age an assessment of the reproductive capacity of the males was performed. Spermatozoal numbers and motility in semen samples which were collected manually were reduced significantly (P less than or equal to 0.01). However, spermatozoal viability and gross morphological characteristics in the exposed birds were not consistently different from the controls. Relative testicular weights were not altered significantly in the exposed males. Percentage of fertile eggs was significantly reduced when exposed males were mated to sham control females. The percentage of fertile eggs obtained from mating exposed males with sham control females was 72.5%, while the percentage of fertile eggs from mating of sham control males with sham control females was 80.4%. These data indicate that reproductive capacity in male Japanese quail is reduced when the birds are exposed to 2.45 GHz CW microwave radiation during embryogenesis.

  3. Timing of Ossification in Duck, Quail, and Zebra Finch: Intraspecific Variation, Heterochronies, and Life History Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mitgutsch, Christian; Wimmer, Corinne; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Hahnloser, Richard; Schneider, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletogenic heterochronies have gained much attention in comparative developmental biology. The temporal appearance of mineralized individual bones in a species – the species ossification sequence – is an excellent marker in this kind of study. Several publications describe interspecific variation, but only very few detail intraspecific variation. In this study, we describe and analyze the temporal order of ossification of skeletal elements in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, the Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, and the White Pekin duck, a domestic race of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, and explore patterns of intraspecific variation in these events. The overall sequences were found to be conserved. In the duck, variability is present in the relative timing of ossification in the occipital, the basisphenoid and the otic regions of the skull and the phalanges in the postcranium. This variation appears generally in close temporal proximity. Comparison with previously published data shows differences in ossification sequence in the skull, the feet, and the pelvis in the duck, and especially the pelvis in the quail. This clearly documents variability among different breeds. PMID:21728797

  4. Effect of sex on histological and histochemical structures of different parts of the kidney in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Behzad; Abdollahi, MohammadHossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of gender on the histological and histochemical structures of different anatomical regions of the kidney in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Tissue samples from cranial, middle and caudal divisions of each kidney were obtained from 20 male and 20 female adult, healthy Japanese quail. The sections stained with hematoxylin & eosin ( H & E: ), Masson's trichrome, Verhoeff's, Alcian blue (pH 2.5), Periodic acid-Schiff, and Gomori's method for reticulum. Unusual findings of the kidney in Japanese quail were the presence of three types of nephrons, all the connective tissue fibers in capsule and interlobular septa and AB-reactions of the proximal convoluted cells. No significant sex-based differences were found. The various histological structures of the kidney showed no significant differences among different divisions of the left and right kidneys. It is concluded that the general histological and histochemical properties of the kidney in Japanese quail were similar to those of chickens and some other species, but that there were also some differences. One of the major differences was brush border of interdigitating microvilli on luminal surface of collecting ducts in Japanese quail. PMID:27274085

  5. Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus in Quail.

    PubMed

    Torres, C A; Hora, A S; Tonietti, P O; Taniwaki, S A; Cecchinato, M; Villarreal, L Y B; Brandão, P E

    2016-09-01

    This paper expands on a previous report about coronaviruses in quail. After surveillance carried out in 2009 and 2010, some farmers started vaccinating quail with the Massachusetts avian infectious bronchitis virus serotype. The samples for this study were collected in 2013 from São Paulo state in southeastern Brazil. Pools of trachea, lungs, reproductive tract, kidneys, and enteric contents from quail and laying hens kept in the same farms and from quail-only farms as well as from both healthy birds and those showing infectious bronchitis-like symptoms were sampled in this study. The samples were screened using nested RT-PCR targeting the 3'-untranslated region of the Gammacoronavirus genus. Based on the DNA sequence for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, the strains isolated from quail clustered within either the Gammacoronavirus or Deltacoronavirus genus, and sequences from both genera were found in one quail sample. The phylogeny based on the partial S1 subunit sequence showed that the gammacoronaviruses detected in quail and layers belonged to the Brazil type. These results suggest that quail are susceptible to Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus viruses and indicate that the Massachusetts vaccination was not controlling IBV in quail or chickens. PMID:27610726

  6. Effects of dietary selenium source, storage time, and temperature on the quality of quail eggs.

    PubMed

    Baylan, Mikail; Canogullari, Sibel; Ayasan, Tugay; Copur, Gulsen

    2011-11-01

    We report the effects of time of storage, temperature, and supplementation with sodium selenite- and selenium-enriched yeast on the quality of quail eggs. For this study, 90 10-week-old female Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with similar body size were caged individually and randomly divided into five groups of 18 quails each. One group was fed a normal diet and served as control. A second group was supplemented with 0.2 mg/kg sodium selenite (In-Se) and three groups supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/kg of a commercially available selenium-enriched yeast (O-Se1, O-Se2, and O-Se3, respectively). The eggs were collected at third and fourth weeks of the experiment and were stored at 4°C and 20°C for 0, 15, 30, and 45 days. Extension of the storage time to 45 days at 20°C resulted in significant deterioration of egg quality. The albumen Haugh unit (HU), pH, albumen index, yolk index, and egg weight loss were the most important parameters influenced by the nature of the selenium sources, storage time, and temperature. Storage time and temperature were also significant for egg weight loss, HU, and albumen and yolk indexes. The results show that supplementation with selenium yeast significantly affected shell weight, shell thickness, HU, albumen index, yolk index, and pH. The HU decreased with increased storage time and temperature. Higher levels of Se-yeast administration resulted in greater HU compared to the selenite and control groups. PMID:21136198

  7. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  8. Winter protein requirements of bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; Llewellyn, L.M.; Rensberger, M.J.

    1944-01-01

    Three experiments involving 714 bobwhite quail were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, during the winters of 1939-1941 to determine the protein requirement of quail maintained throug'h the winter.....Considering survival, live weights, feed consumption, and subsequent reproduction by the birds, the-9 to 13 per cent levels of crude dietary protein gave as good results as higher levels eggs, which in all cases was over 90 per and in some respects were better.....On the basis of these studies, it is recommended that the winter maintenance diet for bobwhite quail contain . about 11 to 12 per cent of crude protein. The following diet (parts by weight) conforms to these specifications and should be satisfactory:...Ground yellow corn 85.6....Dehvdrated alfalfa leaf meal 5 .O.....Soybean oil meal 7.0.....Special steamed bonemeal 1.2....Salt (or Salt Mixture II,see text) 1.0...Vitamin A and D feeding oil, fortified 0.2.

  9. Endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2) is associated with the panda plumage colour mutation in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Miwa, M; Inoue-Murayama, M; Aoki, H; Kunisada, T; Hiragaki, T; Mizutani, M; Ito, S

    2007-04-01

    The panda mutant in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) displays spots of wild-type plumage on a white background and is controlled by an autosomal recessive allele (s). The dotted white is controlled by a third allele (s(dw)) of the s locus with s(dw)/s(dw) quail having less pigmentation than s/s quail. We mapped the s locus to the Japanese quail chromosome 4 (CJA04) in a previous study. The orthologous region of the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome includes endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2), an avian-specific paralog of endothelin receptor B (EDNRB). EDNRB mutations in mammals retard the migration of neural crest cells (NCCs), which results in a spotted coat colour and an enteric nervous defect. In the present study, we investigated the association between the s locus and EDNRB2 in Japanese quail. Sequence comparison among transcripts from livers of wild-type, panda and dotted white quail revealed a nucleotide substitution (c.995G>A) leading to a p.R332H amino acid change that was specific to panda, whereas no amino acid substitution was found in dotted white birds. The amino acid position 332 is located in the sixth transmembrane domain and is highly conserved in both avian and mammalian endothelin receptors. The A allele at nucleotide position 995 was specific to panda (s/s) birds among 10 strains, and was mapped to the same chromosomal region as the s locus. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that EDNRB2 transcripts were reduced in both panda and dotted white mutants compared with wild-type. However, there was no difference between the early embryos of wild-type and panda with respect to the migration of NCCs. The genetic association of EDNRB2 with plumage colour in birds was found for the first time in this study. PMID:17313575

  10. Photostimulation of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Molino, A B; Garcia, E A; Santos, G C; Vieira Filho, J A; Baldo, G A A; Almeida Paz, I C L

    2015-02-01

    To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14 L:10 D; T2: 15 L:9 D; T3: 16 L:8 D; and T4: 17 L:7 D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3:15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500 K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700 K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux. PMID:25589080

  11. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L.; Henry, Paula F.; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Sprague, Dan; Weber, John

    2016-01-01

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with phosphorus significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite and tertiary Pb phosphate), and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb.

  12. Husbandry and care of quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Both the Japanese and Bobwhite quail are important species for biomedical, toxicological and basic biological research. In view of their rapid maturation, high reproductive rate in captivity, and other physiological characteristics, these species have been and will continue to be used successfully as model avian species. This short reviews describes caging, environmental, and feed requirements for Japanese and Bobwhite quail maintained in captivity. Information on egg collection, incubation, care of young, handling, blood collection and common diseases are discussed.

  13. Cocaine induces state-dependent learning of sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Gill, Karin E; Rice, Beth Ann; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current study investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using a sexual conditioning paradigm. Cocaine-induced state-dependent learning effects were investigated using a 2×2 factorial design with training state as one factor and test state as the other factor. During a 14-day training phase, male quail were injected once daily with 10mg/kg cocaine or saline and then placed in a test chamber after 15min. In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by sexual reinforcement. During the state dependent test, half of the birds received a shift in drug state from training to testing (Coc→Sal or Sal→Coc) while the other half remained in the same drug state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal). Results showed that male quail that were trained and tested in the same state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal) showed greater sexual conditioning than male quail that were trained and tested in different states (Sal→Coc) except when cocaine was administered chronically prior to the test (Coc→Sal). For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An alternative explanation for the findings is also discussed. PMID:25447336

  14. Reproductivity of Japanese quail fed mercuric chloride in the absence of vitamin D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was tested at 16 p.p.m. Hg for vitamin D sparing activity by presenting it dietarily in the presence and absence of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC) to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) for 25 days. No gross signs characteristic of mercury poisoning were observed, but some predictable effects of vitamin D deficiency on avian reproduction were manifested within 10 days. Rate of lay, egg shell thickness, and hatchability of fertile eggs decreased markedly for birds on vitamin D-deficient diets. Shell-less eggs were laid by these birds after 20 days and laying stopped entirely on the 23rd day. Laying resumed within 5 days after diets were refortified with 25-HCC. There was no detectable interaction between HgCl2 and vitamin D.

  15. Toxicity of DDT to Japanese quail as influenced by body weight, breeding condition, and sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gish, C.D.; Chura, N.J.

    1970-01-01

    Controlled experiments were utilized to simulate the stresses on wild birds of breeding condition and of weight loss due to migration. Light conditions in the laboratory were manipulated to produce Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in breeding condition and not in breeding condition. Within each of these groups, some birds were partially starved before dosage and some were fully fed. Birds were then fed dietary levels of 0, 700, 922, 1214, or 1600 ppm dry weight of p,p?-DDT for a period of 20 days or until death. Birds partially starved before dosage were more susceptible to DDT intoxication than nonstarved ones, and birds not in breeding condition were slightly more so than birds in breeding condition. Similarly, males died earlier than females, and the birds of the lighter weight strain used in the second half of the study died earlier than the birds of the heavier strain used in the first half. The heavier birds of each sex not only survived longer than lighter individuals receiving the same treatments, but they also lost a greater proportion of their weight before death. During the early portion of the dosage period, females in breeding condition were less sensitive to DDT than were females not in breeding condition and males. After 10 days on dosage, however, the cumulative mortality of females in breeding condition rapidly approached that of males and of females not in breeding condition. Food restriction prior to dosage, strains of quail, breeding conditions, and sexes resulted in weight differences and a corresponding accentuation or delay of the effects of the different levels of DDT.

  16. Oral and intramuscular toxicity of inorganic and organic mercury chloride to growing quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The lethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCl2) and organic (CH3HgCl) mercury chloride was compared for Coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica) of different ages from hatch through adulthood by single-dose acute oral and intramuscular injections and by a 5-d dietary trial. Sublethal mercury toxicity was studied by evaluation of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity. CH3HgCl was more toxic than HgCl2 in all tests at each age tested. LD50s consistently increased over the first 4 wk for both acute methods and both mercurials and then stabilized. The striking difference between single-dose acute and 5-d dietary tests was that CH3HgCl averaged about twice as toxic as HgCl2 by both acute methods, compared to 100 times as toxic by the dietary method. For example, at 2 wk of age, the oral LD50s for CH3HgCl and HgCl2 were 18 and 42 mg/kg and the dietary LC50s were 47 and 5086 ppm. When birds were fed HgCl2 and developed clinical signs of intoxication, they could recover once treatment was withdrawn; however, on CH3HgCl, clinical signs often commenced after treatment was withdrawn, and then actually intensified for several days and culminated in death.

  17. Oral and intramuscular toxicity or inorganic and organic mercury chloride to growing quail

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The lethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCl/sub 2/) and organic (CH/sub 3/HgCl) mercury chloride was compared for Coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica) of different ages from hatch through adulthood by single-dose acute oral and intramuscular injections and by a 5-d dietary trial. Sublethal mercury toxicity was studied by evaluation of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity. CH/sub 3/HgCl was more toxic than HgCl/sub 2/ in all tests at each age tested. LD50s consistently increased over the first 4 wk for both acute methods and both mercurials and then stabilized. The striking difference between single-dose acute and 5-d dietary tests was that CH/sub 3/HgCl averaged about twice as toxic as HgCl/sub 2/ by both acute methods, compared to 100 times as toxic by the dietary method. For example, at 2 wk of age, the oral LD50s for CH/sub 3/HgCl and HgCl/sub 2/ were 18 and 42 mg/kg and the dietary LC50s were 47 and 5086 ppm. When birds were fed HgCl/sub 2/ developed clinical signs of intoxication, they could recover once treatment was withdrawn; however, on CH/sub 3/HgCl, clinical signs often commenced after treatment was withdrawn, and then actually intensified for several days and culminated in death.

  18. The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

    The avian embryonic eye is used as a model system for studies on the environmental effects on central nervous system development. Here we present results of qualitative investigation of the eye development in quail embryos incubated in micro-"g" environment. In this study we used eyes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) embryos "flown" onboard biosatellite Kosmos-1129 and on Mir station within the framework of Mir-NASA Program. Eyes obtained from embryos ranging in age from 3-12 days (E3-E12) were prepared histologically and compared with those of the synchronous and laboratory gound controls. Ther most careful consideration was given to finding and analysis of eye developmental abnormalities. Then they were compared with those already described by experimental teratology for birds and mammals. At the stage of the "eye cup" (E3) we found the case of invalid formation of the inner retina. The latter was represented by disorganized neuroblasts occupying whole posterior chamber of the eye. On the 7th day of quail eye development, at the period of cellular growth activation some cases of small eyes with many folds of overgrowing neural and pigmented retinal layers were detected. In retinal folds of these eyes the normal layering was disturbed as well as the formation of aqueous body and pecten oculi. At this time point the changes were also found in the anterior part of the eye. The peculiarities came out of the bigger width of the cornea and separation of its layers, but were found in synchronous control as well. Few embryos of E10 had also eyes with the abnormities described for E7 but this time they were more vivid because of the completion of eye tissue differentiation. At the stage E12 we found the case evaluated as microphthalmia attending by overgrowth of anterior pigmented tissues - iris and ciliary body attached with the cornea. Most, but not all, of abnormalities we found in eye morphogeneses belonged to the birds "flown" aboard Kosmos- 1129 and

  19. Quails on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern High Plains of Texas are on the southern end of the North American Great Plains and occupy about 20 million acres. The climate is semi-arid, with long-term (90-year) average annual precipitation at Lubbock of 18.9 inches. Two species of quail, northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and...

  20. Mutations in SLC45A2 cause plumage color variation in chicken and Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Hellström, Anders R; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Minvielle, Francis; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Ito, Shin'ichi; Jensen, Per; Rattink, Annemieke; Vereijken, Addie; Andersson, Leif

    2007-02-01

    S*S (Silver), S*N (wild type/gold), and S*AL (sex-linked imperfect albinism) form a series of alleles at the S (Silver) locus on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome Z. Similarly, sex-linked imperfect albinism (AL*A) is the bottom recessive allele at the orthologous AL locus in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The solute carrier family 45, member 2, protein (SLC45A2), previously denoted membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP), has an important role in vesicle sorting in the melanocytes. Here we report five SLC45A2 mutations. The 106delT mutation in the chicken S*AL allele results in a frameshift and a premature stop codon and the corresponding mRNA appears to be degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. A splice-site mutation in the Japanese quail AL*A allele causes in-frame skipping of exon 4. Two independent missense mutations (Tyr277Cys and Leu347Met) were associated with the Silver allele in chicken. The functional significance of the former mutation, associated only with Silver in White Leghorn, is unclear. Ala72Asp was associated with the cinnamon allele (AL*C) in the Japanese quail. The most interesting feature concerning the SLC45A2 variants documented in this study is the specific inhibition of expression of red pheomelanin in Silver chickens. This phenotypic effect cannot be explained on the basis of the current, incomplete, understanding of SLC45A2 function. It is an enigma why recessive null mutations at this locus cause an almost complete absence of both eumelanin and pheomelanin whereas some missense mutations are dominant and cause a specific inhibition of pheomelanin production. PMID:17151254

  1. Activity and Safety of Inhaled Itraconazole Nanosuspension in a Model Pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus Infection in Inoculated Young Quails.

    PubMed

    Wlaź, Piotr; Knaga, Sebastian; Kasperek, Kornel; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa; Jeżewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Winiarczyk, Stanisław; Wyska, Elżbieta; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Rundfeldt, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is frequently reported in parrots, falcons, and other birds held in captivity. Inhalation is the main route of infection for Aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in both acute and chronic disease conditions. Itraconazole (ITRA) is an antifungal commonly used in birds, but its administration requires repeated oral dosing, and the safety margin is narrow. To investigate the efficacy of inhaled ITRA, six groups of ten young quails (Coturnix japonica) were inoculated intratracheally with 5 × 10(6) spores (3 groups) or 5 × 10(7) spores (3 groups). Animals were exposed to nebulized ITRA nanosuspension as 10 % suspension or 4 % suspension, once daily for 30 min, starting 2 h after inoculation for 6 days. Control groups were exposed to nebulized saline for the same period of time. Survival and clinical scores were evaluated, and animals were subjected to gross pathology. In control animals, aspergillosis resulted in systemic disease without pulmonary or air sac granulomas. Animals died from multiple organ failure. Inhalation of 10 % ITRA nanosuspension blocked lethality and prevented disease-related symptoms in the quails exposed to the low dose of spores, while the disease course in quails inoculated with the high-spore dose was retarded. Inhalation of 4 % ITRA nanosuspension was less effective. Both inhalations were well tolerated, and gross pathology did not reveal signs of local toxicity. The data indicate that inhaled administration of 10 % ITRA nanosuspension is capable of alleviating an acute A. fumigatus infection in quails. A lower ITRA concentration may be only active in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:25790942

  2. Fecundity of Quail in Spacelab Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, B. C.; Wentworth, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiments in which fertilized Japanese quail eggs were allowed to develop to various ages in space, and the results of the following laboratory tests are described. Laboratory-based experiments concerned with the embryonic development of Japanese quail in gravity using simulated vibrations and G-force are reported. Effect of turning and ambient temperature at various days of incubation on the development of Japanese quail, and method to feed and water adult and newly hatched Japanese quail in microgravity using a gelatin-based diet as a solid water supply, are also described.

  3. Gene cloning, expression and characterization of avian cathelicidin orthologs, Cc-CATHs, from Coturnix coturnix.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Wenjuan; He, Weiyu; Guang, Huijuan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Duo; Liu, Jingze; Chen, Ming; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2011-05-01

    Cathelicidins comprise a family of antimicrobial peptides sharing a highly conserved cathelin domain, which play a central role in the early innate host defense against infection. In the present study, we report three novel avian cathelicidin orthologs cloned from a constructed spleen cDNA library of Coturnix coturnix, using a nested-PCR-based cloning strategy. Three coding sequences containing ORFs of 447, 465 and 456 bp encode three mature antimicrobial peptides (named Cc-CATH1, 2 and 3) of 26, 32 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that precursors of Cc-CATHs are significantly conserved with known avian cathelicidins. Synthetic Cc-CATH2 and 3 displayed broad and potent antimicrobial activity against most of the 41 strains of bacteria and fungi tested, especially the clinically isolated drug-resistant strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration values in the range 0.3-2.5 μm for most strains with or without the presence of 100 mm NaCl. Cc-CATH2 and 3 showed considerable reduction of cytotoxic activity compared to other avian cathelicidins, with average IC(50) values of 20.18 and 17.16 μm, respectively. They also exerted a negligible hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes, lysing only 3.6% of erythrocytes at a dose up to 100 μg·mL(-1) . As expected, the recombinant Cc-CATH2 (rCc-CATH2) also showed potent bactericidal activity. All these features of Cc-CATHs encourage further studies aiming to estimate their therapeutic potential as drug leads, as well as coping with current widespread antibiotic resistance, especially the new prevalent and dangerous 'superbug' that is resistant to almost all antibiotics. PMID:21375690

  4. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L; Henry, Paula F P; Mosby, David E; Rattner, Barnett A; Scheckel, Kirk G; Sprague, Daniel T; Weber, John S

    2016-09-01

    Hazards of soil-borne lead (Pb) to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, the authors measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from 5 Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33% to 63%, with a mean of approximately 50%. Treatment of 2 of the soils with phosphorus (P) significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in 6 in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability: the relative bioavailability leaching procedure at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the Ohio State University in vitro gastrointestinal method, the urban soil bioaccessible lead test, the modified physiologically based extraction test, and the waterfowl physiologically based extraction test. All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the relative bioavailability leaching procedure at pH 2.5 and Ohio State University in vitro gastrointestinal tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite, and tertiary Pb phosphate) and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb, and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2311-2319. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of

  5. Fine mapping of complex traits in non-model species: using next generation sequencing and advanced intercross lines in Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As for other non-model species, genetic analyses in quail will benefit greatly from a higher marker density, now attainable thanks to the evolution of sequencing and genotyping technologies. Our objective was to obtain the first genome wide panel of Japanese quail SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and to use it for the fine mapping of a QTL for a fear-related behaviour, namely tonic immobility, previously localized on Coturnix japonica chromosome 1. To this aim, two reduced representations of the genome were analysed through high-throughput 454 sequencing: AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) fragments as representatives of genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) as representatives of the transcriptome. Results The sequencing runs produced 399,189 and 1,106,762 sequence reads from cDNA and genomic fragments, respectively. They covered over 434 Mb of sequence in total and allowed us to detect 17,433 putative SNP. Among them, 384 were used to genotype two Advanced Intercross Lines (AIL) obtained from three quail lines differing for duration of tonic immobility. Despite the absence of genotyping for founder individuals in the analysis, the previously identified candidate region on chromosome 1 was refined and led to the identification of a candidate gene. Conclusions These data confirm the efficiency of transcript and AFLP-sequencing for SNP discovery in a non-model species, and its application to the fine mapping of a complex trait. Our results reveal a significant association of duration of tonic immobility with a genomic region comprising the DMD (dystrophin) gene. Further characterization of this candidate gene is needed to decipher its putative role in tonic immobility in Coturnix. PMID:23066875

  6. Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from Phasianus colchicus, Meleagris gallopavo, and Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Won; Kim, Jin-Kyoo; Seo, Hee Won; Cho, Byung Wook; Song, Gwonhwa; Han, Jae Yong

    2010-08-15

    To date, immunoglobulin (Ig) genes have only been fully characterized in a small number of aves, which pose a major obstacle to understanding Ig evolution. Thus, we cloned the cDNAs of three immunoglobulin classes, IgA, IgM, and IgY, from Phasianus colchicus, Coturnix japonica, and Meleagris gallopavo. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the highest degree of sequence homology in all Ig classes was observed between pheasant and turkey whereas the degree of homology between the galliforms and non-galliforms was relatively low compared to that among the galliforms. When the constant region domains of the four human Ig classes were compared with the corresponding regions in aves, the average percent homology between human CH2 and avian CH3, and between human CH3 and avian CH4, was greater than between identical domains in IgA and IgY, which are in partial agreement with the hypothesis that the avian CH2 domain evolved to form the mammalian hinge via domain condensation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the galliform Ig heavy chain constant regions were divided into quail and the common ancestor of chicken, turkey, and pheasant, and that chicken was separated from turkey and pheasant, which were grouped together. These results add to our knowledge of galliform Igs and the diversification of these genes. PMID:20398946

  7. Combined exposure of Japanese quails to cyanotoxins, Newcastle virus and lead: oxidative stress responses.

    PubMed

    Paskova, Veronika; Veronika, Paskova; Paskerova, Hana; Hana, Paskerova; Pikula, Jiri; Jiri, Pikula; Bandouchova, Hana; Hana, Bandouchova; Sedlackova, Jana; Jana, Sedlackova; Hilscherova, Klara; Klara, Hilscherova

    2011-10-01

    Wild birds are continually exposed to many anthropogenic and natural stressors in their habitats. Over the last decades, mass mortalities of wild birds constitute a serious problem and may possibly have more causations such as natural toxins including cyanotoxins, parasitic diseases, industrial chemicals and other anthropogenic contaminants. This study brings new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors in birds. The aim was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass, lead and antigenic load may combine to enhance the effects on birds, including modulation of antioxidative and detoxification responses. Eight treatment groups of model species Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were exposed to various combinations of these stressors. The parameters of detoxification and oxidative stress were studied in liver and heart after 30 days of exposure. The antioxidative enzymatic defense in birds seems to be activated quite efficiently, which was documented by the elevated levels and activities of antioxidative and detoxification compounds and by the low incidence of damage to lipid membranes. The greatest modulations of glutathione level and activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation were shown mostly in the groups with combined multiple exposures. The results indicate that the antioxidative system plays an important role in the protective response of the tissues to applied stressors and that its greater induction helps to protect the birds from more serious damage. Most significant changes of these "defense" parameters in case of multiple stressors suggest activation of this universal mechanism in situation with complex exposure and its crucial role in protection of the bird health in the environment. PMID:21855999

  8. Effect of onion (Allium cepa Linn.) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on plasma triglyceride content in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonicum).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Girish; Surendranathan, K P; Umesh, K G; Gayathri Devi, D R; Belwadi, M R Sandhya

    2003-01-01

    Dietary onion and garlic caused an increase in the level of plasma triglyceride which could be due to insulin like activity of dietary alliums and other factors that promote lipogenesisi in growing stages. Changes in the plasma triglyceride level in the control group due to change in age and sex were also noted. The triglyceride level was more in female birds when compared to males of similar age group. The plasma trigelyceride level increased with age in both sex except for the level being similar in the 6 and 9-week old females and 3 and 6-week old male birds. The results suggest that the effects of alliums in growing and adult stages may be different which needs further study. PMID:15267143

  9. Mapping of plumage colour and blood protein loci on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Miwa, M; Inoue-Murayama, M; Kayang, B B; Vignal, A; Minvielle, F; Monvoisin, J L; Takahashi, H; Ito, S

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this work was to map classical markers (plumage colours and blood proteins) on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The segregation data on two plumage colours and three blood proteins were obtained from 25 three-generation families (193 F2 birds). Linkage analysis was carried out for these five classical markers and 80 microsatellite markers. A total of 15 linkage groups that included the five classical loci and 69 of the 80 microsatellite markers were constructed. Using the BLAST homology search against the chicken genome sequence, three quail linkage groups, QL8, QL10 and QL13, were suggested to be homologous to chicken chromosomes GGA9, GGA20 and GGA24, respectively. Two plumage colour loci, black at hatch (Bh) and yellow (Y), and the three blood protein loci, transferrin (Tf), haemoglobin (Hb-1) and prealbumin-1 (Pa-1), were assigned to CJA01, QL10, QL8, CJA14 and QL13, respectively. PMID:16167982

  10. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males’ inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology. PMID:26222780

  11. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (p< 0.5) in hen day production (90.2 vs 54.1; control vs EB, resp.) and fertility (85.3 vs 33.4%, control vs EB, resp.). Males showed sharply reduced courtship and mating behaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  12. Induction of cytochrome P4501A by highly purified hexachlorobenzene in primary cultures of ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Lukas J; Crump, Doug; Jones, Stephanie P; Konstantinov, Alex; Utley, Fiona; Potter, David; Kennedy, Sean W

    2012-04-01

    Primary cultures of ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) embryo hepatocytes were used to compare the potencies of highly purified hexachlorobenzne (HCB-P), reagent-grade HCB (RG-HCB) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as inducers of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A4) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and CYP1A5 mRNA. HCB-P, RG-HCB and TCDD all induced EROD activity and up-regulated CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 mRNA. Induction was not caused by contamination of HCB with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans or biphenyls. Based upon a comparison of the EC(50) and EC(threshold) values for EROD and CYP1A4/5 concentration-response curves, the potency of HCB relative to TCDD was 0.001 in ring-necked pheasant and 0.01 in Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes. Differences in species sensitivity to HCB were found to be mainly dictated by differences in species sensitivity to TCDD rather than differences in the absolute potency of HCB. Consequently, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes were found to be equally sensitive to HCB exposure. Species sensitivity comparisons were also made with chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and revealed that chicken embryo hepatocytes were less responsive to EROD induction (lower maximal response) by HCB compared to the embryo hepatocytes of pheasant and quail. PMID:22227438

  13. Replication and transmission of influenza viruses in Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Natalia V.; Ozaki, Hiroishi; Kida, Hiroshi; Webster, Robert G.; Perez, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Quail have emerged as a potential intermediate host in the spread of avian influenza A viruses in poultry in Hong Kong. To better understand this possible role, we tested the replication and transmission in quail of influenza A viruses of all 15 HA subtypes. Quail supported the replication of at least 14 subtypes. Influenza A viruses replicated predominantly in the respiratory tract. Transmission experiments suggested that perpetuation of avian influenza viruses in quail requires adaptation. Swine influenza viruses were isolated from the respiratory tract of quail at low levels. There was no evidence of human influenza A or B virus replication. Interestingly, a human–avian recombinant containing the surface glycoprotein genes of a quail virus and the internal genes of a human virus replicated and transmitted readily in quail; therefore, quail could function as amplifiers of influenza virus reassortants that have the potential to infect humans and/or other mammalian species. PMID:12788625

  14. Evaluating endocrine endpoints relative to reproductive success in Japanese quail exposed to estrogenic chemicals [poster

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, P.F.P.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Casey, C.S.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The standard US EPA guidelines for avian reproductive testing may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect effects of sublethal and chronic exposure to endocrine disrupting toxins. There is a need to evaluate endocrine endpoints as potential markers for contaminant effects, and to determine their effectiveness and sensitivity when applied to wildlife. To this end, a three generational test was conducted using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and a proven estrogenic PCB. Birds were exposed during embryonic development via maternal deposition and/or direct egg injection at day 4. Standard measures of reproductive success and productivity used in toxicological studies, as well as multiple measures of physiological and behavioral responses used in endocrine studies were collected. Long term effects on growth and apparent development were similar between treated and control offspring. Fertility of treated eggs decreased from 75%+ 4.4 (x + se) for P1, to 59% + 12.5 for F1 and 54% + 14.2 for F2. All paired control birds mated to produce viable eggs, whereas 27 % of the F1 and 41 % of the F2 treated pairs failed to produce at least 1 viable egg. Although some decreases in productivity can be related to direct toxic exposure, the response from one generation to the next was not linear with treatment, indicating a potential effect from behavioral or other endocrine alterations.

  15. Sexual maturation and productivity of Japanese quail fed graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 p.p.m. Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) from the time of hatching up to the age of 1 year. None of the birds manifested any gross signs of mercury poisioning. Food consumption, growth rate, and weight maintenance were unaffected. Initial oviposition tended to occur at a younger age as dietary mercuric chloride increased, e.g., the median age at which egg laying began among hens fed 32 p.p.m. Hg was 6 days younger than for controls. The average rate of egg production was positively related to the concentration of mercuric chloride with the most pronounced differences between treatments occurring among young (less than 9-week-old) hens. Beyond 9 weeks of age production was more uniform among the treatments, but even after 1 year hens on 32 p.p.m. Hg were laying an average of 13.5% more eggs than controls. Rate of egg fertilization was generally depressed for all Hg-treatments above 4 p.p.m. Hatchability of fertilized eggs and eggshell thickness appeared unaffected by mercuric chloride.

  16. Effect of mercuric chloride feeding on sexual maturity, egg production and fertility in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1973-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 8, 16 or 32 p.p.m. of mercury as mercuric chloride from 3 days of age through 20 weeks of age. The onset of egg production generally occurred earlier for hens fed HgCl2. Average age in days at first oviposition for the control, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m. and 32 p.p.m. was 48.4, 50.9, 46.9 and 44.0 respectively. The average rate of egg productivity from first oviposition to attainment of full growth (9 weeks of age) correlated positively with in increased dietary mercury (controls, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m., 32 p.p.m. ? 75.2, 69.3, 86.1 and 93.3% respectively). By 20 weeks of age productivity was 81.0, 80.6, 87.5 and 92.9% for control, 8, 16 and 32 p.p.m. groups respectively. Fertility was depressed when hens were fed HgCl2. At 9 weeks of age average control fertility was 59% contrasted with 25% for the 32 p.p.m. group. At 12 weeks fertility increased to 89% and 57% for these groups. From this study it is apparent. that the onset and rate of egg production was stimulated by HgCl2, but fertility was adversely affected.

  17. Identification and comparative proteomic study of quail and duck egg white protein using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Zhao, Hongyan; Gao, Dan; Song, Rui; Ma, Meihu

    2016-01-01

    A proteomic study of egg white proteins from 2 major poultry species, namely quail (Coturnix coturnix) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos), was performed with comparison to those of chicken (Gallus gallus) through 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS), 29 protein spots representing 10 different kinds of proteins as well as 17 protein spots designating 9 proteins were successfully identified in quail and duck egg white, respectively. This report suggested a closer relationship between quail and chicken egg white proteome patterns, whereas the duck egg white protein distribution on the 2-DE map was more distinct. In duck egg white, some well-known major proteins, such as ovomucoid, clusterin, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor (ex-FABP), and prostaglandin D2 synthase (PG D2 synthase), were not detected, while two major protein spots identified as “deleted in malignant brain tumors 1” protein (DMBT1) and vitellogenin-2 were found specific to duck in the corresponding range on the 2-DE gel map. These interspecies diversities may be associated with the egg white protein functions in cell defense or regulating/supporting the embryonic development to adapt to the inhabiting environment or reproduction demand during long-term evolution. The findings of this work will give insight into the advantages involved in the application on egg white proteins from various egg sources, which may present novel beneficial properties in the food industry or related to human health. PMID:26957635

  18. Identification and comparative proteomic study of quail and duck egg white protein using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Qiu, N; Liu, Y; Zhao, H; Gao, D; Song, R; Ma, M

    2016-05-01

    A proteomic study of egg white proteins from 2 major poultry species, namely quail (Coturnix coturnix) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos), was performed with comparison to those of chicken (Gallus gallus) through 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS), 29 protein spots representing 10 different kinds of proteins as well as 17 protein spots designating 9 proteins were successfully identified in quail and duck egg white, respectively. This report suggested a closer relationship between quail and chicken egg white proteome patterns, whereas the duck egg white protein distribution on the 2-DE map was more distinct. In duck egg white, some well-known major proteins, such as ovomucoid, clusterin, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor (ex-FABP), and prostaglandin D2 synthase (PG D2 synthase), were not detected, while two major protein spots identified as "deleted in malignant brain tumors 1" protein (DMBT1) and vitellogenin-2 were found specific to duck in the corresponding range on the 2-DE gel map. These interspecies diversities may be associated with the egg white protein functions in cell defense or regulating/supporting the embryonic development to adapt to the inhabiting environment or reproduction demand during long-term evolution. The findings of this work will give insight into the advantages involved in the application on egg white proteins from various egg sources, which may present novel beneficial properties in the food industry or related to human health. PMID:26957635

  19. Oxya hyla hyla (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an Alternative Protein Source for Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mousumi; Mandal, Suman Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient composition of the grasshoppers Oxya hyla hyla showed that they are a rich nutrient source containing 687.7 g protein/kg of dry body weight. Their antinutrient values fell within nutritionally acceptable values of the poultry bird Coturnix japonica japonica (Japanese quail). The most required essential amino acids and fatty acids were also present in sufficient amount. For feeding trial nine diets were formulated on an equal crude protein (230 g/kg) basis with grasshopper meal, fish meal, and soybean meal. Three sets of diets with grasshopper meal were prepared with 50 g/kg, 100 g/kg, and 150 g/kg grasshopper of total feed. Similarly, other diet sets were prepared with fish meal and also with soybean meal. Results were compared with another group of Japanese quails fed on a reference diet that was considered as control. Two experiments were conducted with a total number of 600, seven-day-old, Japanese quails. In experiment 1 for determination of growth performance, quails were randomly distributed into ten groups of males and ten groups of females containing 30 birds each. In experiment 2 for determination of laying performance, identical ten groups were prepared in ten repetitions (2 females and 1 male in each group) from the six-week-old birds of experiment 1. Birds of diet set GM2 have gained the highest body weight (male 4.04 g/bird/day; female 5.01 g/bird/day) followed by birds of FM3 diet set (male 3.72 g/bird/day; female 4.40 g/bird/day), whereas birds of reference diet have gained 3.05 g/bird/day for male and 3.23 g/bird/day for female. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds fed with GM2 was the lowest (male 3.33; female 2.97) whereas FCR of R group was higher (male 4.37; female 4.65) than grasshopper meal and fish meal based diets. Hen day production percentage was higher (72.2) in GM2 group, followed by FM3 (63.5) group. R group had lower 1st egg weight (9.0 g), weight gain (8.2 g), percentage of hen day production (41

  20. Quail Egg compared to a quarter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Quail eggs are small (shown here with a quarter for scale) and develop quickly, making them ideal for space experiments. The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels (below), one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations, Development and function of the inner-ear balance system in normal and altered gravity environments, and Skeletal development in embryonic quail.

  1. Visualising Learning Goals with the Quail Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botturi, Luca

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the Quail Model, a device for the classification and visualisation of learning goals. The model is a communication tool that can smoothen the discussion within a course design team, support shared understanding, and improve decision making. Its theoretical background mingles contributions from instructional design (Bloom,…

  2. Sequence and in vitro function of chicken, ring-necked pheasant, and Japanese quail AHR1 predict in vivo sensitivity to dioxins.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Wu, Dongmei; Crump, Doug; Hervé, Jessica C; Jones, Stephanie P; Hahn, Mark E; Karchner, Sibel I; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2012-03-01

    There are large differences in sensitivity to the toxic and biochemical effects of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) among vertebrates. Previously, we demonstrated that the difference in sensitivity between domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) to aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1)-dependent changes in gene expression following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is based upon the identities of the amino acids at two sites within the ligand binding domain of AHR1 (chicken--highly sensitive; Ile324_Ser380 vs common tern--250-fold less sensitive than chicken; Val325_Ala381). Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) the sensitivity of other avian species to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) is also determined by the amino acids at sites that are equivalent to sites 324 and 380 in chicken, and (ii) Ile324_Ala380 and Val324_Ser380 genotypes confer intermediate sensitivity to DLCs in birds. We compared ligand-induced transactivation function of full-length AHR1s from chicken, common tern, ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; Ile324_Ala380) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; Val324_Ala380), and three Japanese quail AHR1 mutants. The results support our hypothesis that avian species can be grouped into three general classes of sensitivity to DLCs. Both AHR1 genotype and in vitro transactivation assays predict in vivo sensitivity. Contrary to the assumption that TCDD is the most potent DLC, PeCDF was more potent than TCDD at activating Japanese quail (13- to 26-fold) and common tern (23- to 30-fold) AHR1. Our results support and expand previous in vitro and in vivo work that demonstrated ligand-dependent species differences in AHR1 affinity. The findings and methods will be of use for DLC risk assessments. PMID:22296185

  3. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning. PMID:22010640

  4. Reevaluation of the developmental toxicity of dieldrin by the use of fertilized Japanese quail eggs.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Takahashi, Shinji; Shimizu, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    To reevaluate the toxicity of the organochlorine insecticide and persistent organic pollutant dieldrin and confirm its impact on development, an exposure trial using bird eggs was performed. Dieldrin at concentrations of 10-100 microg/g of egg was injected into the yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs. Hatchlings from the eggs were raised to sexual maturity and multiple tests to detect the harmful effects of dieldrin were conducted. Dieldrin at 100 microg/g decreased egg hatchability by 50.0% (vehicle control, 86.7%), although embryogenesis even in unhatched eggs treated with high doses of dieldrin was normal. In safely hatched chicks, dose-dependent early death with tonic seizure was observed and all birds exposed to 100 microg/g died within 3 days. Other significant alterations in hatchlings were enlargement of the whole brain, decreases in mRNA expressions of tryptophan hydroxylase in the brainstem and cholesterol side-chain cleavage in the male gonad, and increases in mRNA expressions of cytochrome P450 1A and 2C18 in the liver. For mature birds (males at 5 weeks and females at 10 weeks of age), impairment of eggshell formation such as reduced eggshell mass and eggshell thinning, increases in the body mass of males and the liver mass of females and increases in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were observed. The results indicated that not only does the neurotoxicity of dieldrin bring early death, but its effects on reproductive and hepatic functions (detected as gene transcriptional changes in hatchlings) persist harmfully after maturity. PMID:20211759

  5. Protein S100 immunoreactivity in glial cells and neurons of the Japanese quail brain.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Claudia; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Carlo Panzica, Gian

    2003-03-01

    In mammals, sparse data illustrated the neuronal expression of S100 protein in central and peripheral nervous system. Similar studies have not been performed in other vertebrate species, in particular in birds. We provide here a detailed description of the distribution of the calcium-binding protein S100 in neuronal and glial elements in the central nervous system of an avian species, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) largely used for neuroanatomical and functional studies. The distribution of S100-like immunoreactivity was analyzed by three different antisera: a polyclonal, against S100 protein, and two monoclonals, against the beta-subunit (S100beta) and the alpha-subunit (S100alpha) of this protein. All sera showed glial positive elements, which were more abundant in the brainstem than in the prosencephalon. Moreover, the polyclonal and the monoclonal antibodies against the beta-subunit evidenced a neuronal population with a wide distribution, variable morphology and staining intensity. In the telencephalon and diencephalon a few S100-positive neurons were observed in basal ganglia, nucleus paraventricularis hypothalami, nucleus rotundus and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis. In the mesencephalon and pons a wide S100-immunoreactive neuronal population was detected in several regions, including motor and sensory nuclei of most cranial nerves (i.e. oculomotoris, abducens, trigeminus, cochlearis, trochlearis and vestibularis nuclei). This distribution appears very similar to that previously described in the rat hindbrain by both immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, as well as to sparse observations on different vertebrates. Therefore, our results suggest that the distribution pattern of this protein (both in glial and in neuronal elements) is highly conserved throughout the phylogeny. PMID:12706207

  6. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    PubMed

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables. PMID:10488399

  7. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  8. Embryonic development and inviability phenotype of chicken-Japanese quail F1 hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid incompatibility, including inviability and sterility, is important in speciation; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown in vertebrates. Crosses between male chickens and female Japanese quails using artificial insemination can generate intergeneric hybrids; however, the hatching rate is low, and hatched hybrids are only sterile males. Hybrid development is arrested frequently during the early embryonic stages, and the sex ratio of living embryos is male-biased. However, the development and sex ratio of hybrid embryos have not been comprehensively analyzed. In the present study, we observed delayed embryonic development of chicken-quail hybrids during the early stage, compared with that of chickens and quails. The survival rate of hybrids decreased markedly during the blastoderm-to-pre-circulation stage and then decreased gradually through the subsequent stages. Hybrid females were observed at more than 10 d of incubation; however, the sex ratio of hybrids became male-biased from 10 d of incubation. Severely malformed embryos were observed frequently in hybrids. These results suggest that developmental arrest occurs at various stages in hybrid embryos, including a sexually non-biased arrest during the early stage and a female-biased arrest during the late stage. We discuss the genetic basis for hybrid inviability and its sex bias. PMID:27199007

  9. Embryonic development and inviability phenotype of chicken-Japanese quail F1 hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid incompatibility, including inviability and sterility, is important in speciation; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown in vertebrates. Crosses between male chickens and female Japanese quails using artificial insemination can generate intergeneric hybrids; however, the hatching rate is low, and hatched hybrids are only sterile males. Hybrid development is arrested frequently during the early embryonic stages, and the sex ratio of living embryos is male-biased. However, the development and sex ratio of hybrid embryos have not been comprehensively analyzed. In the present study, we observed delayed embryonic development of chicken-quail hybrids during the early stage, compared with that of chickens and quails. The survival rate of hybrids decreased markedly during the blastoderm-to-pre-circulation stage and then decreased gradually through the subsequent stages. Hybrid females were observed at more than 10 d of incubation; however, the sex ratio of hybrids became male-biased from 10 d of incubation. Severely malformed embryos were observed frequently in hybrids. These results suggest that developmental arrest occurs at various stages in hybrid embryos, including a sexually non-biased arrest during the early stage and a female-biased arrest during the late stage. We discuss the genetic basis for hybrid inviability and its sex bias. PMID:27199007

  10. Impact of high and low anxiety trait on object habituation and discrimination: evidence from selected lines of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Calandreau, L; Bertin, A; Favreau-Peigné, A; Richard, S; Constantin, P; Lansade, L; Arnould, C; Leterrier, C

    2013-08-01

    Compared to rodents, the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performances has been less studied in birds. Yet, birds are frequently exposed to stimulations that constitute a potential source of anxiety and can affect their adaptation to their living conditions. The present study was aimed at evaluating, in birds, the relationship between levels of anxiety and object habituation and discrimination with the use of Japanese quail lines divergently selected for a fear response, tonic immobility. Previous studies demonstrated that the selection programme has modified the general anxiety trait of the birds. The task consisted in 4 daily sessions of 8 successive presentations of the same object in the home cage of the quail in order to habituate each bird to the object. The observation that both quail with a high and a low anxiety trait progressively spent more time close to the object indicated that habituation occurred. Dishabituation was assessed during a single session of 8 presentations of a novel object. Only quail with a high anxiety trait exhibited significant discrimination. They spent significantly less time close to the novel object than to the habituated object. It is hypothesised that a high anxiety trait is associated with a more accurate processing of environmental cues or events resulting in better discriminative performances. PMID:23711926

  11. Effects of pelletized anticoagulant rodenticides on California quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A moribund, emaciated California quail (Callipepla californica) that was found in an orchard in the state of Washington had an impacted crop and gizzard. Pellets containing the anticoagulant chlorophacinone (Rozol, RO) were in the crop; the gizzard contents consisted of a pink mass of paraffin that was selectively accumulated from the paraffinized pellets. The plasma prothrombin time of 28 sec was near that determined for control quail. The signs of RO intoxication seen in the moribund wild quail were duplicated in captive quail given ad libitum diets of either RO or another paraffinized chlorophacinone pellet (Mr. Rat Guard II, MRG). This left little doubt that paraffin impaction of the gizzard was the primary problem. All captive quail fed RO or MRG pellets showed no increases in prothrombin times compared to control values, died in an emaciated condition, and had gizzards impacted with paraffin.

  12. Metabolism of narasin in chickens and Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Catherman, D R; Szabo, J; Batson, D B; Cantor, A H; Tucker, R E; Mitchell, G E

    1991-01-01

    Thirty mature chicken hens and 60 mature Japanese quail hens were used to compare pathways of narasin excretion. Carbon-14-labeled narasin was injected into chickens (.7 microCi) and quail (.113 microCi) via cardiac puncture. Blood, sampled at varying times thereafter, and eggs and excreta collected daily for 28 days, were analyzed for 14C. Groups of six chickens and 12 quail were killed prior to [14C]narasin injection and on Days 1, 7, 14, and 28 postinjection to obtain tissue samples for 14C analysis. Blood rapidly cleared the label in both species. Less than 1% of the dose of [14C]narasin remained in blood plasma after 3 h postinjection in both chickens and quail. Label excretion peaked on Day 1 in both species, and most of the 14C was cleared via the excreta (76.7 and 93.6% of the dose for quail and chickens, respectively). Label appeared in the excreta more rapidly and cleared more quickly in quail than in chickens. After 24 h, 68 and 49% of the dose of [14C]narasin appeared in the excreta of quail and chickens, respectively. More label was recovered in the eggs of quail (4.18% of the dose) than in the eggs of chickens (1.32% of the dose). Liver, heart, fat, and ovarian tissues contained traces of radioactivity 1 day postinjection in both species. Muscle and kidney did not contain detectable amounts of label. By Day 7, all tissue had cleared 14C beyond detectable limits. The results indicate that chickens and quail metabolize [14C]narasin via similar pathways and that excretion in quail may be more rapid than in chickens. PMID:2017406

  13. Neurovascular anatomy of the embryonic quail hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Matthew T; Poole, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    Blood vessel and nerve development in the vertebrate embryo possess certain similarities in pattern and molecular guidance cues. To study the specific influence of shared guidance molecules on nervous and vascular development, an understanding of the normal neurovascular anatomy must be in place. The present study documents the pattern of nervous and vascular development in the Japanese quail hindlimb using immunohistochemistry and fluorescently labeled intravital injection combined with confocal and epifluorescent microscopy. The developmental patterns of major nerves and blood vessels of embryonic hindlimbs between stages E2.75 (HH18) and E6.0 (HH29) are described. By E2.75, the dorsal aortae have begun to fuse into a single vessel at the level of the hindlimb, and have completely fused by E3 (HH20). The posterior cardinal vein is formed at the level of the hindlimb by E3, as is the main artery of the early hindlimb, the ischiadic artery, as an offshoot of the dorsal aorta. Our data suggest that eight spinal segments, versus seven as reported by others (Tanaka and Landmesser,1986a; Tyrrell et al.,1990), contribute to innervation of the quail hindlimb. Lumbosacral neurites reach the plexus region by E3.5 (HH21 & 22), pause for approximately 24 hr, and then enter the hindlimb along with the ischiadic and crural arteries through shared foramina in the pelvic anlage. The degree of anterior-posterior spatial congruency between major nerves and blood vessels of the quail hindlimb was found to be highest medial to the pelvic girdle precursor, versus in the hindlimb proper. PMID:19685501

  14. [Embryogenesis of the Japanese quail in hypomagnetic conditions applied to deep space flights].

    PubMed

    Trukhanov, K A; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Kruglov, O S; Lebedev, V M; Spasskiĭ, A V

    2014-01-01

    During future interplanetary flights and on the lunar base, astronauts and bioregenerative systems on the space ship will occur in an interplanetary magnetic field, which is much lower than the habitual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is known that hypomagnetic conditions have an adverse biological effect on human beings and other living systems. In our research the Japanese quail has been chosen as one of the possible elements of the bioregenerative live support system. The magnetic system--Helmholtz's coils--is used for compensation of GMF. The GMF in the center of Helmholtz's coils was decreased to 80-100 times. The eggs were kept under hypomagnetic conditions for 4 and 10 days in a special nonmagnetic incubator. The experiments have demonstrated a negative influence of hypomagnetic fields on the embryo development of the Japanese quail. One of the possible ways to solve the problem consists in installing special magnetic systems onboard the interplanetary ship and a lunar base. Evidently, it is necessary to create an analogue of GMF for bioregenerative live support systems. PMID:25764820

  15. Interspecific effects of 4A-DNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene) and RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in Japanese quail, Northern bobwhite, and Zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael J; Hanna, Terry L; Shiflett, Alicia A; McFarland, Craig A; Cook, Michelle E; Johnson, Mark S; Gust, Kurt A; Perkins, Edward J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the toxicological effects of two munition compounds, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A-DNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), on three different bird species: two common toxicological model species-the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica), and a representative passerine-the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Bobwhite were exposed to 4A-DNT at 0, 8, 15, 30, 60, or 150 mg/kg body weight (bw) d by oral gavage for seven days; because the high dose of 4A-DNT was lethal to bobwhite, the maximum dose was changed to 100 mg/kg bw d for Japanese quail and finches to ensure tissue could be used for future toxicogenomic work. RDX was similarly administered at 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg bw d. Blood was drawn prior to euthanasia for blood cellularity and chemistry analyses. Finches were clearly least affected by 4A-DNT as evidenced by a lack of observable effects. Bobwhite appeared to be the most sensitive species to 4A-DNT as observed through changes in blood cellularity and plasma chemistry effects. Bobwhite appeared to be more sensitive to RDX than Japanese Quail due to increased effects on measures of plasma chemistries. Finches exhibited the greatest sensitivity to RDX through increased mortality and seizure activity. This study suggests that sensitivity among species is chemical-specific and provides data that could be used to refine current avian sensitivity models used in ecological risk assessments. PMID:23161369

  16. Acute toxicity of dietary polybrominated biphenyls in Bobwhite Quail

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.O.; Ringer, R.K.; Babish, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the acute oral toxicity of PBB to Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). The median lethal dietary concentration (LC/sub 56/) of PBB was determined over 8 days and clinical signs of intoxication are described.

  17. A modified night-netting technique for recapturing quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troy, Ronald J.; Coates, Peter S.; Connelly, John W.; Gillette, Gifford; Delehanty, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties in recapturing radiomarked birds often prevent wildlife researchers from replacing transmitters and continuing to collect data over long time periods. We developed an effective, inexpensive capture technique for radiomarked mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus). Twenty-three of 25 mountain quail in south-central Idaho, USA, in 2006 and 2007 were recaptured for transmitter replacement. This technique will provide researchers with an opportunity to recapture relatively small birds, particularly those in dense vegetation, to help conduct long-term studies.

  18. The sumac fruit: a food for bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1944-01-01

    Five feeding tests were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the value or dwarf and smooth sumac fruits as the sole diet of quail, as well as a supplement to other feedstuffs.....When whole sumac fruits were force-fed quail, either alone or in combination with millet seed, many of the sumac seed were defecated undigested, whereas the millet seed was digested. Likewise, many sumac seed passed through the quail undigested when sumac fruit was fed ad libitum subsequent to a fasting period.....The quail did not relish sumac fruit as the sole article of diet. They lost weight nearly as rapidly on the fruit, ground or whole, 'the ground seed, or the pulp as they did when not given any food....Quail maintained their weight for 14 weeks during the late fall and winter in outdoor pens on a diet containing 50 per cent sumac fruit-pulp and other feedstuffs of high feeding value. A severe neck molt, however, occurred during the ninth week.....Quail lost weight rapidly on a diet containing 75 per cent sumac even though kept away from adverse weather conditions. A severe neck molt took place during the first week of this high-sumac diet. Heavy mortality occurred during the third and fourth weeks....Where the birds had a choice of many feedstuffs, they made sumac fruit 2 to 4 per cent of their diet....Therefore, it must be concluded, that even though sumac fruit is eaten by quail, and as a small percentage of the diet it may have a definite nutritional value, nevertheless as the sole or primary article of diet, it cannot be expected to maintain quail through a critical period in the winter.

  19. Cloacal gland and gonadal photoresponsiveness in male Japanese quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response to brief restraint.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Cole, C A; Castille, S A

    2006-06-01

    Corticosterone is linked to testicular depression, and in Coturnix, a relatively photorefractory species, day length and androgen dependency in cloacal gland development and foam production are evident. Furthermore, male quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) rather than exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone stress response show more photo-induced reproductive development, greater resistance to reproductive declines induced by exposure to very short days, and a quicker recovery to a higher reproductive level upon return to long days. To determine whether a milder reduction in day length would also influence stress line reproductive photoresponsiveness, and perhaps photorefractoriness, males grown on 16 h of light were given 13 h of light for 4 wk followed by a return to long days for 12 wk. Cloacal gland measurements were made following the initial stimulatory photoperiod and weekly thereafter during the 2 light treatments. Plasma testosterone was determined initially, after 4 wk of light reduction, and at the end of the study, along with BW, testes weight (TWT), and TWT relative to BW. Cloacal gland volume (CVOL) was greater in LS than HS males grown on long days. Whereas exposure to 13 h of light reduced CVOL in both lines, line differences (LS > HS) persisted during the first 3 wk of light reduction. Moreover, by 2 wk of rephotostimulation, and weekly thereafter, line differences (LS > HS) in CVOL reemerged. Cloacal gland foam production and the proportion of individuals that produced cloacal gland foam responses reflected changes in CVOL. The BW did not differ by line, yet LS males had a higher TWT and TWT relative to BW than HS ones. All individuals, however, exhibited relative photorefractory responses. Whereas none of the LS males completely resisted reproductive regression induced by a 3 h light reduction, LS males showed other reproductive benefits upon mild photocastration and subsequent rephotostimulation (e.g., greater resistance to

  20. Maternally Derived Egg Hormones, Antibodies and Antimicrobial Proteins: Common and Different Pathways of Maternal Effects in Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune

  1. Screening for transgenic Japanese quail offspring.

    PubMed

    Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Lansford, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    After mosaic founder breeding pairs of Japanese quail start to produce fertile eggs, the hatchlings must be screened for germ-line transmission to the subsequent G1 generation. This article describes how to isolate hatchling genomic DNA from the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), which remains inside the egg after hatching. Collecting genomic DNA from the CAM decreases the hatchling's stress during handling and eliminates the need for a blood draw. By following this protocol, the CAM of a single egg will provide 50 microg or more of high-quality genomic DNA. The article also describes how to screen the genomic DNA samples for the transgene by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR genotyping should be used for screening hatchlings with a nonfluorescent transgene or with a fluorescently labeled transgene that does not lend itself well to phenotypic screening. PMID:20147014

  2. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  3. Survival of mountain quail translocated from two distinct source populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troy, Ronald J.; Coates, Peter S.; Connelly, John W.; Gillette, Gifford; Delehanty, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Translocation of mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) to restore viable populations to their former range has become a common practice. Because differences in post-release vital rates between animals from multiple source populations has not been well studied, wildlife and land managers may arbitrarily choose the source population or base the source population on immediate availability when planning translocation projects. Similarly, an understanding of the optimal proportion of individuals from different age and sex classes for translocation would benefit translocation planning. During 2006 and 2007, we captured and translocated 125 mountain quail from 2 ecologically distinct areas: 38 from southern California and 87 from southwestern Oregon. We released mountain quail in the Bennett Hills of south-central Idaho. We radio-marked and monitored a subsample of 58 quail and used them for a 2-part survival analysis. Cumulative survival probability was 0.23 ± 0.05 (SE) at 150 days post-release. We first examined an a priori hypothesis (model) that survival varied between the 2 distinct source populations. We found that source population did not explain variation in survival. This result suggests that wildlife managers have flexibility in selecting source populations for mountain quail translocation efforts. In a post hoc examination, we pooled the quail across source populations and evaluated differences in survival probabilities between sex and age classes. The most parsimonious model indicated that adult male survival was substantially less than survival rates of other mountain quail age and sex classes (i.e., interaction between sex and age). This result suggests that translocation success could benefit by translocating yearling males rather than adult males, perhaps because adult male breeding behavior results in vulnerability to predators

  4. Chronic toxicity to quail and pheasants of some chlorinated insecticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1956-01-01

    Quantitative report of tests. 'Inclusion of 1 p.p.m, of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin in diets fed growing quail resulted in high mortality rates, but the birds survived on diets containing 100 p.p.m, of DDT or 50 p.p.m. of strobane. Young pheasants survived on diets containing 50 p.p.m, of DDT or strobane, but failed to survive on diets containing 5 p.p.m, of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin. No ill effects were noted when quail were fed winter diets containing 50 p.p.m, of strobane, or 1 p.p.m, of dieldrin or endrin, but nearly all birds died when fed diets containing 0.5 p.p.m, of aldrin. Mortality rates among pheasants fed 50 p.p.m, and of quail fed 100 p.p.m. of DDT were higher than for birds receiving normal diets, but none of the birds displayed symptoms characteristic of DDT poisoning. Egg production, fertility, and hatchability were relatively unaffected by inclusion of insecticides in diets fed breeding quail, but chicks from these matings showed high mortality rates even when reared on insecticide-free diets. Lowered viability of quail chicks was most pronounced in groups receiving DDT and strobane in the reproduction diets. Hatchability of pheasant eggs and viability of chicks were adversely affected by inclusion of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin in the reproduction diets.'

  5. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP. PMID:25354525

  6. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying bens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  7. Influence of cadmium on PCB congener accumulation in quail

    SciTech Connect

    Leonzio, C.; Marsili, L.; Focardi, S. )

    1992-11-01

    Technological development this century has led to an environmental input of synthetic chemical compounds totally extraneous to natural ecosystems such as Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), extensively used in agriculture and industry. These xenobiotics have a high fat/water repartition coefficient, making them easily accumulated by living organisms. Their persistence and low degradability means that they are now present throughout the global ecosystem. Ubiquitous environmental contaminants also include heavy metals like Hg, As, Pb, Cd and Cr, of which Cd, an element causing functional damage to the kidney and liver in which it preferentially accumulates, is of special ecotoxicological importance. The WHO has defined an accumulation of 60 mg/kg (fresh weight), beyond which damage occurs. Cd occurs [open quotes]naturally[close quotes] in high concentrations in certain animal species including molluscs. Birds and marine mammals feeding largely on cephalopods show high levels of this metal. Many monitoring studies have also revealed high concentrations of PCBs in the same animals. The vast majority of studies on contaminants in experimental animals consider the short-, medium- and long-term effects of a single pollutant. However, the presence of synergisms and antagonisms between compounds makes it necessary to adopt a more holistic approach to the problem of environmental pollution. In order to understand if the effect of xenobiotic compounds like PCBs may be potentiated by the natural presence of cadmium in bird population, we sought preliminary information on how the presence of cadmium in the diet may influence the accumulation and metabolization of PCB congeners. The influence of Cd on PCB accumulation was investigated in Japanese quail treated experimentally with Cd and PCBs. Particular attention was paid to final congener accumulation and qualitative differences in congener composition between controls and treated birds. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  9. Effects of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides upon quail and pheasants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1955-01-01

    Previous studies had shown that heavy or repeated applications of DDT resulted in decreases.in bird populations, but long-range effects of this and other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides had not been fully evaluated. Experiments were conducted to determine toxiCitY to quail and pheasants of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and strobane, and to determine effects of these compounds upon survival, growth, and reproduction....Feeding of diets containing 0.02% DDT to breeding quail resulted in significant decreases in hatchability of eggs and in viability of chiCks. Similar results were obtained by feeding 0.001% dieldrin, but effects upon reproduct.ion of short-term feeding of aldrin and endrin could not be determined....Aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin were lethal to both male and female quail when fed at levels of 0.0005% in the diets. Female pheasants appeared more resistant than males to the effects of these compounds.

  10. Electron Micrographs of Quail Limb Bones formed in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Electron micrographs of quail limb bones that formed under the influence of microgravity show decreased mineralization compared to bones formed in normal gravity. The letters B and C indicate bone and cartilage sides of the sample, respectively, with the arrows marking the junction between bone and cartilage cells. The asterisks indicate where mineralization begins. The bone that developed during spaceflight (top) shows less mineral compared to the control sample (bottom); the control sample clearly shows mineral deposits (dark spots) that are absent in the flight sample. Quail eggs are small and develop quickly, making them ideal for space experiments. In late 2001, the Avian Development Facility (ADF) made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations, development and function of the irner-ear balance system in normal and altered gravity environments, and skeletal development in embryonic quail.

  11. Toxicity of chlorinated insecticides to quail and pheasants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1956-01-01

    'Residues from insecticidal applications of chlorinated hydrocarbons may remain toxic for extended periods. In experiments designed to furnish information on the effects upon quail and pheasants of prolonged feeding upon diets containing small percentages of these compounds, it was shown that aldrin, dieldrin and endrin are cumulative, and that quail are unable to survive after ingesting 5-10 mg./kg, of aldrin, 30-50 mg./kg, of dieldrin, or 6-15 mg./kg, of endrin. Maximum levels (p.p.m.) in the diets permitting survival for extended periods were: DDT, 200; strobane, above 500; aldrin, 0.5; dieldrin, 1.0; endrin, 1.0. Inclusion of these compounds in the diets of breeding quail and pheasants affected hatchability of eggs and viability of chicks, even though the adult birds appeared unaffected.' Detailed figures are given for all points mentioned.

  12. Genetic parameters for body weight in meat quail

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, A.; Ono, R. K.; Cursino, L. L.; Farah, M. M.; Pires, M. P.; Bertipaglia, T. S.; Pires, A. V.; Cavani, L.; Carreño, L. O. D.; Fonseca, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for BW in meat quail at different ages. A total of 24,382 weight records from 3,652 quail, born between 2009 and 2011, were evaluated. Weekly BW was measured from hatch until 42 d of age. The genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multivariate animal model. Heritability of BW ranged from 0.03 to 0.23. Genetic correlations were mainly high and positive. Selection for BW at 28 d of age yielded good indirect genetic progress in BW at 42 d of age. PMID:25589082

  13. Association of VIPR-1 gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with egg production in laying quails*

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Yue-jin; Wu, Yan; Xu, Xiao-juan; Du, Jin-ping; Gong, Yan-zhang

    2016-01-01

    The laying quail is a worldwide breed which exhibits high economic value. In our current study, the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VIPR-1) was selected as the candidate gene for identifying traits of egg production. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection was performed in 443 individual quails, including 196 quails from the H line, 202 quails from the L line, and 45 wild quails. The SNPs were genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Two mutations (G373T, A313G) were detected in all the tested quail populations. The associated analysis showed that the SNP genotypes of the VIPR-1 gene were significantly linked with the egg weight of G373T and A313G in 398 quails. The quails with the genotype GG always exhibited the largest egg weight for the two mutations in the H and L lines. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated that G373T and A313G loci showed the weakest LD. Seven main diplotypes from the four main reconstructed haplotypes were observed, indicating a significant association of diplotypes with egg weight. Quails with the h1h2 (GGGT) diplotype always exhibited the smallest egg weight and largest egg number at 20 weeks of age. The overall results suggest that the alterations in quails may be linked with potential major loci or genes affecting reproductive traits. PMID:27487804

  14. Intersensory Redundancy Educates Selective Attention in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Markham, Rebecca G.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed whether exposure to amodal properties in bimodal stimulation (e.g. rhythm, rate, duration) could educate attention to amodal properties in subsequent unimodal stimulation during prenatal development. Bobwhite quail embryos were exposed to an individual bobwhite maternal call under several experimental and control conditions during the…

  15. Discrimination learning in adult bobwhite quail fed paraquat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues

  16. Effects of Microgravity on Quail Eye Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Gary W.

    1996-01-01

    During embryonic development, the most exposed tissue of the eye, the cornea, becomes differentially bulged outward because of constant intraocular pressure (IOP). The component cells of the cornea secrete a unique, paracrystalline extracellular matrix (the stroma) composed of orthogonal plies of collagen fibrils and proteoglycans. The cornea remains avascular, becomes transparent, and becomes more densely innervated than any other region on the surface of the body. Corneas from chicken embryos that flew on STS-47 contain many more cellular processes in the outermost region of the stroma (Bowman's Layer) than any corresponding region of control corneas. These processes appear to be cross-sections of cytoplasmic extensions of cells and are found in that region of Bowman's Layer immediately beneath the basal lamina of the corneal epithelium. Here, we propose to compare corneas of quail that flew in space on Mir-1 with those of ground controls to determine if the same unusual cellular processes are seen as in the space-flown chicken corneas. In the central regions of such space-flown corneas, the processes appear to be either portions of basal epithelial cells whose pseudopodial extensions have migrated down through their own basal lamina into the stroma, or corneal nerves that have innervated the corneal stroma in an unusual manner. Eyeballs of embryos fixed on Mir-1, control embryos fixed at KSC and clinostated embryos fixed at KSU, will provide corneas for this study. Electron microscopy will be used to assess the distribution of the cellular processes in Bowman's Layer in the central region of each cornea. Attempts also will be made to determine the relative glycosaminoglycan distributions in the corneal stromas by indirect immunofluorscence and to record whole-mount staining patterns of the corneal nerves.

  17. Hypogravity's Effect on the Life Cycle of Japanese Quail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, Patricia Y.

    1999-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the effect of activities preceding space-flight and during space-flight on quail embryonic development. While the overall development of the quail embryos was evaluated, the report presented herein, focused on calcium utilization or uptake from eggshells by developing embryos during incubation in space and on earth. In the pre-space trials, fertilized quail eggs were subjected to pre-night dynamics including forces of centrifugation, vibration, or a combination of vibration and centrifugation prior to incubation for 6 or 16 days. In another trial, fertile quail eggs were tested for survivability in a refrigerator stowage kit for eggs (RSKE) which was subsequently used to transport the eggs to space. Eggs in the RSKE were subjected to shuttle launch dynamics including G force and random vibration profiles. In the space- flight trials, 48 fertile quail eggs were launched on space shuttle Flight STS-76 and were subsequently incubated in a Slovakian incubator onboard space station, MIR. Two sets of ground controls each with 48 fertile eggs with and without exposure to launch dynamics were initiated 5 days post-launch. There was a laboratory control (incubated in Lyon RX2 incubator at 37.5 C) and a synchronous control (incubated in Lyon RX2 incubator at 39 - 400 C), which simulated the temperature of the space-flight incubator. Following space-flight trials, post-flight trials were conducted where quail eggs were incubated in Lyon RX2 or Slovakian incubators under various temperatures with or without launch dynamics. Eggshells from all study trials were retrieved and analyzed for calcium content to determine if its utilization by developing quail embryos was affected by activities preceding space-flight or during incubation in space under microgravity. Results from the pre-flight and post-flight showed that pre-flight activities and shuttle launch dynamics had no effect on calcium uptake from the eggshell by developing

  18. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  19. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  20. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  1. Testing homology of loci for two plumage colors, "lavender" and "recessive white," with chicken and Japanese quail hybrids.

    PubMed

    Minvielle, F; Gourichon, D; Monvoisin, J L

    2002-01-01

    Homology for two plumage color loci was studied by hybridization between chickens and Japanese quail. First, chicken-quail hybrids were produced from homozygous "lavender" chicken cocks and "bleu" Japanese quail, and all 30 hybrids had the same parental slate blue plumage color. On the other hand, no hybrids with this plumage were obtained out of 18 progeny from the same cocks and wild-type quail. These results show that the slate blue plumage color is determined by homologous loci in Japanese quail and chickens. Second, all (n = 25) chicken-quail hybrids hatched from homozygous "recessive white" cocks and "recessive white" (n = 8) or "wild-type" (n = 17) quail had the same pattern of plumage color, with white feathers on the ventral face and colored feathers elsewhere. These results indicate that the recessive white mutations are not homologous in Japanese quail and chickens. PMID:12011184

  2. The mechanical value of grit for bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.

    1946-01-01

    An investigation on the need of grit as a grinding agent in the digestive processes of bobwhite quail was conducted with 1,372 pen-raised birds at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland. Some of the stock was reared, maintained through winter, and bred without access to any grit, although the diet after the tenth week consisted of whole seeds......As to survival, weight, and efficiency of feed consumption, the birds without grit during their period of growth equalled those with access to grit. Such birds, when continued on a gritless regimen during the winter, survived and maintained their weight as successfully as birds on grit. There were no gizzard lesions, and the digestion of whole seeds was satisfactory. Subsequent health and reproduction were unaffected by the absence of grit......The quail reared with access to grit retained an appreciable supply of grit in their gizzards for five months after being deprived of it.

  3. Effects of Weightlessness on Vestibular Development of Quail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Bruce, Laura L.

    1999-01-01

    The data confirm previous findings that quail embryos can, under proper circumstances, develop until hatching in microgravity. There were no gross abnormalities in the few ears of the late embryos (we received 3 ears at E14.5 and 4 ears at E16.5). Due to inadequate numbers of samples returned and their fully insufficient fixation, no conclusions could be reached that warrant any publications.

  4. Cashew nut meal in the feeding of meat quails.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Danilo Rodrigues; Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique; Filgueira, Thales Marcel Bezerra; Cruz, Carlos Eduardo Braga; do Nascimento, Germano Augusto Jerônimo; Aguiar, Geovana Costa; Nascimento, Etho Robério Medeiros

    2016-04-01

    A study was aimed to evaluate the effects of cashew nut meal inclusion (CNM) on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of meat quails. A total of 432 meat quails with 7 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and nine replicates of eight birds each. Treatments were obtained with inclusion of CNM at levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g/kg. According to regression analysis, the inclusion of CNM, at levels above 50 g/kg, provided a linear reduction in digestibility of dry matter and metabolizable energy of diets, linear increase in feed intake and an increase in feed conversion ratio, not influencing weight gain and carcass characteristics. Comparing the results obtained with the different inclusion levels compared to those obtained with the diet without CNM (control group), it was noted that diets with 200 g/kg of CNM inclusion, the dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of diet were lower and the level of 250 g/kg provided higher feed intake. Considering the results, it can be inferred that cashew nut meal can be used as a feedstuff in meat quail's diets at levels up to 250 g/kg. PMID:26898689

  5. Detection of botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F activity using the quail embryo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently demonstrated an effective new model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A using quail embryos in place of the mouse model. These experiments demonstrated that the Japanese quail embryo at 15 days of incubation was an effective vertebrate animal model to detect the activity of botu...

  6. TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE DIETS OF CALIFORNIA QUAIL IN WESTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to describe dietary changes by comparison of information on long-term diet and plant food availability of California Quail (Callipepla californica) in western Oregon. he authors examined crops from 222 California Quail collected in 197678 and 1985-87. iets...

  7. Genetically modified crops in a 10-generation feeding trial on Japanese quails--Evaluation of its influence on birds' performance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Sartowska, K E; Korwin-Kossakowska, A; Sender, G

    2015-12-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) feed components comprising soya bean meal and maize on the performance indices (reproduction, survival rate, growth, egg production, relative weight of chosen internal organs, and basic chemical composition of breast muscle and egg yolk) of Japanese quails was investigated during a 10-generation trial. A total number of 8,438 healthy quail chicks were used in the course of the trial. In each generation, birds were maintained in 3 experimental groups differing in the main feed components, i.e. 1) GM soya (Roundup Ready) and non-GM maize, 2) GM maize (MON810) and non-GM soya, and 3) non-GM soya and maize. The different feeds used did not influence any of the biological hatch indices, survival rate, or BW of young or adult quails. With regard to egg-laying performance, the GM maize group showed a better laying percentage and a higher egg mass production compared to the other groups; the GM soya group showed reduced average egg mass compared to the other groups, whereas the overall egg production level was the same as in the control group. Results showed a higher relative weight of breast muscle and gizzard in birds fed GM maize compared to the control group, whereas live BW and the relative weights of liver and heart were not different among groups. Meat from the GM soya group showed higher protein and lower fat levels compared to the control group. In the case of egg yolk, its chemical composition in the experimental groups did not differ from the control group. Even though some differences were found among the feeding groups, none could be judged as a negative influence of GM maize or GM soya in feed on the birds or final consumer products over 10 generations of Japanese quails. PMID:26475068

  8. Inorganic and organic mercury chloride toxicity to Coturnix: Sensitivity related to age and quantal assessment of physiologic responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicities of mercuric chloride (HgCl(,2)) and methylmercuric chloride (CH(,3)HgCl) were compared for coturnix (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from hatching to adulthood. Comparisons were based on: (1) Median lethal dosages (LD50) derived by administering single peroral and single intramuscular dosages of mercury, (2) median lethal concentrations (LC50) derived by feeding mercury for 5 days, (3) median toxic concentrations (TC50) derived by feeding mercury 9 weeks and measuring plasma enzyme activity, plasma electrolytes, and other blood constituents, and (4) transient changes of various blood chemistries following a single peroral dose of mercury. Acute peroral and intramuscular LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl increased by two- to threefold for coturnix chicks from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Concomitantly, the LC50s also increased, but the important difference between test procedures was that with both single dose routes of exposure the toxicity ratios, i.e., HgCl(,2)/CH(,3)HgCl, at each age were about 2 to 2.5 compared to about 100 for the LC50s. For example, at 2 weeks of age the peroral LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl were 42 and 18 mg/kg; the dietary LC50s were 5086 and 47 ppm for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl. The 9 week feeding trial was not associated with gross effects from either HgCl(,2) at 0.5 to 32 ppm or CH(,3)HgCl at 0.125 to 8 ppm. However, subtle responses were detected for the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase and could be quantified by probit analysis. This quantal procedure was based on establishment of a normal value for each enzyme and classing outliers as respondents. A 'hazard index' based on the TC50 for an enzyme divided by the LD50 or LC50 was introduced. The single oral dosages of HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl showed that ratios of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and orinthine carbamoyl transferase for the liver and kidneys of adult coturnix were opposite from

  9. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  10. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of bobwhite quail chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Moschler, M.

    1948-01-01

    Four experiments involving 873 bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland. A comparison was made of calcium: phosphorus ratios of 1:1, 15:1, 1%: 1, 2:1, 2+:1,and 2%: 1in diets with phosphorus levels of 0.52, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 percent. The results indicate that the optimum level of phosphorus for growth is in the neighborhood of 0.75 per cent, and that of calcium is about 1.00 per cent, making a ratio of 1 1/3: 1....Although the greatest efficiency of feed utilization occurred on the phosphorus level of 0.52 per cent, the liveweight and bone-ash of the birds at the end of ten weeks were significantly lower than they were on the levels of 0.75 and 1.00 per cent, phosphorus. Bone-ash of birds on a Ca: P ratio of 1:1was significantly lower than that on any of the other five ratios, regardless of phosphorus level....There was a significant reverse correlation between the Ca: P ratio of the diet and the storage of vitamin A in the liver. Storage was especially low on the ratio of 2 2/3: 1....The low and high levels of calcium and phosphorus considered in these studies are abnormal, the low level especially being hard to obtain with common feedstuffs, if the protein requirements of the birds are met. Nevertheless, even on such levels, results were not disastrous. The growth of quail in the wild happens during a season when the birds have access to the minerals of the soil and in the abundant animal matter (mostly insects), as well as to minerals in plant material. Therefore, seemingly, calcium and phosphorus need not be critical nutrients for growing quail in the wild.

  11. Effects of DDT on bobwhite quail adrenal gland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, J.W.; Peterle, T.J.; Mulls, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of responses to sublethal levels of DDT exist, many of which are species specific and vary within each species depending upon age, sex, and physiological state. Sublethal levels of DDT do cause an increase in the adrenal cortical tissue of bobwhite quail, which may cause increased secretion of corticosteroids, and in turn affect reproduction. A delicate homeostatic balance exists within the avian endocrine system which may be disturbed by feeding sublethal levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. This adverse effect on the endocrine system may cause subtle reproductive failures which go unnoticed until the population is greatly reduced.

  12. Tests of pesticidal synergism with young pheasants and Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.; Spann, J.W.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen pairs of chemicals involving 18 pesticides and two polychlorinated biphenyl preparations were each fed for 5 days to Japanese quail or ring-necked pheasant chicks 7 to 16 days of age. Malathion + EPN, and malathion + trichlorofon were moderately synergistic in tests with both species, whereas joint toxicities of the other chemicals tended to be additive. Comparisons with other studies of joint action of pesticides against mammals and insects suggest that the two species of birds tested are less susceptible to synergism than are mammals or insects. The results also suggest that the likelihood of a factor of synergism greater than three in birds is not great.

  13. Frequency and duration of paratyphoid organism shedding by experimentally infected bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Pourciau, S S; Springer, W T

    1978-04-01

    Four-week old bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were experimentally infected with Salmonella urbana, S. infantis, S. newport, S. gaminara, S. braenderup, and S. litchfield. Rates of mortality varied from 0 to 50%. The rate of shedding of paratyphoid organisms varied from 14 to 100% for 18 or more days after infection. The maximum duration of shedding was 53 days by 12% of the quail infected with S. braenderup and the minimum duration was 18 days by 14% of the quail infected with S. litchfield. PMID:650785

  14. Mass spectrometric identification and quantification of 5-methoxytryptophol in quail retina

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.W.; Chan, S.F.; Lee, P.P.; Pang, S.F. )

    1989-12-29

    The occurrence of 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTL) in the quail retina was investigated by capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/selected ion monitoring using a deuterated internal standard. Based on ion intensity ratios in the mass spectra of pentafluoropropionyl and heptafluorobutyryl derivatives of 5-MTL and deuterated 5-MTL, 5-MTL was unequivocally identified in the quail retina. Similar to the circadian rhythm of retinal melatonin, retinal 5-MTL also exhibited a diurnal variation with high levels at mid-dark. However, no significant correlation between the diurnal levels of 5-MTL and melatonin was observed in the quail retina at mid-light or mid-dark.

  15. Effects of Microgravity on Embryonic Quail Eye Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Wells, Diane C.; Paulsen, Avelina Q.; Conrad, Gary W.

    1997-01-01

    Immunohistochemical methods were used to stain neurofilament protein in corneal nerves of Embryonic Day 16 (E16) quail eyes that had been fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at room temperature for several months. Fixation was according to the methods used by the Mir 21/NASA 2 Avian Developmental Biology Flight Experiments for quail embryos incubated on the Mir Space Station. After fixation, corneas were pretreated to improve immunohistochemical visualization of neurofilaments. A sequential combination of three pretreatments [microwave heating in saline G, followed by extraction with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 37 C, followed by digestion with hyaluronidase at 37 C], produced increased antibody staining of corneal nerve neurofilament proteins, compared with corneas subjected to no prior pretreatments. Darker nerve staining and increased numbers of fine branches were observed, together with lower background staining after such pretreatments. In contrast, use of any single pretreatment or pair of pretreatments resulted in only slight and inconsistent enhancement of nerve staining. Only the sequential combination of all three pretreatments resulted in consistently better nerve staining.

  16. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of breeding bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Nestler, R.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.

    1949-01-01

    In the course of studies designed to determine the calcium and phosphorus requirements of breeding bobwhite quail, it was found that best results were obtained when the Ca/P ratio in the diet was approximately 2.3:1. Variations in the Ca/P ratio produced significant differences in results when the level of phosphorus in the diet was 0.75%, but the differences were less marked when the level of phosphorus was increased to 1.00%. Although diets containing 0.75% phosphorus and 1.8% calcium appeared adequate for reproduction, as judged by the criteria of the maintenance of satisfactory condition in the breeders, egg production, fertility, hatchability and survival of offspring during the first 5 days after hatching, it was found that the winter mortality of the offspring of birds fed such a diet was much greater than that occurring in the offspring of birds fed on diets containing 1.00 or 1.25% phosphorus. It is concluded that breeding bobwhite quail require diets furnishing approximately 1.00% phosphorus and 2.3% calcium.

  17. [Characteristics of morphogenesis of the Japanese quail embryos during microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadasheva, O. A.; Gur'eva, T. S.; Sychev, V. N.; Jehns, G.; Jahns, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Experiments performed in the period of 1995-1996 cooperatively with US investigators within the MIR/SHUTTLE and MIR/NASA space science projects continued exploration of avian embryogenesis in microgravity. Evaluation of Japanese quail embryos incubated in spaceflight microgravity showed that for the most part they were normally developed and compliant with duration of incubation. One of the major morphometric characteristics of embryo are its mass and size. Comparative analysis of body mass values in the space and laboratory and synchronous control groups pointed to a slight retardation. Body length of space embryos mimicked their mass curve. Data on the dynamics of mass and length of Japanese quail embryos support the well-known theory according to which growth and formation are distinguished by equifinality. No differences were revealed by the investigations of individual parts of embryonic bodies in the space and control groups. However, this finding was true only with regard to the embryos that had no developmental abnormalities. A part of embryos had defective eyes (microphtalmia), limbs (twisted fingers), and beaks.

  18. Changes in Quail Blastodermal Cell Status as a Result of Selection.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Dorota; Samek, Kamila; Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Witkowski, Andrzej; Knaga, Sebastian; Dębowska, Michalina; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection over many years has significantly improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the number of eggs laid by egg laying chicken breeds. Selection has improved desired parameters, but has caused some negative effects as well. Adverse effects of selection may negatively affect embryonic development. The number of live and apoptotic blastodermal cells (BCs) at the X stage of embryogenesis may be a good indicator of changes in selected individuals. In this paper, a comparison of the number of live and apoptotic BCs was made for three lines of quail: Pharaoh (F33), meat-type line, selected for body weight; egg laying line (S33), selected for egg number; and laying line (S22), additionally selected (for 17 generations) for high yolk cholesterol content. Apoptotic BCs were separated by the magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) method. The percentage of live and apoptotic BCs was different (P ≤ 0.01) for F33 (35.8% and 64.2%, respectively) and S33 (60.0% and 36.4%). The number of apoptotic BCs for F33 embryos (45,098) was higher (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the number of apoptotic BCs for S33 embryos (26,667). The selection for high yolk cholesterol content caused an increase (P ≤ 0.01) in the total number of BCs from 78,403 (S33) to 140,139 (S22). The percentage of apoptotic BCs was lower (P ≤ 0.01) in the S22 line (17.1%) compared to the S33 line (36.4%). The results showed that it is possible to evaluate the effects of selection in the early stage of embryonic development. PMID:26103687

  19. Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guémené, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Möstl, Erich; Houdelier, Cécilia

    2010-01-01

    Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects. PMID:21124926

  20. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A.; Garner, Michael M.; Bradley, Gregory A.; Aguilar, Roberto F.

    2011-01-01

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of hemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo’s last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex-situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species. PMID:21726940

  1. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; Garner, Michael M; Bradley, Gregory A; Aguilar, Roberto F

    2011-12-15

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty-four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of haemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo's last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same P. juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species. PMID:21726940

  2. Intersubtype Reassortments of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Quail.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Hung, Vu-Khac; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are considered a threat to national animal industries, causing production losses and high mortality in domestic poultry. In recent years, quail has become a popular terrestrial poultry species raised for production of meat and eggs in Asia. In this study, to better understand the roles of quail in H5N1 viral evolution, two H5N1-positive samples, designated A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI-49/2010 (CVVI-49/2010) and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI-50/2014 (CVVI-50/2014), were isolated from quail during H5N1 outbreaks in Vietnam, and their whole genome were analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis reveals new evolutionary variation in the worldwide H5N1 viruses. The quail HA genes were clustered into clades 1.1.1 (CVVI-49/2010) and clade 2.3.2.1c (CVVI-50/2014), which may have evolved from viruses circulating from chickens and/or ducks in Cambodia, mainland of China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and South Korea in recent years. Interestingly, the M2 gene of the CVVI-49/2010 strain contained amino acid substitutions at position 26L-I and 31S-N that are related to amantadine-resistance. In particular, the CVVI-50/2014 strain revealed evidence of multiple intersubtype reassortment events between virus clades 2.3.2.1c, 2.3.2.1b, and 2.3.2.1a. Data from this study supports the possible role of quail as an important intermediate host in avian influenza virus evolution. Therefore, additional surveillance is needed to monitor these HPAI viruses both serologically and virologically in quail. PMID:26900963

  3. Drosophila quail, a villin-related protein, bundles actin filaments in apoptotic nurse cells.

    PubMed

    Matova, N; Mahajan-Miklos, S; Mooseker, M S; Cooley, L

    1999-12-01

    Drosophila Quail protein is required for the completion of fast cytoplasm transport from nurse cells to the oocyte, an event critical for the production of viable oocytes. The abundant network of cytoplasmic filamentous actin, established at the onset of fast transport, is absent in quail mutant egg chambers. Previously, we showed that Quail is a germline-specific protein with sequence homology to villin, a vertebrate actin-regulating protein. In this study, we combined biochemical experiments with observations in egg chambers to define more precisely the function of this protein in the regulation of actin-bundle assembly in nurse cells. We report that recombinant Quail can bind and bundle filamentous actin in vitro in a manner similar to villin at a physiological calcium concentration. In contrast to villin, Quail is unable to sever or cap filamentous actin, or to promote nucleation of new actin filaments at a high calcium concentration. Instead, Quail bundles the filaments regardless of the calcium concentration. In vivo, the assembly of nurse-cell actin bundles is accompanied by extensive perforation of the nurse-cell nuclear envelopes, and both of these phenomena are manifestations of nurse-cell apoptosis. To investigate whether free calcium levels are affected during apoptosis, we loaded egg chambers with the calcium indicator Indo-1. Our observations indicate a rise in free calcium in the nurse-cell cytoplasm coincident with the permeabilization of the nuclear envelopes. We also show that human villin expressed in the Drosophila germline could sense elevated cytoplasmic calcium; in nurse cells with reduced levels of Quail protein, villin interfered with actin-bundle stability. We conclude that Quail efficiently assembles actin filaments into bundles in nurse cells and maintains their stability under fluctuating free calcium levels. We also propose a developmental model for the fast phase of cytoplasm transport incorporating findings presented in this study

  4. Intersubtype Reassortments of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Quail

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Hung, Vu-Khac; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are considered a threat to national animal industries, causing production losses and high mortality in domestic poultry. In recent years, quail has become a popular terrestrial poultry species raised for production of meat and eggs in Asia. In this study, to better understand the roles of quail in H5N1 viral evolution, two H5N1-positive samples, designated A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI-49/2010 (CVVI-49/2010) and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI-50/2014 (CVVI-50/2014), were isolated from quail during H5N1 outbreaks in Vietnam, and their whole genome were analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis reveals new evolutionary variation in the worldwide H5N1 viruses. The quail HA genes were clustered into clades 1.1.1 (CVVI-49/2010) and clade 2.3.2.1c (CVVI-50/2014), which may have evolved from viruses circulating from chickens and/or ducks in Cambodia, mainland of China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and South Korea in recent years. Interestingly, the M2 gene of the CVVI-49/2010 strain contained amino acid substitutions at position 26L-I and 31S-N that are related to amantadine-resistance. In particular, the CVVI-50/2014 strain revealed evidence of multiple intersubtype reassortment events between virus clades 2.3.2.1c, 2.3.2.1b, and 2.3.2.1a. Data from this study supports the possible role of quail as an important intermediate host in avian influenza virus evolution. Therefore, additional surveillance is needed to monitor these HPAI viruses both serologically and virologically in quail. PMID:26900963

  5. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  6. Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing short and long lived species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in Japanese quails and common pheasants.

    PubMed

    Lashev, L D; Dimitrova, D J; Milanova, A; Moutafchieva, R G

    2015-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was studied in Japanese quails and common pheasants. Healthy mature birds from both species and both genders were treated intravenously and orally with enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) and marbofloxacin (5 mg/kg). After intravenous administration enrofloxacin was extensively metabolised to ciprofloxacin. Metabolites of marbofloxacin were not detected. Values of volume of distribution were respectively 4.63 l/kg and 3.67 l/kg for enrofloxacin and 1.56 l/kg and 1.43 l/kg for marbofloxacin. In quails, total body clearance values were higher than those in pheasants and other avian species. After oral application enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed in quails, more rapidly than marbofloxacin. Pheasants absorbed both antimicrobials at a lower rate. Higher bioavailability was observed for marbofloxacin (118%). Relatively low bioavailability was established in quails for enrofloxacin (26.4%), accompanied by extensive conversion to ciprofloxacin. Generally, quails absorbed and eliminated both fluoroquinolones more rapidly than pheasants; the latter showed pharmacokinetics similar to poultry. Because of favourable pharmacokinetic properties, marbofloxacin should be preferred for oral administration in Japanese quails and pheasants for treatment of infections caused by equally susceptible pathogens. PMID:25567298

  8. Emotional reactivity modulates autonomic responses to an acoustic challenge in quail.

    PubMed

    Valance, D; Boissy, A; Després, G; Constantin, P; Leterrier, C

    2007-01-30

    Emotional reactivity modulates autonomic responses to an acoustic challenge in quail. Physio Behav 00(0) 000-000, 2006. This study investigated the relationship between emotional reactivity and behavioral and autonomic responses to an acoustic stimulus in quail. It was hypothesized that birds with high emotional reactivity would have higher motor inhibition combined with higher sympathetic activation than birds with low emotional reactivity. Two experiments were performed. The first looked for correlations between emotional reactivity, evaluated by a tonic immobility test, and motor and Heart Rate Variability in relation to an acoustic stimulus. The second experiment compared the motor and autonomic responses to the acoustic stimulus of quail selected on either long (LTI) or short (STI) duration of tonic immobility. The first experiment showed that the acoustic stimulation induced motor inhibition and cardiac activation. Correlations were found between tonic immobility duration and both autonomic activity before stimulation and sympathovagal balance after stimulation. In the second experiment, LTI quail showed strong sympathetic activation, whereas STI quail showed parasympathetic and sympathetic activation. The activation of the parasympathetic system induced by the noise in STI quail can be explained by the predominance of this system at rest in this line. In conclusion, both the basal autonomic activity and the autonomic responses differed according to the emotional reactivity, and changes in autonomic activity appear to be related to the genetic selection process. PMID:17070877

  9. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence. PMID:25104767

  10. Storage by bobwhite quail of Vitamin A fed in various forms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Derby, J.V.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1948-01-01

    According to studies conducted with 236 bobwhite quail chicks at Patuxent Research Refuge, crystalline carotene in cottonseed oil fed at levels of 3000 I.U. (the requirement for optimum growth), 5000 I.U., and 25,000 I.U. per pound of feed, was utilized only 1/3 to 1/7 as efficiently as vitamin A alcohol; 1/2; to 1/10 as natural vitamin A ester; and 1/4 to 1/17 as vitamin A acetate, based on the storage of vitamin A in the liver. The carotene in the natural carrier, alfalfa leaf meal, was assimilated as effectively as was crystalline carotene in cottonseed oil, when both were fed at 5000 I.U. per pound of feed. Crystalline carotene when fed at a level over 8 times the requirement of the quail for maximum growth, or 25,000 I.U. per pound of feed, was stored as vitamin A in the livers of pen-reared quail to an extent comparable to the levels found in certain young wild quail. Vitamin A acetate was utilized more efficiently by quail than either vitamin A alcohol or the natural vitamin A ester. There was considerable individual variation in storage of vitamin A by quail on the same diet, and with the same or similar parental background.

  11. Subchronic mercury exposure in coturnix and a method of hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The sublethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCI 2) and organic (CH3HgCI) mercury chloride was studied in coturnix (Corurnix japonica) by feeding them mercuric compounds (CH3HgCI at concentrations of 0.125,0.5,2 and 8 ppm; HgCI2 at 0.5, 2, 8 and 32 ppm) in ad libitum diets from hatching to adulthood. Differences of response to the mercurials were compared on the basis of selected indicator enzymes and plasma chemistries. Comparisons of response to equivalent concentrations of the two mercurials and dose-response relationships were made at 1,3,5,7 and 9 weeks. Changes of activity were detected for brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (ASA T), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT). Changes of ASA T, LDH and OCT were then quantified by probit analysis and the mercurials were compared through their median effective concentrations (EC50). This quantal procedure was based on the establishment of normal control values for each enzyme and then classifying mercury-treated outliers (more than + 2 SD) as respondents. The EC50 values at 9 weeks for ASA T, LDH and OCT, respectively, were 9, 3 and 63 ppm for HgCl 2, and 5, 1 and 4 ppm for CH3HgCI. These results provided the basis for two hazard indices that were calculated by dividing the EC50 into the oral LD50 and the 5-d dietary LC50. Mercury also had contradictory effects on gonadal maturation in both sexes.

  12. Effects of Weightlessness on Vestibular Development of Quail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Bruce, Laura L.

    1997-01-01

    The lack of gravity is known to alter vestibular responses in developing and adult vertebrates. One cause of these altered responses may be changes in the connections between the vestibular receptor and the brain. Therefore we propose to investigate the effects of gravity on the formations of connections between the gravity receptors of the ear and the brain in developing quail incubated in space beginning at an age before these connections are established (incubation day three) until near the time of hatching, when they are to some extent functional. This investigation will make use of a novel technique, the diffusion of a lipophilic dye, DiI, in fixed tissue. This technique can thus be used to analyze the connections in specimens fixed in orbit, thus eliminating changes due to the earth's gravity. The evaluation of the data will enable us to detect gross deviations from normal patterns as well as detailed quantitative deviations.

  13. Gemfibrozil disrupts the metabolism of circulating lipids in bobwhite quails.

    PubMed

    Bussière-Côté, Sophie; Omlin, Teye; de Càssia Pinheiro, Eliana; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The circulating lipids of birds play essential roles for egg production and as an energy source for flight and thermogenesis. How lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals geared to prevent heart disease in humans and that are routinely released in the environment affect their metabolism is unknown. This study assesses the impact of the popular drug gemfibrozil (GEM) on the plasma phospholipids (PL), neutral lipids (NL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus). Results show that bird lipoproteins are rapidly altered by GEM, even at environmentally-relevant doses. After 4 days of exposure, pharmacological amounts cause an 83% increase in circulating PL levels, a major decrease in average lipoprotein size measured as a 56% drop in the NL/PL ratio, and important changes in the fatty acid composition of PL and NEFA (increases in fatty acid unsaturation). The levels of PL carrying all individual fatty acids except arachidonate are strongly stimulated. The large decrease in bird lipoprotein size may reflect the effects seen in humans: lowering of LDL that can cause atherosclerosis and stimulation of HDL that promote cholesterol disposal. Lower (environmental) doses of GEM cause a reduction of %palmitate in all the plasma lipid fractions of quails, but particularly in the core triacylglycerol of lipoproteins (NL). No changes in mRNA levels of bird peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) could be demonstrated. The disrupting effects of GEM on circulating lipids reported here suggest that the pervasive presence of this drug in the environment could jeopardize reproduction and migratory behaviours in wild birds. PMID:26432161

  14. Fractal analysis of the ambulation pattern of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Kembro, J M; Perillo, M A; Pury, P A; Satterlee, D G; Marín, R H

    2009-03-01

    1. The study examined the practicality and usefulness of fractal analyses in evaluating the temporal organisation of avian ambulatory behaviour by using female Japanese quail in their home boxes as the model system. To induce two locomotion activity levels, we tested half of the birds without disturbance (Unstimulated) and the other half when food was scattered on the floor of the home box after 3 h of feeder withdrawal (Stimulated). 2. Ambulatory activity was recorded during 40 min at a resolution of 1 s and evaluated by: (1) detrended fluctuation analyses (DFA), (2) the frequency distribution of the duration of the walking or non-walking events (FDD-W or FDD-NW, respectively), and (3) the transition probabilities between walking/non-walking states. Conventional measures of total time spent walking and average duration of the walking/non-walking events were also employed. 3. DFA showed a decreased value of the self-similarity parameter (alpha; indicative of a more complex ambulatory pattern) in Stimulated birds compared to their Unstimulated counterparts. The FDD-NW showed a more negative scaling factor in Stimulated than in Unstimulated birds. Stimulated birds also had more transitions between non-walking and walking states, consistent with stimulated exploratory activity. No differences were found between groups in the FDD-W, in percentage of total time spent walking, or in average duration of the walking events. 4. The temporal walking pattern of female Japanese quail has a fractal structure and its organisation and complexity is altered when birds are stimulated to explore. The fractal analyses detected differences between the Unstimulated and Stimulated groups that went undetected by the traditional measurements of the percentage of total time spent walking and the duration of the walking events suggesting its usefulness as a tool for behavioural studies. PMID:19373715

  15. Comparison of animal and plant proteins for young pen-reared bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.M.; Rensberger, M.J.

    1945-01-01

    Bobwhite quail chicks, when given a choice of balanced diets in which the essential difference was the protein supplement, showed preferences for one diet containing 49 per cent peanut oil meal, another containing a mixture of 9 per cent meat and bone scraps (50% protein) with 38 per cent soybean oil meal, and a third (control) diet containing a mixture of 16 per cent dried buttermilk with 42 per cent soybean oil meal, in contrast to diets containing sardine meal or menhaden fish meal. ....Feeding tests during the first five weeks of life showed that diets containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal consistently gave high live weights, low mortality, and high efficiency of feed utilization. Diets with 9 to 10 per cent menhaden meal produced nearly as good results....Live weights, survival, and efficiency of feed utilization were markedly better on a diet containing 9 per cent meat and bone scrap (50% protein) than on one with 9 per cent meat scrap (55% protein), but not as good as with diets containing fish meal without meat....The chicks grew and survived more successfully on diets containing either soybean oil meal or peanut oil meal as the sole protein supplement, than on diets containing either linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, or dried buttermilk as the sole protein concentrate. None of these was as satisfactory as the diets containing fish meal.....All chicks died on diets containing either linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, or dried buttermilk as the sole source of protein. All three of these concentrates, however, gave satisfactory results, when used as 10 per cent of the diet. In fact, survival and efficiency of feed utilization were nearly as good on a diet containing 10 per cent dried buttermilk, 10 per cent linseed oil meal, 10 per cent peanut oil meal, and 27 per cent soybean oil meal, as on diets containing fish meal.

  16. Quail carry sialic acid receptors compatible with binding of avian and human influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hongquan; Perez, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that some terrestrial avian species may play a role in the genesis of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. In the present investigation, we examined whether quail, a widespread-farmed poultry, possess the proper characteristics for serving as an intermediate host for the zoonotic transmission of influenza viruses. Using a lectin-based staining based on specific agglutinins, we found that, in addition to the presence of sialic acid α2,3-galactose (SAα2,3-gal) linked receptors, there are abundant sialic acid α2,6-galactose (SAα2,6-gal) linked receptors in quail trachea and intestine. The presence of abundant SAα2,6-gal-linked receptors explains, at least in part, the circulation of avian influenza viruses with human-like receptor specificity in quail. In quail trachea, SAα2,3-gal linked receptors are present primarily in non-ciliated cells, while SAα2,6-gal linked receptors are localized predominantly on the surface of ciliated cells. In quail intestine, both types of receptors were found on epithelial cells as well as in crypts. In a solid-phase overlay binding assay, both avian and human influenza viruses bind to plasma membranes prepared from epithelial cells of quail trachea and intestine, strongly suggesting that these receptors are functional for binding of influenza viruses from different species. Together with previous observations, these results are consistent with the notion that quail could provide an environment for the spread of reassortants between avian and human influenza viruses, thus acting as a potential intermediate host. PMID:16325879

  17. An ELISA for quantifying quail IgY and characterizing maternal IgY transfer to egg yolk in several quail strains.

    PubMed

    Murai, Atsushi; Kakiuchi, Misako; Hamano, Takahito; Kobayashi, Misato; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-07-01

    In avian species, maternal blood immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is transferred to the egg yolks of maturing oocytes, but the mechanism underlying this transfer is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of maternal IgY transfer in quail, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of quail IgY. We characterized strain differences in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations and exogenously injected IgY-Fc uptakes into egg yolks. A specific rabbit polyclonal antibody to quail IgY was raised for the ELISA. Blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations were determined in six quail strains (one inbred strain, L; four closed population strains, AWE, DB, PS, WE; one commercial strain, Commercial). The birds were also injected with digoxigenin-labeled quail IgY-Fc, and its uptakes into laid eggs were compared. The strain difference in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations was at most 2.5-fold, between PS and AWE. The rank order of IgY concentrations was AWE, Commercial, DB, L≥WE≥PS. A significant positive correlation (|R|=0.786) between individual blood IgY and egg yolk IgY and the concentrated egg yolk IgY (1.5-2-fold) against blood IgY was observed. Interestingly, there was a significant inverse correlation (|R|=0.452) between injected IgY-Fc uptakes and the blood IgY concentration, implying competition of the injected IgY-Fc and blood IgY in the process of IgY uptake into egg yolks. In conclusion, we successfully determined blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations in various quail strains by a quail IgY-specific ELISA. The concentrated egg yolk IgY against the blood IgY and the inverse relationship of exogenous IgY-Fc uptake against the blood IgY supports the existence of a selective IgY transport mechanism in avian maturing oocytes. PMID:27269788

  18. Growth curve changes associated with long-term selection for body weight in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Marks, H L

    1978-06-01

    Four quail lines were utilized to investigate growth patterns in quail. Three of these lines (P, T and S) had previously undergone long-term selection for high 4-week body weight, while line C was maintained as a nonselected control. Quail progeny from generation 37 and 38 breeders were fed diets containing 28% and 20% protein. Within each trial, the diet/line treatments were replicated 3 times with 12 quail per subclass. Body weight measurements suggested that the growth of all lines was best approximated by the logistic growth curve model. When fed a 28% protein diet the age at maximum growth (point of inflection) of selected lines was 4 to 6 days earlier than the corresponding age of controls. Similar rates of gain after 4 weeks of age between selected and control lines suggested that mechanisms influenced by selection for 4-week body weight in quail operate only during the period prior to the age at selection with little or no residual effect. PMID:680578

  19. Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

  20. Dynamic Analysis of Vascular Morphogenesis Using Transgenic Quail Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Huss, David; Filla, Michael B.; Czirok, Andras; Rongish, Brenda J.; Little, Charles D.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lansford, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the least understood and most central questions confronting biologists is how initially simple clusters or sheet-like cell collectives can assemble into highly complex three-dimensional functional tissues and organs. Due to the limits of oxygen diffusion, blood vessels are an essential and ubiquitous presence in all amniote tissues and organs. Vasculogenesis, the de novo self-assembly of endothelial cell (EC) precursors into endothelial tubes, is the first step in blood vessel formation [1]. Static imaging and in vitro models are wholly inadequate to capture many aspects of vascular pattern formation in vivo, because vasculogenesis involves dynamic changes of the endothelial cells and of the forming blood vessels, in an embryo that is changing size and shape. Methodology/Principal Findings We have generated Tie1 transgenic quail lines Tg(tie1:H2B-eYFP) that express H2B-eYFP in all of their endothelial cells which permit investigations into early embryonic vascular morphogenesis with unprecedented clarity and insight. By combining the power of molecular genetics with the elegance of dynamic imaging, we follow the precise patterning of endothelial cells in space and time. We show that during vasculogenesis within the vascular plexus, ECs move independently to form the rudiments of blood vessels, all while collectively moving with gastrulating tissues that flow toward the embryo midline. The aortae are a composite of somatic derived ECs forming its dorsal regions and the splanchnic derived ECs forming its ventral region. The ECs in the dorsal regions of the forming aortae exhibit variable mediolateral motions as they move rostrally; those in more ventral regions show significant lateral-to-medial movement as they course rostrally. Conclusions/Significance The present results offer a powerful approach to the major challenge of studying the relative role(s) of the mechanical, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of vascular development. In past studies

  1. Dietary glycerol for quail: association between productive performance and COX III mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Silva, S C C; Gasparino, E; Batista, E; Tanamati, F; Vesco, A P D; Lala, B; de Oliveira, D P

    2016-01-01

    This study was carry out to evaluate mRNA expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III in the Pectoralis superficialis muscle of 28-day-old quails fed diets containing 0, 8, and 12% glycerol. Total RNA was extracted (N = 10) and cDNA was amplified using specifics primers for qRT-PCR. Feed efficiency and feed intake were evaluated. COX III mRNA expression in breast muscle was higher in the group fed with 12% glycerol (0.863 AU); no differences were observed in the expression of this gene between the muscle of animals fed diets without glycerol (0.357 AU) and 8% glycerol (0.415 AU). Quails that showed greater COX III mRNA expression also showed the lowest feed efficiency. These results show that there is a difference in COX III mRNA expression in breast muscle of 28-day-old quail fed diets different concentrations of glycerol. PMID:27323091

  2. Assessing Species-specific Contributions To Craniofacial Development Using Quail-duck Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of chimeric embryos is a widespread and powerful approach to study cell fates, tissue interactions, and species-specific contributions to the histological and morphological development of vertebrate embryos. In particular, the use of chimeric embryos has established the importance of neural crest in directing the species-specific morphology of the craniofacial complex. The method described herein utilizes two avian species, duck and quail, with remarkably different craniofacial morphology. This method greatly facilitates the investigation of molecular and cellular regulation of species-specific pattern in the craniofacial complex. Experiments in quail and duck chimeric embryos have already revealed neural crest-mediated tissue interactions and cell-autonomous behaviors that regulate species-specific pattern in the craniofacial skeleton, musculature, and integument. The great diversity of neural crest derivatives suggests significant potential for future applications of the quail-duck chimeric system to understanding vertebrate development, disease, and evolution. PMID:24962088

  3. Quail egg yolk: a novel cryoprotectant for the freeze preservation of Poitou jackass sperm.

    PubMed

    Trimeche, A; Anton, M; Renard, P; Gandemer, G; Tainturier, D

    1997-06-01

    For many years, attempts have been made to establish a sperm bank for the Poitou jackass population which is threatened with extinction. Unfortunately, no cryopreservation technique has ever been described for spermatozoa of this species. In an attempt to find a suitable technique, we studied the relative effectiveness of chicken egg yolk and quail egg yolk in preserving the motility and characteristics of movement of Poitou jackass spermatozoa during the freezing-thawing process. Semen was diluted to 60 x 10(6) sperm/ml in a preservation medium containing 4% (v/v) glycerol with 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, or 20% (v/v) of chicken or quail egg yolk. The chemical composition of these two eggs was compared. Effects were assessed using an automated analyzer which measured curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), and the velocity of the average path. Linearity was defined as VSL/VCL x 100. The amplitude of the lateral head displacement was also measured. It was found that after the freeze-thaw process, quail egg yolk improved the percentages of motile and progressively undulating spermatozoa and the movement characteristics compared with chicken egg yolk. The optimal concentration of quail egg yolk was 10%. The general composition of the two types of egg yolk were similar, but quail egg yolk contained significantly more phosphatidylcholine, less phosphatidylethanolamine, and a smaller ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids than chicken egg yolk. The improvement of motility for frozen-thawed Poitou jackass spermatozoa using frozen-thawed quail egg yolk compared to chicken egg yolk may be due to the differences in composition of the two yolks. PMID:9200823

  4. Female Japanese quail with high levels of estradiol demonstrate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Gill, Karin E; Reynolds, Anna R; Prendergast, Mark A; Akins, Chana K

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical research has indicated that females may be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of cocaine. However, the majority of this research has been done in rodent species. Environmental cues associated with human drug-taking behavior tend to be visual. Because rodents do not rely on the visual system as their primary sense modality, the use of a visually oriented species may add to our understanding of cue-elicited drug cravings and relapse. The present study examined the potential role of the steroid hormone, estradiol, in the rewarding properties of cocaine in female Japanese quail using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. In the current experiment, female quail were housed on either an 8L:16D (light:dark) or 16L:8D (light:dark) cycle for 21 days to induce photoregression or photostimulation, respectively. They then received 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg cocaine, or saline during conditioning. Conditioning trials were carried out for 8 days, once per day for 30 min, for a total of 4 cocaine and 4 saline alternating conditioning trials. Results indicated that female quail housed in long-light conditions (16L:8D) had significantly higher levels of estradiol than short-cycle females. Additionally, photostimulated female quail developed a CPP to 10 and 20 mg/kg cocaine. Short-cycle females did not show cocaine-induced CPP to any dose tested. Results indicate that cocaine is dose-dependently rewarding to photostimulated female Japanese quail. Furthermore, the current findings suggest that estradiol may enhance the rewarding properties of cocaine in female quail. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963687

  5. Sexual Experience Modulates Neuronal Activity in Male Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Can, Adem; Domjan, Michael; Delville, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    After an initial increase, repeated exposure to a particular stimulus or familiarity with an event results in lower immediate early gene expression levels in relevant brain structures. We predicted that similar effects would occur in Japanese quail after repeated sexual experience within brain areas involved in sexual behavior, namely, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA), an avian homolog of medial amygdala. High experience subjects copulated with a female once on each of 16 consecutive days, whereas low experience subjects were allowed to copulate either once or twice. Control subjects were never exposed to a female. High experience subjects were faster to initiate sexual interaction, performed more cloacal contacts, and completed each cloacal contact faster than low experience subjects. Low experience subjects showed an increase in egr-1 (ZENK) expression, an immediate early gene product used as marker of neural activation in birds, in the areas of interest. In contrast, in high experience animals, egr-1 expression in the POM, BST and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) was not different than the level of expression in unmated controls. These results show that experience modulates the level of immediate early gene expression in the case of sexual behavior. Our results also indicate that immediate early gene expression in specific brain areas is not necessarily related to behavioral output, but depends on the behavioral history of the subjects. PMID:17826778

  6. Fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in Valley quail (Callipepla californica)

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Renata A.; Pena, Hilda F.J.; Cabral, Aline D.; Rolim, Veronica M.; de Oliveira, Luiz G.S.; Boabaid, Fabiana M.; Wouters, Angelica T.B.; Wouters, Flademir; Cruz, Cláudio E.F.; Driemeier, David

    2015-01-01

    An adult, captive raised male Valley quail (Callipepla californica) acquired by a southern Brazilian aviary suddenly showed severe apathy, dyspnea and diarrhea, and died 18 hours after the onset of illness. At necropsy, pale muscles and whitish areas in the heart, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and consolidated red lungs were observed. Histological findings were mainly mononuclear inflammation with necrosis of liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow and lung. There were large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoitesorganisms in the liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, trachea, kidneys, adrenal glands, testes, intestines, and pancreas. These organisms were seen free in the organs' stroma or within macrophages and stained positively with polyclonal antiserum to T. gondii. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissues and PCR was used to target the B1 gene of T. gondii. The genotypic characterization by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2 and alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3) revealed the ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #87 genotype, the same as previously identified in a backyard chicken (TgCkBr156) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26101744

  7. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  8. Fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in Valley quail (Callipepla californica).

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Renata A; Pena, Hilda F J; Cabral, Aline D; Rolim, Veronica M; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angelica T B; Wouters, Flademir; Cruz, Cláudio E F; Driemeier, David

    2015-08-01

    An adult, captive raised male Valley quail (Callipepla californica) acquired by a southern Brazilian aviary suddenly showed severe apathy, dyspnea and diarrhea, and died 18 hours after the onset of illness. At necropsy, pale muscles and whitish areas in the heart, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and consolidated red lungs were observed. Histological findings were mainly mononuclear inflammation with necrosis of liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow and lung. There were large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoitesorganisms in the liver, heart, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, trachea, kidneys, adrenal glands, testes, intestines, and pancreas. These organisms were seen free in the organs' stroma or within macrophages and stained positively with polyclonal antiserum to T. gondii. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissues and PCR was used to target the B1 gene of T. gondii. The genotypic characterization by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2 and alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3) revealed the ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #87 genotype, the same as previously identified in a backyard chicken (TgCkBr156) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26101744

  9. Fearfulness Affects Quail Maternal Care and Subsequent Offspring Development

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Le Bot, Océane; Leterrier, Christine; Lumineau, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird’s fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI) or low fearfulness (STI). Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks’ fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects. PMID:25033292

  10. Bioavailability of lead in oysters fed to young Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.L.; Spivey Fox, M.R.; Hogye, K.S.

    1981-12-01

    The presence of lead in atmospheric particulates, soil, and seawater reflects the input of both domestic and industrial wastes. Because bivalves can concentrate large quantities of heavy metals, particularly lead, consumption of their meat may be a potential risk. The relative bioavailability of lead physiologicaly incorporated into oyster meat was investigated. Day-old Japanese quail were fed purified diets with three levels of lead added as either lead acetate, freeze-dried lead-dosed oyster, or lead acetate plus freeze-dried control oyster for 2 weeks. Feeding lead from any source had little or no effect on body weight, hemoglobin, hematocrit, or percentage ash in the tibia. The concentration of lead in tibia at each level of dietary lead for each type of diet was different from those for all other levels of dietary lead. Slope-ratio analysis of the data showed that lead intrinsically incorporated into oyster meat was 69-75% as bioavailable as lead in lead acetate at levels between 25 and 100 ppm dietary lead. The combinations of (1) control oyster meat with lead acetate and (2) lead acetate with copper and zinc levels equal to those in oyster meat gave responses similar to those of the lead-dosed oyster groups. Although these data showed lower bioavailability of lead in oyster meat as compared with lead acetate, the intercept of the lines at 25 ppm dietary lead suggests that the relative bioavailability may be reserved at lower levels of lead intake.

  11. Conditioning of sexual proceptivity in female quail: Measures of conditioned place preference

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Germán; Domjan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present experiments were conducted to explore the nature of conditioned sexual proceptivity in female quail. Females exposed to males subsequently approached the area where the males were previously housed (Experiment 1). This increased preference for the male’s area reflected an increase in female sexual proceptivity and not an increase in non-directed locomotor activity (Experiment 2). These findings provide the first evidence that female quail show conditioned responses that may be considered to be proceptive responses toward male conspecifics. The proceptive responses are expressed as tonic changes in preference for areas where males have been observed in the past rather than as specific phasic conditioned responses. PMID:21664442

  12. The management of Japanese quail and their use in virological research: a review.

    PubMed

    Ratnamohan, N

    1985-02-01

    Since the domestication of Japanese quail during the last few decades, they are extensively used as table birds and pet birds. These birds, because of their physiological resemblance to chickens, inexpensive maintenance and rapid generation turnover are increasingly used in biomedical research including virology. In the present review the life cycle of birds, care and incubation of eggs, rearing, nutrition and naturally occurring diseases are described. The use of Japanese quail, their embryos and cell cultures derived from them in virological research are also discussed. PMID:3883644

  13. Impact of red imported fire ant infestation on northern bobwhite quail abundance trends in southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Willey, R.D.; Myers, P.E.; Horton, P.M.; Buffa, J.

    2000-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus L.) populations are declining throughout their range. One factor contributing to the decline in the southeastern United States may be the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren). Recent research in Texas has documented that red imported fire ants can have a significant impact on northern bobwhite quail. That research was conducted in areas where fire ants are predominately polygynous (multiple queen). Polygynous infestations have much higher mound densities than the monogynous (single queen) form. In most of the southeastern United States, fire ants are predominately monogynous. We determined if there was a relationship between the invasion of monogynous red imported fire ants and abundance trends in northern bobwhite quail in the southeastern United States. For Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina we compared average northern bobwhite quail abundance based on Christmas Bird Count data for each county before and after fire ant invasion, and conducted regression analyses on bobwhite quail abundance and year preinvasion, and abundance and year postinvasion. Regionally, northern bobwhite quail were more abundant before (0.067 ??0.018 bobwhite quail per observer hour) than after fire ants invaded (0.019 ?? 0.006; Z = -3.746, df = 18, P 30-yr variation in invasion dates.

  14. MC29 deletion mutants which fail to transform chicken macrophages are competent for transformation of quail macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Biegalke, B J; Heaney, M L; Bouton, A; Parsons, J T; Linial, M

    1987-01-01

    A number of MC29 mutants with deleted myc genes have been previously characterized. Many of these mutants have been found to be defective for transformation of chicken macrophages in vitro and for tumor induction in chickens. Such mutants are capable of transforming Japanese quail macrophages in vitro and inducing a high incidence of tumors in Japanese quail. Thus, Japanese quail may contain a factor(s) capable of complementing the defective transforming proteins encoded by some deleted v-myc genes. Images PMID:3295297

  15. Evaluation of a quail embryo model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quail embryo was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving 20 ng of BoNT or higher had m...

  16. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  17. Physiological performance of quails that underwent dietary and pharmacological manipulation of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Botelho, G G; Falbo, M K; Ost, P R; Czekoski, Z M; Raviolo, A E; Giotto, F M; Goldoni, E C; Morais, R N

    2015-06-01

    The present work evaluated whether dietary and pharmacological interference on cholesterol synthesis were capable of inducing alterations in blood and yolk cholesterol levels and the secretion of corticosterone metabolites. Forty-five 40-day-old quails were divided into three experimental groups: vegetal fat diet, 2% beef fat (tallow) diet and vegetal fat diet with simvastatin administration (3.13 mg/kg/day). During all experiments, the animal weights and food consumption were recorded and blood and faecal samples (days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60), as well as eggs (days 30, 45 and 60), were collected. Analysis of serum and yolk cholesterol was performed and faecal corticosterone levels were measured. No differences were observed on blood cholesterol or faecal corticosterone between all treatments, despite a tendency of increased cholesterol in the group with the animal fat diet. However, quails submitted to an animal fat diet displayed an increase in yolk cholesterol at day 30 of the treatment and the egg yolks of quails treated with simvastatin exhibited a decrease in cholesterol content by the end of the treatment at 60 days. These results improved the knowledge regarding the physiology of quails and offered support to other studies concerning the consequences of the pharmacological treatment and the dietary manipulation of cholesterol levels. PMID:25272016

  18. Identification and structural characterization of avian beta-defensin 2 peptides from pheasant and quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheasant and quail orthologues of avian ß-defensin 2 (AVBD2) were identified in methanol extracts of heterophil and bone marrow using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). We used comparative pattern profiling before and after reduction/alkyla...

  19. EFFECT OF 2,4-DINITROPHENOL ON THE METABOLIC RATE OF BOBWHITE QUAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bobwhite quail were exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in a respirometer designed to continuously monitor exchange of O2 and C02, from which metabolic rates (MR) were estimated. fter 14-16 days of acclimation to the system (temperature 22 degrees C, light cycle 8L:14D), hens rece...

  20. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  1. PATHOGENESITY OF SALMONELLA PULLORUM IN NORTHERN BOBWHITE QUAIL AND MALLARD DUCKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten-day-old northern bobwhite quail and mallards were inoculated orally and intravenously with Salmonella pullorum at selected concentrations (10-3 - 10-10 CFU/ml). he bacterium was found to be extremely virulent in young bobwhite during two experiments with 65-100% mortality; ho...

  2. Negative chemotaxis does not control quail neural crest cell dispersion.

    PubMed

    Erickson, C A; Olivier, K R

    1983-04-01

    Negative chemotaxis has been proposed to direct dispersion of amphibian neural crest cells away from the neural tube (V. C. Twitty, 1949, Growth 13(Suppl. 9), 133-161). We have reexamined this hypothesis using quail neural crest and do not find evidence for it. When pigmented or freshly isolated neural crest cells are covered by glass shards to prevent diffusion of a "putative" chemotactic agent away from the cells and into the medium, we find a decrease in density of cells beneath the coverslip as did Twitty and Niu (1948, J. Exp. Zool. 108, 405-437). Unlike those investigators, however, we find the covered cells move slower than uncovered cells and that the decrease in density can be attributed to cessation of cell division and increased cell death in older cultures, rather than directed migration away from each other. In cell systems where negative chemotaxis has been demonstrated, a "no man's land" forms between two confronted explants (Oldfield, 1963, Exp. Cell Res. 30, 125-138). No such cell-free space forms between confronted neural crest explants, even if the explants are closely covered to prevent diffusion of the negative chemotactic material. If crest cell aggregates are drawn into capillary tubes to allow accumulation of the putative material, the cells disperse farther, the wider the capillary tube bore. This is contrary to what would be expected if dispersion depended on accumulation of this material. Also, no difference in dispersion is noted between cells in the center of the tubes versus cells near the mouth of the tubes where the tube medium is freely exchanging with external fresh medium. Alternative hypotheses for directionality of crest migration in vivo are discussed. PMID:6832483

  3. Effects of estrogens on sex differentiation in Japanese quail and chicken.

    PubMed

    Brunström, Björn; Axelsson, Jeanette; Mattsson, Anna; Halldin, Krister

    2009-09-01

    Estrogen production by the female avian embryo induces development of a female phenotype of the reproductive organs whereas the low estrogen concentration in the male embryo results in a male phenotype. Treatment of female embryos with exogenous estrogens disrupts Müllerian duct development resulting in malformations and impaired oviductal function. Exposure of male embryos to estrogens results in ovotestis formation and persisting Müllerian ducts in the embryos and testicular malformations, reduced semen production and partially developed oviducts in the adult bird. Furthermore, studies in Japanese quail show that the male copulatory behavior is impaired by embryonic estrogen treatment. Results from our experiments with selective agonists for ERalpha and ERbeta suggest that the effects of estrogens on the reproductive organs are mediated via activation of ERalpha. Abundant expression of ERalpha mRNA was shown in gonads and Müllerian ducts of early Japanese quail embryos. Both ERalpha and ERbeta transcripts were detected by real-time PCR in early embryo brains of Japanese quail indicating that both receptors may be involved in sex differentiation of the brain. However, in 9-day-old quail embryo brains in situ hybridization showed expression of ERbeta mRNA, but not of ERalpha mRNA, in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), areas implicated in copulatory behavior of adult male quail. Furthermore, embryonic treatment with the selective ERalpha agonist propyl pyrazol triol (PPT) had no effect on the male copulatory behavior. These results suggest that ERbeta may be important for the effects of estrogens on brain differentiation. PMID:19523394

  4. Juniper oil improves oxidative stability and eggshell and albumin quality of quail eggs.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, S S; Yesilbag, D; Meral, Y; Cetin, I; Biricik, H

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of juniper oil (JO) dietary supplementation on the laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of quail. 2. A total of 400 female Pharaoh quails were equally divided into 4 groups containing 100 quails (5 replicates of 20 quails each). The study included a control treatment with no diet additives, and the treatments were as follows: (group 1) 100 mg JO/kg; (group 2) 200 mg JO/kg; (group 3) 300 mg JO/kg. The experiment was carried out for 60 d. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, yolk colour, egg production, feed consumption or feed efficiency. 4. The Haugh unit was increased in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control group. Dietary fortification with JO improved eggshell thickness and breaking strength compared to the control group. Furthermore, the damaged egg ratio was significantly decreased in group 3 compared to the control. The increasing concentration of JO (200 and 300 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in egg yolk MDA concentration after 15 and 30 d of storage at 20°C. 5. It was concluded that inclusion of JO in layer diets can improve egg quality characteristics in terms of Haugh unit, eggshell thickness and breaking strength. Moreover, supplementation of JO in the diets of quail may enhance the antioxidant status of eggs, and the most effective doses of JO were 200 and 300 mg/kg. PMID:25411135

  5. Resource utilization by desert quail: time and energy, food and water

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.L.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-04-01

    Time-energy budgets (TEB) of Gambel's Quail (Callipepla gambelii) were compiled during two summers in the Colorado Desert of California. Quail spent 6.77 h/d foraging, 6.2 h/d inactive during daylight hours, and 11.02 h/d inactive at night. Field metabolic rate (FMR) calculated from this activity budget was 81.8 kJ/d. Of this, 47.3 kJ/d was expended during foraging, 12.6 kJ/d in daytime inactivity, and 20.4 kJ/d in nighttime inactivity. Despite the extremely hot thermal environment (maximum ambient temperature approx. =45/sup 0/C), there was no energy cost above resting levels for thermoregulation. FMR was also measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water (DLW), and averaged 90.8 kJ/d. The FMR of C. gambelii was only 40% of that predicted for a bird of its body mass. Energy assimilation efficiency, measured in laboratory feeding experiments with a mixed seed and arthropod diet, was 60.3%. An individual quail in the field thus required 150.3 kJ/d in its diet, representing a dry matter intake of 8.1 g/d. It was calculated that over the course of a year, a population of Gambel's Quail consumes seeds with a total energy content approx. =15% as great as that in seeds consumed by a population of desert rodents or harvester ants in the same area. Gambel's Quail thus may be important factors in the competition for resources among desert granivores, particularly because they can eat one of their competitors (harvester ants). 44 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  6. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus. PMID:27179882

  7. Lophortofilaria californiensis, N.G., N. Sp. (Filarioidea, Dipetalonematidae) from California quail, Lophortyx californicus, with notes on its microfilaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehr, E.E.; Herman, C.M.

    1956-01-01

    A new genus and a new species of a filariod nematode, Lophortofilaria californiensis, from the California quail, Lophortyx californicus, has been described, with observations on periodicity of its microfilariae.

  8. A survey of neonicotinoid use and potential exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains of Texas and Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Turaga, Uday; Peper, Steven T; Dunham, Nicholas R; Kumar, Naveen; Kistler, Whitney; Almas, Sadia; Presley, Steven M; Kendall, Ronald J

    2016-06-01

    Northern bobwhite (quail) (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have declined dramatically in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (USA). There is rising concern about potential toxicity of neonicotinoids to birds. To investigate this concern, the authors examined crops of 81 northern bobwhite and 17 scaled quail to determine the presence or absence of seeds treated with 3 neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam). No treated seeds were found in the 98 crops examined. Liver samples from all 98 quail were collected and analyzed for neonicotinoid residues. Analysis revealed very low concentrations of neonicotinoids within the quail liver samples. The results suggest there is little to no risk of direct toxicity to quail from neonicotinoids. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1511-1515. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26565740

  9. [Toxic and teratogenic effects of the ammonium salt of fosamine on the development of quail and chick embryos].

    PubMed

    Lutz-Ostertag, Y

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a commercial spray preparation of ammonium salt ppf fosamine (a defoliant) on quail and chick eggs have been studied. The results lead us to conclude that under the stated conditions the product has little embryotoxicity. However, it does have teratogenic effects on the steal and on the cervical, dorsal and posterior axial skeleton. The observed malformations are more severe and appear more frequently in quail than in chick embryos. PMID:6685456

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism mining and nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene in exonic regions of Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    Niraj, Diwesh Kumar; Kumar, Pushpendra; Mishra, Chinmoy; Narayan, Raj; Bhattacharya, Tarun Kumar; Shrivastava, Kush; Bhushan, Bharat; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Vishesh; Sahoo, Nihar Ranjan; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An attempt has been made to study the Myxovirus resistant (Mx1) gene polymorphism in Japanese quail. Materials and Methods: In the present, investigation four fragments viz. Fragment I of 185 bp (Exon 3 region), Fragment II of 148 bp (Exon 5 region), Fragment III of 161 bp (Exon 7 region), and Fragment IV of 176 bp (Exon 13 region) of Mx1 gene were amplified and screened for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique in 170 Japanese quail birds. Results: Out of the four fragments, one fragment (Fragment II) was found to be polymorphic. Remaining three fragments (Fragment I, III, and IV) were found to be monomorphic which was confirmed by custom sequencing. Overall nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene of Japanese quail showed 100% homology with common quail and more than 80% homology with reported sequence of chicken breeds. Conclusion: The Mx1 gene is mostly conserved in Japanese quail. There is an urgent need of comprehensive analysis of other regions of Mx1 gene along with its possible association with the traits of economic importance in Japanese quail. PMID:27047057

  11. [Isolation and Identification of a Quail-origin H9N2 Subtype of The Influenza Virus and Its Biologic Characterization].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Si, Weiying; Yuan, Zhuangchuan; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    A quail-origin subtype of the influenza virus was isolated from a human-infecting H7N9 subtype of the avian influenza virus found in a live poultry market and was given the name A/Quail/Hangzhou/1/ 2013 (H9N2). We analyzed the whole genome of this virus and its biologic characteristics. Sequence analyses suggested that the: HA and NS genes belonged to a CK/BJ/1/94-like lineage; NA, NP, PA and PB1 genes belonged to a SH/F/98-like lineage; M and PB2 genes belonged to a G1-like lineage. Analyses of key amino acids showed that the cleavage site in HA protein was PSRSSR ↓ GL, and that the HA protein had a human receptor-binding site with Leu226. Deletion of amino acids 69 - 73 was detected in the stalk of NA protein, the M2 protein had an Asn31 mutation, and the NS1 protein had two mutations at Ser42, Ala149. The intravenous pathogenicity of this virus was 0.36. A study in chickens suggested that all inoculated birds shed the virus from the trachea and cloaca on the third day post-infection (p. i. ) until 11 days. All chickens that had direct contact shed the virus on the second day p. i. until 8 days. Results of virus reisolation suggested that lung and tracheal tissues could shed the virus in 5 days, whereas the other organs could shed the virus in 3 days. These results suggest that this virus strain is H9N2 subtype LPAIV, whose lineage is prevalent in mainland China. This research provides evidence on how to monitor and prevent the H9N2 subtype of the avian influenza virus. PMID:27295886

  12. Incorporation of lutein and docosahexaenoic acid from dietary microalgae into the retina in quail.

    PubMed

    Schnebelen-Berthier, Coralie; Acar, Niyazi; Pouillart, Philippe; Thabuis, Clementine; Rodriguez, Bertrand; Depeint, Flore; Clerc, Elise; Mathiaud, Adeline; Bourdillon, Anne; Baert, Blandine; Bretillon, Lionel; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    Lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since microalgae are potent natural sources of these nutrients, their nutritional value should be evaluated based on the bioavailability of lutein and DHA for the retina via the plasmatic compartment. In this study, quail were fed for 5 months either with a diet supplemented or deprived with microalgae rich in lutein and DHA. In the microalgae-fed group, the retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin gradually increased whereas in plasma, these compounds started to increase from the first month of supplementation. We also observed a significant increase in retinal and plasmatic levels of DHA in the microalgae-fed group. In conclusion, the plasmatic and retinal contents of lutein and DHA were significantly increased in quail fed with lutein- and DHA-rich microalgae. Food fortification with microalgae may be an innovative way to increase lutein and DHA consumption in humans. PMID:25657100

  13. A transgenic quail model that enables dynamic imaging of amniote embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huss, David; Benazeraf, Bertrand; Wallingford, Allison; Filla, Michael; Yang, Jennifer; Fraser, Scott E; Lansford, Rusty

    2015-08-15

    Embryogenesis is the coordinated assembly of tissues during morphogenesis through changes in individual cell behaviors and collective cell movements. Dynamic imaging, combined with quantitative analysis, is ideal for investigating fundamental questions in developmental biology involving cellular differentiation, growth control and morphogenesis. However, a reliable amniote model system that is amenable to the rigors of extended, high-resolution imaging and cell tracking has been lacking. To address this shortcoming, we produced a novel transgenic quail that ubiquitously expresses nuclear localized monomer cherry fluorescent protein (chFP). We characterize the expression pattern of chFP and provide concrete examples of how Tg(PGK1:H2B-chFP) quail can be used to dynamically image and analyze key morphogenetic events during embryonic stages X to 11. PMID:26209648

  14. Comparison of Muscle Fiber and Meat Quality Characteristics in Different Japanese Quail Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. M.; Hwang, S.; Lee, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance, fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and meat quality characteristics in the heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) quail lines and genders. The HW male exhibited more than two times greater body (245.7 vs 96.1 g, p<0.05) and pectoralis major muscle (PMW; 37.1 vs 11.1 g, p<0.05) weights compared to the RBC female. This growth performance in the HW line was associated with a greater muscle fiber area (1,502 vs 663.0 μm2, p<0.001) compared to the RBC line. Greater muscle mass of the HW male was accompanied by a higher percentage of type IIB fiber compared to the HW female (64.0% vs 51.0%, p<0.05). However, muscle fiber hyperplasia (increase in fiber number) has had a somewhat limited effect on PMW between the two lines. On the other hand, the HW line harboring a higher proportion of type IIB fiber showed rapid pH decline at the early postmortem period (6.23 vs 6.41, p<0.05) and lighter meat surface (53.5 vs 47.3, p<0.05) compared to the RBC line harboring a lower proportion of type IIB fiber. There were no significant differences observed in the measurement of water-holding capacity including drip loss (2.74% vs 3.07%, p>0.05) and cooking loss (21.9% vs 20.4%, p>0.05) between the HW and RBC lines. Therefore, the HW quail line developed by selection from the RBC quail, was slightly different in the meat quality characteristics compared to the RBC line, and a marked difference was found in growth performance between the two quail lines. PMID:27383804

  15. Elevated yolk progesterone moderates prenatal heart rate and postnatal auditory learning in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua A; Rodriguez, Yvette; Lickliter, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have established that yolk hormones of maternal origin can influence physiology and behavior in birds. However, few studies have examined the effects of maternal gestagens, like progesterone, on chick behavior and physiology. We tested the effects of experimentally elevated egg yolk progesterone on embryonic heart rate and postnatal auditory learning in bobwhite quail hatchlings. Quail chicks were passively exposed to an individual maternal assembly call for 10 min/hr during the 24 hr following hatching. Preference for the familiarized call was tested at 48 hr following hatching in three experimental groups: chicks that received artificially elevated yolk progesterone (P) prior to incubation, vehicle-only controls (V), and non-manipulated controls (C). Resting heart rate of P, V, and C embryos were also measured on prenatal day 17. The resting heart rate of P embryos was significantly higher than both the V and C embryos. Chicks from the P group also showed an enhanced preference for the familiarized bobwhite maternal call when compared to chicks from the C and V groups. Our results indicate that elevated yolk progesterone in pre-incubated bobwhite quail eggs can influence arousal level in bobwhite embryos and postnatal perceptual learning in bobwhite neonates. PMID:27108924

  16. Variations in the photoperiodic cloacal response of Japanese quail: association with testes weight and feather color

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T.; Konishi, T.

    1983-04-01

    The size of the cloacal gland was found to be a reliable indicator of testicular activity of Japanese quail. Six experiments were performed to examine the effects of alternating long and short photoperiod on the size of the cloacal gland of male Japanese quail. Three types of photoperiodic cloacal responses were distinguished. Type I birds became refractory to short photoperiods after they had experienced 5 weeks or more of short days. They maintained large cloacal glands under subsequent condition of alternating long and short photoperiod. Type II birds were intermediate types I and III birds did not become refractory to short photoperiods after experiencing 5 weeks or more of short days. The cloacal glands responded to conditions of alternating long and short photoperiods with increases or decreases in size. Feather color on the throat was found to correspond to the type of cloacal response. Type I birds had brick-red throat feathers. Type II birds had white feathers intermingled with brick-red feathers. Type III had white throat feathers. The percentages of types I, II, and III observed in the experimental population was 67, 18, and 15%, respectively. Type III birds were used to study the effects of blinding on the cloacal response to short photoperiod. Five out of eight blinded type III birds did not lose the responsiveness to short photoperiod. These results are consistent with the view that extraocular photoreceptors participate in the photoperiodic gonadal response of Japanese quail.

  17. Photodynamic effect of hypericin after topical application in the ex ovo quail chorioallantoic membrane model.

    PubMed

    Čavarga, Ivan; Bilčík, Boris; Výboh, Pavel; Záškvarová, Monika; Chorvát, Dušan; Kasák, Peter; Mlkvý, Peter; Mateašík, Anton; Chorvátová, Alžbeta; Miškovský, Pavol

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitizing properties of hypericin are well known, and the chicken chorioallantoic membrane has previously been used to test photodynamic effects of hypericin and other substances. In our study the photodynamic effect of hypericin in the ex ovo quail chorioallantoic membrane model was evaluated. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of hypericin solution in PEG-400 and its mixture in PBS was performed to assess and characterize the process of aggregation and disaggregation of hypericin during the drug formulation preparation. A therapeutical formulation (2 µg/g of embryo weight) was topically applied on CAM into the silicone ring. Hypericin was excited by diode laser with wavelength 405 nm, fluence rate 140 mW/cm2, and fluence 16.8 J/cm2. Hypericin in 100% PEG-400 exhibits typical fluorescence spectra with a maximum of about 600 nm, while hypericin 10% PEG-400 formulation exhibits almost no fluorescence. Time resolved spectra analysis showed fluorescence decay of hypericin in 100% PEG-400 solution with a mean lifetime of 5.1 ns and in 10% PEG 4.1 ns. Damage of quail chorioallantoic membrane vasculature after photodynamic therapy ranged from hemorrhage and vanishing of capillary vessels to thrombosis, lysis, and hemorrhage of larger vessels.The presented findings suggest that quail embryos can be used as a suitable model to test the effect of hypericin and other photodynamic compounds. PMID:24414308

  18. Change of ultraviolet light transmittance in growing chicken and quail eyes.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Peter; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Lind, Olle

    2016-05-01

    The ocular media transmittance (OMT), the amount of light transmitted by the ocular media (the cornea, aqueous humour, lens and vitreous humour) to the retina, determines the sensitivity of vertebrate eyes to short-wavelength light, such as ultraviolet (UV). Earlier, we have measured the OMT of adult birds from a range of species and found that smaller eyes transmitted more UV-light to the retina than larger eyes. In the current study we measured OMT during post-hatch development in Japanese quails and domestic chickens. We show that in both species, OMT decreases as the eye size increases similarly to that what was found across various species, but that quails have lower OMT than expected from eye size. In both species, lens transmittance decreases linearly with lens thickness suggesting that UV-transmittance through the lenses is not actively controlled, but instead determined by UV-absorbance and scattering that occur in all biological tissues. Contrary to earlier assumptions of high cornea transmittance, we found that cornea transmittance is more variable, substantially influencing whole eye transmittance in all age groups of quail and in young chickens. It seems that additional absorbing pigments are used to more actively control cornea transmittance and thereby also overall OMT. PMID:27025934

  19. Association Between Body Weight Growth and Selected Physiological Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnrix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L.

    2014-01-01

    Japanese quail is very popular research animal model. Its continued characterization for various norms is highly desirable for obtaining accurate and reliable results. This study was designed to assess various physiological parameters which are associated with body growth and development. Among various physiological parameters, blood constituents and hormones are commonly used as diagnostic tools in both physiological and pathological evaluations of humans and animals. Japanese quail hatchlings were housed in the temperature controlled brooders up to 3 weeks of age and then shifted to hanging cages in air conditioned room at ~74 F under 14L:10D lighting system and free access to feed and fresh water. Starting d8, a group of birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly and euthanized at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age. The birds were weighed and blood sampled from the brachial vein for measuring Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV). It was found that starting d36 all the three physiological parameters altered with approaching sexual maturity (d48–52): BGL decreased (252 vrs. 182 mg/dl, p<0.05), PCV% increased (43.6 vrs. 49.6%, p<0.05) and PP also increased (2.7 vrs. 3.2 gm/dl, p>0.05). Accordingly, BGL, PCV and PP values demonstrated significant potential to predict approaching sexual maturity in male Japanese quail. PMID:25285100

  20. Histogenesis of the stomach of the pre-hatching quail: a light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Soha A; Ahmed, Yasser A; Abdelsabour-Khalaf, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    The current study conducted a careful description of the histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. Daily histological specimens from the quail stomach from day 4 to day 17 post incubation were examined by light microscopy. The primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at day 4 post incubation. The gut tube consisted of an endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type, surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme. The prospective glandular epithelium invaginated at day 5 in the proventriculus and gradually developed to prospective proventricular glands. The muscular coat became distinguished at day 7 and day 8 in the proventriculus and gizzard, respectively. Transformation into simple columnar epithelium occurred in both proventriculus and the gizzard at day 12. The gizzard epithelium gave rise to tubular invaginations also at day 12. Canalization of the gizzard tubular glands was recognized at day 14. By day 15, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in a concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units that contained inactive oxyntico-peptic cells. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared at day 15 to form plicae and sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard at day 17 acquired histological features of post-hatching birds. PMID:26643380

  1. Effects of field applications of heptachlor on bobwhite quail and other wild animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosene, W.

    1965-01-01

    A study of the effects of field applications of heptachlor on bobwhite quail (Colinus uirginianus) and other animals was conducted on three similar areas, two in Decatur County, Georgia, and one in Escambia County, Alabama, from February, 1958, to March, 1962. Heptachlor in granules was applied by aircraft on the Georgia areas for eradication of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis saevissima). Applications were directed by personnel of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Plant Pest Control Division. The Alabama area remained untreated. Transects where whistling cocks were counted were superimposed on areas where coveys were counted. Size of areas varied from 14,000 to 20,000 acres. Each area had six transects, totaling 11,000 acres. Whistling cock bobwhites and coveys averaged 28 and 20 per 1,000 acres, respectively, the year before treatment on a Georgia area, and cocks and coveys averaged 25 per 1,000 acres for the duration of the study on the untreated Alabama area. Where portions of an area were treated at 2 pounds of heptachlor per acre, whistling cocks and coveys were reduced significantly, with a greater reduction where a greater amount of land was treated on the area or its transects. A decline of cocks and coveys also followed 1/2-pound applications (approaching statistical significance for coveys). Three years after treatment, cock and covey numbers were below those recorded before treatment. Whistling cocks and coveys also declined on adjoining land which remained untreated (significant for cocks, approaching significance for coveys). This decline was attributed to movements of bobwhites from untreated land to repopulate treated land. There is evidence that some loss occurred in bobwhites after they moved from untreated to treated land; the decrease in each instance was ascribed to the application of heptachlor. Songbirds were listed on the two Georgia areas. The first summer, eight more species and 458 more individuals of permanent resident birds were

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of meat-type quail breeders with guanidinoacetic acid on their reproductive parameters and progeny performance.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A E; Rodrigueiro, R J B; Santos, T C; Ospina-Rojas, I C; Rademacher, M

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of meat-type quail breeders with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on their reproductive parameters and progeny performance. Two hundred forty meat-type quails at 25 wk of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 8 replicates of 6 birds each. The treatments consisted of 5 dietary levels of GAA (0.00, 0.06, 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24%). The progenies from quail breeders were housed according to breeder treatments and fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal without GAA supplementation. Dietary GAA levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the productivity of meat-type quail breeders, although the concentration of guanidinic compounds (creatine, GAA, and creatinine) in the eggs from the breeders increased linearly (P < 0.05) according to the increase in dietary GAA levels. The number of spermatozoa present in the vitelline membrane was not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments, but there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of GAA on fertility, embryonic mortality, and egg hatchability, with the best results estimated at 0.13, 0.15, and 0.14% GAA, respectively. The creatine levels of the pectoral muscle in newborn quails showed a quadratic effect (P ≤ 0.07), and the dietary GAA level of 0.11% was estimated to maximize the muscular creatine level in the progeny. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of GAA levels on weight gain and feed conversion of progeny at 35 d of age with an optimization point of 0.14% GAA for these variables. Dietary GAA supplementation of meat-type quail breeders increases the availability of creatine in eggs and muscle of progeny, which results in better reproductive parameters and better postnatal progeny performance. PMID:24974392

  3. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 1. Responses in growth parameters and food conversion.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Knízetová, H; Dĕdková, L; Hort, J

    2001-12-01

    1. HG and LG quail lines selected for high and low relative weight gain between 11 and 28 d of age (RG11-28), respectively, and an unselected C line were compared. Mature body weight of both selected lines was held at that of the C line. Progeny of generation 6 were used for analysis. 2. Divergent selection for RG11-28 brought about opposite changes in the growth rates shortly after hatching. 3. Parameters of the Richards function were used to describe the growth curve. The largest differences between HG and LG lines occurred in age (t+) and body weight (y+) at the inflection point of the growth curve (on average for both sexes 28% and 20%, respectively). For HG quail, the parameter t+ was 5 d later than that for LG quail (18.6 vs 14.1 d for males and 20.6 vs 15.6 d for females, respectively), and consequently the parameter y+ was greater (90.3 vs 84.0 g for males and 104.5 vs 96.1 g for females, respectively). The shape of the growth curve expressed by the y+/A ratio was substantialy different for HG and LG quail (44.8% vs 39.6% for males and 43.5% vs 36.8% for females, respectively). 4. The food/gain ratios for the fattening period (3 to 35 d of age) were 3.21, 3.47 and 3.34 for the HG, LG and C lines, respectively. The HG quail started to utilise food more efficiently than the LG quail as early as 10 to 14 d, that is, at the age when their relative growth rate first became greater. 5. The relative deviations of the HG and LG lines from the C line are discussed. PMID:11811909

  4. Thermal stress induces changes in gene expression and blood parameters in high and low feed efficiency meat quail.

    PubMed

    Gasparino, Eliane; Voltolini, Débora Marques; Del Vesco, Ana Paula; Marcato, Simara Marcia; Zancanela, Vittor; de Oliveira Grieser, Daiane; de Souza Khatlab, Angélica; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; de Oliveira Neto, Adhemar Rodriges

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we analysed markers of stress, plasma creatinine and T3 content, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), uncoupling protein (UCP), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) mRNA expression in the liver and muscle of high (0.22 g/g) and low (0.14 g/g) feed efficiency (FE) meat quail at three different air temperatures, comfortable, heat and cold stress, for 24 h. High FE quail presented higher plasma T3 and lower creatinine levels. IGF-I mRNA expression was higher in the livers of high FE quail than in the livers of low FE quail under both comfortable and cold stress conditions. In the muscle, regardless of the environment, high FE birds showed higher IGF-I mRNA expression. High FE birds also showed higher GHR mRNA expression under comfortable conditions. Regarding the environment, higher expression was observed in birds at comfortable conditions, and lower expression in birds under heat stress. UCP mRNA expression in the liver was lower in high FE birds and higher under heat stress compared with the other conditions. Low and high FE birds showed greater ANT mRNA expression in the muscle under cold stress. Greater mRNA COX III expressions were observed in the liver and muscle of quails under comfortable conditions. Our results suggest that temperature affects the expression of genes related to growth and mitochondrial energy production, and quail with different FEs respond differently to environmental stimuli. In comfortable conditions, high FE animals show higher IGF-I mRNA expression and plasma T3 and lower creatinine content. PMID:25190104

  5. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction by TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126 in bobwhite quail hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie P; Farmahin, Reza; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-07-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency factors are used to calculate toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of complex mixtures of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for mammals, fish and birds. The TEQ concept assumes that all species of a taxa respond with similar sensitivity to individual DLCs, but several reports do not support this assumption for birds. Our laboratory is conducting research to attempt to uncover the fundamental mechanism(s) underlying the reasons why avian species differ in sensitivity to DLCs. The present study determined concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in primary cultures of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) hepatocytes. Bobwhite quail were studied because (1) this species is used in the laboratory for toxicity testing and (2) the amino acids at all locations within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) in bobwhite quail and ring necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are identical. Because earlier work indicated the importance of the identity of amino acids at key sites within the AHR1 LBD, we hypothesized that bobwhite quail and ring necked pheasant hepatocytes should have similar sensitivity to EROD induction by DLCs. ECthreshold-based relative sensitivity of the bobwhite quail compared to chicken for TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126 was 0.11, 0.17 and 0.02, respectively. The rank order of potency was PeCDF > TCDD > PCB 126. The results confirm that bobwhite quail and ring-necked pheasant hepatocytes have similar sensitivity to EROD induction by TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126. PMID:24619315

  6. Genetic evaluation of early egg production and maturation traits using two different approaches in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; El-Full, E A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a multi-trait selection program based on aggregated breeding values using an animal model Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) in Japanese quail. The estimated genetic gain was compared by both mixed model and least squares methods. Data of 1,682 female Japanese quails were collected through four consecutive generations to estimate genetic gain, depending on aggregated breeding values, for age at first egg (AFE), body weight at sexual maturity (BWSM), and days needed to produce the first ten eggs (DN10). Estimates of cumulative selection response were favorable for all the studied traits and significant for AFE (-3.03) and BWSM(10.38), but not significant for DN10(-0.15). Estimates of direct heritability were moderate for AFE (0.21) and BWSM(0.25) but low for DN10(0.08), while estimates of maternal heritability were moderate for AFE (0.19) but low for BWSM(0.04) and DN10(0.01). High (0.45 to 0.56) genetic and low (-0.01 to -0.18) phenotypic correlations were observed among the studied traits. Negative (-0.23 to -0.95) correlations between additive genetic and maternal genetic effects were observed for all traits. Genetic trends were -0.76 (P=0.031), 2.54 (P=0.037), and -0.06 (P=0.052) with calculated product-moment correlations between breeding values, estimated by BLUP and phenotypic selection methods, of 0.78 (P=0.002), 0.77 (P=0.004), and 0.61 (P=0.007) for AFE, BWSM, and DN10, respectively. Aggregated breeding value estimation based on animal model BLUP could be an effective method of constructing a selection program to achieve a favorable selection response in egg production traits in Japanese quail. PMID:26769265

  7. Replication and transmission of mammalian-adapted H9 subtype influenza virus in pigs and quail.

    PubMed

    Obadan, Adebimpe O; Kimble, Brian J; Rajao, Daniela; Lager, Kelly; Santos, Jefferson J S; Vincent, Amy; Perez, Daniel R

    2015-09-01

    Influenza A virus is a major pathogen of birds, swine and humans. Strains can jump between species in a process often requiring mutations and reassortment, resulting in outbreaks and, potentially, pandemics. H9N2 avian influenza is predominant in poultry across Asia and occasionally infects humans and swine. Pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is endemic in humans and swine and has a history of reassortment in pigs. Previous studies have shown the compatibility of H9N2 and H1N1pdm for reassortment in ferrets, a model for human infection and transmission. Here, the effects of ferret adaptation of H9 surface gene segments on the infectivity and transmission in at-risk natural hosts, specifically swine and quail, were analysed. Reassortant H9N1 and H9N2 viruses, carrying seven or six gene segments from H1N1pdm, showed infectivity and transmissibility in swine, unlike the wholly avian H9N2 virus with ferret-adapted surface genes. In quail, only the reassortant H9N2 with the six internal gene segments from the H1N1pdm strain was able to infect and transmit, although less efficiently than the wholly avian H9N2 virus with ferret-adapted surface genes. These results highlight that ferret-adapted mutations on the haemagglutinin of H9 subtype virus do not restrict the ability of the virus to infect swine and quail, and that the ability to transmit in these species depends on the context of the whole virus. As such, this study emphasizes the threat that H9N2 reassortant viruses pose to humans and agricultural species and the importance of the genetic constellation of the virus to its ability to replicate and transmit in natural hosts of influenza. PMID:25986634

  8. Replication and transmission of mammalian-adapted H9 subtype influenza virus in pigs and quail

    PubMed Central

    Obadan, Adebimpe O.; Kimble, Brian J.; Rajao, Daniela; Lager, Kelly; Santos, Jefferson J. S.; Vincent, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a major pathogen of birds, swine and humans. Strains can jump between species in a process often requiring mutations and reassortment, resulting in outbreaks and, potentially, pandemics. H9N2 avian influenza is predominant in poultry across Asia and occasionally infects humans and swine. Pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is endemic in humans and swine and has a history of reassortment in pigs. Previous studies have shown the compatibility of H9N2 and H1N1pdm for reassortment in ferrets, a model for human infection and transmission. Here, the effects of ferret adaptation of H9 surface gene segments on the infectivity and transmission in at-risk natural hosts, specifically swine and quail, were analysed. Reassortant H9N1 and H9N2 viruses, carrying seven or six gene segments from H1N1pdm, showed infectivity and transmissibility in swine, unlike the wholly avian H9N2 virus with ferret-adapted surface genes. In quail, only the reassortant H9N2 with the six internal gene segments from the H1N1pdm strain was able to infect and transmit, although less efficiently than the wholly avian H9N2 virus with ferret-adapted surface genes. These results highlight that ferret-adapted mutations on the haemagglutinin of H9 subtype virus do not restrict the ability of the virus to infect swine and quail, and that the ability to transmit in these species depends on the context of the whole virus. As such, this study emphasizes the threat that H9N2 reassortant viruses pose to humans and agricultural species and the importance of the genetic constellation of the virus to its ability to replicate and transmit in natural hosts of influenza. PMID:25986634

  9. Structural and biochemical effects in lungs of Japanese quail following a 1-week exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Rombout, P.J.; Dormans, J.A.; van Bree, L.; Marra, M. )

    1991-02-01

    The effect of ozone inhalation on birds was investigated. Japanese quail were exposed continuously to 0, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/m3 ozone (0, 0.15, 0.50, and 1.50 ppm, respectively) for 7 days. Pulmonary effects were determined by light and electron microscopy as well as by biochemistry. Focal areas of hemorrhages were noticed in the birds exposed to 1.0 mg/m3 ozone. Additional effects after exposure to 1 mg/m3 included loss of cilia in trachea and bronchi, an inflammatory response, and necrosis of air capillary epithelial cells. Following exposure to 3 mg/m3 many atria of tertiary bronchi were completely obstructed by extensive hemorrhages, metaplasia of atrial wall cells, and hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells. Lung biochemistry data revealed that in the 3 mg/m3 group lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione reductase activities were significantly increased. In the 0.3 and 1.0 mg/m3 exposure groups no effects on lung antioxidant enzymes were observed. In conclusion, Japanese quail appear to respond to ozone exposure in a different way than mammals. Since no signs of repair in air capillary epithelium after 7 days of continuous exposure were observed, the quail seems to lack the morphological and biochemical repair ability as is observed in mammals. Therefore, more research of the effects of ozone on birds seems to be necessary, both from a mechanistic and an ecological point of view.

  10. Genetic parameter estimates of growth curve and reproduction traits in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Narinc, Dogan; Karaman, Emre; Aksoy, Tulin; Firat, Mehmet Ziya

    2014-01-01

    The goal of selection studies in broilers is to obtain genetically superior chicks in terms of major economic traits, which are mainly growth rate, meat yield, and feed conversion ratio. Multiple selection schedules for growth and reproduction are used in selection programs within commercial broiler dam lines. Modern genetic improvement methods have not been applied in experimental quail lines. The current research was conducted to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for growth and reproduction traits in a Japanese quail flock. The Gompertz equation was used to determine growth curve parameters. The Gibbs sampling under a multi-trait animal model was applied to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations for these traits. A total of 948 quail were used with complete pedigree information to estimate the genetic parameters. Heritability estimates of BW, absolute and relative growth rates at 5 wk of age (AGR and RGR), β0 and β2 parameters, and age at point of inflection (IPT) of Gompertz growth curve, total egg number (EN) from the day of first lay to 24 wk of age were moderate to high, with values ranging from 0.25 to 0.40. A low heritability (0.07) for fertility (FR) and a strong genetic correlation (0.83) between FR and EN were estimated in our study. Body weight exhibited negative genetic correlation with EN, FR, RGR, and IPT. This genetic antagonism among the mentioned traits may be overcome using modern poultry breeding methods such as selection using multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction and crossbreeding. PMID:24570419

  11. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Microglia of the Developing Quail Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A.; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M.; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid

  12. The Effects of Protein Regulators on the Vascular Remodeling of Japanese Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Arati

    2004-01-01

    Contributing to NASA s mission, the Microgravity Fluid Physics research program conducts experiments to promote space exploration and improvement of processes and products on Earth. One of the projects through this program deals with the affect of regulators on vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. This project is being led by Dr. Patricia Parsons-Wingerter. To perform the experiments, protein regulators are tested on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the Japanese quail embryos. The different types of regulators used can be broken down into two major groups of stimulators, and inhibitors. Stimulators increase the rate of blood vessel growth and inhibitors decrease of blood vessel growth. The specified regulator proteins include thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and a novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF), these are just the ones used in this specific experiment; other various protein regulators can also be used. The novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF) is a special kind of stimulator because it stimulates vessel tortuosity and curvature, rather than actual blood vessel growth. These regulators are being tested on Japanese quail embryos. The Japanese quail embryos naturally form a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from which blood flow, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis can be observed. Chorioallantoic membranes are also easier to use because they are two dimensional when mounted onto a slide for examination. The analysis of the affect of the regulators on the CAM can be studied through PIVPROC; the program is used to analyze the altered blood flow in response to application of TF. Regulators are being thoroughly studied because cardiovascular alterations are the second highest, NASA-defined, risk categories in human space exploration. This research done on the quail is extending to even more projects that will be done on lab animals such as mice and also in human clinical studies like the diabetic retina. Not only will this research be beneficial to further space

  13. Isolation of avian bornaviruses from psittacine birds using QT6 quail cells in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HORIE, Masayuki; SASSA, Yukiko; IKI, Haruko; EBISAWA, Kazumasa; FUKUSHI, Hideto; YANAI, Tokuma; TOMONAGA, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABVs) were recently discovered as the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). Although molecular epidemiological studies revealed that ABVs exist in Japan, no Japanese isolate has been reported thus far. In this study, we isolated four strains of Psittaciform 1 bornavirus from psittacine birds affected by PDD using QT6 quail cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to isolate ABVs in Japan and to show that QT6 cells are available for ABV isolation. These isolates and QT6 cells would be powerful tools for elucidating the fundamental biology and pathogenicity of ABVs. PMID:26346745

  14. In vitro differentiation of quail neural crest cells into sensory-like neuroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber-Blum, Maya; Kumar, Sanjiv R.; Riley, Danny A.

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented that demonstrate the ability of quail neural-crest embrionic cells grown as primary culture to differentiate in vitro into sensorylike neuroblasts. After 7-14 days of growth as primary culture, many of the putative sensory neuroblasts displayed substance P (SP)-like immunoreactivity and some exhibited histochemical carbonic anhydrase activity. Double staining experiments showed that the SP-like immunoreactive neuroblasts did not contain detectable levels of tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. The neuronal nature of the cultured sensorylike neuroblasts was further documented by double labeling for antibodies against the 68 kDa neurofilament polypeptide and substance P.

  15. The chick/quail transplantation model: discovery of the isthmic organizer center.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Mallart, Rosa-Magda

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes chick/quail transplantation experiments performed in the INSERM U106 by Alvarado-Mallart's group from 1989 to 2002. First, it will present the various steps leading us to demonstrate that, at stage 10 of Hamburger and Hamilton, the avian neuroepithelium is still competent to change its fate influenced by environmental inductive factors and that these factors emanate from the cerebellar neuroepithelium; then, it will be briefly reported, experiments aimed to characterize the genetic cascade involved in the formation of the midbrain/hindbrain boundary and the specification of the meso-isthmic-cerebellar domain. PMID:16111542

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails. PMID:25012208

  17. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    PubMed

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance. PMID:27254452

  18. Mirex residues in bobwhite quail after aerial application of bait for fire ant control, South Carolina--1975-76.

    PubMed

    Kendall, R J; Noblet, R; Hair, J D; Jackson, H B

    1977-09-01

    Mirex, the organochlorine compound used for control of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), was applied aerially under supervision of the South Carolina Plant Pest Regulatory Service in October 1975 to a game management area in Hampton County, S.C. Influenced by recent reports indicating that low levels of mirex were toxic to certain nontarget organisms in laboratory studies, authors initiated a program for monitoring mirex residues in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Pretreatment residues were recorded on a dry-weight basis in bobwhite quail breast and adipose tissue; conversion factors for determining wet-weight concentrations are approximately as follows: fat, 0.77; and breast, 0.29. Residues ranged from 0.000-0.178 ppm and 0.247-2.763 ppm, respectively. Mirex residues in quail adipose tissue showed up to five-fold increase within the first month after treatment and declined thereafter. A residue peak was noticed the spring following mirex treatment, corresponding with insect emergence. Mirex residues in quail collected in summer 1976 following a fall bait application showed slightly higher residue levels than had birds taken in summer 1975; however, little, if any, human food chain contamination would result in the consumption of birds with residue levels found in this study. PMID:600676

  19. Differences in pathogen colonization and mortality of genetically selected Japanese quail lines subjected to heat stress and Escherichia coli challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese quail selected for divergent corticosterone response to restraint stress were evaluated for their resistance to heat stress and aerosol challenge with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) to determine the impact of stress response on APEC pathogenesis and colonization with food-borne pa...

  20. Interactive effect of light colours and temporal synergism of circadian neural oscillations in reproductive regulation of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-09-01

    Avian literature reports the modulation of 'photoperiodic gonadal responses' by the temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations in Japanese quail. But, the modulation of 'light colour responses' by the temporal synergism of neural oscillations is not yet known. Hence the present study was designed to investigate the interaction of the light colour (blue, red) and the phase relation of neural oscillations in the reproductive regulation of Japanese quail. Three week old male Japanese quail were divided into two groups and maintained under a long day length condition (16L:8D) and were exposed to a 30 lux intensity of blue LED (light emitting diode) (B LED) and a red LED light (R LED). At the age of 15.5weeks, quail of one subgroup of B LED were injected with serotonin precursor (5-HTP) and dopamine precursor (l-DOPA) 12hrs apart (B LED+12-hr) and those of the R LED group were injected with the same drugs (5mg/100g body weight over a period of thirteen days) but 8hrs apart (R LED+8-hr). The remaining subgroups of both the light colour groups (B LED & R LED) received normal saline twice daily and served as controls. Cloacal gland volume was recorded weekly until 35.5weeks of age when the study was terminated and reproductive parameters (testicular volume, GSI, seminiferous tubule diameter and plasma testosterone) were assessed. Results indicate that the 8-hr temporal phase relation of neural oscillations suppresses reproductive activity even during the photosensitive phase of the red light exposed quail (R LED+8-hr) compare to the R LED controls. On the other hand, the 12-hr temporal phase relation stimulates the gonadal development of the B LED+12-hr quail compared to the B LED controls which after completing one cycle entered into a regressive phase and remained sexually quiescent. These experiments suggest that the temporal phase relations of circadian neural oscillations, in addition to modulating the classical photoperiodic responses, may

  1. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 4. Carcase composition and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Novotná, B; Darras, V M

    2008-03-01

    1. Changes in the relative weights of carcase, abdominal fat, breast and leg muscles, and plasma thyroid hormone concentrations occurring during the first 6 weeks of postnatal growth were analysed in males of HG and LG lines divergently selected for high and low relative body weight (BW) gain between 11 and 28 d of age, respectively, and constant adult BW. 2. The second week of postnatal life was a critical age at which the HG males exhibited a relatively faster growth in comparison to their LG counterparts and permanently exceeded LG males in the percentage by weight of carcase, breast and leg muscle. A higher production of muscle tissues was associated with lower accumulation of abdominal fat before sexual maturity. 3. In general, the plasma T(3) level of HG quail exceeded that of LG quail. Nevertheless, significant differences were found only at 14, 21 and 28 d of age, that is, in the period during which the highest inter-line differences in relative growth rate were noted. Also the T(3)/T(4) ratio followed a similar trend while plasma T(4) level showed no clear and consistent inter-line differences. 4. The results suggest that the selection for the shape of the growth curve, like the selection for body fat, modifies the carcase quality owing to shortening/prolongation of the acceleration growth phase. Individuals with a short acceleration phase of the growth curve are characterised by low carcase quality during the fattening period. PMID:18409082

  2. Quail-duck chimeras reveal spatiotemporal plasticity in molecular and histogenic programs of cranial feather development.

    PubMed

    Eames, B Frank; Schneider, Richard A

    2005-04-01

    The avian feather complex represents a vivid example of how a developmental module composed of highly integrated molecular and histogenic programs can become rapidly elaborated during the course of evolution. Mechanisms that facilitate this evolutionary diversification may involve the maintenance of plasticity in developmental processes that underlie feather morphogenesis. Feathers arise as discrete buds of mesenchyme and epithelium, which are two embryonic tissues that respectively form dermis and epidermis of the integument. Epithelial-mesenchymal signaling interactions generate feather buds that are neatly arrayed in space and time. The dermis provides spatiotemporal patterning information to the epidermis but precise cellular and molecular mechanisms for generating species-specific differences in feather pattern remain obscure. In the present study, we exploit the quail-duck chimeric system to test the extent to which the dermis regulates the expression of genes required for feather development. Quail and duck have distinct feather patterns and divergent growth rates, and we exchange pre-migratory neural crest cells destined to form the craniofacial dermis between them. We find that donor dermis induces host epidermis to form feather buds according to the spatial pattern and timetable of the donor species by altering the expression of members and targets of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein, Sonic Hedgehog and Delta/Notch pathways. Overall, we demonstrate that there is a great deal of spatiotemporal plasticity inherent in the molecular and histogenic programs of feather development, a property that may have played a generative and regulatory role throughout the evolution of birds. PMID:15728671

  3. Primary Endodermal Epithelial Cell Culture from the Yolk Sac Membrane of Japanese Quail Embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Jen; Wang, Siou Huei; Pan, Yu Hui; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    We established an endodermal epithelial cell culture model (EEC) for studying the function of certain enzymes and proteins in mediating nutrient utilization by avian embryos during development. Fertilized Japanese quail eggs were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days and then yolk sac membranes (YSM) were collected to establish the EEC culture system. We isolated the embryonic endoderm layer from YSM, and sliced the membrane into 2 - 3 mm pieces and partially digested with collagenase before seeding in 24-well culture plates. The EECs proliferate out of the tissue and are ready for cell culture studies. We found that the EECs had typical characteristics of YSM in vivo, for example, accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of sterol O-acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase. The partial digestion treatment significantly increased the successful rate of EEC culture. Utilizing the EECs, we demonstrated that the expression of SOAT1 was regulated by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A related pathway. This primary Japanese quail EEC culture system is a useful tool to study embryonic lipid transportation and to clarify the role of genes involved in mediating nutrient utilization in YSM during avian embryonic development. PMID:27022687

  4. Quail-duck chimeras reveal spatiotemporal plasticity in molecular and histogenic programs of cranial feather development

    PubMed Central

    Eames, B. Frank; Schneider, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The avian feather complex represents a vivid example of how a developmental module composed of highly integrated molecular and histogenic programs can become rapidly elaborated during the course of evolution. Mechanisms that facilitate this evolutionary diversification may involve the maintenance of plasticity in developmental processes that underlie feather morphogenesis. Feathers arise as discrete buds of mesenchyme and epithelium, which are two embryonic tissues that respectively form dermis and epidermis of the integument. Epithelial-mesenchymal signaling interactions generate feather buds that are neatly arrayed in space and time. The dermis provides spatiotemporal patterning information to the epidermis but precise cellular and molecular mechanisms for generating species-specific differences in feather pattern remain obscure. In the present study, we exploit the quail-duck chimeric system to test the extent to which the dermis regulates the expression of genes required for feather development. Quail and duck have distinct feather patterns and divergent growth rates, and we exchange premigratory neural crest cells destined to form the craniofacial dermis between them. We find that donor dermis induces host epidermis to form feather buds according to the spatial pattern and timetable of the donor species by altering the expression of members and targets of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein, Sonic Hedgehog and Delta/Notch pathways. Overall, we demonstrate that there is a great deal of spatiotemporal plasticity inherent in the molecular and histogenic programs of feather development, a property that may have played a generative and regulatory role throughout the evolution of birds. PMID:15728671

  5. The Fractal-based Analysis of the Regulation of Vascular Remodeling in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Genee S.

    2004-01-01

    Critical to the advancement of space exploration is the safety and well being of astronauts while in space. This study focuses on the second highest of NASA-defined risk categories for human space exploration, cardiovascular alterations. Current research of this problem is being tackled by investigating angiogenesis through vascular remodeling. Angiogenesis is the growth and formation of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is an important part of maintaining normal development and bodily functions. The loss of control of this process, either insufficient or excessive vascular growth, is considered a common denominator in many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Objectives are presently being met by observing the effects of various regulators, like thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and a novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF), through the use of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail embryos, which enables the direct optical imaging of 2-dimensional vascular branching trees. Research within the CAM is being performed to deduce numerous methods of regulating vessel growth. This project centers on the ability of a novel vessel regulator to affect angiogenesis. For example, it is hypothesized that the TSP-1 will inhibit the growth of CAM vasculature. Fractal/VESGEN-based techniques and PTV analysis are the methodologies used to investigate vascular differentiation. This tactic is used to quantify results and measure the growth patterns and morphology of blood vessels. The regulatory mechanisms posed by this vessel regulator can be deduced by alterations found within the vasculature patterns of quail embryos.

  6. Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyotiprabha; Abraham, Robinson J. J; Rao, V. Appa; Rajini, R. Asha; Mishra, B. P.; Sarangi, N. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition of solar dried blood and rumen content (DBRC) and further ascertain the concentration at which DBRC could be included in Japanese quail diets without any adverse effect on its performance. Materials and Methods: Feeding trial on the effect of DBRC on performance of Japanese quails was studied up to 5 weeks. 252 numbers of day old (Nandanam Type III breed) Japanese quails were purchased from Poultry Research Station, Madhavaram and divided into 7 batches (control+ six treatments) each consisting of 36 birds. The DBRC was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% in diets as control, treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2), treatment-3 (T3), treatment-4 (T4), treatment-5 (T5) and treatment-6 (T6) respectively in a completely randomized design to replace soybean meal in Japanese quail feed. The birds were provided with ad-labidum feed and drinking water ad-libitum during the entire experimental period. Results: The crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash contents of DBRC were 35.87%, 17.40%, 3.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The amount of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acid content were found to be 12.98 and 4.87 (g/100 g of feed) respectively in DBRC feed. Result showed that all birds fed DBRC diets performed better than the control group. Mortality was unaffected by dietary treatments. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) observed in weight gain in treatment groups compared to the control. Conclusion: Up to 30% DBRC could be incorporated in the diets of Japanese quails without any adverse effects on its performance. PMID:27047002

  7. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  8. Regulation of Vascular Growth in the Chorioallantoic Membrane of Japanese Quail Eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Idoreyin P.

    2004-01-01

    The Microgravity Research Program is part of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). The mission of the Microgravity Fluid Physics research program is to facilitate and conduct the best possible fluid physics research using the space environment and make this knowledge available to the scientific community and the public at large. During the summer of 2004, I worked in this division with Dr. Patricia Parsons-Wingerter. Dr. Parsons was working on several projects that used the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail eggs. The CAM develops in the eggs of birds and reptiles and is a very vascular fetal membrane composed of the fused chorion and adjacent wall of the allantois. The CAM is formed on day 4 of incubation and its primary job is to mediate gas exchanges with the extra embryonic environment. The CAM of our Japanese quail eggs is easily identifiable to us because it is transparent and it sits on top of the yolk with the embryo in the center. The CAM is of interest because of its many applications in the field of medicine as it relates to vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is simply the growth or formation of new blood vessels and anti-angiogenesis is the inhibition of said vessels. Angiogenesis occurs naturally in a healthy body for healing wounds and for restoring blood flow to tissues after injury and in females during the monthly reproductive cycle. In many serious diseases, like several types of cancer and those that affect the heart and cardiovascular system, the body loses control over angiogenesis. These diseases, which are dependent on angiogenesis, result when new blood vessels either grow excessively or insufficiently. The chorioallantoic membrane of our Japanese quail eggs gives a good model of angiogenesis. We used angiogenic regulators to inhibit or stimulate vascular growth in the CAM in a healthy manner and they induced distinct vascular patterns in vivo. Certain dominant regulators can be recognized by

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  10. Hormonal responses and tolerance to cold of female quail following parathion ingestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-week-old female bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), maintained at 26 + 1?C, were provided diets containing 0,25, or 100 ppm parathion ad libitum. After 10 days, birds were exposed to mild cold (6 + 1?C) for 4,8, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in birds receiving 25 and 100 ppm parathion. Body weight, egg production, and plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations were reduced in birds receiving 100 ppm parathion compared with other groups. Cold exposure did not alter plasma corticosterone levels in the 0- and 25-ppm parathion groups, but a two- to five fold elevation of plasma corticosterone was observed in birds fed 100 ppm parathion. These findings indicate that (i) short-term ingestion of parathion can impair reproduction possibly by altering gonadotropin or steroid secretion, and (ii) tolerance to cold may be reduced following ingestion of this organophosphate.

  11. Biased embryos: Prenatal experience alters the postnatal malleability of auditory preferences in bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Harshaw, Christopher; Lickliter, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Many precocial birds show a robust preference for the maternal call of their own species before and after hatching. This differential responsiveness to species-specific auditory stimuli by embryos and neonates has been the subject of study for more than four decades, but much remains unknown about the dynamics of this ability. Gottlieb [Gottlieb [1971]. Development of species identification in birds: An enquiry into the prenatal determinants of perception. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.] demonstrated that prenatal exposure to embryonic vocalizations serves to canalize the formation of species-specific preferences in ducklings. Apart from this, little is known about the features of the developmental system that serve to canalize such species-typical preferences, on the one hand, and generate novel behavioral phenotypes, on the other. In the current study, we show that briefly exposing bobwhite quail embryos to a heterospecific Japanese quail (JQ) maternal call significantly enhanced their acquisition of a preference for that call when chicks were provided with subsequent postnatal exposure to the same call. This was true whether postnatal exposure involved playback of the maternal call contingent upon chick contact vocalizations or yoked, non-contingent exposure to the call. Chicks that received both passive prenatal and contingent postnatal exposure to the JQ maternal call redirected their species-typical auditory preference, showing a significant preference for JQ call over the call of their own species. In contrast, chicks receiving only prenatal or only postnatal exposure to the JQ call did not show this redirection of their auditory preference. Our results indicate that prenatal sensory stimulation can significantly bias postnatal responsiveness to social stimuli, thereby altering the course of early learning and memory. PMID:21400491

  12. Cloacal gland, endocrine testicular, and adrenocortical photoresponsiveness in male Japanese quail exposed to short days.

    PubMed

    Busso, J M; Dominchin, M F; Marin, R H; Palme, R

    2013-04-01

    Photoperiod is the most important "noise-free" seasonal environmental cue for synchronizing physiological states (such as reproductive activity) in birds. However, in photoperiodic birds such as Japanese quail, the effect of photoperiod on adrenocortical activity remains unclear, particularly in males with differences in cloacal gland photoresponsiveness. At 8 wk of age, birds (n = 55) were either assigned to a short photoperiod (8L:16D; SD) or maintained under long photoperiod (16L:8D; LD; control). After 5 wk of SD exposure, males were classified as nonresponsive (SD-NR; with foam production) or responsive (SD-R; with no foam production) to short days, depending on the cloacal gland volume was above or below 1,000 mm(3). At 14 wk of age, droppings were collected during 3 consecutive days to determine corticosterone (CMs) and androgen metabolites (AMs) by enzyme immunoassays. Male Japanese quail under LD showed significantly higher concentrations of CMs (300 ± 10 ng/g) and AMs (1,257 ± 115 ng/g) than birds kept under SD. Under short days, SD-NR and SD-R showed differences (P < 0.0001), both in CM (153 ± 8 ng/g and 98 ± 6 ng/g, respectively) and AM concentrations (1,294 ± 309 ng/g and 275 ± 53 ng/g, respectively). Interestingly, although SD-NR males exhibited no cloacal gland arrest (according to cloacal gland volume and foam production) and similar testicular activity (AM values) to LD males, they showed lower concentrations of CMs compared with males that remained on LD (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest length of photoperiod affected hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity; however, that was not the only factor involved, because birds subjected to shorter days but whose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis failed to respond had intermediate CM values. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this interesting finding. PMID:23411012

  13. Birth of neural progenitors during the embryonic period of sexual differentiation in the Japanese quail brain

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Mouriec, Karen; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Several brain areas in the diencephalon are involved in the activation and expression of sexual behavior, including in quail, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM). However, the ontogeny of these diencephalic brain nuclei has not to this date been examined in detail. We investigated the ontogeny of POM and other steroid-sensitive brain regions by injecting quail eggs with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at various stages between E3 and E16 and killing animals at postnatal (PN) days 3 or 56. In the POM, large numbers of BrdU-positive cells were observed in subjects injected from E3 to E10, the numbers of these cells was intermediate in birds injected on E12, and most cells were post-mitotic in both sexes on E14-E16. Injections on E3-E4 labeled large numbers of Hu positive cells in POM. In contrast, injections performed at a later stage labeled cells that do not express aromatase nor neuronal markers such as Hu or NeuN in the POM and other steroid-sensitive nuclei and thus do not have a neuronal phenotype in these locations contrary to what is observed in the telencephalon and cerebellum. No evidence could also be collected to demonstrate that these cells have a glial nature. Converging data, including the facts that these cells divide in the brain mantle and express PCNA, a cell cycling marker, indicate that cells labeled by BrdU during the second half of embryonic life are slow cycling progenitors born and residing in the brain mantle. Future research should now identify their functional significance. PMID:22628012

  14. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 5. Growth pattern and low protein level in starter diet.

    PubMed

    Hyankova, L; Knizetova, H

    2009-07-01

    1. The effect of crude protein (CP) concentration in starter diet (259 or 216 g CP and 11.7 MJ ME/kg, fed from 0 to 21 d of age) on postnatal growth pattern (from hatching to 70 d of age) was analysed in Japanese quail lines divergently selected for high (HG) and low (LG) relative gain of body weight (BW) between 11 and 28 d of age, and constant BW at 49 d of age. 2. Males and females of both lines fed on the low CP diet showed a transient BW retardation between 7 and 28 d of age, and 7 and 35 d of age, respectively, when compared with their counterparts receiving the standard CP diet. 3. Although the negative effect of low CP concentration on growth rate was observed in both lines, a lower tolerance of young HG vs. LG quail to the reduction of CP level in food was evident from their (i) stronger BW retardation at 14 d of age (16 vs. 7%), (ii) more delayed onset of compensatory growth (21 vs. 7 d of age) and (iii) greater prolongation of the acceleration growth phase (3 vs. 1 d of age) following insufficient dietary CP. 4. The line differences in early growth rate were accompanied by significant differences in food intake. The LG line consumed more food than the HG line on both CP diets and consumption was not influenced by food quality. In contrast, HG quail reduced food intake with the decrease of dietary CP concentration. On both CP diets, this was associated with a higher body fatness of LG vs. HG quail. 5. The protein-deficient food could thus represent an important factor contributing to the selection advantage of developmentally accelerated genotypes during the selection for high BW in young age categories. PMID:19735014

  15. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C; Tun, Hein M; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and -resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3-5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host

  16. Chromosome size-correlated and chromosome size-uncorrelated homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences in New World quails.

    PubMed

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Tsuruta, Yuri; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nishida, Chizuko; Griffin, Darren K; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Ono, Tamao; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-04-01

    Many families of centromeric repetitive DNA sequences isolated from Struthioniformes, Galliformes, Falconiformes, and Passeriformes are localized primarily to microchromosomes. However, it is unclear whether chromosome size-correlated homogenization is a common characteristic of centromeric repetitive sequences in Aves. New World and Old World quails have the typical avian karyotype comprising chromosomes of two distinct sizes, and C-positive heterochromatin is distributed in centromeric regions of most autosomes and the whole W chromosome. We isolated six types of centromeric repetitive sequences from three New World quail species (Colinus virginianus, CVI; Callipepla californica, CCA; and Callipepla squamata, CSQ; Odontophoridae) and one Old World quail species (Alectoris chukar, ACH; Phasianidae), and characterized the sequences by nucleotide sequencing, chromosome in situ hybridization, and filter hybridization. The 385-bp CVI-MspI, 591-bp CCA-BamHI, 582-bp CSQ-BamHI, and 366-bp ACH-Sau3AI fragments exhibited tandem arrays of the monomer unit, and the 224-bp CVI-HaeIII and 135-bp CCA-HaeIII fragments were composed of minisatellite-like and microsatellite-like repeats, respectively. ACH-Sau3AI was a homolog of the chicken nuclear membrane repeat sequence, whose homologs are common in Phasianidae. CVI-MspI, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI showed high homology and were specific to the Odontophoridae. CVI-MspI was localized to microchromosomes, whereas CVI-HaeIII, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI were mapped to almost all chromosomes. CCA-HaeIII was localized to five pairs of macrochromosomes and most microchromosomes. ACH-Sau3AI was distributed in three pairs of macrochromosomes and all microchromosomes. Centromeric repetitive sequences may be homogenized in chromosome size-correlated and -uncorrelated manners in New World quails, although there may be a mechanism that causes homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences primarily between microchromosomes, which is commonly

  17. Effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hujaz; Rao, P. V. Raman; Raghuvanshi, Rita S.; Mondal, B. C.; Singh, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120-day-old Japanese quails, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz. T1-control, T2-0.5% A. vera, T3-0.5% clove, and T4-(0.25% A. vera + 0.25% clove) powder, each having three replications consisting of ten Japanese quails. The birds in control group (T1) were fed no supplement whereas in treatments T2-T4 birds were supplemented with A. vera leaf powder, clove, and mixture of both (powdered form) at 0.5, 0.5, and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. After 7 days of brooding, a feeding trial of 35 days was conducted. On 35th day of trial birds were sacrificed and dressing percentage, cut up parts, organ weight, processing losses and carcass meat composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick were recorded. Blood samples were collected on the same day and serum was separated to evaluate serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Results: It showed significantly (p<0.05) higher values of dressing percentage with and without giblet and breast weight in the T2-T4 group as compared to the T1 group. No significant (p>0.05) differences were observed in giblet weight, other cut up parts and composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles in all the treatment groups. Serum ALT and AST did not vary significantly among different treatment groups. Conclusion: A. vera and clove supplementation improved the dressing percentage and breast weight without adversely affecting the meat composition and serum enzymes. Thus, these can be used as a growth promoter in Japanese quails. PMID:27047153

  18. Berberis vulgaris root extract alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress via modulating hepatic nuclear transcription factors in quails.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Borawska, Maria H; Jabłonski, Jakub; Guler, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Hayirli, Armagan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the action mode of Berberis vulgaris root extract in the alleviation of oxidative stress, female Japanese quails (n 180, aged 5 weeks) were reared, either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS), and fed one of three diets: diets containing 0, 100 or 200 mg of B. vulgaris root extract per kg for 12 weeks. Exposure to HS depressed feed intake by 8·5% and egg production by 12·1%, increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level by 98·0% and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities by 23·5, 35·4 and 55·7%, respectively (P<0·001 for all). There were also aggravations in expressions of hepatic NF-κB and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) by 42 and 43%, respectively and suppressions in expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and haeme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by 57 and 61%, respectively, in heat-stressed quails (P<0·001 for all). As supplemental B. vulgaris extract increased, there were linear increases in performance parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes and hepatic Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions (P<0·001 for all) and linear decreases in hepatic MDA level and NF-κB and HSP70 expressions at a greater extent in quails reared under TN condition and those reared under HS condition. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of B. vulgaris root extract to quails reduces the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation resulting from HS via activating the host defence system at the cellular level. PMID:23312115

  19. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C.; Tun, Hein M.; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C.

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and –resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3–5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host

  20. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home care, it is still ... of services an older person chooses, the price costs can range from less than $25,000 a ...

  1. Metabolism of N-(3-chloro-4-(. beta. -D-glucosylmethyl)phenyl)urea, a metabolite of chlorotoluron, in rat and Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Chandurkar, P.S.; Cheng, E.Y.; Menzer, R.E. )

    1990-08-01

    The radioactivity administered as a single oral dose of N-(3-chloro-4-({beta}-D-glycosyl({sup 14}C)methyl)phenyl)urea was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and eliminated in feces and urine by both the rat and the Japanese quail. Within 6 h after treatment 57% and 74% of the dose was excreted by rat and quail, respectively. Of the 78% of the dose excreted by rat within 12 h, 49% was the parent glucoside, 3.6% the aglycon, and 14.6% the aglycon acid (the carboxyphenyl derivative of the aglycon). However, within the same period quail excreted 90% of the dose, of which 25.5% was the parent glucoside, 26.6% the aglycon, and 12% the aglycon acid. Unidentified metabolites, two in rat and seven in quail, formed 10.8% and 25.5% of the dose, respectively. The aglycon in rat and both the aglycon and the aglycon acid in quail formed conjugates.

  2. Crystallin gene expression and lentoid body formation in quail embryo neuroretina cultures transformed by the oncogenic retrovirus Mill Hill 2 or Rous sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Simonneau, L; Crisanti, P; Lorinet, A M; Alliot, F; Courtois, Y; Calothy, G; Pessac, B

    1986-01-01

    The lens-specific proteins alpha and delta crystallins and lentoid bodies, structures that follow a differentiation pathway similar to that of the lens, regularly appear after 4 to 5 weeks in quail embryo neuroretina monolayer cultures. We have investigated the effects of the avian oncogenic retroviruses Mill Hill 2 and Rous sarcoma virus on this process. Quail embryo neuroretina cells transformed by Mill Hill 2 virus were established into permanent cultures that synthesized alpha and delta crystallins and contained stem cells for the production of lentoid bodies. In contrast, transformation with the Rous sarcoma virus mutant tsNY-68 blocked the appearance of mRNA crystallins, but cytoplasmic alpha and delta crystallin mRNA and alpha crystallin appeared 44 h after a shift to the nonpermissive temperature. However, delta crystallins and lentoid bodies were only present after 7 days. The crystallins of transformed quail neuroretina cultures were immunologically indistinguishable from those of quail lenses and of normal quail embryo neuroretina cultures. Images PMID:3025609

  3. Quail Pax-6 (Pax-QNR) mRNAs are expressed from two promoters used differentially during retina development and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, S; Dozier, C; Turque, N; Saule, S

    1995-01-01

    During investigations on the regulation of the Pax-6 gene, we characterized a cDNA from quail neuroretina showing a 5' untranslated region distinct from that previously described and initiated from an internal promoter. Using RNase protection and primer extension mapping, we localized this second quail Pax-6 promoter, termed P1. As reported for the already described P0 promoter, P1 was also transactivated in vitro by the p46Pax-QNR protein. RNase protection assays performed with quail neuroretina RNA showed that P1-initiated mRNAs were detected before the P0-initiated mRNAs, remained constant up to embryonic day 8, and decreased slowly thereafter whereas, P0-initiated mRNAs accumulated up to embryonic day 8. In contrast, quail retinal pigmented epithelium expressed only the P1-initiated mRNAs. Transformation of these cells by the v-myc oncogene induced neuronal traits in the culture, which thereafter, in addition to the P1-initiated mRNAs, expressed Pax-QNR from the P0 promoter. These results suggest that expression of the quail Pax-6 gene is under the control of different regulators through alternate promoters, P0 being activated at the onset of neuronal differentiation. PMID:7760830

  4. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as ... the facility provide a written statement of its philosophy of care? Visit each facility more than once, ...

  5. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... premises. Adult foster care has the advantages of maintaining frail older adults in a more home-like ... pay to live in these communities, though some facilities have beds for skilled care that are funded ...

  6. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  7. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  8. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... are part of retirement communities. Others are near nursing homes, so a person can move easily if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people ...

  9. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  10. The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

  11. A comparative test of the investigator as a variable in aging quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosene, W.; Fitch, F.

    1956-01-01

    To test the reliability of current techniques, five biologists appraised the ages of 200 quail from a random sample of wings collected during the 1952-53 hunting season in Alabama. Attempt was made to distinguish adults from juveniles, to ascertain the stage of post-nuptial and post-juvenile molts, and to estimate the age of juveniles according to days or weeks. Three 'problem' wings in this sample had molt characteristics somewhat eauallv divided between adult and juvenile classes; two wings called 'questionable' had all molt characteristics except one of either age group. A 3.5 per cent disparity occurred between investigators in their classification of adult and juvenile age groups. This included not only 'problem' and 'questionable' wings, but also 'obvious errors.' Individual differences were greater than 3.5 per cent but cancelled out. This study emphasizes the need of working with large samples of birds of a known age in order to know more concerning molt variations. Until aging techniques can be refined, it is believed that investigators should be fully familiar with existing methods and their weaknesses. Also, it appears important that reports on aging should indicate clearly the techniques used.

  12. [The vestibular apparatus of quail embryos in an experiment on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V; Il'inskaia, E V; Dadasheva, O A; Gur'eva, T S

    1993-01-01

    The light microscope was used to study serial sections of labyrinths of quail embryos incubated and reared during 12 d orbiting of Cosmos 1129. On recovery the embryos were aged 9, 11.5 and 12 days. No significant deviations in the development of the vestibular apparatus in flight species were noted as compared to the controls. Given this and our experimental data about in-space development of fish and amphibians we may deduce that hypo-g does not exert a noticeable altering effect on the vestibular embryogenesis. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that in all otolith organs and semicircular channel ampules of the flight embryos cup-form neural endings innervating type I sensory cells were markedly swollen in contrast to the control. Earlier swollen cup-form nerve endings have been found in one adult rat after 7 days of space flight aboard Cosmos 1667. However, exposure in space does not bring about a substantial swelling of bud-like nerve endings which contact type II sensory cells. Thus, a conclusion may be drawn that spaceflight factors are liable to produce shifts in the type I sensory cell--cup-form nerve ending unit but they do not affect type II sensory cell--bud-like nerve ending unit to the extent when effects can be identified by light microscopy. PMID:8012306

  13. Fipronil toxicity in northern bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus: reduced feeding behaviour and sulfone metabolite formation.

    PubMed

    Kitulagodage, Malsha; Isanhart, John; Buttemer, William A; Hooper, Michael J; Astheimer, Lee B

    2011-04-01

    Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole insecticide registered for agricultural use in many countries. Avian exposure to fipronil occurs mainly by ingesting contaminated insects or seeds. There is little information regarding the toxicological effects of fipronil in avian species and even less research documenting avian behavioural responses to fipronil ingestion. We examined the effects of a single oral dose of fipronil in northern bobwhite quail, the most fipronil-sensitive species tested to date, in respect to signs of intoxication and the metabolic fate of fipronil. Fipronil-treated birds did not eat or drink following pesticide administration, and as a result lost a significant amount of body mass. Treated birds also appeared withdrawn and did not respond to disturbance within the first hour after treatment. Identifiable signs of fipronil toxicity were not observed until at least 2d after treatment. Chemical analyses indicated a difference between fipronil and fipronil-sulfone residue distribution and bioaccumulation, with significantly higher (30- to 1000-fold) tissue concentrations of the sulfone detected at all time points from 8 to 96 h post-dose in brain, liver and adipose tissues. Tissue sulfone concentrations increased significantly in fipronil-treated birds, peaking at 72 h post-dose. Body mass decreased at all time points in dosed birds. The coincidence of the particular intoxication symptoms with the time course of rise in brain sulfone levels after fipronil dosing gives insight into possible mechanisms of toxicity in this highly sensitive species. PMID:21227481

  14. Porphyrins as biomarkers of methylmercury and PCB exposure in experimental quail

    SciTech Connect

    Leonzio, C.; Fossi, M.C.; Casini, S.

    1996-02-01

    Chemicals such as heavy metals and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons have a high capacity to interfere with the enzymatic processes responsible for haem biosynthesis. These compounds can produce accumulation in tissues and organs and increased elimination of porphyrins in excreta. The development of fast and easy analytical methods and the wide variety of biological media in which porphynins can be detected have suggested their use as biomarkers of environmental pollution. The analysis of porphynins in the excreta is of special interest because it enables non-destructive monitoring of wild animals in the assessment of threatened or endangered species. Methylmercury and PCBs are ubiquitous global pollutants and there is evidence they accumulate in ternfuinal consumers, particularly those belonging to marine trophic chain. There have been some reports on methylmercury-induced and PCB-induced porphyria but little data on their combined effect. In order to investigate the quality of porphyrins as biomarkers we performed an experiment in which Japanese quail were fed a diet containing methylmercury and polychlorobyphenyls (PCBs as Arochlor 1260) individually or combined in different ratios. The present study aims to provide preliminary data on liver and fecal levels of porphynins in response to methylmercury and PCB administration, and on whether the indicator is sensitive to synergism or antagonism between the two compounds, administered simultaneously.

  15. Quantitative and Morphological Measures May Predict Growth and Mortality During Prenatal Growth in Japanese Quails

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Kashmiri L.; Vatsalya, Vatsalya

    2014-01-01

    Growth pattern and mortality rate during the embryonic phase of avian species are difficult to recognize and predict. Determination of such measures and associated events may enhance our understanding of characteristics involved in the growth and hatching process. Furthermore, some quantitative measures could validate morphological determinants during the embryonic phase and predict the course of normal growth and alterations. Our aim was to characterize quantitative growth of embryos and to establish baseline embryonic standards for use in comparative and pathological research during the prenatal life of Japanese quail. Day 10 was a landmark timeline for initiation of extensive anatomical changes in growth and transformation. Wet and dry weights were positively correlated with each other and inversely correlated with water content (p = 0.05). Following d10, the water content decreased progressively, whereas, dry and wet weights increased with increasing age. Velocity of growth in wet and dry weights was evident starting d6, spiked at d11 and d15 and then declined before hatching on d16. Organic and inorganic contents of embryos were positively associated with age. Progressive increase in the organic to inorganic ratio with age was evident after d5, spiked on d9, d13 and d16. Accurate determinations of prenatal growth processes could serve as valuable tools in identifying morphological developments and characterization of prenatal growth and mortality, thus enhancing the reproductive efficiency of the breeding colony and the postnatal robustness of the offspring. PMID:25285101

  16. Pretreatment methods to improve nerve immunostaining in corneas from long-term fixed embryonic quail eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, J. E.; Wells, D. C.; Conrad, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment methods were used to improve neurofilament immunostaining in corneas from embryonic day 16 Japanese quail corneas that had been stored in fixative solution for several months. A sequential combination of the following three pretreatments: brief microwave heating in saline, followed by extraction with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 37 degrees C, followed by digestion with hyaluronidase at 37 degrees C, produced significantly increased antibody staining of corneal neurofilament proteins, compared with embryonic corneas subjected to no prior pretreatments or to single or two-step protocols. After applying the sequence of all three pretreatments, darkest nerve staining and increased numbers of fine branches were observed, together with lower background staining. Thus, the result of applying the three-step pretreatment sequence is better than that of applying any of its component single pretreatments or even combinations of any two of them. These findings therefore suggest that each of these three pretreatments causes a unique effect, beneficial to immunostaining of neurofilament proteins, and that their individual effects are independent and additive. In addition to embryonic corneas, the three-step procedure also may be useful for immunostaining of nerves in other very delicate, highly-hydrated tissues containing an abundance of extracellular matrix.

  17. Enhanced prenatal auditory experience facilitates species-specific visual responsiveness in bobwhite quail chicks (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Lickliter, R; Stoumbos, J

    1991-03-01

    Premature stimulation of a later developing sensory system is known to impact the functioning of earlier developing sensory systems. For example, exposure to premature (prenatal) visual experience results in a decline in species-typical auditory responsiveness in several precocial bird species. The present study examined the influence of experiential enhancement of an earlier developing sensory system on a later developing modality. Specifically, the influence of enhanced prenatal auditory stimulation on subsequent postnatal auditory and visual functioning of bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks was assessed. Results indicate that birds receiving exposure to increased amounts of unaltered, species-typical embryonic vocalizations before hatching show species-typical auditory responsiveness at both 12 hr and 24 hr after hatching, but exhibit an accelerated pattern of species-typical visual responsiveness by 24 hr of age. These findings suggest that enhancement of an earlier developing sensory system can facilitate the development of a later developing sensory system and serve to demonstrate the dynamic nature of early perceptual organization. PMID:2032460

  18. Voltage-dependent potassium currents in developing neurones from quail mesencephalic neural crest.

    PubMed Central

    Bader, C R; Bertrand, D; Dupin, E

    1985-01-01

    Neurones in explants cultured from quail mesencephalic neural crest were studied at different stages of their development using the voltage-clamp technique. A voltage-dependent outward current activated by membrane depolarization was identified as a potassium current by the sensitivity of its reversal potential to extracellular potassium. The voltage-dependent potassium current is made up of two components which differ in their sensitivity to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA). The component most sensitive to 4-AP has fast activation kinetics and inactivates quickly at sustained depolarized voltages. By analogy with a current described in other preparations, this current was called IA. The component most sensitive to TEA has slower activation kinetics and inactivates more slowly at sustained depolarized voltages. This current was called IK. IA and IK were already present in neurones cultured for 24 h. The ratio between the peak of IK and that of IA increased significantly between 24 h and 4 days in culture. This means that the two components of the voltage-dependent potassium current follow a different time course during development. Images Plate 1 PMID:2414432

  19. A summer whistling cock count of bobwhite quail as an index to wintering populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosene, W.

    1957-01-01

    A summer whistling-cock count of bobwhite quail was made and compared with covey numbers in subsequent hunting seasons in 1950-53 on 4 areas in Alabama and 6 in South Carolina. Findings involved a total of 901 whistling cocks and 910 coveys. Study area acreage in Alabama was 5,571 and 6,679 in South Carolina. There was a relationship between the numbers of whistling cocks heard in summer and coveys found in subsequent hunting seasons when the data were summarized annually and by states. An increase or decrease in the number of whistling cocks heard in summer over the previous year was followed by an increase or decrease respectively in coveys in the subsequent hunting season when the results were summarized by states. Using this technique, it is possible to predict by physiographic types the number of coveys that will be found in winter from the number of whistling cocks heard the previous summer, if areas 500-1,700 acres in size are used with a total of at least 12,000 acres. The confidence limits of the prediction increase both below and above the mean.

  20. Distinct protease pathways control cell shape and apoptosis in v-src-transformed quail neuroretina cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, Benjamin D.; Gillet, Germain . E-mail: g.gillet@ibcp.fr

    2005-11-15

    Intracellular proteases play key roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In nerve cells, little is known about their relative contribution to the pathways which control cell physiology, including cell death. Neoplastic transformation of avian neuroretina cells by p60 {sup v-src} tyrosine kinase results in dramatic morphological changes and deregulation of apoptosis. To identify the proteases involved in the cellular response to p60 {sup v-src}, we evaluated the effect of specific inhibitors of caspases, calpains and the proteasome on cell shape changes and apoptosis induced by p60 {sup v-src} inactivation in quail neuroretina cells transformed by tsNY68, a thermosensitive strain of Rous sarcoma virus. We found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is recruited early after p60 {sup v-src} inactivation and is critical for morphological changes, whereas caspases are essential for cell death. This study provides evidence that distinct intracellular proteases are involved in the control of the morphology and fate of v-src-transformed cells.

  1. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus ( p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage ( p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level.

  2. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus (p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage (p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level.

  3. Grounded running in quails: simulations indicate benefits of observed fixed aperture angle between legs before touch-down.

    PubMed

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-21

    Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with ground reaction force measurements of quail grounded running. Interestingly, with speed the quails did not adjust the swing leg's angle of attack with respect to the ground but adapted the angle between legs (which we termed aperture angle), and fixed it about 30ms before touchdown. In simulations with the BSLIP we compared this swing leg alignment policy with the fixed angle of attack with respect to the ground typically used in the literature. We found symmetric periodic grounded running in a simply connected subset comprising one third of the investigated parameter space. The fixed aperture angle strategy revealed improved local stability and surprising tolerance with respect to large perturbations. Starting with the periodic solutions, after step-down step-up or step-up step-down perturbations of 10% leg rest length, in the vast majority of cases the bipedal SLIP could accomplish at least 50 steps to fall. The fixed angle of attack strategy was not feasible. We propose that, in small animals in particular, grounded running may be a common gait that allows highly compliant systems to exploit energy storage without the necessity of quick changes in the locomotor program when facing perturbations. PMID:23831138

  4. Avian thermoregulation in the heat: resting metabolism, evaporative cooling and heat tolerance in Sonoran Desert doves and quail.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric Krabbe; O'Neill, Jacqueline; Gerson, Alexander R; Wolf, Blair O

    2015-11-01

    Birds in subtropical deserts face significant thermoregulatory challenges because environmental temperatures regularly exceed avian body temperature. To understand the differing susceptibility of desert birds to increasing temperatures, we examined thermoregulatory performance and estimated heat tolerance limits (HTLs) for three Sonoran Desert nesting bird species - Gambel's quail, mourning doves and white-winged doves. Using flow-through respirometry we measured daytime resting metabolism, evaporative water loss and real-time body temperature at air temperatures (T(air)) from 30°C to 66°C. We found marked increases in resting metabolism at the upper critical temperature (T(uc)), which was significantly lower in the quail (T(air)=41.1°C) than in both dove species (T(air)=45.9-46.5°C). Gambel's quail maintained low resting metabolic rates and low rates of evaporative water loss at their T(uc) (0.71 W and 1.20 g H2O h(-1), respectively), but were more sensitive to increasing air temperature, reaching their HTL at T(air) of 52°C. Mourning doves and white-winged doves maintained low resting metabolic rates (0.66 and 0.94 W), but higher rates of evaporative water loss (1.91 and 2.99 g H2O h(-1)) at their T(uc) and reached their HTL at T(air) of 58-60°C. Mass-specific evaporative water loss in white-winged doves (147 g) and mourning doves (104 g) was 45% and 30% greater, respectively, than the rate observed in Gambel's quail (161 g) at Tair of 48°C. Higher rates of evaporation and higher T(uc) made the doves exceptionally heat tolerant, allowing them to maintain body temperatures at least 14°C below air temperatures as high as 60°C (140°F). PMID:26582934

  5. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  6. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  7. Learn & Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burness, Patty, Ed.; Snider, William, Ed.

    Along with a companion documentary video, "Learn & Live," this resource manual focuses on innovative schools around the country that are integrating technology and involving parents, business, and the community. Ten chapters are divided into four sections. In Section 1, "Students," two chapters look at learning and assessment. The two chapters in…

  8. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  9. Morphological analysis of Japanese quail embryos developed onboard orbital station "Mir" during NASA-"Mir" research program experiments (1990-1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, O.; Gyrieva, T.; Dadasheva, O.; Pahomov, A.; Pirt, C.

    From 1990 to 1996, 5 experiments onboard "MIR" space station which allowed to receive important data dynamics of embryonic development of birds in micro gravitational conditions was carried out by NASA-"MIR" research program, using fertilized eggs of Japanese quail, as convenient object for space experiments. Here we represent the comparative morphomethrical analysis of incubation modes influence on a morphogenesis of Japanese quail. The data allowed us to make the conclusion that the embryonic development of Japanese quail in weightlessness conditions results in authentic decrease of length and body mass parameters in comparison with the embryos, developed in the ground laboratory conditions. The development of a skeleton and extremities, in general developing in normal way, demonstrates decreasing of legs length (10-12%) and body mass (8-12%), but there are no differences in wings length. At the same time we didn't find any significant differences in extremities length in laboratory and synchronic experimental groups of embryos. Analysis didn't show any significant influence of location of eggs in the incubator on mortality of the embryos. The main results of experiments have shown presence of morphometrical changes connected first of all with presence of weightlessness in the surrounded environment. In general, the data a alysis oncen again confirms the assumption that the changed gravity is not an interrupt factor for development of Japanese quail nestlings from fertilized eggs, but further experiments are required for detailed understanding of weightless influence on birds development.

  10. Responses in growth, food intake and food conversion efficiency to different dietary protein concentrations in meat-type lines of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Dĕdková, L; Knízetová, H; Klecker, D

    1997-12-01

    1. A total of 360 Japanese quail of 4 commercial meat-type lines and two diet treatments (260 and 216 g/kg or 238 and 195 g/kg of crude protein (CP) in the starter and grower diet, respectively) were used. 2. The positive effect of a high CP diet on body weight was significant only for the first 4 weeks after hatching. 3. The mean age at inflection point of the growth curve (t+) across lines and sexes was 1.4 d (0.6 to 2.8 d within line/sex groups) earlier for quail fed on a high CP diet than in quail receiving a low CP diet. The inflection (y+) and asymptotic (A) weights were similar under both dietary protein concentrations. Nevertheless, the shape of the growth curve, characterised by the ratio y+/A and parameter of the maturing rate k, was significantly influenced by diet. 4. A higher food intake and less efficient food conversion were found for quail fed on a high CP diet in the period from 15 to 28 d of age. 5. The fattening traits such as body weight, cumulative food intake and food conversion, were not affected by dietary CP content at the age of 5 weeks. 6. The effects of line on body weight, food intake and food conversion are discussed. PMID:9511002

  11. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, M.; Hedayati, M.; Khalaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  12. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails.

    PubMed

    Manafi, M; Hedayati, M; Khalaji, S

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  13. Avian tissues as bioindicators of exposure to alkylleads: metabolism of ethyllead salts by Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, K.; Marshall, W.D.

    1988-09-01

    Japanese quail, in groups of seven birds, were provided drinking water amended with 0.0 or 250 ppm of Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, 25 ppm of Et/sub 2/PbCl/sub 2/, or 2.5 or 0.25 ppm of Et/sub 3/PbCl for 8 weeks. Daily egg pools from treated and control groups and soft tissues (liver, kidney, brain, and breast muscle) recovered at the termination of the trials were analyzed for alkyllead salts. For the inorganic lead feeding trial, no evidence for host-mediated methylation was observed in any of the samples. In each of the alkyllead feeding trials, the toxicant was rapidly transferred to the egg. However, the increase in toxicant concentrations with time was not monotonic. Et/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/ was metabolized to Et/sub 3/Pb/sup +/, Me/sub 3/Pb/sup 2 +/, and Me/sub 3/Pb/sup +/ in low yield which accumulated in the egg. The major toxicant in soft tissues was Et/sub 3/Pb/sup +/. Metabolic dealkylation of EtEt/sub 3/Pb/sup +/ was a minor process, and Et/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/ accumulated mainly in egg. Only traces of mixed alkyllead cations were detected in liver or kidney if either Et/sub 3/PbCl or Et/sub 3/PbCl/sub 2/ served as test toxicant. These observations were used to reinterpret burdens of alkylleads observed in earlier avian wildlife monitoring studies.

  14. Optical mapping of conduction in early embryonic quail hearts with light-sheet microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Pei; Gu, Shi; Wang, Yves T.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Optical mapping (OM) using fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD) to measure membrane potential is currently the most effective method for electrophysiology studies in early embryonic hearts due to its noninvasiveness and large field-of-view. Conventional OM acquires bright-field images, collecting signals that are integrated in depth and projected onto a 2D plane, not capturing the 3D structure of the sample. Early embryonic hearts, especially at looping stages, have a complicated, tubular geometry. Therefore, conventional OM cannot provide a full picture of the electrical conduction circumferentially around the heart, and may result in incomplete and inaccurate measurements. Here, we demonstrate OM of Hamburger and Hamilton stage 14 embryonic quail hearts using a new commercially-available VSD, Fluovolt, and depth sectioning using a custom built light-sheet microscopy system. Axial and lateral resolution of the system is 14µm and 8µm respectively. For OM imaging, the field-of-view was set to 900µm×900µm to cover the entire heart. 2D over time OM image sets at multiple cross-sections through the looping-stage heart were recorded. The shapes of both atrial and ventricular action potentials acquired were consistent with previous reports using conventional VSD (di-4-ANNEPS). With Fluovolt, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is improved significantly by a factor of 2-10 (compared with di-4-ANNEPS) enabling light-sheet OM, which intrinsically has lower SNR due to smaller sampling volumes. Electrophysiologic parameters are rate dependent. Optical pacing was successfully integrated into the system to ensure heart rate consistency. This will also enable accurately gated reconstruction of full four dimensional conduction maps and 3D conduction velocity measurements.

  15. Evidence of Phenotypic and Genetic Relationships between Sociality, Emotional Reactivity and Production Traits in Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Recoquillay, Julien; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic; Bertin, Aline; Pitel, Frédérique; Gourichon, David; Vignal, Alain; Beaumont, Catherine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Arnould, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    The social behavior of animals, which is partially controlled by genetics, is one of the factors involved in their adaptation to large breeding groups. To understand better the relationships between different social behaviors, fear behaviors and production traits, we analyzed the phenotypic and genetic correlations of these traits in Japanese quail by a second generation crossing of two lines divergently selected for their social reinstatement behavior. Analyses of results for 900 individuals showed that the phenotypic correlations between behavioral traits were low with the exception of significant correlations between sexual behavior and aggressive pecks both at phenotypic (0.51) and genetic (0.90) levels. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between emotional reactivity toward a novel object and sexual (0.89) or aggressive (0.63) behaviors. The other genetic correlations were observed mainly between behavioral and production traits. Thus, the level of emotional reactivity, estimated by the duration of tonic immobility, was positively correlated with weight at 17 and 65 days of age (0.76 and 0.79, respectively) and with delayed egg laying onset (0.74). In contrast, a higher level of social reinstatement behavior was associated with an earlier egg laying onset (-0.71). In addition, a strong sexual motivation was correlated with an earlier laying onset (-0.68) and a higher number of eggs laid (0.82). A low level of emotional reactivity toward a novel object and also a higher aggressive behavior were genetically correlated with a higher number of eggs laid (0.61 and 0.58, respectively). These results bring new insights into the complex determinism of social and emotional reactivity behaviors in birds and their relationships with production traits. Furthermore, they highlight the need to combine animal welfare and production traits in selection programs by taking into account traits of sociability and emotional reactivity. PMID:24324761

  16. Launch conditions might affect the formation of blood vessels in the quail chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Henry, M K; Unsworth, B R; Sychev, V; Guryeva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Piert, S J; Lagel, K E; Dubrovin, L C; Jahns, G C; Boda, K; Sabo, V; Samet, M M; Lelkes, P I

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryo exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the condition experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development or the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis in CAMs of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development of the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease in blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogensis in the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space. PMID:11543304

  17. Characterization of quail Pax-6 (Pax-QNR) proteins expressed in the neuroretina.

    PubMed Central

    Carriere, C; Plaza, S; Martin, P; Quatannens, B; Bailly, M; Stehelin, D; Saule, S

    1993-01-01

    After differential screening of a cDNA library constructed from quail neuroretina cells (QNR) infected with the v-myc-containing avian retrovirus MC29, we have isolated a cDNA clone, Pax-QNR, homologous to the murine Pax-6, which is mutated in the autosomal dominant mutation small eye of mice and in the disorder aniridia in humans. Here we report the characterization of the Pax-QNR proteins expressed in the avian neuroretina. From bacterially expressed Pax-QNR peptides, we obtained rabbit antisera directed against different domains of the protein: paired domain (serum 11), domain between the paired domain and homeodomain (serum 12), homeodomain (serum 13), and carboxyl-terminal part (serum 14). Sera 12, 13, and 14 were able to specifically recognize five proteins (48, 46, 43, 33, and 32 kDa) in the neuroretina. In contrast to proteins of 48, 46, and 43 kDa, proteins of 33 and 32 kDa were not recognized by the paired antiserum (serum 11). Paired-less and paired-containing proteins exhibited the same half-life (6 h) and were phosphorylated mostly on serine residues. Immunoprecipitations performed with subcellular fractions of neuroretinas showed that the paired-containing proteins were located in the nucleus, whereas the 33- and 32-kDa proteins were found essentially in the cytoplasmic compartment. However, immunofluorescence experiments performed after transient transfections showed that p46 and p33/32 were also located in vivo into the nucleus. Thus, the Pax-QNR/Pax-6 gene can produce proteins with two DNA-binding domains as well as proteins containing only the DNA-binding homeodomain. Images PMID:8246948

  18. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; Sabo, V.; Samet, M. M.; Lelkes, P. I.

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  19. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 6. Hatching time, hatchability and embryo mortality.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Starosta, F

    2012-01-01

    1. Hatching time, hatchability of fertile eggs and embryo mortality under standard egg storage (1 or 5 days at 12 ± 1°C and 55% relative humidity) and incubation conditions (37.5 ± 0.2°C and 50% relative humidity) were analysed in lines long-term selected for high (HG) and low (LG) relative weight gain between 11 and 28 d of age, respectively, and constant body weight at 49 d of age. 2. Egg storage duration did not have an effect on average hatching time. LG quail, characterised by a fast postnatal growth rate immediately after hatching, hatched earlier than HG quail with a low early growth rate (about 391 vs. 406 h after egg setting, respectively). 3. In contrast to hatching time, the hatchability of fertile eggs was influenced by line as well as egg storage duration. Extended storage decreased hatching success in both lines. However, LG eggs exhibited a higher hatchability than HG eggs (1 d storage: 96.0 vs. 82.5%; 5 d storage: 88.7 vs. 72.7%, respectively). 4. Lower hatchability resulted mostly from a higher frequency of embryo death during early (up to d 7) and late (d 14 and later) phases of incubation. 5. An inadequate nutrient supply to embryos in consequence of developmental delay seems to be a key factor decreasing viability of embryos during incubation. PMID:23281752

  20. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M. Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  1. Non PCR-amplified Transcripts and AFLP fragments as reduced representations of the quail genome for 454 Titanium sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) discovery is now routinely performed using high-throughput sequencing of reduced representation libraries. Our objective was to adapt 454 GS FLX based sequencing methodologies in order to obtain the largest possible dataset from two reduced representations libraries, produced by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) for genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) for the transcribed fraction of the genome. Findings The expressed fraction was obtained by preparing cDNA libraries without PCR amplification from quail embryo and brain. To optimize the information content for SNP analyses, libraries were prepared from individuals selected in three quail lines and each individual in the AFLP library was tagged. Sequencing runs produced 399,189 sequence reads from cDNA and 373,484 from genomic fragments, covering close to 250 Mb of sequence in total. Conclusions Both methods used to obtain reduced representations for high-throughput sequencing were successful after several improvements. The protocols may be used for several sequencing applications, such as de novo sequencing, tagged PCR fragments or long fragment sequencing of cDNA. PMID:20667075

  2. A Place to Hide in the Home-Cage Decreases Yolk Androgen Levels and Offspring Emotional Reactivity in Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Guesdon, Vanessa; Bertin, Aline; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Formanek, Laureline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Möstl, Erich; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2011-01-01

    An animal's emotional responses are the result of its cognitive appraisal of a situation. This appraisal is notably influenced by the possibility of an individual to exert control over an aversive event. Although the fact that environment controllability decreases emotional responses in animals is well established, far less is known about its potential trans-generational effects. As the levels of avian yolk hormones can vary according to the mother's environment, we hypothesized that housing environment of mothers would modulate the quality of her eggs and in turn her offspring's behaviour. Two groups of female Japanese quail were constituted: a group that had access to a place to hide in their home-cage (Hd, n = 20) and a group that had nowhere to hide (NoHd, n = 20) when stressed. Both groups were submitted to daily human disturbances for a twenty-day-period. Hd females produced eggs with both less testosterone and androstenedione than did NoHd females. The emotional and social reactivity of Hd females' offspring were lower and their growth was slower than those of NoHd females' offspring. Our results show that a minor difference in housing environment had substantial effects on eggs and offspring. The presence of a shelter probably helped quail to cope with daily human disturbances, producing less reactive offspring. This transgenerational effect caused by an opportunity to hide could lead to applications in care of laboratory animals, conservation biology and animal welfare. PMID:21980338

  3. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  4. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus (p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage (p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level. PMID:26489416

  5. Detection of irradiated quail meat by using DNA comet assay and evaluation of comets by image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erel, Yakup; Yazici, Nizamettin; Özvatan, Sumer; Ercin, Demet; Cetinkaya, Nurcan

    2009-09-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay) was used to detect DNA comets in irradiated quail meat samples. Obtained DNA comets were evaluated by both photomicrographic and image analysis. Quail meat samples were exposed to radiation doses of 0.52, 1.05, 1.45, 2.00, 2.92 and 4.00 kGy in gamma cell (gammacell 60Co, dose rate 1.31 kGy/h) covering the permissible limits for enzymatic decay and stored at 2 °C. The cells isolated from muscle (chest, thorax) in cold PBS were analyzed using the DNA comet assay on 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 11 day post irradiation. The cells were lysed between 2, 5 and 9 min in 2.5% SDS and electrophorosis was carried out at a voltage of 2 V/cm for 2 min. After propidium iodide staining, the slides were evaluated through a fluorescent microscope. In all irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and damaged cells appeared as a comet. All measurement data were analyzed using BS 200 ProP with software image analysis (BS 200 ProP, BAB Imaging System, Ankara, Turkey). The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. The values of tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment were significantly different and identical between 0.9 and 4.0 kGy dose exposure, and also among storage times on day 1, 4 and 8. In conclusion, the DNA Comet Assay EN 13784 standard method may be used not only for screening method for detection of irradiated quail meat depending on storage time and condition but also for the quantification of applied dose if it is combined with image analysis. Image analysis may provide a powerful tool for the evaluation of head and tail of comet intensity related with applied doses.

  6. A simple estimation of ideal profile of essential amino acids and metabolizable energy for growing Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Mehri, M; Ghazaghi, M; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Rokouei, M

    2016-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and amino acid requirements of growing Japanese quail based on ideal protein concept using artificial neural network and desirability function (D-ANN). Seven-day-old quail chicks were assigned to nine experimental diets based on central composite design (CCD) containing five levels of AME (2809-3091 kcal/kg) and CP (19-24.8% of diet). The ratio of lysine (Lys) to CP was set at 0.053 among all treatments, and remaining essential amino acids (EAA) were adjusted to Lys. The experimental data of CCD were fitted to D-ANN model to compute the optimal values for independent variables. The optimal values of inputs including AME, CP, digestible Lys (dLys), methionine (dMet), total sulphur amino acids (dTSAA), threonine (dThr), tryptophan (dTrp), isoleucine (dIle), valine (dVal) and arginine (dArg) for maximizing gain and minimizing feed conversion ratio were estimated at 2865 kcal/kg, 25, 1.32, 0.55, 0.88, 0.84, 0.20, 0.75, 1.04 and 1.45% of diet, respectively, with D (desirability function) = 0.94. The corresponding optimal amounts of amino acids based on total amino acids were 1.42, 0.59, 0.95, 0.90, 0.22, 0.81, 1.12 and 1.56% of diet respectively. The ideal pattern of essential amino acids to Lys was as follows: dMet: dLys = 0.42, dTSAA: dLys = 0.67, dThr: dLys = 0.64, dTrp: dLys = 0.15, dIle: dLys = 0.57, dVal: dLys = 0.79 and dArg: dLys = 1.09. The results of this study showed that amino acid requirements of modern quails might be higher than those reported by NRC. PMID:26671312

  7. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  8. Heterosis in body weight related to growth performance of parental lines of Japanese quail and to heterosis in lay.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Dedková, L; Knízetová, H; Hort, J

    2002-09-01

    1. Three outbred lines of Japanese quail and their reciprocal crosses were used. The lines differed in mature body weight or in the shape of the growth curve. Growth was described by body weight (BW) at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 48, 56, 63 and 70 d of age and expressed by the parameters of Richards' function. Dickerson's model was used to estimate direct genetic, maternal genetic and direct heterotic effects. 2. The magnitude of BW heterosis was not constant during postnatal growth, it showed a different curvilinear age-trend for each hybrid combination. 3. The age-trend of BW heterosis resulted from the change of the shape of the growth curve. 4. The age-trend of BW heterosis and its maximum magnitude were associated with differences in the growth pattern of parental lines. 5. The heterosis at the inflection point was accompanied by heterosis in egg number. PMID:12365507

  9. Oviposition and the plasma concentrations of LH, progesterone, and corticosterone in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) fed parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite quail were fed concentrations of parathion (0,50, 100, 200 or 400 p.p.m.) for 10 days. Food intake, body weight change, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, egg production, and ovary weight were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. In a second experiment, birds were fed 0, 25 or 100 p.p.m. parathion or pair-fed control food to equate consumption in the 100 p.p.m. group. Egg production was not affected in birds fed 25 p.p.m. or in the pair-fed group, but the daily time of oviposition was more variable than in the control group. Cessation of egg production, inhibition of follicular development, and reduced plasma LH concentration were observed in birds fed 100 p.p.m. parathion. These findings indicate that exposure to parathion can impair reproduction, possibly by altering gonadotrophin secretion.

  10. Jonquailine, a new pretazettine-type alkaloid isolated from Narcissus jonquilla quail, with activity against drug-resistant cancer

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Marco; Frolova, Liliya V.; Yu, Xiaojie; Mathieu, Véronique; Cimmino, Alessio; De Carvalho, Annelise; Kiss, Robert; Rogelj, Snezna; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Kornienko, Alexander; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A new alkaloid, belonging to the pretazettine group of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, was isolated from dried bulbs of Narcissus jonquilla quail and named jonquailine. Its structure, including the absolute configuration, was elucidated using various NMR, ECD and ESI MS techniques. Initial biological evaluation revealed significant antiproliferative effects against glioblastoma, melanoma, uterine sarcoma and non-small-cell lung cancer cells displaying various forms of drug resistance, including resistance to apoptosis and multi-drug resistance. Jonquailine was also found to synergize with paclitaxel in its antiproliferative action against drug-resistant lung cancer cells. The results obtained compared with literature data also showed that the hydroxylation at C-8 is an important feature for the anticancer activity but this seems unaffected by the stereochemistry or the acetalization of the lactol. PMID:25598189

  11. Locally elevated cortisol in lymphoid organs of the developing zebra finch but not Japanese quail or chicken.

    PubMed

    Taves, Matthew D; Losie, Jennifer A; Rahim, Titissa; Schmidt, Kim L; Sandkam, Benjamin A; Ma, Chunqi; Silversides, Frederick G; Soma, Kiran K

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are important for production of functional lymphocytes and immunity. In altricial neonates, adrenal glands are unresponsive and local glucocorticoid synthesis in lymphoid organs may be necessary to support lymphocyte development. Precocial neonates, in contrast, have fully responsive adrenal glucocorticoid production, and lymphoid glucocorticoid synthesis may not be necessary. Here, we found that in altricial zebra finch hatchlings, lymphoid organs had dramatically elevated endogenous glucocorticoid (and precursor) levels compared to levels in circulating blood. Furthermore, while avian adrenals produce corticosterone, finch lymphoid organs had much higher levels of cortisol, an unexpected glucocorticoid in birds. In contrast, precocial Japanese quail and chicken offspring did not have locally elevated lymphoid glucocorticoid levels, nor did their lymphoid organs contain high proportions of cortisol. These results show that lymphoid glucocorticoids differ in identity, concentration, and possibly source, in hatchlings of three different bird species. Locally-regulated glucocorticoids might have species-specific roles in immune development. PMID:26366679

  12. Prediction of body composition by total body electrical conductivity technique is affected by fat reserves of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Szebestová, Z

    2010-11-01

    The effect of fat accumulation on the prediction of in vivo body composition by a total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technique was evaluated using Japanese quail at 2 life periods (0 to 21 d and 28 to 70 d of age) that differ significantly in the fatness of birds. In total, 119 quail of 14 age categories were weighed and scanned by the TOBEC analyzer, and their carcasses were subjected to chemical analysis. The prediction equations for chemical composition (percentage of water, lipids, and lean tissue) and body masses (weight of body, water, lipids, and lean tissue) were obtained by linear regression analysis. The equations involved the E-value as the independent variable. In both growth phases, a high accuracy of estimation was found for the total body, lean, and water masses (0.85 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.98), whereas a low accuracy of estimation was observed for percentages of lipids, lean tissue, and water (0.27 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.64). Most of the variables showed a worse estimation in the late than in the early growth phase; the maximum difference was observed for the lipid mass (R(2) = 0.35 vs. 0.90, respectively). The correlations between analyzed variables and the residual error distributions of regression models demonstrated that the lower power of the models in the late versus early growth phase may be attributed to an enhanced fat accumulation in sexually mature birds. Their high fat reserves considerably decrease body hydration, which negatively influences the estimation of body composition based upon the TOBEC procedure. PMID:20952716

  13. Effects of diet, time since defecation, and drying process of the droppings on corticosterone metabolite measurements in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, S; Busso, J M; Lèche, A; Marin, R H

    2015-05-01

    The use of noninvasive methods for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites is a useful tool for endocrine assessment particularly in studies where animals cannot be captured, when they should be sampled without disturbing their activities, and/or when welfare needs to be maximized. However, still no complete standardization exists for the methodology, and some confounding variables may play an important role affecting measurements and interpretation of results. The present study focused on whether two different diets (laying feed or seed mixture), the time since defecation (0, 4, 24, or 48 h) and the drying method of those samples (oven-dried or naturally nonoven-dried) may affect concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (CM) measured in male Japanese quail. Half of the birds were provided with plain water (control) and the other half received a corticosterone solution. Birds fed with a seed mixture exhibited higher values of CM (nanogram/gram) in droppings than quail that received a laying feed diet suggesting that diet should be carefully considered as a potential source of variation. As expected both groups exhibited higher CM concentration after corticosterone treatment. While CM concentrations increased significantly in nonoven-dried samples over time (0 < 4 < 24 = 48 h), oven-dried samples exhibited similar high CM values. At 24 and 48 h postdefecation, nonoven-dried samples had similar CM concentrations as all oven-dried samples. Drying of samples may be considered a reliable method to reduce variations due to water loss over time, facilitating comparisons up to 48 h postdefecation. This finding would allow to enhance the range of application of this noninvasive and welfare friendly method to situations where samples cannot be collected or frozen shortly after defecation. PMID:25771534

  14. Effects of starvation and refeeding on gonadotropin and thyrotropin subunit mRNAs in male Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Cockrem, John F; Ishii, Susumu

    2002-04-01

    The contents of mRNAs encoding LH beta-, FSH beta-, TSH beta- and common alpha-subunit precursor molecules were measured in food-deprived and subsequently re-fed male Japanese quail. Pituitary LH beta, FSH beta and common alpha mRNA levels were decreased by starvation, and increased to the control levels by re-feeding. The rates of decreases of LH beta and common alpha mRNA levels were greater the corresponding rate for FSH beta levels. Pituitary TSH beta mRNA levels were not decreased by starvation, but increased transitorily by re-feeding. Plasma LH and triiodothyronine levels were decreased by starvation, and then increased to control levels by re-feeding, while plasma FSH and thyroxine levels did not show significant changes. Plasma LH and FSH levels showed positive correlations with pituitary common alpha and FSH beta mRNA levels, respectively, while plasma thyroxine levels showed a negative correlation with TSH beta mRNA levels. Hepatic weight was decreased slightly but significantly by starvation, and then showed a remarkable rebound after re-feeding was started. These results suggest that LH synthesis and secretion are more sensitive to starvation than FSH synthesis and secretion in Japanese quail, and that LH production recovered to initial levels within several days when birds were fully fed. Also, there is a possibility that the synthesis of TSH is accelerated transitorily by re-feeding. Furthermore, these results showed that there are different relationships between the plasma levels of LH, FSH, and TSH and the various hormone subunit mRNA levels. The remarkable change in hepatic weight leads us to assume that hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism is affected by starvation and re-feeding. PMID:12130823

  15. Specific Activation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Beta Enhances Male Sexual Behavior and Neuroplasticity in Male Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques; Charlier, Thierry D.

    2011-01-01

    Two subtypes of estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, have been identified in humans and numerous vertebrates, including the Japanese quail. We investigated in this species the specific role(s) of each receptor in the activation of male sexual behavior and the underlying estrogen-dependent neural plasticity. Castrated male Japanese quail received empty (CX) or testosterone-filled (T) implants or were daily injected with the ER general agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES), the ERα-specific agonist PPT, the ERβ-specific agonist DPN or the vehicle, propylene glycol. Three days after receiving the first treatment, subjects were alternatively tested for appetitive (rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements, RCSM) and consummatory aspects (copulatory behavior) of male sexual behavior. 24 hours after the last behavioral testing, brains were collected and analyzed for aromatase expression and vasotocinergic innervation in the medial preoptic nucleus. The expression of RCSM was activated by T and to a lesser extent by DES and PPT but not by the ERβagonist DPN. In parallel, T fully restored the complete sequence of copulation, DES was partially active and the specific activation of ERα or ERβ only resulted in a very low frequency of mount attempts in few subjects. T increased the volume of the medial preoptic nucleus as measured by the dense cluster of aromatase-immunoreactive cells and the density of the vasotocinergic innervation within this nucleus. DES had only a weak action on vasotocinergic fibers and the two specific ER agonists did not affect these neural responses. Simultaneous activation of both receptors or treatments with higher doses may be required to fully activate sexual behavior and the associated neurochemical events. PMID:21533185

  16. Effects of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen on growth performance and immune system of Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Sakine; Rahimi, Shaeban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Tahmasebi, Golamhosein; Khaleghi Miran, Seyed Naser

    2016-01-01

    Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen in comparison with virginiamycin (as growth promoter antibiotic) as regards the performance and immune system of Japanese quail were assessed. We used 256 mixed-sex quail chicks in a completely randomized design by eight treatments, including control, ethanolic extract of propolis 1000 (PE1) and 5000 (PE2) mg kg(-1), pollen powder 1000 (PO1) and 5000 (PO2) mg kg(-1), royal jelly 100 mg kg(-1) (RJ), honey 22 g L(-1) of drinking water (H) and virginiamycin 150 mg kg(-1) (V), and four replicates of eight birds in each replication for 42 days. There was significant differences for weight gain (WG), feed intakes (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) between experimental groups. In addition, WG in V treatment (18.82%), H and PO2 treatments (16.87%) and RJ treatment (12.00%) were significantly higher than to control group (p < 0.01). Significantly higher values of FCR were recorded in control group while group PE2 exhibited a significant decrease for 1 to 42 day (p < 0.05). The results of effect of bee products on antibodies titer showed an increase in the Newcastle disease (ND) titer when compared with control and virginiamycin groups (p < 0.01). There was significant difference in antibody production against avian influenza (AI) and sheep red blood cells (p < 0.01). Significant differences were observed in heterophils to lymphocytes ratio among PE1, PE2, PO1 and PO2 with V and control groups (p < 0.01). PMID:27226882

  17. Interactions of plant zinc and plant species on the bioavailability of plant cadmium to Japanese quail fed lettuce and spinach

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, I.M.; Keach, R.M. Jr; Williams, F.M. ); Chaney, R.L. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD ); Tao, Shyy-Hwa )

    1992-02-01

    Many cadmium-contaminated environments contain high levels of zinc. The effects of plant Zn and plant species on plant Cd bioavailability were tested in Japanese quail fed lettuce and spinach. Four groups of birds received 10% of their diets as lettuce or spinach leaves intrinsically labeled with {sup 109}Cd and containing low or high intrinsic Zn. Two other groups were fed control diets containing {sup 109}Cd as CdSO{sub 4} and low or high Zn as ZnCO{sub 3}. Cadmium concentrations in diets ranged from 0.857 to 1.05 {mu}g/g dry wt. Zinc concentrations in low-Zn diets ranged from 21.2 to 22.8, and in high-Zn diets from 56.0 to 63.3 {mu}g/g dry wt. Increased lettuce and spinach Zn decreased plant Cd retention in kidney, liver, and jejunum-ileum of Japanese quail. Spinach Cd was less absorbed than lettuce Cd at both Zn levels. Inorganic Zn produced a lesser decrease in Cd retention in kidney, liver, and jejunum-ileum than did plant Zn. The authors conclude that (1) crops that transport Zn and Cd readily into edible tissues show lower Cd bioavailability when grown in Zn-Cd contaminated environments than in Cd-only polluted sites, (2) plant species differ in Cd bioavailability for identical concentrations of Zn and Cd in edible tissues, and (3) toxicological studies with animals exposed to Cd salts and Zn supplements do not assess Cd bioavailability of Zn-Cd contaminated crops.

  18. Eggshell Appearance Does Not Signal Maternal Corticosterone Exposure in Japanese Quail: An Experimental Study with Brown-Spotted Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Camille; Cassey, Phillip; Lovell, Paul G.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S. James; Spencer, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown) is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green) is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control) or corticosterone (treatment). We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an avian visual

  19. Effects of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen on growth performance and immune system of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Sakine; Rahimi, Shaeban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Tahmasebi, Golamhosein; Khaleghi Miran, Seyed Naser

    2016-01-01

    Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen in comparison with virginiamycin (as growth promoter antibiotic) as regards the performance and immune system of Japanese quail were assessed. We used 256 mixed-sex quail chicks in a completely randomized design by eight treatments, including control, ethanolic extract of propolis 1000 (PE1) and 5000 (PE2) mg kg-1, pollen powder 1000 (PO1) and 5000 (PO2) mg kg-1, royal jelly 100 mg kg-1 (RJ), honey 22 g L-1 of drinking water (H) and virginiamycin 150 mg kg-1 (V), and four replicates of eight birds in each replication for 42 days. There was significant differences for weight gain (WG), feed intakes (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) between experimental groups. In addition, WG in V treatment (18.82%), H and PO2 treatments (16.87%) and RJ treatment (12.00%) were significantly higher than to control group (p < 0.01). Significantly higher values of FCR were recorded in control group while group PE2 exhibited a significant decrease for 1 to 42 day (p < 0.05). The results of effect of bee products on antibodies titer showed an increase in the Newcastle disease (ND) titer when compared with control and virginiamycin groups (p < 0.01). There was significant difference in antibody production against avian influenza (AI) and sheep red blood cells (p < 0.01). Significant differences were observed in heterophils to lymphocytes ratio among PE1, PE2, PO1 and PO2 with V and control groups (p < 0.01). PMID:27226882

  20. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  1. The occurrence of uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate in quail egg white and characteristic distribution of sulfated sugar nucleotides in different avian eggs.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Y; Okuda, S; Tsuji, M; Suzuki, S

    1979-08-29

    A sulfated sugar nucleotide has been isolated from quail egg white, and accounts for nearly 80% of the total sugar nucleotides found in the egg white. Evidence is presented that this nucleotide is uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate, an isomer of the 4-sulfated derivative of uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine previously found in chicken egg white. Further studies on the distribution of sulfated sugar nucleotides in egg white of various birds (chicken, quail, pheasant, peafowl, turkey, goose, and duck) demonstrate that each species has a characteristic composition, differing from one another regarding the relative amounts of 4-sulfated, 6-sulfated, and 4,6-bissulfated derivatives of uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine. PMID:534643

  2. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  3. Skeletal Muscle Characterization of Japanese Quail Line Selectively Bred for Lower Body Weight as an Avian Model of Delayed Muscle Growth with Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Min; Suh, Yeunsu; Shin, Sangsu; Lee, Kichoon

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to extensively characterize the skeletal muscle development in the low weight (LW) quail selected from random bred control (RBC) Japanese quail in order to provide a new avian model of impaired and delayed growth in physically normal animals. The LW line had smaller embryo and body weights than the RBC line in all age groups (P<0.05). During 3 to 42 d post-hatch, the LW line exhibited approximately 60% smaller weight of pectoralis major muscle (PM), mainly resulting from lower fiber numbers compared to the RBC line (P<0.05). During early post-hatch period when myotubes are still actively forming, the LW line showed impaired PM growth with prolonged expression of Pax7 and lower expression levels of MyoD, Myf-5, and myogenin (P<0.05), likely leading to impairment of myogenic differentiation and consequently, reduced muscle fiber formation. Additionally, the LW line had delayed transition of neonatal to adult myosin heavy chain isoform, suggesting delayed muscle maturation. This is further supported by the finding that the LW line continued to grow unlike the RBC line; difference in the percentages of PMW to body weights between both quail lines diminished with increasing age from 42 to 75 d post-hatch. This delayed muscle growth in the LW line is accompanied by higher levels of myogenin expression at 42 d (P<0.05), higher percentage of centered nuclei at 42 d (P<0.01), and greater rate of increase in fiber size between 42 and 75 d post-hatch (P<0.001) compared to the RBC line. Analysis of physiological, morphological, and developmental parameters during muscle development of the LW quail line provided a well-characterized avian model for future identification of the responsible genes and for studying mechanisms of hypoplasia and delayed muscle growth. PMID:24763754

  4. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities. PMID:25314375

  5. Inhibition of lipolysis in the novel transgenic quail model overexpressing G0/G1 switch gene 2 in the adipose tissue during feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangsu; Choi, Young Min; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the issue of obesity in humans, the production of low-fat meat from domestic animals is important in the agricultural industry to satisfy consumer demand. Understanding the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue could advance our knowledge to potentially solve both issues. Although the G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) was recently identified as an inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in vitro, its role in vivo has not been fully clarified. This study was conducted to investigate the role of G0S2 gene in vivo by using two independent transgenic quail lines during different energy conditions. Unexpectedly, G0S2 overexpression had a negligible effect on plasma NEFA concentration, fat cell size and fat pad weight under ad libitum feeding condition when adipose lipolytic activity is minimal. A two-week feed restriction in non-transgenic quail expectedly caused increased plasma NEFA concentration and dramatically reduced fat cell size and fat pad weight. Contrary, G0S2 overexpression under a feed restriction resulted in a significantly less elevation of plasma NEFA concentration and smaller reductions in fat pad weights and fat cell size compared to non-transgenic quail, demonstrating inhibition of lipolysis and resistance to loss of fat by G0S2. Excessive G0S2 inhibits lipolysis in vivo during active lipolytic conditions, such as food restriction and fasting, suggesting G0S2 as a potential target for treatment of obesity. In addition, transgenic quail are novel models for studying lipid metabolism and mechanisms of obesity. PMID:24964090

  6. Sexual maturation, serum steroid concentrations, and mRNA expression of IGF-1, luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors and survivin gene in Japanese quail hens.

    PubMed

    Shit, N; Sastry, K V H; Singh, R P; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2014-03-15

    In avian species, sexual maturation represents the evidence of start laying, which is a consequence of the development of ovarian follicles. These follicles are the functional reproductive unit whose maturation and viability critically depends on endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors beyond the signals from the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of sexual maturity with tissue growth, mRNA expression of certain genes, and serum steroid concentrations in Japanese quail hens. To carry out the present study, a total of forty Japanese quail hens (5 weeks) were housed individually under uniform husbandry condition with ad libitum quail layer ration and water at 14-hour photo schedule. On sixth week onwards, four birds were sacrificed at each time on 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 days. Serum was extracted aseptically to analyze the gonadal steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and corticosterone to investigate the liaison with sexual maturation of the species. Expression analyses of four genes i.e., insulin-like growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, and survivin were carried out in the three largest ovarian yellow follicles. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight gain and oviduct weight was recorded during the phase of sexual maturation. Smaller follicles revealed higher insulin-like growth factor-1 and survivin gene expression, whereas the reverse result was manifested in both the luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors. In biochemical study, the gonadal steroids (estrogen and progesterone) were recorded higher at the first half of the experiment when a gradual decrease in corticosterone concentration was confirmed from the very beginning of this study. This result substantiated that sexual maturation in Japanese quail may be completed by the time of 8 weeks after its birth in support of the analyzed information studied in the current investigation

  7. Overexpression of G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 in Adipose Tissue of Transgenic Quail Inhibits Lipolysis Associated with Egg Laying.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paula Renee; Shin, Sangsu; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Elizabeth; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon

    2016-01-01

    In avians, yolk synthesis is regulated by incorporation of portomicrons from the diet, transport of lipoproteins from the liver, and release of lipids from adipose tissue; however, the extent to which lipolysis in adipose tissue contributes to yolk synthesis and egg production has yet to be elucidated. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is known to bind and inhibit adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme in lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine whether overexpression of the G0S2 gene in adipose tissue could successfully inhibit endogenous ATGL activity associated with egg laying. Two independent lines of transgenic quail overexpressing G0S2 had delayed onset of egg production and reduced number of eggs over a six-week period compared to non-transgenic quail. Although no differences in measured parameters were observed at the pre-laying stage (5 weeks of age), G0S2 transgenic quail had significantly larger interclavicular fat pad weights and adipocyte sizes and lower NEFA concentrations in the serum at early (1 week after laying first egg) and active laying (5 weeks after laying first egg) stages. Overexpression of G0S2 inhibited lipolysis during early and active laying, which drastically shifted the balance towards a net accumulation of triacylglycerols and increased adipose tissue mass. Thereby, egg production was negatively affected as less triacylglycerols were catabolized to produce lipids for the yolk. PMID:26999108

  8. The effect of dietary cadmium supplementation on performance, egg quality, tibia biomechanical properties and eggshell and bone mineralisation in laying quails.

    PubMed

    Olgun, O

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of cadmium supplementation (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) in the diet on performance, egg quality, tibia biomechanical properties and eggshell and bone mineral contents in laying quails. In this 10-week trial, a total of 96 laying quails, aged 21 weeks, were randomly distributed among six experimental groups. Each experimental group contained four replicates of four birds each. The performance parameters were adversely affected quadratically when cadmium was added to the diets in the concentrations of 20 mg/kg and above (P<0.01). The specific gravity and eggshell weight were maximal with the addition of 20 mg/kg cadmium to the diet. The biomechanical properties of the tibia were negatively affected by cadmium supplementation in quails (P<0.05). The eggshell boron content decreased linearly (P<0.001) with cadmium supplementation to the diet. The cadmium content in bone increased when cadmium was added to the diets (P<0.001). The bone boron concentration decreased as dietary cadmium supplementation was increased (P<0.001). PMID:26190251

  9. Overexpression of G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 in Adipose Tissue of Transgenic Quail Inhibits Lipolysis Associated with Egg Laying

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Paula Renee; Shin, Sangsu; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Elizabeth; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon

    2016-01-01

    In avians, yolk synthesis is regulated by incorporation of portomicrons from the diet, transport of lipoproteins from the liver, and release of lipids from adipose tissue; however, the extent to which lipolysis in adipose tissue contributes to yolk synthesis and egg production has yet to be elucidated. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is known to bind and inhibit adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme in lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine whether overexpression of the G0S2 gene in adipose tissue could successfully inhibit endogenous ATGL activity associated with egg laying. Two independent lines of transgenic quail overexpressing G0S2 had delayed onset of egg production and reduced number of eggs over a six-week period compared to non-transgenic quail. Although no differences in measured parameters were observed at the pre-laying stage (5 weeks of age), G0S2 transgenic quail had significantly larger interclavicular fat pad weights and adipocyte sizes and lower NEFA concentrations in the serum at early (1 week after laying first egg) and active laying (5 weeks after laying first egg) stages. Overexpression of G0S2 inhibited lipolysis during early and active laying, which drastically shifted the balance towards a net accumulation of triacylglycerols and increased adipose tissue mass. Thereby, egg production was negatively affected as less triacylglycerols were catabolized to produce lipids for the yolk. PMID:26999108

  10. Glutamic acid decarboxylase activity is stimulated in quail retina neuronal cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus and is regulated by pp60v-src.

    PubMed Central

    Crisanti, P; Lorinet, A M; Calothy, G; Pessac, B

    1985-01-01

    Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) stimulates in quail embryo neuro-retina (NR) cultures the specific activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in NR and in central nervous system. In quail embryo NR cultures transformed by ts NY-68, a thermodependent transformation-defective mutant of RSV, stimulation of GAD activity is regulated by pp60v-src, the product of the src gene of RSV. Fibroblasts and myoblasts have a very low GAD activity that is not stimulated after transformation by RSV. Neuronal clones, previously derived from ts NY-68-transformed established NR cell lines, have a high GAD activity which is regulated by pp60v-src, while other clones have a low GAD activity apparently not regulated by pp60v-src. These data indicate that pp60v-src selectively activates the expression of GAD in distinct neuronal cells of quail embryo NR cultures transformed by RSV. GAD activity is also stimulated in NR cells infected with viruses containing v-mil. PMID:2992933

  11. Response of Japanese quail fed seed meal from sunflowers grown on municipal sludge-amended soil: elevation of cadmium in tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Stoewsand, G.S.; Babish, J.G.; Telford, J.N.; Bahm, C.; Bache, C.A.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sunflowers were grown on soil amended with 224 metric tons/ha of municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, NY. The yield of sunflower seeds was reduced by 47.2% by the sludge addition. The harvested seeds contained 1.71 ppm dry weight of cadmium. Deoiled seed meal was incorporated as 25 and 50% of semipurified diet and feed to male and female Japanese quail. The concentrations of cadmium were higher in kidney, liver, muscle, and eggs of birds fed the sludge-grown seed meal as compared to control quail. Tissue concentrations of cadmium increased with increasing dietary levels of sludge-grown seed meal. No significant differences were observed between dietary treatments in the activity of hepatic microsomal p-nitroanisole O-demethylase or aminopyrine N-demethylase in the male birds. Additionally, no mutagenic activity, either direct or with metabolic activation, was found in quail eggs. No observable changes in tissue ultrastructure were observed under electron microscopy in any of the treatment groups. There were no significant differences among the dietary treatment groups in feed intake, growth rate, egg production, or egg hatchability.

  12. Evidence for a daily rhythmicity in the acute release of luteinizing hormone in response to electrical stimulation in the Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Konishi, H; Foster, R G; Follett, B K

    1987-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus at different times of day on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in male castrated quail on short days (8L:16D). The posterior hypothalamus was stimulated with square-wave pulses of 80 microA for 2 min through chronically-implanted platinum microelectrodes. Stimulation was carried out on each quail at 4 (treatment A), 10 (B), or 14 h (C) after dawn. Plasma LH levels were increased markedly within 2 min of ending the stimulation but reached basal levels again over the next 20 min or so. The absolute increase was significantly greater in treatment B (10 h after lights on) than at the other times tested. This is consistent with a rhythm in hypothalamic responsivity. The results are discussed in the context of the rhythm of photoinducibility which occurs early in the night and which is used by quail as a photoperiodic clock to regulate seasonal reproduction. PMID:3625579

  13. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    PubMed

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P < 0.05). Diets with 120 and 240 g kg(-1) inclusion rates of sesame meal improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in Japanese quail (P < 0.05). Results indicated that the higher level of crude protein improved protein efficiency ratio (PER) and increased feed intake (P < 0.05). The results of jejunum morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.05). Enzyme addition increased serum calcium and phosphorous of Japanese quails (P < 0.05). The liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet. PMID:27113452

  14. Living with endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis ... counter pain relievers can reduce the pain of endometriosis. These include: Ibuprofen (Advil) Naproxen (Aleve) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) ...

  15. Living with an Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With an Arrhythmia Many arrhythmias are harmless. It's common to have an occasional ... heartbeat or mild palpitations . People who have harmless arrhythmias can live healthy lives. They usually don't ...

  16. Living Gluten Free

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Living Gluten Free Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Allowed ... to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 Number 1 Page ...

  17. Effect of estradiol-17β on follicle-stimulating hormone secretion and egg-laying performance of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Çiftci, H B

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of estradiol-17β (E2) injection on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion and egg-laying performance of Japanese quail. Female Japanese quail were housed in cages and fed ad libitum. After a 7-day adaptation period, the birds were randomly assigned to three groups, that is, one control group and two test groups. The birds were weighed, before every injection. The control group was subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml sesame oil-ethanol mixture, whereas test groups were injected, twice in a week, with 0.2 ml sesame oil-ethanol mixture containing 0.1 or 0.2 mg E2 along the study. One day after the first injection, egg number, egg weight, eggshell strength and food conception were daily recorded. On the last day of the experiment, the birds were injected and 3 h later seven birds from each group were randomly selected for bleeding. Blood samples (2 ml/bird) were collected from the jugular vein for the measurements of serum concentrations of E2, FSH, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). E2 injection did not cause any significant changes in serum FSH concentrations, daily egg laid/bird, food conception/bird, serum concentrations of the Ca and the P. Egg weight was significantly increased in the 0.1 mg E2-injected group as compared with the control and 0.2 mg E2-injected groups. Eggshell strength in the 0.2 mg E2-injected group was significantly high as compared with the control, whereas the difference between the 0.1 mg E2- and 0.2 mg E2-injected groups was not statistically important. These results show that serum FSH concentration was not increased even when slightly suppressed by subcutaneous injection of 0.1 or 0.2 mg E2. Different doses of E2 have different functions. The increase in BWs in the 0.1 mg E2-injected group was a result of the dose effect, which probably increased growth hormone secretion from the pituitary or IGF-1 synthesis from the liver or both. The dose, 0.2 mg E2, was ineffective in increasing the

  18. High resolution, week-long, locomotion time series from Japanese quail in a home-box environment.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Diego A; Pellegrini, Stefania; Flesia, Ana G; Aon, Miguel A; Marin, Raúl H; Kembro, Jackelyn M

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located. These high resolution, week-long, time series consisting of 1.07×10(6) data points represent, to our knowledge, a unique data set in animal behavior, and are publically available on FigShare. The data obtained can be used for analyzing dynamic changes of daily or several day locomotion patterns, or for comparison with existing or future data sets or mathematical models across different taxa. PMID:27271772

  19. Characterization of a new melanocyte-specific gene (QNR-71) expressed in v-myc-transformed quail neuroretina.

    PubMed Central

    Turque, N; Denhez, F; Martin, P; Planque, N; Bailly, M; Bègue, A; Stéhelin, D; Saule, S

    1996-01-01

    Quail neuroretina cells (QNR) infected with the v-myc-expressing retrovirus MC29 become pigmented after several passages in vitro. After differential screening of a cDNA library constructed from these cells, we have isolated a cDNA clone (QNR-71) which identifies an RNA expressed only in the pigmented layer of the retina and in the epidermis. This gene can also be induced in other cell types transformed by MC29, suggesting that QNR-71 may be regulated by the v-myc protein. Sequence analysis showed that the QNR-71 cDNA exhibits stretches of homologies with melanosomal proteins encoding genes. From bacterially expressed QNR-71 peptides we obtained rabbit antisera able to specifically recognize two proteins of 95 and 100 kDa in pigmented retinal cells, but not in the neuroretina. To study the regulation of QNR-71, we used promoter fragments linked to the CAT reporter gene, in transient co-expression assay. We observed an increase in CAT expression with a c-MYC and microphtalmia (mi) expression vectors. Both MYC and mi activate the QNR-71 promoter through direct binding to a CATGTG site present in the promoter fragment. Images PMID:8670835

  20. High resolution, week-long, locomotion time series from Japanese quail in a home-box environment

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Diego A.; Pellegrini, Stefania; Flesia, Ana G.; Aon, Miguel A.; Marin, Raúl H.; Kembro, Jackelyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located. These high resolution, week-long, time series consisting of 1.07×106 data points represent, to our knowledge, a unique data set in animal behavior, and are publically available on FigShare. The data obtained can be used for analyzing dynamic changes of daily or several day locomotion patterns, or for comparison with existing or future data sets or mathematical models across different taxa. PMID:27271772

  1. Increased yolk progesterone interferes with prenatal auditory learning and elevates emotional reactivity in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua; Vallin, Claudia; Lickliter, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Avian eggs contain maternally derived hormones, including testosterone and progesterone. Little is currently known about the effects of these hormones on early behavioral development. We assessed the effects of elevated levels of progesterone levels on prenatal perceptual learning and postnatal emotional reactivity in Northern bobwhite quail. Prior to incubation, eggs received an injection of either progesterone (P) or oil vehicle (V). In P eggs, levels of progesterone were elevated two standard deviations above the mean based on ELISA analysis of progesterone yolk concentrations from a previous study. A third group of eggs served as controls and received no injection (C). Chicks hatched from P eggs displayed elevated levels of emotional reactivity compared to V and C chicks in a tonic immobility task and a hole-in-the-wall emergence task. Chicks from P eggs also failed to demonstrate a preference for a familiarized bobwhite maternal call that had been presented prenatally. In contrast, the V and C chicks demonstrated a significant preference for the familiarized maternal call following hatching, indicating prenatal auditory learning. Our results are consistent with previous findings from precocial birds demonstrating that hormones of maternal origin can influence prenatal perceptual learning as well as emotional reactivity in the period following hatching.. PMID:25650094

  2. Induction of vitellogenesis in Japanese quail as a sensitive indicator of the estrogen-mimetic effect of a variety of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G A; Gibbins, A M

    1984-08-01

    Vitellogenesis was induced in mature male Japanese quail following intramuscular injections of 16 mumol/100 g body weight of any one of four estrogen analogues or 160 mumol/100 g of the nonsteroid zearalenone. Six hours after the injections, microgram levels of vitellogenin were detected and quantitated by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of plasma from estrogen-treated birds and from 160 mumol zearalenone-treated birds showed, 4 days after the injections, the three subunits of vitellogenin normally seen in the plasma of egg-laying female quail. As evidenced by increased concentrations of plasma protein-bound phosphorus, total plasma calcium, and total plasma protein, mole-for-mole diethylstilbestrol dipropionate was 114%, ethynyl estradiol 75%, moxestrol 108%, and zearalenone 5.6% as effective as estradiol-17 beta in inducing vitellogenesis over a 4-day period. The responses to 160 mumol zearalenone/100 g over 8 days were approximately .6 the responses for estradiol. The responses to ethynyl estradiol were about equal to those for estradiol for days 1 and 2, then faded to .3 the estradiol response by day 8. Doses of 16 or 160 mumol/100 g of cholecalciferol, chlordecone, corticosterone, o,p1-DDT [1,1,1-trichlor-2-(p-chlorphenyl)-2-(o-chlorphenyl)eth ane], methoxychlor, progesterone, or testosterone, or 16 mumol/100 g of zearalenone did not induce vitellogenesis. Induction of vitellogenesis in male Japanese quail can thus provide a sensitive test of the estrogen-mimicking activity of some possible environmental contaminants. PMID:6237320

  3. A proprietary blend of quail egg for the attenuation of nasal provocation with a standardized allergenic challenge: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Benichou, Annie-Claude; Armanet, Marion; Bussière, Anthony; Chevreau, Nathalie; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Tétard, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Occasional rhinitis symptoms caused by exposure to pollution or allergens is a growing concern. Based first on empirical observation of a lesser occurrence of allergies in quail farmers and then scientific works on ovomucoids properties, we developed a dietary supplement for the relief of such occasional rhinitis symptoms. The objective of the study was to determine whether one acute oral dose of the study product attenuates nasal provocation and other allergy-related symptoms after exposure to a standardized allergenic challenge as compared to placebo. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in a randomized, double-blind, two-arm crossover, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. One acute dose of either the active study product (proprietary blend of quail egg) or placebo was given concomitantly to the standardized allergenic challenge. The primary endpoint was peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement and the secondary endpoints were subjects' perceived feelings of well-being based on Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for allergy-related symptoms, as well as immunoglobulin E count. Forty-three healthy subjects were enrolled and evaluable in a per protocol analysis. A gradual increase in PNIF from nadir up to Time 120 reflected the normal, gradual recovery from nasal obstruction induced by allergenic challenge for both the active and the placebo groups. At all postchallenge time points, the active group had higher PNIF values compared to the placebo group, indicating that the active product was associated with fewer symptoms and reduced intensity of these symptoms. The active product resulted also in statistically significant improvements of most of the subjects' perceived feelings of well-being based on VAS scores. No adverse events occurred during the study. In conclusion, the dietary supplement consisting of proprietary blend made of quail eggs provides fast and efficient relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms caused by the most common outdoor and indoor

  4. Dietary rosemary oil alleviates heat stress-induced structural and functional damage through lipid peroxidation in the testes of growing Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Songül; Güvenç, Mehmet; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation of natural antioxidants to diets of male poultry has been reported to be effective in reducing or completely eliminating heat stress (HS)-induced reproductive failures. In this study, the aim is to investigate whether rosemary oil (RO) has a protective effect on HS-induced damage in spermatozoa production, testicular histologic structures, apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) through lipid peroxidation mechanisms in growing Japanese quail. Male chicks (n=90) at 15-days of age were assigned to two groups. The first group (n=45) was kept in a thermo-neutral (TN) room at 22°C for 24h/d. The second group (n=45) was kept in a room with a greater ambient temperature of 34°C for 8h/d (from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM) and 22°C for 16h/d. Animals in each of these two groups were randomly assigned to three subgroups (RO groups: 0, 125, 250ppm), consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2×3 factorial design). Each of subgroups was replicated three times with each replicate including five chicks. The HS treatment significantly reduced the testicular spermatogenic cell counts, amount of testicular Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic marker) and amount of AR. In addition, it significantly increased testicular lipid peroxidation, Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositive staining, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in conjunction with some histopathologic damage. Dietary supplementation of RO to diets of quail where the HS treatment was imposed alleviated HS-induced almost all negative changes such as increased testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased numbers of spermatogenic cells, and decreased amounts of Bcl-2 and AR, increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and some testicular histopathologic lesion. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of RO for growing male Japanese quail reared in HS environmental conditions alleviates the HS-induced structural and functional damage by providing a decrease in lipid peroxidation. PMID:26656503

  5. A proprietary blend of quail egg for the attenuation of nasal provocation with a standardized allergenic challenge: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Benichou, Annie-Claude; Armanet, Marion; Bussière, Anthony; Chevreau, Nathalie; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Tétard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Occasional rhinitis symptoms caused by exposure to pollution or allergens is a growing concern. Based first on empirical observation of a lesser occurrence of allergies in quail farmers and then scientific works on ovomucoids properties, we developed a dietary supplement for the relief of such occasional rhinitis symptoms. The objective of the study was to determine whether one acute oral dose of the study product attenuates nasal provocation and other allergy-related symptoms after exposure to a standardized allergenic challenge as compared to placebo. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in a randomized, double-blind, two-arm crossover, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. One acute dose of either the active study product (proprietary blend of quail egg) or placebo was given concomitantly to the standardized allergenic challenge. The primary endpoint was peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement and the secondary endpoints were subjects' perceived feelings of well-being based on Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for allergy-related symptoms, as well as immunoglobulin E count. Forty-three healthy subjects were enrolled and evaluable in a per protocol analysis. A gradual increase in PNIF from nadir up to Time 120 reflected the normal, gradual recovery from nasal obstruction induced by allergenic challenge for both the active and the placebo groups. At all postchallenge time points, the active group had higher PNIF values compared to the placebo group, indicating that the active product was associated with fewer symptoms and reduced intensity of these symptoms. The active product resulted also in statistically significant improvements of most of the subjects' perceived feelings of well-being based on VAS scores. No adverse events occurred during the study. In conclusion, the dietary supplement consisting of proprietary blend made of quail eggs provides fast and efficient relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms caused by the most common outdoor and indoor

  6. Differential expression of feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides in the first generation of quails divergently selected for low or high feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kaley; Gilley, Alex; Piekarski, Alissa; Orlowski, Sara; Greene, Elizabeth; Bottje, Walter; Anthony, Nicholas; Dridi, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Livestock and poultry sectors are facing a combination of challenges, including a substantial increase in global demand for high quality animal protein, general droughts and steady rise in animal feed cost. Thus feed efficiency (FE), which defines the animal's ability to convert feed into body weight, is a vital economic and agricultural trait. Genetic selection for FE has been largely used in chickens and has been applied without knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Although it has made tremendous progress (breast yield, growth rate, egg production), there have been a number of undesirable changes such as metabolic disorders. In the present study we divergently selected male and female quail for high and low FE and we aimed to characterize the molecular basis of these differences at the central level, with the long-term goal of maximizing FE and avoiding the unfavorable consequences. The FE phenotype in first generation quails seemed to be achieved by reduced feed intake in female and increased body weight gain in males. At the molecular level, we found that the expression of feeding-related hypothalamic genes is gender- and line-dependent. Indeed, the expression of NPY, POMC, CART, CRH, melanocortin system (MC1R, MC2R, MC4R, MC5R), ORX, mTOR and ACCα was significantly decreased, however ORXR1/2, AMPKα1, S6K1 and STAT1, 5 and 6 were increased in high compared to low FE males (P<0.05). These genes did not differ between the two female lines. ADPN gene expression was higher and its receptor Adip-R1 was lower in LFE compared to HFE females (P<0.05). In male however, although there was no difference in ADPN gene expression between the genotypes, Adip-R1 and Adip-R2 mRNA abundances were higher in the LFE compared to HFE line (P<0.05). This study identified several key central feeding-related genes that are differentially expressed between low and high FE male and female quails which might explain the differences in feed intake/body weight gain observed

  7. The parvocellular vasotocin system of Japanese quail: a developmental and adult model for the study of influences of gonadal hormones on sexually differentiated and behaviorally relevant neural circuits.

    PubMed Central

    Panzica, Gian Carlo; Bakthazart, Jacques; Pessatti, Marzia; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Vasotocin (VT; the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. A sexually dimorphic system of VT-immunoreactive (ir) parvocellular elements has been described within the male medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the nucleus of the stria terminalis, pars medialis (BSTm). VT-ir fibers are present in many diencephalic and extradiencephalic locations, and quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrated their sexually dimorphic distribution in regions involved in the control of different aspects of reproduction. Moreover, systemic or intracerebroventricular injections of VT markedly inhibit the expression of some aspects of male sexual behavior. In adult animals, circulating levels of testosterone (T) have a profound influence on the VT immunoreactivity within BSTm, POM, and lateral septum. Castration markedly decreases the immunoreaction, whereas T-replacement therapy restores a situation similar to the intact birds. We observed no changes in gonadectomized females treated with T. These changes parallel similar changes in male copulatory behavior (not present in castrated male quail, fully expressed in castrated, T-treated males). The restoration by T of the VT immunoreactivity in castrated male quail could be fully mimicked by a treatment with estradiol (E(2)), suggesting that the aromatization of T into E(2) may play a key limiting role in both the activation of male sexual behavior and the induction of VT synthesis. This dimorphism has an organizational nature: administration of E(2) to quail embryos (a treatment that abolishes male sexual behavior) results in a dramatic decrease of the VT immunoreactivity in sexually dimorphic regions. Conversely, the inhibition of E(2) synthesis during embryonic life (a treatment that stimulates the expression of male copulatory behavior in treated females exposed in adulthood to T) results in a malelike distribution of VT immunoreactivity. The VT

  8. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ecology of Anderton Branch near the Quail Hollow Landfill, Bedford County, Tennessee, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, James

    2004-01-01

    The Quail Hollow Landfill, located in southeastern Bedford County on the Highland Rim overlooking the Central Basin karst region of Tennessee, is constructed on the gravelly, clay-rich residuum of the Fort Payne Formation of Mississippian age. A conceptual hydrologic model of the landfill indicated that Anderton Branch was at risk of being affected by the landfill. Ground water flowing beneath the landfill mixes with percolating rainwater that has passed through the landfill and discharges to the surface from numerous weeps, seeps, and springs present in the area. Anderton Branch, adjacent to the landfill site on the north and east, receives most of the discharge from these weeps, seeps, and springs. Anderton Branch also receives water from the Powell Branch drainage basin to the west and south because of diverted flow of ground water through Harrison Spring Cave. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bedford County Solid Waste Authority, conducted a study to evaluate the effect of the Quail Hollow Landfill on ground- and surface-water quality. During storm runoff, specific conductance was elevated, and cadmium, iron, manganese, lead, and nickel concentrations in Anderton Branch frequently exceeded maximum contaminant levels for drinking water for the State of Tennessee. High chloride inputs to Anderton Branch were detected at two locations?a barnyard straddling the stream and a tributary draining a pond that receives water directly from the landfill. The chloride inputs probably contribute to chloride load levels that are three times higher for Anderton Branch than for the control stream Anthony Branch. Although toxic volatile organic compounds were detected in water from monitoring wells at the landfill, no organic contaminants were detected in domestic water wells adjacent to the landfill or in Anderton Branch. Sons Spring, a karst spring near the landfill, has been affected by the landfill as indicated by an increase in chloride concentrations

  9. Living with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  10. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  11. Living with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the website provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Spina bifida affects the entire ...

  12. Living with Atrial Fibrillation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics » Atrial Fibrillation » Living With Atrial Fibrillation Explore Atrial Fibrillation What Is... Types Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia ...

  13. Comparison of the distributions of the actinides uranium and thorium with the lanthanide gadolinium in the tissues and eggs of Japanese quail: concentrations of uranium in feeds and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.A.; Wasnidge, D.C.; Floto, F.

    1984-05-01

    Japanese quail were given UCl/sub 3/, UO/sub 2/ (NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/, or GdCl/sub 3/ (/sub 153/Gd -labeled) intravenously in aqueous solution. Distribution of Th among the tissues was as for Gd; distributions of U(III) and U(VI) were markedly different. Whole body losses by 18 hr were: females, U 24%, Th 14%, Gd 4%; males, U 72%, Th 23%, Gd 1%. Cumulative depositions in yolks of eggs laid over 8 days were: U(III) 1.9%, U(VI) 1.7%, Th 57.3%, Gd 46.8%. The distribution of U in quail may be atypical of actinides. Concentrations of U in various feeds, foods, and mineral supplements ranged from 169 micrograms/g in a phosphate fertilizer for farm use to below the lower detectable limit of .01 microgram/g in many foods intended for human use. Two batches of the game bird laying ration supplied to the quail colony contained 3.05 and 4.42 micrograms U/g. Body burdens of 3.5 micrograms U/bird for noninjected quail were attributed to the U content of this feed.

  14. Excretion of radioactivity following the intraperitoneal administration of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDD, /sup 14/C-DDE and /sup 14/C-DDMU to the rat and Japanese Quail

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, S.C.; Bunyan, P.J.; Huson, L.W.; King, L.J.; Stanley, P.I.

    1981-09-01

    A study in progress to examine the metabolic fate of DDT in birds and mammals is discussed. The first phase of the study, which is reported in this article, has been to establish the rate of excretion of ratioactivity following the intraperitoneal administrations of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDE, /sup 14/C-DDD, and /sup 14/C-DDMU to male rats and male Japanese quail. The mean values from the three animals in each experimental group for the amount of radioactivity excreted daily are given, and it was found that the rats excreted the radioactivity administered as DDT, DDD, and DDE substantially faster than did the quail. DDMU was excreted relatively rapidly and at similar rates. This finding suggests that apparent differences in the rates of excretion of DDT by birds and mammals probably arise from differences in the conversion of DDT to DDD or DDE or in the degradation of these metabolites to DDMU. The Japanese quail differ from the rats in excreting substantial amounts of unchanged DDT, DDE, and DDD, which probably reflects the inability of the Japanese quail to readily metabolise these compounds.

  15. Embryonic vascular development: immunohistochemical identification of the origin and subsequent morphogenesis of the major vessel primordia in quail embryos.

    PubMed

    Coffin, J D; Poole, T J

    1988-04-01

    The development of the embryonic vasculature is examined here using a monoclonal antibody, QH-1, capable of labelling the presumptive endothelial cells of Japanese quail embryos. Antibody labelling is first seen within the embryo proper at the 1-somite stage. Scattered labelling of single cells appears ventral to the somites and at the lateral edges of the anterior intestinal portal. The dorsal aorta soon forms a continuous cord at the ventrolateral edge of the somites and continues into the head to fuse with the ventral aorta forming the first aortic arch by the 6-somite stage. The rudiments of the endocardium fuse at the midline above the anterior intestinal portal by the 3-somite stage and the ventral aorta extends craniad. Intersomitic arteries begin to sprout off of the dorsal aorta at the 7-somite stage. The posterior cardinal vein forms from single cells which segregate from somatic mesoderm at the 7-somite stage to form a loose plexus which moves mediad and wraps around the developing Wolffian duct in later stages. These studies suggest two modes of origin of embryonic blood vessels. The dorsal aortae and cardinal veins apparently arise in situ by the local segregation of presumptive endothelial cells from the mesoderm. The intersomitic arteries, vertebral arteries and cephalic vasculature arise by sprouts from these early vessel rudiments. There also seems to be some cell migration in the morphogenesis of endocardium, ventral aorta and aortic arches. The extent of presumptive endothelial migration in these cases, however, needs to be clarified by microsurgical intervention. PMID:3048971

  16. Down regulation by p60v-src of genes specifically expressed and developmentally regulated in postmitotic quail neuroretina cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guermah, M; Gillet, G; Michel, D; Laugier, D; Brun, G; Calothy, G

    1990-01-01

    The avian neuroretina (NR) is composed of photoreceptors and different neurons that are derived from proliferating precursor cells. Neuronal differentiation takes place after terminal mitosis. We have previously shown that differentiating NR cells can be induced to proliferate by infection with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and that cell multiplication requires expression of a functional v-src gene. We speculated that the quiescence of NR cells could be determined by specific genes. Cell proliferation could then result from the negative regulation of these genes by the v-src protein. By differential hybridization of a cDNA library, we isolated eight clones corresponding to genes expressed in postmitotic NR cells from 13-day-old quail embryos, transcriptional levels of which are significantly reduced in NR cells induced to proliferate by tsNY68, an RSV mutant with temperature-sensitive mitogenic activity. Partial sequencing analysis indicated that one RNA encoded the calmodulin gene, whereas the other seven showed no similarity to known sequences. By using v-src mutants that induce NR cell proliferation in the absence of transformation, we showed that transcription of six genes was negatively regulated by the v-src protein and that of four genes was correlated with NR cell quiescence. We also report that a subset of genes are specifically transcribed in neural cells and developmentally regulated in the NR. These results indicate that the v-src protein regulates expression of genes likely to play a role in the control of neural cell growth or differentiation. Images PMID:2162475

  17. Transcriptome analysis of integument differentially expressed genes in the pigment mutant (quail) during molting of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongyi; Liu, Chun; Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Integument Differentially Expressed Genes in the Pigment Mutant (quail) during Molting of Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

  19. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force–length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force–length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. PMID:25355848

  20. Non-ovarian aromatization is required to activate female sexual motivation in testosterone-treated ovariectomized quail.

    PubMed

    de Bournonville, Catherine; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2016-07-01

    Although aromatase is expressed in both male and female brains, its functional significance in females remains poorly understood. In female quail, sexual receptivity is activated by estrogens. However it is not known whether sexual motivation is similarly estrogen-dependent and whether estrogens locally produced in the brain contribute to these behavioral responses. Four main experiments were designed to address these questions. In Experiment 1 chronic treatment of females with the anti-estrogen tamoxifen decreased their receptivity, confirming that this response is under the control of estrogens. In Experiment 2 chronic treatment with tamoxifen significantly decreased sexual motivation as treated females no longer approached a sexual partner. In Experiment 3 (a) ovariectomy (OVX) induced a significant decrease of time spent near the male and a significantly decreased receptivity compared to gonadally intact females, (b) treatment with testosterone (OVX+T) partially restored these responses and (c) this effect of T was prevented when estradiol synthesis was inhibited by the potent aromatase inhibitor Vorozole (OVX+T+VOR). Serum estradiol concentration was significantly higher in OVX+T than in OVX or OVX+T+VOR females. Together these data demonstrate that treatment of OVX females with T increases sexual motivation and that these effects are mediated at least in part by non-gonadal aromatization of the androgen. Finally, assays of aromatase activity on brain and peripheral tissues (Experiment 4) strongly suggest that brain aromatization contributes to behavioral effects observed here following T treatment but alternative sources of estrogens (e.g. liver) should also be considered. PMID:27189762

  1. Mild heat stress enhances differentiation and proliferation of Japanese quail myoblasts and enhances slow muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Chen, P R; Shin, S; Zhang, J; Hwang, S; Lee, K

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mild heat stress on muscle fiber hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in quail primary myogenic cells to better understand the mechanisms leading to increased skeletal muscle development in avian embryos incubated at a higher temperature. Compared to control cultures maintained at 37°C, incubation at 39°C enhanced myotube length (P < 0.01) and diameter (P < 0.001) at 3 days after differentiation (D3). This enlargement of the myotubes incubated at 39°C can be explained by differences in the fusion index (56.7 vs. 46.2%, P < 0.05) and nuclei number per myotube (18.1 vs. 10.8, P < 0.001) compared to the control cells at D3. Additionally, a higher density of myotubes at D3 in cultures exposed to a higher temperature were related to higher levels of Pax-7 (P < 0.05) compared to the control cells incubated continuously at 37°C. These results indicated a higher proliferative capacity in cells exposed to mild heat stress compared to the control cells. On the other hand, mild heat stress enhanced protein levels of slow myosin heavy chain isoform (P < 0.01) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (P < 0.01) compared to the control cells at D3. These discrepancies in protein expression indicated maintenance of slow muscle fiber type characteristics in myotubes incubated at 39°C. Our results suggest that mild heat stress plays a significant role in myogenic mechanisms related to muscle mass and development. PMID:27038421

  2. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 3. Onset of sexual maturity and basic characteristics of early lay.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Novotná, B

    2007-10-01

    1. The onset of lay, quality of eggs during early lay and gonadal development of both sexes were analysed in meat-type lines of Japanese quail, HG and LG divergently selected for high and low relative weight gain between 11 and 28 d of age, respectively, and constant body weight (BW) at 49 d of age. 2. The LG line was sexually mature at an earlier age and lower BW than the HG line. This corresponded with the trend during embryonic and early postnatal development. 3. Analysis of gonads also confirmed earlier sexual development in the LG than in the HG line. In both lines, the growth of testes was detected about one week earlier than the growth of ovary. 4. Despite the different age and BW at onset of lay, HG and LG quail commenced lay at the same degree of maturity (about 90% of adult BW). This implied that the onset of sexual maturity could be identified as a point on the growth curve which terminates the linear phase. 5. When compared with the LG line, the HG line was characterised by a longer acceleration and shorter retardation phase of the growth curve. This difference is seen as an important determinant of line differences in growth and reproductive performance. PMID:17952726

  3. Epithelia-mesenchyme interaction plays an essential role in transdifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium of silver mutant quail: localization of FGF and related molecules and aberrant migration pattern of neural crest cells during eye rudiment formation.

    PubMed

    Araki, Masasuke; Takano, Takako; Uemonsa, Tomoko; Nakane, Yoshifumi; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Kaneko, Tomoko

    2002-04-15

    Homozygotes of the quail silver mutation, which have plumage color changes, also display a unique phenotype in the eye: during early embryonic development, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) spontaneously transdifferentiates into neural retinal tissue. Mitf is considered to be the responsible gene and to function similarly to the mouse microphthalmia mutation, and tissue interaction between RPE and surrounding mesenchymal tissue in organ culture has been shown to be essential for the initiation of the transdifferentiation process in which fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is involved. The immunohistochemical results of the present study show that laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, both acting as cofactors for FGF binding, are localized in the area of transdifferentiation of silver embryos much more abundantly than in wild-type embryos. More intense immunohistochemical staining with FGF-1 antibody, but not with FGF-2 antibody, is also found in the neural retina, RPE, and choroidal tissue of silver embryos than in wild-type embryos. HNK-1 immunohistochemistry revealed that clusters of HNK-1-positive cells (presumptive migrating neural crest cells) are frequently located around the developing eyes and in the posterior region of the silver embryonic eye. Finally, chick-quail chimerical eyes were made by grafting silver quail optic vesicles to chicken host embryos: in most cases, no transdifferentiation occurs in the silver RPE, but in a few cases, transdifferentiation occurs where silver quail cells predominate in the choroid tissue. These observations together with our previous in vitro study indicate that the silver mutation affects not only RPE cells but also cephalic neural crest cells, which migrate to the eye rudiment, and that these crest cells play an essential role in the transdifferentiation of RPE, possibly by modifying the FGF signaling pathway. The precise molecular mechanism involved in RPE-neural crest cell interaction is still unknown

  4. Discounting human lives

    SciTech Connect

    Cropper, M.L. ); Portney, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    The future costs of regulatory programs to protect human health are routinely discounted, but the lives they save in the future are not. To shed light on the public's attitude toward the discounting of human lives, researchers at Resources for the Future asked 2,600 individuals to choose between one hypothetical program that would save lives immediately and another that would save lives in 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 years. From the responses, they inferred the number of lives that must be saved in the future to make people as content as saving one life today, compared this implicit discount rate to the respondents' discount rate for money, and identified several factors that affect discount rates for human lives.

  5. Effects of Phos-Chek G75-F and Silv-Ex on developing Northern Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscemi, D.M.; Hoffman, D.J.; Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Kuenzel, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Eggs of nesting birds situated in peripheral areas serving as fire breaks are at risk of being sprayed with fire control chemicals. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by immersing northern bobwhite quail eggs for 10 s in different water-based concentrations of Silv-Ex? (SE), a foam-suppressant chemical, and Phos-Chek? G75-F (PC), a fire retardant chemical, on day 4 or day 11 of incubation. An attempt was made to relate the treatment concentrations to the actual field application levels. Mortality appeared higher in most groups exposed on day 11 than on day 4, suggesting that on day 11 the extensive chorioallantoic vascular network permitted greater uptake of chemical. Only 24-60% of the embryos survived to hatch at exposure concentrations of 202, 269, and 454 g/L, PC when treated on incubation day 11. At higher concentrations including 681, 956, and 1,211 g/L PC, the compound did not completely dissolve in water and clumped on eggshells, resulting in greater hatching success. Exposures to SE at 100 g/L on incubation day 11 did not significantly affect hatching success of embryos but did significantly reduce the percent hematocrit in blood compared with controls. Incubation day 11 exposure to 202 and 1,211 g/L PC led to a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, and day 4 exposure to 1,211 g/L PC resulted in a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase. In addition to elevated liver enzymes, these treatments resulted in a decrease in the number of hepatocyte profiles (1,211 g/L PC at day 4 and day 11) and an increase in hepatocyte size (202 and 1,211 g/L PC at day 11) in hatchlings. A combination of SE and PC was synergistic (202 g/L PC and 50 g/L SE) at day 11 of incubation with respect to decreased hatching success and reduced bone lengths. However, lower concentrations of SE (10 g/L or 30 g/L) combined with 202 g/L of PC appeared antagonistic. This may be due to SE, as a surfactant, altering the ability of PC to penetrate the egg. Our

  6. Effects of toxaphene and endrin at very low dietary concentrations on discrimination acquisition and reversal in bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Adult male bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus were fed toxaphene (chlorinated camphene, 67?69% chlorine) at 10 and 50 ppm or endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-endo-endo,5,8-dimethanonaphalene) at 0?1 and 1?0 ppm and their performance on non-spatial discrimination reversal tasks was measured. The birds were on dosage for 138 days (beginning at the age of 3 days) prior to testing. Two tests (with different pairs of patterns) were conducted with toxaphene-treated birds and five with endrin-treated birds. The toxaphene-treated birds made 50% more errors than did controls (p < 0?02). There was no difference between the effects of the two treatment levels. The performance of the treated birds on a second test equalled that of the controls, indicating that the birds were able to adjust to the pesticide whilst on treatment. Endrin-treated birds made from 36 to 139% more errors than did controls (p < 0?025). The difference between the number of errors made by the controls and the number made by the treated birds on the acquisition, or initial problem of each test, increased exponentially over the first four tests. The 0?1 ppm birds made significantly more errors than the 1?0 ppm birds after reversal 3 or 4 in the first three tests. The endrin effects were reversed after 50 days of untreated feed. The principal effect of endrin was to impair the birds' ability to solve a novel problem. The effects of toxaphene in birds treated as adults appeared after about 30 days of treatment and those of endrin after about 40 days of treatment. Mean brain residues in endrin-treated birds were 0?075 ppm (wet weight basis) for the 0?1 ppm level birds and 0?35 ppm for the 1?0 ppm level birds.

  7. Development of anomalous rectification (Ih) and of a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in embryonic quail neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Schlichter, R; Bader, C R; Bernheim, L

    1991-01-01

    1. The developmental expression of an inwardly rectifying current activated by membrane hyperpolarization (Ih) and of a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant Na+ current (INa(TR)) was studied using freshly dissociated ganglionic quail neurones of various embryonic ages. This work was carried out on parasympathetic (ciliary) and sensory (trigeminal and dorsal root) ganglion neurones with the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. 2. In sensory and parasympathetic neurones, Ih was activated at potentials more negative than -60 mV and displayed strong inward rectification. No sign of time- or voltage-dependent inactivation was apparent. Ih was carried by both Na+ and K+ ions and was selectively and reversibly blocked by extracellular Cs+. 3. During the development of sensory neurones, Ih was observed for the first time between embryonic day 10 (E10) and E11 and the percentage of neurones expressing the current increased subsequently, reaching a plateau level of about 80% at E14. In the parasympathetic neurones of the ciliary ganglion, Ih was already detected at E10 and the percentage of neurones possessing the current increased until E16, a stage at which all neurones were found to express Ih. 4. In the presence of TTX (1 microM), an inward Na+ current, INa(TR), was recorded in sensory neurones after E12. This current was activated at potentials more depolarized than -30 mV and its amplitude was maximal at +5 mV. INa(TR) showed time- and voltage-dependent inactivation. Half-maximal steady-state inactivation was observed at -40 mV. 5. INa(TR) was observed for the first time after E12 in sensory neurones and the percentage of neurones with INa(TR) increased until E14. Thereafter, 80% of the neurones had the current. In contrast, INa(TR) was never observed in the parasympathetic neurones of the ciliary ganglion during embryonic development. 6. Our results with parasympathetic and sensory neurones suggest that the expression of INa(TR) is linked to the phenotype

  8. Effects of Phos-Chek G75-F and Silv-Ex on developing northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Buscemi, D M; Hoffman, D J; Vyas, N B; Spann, J W; Kuenzel, W J

    2002-10-01

    Eggs of nesting birds situated in peripheral areas serving as fire breaks are at risk of being sprayed with fire control chemicals. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by immersing northern bobwhite quail eggs for 10 s in different water-based concentrations of Silv-Ex(R) (SE), a foam-suppressant chemical, and Phos-Chek(R) G75-F (PC), a fire retardant chemical, on day 4 or day 11 of incubation. An attempt was made to relate the treatment concentrations to the actual field application levels. Mortality appeared higher in most groups exposed on day 11 than on day 4, suggesting that on day 11 the extensive chorioallantoic vascular network permitted greater uptake of chemical. Only 24-60% of the embryos survived to hatch at exposure concentrations of 202, 269, and 454 g/L PC when treated on incubation day 11. At higher concentrations including 681956, and 1211 g/L PC, the compound did not completely dissolve in water and clumped on eggshells, resulting in greater hatching success. Exposures to SE at 100 g/L on incubation day 11 did not significantly affect hatching success of embryos but did significantly reduce the percent hematocrit in blood compared with controls. Incubation day 11 exposure to 202 and 1211 g/L PC led to a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, and day 4 exposure to 1211 g/L PC resulted in a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase. In addition to elevated liver enzymes, these treatments resulted in a decrease in the number of hepatocyte profiles (1211 g/L PC at day 4 and day 11) and an increase in hepatocyte size (202 and 1211 g/L PC at day 11) in hatchlings. A combination of SE and PC was synergistic (202 g/L PC and 50 g/L SE) at day 11 of incubation with respect to decreased hatching success and reduced bone lengths. However, lower concentrations of SE (10 g/L or 30 g/L) combined with 202 g/L of PC appeared antagonistic. This may be due to SE, as a surfactant, altering the ability of PC to penetrate the egg. Our results

  9. Living with Bowel Control Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Living with Bowel Control Problems Resources Bowel Control Awareness Campaign Home Resources for Health Care Providers ... Living with Bowel Control Problems Living with Bowel Control Problems Living with a bowel control problem can ...

  10. Evaluation of a quali embryo model for the detection of botulism toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Japanese quail embryo (Coturnix japonica) was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving ...

  11. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  12. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  13. Families and Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to AL are relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL…

  14. Is It Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

  15. Studies on combined effects of organophosphates or carbamates and morsodren in birds. II. Plasma and cholinesterase in quail fed morsodren and orally dosed with parathion or carbofuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Ludke, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The degree of interaction between mercury and cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides was determined by comparing enzyme responses to sublethal dosages of parathion or carbofuran in quail fed 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm morsodren for 18 weeks. A statistically significant interaction was defined as greater brain cholinesterase inhibition in morsodren-fed than in clean-fed birds following pesticide dosage. The tissue residues of mercury that accumulated before significant mercury-parathion interactions occurred were higher than levels that might be expected in natural populations, but significant mercury-carbofuran interactions occurred in birds that had only accumulated 1.0 ppm liver mercury. The results indicate that indiscriminate usage of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides are dangerous, since natural populations of fish-eating birds oftentimes contain this magnitude of mercury.

  16. Data in support of the discovery of alternative splicing variants of quail LEPR and the evolutionary conservation of qLEPRl by nucleotide and amino acid sequences alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Li, Hong; Li, Yanmin; Ren, Junxiao; Tian, Yadong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiao, Yuping; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    Leptin receptor (LEPR) belongs to the class I cytokine receptor superfamily which share common structural features and signal transduction pathways. Although multiple LEPR isoforms, which are derived from one gene, were identified in mammals, they were rarely found in avian except the long LEPR. Four alternative splicing variants of quail LEPR (qLEPR) had been cloned and sequenced for the first time (Wang et al., 2015 [1]). To define patterns of the four splicing variants (qLEPRl, qLEPR-a, qLEPR-b and qLEPR-c) and locate the conserved regions of qLEPRl, this data article provides nucleotide sequence alignment of qLEPR and amino acid sequence alignment of representative vertebrate LEPR. The detailed analysis was shown in [1]. PMID:26759819

  17. Data in support of the discovery of alternative splicing variants of quail LEPR and the evolutionary conservation of qLEPRl by nucleotide and amino acid sequences alignment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dandan; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Li, Hong; Li, Yanmin; Ren, Junxiao; Tian, Yadong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiao, Yuping; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Leptin receptor (LEPR) belongs to the class I cytokine receptor superfamily which share common structural features and signal transduction pathways. Although multiple LEPR isoforms, which are derived from one gene, were identified in mammals, they were rarely found in avian except the long LEPR. Four alternative splicing variants of quail LEPR (qLEPR) had been cloned and sequenced for the first time (Wang et al., 2015 [1]). To define patterns of the four splicing variants (qLEPRl, qLEPR-a, qLEPR-b and qLEPR-c) and locate the conserved regions of qLEPRl, this data article provides nucleotide sequence alignment of qLEPR and amino acid sequence alignment of representative vertebrate LEPR. The detailed analysis was shown in [1]. PMID:26759819

  18. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  19. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

  20. Living Phenomena and Living Information : Centered on Living Structure and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuno, Tomofumi

    The term ‘living’ has manifold meanings. The author interprets it in three reasonable ways : 1) sustaining one's life, 2) surviving under economic surroundings, 3) existing socially. Centered on ‘living structure’ which grasps static aspects of living and ‘living design’ which does dynamic aspects of living he investigates living phenomena and discusses their relationship to living information. The author also catches living phenomena from viewpoints as follows : 1) people, 2) corporation, 3) researcher, 4) administration, and investigates living information from the four viewpoints as above. The examples of classification for living itself as well as for living information are shown.

  1. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  2. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Fast Facts There are two main types of hearing loss. Permanent hearing loss (called sensorineural) usually involves damage ...

  3. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

  4. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  5. Living with Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... live longer and enjoy a good quality of life. Many people who have Marfan syndrome and are ... tears and leaks blood. Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition. The main symptom of aortic dissection ...

  6. Living with Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  7. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Support Living with PH may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. You may worry about your ... and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel ...

  8. Assisted Living Community Profile

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Media News Releases Media Resources AHCA/NCAL Gazette Publications Social Media Resources & Publications Currently selected Assisted ... News & Media News Releases Media Resources AHCA/NCAL Gazette Publications Social Media Resources & Publications Assisted Living Studies ...

  9. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation. PMID:27026555

  10. The Living Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Preface; 1. The unfinished revolution; 2. Life's origins; 3. Extreme life; 4. Shaping evolution; 5. Living in the Solar System; 6. Distant worlds; 7. Are we alone?; Notes; Glossary; Reading list; Media resources; Illustration credits; Index.

  11. Living with VHL

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos Contact Us Shop Community vhl alliance vhl alliance Patients What is VHL? Seeking Care Living with VHL Caregiver Center Stories Professionals Surveillance & Diagnosis Treatment Professional Meetings Research Genetic Research and VHL Progress Towards a ...

  12. Living with Alopecia Areata

    MedlinePlus

    ... you wear a wig Sadness and depression Hopelessness Anger Embarrassment Guilt or self-blame that you somehow ... For siblings and other family members, shame and anger because the disease has also affected their lives ...

  13. Live Your Life Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... about reasonable steps that if used consistently can increase your comfort and boost your ability to build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's leading non-profit ...

  14. Living with Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are available to answer your questions. Call toll-free 1-800-539-7309 Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm ... are people living with or impacted by paralysis. Free services and downloads > Paralysis Resource Guide Our free ...

  15. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS. PMID:25913274

  16. Live biometric authenticity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.; Szu, Clifford; Wang, Shoujue

    2003-04-01

    This research defined the underpinning concepts of a system that was highly secure, yet was efficient and non-invasive enough for everyday use. The live biometric authenticity check augmented invariant fingerprints with variable live features offered superior security by combining physical characteristics of the user"s with a passcode (numerical PIN) or passphrase (a string of words), and might also easily be augmented with other biometric video imaging devices for the utmost security.

  17. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Waleed A; Al-Akraa, Mahmoud M

    2005-07-01

    With the number of patients presently awaiting renal transplantation exceeding the number of cadaveric organs available, there is an increasing reliance on live renal donation. Of the 11,869 renal transplants performed in 2002 in the US, 52.6% were living donors from the United Network for Organ Sharing Registry. Renal allografts from living donors provide: superior immediate long-term function; require less waiting time and are more cost-effective than those from cadaveric donors. However, anticipation of postoperative pain and temporary occupational disability may dissuade many potential donors. Additionally, some recipients hesitate to accept a living donor kidney due to suffering that would be endured by the donor. It is a unique medical situation when a young, completely healthy donor undergoes a major surgical procedure to provide an organ for transplantation. It is mandatory to offer a surgical technique, which is safe and with minimal complications. It is also obvious for any organ transplantation, that the integrity of the organ remain intact, thus, enabling its successful transplantation into the recipient. An acceptably short ischemia time and adequate lengths of ureter and renal vasculature are favored. Many centers are performing laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in an effort to ease convalescence of renal donors. This may encourage the consideration of live donation by recipients and potential donors. PMID:16047050

  18. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified. PMID:26154966

  19. Living-Cell Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Yarmush, Martin L.; King, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment. PMID:19413510

  20. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  1. Living My Family's Story

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Lally, Robin M.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Murekeyisoni, Christine; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on known or suggested genetic risk factors, a growing number of women now live with knowledge of a potential cancer diagnosis that may never occur. Given this, it is important to understand the meaning of living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer (1) form self-identity, (2) apply self-care strategies toward risk, and (3) describe the meaning of care through a high-risk breast program. Methods Interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology guided the qualitative research method. Women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer were recruited from a high-risk breast program. Open-ended interview questions focused on experiences living as women managing high risk for breast cancer. Consistent with hermeneutic methodology, the principal investigator led a team to analyze the interview transcripts. Results Twenty women participated in in-depth interviews. Analysis revealed that women describe their own identity based on their family story and grieve over actual and potential familial loss. This experience influences self-care strategies, including seeking care from hereditary breast cancer risk experts for early detection and prevention, as well as maintaining a connection for early treatment “when” diagnosis occurs. Conclusions Healthy women living with high risk for hereditary breast cancer are living within the context of their family cancer story, which influences how they define themselves and engage in self-care. Implications for Practice Findings present important practical, research, and policy information regarding health promotion, psychosocial assessment, and support for women living with this risk. PMID:22544165

  2. Intestinal transplantation: living related.

    PubMed

    Pollard, S G

    1997-01-01

    The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent risk to the donor and the compromise of using a shorter graft. Although only a handful of such cases have been performed, the success rate has been high and this is a therapeutic modality which should be explored further. PMID:9536535

  3. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  4. Living with Stepparents

    MedlinePlus

    ... doesn't live with you and knows how families work can help figure out how you can all ... also understand how much you still love your mother, even if she died. Families are about love and understanding, not about competing ...

  5. Moab's Living Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a sizable group…

  6. Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Cystic Fibrosis If you or your child has cystic fibrosis (CF), you should learn as much as you ... about CF Care Centers, go to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's Care Center Network Web page. It's standard ...

  7. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  8. Living with Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia Deep Vein Thrombosis Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan Overweight and Obesity Send ... Once you've had PE (with or without deep vein thrombosis (DVT)), you're at higher risk of having ...

  9. Learning and Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Lifelong learning" is the latest educational mantra. Yet little is understood about the ways in which learning and living are interconnected. To find out more about the complexities of learning in the life course, Professor Gert Biesta, of the University of Exeter, is leading a team of researchers from four universities in the first large-scale…

  10. Loneliness and Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Lakin, K. Charlie; Doljanac, Robert; Byun, Soo-Yong; Taub, Sarah; Chiri, Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    Adults with ID/DD live in increasingly small community settings, where the risk of loneliness may be greater. We examined self-reported loneliness among 1,002 individuals with ID/DD from 5 states in relation to community residence size, personal characteristics, social contact, and social climate. One third reported being lonely sometimes and one…

  11. Teachers Transform Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Delia

    2001-01-01

    Teachers transform lives, and the ripple effect goes on for years. Three pertinent questions are asked in this paper: Where does this power come from? What is its source? and What makes teachers so special? Two aspects of these questions are the multiplicity of identities that coexist within each teacher and the passion inside teachers that…

  12. Live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions. PMID:25482523

  13. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  14. Microholography of Living Organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Johndale C.; Baldwin, George C.

    1982-01-01

    By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of living elementary biological structures at precisely defined instants. Discussed are sources/geometrics for x-ray holography, x-radiation interactions, factors affecting resolution, recording the hologram, high-intensity holography,…

  15. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  16. Living with Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips from the Health Care Team Finding Resources Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ... resources & more. Order Free Materials Today Living with Parkinson’s “Parkinson’s is a part of my life, but ...

  17. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  18. Learning from Live Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  19. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  20. New Lives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

  1. Dementia and Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

  2. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  3. Happy orang-utans live longer lives

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Alexander; Adams, Mark J.; King, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman primate ageing resembles its human counterpart. Moreover, ratings of subjective well-being traits in chimpanzees, orang-utans and rhesus macaques are similar to those of humans: they are intercorrelated, heritable, and phenotypically and genetically related to personality. We examined whether, as in humans, orang-utan subjective well-being was related to longer life. The sample included 184 zoo-housed orang-utans followed up for approximately 7 years. Age, sex, species and number of transfers were available for all subjects and 172 subjects were rated on at least one item of a subjective well-being scale. Of the 31 orang-utans that died, 25 died a mean of 3.4 years after being rated. Even in a model that included, and therefore, statistically adjusted for, sex, age, species and transfers, orang-utans rated as being “happier” lived longer. The risk differential between orang-utans that were one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below baseline in subjective well-being was comparable with approximately 11 years in age. This finding suggests that impressions of the subjective well-being of captive great apes are valid indicators of their welfare and longevity. PMID:21715398

  4. Happy orang-utans live longer lives.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Adams, Mark J; King, James E

    2011-12-23

    Nonhuman primate ageing resembles its human counterpart. Moreover, ratings of subjective well-being traits in chimpanzees, orang-utans and rhesus macaques are similar to those of humans: they are intercorrelated, heritable, and phenotypically and genetically related to personality. We examined whether, as in humans, orang-utan subjective well-being was related to longer life. The sample included 184 zoo-housed orang-utans followed up for approximately 7 years. Age, sex, species and number of transfers were available for all subjects and 172 subjects were rated on at least one item of a subjective well-being scale. Of the 31 orang-utans that died, 25 died a mean of 3.4 years after being rated. Even in a model that included, and therefore, statistically adjusted for, sex, age, species and transfers, orang-utans rated as being "happier" lived longer. The risk differential between orang-utans that were one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below baseline in subjective well-being was comparable with approximately 11 years in age. This finding suggests that impressions of the subjective well-being of captive great apes are valid indicators of their welfare and longevity. PMID:21715398

  5. Maternal corticosterone further reduces the reproductive function of male offspring hatched from eggs laid by quail hens selected for exaggerated adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Cole, C A; Castille, S A

    2007-03-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can depress the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Male quail cloacal gland (CG) size and foam production shows androgen dependency, and males selected for exaggerated [high stress (HS)] rather than reduced [low stress (LS)] plasma corticosterone (B) stress response exhibit reduced CG and testes development. High stress hens also deposit more B into egg yolks than LS ones, and quail hens given B produce chicks that have a reduced growth rate and adults with heightened HPA responsiveness. Herein, we gave LS and HS hens no B [empty implants, control (CON)] or B-filled implants and assessed the reproductive performances of these hens and their male offspring. Mortality was similarly elevated in LS and HS B-treated hens, but only HS B-implanted hens showed reduced egg production. In male offspring, CG volume (CVOL), intensity of CG foam production (CFP), and the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam were measured from 4 to 11 wk of age. At 6 wk, BW, and at 15 wk, BW, testes weight (TWT), and TWT relative to BW were also determined. Hen treatments did not affect male chick CVOL at 4 wk, but CVOL differed thereafter as follows: LS CON > LS B = HS CON = HS B at 5 and 6 wk and LS CON > LS B > HS CON = HS B from 7 to 11 wk. By 8 wk, and thereafter, CFP differed as follows: LS CON > LS B > HS CON > HS B. Group differences in the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam generally supported CFP findings from 4 to 8 wk of age. Body weight did not differ by treatment at 6 wk of age. By 15 wk, TWT were similarly depressed in both HS groups. However, similarly higher 15-wk BW in the LS-CON and HS-B groups contributed to TWT relative to BW differences as follows: LS-B > LS-CON > HS-B; LS-CON = HS-CON; LS-B > HS-CON; and, HS-CON = HS-B. Both selection for exaggerated HPA responsiveness and maternal B treatment negatively affected the reproductive function of HS male offspring. PMID:17297171

  6. Inferring relationships between Phosphorus utilization, feed per gain, and bodyweight gain in an F2 cross of Japanese quail using recursive models.

    PubMed

    Beck, P; Piepho, H-P; Rodehutscord, M; Bennewitz, J

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus utilization (PU) has received considerable attention in poultry nutrition. However, reliable estimates of genetic parameters for PU and related traits have largely not been reported until now; however, these are needed to assess whether selection for an improved PU would result in selection response. A large Japanese quail F2 cross was generated and 888 F2 individuals were phenotyped for PU, bodyweight gain (BWG), and feed per gain (F:G). Because it can reasonably be assumed that the interrelationships between these traits are complex, structural equation models were used. The structural coefficient λij describes the rate of change of trait I with respect to trait j for a model with a recursive effect of trait j on trait i Three recursive structural coefficients (λF:G,PU,λBWG,PU,λBWG,F:G) were selected a priori based on biological knowledge. The model was fitted using ASReml software. Standard errors of estimated variance components and genetic parameters were approximated using the delta method. The heritability of PU, F:G, and BWG were 0.136, 0.118, and 0.092. The structural coefficient[Formula: see text]indicates that an increase in PU leads to reduced and thus improved F:G. The estimate[Formula: see text]indicates that improved F:G leads to an increase in BWG. The overall effect of PU on BWG was[Formula: see text]i.e. an increase in PU of 1% leads to an increase of BWG of 0.374 g in the data collection period, which spanned five days. The phenotypic and genetic correlations were negative between PU and F:G as well as between BWG and F:G and were positive between PU and BWG. These correlations are driven by direct genetic effects (pleiotropic genes or genes being in linkage disequilibrium) as well as by indirect genetic effects (genes affecting trait j affected indirectly trait i). The application of structural equation models contributed to our understanding of the complex biological relationship between PU, F:G, and BWG in quails. PU shows a

  7. Evaluation of the infection and transmission of wild type and recombinant strains of Newcastle disease virus in Japanese Quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a range of clinical disease ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe disease with high mortality. Vaccination for NDV is practiced almost worldwide in commercial chickens. Attenuated live vaccines are most commonly used, with recombinant vaccines becoming ...

  8. Effects of stripped oil shale retort water on fishes, birds, and mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Nystrom, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus Water), coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix Teminck and Schlegal), fathead minnows (Pimphales promelas Rafinesque), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) were subjected to various exposures of stripped oil shale retort water (SRW). Chronic low-level exposures of all experimental animals to SRW revealed no adverse histological effects attributable to SRW. Also, production and development of second generation fathead minnows and coturnix quail exposed to SRW was normal. Subacute exposure of rainbow trout to SRW produced ultrastructural changes detected by transmission, scanning, and freeze fracture electron microscopy) in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues. The gills showed a swelling of secondary lamellae, disorganization of normal tissue architecture, and sloughing of respiratory cells. The liver contained lamellar bodies not seen in the controls. Relatively large, electron dense, membrane-bounded deposits were present in proximal tubule cells of the kidney. Sodium arsenite (a significant component of SRW) was shown to cause swelling of granular endosplasmic reticulum in quail liver tissue with an acute exposure. This effect could be related to the fact that arsenic inhibits ATP production, which would decrease the ability of the sodium pumps to maintain a normal osmotic balance.

  9. Living history biography

    SciTech Connect

    Puck, T.T.

    1994-11-15

    A living history biography is presented of Theodore T. Puck. This history is intimately involved with the progress towards mapping of the human genome through research at the forefront of molecular cytogenetics. A review of historical research aims such as human genetics studies based on somatic cells, isolation of mutants as genetic markers, complementation analysis, gene mapping and the measurement of mutation is presented. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Live-donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Juan P; Davis, Eric; Edye, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Six decades after its first implementation, kidney transplantation remains the optimal therapy for end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Despite the incontrovertible mortality reduction and cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation, the greatest remaining barrier to treatment of end-stage renal disease is organ availability. Although the waiting list of patients who stand to benefit from kidney transplantation grows at a rate proportional to the overall population and proliferation of diabetes and hypertension, the pool of deceased-donor organs available for transplantation experiences minimal to no growth. Because the kidney is uniquely suited as a paired organ, the transplant community's answer to this shortage is living donation of a healthy volunteer's kidney to a recipient with end-stage renal disease. This review details the history and evolution of living-donor kidney transplantation in the United States as well as advances the next decade promises. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has overcome many of the obstacles to living donation in terms of donor morbidity and volunteerism. Known donor risks in terms of surgical and medical morbidity are reviewed, as well as the ongoing efforts to delineate and mitigate donor risk in the context of accumulating recipient morbidity while on the waiting list. PMID:22678857

  11. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus cereus FORC_005, a food-borne pathogen from the soy sauce braised fish-cake with quail-egg.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Hye Rim; Chung, Han Young; Lim, Jong Gyu; Kim, Suyeon; Kim, Se Keun; Ku, Hye-Jin; Kim, Heebal; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Sang Ho; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Due to abundant contamination in various foods, the pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus has been widely studied in physiological and molecular level. B. cereus FORC_005 was isolated from a Korean side dish, soy sauce braised fish-cake with quail-egg in South Korea. While 21 complete genome sequences of B. cereus has been announced to date, this strain was completely sequenced, analyzed, and compared with other complete genome sequences of B. cereus to elucidate the distinct pathogenic features of a strain isolated in South Korea. The genomic DNA containing a circular chromosome consists of 5,349,617-bp with a GC content of 35.29 %. It was predicted to have 5170 open reading frames, 106 tRNA genes, and 42 rRNA genes. Among the predicted ORFs, 3892 ORFs were annotated to encode functional proteins (75.28 %) and 1278 ORFs were predicted to encode hypothetical proteins (748 conserved and 530 non-conserved hypothetical proteins). This genome information of B. cereus FORC_005 would extend our understanding of its pathogenesis in genomic level for efficient control of its contamination in foods and further food poisoning. PMID:26566422

  12. Sexual behavior in Japanese quail as a test end point for endocrine disruption: effects of in ovo exposure to ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, K; Berg, C; Brandt, I; Brunström, B

    1999-01-01

    Chemicals having a capacity to disturb the endocrine system have attracted considerable interest during recent years. There is a shortage of well-characterized in vivo tests with which to study such disturbances in different classes of vertebrates. In the present study, test end points related to reproduction in the Japanese quail were used to examine the estrogenic activity of chemicals. The synthetic estrogens ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), used as model compounds, were injected into the yolk of embryonated eggs. After the birds had been raised to sexual maturity, we examined sexual behavior, plasma testosterone concentrations, and testis morphology in adult males. The lowest doses resulting in a significantly depressed male sexual behavior were 6 ng/g egg for EE(2) and 19 ng/g egg for DES. Testis weight asymmetry was increased at 6 ng EE(2)/g egg, but DES had no effect at any treatment level. The area of the androgen-dependent cloacal gland was significantly reduced at 57 ng DES/g egg. No effects on plasma testosterone concentration or body weight following exposure to EE(2) or DES were observed at any dose level. Depressed male sexual behavior was the most sensitive of the end points studied, and we suggest that this ecologically relevant end point be included in avian in vivo testing for neuroendocrine disruptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10544152

  13. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  14. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding The Affordable Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking ... Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding The Affordable Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking ...

  15. Consumer Coalition on Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to content Home Dementia Action Alliance Consumers Caregiving Info Consumer Empowerment Informed Consumer Contact Us Person-Centered Living Person-Centered Living Overview PCL Resources Home- and Community-Based Services Overview ...

  16. Living with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... living and employment while others may deal with dating issues and reproductive concerns. Throughout their lives, those ... Overview Outreach Toolkit Government Action Team TS Alliance Online Support Community Facebook Twitter YouTube How to Make ...

  17. Living in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  18. "Living versus Dead":

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Semple antirabies vaccine was developed by David Semple in India in 1911. Semple introduced a peculiarly British approach within the Pasteurian tradition by using carbolized dead virus. This article studies this unique phase of vaccine research between 1910 and 1935 to show that in the debates and laboratory experiments around the potency and safety of vaccines, categories like "living" and "dead" were often used as ideological and moral denominations. These abstract and ideological debates were crucial in defining the final configuration of the Semple vaccine, the most popular antirabies vaccine used globally, and also in shaping international vaccination policies. PMID:21037397

  19. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  20. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.