Science.gov

Sample records for living things by characteristics

  1. Primary students' conceptions of living things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legaspi, Britt Anne

    Elementary school teachers are pressed for time throughout the instructional day to teach all curricular areas as expected by states and districts because of the current focus on reading and mathematics. Thus, foundational science concepts may be overlooked. For example, students' understandings of living and nonliving things may be overlooked by teachers, yet is useful in understanding the nature of living things. In this qualitative study, K-3 grade students were asked to sort objects as either living or nonliving and to give rationales for their choices. It was found that K-3 students readily used physical characteristics, such as having body parts, and physical abilities, such as being able to move, as criteria for living things. Students in grades 1 through 3 were able to articulate their reasons with more adult-like logic based on Jean Piaget' s research on developmental stages.

  2. The Concept of Living and Non-Living Things in the World of Primary School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topsakal, Unsal Umdu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal how the concepts of living and non-living things are in the world of the primary school (4th and 5th classes) students, what they remember when they are told about living and non-living things and what the characteristics of living and non-living things are according to them. The research is a descriptive…

  3. Demonstrating the Influence of UV Rays on Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morimoto, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    Describes an experiment that introduces students to the different types of UV rays and their effects on living things by using appropriate teaching materials and equipment. Demonstrates the effects of exposure to UV-B (fluorescent) and UV-C (germicidal) lamps by using bananas, duckweed, and the fruit fly. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they…

  5. How Do Young Children Deal with Hybrids of Living and Non-Living Things: The Case of Humanoid Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Somanader, Mark; Levin, Daniel T.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, we tested children's intuitions about entities that bridge the contrast between living and non-living things. Three- and four-year-olds were asked to attribute a range of properties associated with living things and machines to novel category-defying complex artifacts (humanoid robots), a familiar living thing (a girl), and a…

  6. Mathematics and Living Things. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Norman J.; And Others

    This document is designed for grade eight to enrich and supplement the usual courses of instruction. Mathematics and Living Things (MALT) utilizes exercises in biological science to derive data through which mathematical concepts and principles may be introduced and expanded. Chapters included are: (1) Leaves and Natural Variation: Measurement of…

  7. How to Care for Living Things in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Grace K.

    In this National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) publication, the advantages of having living things in the classroom are discussed. Also given is a brief description of the facilities and environments required for various common mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and plants. (CP)

  8. Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure about "Living Thing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to determine biology student teachers' cognitive structure on the concept of "living thing" through revealing their conceptual framework. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. The data were collected from 44 biology student teachers. A free word association test was used as a data collection…

  9. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception of Living Things in Adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they demonstrated significantly longer reaction times for classifying plants compared to animals and for classifying dynamic objects compared to static inanimate objects. Findings indicated that, despite prior learning in biology, the intuitive conception of living things persists up to age 15-16 years, affecting related reasoning processes. Consideration of these findings may help educators in their decisions about the nature of examples they use in their classrooms.

  10. Both. In Darwin's day, and before, many natu-ralists theorized that living things were some-

    E-print Network

    the introduction of a the- ory of evolution by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace, biologists and geologists, the one employed by Charles Darwin and every bit as applicable today, is descent with modification. (textBoth. In Darwin's day, and before, many natu- ralists theorized that living things were some- how

  11. When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.

    2007-07-01

    With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on students’ understanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the students’ understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

  12. Things of Interest Recommendation by Leveraging Heterogeneous Relations in the Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    Sheng, Michael

    A Things of Interest Recommendation by Leveraging Heterogeneous Relations in the Internet of Things Internet of Things (IoT) bridges the gap between the physical and the digital worlds, which enables Terms: Design, Algorithms, Performance Additional Key Words and Phrases: Internet of Things, data mining

  13. Things of Interest Recommendation by Leveraging Heterogeneous Relations in the Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    Sheng, Michael

    A Things of Interest Recommendation by Leveraging Heterogeneous Relations in the Internet of Things The emerging Internet of Things (IoT) bridges the gap between the physical and the digital worlds, which Terms: Design, Algorithms, Performance Additional Key Words and Phrases: Internet of Things, data mining

  14. Why are living things sensitive to weak magnetic fields?

    PubMed

    Liboff, Abraham R

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence for robust interactions of weak ELF magnetic fields with biological systems. Quite apart from the difficulties attending a proper physical basis for such interactions, an equally daunting question asks why these should even occur, given the apparent lack of comparable signals in the long-term electromagnetic environment. We suggest that the biological basis is likely to be found in the weak (?50?nT) daily swing in the geomagnetic field that results from the solar tidal force on free electrons in the upper atmosphere, a remarkably constant effect exactly in phase with the solar diurnal change. Because this magnetic change is locked into the solar-derived everyday diurnal response in living things, one can argue that it acts as a surrogate for the solar variation, and therefore plays a role in chronobiological processes. This implies that weak magnetic field interactions may have a chronodisruptive basis, homologous to the more familiar effects on the biological clock arising from sleep deprivation, phase-shift employment and light at night. It is conceivable that the widespread sensitivity of biological systems to weak ELF magnetic fields is vestigially derived from this diurnal geomagnetic effect. PMID:23915203

  15. Architecture and Measured Characteristics of a Cloud Based Internet of Things API

    E-print Network

    Architecture and Measured Characteristics of a Cloud Based Internet of Things API Geoffrey C. Fox Indiana University, Bloomington IN 47408 USA rdhartma@indiana.edu ABSTRACT The Internet of Things (Io systems [2,3]. This is the vision of the Internet of Things. We present a cloud-compatible open source

  16. Young Children Learning about Living Things: A Case Study of Conceptual Change from Ontological and Social Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady

    2004-01-01

    Although research from a developmental/psychological perspective indicates that many children do not have a scientific understanding of living things, even by the age of 10 years, little research has been conducted about how students learn this science topic in the classroom. This exploratory research used a case-study design and qualitative…

  17. Young children learning about living things: A case study of conceptual change from ontological and social perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady

    2004-05-01

    Although research from a developmental/psychological perspective indicates that many children do not have a scientific understanding of living things, even by the age of 10 years, little research has been conducted about how students learn this science topic in the classroom. This exploratory research used a case-study design and qualitative data-collection methods to investigate the process of conceptual change from ontological and social perspectives when Year 1 (5- and 6-year-old) students were learning about living things. Most students were found to think about living things with either stable, nonscientific or stable, scientific framework theories. Transitional phases of understanding also were identified. Patterns of conceptual change observed over the 5-week period of instruction included theory change and belief revision as well as reversals in beliefs. The predominant pattern of learning, however, was the assimilation of facts and information into the students' preferred framework theory. The social milieu of the classroom context exposed students' scientific and nonscientific beliefs that influenced other individuals in a piecemeal fashion. Children with nonscientific theories of living things were identified as being least able to benefit from socially constructed, scientific knowledge; hence, recommendations are made for teaching that focuses on conceptual change strategies rather than knowledge enrichment.

  18. Science K-12, Living Things Are Products of Their Heredity and Their Environment. Utica City School District Articulated Curriculum: Project SEARCH, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utica City School District, NY.

    Two-column objectives are listed for an integrated science curriculum (grades K-12), often subheaded according to science area (biology, health, general science, physical science) and grade level. Concepts regarding characteristics of living things are stressed in objectives for the primary grades (K-5), and reproductive biology is covered…

  19. A cloud-based Internet of Things platform for ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application. PMID:25093343

  20. A Cloud-Based Internet of Things Platform for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application. PMID:25093343

  1. A predominance of category deficits for living things in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia

    E-print Network

    Crawford, John R.

    A predominance of category deficits for living things in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia with dementia of the Alzheimer's type, questions remain as to whether the deficit extends to other forms of dementia and whether it differentially affects different domains of knowledge. We examined category naming

  2. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  3. "Trees and Things That Live in Trees": Three Children with Special Needs Experience the Project Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Susan; Elgas, Peg; Konerman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on research conducted during a project investigation undertaken with preschool children, ages 3-5. The report focuses on three children with special needs and the positive outcomes for each child as they engaged in the project Trees and Things That Live in Trees. Two of the children were diagnosed with developmental delays, and…

  4. Cells are the small units of living things, and cells have particular structures that underlie their Key concepts

    E-print Network

    Grünbaum, Daniel

    Cells Lab Goal Cells are the small units of living things, and cells have particular structures that underlie their functions. Key concepts 1. All living things are composed of cells 2. Cells are made up of several components that perform different functions 3. Cells can specialize to perform specific tasks

  5. LED and Semiconductor Photo-effects on Living Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyasu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takemitsu; Fujiyasu, Kentarou; Ujihara, Shirou; Watanabe, Naoharu; Sunayama, Shunji; Ikoma, Shuuji

    We have studied LED irradiation effects on plants and animals in the visible to UV region of light from GaN LEDs. The results are as follows. Blue light considers to be effective for pearl cultivation or for attraction of small fishes living in near the surface of sea such as Pompano or Sardine, white light radiation is effective for cultivation of botanical plankton for shells. Other experiments of UV light irradiation attracting effect on baby sea turtle and the germination UV effect of mushroom, green light weight enhance effect on baby pigs, light vernalization effect of vegitable and Ge far infrared therapic effect on human body are also given.

  6. Invitations to Interdependence: Caught in the Web. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about ecosystems which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures,…

  7. Invitations to Evolving. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about evolution which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures,…

  8. Invitations to Heredity: Generation to Generation. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about heredity and genetics which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  9. Invitations to Cells: Life's Building Blocks. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about cells which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures, extension…

  10. Invitations to the Matter-Energy Cycle. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about matter and energy which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  11. Early Understanding of the Concept of Living Things: An Examination of Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarroel, José Domingo; Infante, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the drawings of a sample of 118 children aged between 4 and 7 years old on the topic of plant life and relates the content to their knowledge of the concept of living things. The research project uses two types of tests: a task to analyse the level of understanding of the concept of living things and a free drawing activity.…

  12. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases. PMID:26132753

  13. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases. PMID:26132753

  14. Living with a grandparent and parent in early childhood: associations with school readiness and differences by demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V

    2014-12-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of 3-generation family households (grandparent, parent, child), relatively little research has studied these households during early childhood. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N = ?6,550), this study investigated the associations between 3-generation coresidence in early childhood and school readiness, and how the associations differed by maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, relationship status, and poverty. For the full sample of children, no associations between 3-generation coresidence and school readiness were found. Analyses by demographic characteristics found that race/ethnicity and nativity moderated the associations, whereas maternal age, relationship status, and poverty did not. The study found that 3-generation coresidence was associated with lower levels of expressive language for White, Asian, and Black children but more expressive language for Hispanic children. Coresidence was also associated with more externalizing behavior for White and American Indian/Alaskan Native children but less externalizing behavior for Hispanic and Black children. Analyses by maternal nativity found that for children of immigrant mothers, 3-generation coresidence was associated with more expressive language and less externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Interactions between race/ethnicity and nativity found that the positive associations for Hispanic children were concentrated among children of immigrant parents. No differences were found between grandmother-only and grandmother/grandfather 3-generation family households. Overall, the findings suggest there may be heterogeneity by race/ethnicity and nativity in the associations between 3-generation coresidence and school readiness. PMID:25365124

  15. Children's Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    As part of the 2002 Current Population Survey, this report presents information on several characteristics of children, covering different aspects of their lives. It focuses on demographic characteristics of the child population of the United States and family living arrangements, including single parent families, cohabiting parent families, and…

  16. 'Things you can't learn from books': teaching recovery from a lived experience perspective.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Welch, Tony; Moxham, Lorna Jane

    2013-06-01

    Mental health policy in Australia is committed to the development of recovery-focused services and facilitating consumer participation in all aspects of mental health service delivery. Negative attitudes of mental health professionals have been identified as a major barrier to achieving these goals. Although the education of health professionals has been identified as a major strategy, there is limited evidence to suggest that consumers are actively involved in this education process. The aim of this qualitative study was to evaluate students' views and opinions at having been taught 'recovery in mental health nursing' by a person with a lived experience of significant mental health challenges. In-depth interviews were held with 12 students. Two main themes were identified: (i) 'looking through fresh eyes' - what it means to have a mental illness; and (ii) 'it's all about the teaching'. The experience was perceived positively; students referred to the impact made on their attitudes and self-awareness, and their ability to appreciate the impact of mental illness on the individual person. Being taught by a person with lived experience was considered integral to the process. This innovative approach could enhance consumer participation and recovery-focused care. PMID:23020070

  17. Can We Make Definite Categorization of Student Attitudes? A Rough Set Approach to Investigate Students' Implicit Attitudinal Typologies toward Living Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Yorek, Nurettin; Sahin, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the possibility of analyzing educational data using the theory of rough sets which is mostly employed in the fields of data analysis and data mining. Data were collected using an open-ended conceptual understanding test of the living things administered to first-year high school students. The responses of randomly selected…

  18. Biology is the study of living things. Biologists study life from molecules to ecosystems. At Stetson, students may obtain either a

    E-print Network

    Miles, Will

    Biology Biology is the study of living things. Biologists study life from molecules to ecosystems. At Stetson, students may obtain either a bachelor of science degree or a bachelor of arts degree in biology. In both majors, we stress a hands-on approach to learning. All biology courses include lab sessions

  19. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Problem 5 Answers The presence of ozone in the stratosphere is essential to the health of most living things because

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    this is in compliance. (b) Calculate the mixing ratio of O3 at the peak of the "ozone layer" (altitude = 25 km). UseATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 ­ Problem 5 Answers The presence of ozone in the stratosphere is essential to the health of most living things because ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, which would

  20. Interdependence of Living Things: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development--Grades 7 and 8. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    An episodic and activity oriented approach is employed in this unit that illustrates the theme of interdependence of living things. Concepts related to dependence, competition, community, and ecosystems are developed through a case study of a raccoon problem. Various means of solving the raccoon problem are explored within a societal context. Five…

  1. LITTLE THINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Megan; Zhang Hongxin; Ficut-Vicas, Dana; Brinks, Elias; Heesen, Volker; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Cigan, Phil; Westpfahl, David J.; Young, Lisa M.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Oh, Se-Heon; Rupen, Michael P.; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian

    2012-11-01

    We present LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey), which is aimed at determining what drives star formation in dwarf galaxies. This is a multi-wavelength survey of 37 dwarf irregular and 4 blue compact dwarf galaxies that is centered around H I-line data obtained with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The H I-line data are characterized by high sensitivity ({<=}1.1 mJy beam{sup -1} per channel), high spectral resolution ({<=}2.6 km s{sup -1}), and high angular resolution ({approx}6''). The LITTLE THINGS sample contains dwarf galaxies that are relatively nearby ({<=}10.3 Mpc; 6'' is {<=}300 pc), that were known to contain atomic hydrogen, the fuel for star formation, and that cover a large range in dwarf galactic properties. We describe our VLA data acquisition, calibration, and mapping procedures, as well as H I map characteristics, and show channel maps, moment maps, velocity-flux profiles, and surface gas density profiles. In addition to the H I data we have GALEX UV and ground-based UBV and H{alpha} images for most of the galaxies, and JHK images for some. Spitzer mid-IR images are available for many of the galaxies as well. These data sets are available online.

  2. Live and carcass leg characteristics in terminally-sired lambs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live and carcass leg characteristics of F1 wether lambs were investigated to determine whether there were terminal-sire breed differences. Over a 3-yr period, Columbia, MARCIII, Suffolk, and Texel rams were mated with mature Rambouillet ewes to produce the lambs (n=521). Lambs were finished in a fee...

  3. Confidence, tolerance, and allowance in biological engineering: the nuts and bolts of living things.

    PubMed

    Porcar, Manuel; Danchin, Antoine; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis of systems and synthetic biology on quantitative understanding of biological objects and their eventual re-design has raised the question of whether description and construction standards that are commonplace in electric and mechanical engineering are applicable to live systems. The tuning of genetic devices to deliver a given activity is generally context-dependent, thereby undermining the re-usability of parts, and predictability of function, necessary for manufacturing new biological objects. Tolerance (acceptable limits within the unavoidable divergence of a nominal value) and allowance (deviation introduced on purpose for the sake of flexibility and hence modularity, i.e. fitting together with a variety of other components) are key aspects of standardization that need to be brought to biological design. These should endow functional building blocks with a pre-specified level of confidence for bespoke biosystems engineering. However, in the absence of more fundamental knowledge, fine-tuning necessarily relies on evolutionary/combinatorial gravitation toward a fixed objective. Also watch the Video Abstract. PMID:25345679

  4. Why the Wild Things Are: Animals in the Lives of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melson, Gail F.

    This book examines children's many connections to animals and their developmental significance, exploring the growth of the human animal connection, and showing how children's innate interest in animals is shaped by their families and their social worlds, and may in turn shape the kind of people they will become. Chapter 1 documents how theory and…

  5. "The second thing to hell is living under that bridge": narratives of women living with victimization, serious mental illness, and in homelessness.

    PubMed

    Bonugli, Rebecca; Lesser, Janna; Escandon, Socorro

    2013-11-01

    The increasing rates of violence committed against homeless women living with serious mental illness (SMI) have been well documented. These increasing rates of violence need attention as they are a serious public health concern. The purpose of this qualitative study is to increase our understanding of victimization among this population as perceived by those who have lived the experience. The study sample consists of 15 homeless adult women who self-reported having been diagnosed with a SMI. The findings highlight the reality that, provided with the right type of resources, positive growth can occur among these women despite lifelong events of trauma, victimization, and loss. PMID:24131415

  6. Developing the excellence habit: 25 rules to live by.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Most medical practice employees agree pretty readily that they want to achieve a high level of excellence both in their work and in their lives. But defining and achieving excellence can be a challenge. This article explores specifically what it means to be excellent both inside and outside the medical practice. It suggests that the small things we do and the company we keep definitely matter and that excellence can become habitual if it is repeated again and again. Specifically, this article provides 25 clearly defined rules medical practice employees can learn and live by to develop and increase their personal excellence. It describes three hallmarks common to all excellent medical practice employees and five benefits of excellence. Finally, this article provides 10 daily affirmations the medical practice employee can use to develop and cement his or her own habit of excellence. PMID:21595386

  7. Non-characteristic Half-lives in Radioactive Decay

    E-print Network

    Alvaro Corral; Francesc Font; Juan Camacho

    2011-05-17

    Half-lives of radionuclides span more than 50 orders of magnitude. We characterize the probability distribution of this broad-range data set at the same time that explore a method for fitting power-laws and testing goodness-of-fit. It is found that the procedure proposed recently by Clauset et al. [SIAM Rev. 51, 661 (2009)] does not perform well as it rejects the power-law hypothesis even for power-law synthetic data. In contrast, we establish the existence of a power-law exponent with a value around 1.1 for the half-life density, which can be explained by the sharp relationship between decay rate and released energy, for different disintegration types. For the case of alpha emission, this relationship constitutes an original mechanism of power-law generation.

  8. A small simple thing. Interview by Barbara Sibbald.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, L

    1998-11-01

    Lori Tulloch caters to the migrating men of the morning who rove from one dumpster to the next searching for bottles, food, whatever. Her Whitehorse, Yukon clinic is deliberately on their route, in a cramped room of an aging downtown hotel, and they stop by for a little snack, warm socks, needle exchange, advice or maybe just a kind word. Other clients on social assistance wander down the hall of the Chilkoot Trail Inn to her clinic, or they come in off the street. Word is out and Tulloch is busy. PMID:10025283

  9. Science K-12, Living Things in Continuous Change. Utica City School District Articulated Curriculum: Project SEARCH, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utica City School District, NY.

    Two-column objectives are listed for an integrated science curriculum (grades K-12), often subheaded according to science area (biology, general science, physical science, earth science) and grade level. In grades K-6, objectives for topics of science study include conditions for plants and animals to live, adaptation, conservation,…

  10. The More Things Change: Undergraduate Student Living Standards after 40 Years of the Canada Student Loans Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervenan, Amy; Usher, Alex

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at changes to the student body and student living standards since the introduction of the Canada Student Loans Program in 1964. Overall, it is clear that since the Canada Student Loans Program was launched 40 years ago, there has been a significant widening of educational opportunity. (Contains 5 footnotes, 5 figures and 8 tables.…

  11. Using the Real Thing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gwendy

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program to bring farm animals into the classroom. Topics discussed include using the senses, health and safety for both children and animals, and rewards of using animals in special situations. Talks given include "Similarities and Differences of Living Things"; "From a Sheep to a Ball of Wool"; and "Food from the Farm." (PVD)

  12. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  13. Nature, Education and Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In this essay it is argued that the educational philosophy of John Dewey gains in depth and importance by being related to his philosophy of nature, his metaphysics. The result is that any experiental process is situated inside an event, an existence, a thing, and I try to interpret this "thing" as schools or major cultural events such…

  14. Crack cocaine users living on the streets - gender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vernaglia, Taís Veronica Cardoso; Vieira, Regina Amélia de Magalhães Senna; Cruz, Marcelo Santos

    2015-06-01

    The increase in the use of crack cocaine constitutes a challenge to public health in Brazil. The objectives of this article are to identify how gender relations are constituted in the daily lives of crack users, and to analyze the dynamics that permeate the construction of these relationships involving exchange and power. This is a qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study of phenomenological orientation. The data was collected from crack users living on the streets in the Manguinhos community in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Eight focus groups (n = 31) were conducted and there were two individual interviews between June and August 2011. In the groups, the reports of the young men and women differed in terms of the establishment of bonds of affection; in the role attributed to crack as an operator in conflict mediation; in the use of the body as exchange/prostitution; and in the generation and care of offspring. Some shifts were observed with respect to traditional and hierarchical arrangements of gender. The study of the relationships established in this research reveals that it is not possible to point to simply perpetrators or victims. What emerges in the analysis is a plural and fluid universe, which is in permanent construction, with shifts that sometimes favor women and sometimes favor men. PMID:26060963

  15. Las Vegas Sun Scott Dickensheets: Things kids say today --and how

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Las Vegas Sun Scott Dickensheets: Things kids say today -- and how By Scott Dickensheets (contact we can't pass along the darndest things kids say these days. Far as I could tell, none mentioned my roommate streamed live video of his intimate encounter with another man. As always when kids are involved

  16. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry productivity and profitability. PMID:8890373

  17. Texts of Our Institutional Lives: Translucency, Coursepacks, and the Post-Historical University--An Investigation into Pedagogical Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflugfelder, Ehren Helmut

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary university's reliance on coursepacks, whether they take print or digital form, is illuminated by Bruno Latour's theories and by consideration of a nineteenth-century copyright case involving noted textbook author William McGuffey. In particular, these contexts remind individuals that coursepacks are situated within shifting…

  18. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  19. Demographic Characteristics of Pre-Mariel Cubans Living in the United States: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.; Rivero, Manuel

    This paper describes and analyzes the demographic characteristics of the Pre-Mariel Cuban American population living in the United States as presented in the 1980 U.S. Census of the Population. Information is not provided for the Mariel entrants, who began arriving from Cuba on April 21, 1980, because the data were derived from a one-in-a-thousand…

  20. 25 Things You Should Never Include on a Resume By HR World Editors on December 18, 2007

    E-print Network

    Hurder, Steven

    . Political Identity: Again, asking your future employer to acknowledge your political leanings is just too25 Things You Should Never Include on a Resume By HR World Editors on December 18, 2007 Applying kinds of people will take you far in the business world. 3. Irrelevant Job Experience: Job experience

  1. Internet of "printed" Things: low-cost fabrication of autonomous sensing nodes by inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Yoshihiro

    2014-11-01

    "What if electronics devices are printed using an inkjet printer even at home?" "What if those devices no longer need a battery?" I will introduce two enabling technologies for the Internet of Things concept. 1. Instant Inkjet Circuits: A low cost, fast and accessible technology to support the rapid prototyping of electronic devices. We demonstrated that "sintering-free" silver nano particle ink with a commodity inkjet printer can be used to fabricate printed circuit board and high-frequency applications such as antennas and sensors. The technology is now commercialized by AgIC, Inc. 2. Wireless Power: Although large amounts of data can be exchanged over a wireless communication link, mobile devices are still tethered by power cables. We are trying to solve this problem by two different approaches: energy harvesting. A simple circuitry comprised of diodes and capacitor can convert ambient radio signals into DC current. Our research revealed the signals from TV tower located 6.5km apart could be used to feed 100 microwatts to power microcontrollers.

  2. Nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lifang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongshen; Pei, Yihui

    2007-11-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a new kind of real-time, high-speed and single-molecule technique. It is used to detect the kinetic characteristics of fluorescent dye such as diffusion coefficient in the aqueous solution. Combined with confocal microscope optics, it has been now widely applied in cell biological research. Through a time correlation analysis of spontaneous intensity fluctuations, this technique with EGFP as a probe is capable of determining viscosity of fluids according to Stokes-Einstein equation. Nucleoplasmic viscosity is an important physical parameter to quantify the rheological characteristics of the nucleoplasm. Investigation on nucleoplasmic viscosity plays an important role in further understanding intranuclear environment. In this paper, FCS is introduced to noninvasively investigate nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells. The results show that nucleoplasmic viscosity of lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells is 2.55+/-0.61 cP and nucleoplasmic viscosity is larger than cytoplasmic viscosity at 37 °C (pH 7.4). In addition, significant changes in nucleoplasmic viscosity are detected by FCS when cells are exposed to hyper or hypotonic medium. Our study suggests that FCS can be used to detect the kinetic characteristics of biomolecules in living cells and thus helps to investigate the dynamic changes of the microenvironment in the cell.

  3. Things Are Happening Mark Bachman, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Heydari, Payam

    : The Internet of Things Most data generated by/for things Times are changing... #12;Why of Things (IoT) #12;The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to be up to a $17 for the next five years. The Internet of Things (IoT) Large opportuniGes for hardware

  4. A review of "Women Writing of Divinest Things: Rhetoric and the Poetry of Pembroke, Wroth and Lanyer." by Lyn Bennett 

    E-print Network

    Teague, Frances

    2006-01-01

    -CENTURY NEWS Lyn Bennett. Women Writing of Divinest Things: Rhetoric and the Poetry of Pembroke, Wroth and Lanyer. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2004. xi + 331 pp. $60.00. Review by FRANCES TEAGUE, UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. Lyn Bennett studies... on certain literary questions: Do Pembroke?s translations of the penitential psalms have a substantial political subtext? Where can one find the balance between the public and private voice in Wroth?s corona of sonnets? Or how do class issues affect...

  5. The internet of things for personalized health.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Advances in information and communications technologies (ICT) enable new personalized health care concepts which are often characterized by four "P" terms, i.e. personalized, predictive, preventive and participatory. However, real world implementations of the complete 4P spectrum hardly exist today. The Internet of Things (IoT) has been defined as an extension to the current Internet that enables pervasive communication between the physical and the virtual world. Smart devices and enabling elements like Near Field Communication (NFC) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology already exist and increasingly will be a mainstream element of our lives. This future vision paper attempts to assess if and how the Internet of Things for personalized health (IoT4pH) can help to facilitate the 4P healthcare paradigm and discusses related challenges and opportunities. PMID:24851958

  6. WHAT MAKES THINGS GO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    THE INITIAL QUESTION IN THE TITLE IS ANSWERED THROUGH SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS FOR CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. MUSCLES, RUNNING, WATER, WIND, STEAM, FAST BURNING AND ELECTRICITY ARE FOUND TO "MAKE THINGS GO." USING THESE BASIC DISCOVERIES, VOCABULARY IS BUILT UP BY WORKING WITH DIFFERENT WORDS RELATING TO THE EXPERIMENTS. A…

  7. Wondering About Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, George B.

    2014-08-01

    Here you will find facts about and the opinions of an American astrophysicist who practiced in the second half of the twentieth century. The title explains why I did it. I invented some new ideas, I applied them to some astro objects, I computed things with pen and paper; I ended up thinking that I had succeeded in pushing the field ahead a bit. Attracted by Newtonian theory, I did some experiments too. I love hydrodynamics and magnetic fields in space. The math is beautiful, and the objects are stupendous in their brilliant displays. For some reason I meditated on gases between the stars, their pressures and motions. I left the stars to others, believing that their physics was under control. As I grew older, I had to decide whether to direct others rather than just myself and ended up at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics doing both. It was thrilling because I had never had management experience and was flying by the seat of my pants, as I guess other astrodirectors do. In the process, I advised the US government on future directions in astronomy, chairing a number of committees. It is astonishing that the government is interested in astronomy, and it is exciting to interact with the people in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the Congress, and the Executive branch who have dedicated their lives to enable the expansion of our knowledge of astronomy. Along the way I studied more abstract concepts in physics, including magnetic helicity and its relation to the winding numbers of nonabelian particle physics. These are topological concepts that I should have learned in grad school but did not. This review has two parts. The first part is for scientists, and covers my life in chronological order. The second part is for laymen who are interested in science. It gives a flavor of my scientific work with no math and a minimum of jargon.

  8. Petition to LIVE OFF Campus TO BE COMPLETED BY ALL STUDENTS PETITIONING TO LIVE OFF CAMPUS

    E-print Network

    Wenderholm, Elaine

    Petition to LIVE OFF Campus TO BE COMPLETED BY ALL STUDENTS PETITIONING TO LIVE OFF CAMPUS Legal Junior Senior Other: If this petition is approved, I agree to furnish the Residence Life & Housing, in any manner, of the off-campus accommodations I have chosen. I also understand that this petition

  9. Aberdeen can teach you a thing or two. This bustling city by the sea

    E-print Network

    Neri, Peter

    enjoyed it. Where do you live?I've lived at Hillhead Halls for five years now ­ it's like home to me coverage,and you can rely on them to tell it like it is without fear or favour.Lonely Planet has produced

  10. Molecular signaling in live cells studied by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2011-11-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have used FRET to assess temporal and spatial characteristics for signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinases Src and FAK, small GTPase Rac, calcium, and a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Activations of Src and Rac by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) led to distinct subcellular patterns during cell migration on micropatterned surface, and these two enzymes interact with each other to form a feedback loop with differential regulations at different subcellular locations. We have developed FRET biosensors to monitor FAK activities at rafts vs. non-raft regions of plasma membrane in live cells. In response to cell adhesion on matrix proteins or stimulation by PDGF, the raft-targeting FAK biosensor showed a stronger FRET response than that at non-rafts. The FAK activation at rafts induced by PDGF is mediated by Src. In contrast, the FAK activation at rafts induced by adhesion is independent of Src activity, but rather is essential for Src activation. Thus, Src is upstream to FAK in response to chemical stimulation (PDGF), but FAK is upstream to Src in response to mechanical stimulation (adhesion). A novel biosensor has been developed to dynamically visualize the activity of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which proteolytically remodels the extracellular matrix. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed active MT1-MMP to the leading edge of migrating live cancer cells with local accumulation of EGF receptor via a process dependent on an intact cytoskeletal network. In summary, FRET-based biosensors enable the elucidation of molecular processes and hierarchies underlying spatiotemporal regulation of biological and pathological processes, thus advancing our knowledge on how cells perceive mechanical/chemical cues in space and time to coordinate molecular/cellular functions.

  11. Molecular signaling in live cells studied by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2012-03-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have used FRET to assess temporal and spatial characteristics for signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinases Src and FAK, small GTPase Rac, calcium, and a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Activations of Src and Rac by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) led to distinct subcellular patterns during cell migration on micropatterned surface, and these two enzymes interact with each other to form a feedback loop with differential regulations at different subcellular locations. We have developed FRET biosensors to monitor FAK activities at rafts vs. non-raft regions of plasma membrane in live cells. In response to cell adhesion on matrix proteins or stimulation by PDGF, the raft-targeting FAK biosensor showed a stronger FRET response than that at non-rafts. The FAK activation at rafts induced by PDGF is mediated by Src. In contrast, the FAK activation at rafts induced by adhesion is independent of Src activity, but rather is essential for Src activation. Thus, Src is upstream to FAK in response to chemical stimulation (PDGF), but FAK is upstream to Src in response to mechanical stimulation (adhesion). A novel biosensor has been developed to dynamically visualize the activity of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which proteolytically remodels the extracellular matrix. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed active MT1-MMP to the leading edge of migrating live cancer cells with local accumulation of EGF receptor via a process dependent on an intact cytoskeletal network. In summary, FRET-based biosensors enable the elucidation of molecular processes and hierarchies underlying spatiotemporal regulation of biological and pathological processes, thus advancing our knowledge on how cells perceive mechanical/chemical cues in space and time to coordinate molecular/cellular functions.

  12. 'You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you': gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Bennett, Erica

    2013-02-01

    This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women 'learn to live' with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults' experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men's stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies' altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses. PMID:24976658

  13. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: Control by live attenuated vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  14. Nuclear genome organization explored by dynamic studies in live cells

    E-print Network

    Potsdam, Universität

    Nuclear genome organization explored by dynamic studies in live cells Yuval Garini, Eldad Kepten identified crucial aspects of the mechanism by studying the dynamics of genomic sites in the nucleus of live-conformational-capture methods. In normal cells, all the sites in the genome exhibit anomalous diffusion (visco

  15. Rummaging and Hiding Things

    MedlinePLUS

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Rummaging and Hiding Things Someone with Alzheimer’s disease may start rummaging or searching through cabinets, drawers, closets, the refrigerator, and other places where things ...

  16. Things that

    E-print Network

    Macmillan, Anne, S.M. (Anne Meredith) Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the artistic practice of the author by investigating selected art work she has produced within the last nine years. The writing avoids explaining, and instead aims to share with the reader by exploring ...

  17. Measuring protein mobility by photobleaching GFP-chimeras in living cells

    E-print Network

    Snapp, Erik Lee

    1 Measuring protein mobility by photobleaching GFP-chimeras in living cells Erik Snapp, Nihal Altan the fluorophore's fluorescence. The diffusive characteristics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- chimeras, in which the same region of a cell expressing a GFP-chimera is repetitively photobleached and the loss

  18. Independent Living Oldest Old and Their Primary Health Provider: A Mixed Method Examination of the Influence of Patient Personality Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stadtlander, Lee M; Giles, Martha J; Sickel, Amy E; Brooks, Emma; Brown, Cherri; Cormell, Melissa; Ewing, Lara; Hart, Delores; Koons, Dawn; Olson, Christy; Parker, Pamela; Semenova, Veronica; Stoneking, Shawna

    2015-10-01

    This convergent mixed methods study examined 35 healthy, independent living individuals' (above 85 years) perceptions of their relationship with their primary health provider (PHP) and health practices. The relationship between PHP relationship perceptions and locus of control (LOC), resilience, and self-efficacy was explored through surveys and interviews. The majority indicated they visited their PHP just for preventative care; the number of PHP visits per year was significantly lower than reported for individuals above 85 by the CDC, possible reasons for this finding are provided. A positive relationship between LOC, resiliency, and self-efficacy for the oldest old was found. Few participants indicated their PHP had discussed normal changes with aging. This study has deepened understanding of the complexity inherent to the healthy oldest olds' relationship with their PHP. The findings suggest this relationship relates to the PHP's personal characteristics, the older adult patients' personality, and the influence of the accompanying patient escort. PMID:24652877

  19. Flash Crowd in P2P Live Streaming Systems: Fundamental Characteristics and

    E-print Network

    Li, Baochun

    , Senior Member, IEEE, and Xiaofei Liao, Member, IEEE Abstract--Peer-to-peer (P2P) live video streaming broadcast. Such a severe flash crowd phenomenon in live streaming poses significant challenges in the system the requirement of otherwise costly server deployment. Index Terms--Live video streaming, peer-to-peer, flash

  20. User Empowerment in the Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    Munjin, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the characteristics of two big triggers that facilitated wide user adoption of the Internet: Web 2.0 and online social networks. We detect brakes for reproduction of these events in Internet of things. To support our hypothesis we first compare the difference between the ways of use of the Internet with the future scenarios of Internet of things. We detect barriers that could slow down apparition of this kind of social events during user adoption of Internet of Things and we propose a conceptual framework to solve these problems.

  1. Survival of freezing by free-living Antarctic soil nematodes.

    PubMed

    Convey, P; Worland, M R

    2000-01-01

    Free-living microbivorous nematodes become numerically dominant in Antarctic terrestrial faunas as environmental conditions become more severe, while also reaching very high levels of abundance in moist, vegetated habitats. Nematodes have little resistance to freezing via exogenous ice nucleation, such as would occur as their microhabitat freezes. We report the results of experiments testing the ability of seven maritime Antarctic nematode taxa to survive freezing in small water droplets at high sub-zero temperatures. Isolated individuals of these species possessed supercooling characteristics similar to those previously reported (supercooling points -6 to -25 degree C). When frozen in water at -3 to -6 degree C, most showed high (> 70%) survival both (i) after rapid cooling (1 degree C/min) to c. -60 degree C followed by immediate rewarming, and (ii) when held for 7-12 h at either -10 or -30 degree C, although the proportions surviving varied between species. We propose that the ability to survive freezing while fully hydrated at high sub-zero temperatures is one of the most important aspects of these species' survival tactics. PMID:12148024

  2. [Comparative characteristics of free-living ultramicroscopical bacteria obtained from extremal biotopes].

    PubMed

    Suzina, N E; Esikova, T Z; Oleinikov, R R; Gafarov, B; Shorokhov, A P; Polivtseva, V N; Ross, D V; Abashina, T N; Duda, V I; Boronin, A M

    2015-01-01

    We isolated 50 strains of free-living ultrasmall bacteria with a cell volume that varies from 0.02 to 1.3 microm3 from a range of extremal natural biotopes, namely permafrost soils, oil slime, soils, lake silt, thermal swamp moss, and the skin integuments of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Of them, 15 isolates, characterized by a cell size of less than 0.1 microm3 and a genome size from 1.5 to 2.4 Mb, were subsumed to ultramicrobacteria belonging to different philogenetic groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria) and genera (Kaistia, Chryseobacterium, Microbacterium, Leucobacter, Leifsonia, and Agrococcus) of the Bacteria domain. They are free-living mesophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria. The representatives of Kaistia and Chryseobacterium genera were capable of facultative parasitism on other species of chemo-organotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria. The ultramicrobacteria differed in their morpholgy, cell ultrastructural organization, and physiological and biochemical features. According to the fine structure of their cell walls, the isolates were subdivided into two groups, namely Gram-positive and Gram-negative forms. PMID:26027350

  3. A Search Committee Lives by Its Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Wendell M.

    1997-01-01

    The search process for a new president at Salisbury State University (Maryland) yielded lessons for other institutions operating under open meeting (sunshine) laws. Factors found important in the process include search committee cohesiveness, committee leadership viewed by constituencies as open and objective, a single voice speaking for the…

  4. America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-553

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The data in this report is from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS). The population represented (the population universe) in the ASEC is the civilian non institutionalized population living in the United States. Members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post are…

  5. Effects of Facility Characteristics on Departures from Assisted Living: Results from a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Charles D.; Munoz, Yolanda; Sherman, Michael; Rose, Miriam; Spector, William; Hawes, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Assisted living is an increasingly important residential setting for the frail elderly person. How often and why residents leave such facilities are important issues for consumers, for clinicians advising frail patients on their options for living arrangements, and for policymakers. This research investigated the impact of facility and…

  6. Selective Impairment of Living Things and Musical Instruments on a Verbal "Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire" in a Case of Apperceptive Visual Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes…

  7. How We like to Live when We Have the Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deguara, Marthese; Jelassi, Omar; Micallef, Brian; Callus, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    This article has been written by a group of persons with intellectual disability, which is called the Consultative Committee of Persons with Intellectual Disability. This group works in Malta. The article is about how we would like to live. It looks at two things: "where we would like to live" and "going out in the community". This article shows…

  8. WHAT MAKES THINGS GO, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRODY, LARRY; AND OTHERS

    SIX FIFTH-GRADE SCIENCE UNITS ARE PRESENTED--SOUND AND LIGHT IN COMMUNICATION, LIVING THINGS, WEATHER, EARTH AND ITS RESOURCES, MOTION AND FOREIGN TRANSPORTATION, AND ELECTROMAGNETS. THE INTEREST LEVEL IS APPROPRIATE FOR FIFTH-GRADERS, BUT THREE READING ABILITY LEVELS, GRADES 1, 3, AND 5, ARE PROVIDED. THE TEACHER IS THUS ENABLED TO MOTIVATE…

  9. A Few New Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    2008-01-01

    Citing the website "43 Things" (http://www.43things.com/) and derivatives Learning 2.0 (http://plcmcl2-about.blogspot.com/) and California's School Library Learning 2.0 (http://www.schoollibrarylearning2.blogspot.com/), the author suggests other activities to help librarians and teacher-librarians train themselves for leadership in new information…

  10. The Educational Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Thomas Aastrup

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that education should be conceived of as a thing in itself. To lift this view, I present aspects of Graham Harman's philosophy, a speculative realism that can be seen as a radical break with social constructivism and similar approaches. Next, I attempt to outline a rough sketch of an educational "thing", drawing on concepts…

  11. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Probiotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... X Y Z 5 Things To Know About Probiotics Share: Probiotics are live microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are ... microorganisms, you might have a better understanding of probiotics. The body, especially the lower gastrointestinal tract (the ...

  12. Compulsive Exercise: Too Much of a Good Thing? Contributed by Suzanne Girard Eberle, MS, RD

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    by psychological stress. 2. The ovaries produce less and less estrogen, resulting in menstrual irregularities consecutive menses or failure to begin menstruating by age sixteen) and/or stress fractures Compulsive density, setting the stage for fragile and brittle bones that fracture easily (stress fractures

  13. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality.

    PubMed

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited. The main objective of this study was to explore associations between certain features of neighborhood environment and self-rated health and depressive symptoms in Maastricht (The Netherlands). A large amount of routinely collected neighborhood data were aggregated by means of factor analysis to 18 characteristics of neighborhood social and physical environment. Associations between these characteristics and self-rated health and presence of depressive symptoms were further explored in multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographic and socio-economic factors. The study sample consisted of 9,879 residents (mean age 55 years, 48 % male). Residents of unsafe communities were less likely to report good health (OR 0.88 95 % CI 0.80-0.97) and depressive symptoms (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.69-0.97), and less cohesive environment was related to worse self-rated health (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). Residents of neighborhoods with more car traffic nuisance and more disturbance from railway noise reported worse mental health (OR 0.79 95 % CI 0.68-0.92 and 0.85 95 % CI 0.73-0.99, respectively). We did not observe any association between health and quality of parking and shopping facilities, facilities for public or private transport, neighborhood aesthetics, green space, industrial nuisance, sewerage, neighbor nuisance or satisfaction with police performance. Our findings can be used to support development of integrated health policies targeting broader determinants of health. Improving safety, social cohesion and decreasing traffic nuisance in disadvantaged neighborhoods might be a promising way to improve the health of residents and reduce health inequalities. PMID:24917124

  14. How to build a living thing

    E-print Network

    Campbell, MacGregor (MacGregor Ballard)

    2009-01-01

    A number of research groups worldwide are working on various aspects of the problem of building life from scratch. Jack W. Szostak's lab in Cambridge, Massachusetts is one of the centers of the action. Open a recent news ...

  15. Beware of being captured by an analogy: dreams are like many things.

    PubMed

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2013-12-01

    Classic traditions have linked dreams to memory (e.g., "dreaming is another kind of remembering" [Freud 1918/1955]) and modern notions like implicit memory subsume dreaming by definition. Llewellyn develops the more specific thesis that rapid eye movement (REM) dreams, because of their similarities to mnemonic techniques, have the function of elaboratively encoding episodic memories. This proposal is premature, requiring exigent testing. Other analogs of dreams, for example, jokes, do not invoke function but do contribute to dream science. PMID:24304758

  16. "Sexuality? A million things come to mind": reflections on gender and sexuality by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-11-01

    Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. PMID:26719000

  17. Different Things Make Different People Happy: Examining Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being by Gender and Parental Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of key challenges in current subjective well-being (SWB) research: A new wave of studies should take into account that different things may make different people happy, thus going beyond a unitary "happiness formula". Furthermore, empirical results need to be connected to broader theoretical narratives. Using a…

  18. Live Edwardsiella tarda vaccine enhances innate immunity by metabolic modulation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang; Peng, Bo; Song, Ming; Wu, Chang-Wen; Yang, Man-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Ying; Li, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Control of bacterial infection resides in the core of human health and sustainable animal breeding. Vaccines as an economic and efficient immunoprophylaxis have been widely accepted, but mechanisms for vaccines do not fully understand. Information regarding to metabolome in response to vaccines is not available. Here we explore the metabolic features by using GC/MS based metabolic profile and trace metabolic mechanisms in zebrafish (Dario rerio) in response to live Edwardsiella tarda vaccine. Pathway enrichment analysis shows that live vaccine activates biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and the TCA cycle and reduces aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, suggesting a metabolic characteristic feature in response to the live vaccine. We further demonstrate that hydroxyl radical is limited during stimulation. Finally, we reveal oleate induces effective protection against E. tarda infection. These results have implications for immunity study that metabolic regulation contributes to immune protection. Our findings enable us to propose novel therapeutic strategies on metabolism against bacterial infections. PMID:26394266

  19. Enhancing Live Practical Demonstration by Using Engagement Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosabowski, Michael Hal; Campbell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines some engagement or "showmanship" devices that can enhance the impact of live practical demonstrations. The fifteen engagement techniques described herein are used by the author in his spectacular chemistry demonstration shows in theaters, but they can also be useful in the classroom environment. Many of the…

  20. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS AND ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER. ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW AT PHOTO RIGHT. CEILING VENT TO CHIMNEY AT RIGHT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. A review of "John Donne's Professional Lives" by David Colclough. 

    E-print Network

    Raymond-Jean Frontain

    2004-01-01

    will have its way, especially with mystique of such compelling allure. David Colclough, ed. John Donne?s Professional Lives. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2003. xiii + 272 pp. $75.00. Review by RAYMOND- JEAN FRONTAIN, UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ARKANSAS. John...

  2. Live cell isolation by laser microdissection with gravity transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, Oleg V.

    2013-05-01

    Laser microdissection by pulsing ultraviolet laser allows the isolation and recultivation of live cells based on morphological features or/and fluorescent labelling from adherent cell cultures. Previous investigations described only the use of the laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC) for live cell isolation. But LMPC requires complex manipulations and some skill. Furthermore, single-cell cloning using laser microdissection has not yet been demonstrated. The first evidence of successful application of laser microdissection with gravity transfer (LMDGT) for capturing and recultivation of live cells is presented. A new strategy for LMDGT is presented because of the failure to reproduce the manufacturer's protocol. Using the new strategy, successful capturing and recultivation of circle-shaped samples from confluent monolayer of HeLa cells was demonstrated. It was found that LMDGT is easier than LMPC because it doesn't require personal participation of investigator in transferring of isolated samples to final culture dishes. Moreover, for the first time, the generation of clonal colonies from single live cells isolated by laser microdissection was demonstrated. Data obtained in this study confirm that LMDGT is a reliable and high-yield method allowing isolation and expansion of both cell clusters and single cells from adherent cell cultures.

  3. Healthy living partnerships to prevent diabetes: recruitment and baseline characteristics. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    The Healthy Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes (HELP PD) trial presents a successful enrollment model for a community-based translation of a lifestyle intervention. Mass mailing proved to be the most effective strategy to enroll participants. A database of persons interested in participating in clinical studies was used to successfully generate mailings, costing only $40 per randomized patient and quickly generating 22 randomizations. Referral from primary care settings was the other source of trial participants.

  4. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks.

    PubMed

    Engel, Lauren R; Frum, Chris; Puce, Aina; Walker, Nathan A; Lewis, James W

    2009-10-01

    With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places-categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and sub-cortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with "embodied" and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may underlie organizational principles for hearing perception. PMID:19465134

  5. Apoptosis as a mechanism of cytolysis of tumor cells by a pathogenic free-living amoeba.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, H; Pidherney, M S; McCulley, J P; Niederkorn, J Y

    1994-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that trophozoites of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii rapidly lysed a variety of tumor cells in vitro. Tumor cells undergoing parasite-mediated lysis displayed characteristic cell membrane blebbing reminiscent of apoptosis. The present investigation examined the role of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in Acanthamoeba-mediated tumor cell lysis. The results showed that more than 70% of tumor cell DNA was fragmented following exposure to Acanthamoeba cell extracts. By contrast, only 7% of untreated control cells underwent DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation increased significantly in a dose-dependent fashion following concentration of the parasite extract. Apoptosis was also confirmed by DNA ladder formation. Characteristic DNA ladders, consisting of multimers of approximately 180 to 200 bp, were produced by tumor cells exposed to Acanthamoeba cell extracts. The morphology of tumor cell lysis was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Tumor cells exposed to parasite extract displayed morphological features characteristic of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, formation of apoptotic bodies, and nuclear condensation. By contrast, similar effects were not found in tumor cells exposed to extract similarly prepared from normal mammalian cells (i.e., human keratocytes). The results suggest that at least one species of pathogenic free-living amoeba is able to lyse tumor cells by a process that culminates in apoptosis. PMID:8132336

  6. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    PubMed Central

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these arrangements, 18 of whom resided with their children's fathers occasionally while saying that they were not in a cohabiting relationship. We term such relationships living together apart (LTA). Data analysis revealed that distinct patterns of voluntary and involuntary separations and reunifications characterized intermittent cohabitation and LTA and that these relationships were shaped by the bonds that shared parenting created and the economic needs of both parents. We argue that these dimensions may explain some disparate accounts of cohabitation status in low-income populations. They also demonstrate previously unexplored diversity in cohabiting relationships and suggest further questioning contemporary definitions of families. PMID:25435641

  7. Characteristics of and Barriers to Functional Status Assessment in Assisted Living.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Mary Elizabeth; Rowe, Meredeth A; Hart-Hughes, Stephanie; Barnett, Scott; Ji, Ming

    2015-08-01

    The most commonly used functional status (FS) instruments were examined to determine the validity, reliability, sensitivity, and specificity to change and feasibility in residents in an assisted living facility (ALF). Twenty-six ALF residents were assessed weekly for up to 8 months using six instruments. Group and single-subject analyses were used to examine associations between instruments and acute events. Two were problematic initially (Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living and hand grip) and were excluded early in the study. Of the remaining instruments, only the Barthel Index and Resident Assessment Instrument had acceptable psychometric profiles. However, these instruments were either not feasible in this environment or did not capture the full range of FS in this population. The current study's findings suggest that instruments commonly used to measure FS may be inadequate for this population and environment. These findings may be used to develop assessment methods for ALF residents that capture both the full range of FS in ALF settings as well as acute and long-term changes in functioning. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2015; 8(5):220-230.]. PMID:25893725

  8. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. Objective To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Methods Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Results Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). Conclusions SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis of SEYLE data will shed light on the effectiveness of important interventions aimed at improving adolescent mental health and well-being, reducing risk-taking and self-destructive behaviour and preventing suicidality. Trial registration US National Institute of Health (NIH) clinical trial registry (NCT00906620) and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000214). PMID:23679917

  9. 74 Published by the IEEE Computer Society 1089-7801/09/$26.00 2009 IEEE IEEE INTERNET COMPUTING InternetofThingsTrack

    E-print Network

    to the real world is the Internet of Things,2 which connects such resources with everyday objects's based on the Internet of Things and its technologies. Their framework for integrating Web services-Essen Heinrich Hußmann University of Munich Perci: Pervasive Service Interaction with the Internet of Things #12

  10. Exploring dynamics in living cells by tracking single particles.

    PubMed

    Levi, Valeria; Gratton, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, significant advances in microscopy techniques and the introduction of a novel technology to label living cells with genetically encoded fluorescent proteins revolutionized the field of Cell Biology. Our understanding on cell dynamics built from snapshots on fixed specimens has evolved thanks to our actual capability to monitor in real time the evolution of processes in living cells. Among these new tools, single particle tracking techniques were developed to observe and follow individual particles. Hence, we are starting to unravel the mechanisms driving the motion of a wide variety of cellular components ranging from organelles to protein molecules by following their way through the cell. In this review, we introduce the single particle tracking technology to new users. We briefly describe the instrumentation and explain some of the algorithms commonly used to locate and track particles. Also, we present some common tools used to analyze trajectories and illustrate with some examples the applications of single particle tracking to study dynamics in living cells. PMID:17703064

  11. Universal computing by DNA origami robots in a living animal.

    PubMed

    Amir, Yaniv; Ben-Ishay, Eldad; Levner, Daniel; Ittah, Shmulik; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2014-05-01

    Biological systems are collections of discrete molecular objects that move around and collide with each other. Cells carry out elaborate processes by precisely controlling these collisions, but developing artificial machines that can interface with and control such interactions remains a significant challenge. DNA is a natural substrate for computing and has been used to implement a diverse set of mathematical problems, logic circuits and robotics. The molecule also interfaces naturally with living systems, and different forms of DNA-based biocomputing have already been demonstrated. Here, we show that DNA origami can be used to fabricate nanoscale robots that are capable of dynamically interacting with each other in a living animal. The interactions generate logical outputs, which are relayed to switch molecular payloads on or off. As a proof of principle, we use the system to create architectures that emulate various logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOT, CNOT and a half adder). Following an ex vivo prototyping phase, we successfully used the DNA origami robots in living cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) to control a molecule that targets their cells. PMID:24705510

  12. Universal computing by DNA origami robots in a living animal

    PubMed Central

    Levner, Daniel; Ittah, Shmulik; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems are collections of discrete molecular objects that move around and collide with each other. Cells carry out elaborate processes by precisely controlling these collisions, but developing artificial machines that can interface with and control such interactions remains a significant challenge. DNA is a natural substrate for computing and has been used to implement a diverse set of mathematical problems1-3, logic circuits4-6 and robotics7-9. The molecule also naturally interfaces with living systems, and different forms of DNA-based biocomputing have previously been demonstrated10-13. Here we show that DNA origami14-16 can be used to fabricate nanoscale robots that are capable of dynamically interacting with each other17-18 in a living animal. The interactions generate logical outputs, which are relayed to switch molecular payloads on or off. As a proof-of-principle, we use the system to create architectures that emulate various logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOT, CNOT, and a half adder). Following an ex vivo prototyping phase, we successfully employed the DNA origami robots in living cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) to control a molecule that targets the cells of the animal. PMID:24705510

  13. How Things Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard

    This book is a collection of 66 "How Things Work" columns from the journal "The Physics Teacher," 1983-1991. All the devices and phenomena are ones that are met in everyday life, involve physics principles, and require explanations that are not immediately obvious. Topics include: touch panels in elevators, liquid crystal displays, metal locators,…

  14. Pear quality characteristics by Vis / NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nicácia P; Fachinello, José C; Galarça, Simone P; Betemps, Débora L; Pasa, Mateus S; Schmitz, Juliano D

    2012-09-01

    Recently, non-destructive techniques such as the Vis / NIR spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the characteristics of maturation and quality of pears. The study aims to validate the readings by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive way to assess the qualitative characteristics of pear cultivars 'Williams', 'Packams' and 'Carrick', produced according to Brazilian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Pelotas Federal University, UFPel, in Pelotas / RS, and the instrument used to measure the fruit quality in a non-destructive way was the NIR- Case spectrophotometer (SACMI, Imola, Italy). To determine pears' soluble solids (SS) and pulp firmness (PF), it was established calibration equations for each variety studied, done from the evaluations obtained by a non-destructive method (NIR-Case) and a destructive method. Further on, it was tested the performance of these readings by linear regressions. The results were significant for the soluble solids parameter obtained by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy; however, it did not achieve satisfactory results for the pear pulp firmness of these cultivars. It is concluded that the Vis / NIR spectroscopy, using linear regression, allows providing reliable estimates of pears' quality levels, especially for soluble solids. PMID:22886168

  15. Informal Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Viral Load Suppression Among Current or Former Injection Drug Users Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have examined the association between having an informal (unpaid) caregiver and viral suppression among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) who are on antiretroviral therapy. The current study examined relationships between caregivers' individual and social network characteristics and care recipient viral suppression. Baseline data were from the BEACON study caregivers and their HIV seropositive former or current drug using care recipients, of whom 89 % were African American (N = 258 dyads). Using adjusted logistic regression, care recipient's undetectable viral load was positively associated with caregiver's limited physical functioning and negatively associated with caregivers having few family members to turn to for problem solving, a greater number of current drug users in their network, and poorer perceptions of the care recipient's mental health. Results further understandings of interpersonal relationship factors important to PLHIV's health outcomes, and the need for caregiving relationship-focused intervention to promote viral suppression among PLHIV. PMID:25969180

  16. Internet of Systems (IoS) - Economic Re-equilibration Catalyzed by Internet of Things (IoT)

    E-print Network

    Datta, Shoumen

    2014-01-01

    How will the tapestry of humanity and the ethos of civilization evolve when billions of devices and trillions of sensors with quadrillion end points can connect events in our daily lives to the world around us and monitor ...

  17. Characteristics of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Weidong; Li, Jianqiao; Ning, Jianguo

    2013-09-15

    The characteristics of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact were studied through both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Based on thermodynamics and statistical physics, a thermal ionization model was proposed to explore the relationships of ionization degree and plasma conductivity to temperature with consideration of the velocity distribution law in the thermodynamic equilibrium state. In order to derive the temperature, internal energy, and density of the plasma generated by the impact for the above relationships, a 3-D model for the impact of an aluminum spherical projectile on an aluminum target was established and five cases with different impact angles were numerically simulated. Then, the temperature calculated from the internal energy and the Thomas Fermi (TF) model, the internal energy and the density of the plasma were put into the function of the ionization degree to study the characteristics of plasma. Finally, based on the experimental data, a good agreement was obtained between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results, and the feasibility of this theoretical model was verified.

  18. Metabolic Characteristics and Response to High Altitude in Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), a Lizard Dwell at Altitudes Higher Than Any Other Living Lizards in the World

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolong; Xin, Ying; Wang, Huihui; Li, Weixin; Zhang, Yang; Liang, Shiwei; He, Jianzheng; Wang, Ningbo; Ma, Ming; Chen, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic response to high altitude remains poorly explored in reptiles. In the present study, the metabolic characteristics of Phrynocephaluserythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits high altitudes (4500 m) and Phrynocephalusprzewalskii (Lacertilia: Agamidae), which inhabits low altitudes, were analysed to explore the metabolic regulatory strategies for lizards living at high-altitude environments. The results indicated that the mitochondrial respiratory rates of P. erythrurus were significantly lower than those of P. przewalskii, and that proton leak accounts for 74~79% of state 4 and 7~8% of state3 in P. erythrurus vs. 43~48% of state 4 and 24~26% of state3 in P. przewalskii. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in P. erythrurus was lower than in P. przewalskii, indicating that at high altitude the former does not, relatively, have a greater reliance on anaerobic metabolism. A higher activity related to ?-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) and the HOAD/citrate synthase (CS) ratio suggested there was a possible higher utilization of fat in P. erythrurus. The lower expression of PGC-1? and PPAR-? in P. erythrurus suggested their expression was not influenced by cold and low PO2 at high altitude. These distinct characteristics of P. erythrurus are considered to be necessary strategies in metabolic regulation for living at high altitude and may effectively compensate for the negative influence of cold and low PO2. PMID:23951275

  19. [Characteristics of the population of Chorzów living in polluted health-threatening environment].

    PubMed

    Gumi?ska, M; Niederwi?ski, B; Krawecki, T; Gwara, A; Romuszy?ski, R

    1991-01-01

    In Chorzów, the most polluted town in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, the characteristics of three groups of inhabitants, workers of the Chemical Nitrogen Plant, the Steelworks, and the Slaughterhouse was done. Among the similar groups in respect to age and a number of males and females, the attention was paid to work, life and recreation conditions, to nutritional habits and additional customs of cigarette smoking and alcohol using. The subjective self-determination of own health was compared with objective complaints or symptoms presented in anamneses and past diseases, as well as were confronted with results of biochemical estimation of urine fluoride excretion and blood lead content. The other related results, namely magnesium concentration, urine ALA and porfobilinogen contents, erythrocyte glutathione, blood glucose, lactate and ATP levels as indices of energy and carbohydrate metabolism were presented, as well as finally (Na, K)-ATPase activity, necessary for cell membrane potential formation. The mechanisms leading to physical and psychical health depletion was demonstrated, and a new possibility of prophylactic and therapeutic actions was stressed. PMID:1843703

  20. Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

    2013-08-27

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy. PMID:23940357

  1. The AMEL study, a cross sectional population-based survey on aging and malnutrition in 1200 elderly Lebanese living in rural settings: protocol and sample characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lebanon is faced with a particular challenge because of large socioeconomic inequality and accelerated demographic transition. Rural residents seem more vulnerable because of limited access to transport, health and social services. No information is available regarding health, nutrition and living conditions of this specific population. The purpose of the AMEL (Aging and Malnutrition in Elderly Lebanese) study is to assess the nutritional status of community dwelling elderly people, aged 65 years and above, living in a rural settings in Lebanon, in line of socioeconomic factors, health and living conditions. The present paper will describe the gender specific characteristics of the study population. Methods AMEL is a cross-sectional population based study conducted between April 2011 and April 2012 including 1200 elderly individuals living in the 24 rural Caza (districts) of Lebanon. People aged greater than or equal to 65 y were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling. Subjects were interviewed at their homes by trained interviewers. The questionnaire included the following measures: socio-demographic factors, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA), health related characteristics, functional ability, cognitive status, mood and social network. Results The sample included 591 men (49.3%) and 609 women (50.8%). Mean age was 75.32 years and similar between genders. Malnutrition (MNA?living conditions of community dwelling rural residents of Lebanon. These findings may alert policy makers to plan appropriate intervention in order to improve the quality of life and increase successful aging. PMID:23758758

  2. [Human pathology caused by free-living amoebae].

    PubMed

    Scaglia, M

    1997-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are free-living amoebae that occasionally may induce pathology in human beings. CNS disease due to N. fowleri, called "primary" amoebic meningoencephalitis, is acquired after exposure to polluted waters in swimming pools, rivers, and lakes. The clinical course is acute, often fulminant and characterized pathologically by necrotizing hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis, involving mainly the base of the brain, brainstem and cerebellum. In contrast, some Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris cause opportunistic, chronic "granulomatous" encephalitis in subjects pathologically or iatrogenically immunocompromised. There are, most likely, foci of protozoa in lung and skin reaching the CNS by hematogenous route. Only Acanthamoeba spp. can also produce severe, subacute keratitis, mainly today in contact lens wearers. PMID:9616966

  3. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? 243.9 Section...OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.9 Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? (a)...

  4. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? 243.9 Section...OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.9 Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? (a)...

  5. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? 243.9 Section...OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.9 Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? (a)...

  6. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? 243.9 Section...OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.9 Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? (a)...

  7. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... true Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? 243.9 Section...OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE REINDEER IN ALASKA § 243.9 Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means? (a)...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOEpatents

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  9. Long-lived fluctuations driven by shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.; Chagelishvili, G. D.; Gogoberidze, G.; Dahlburg, R.

    2004-11-01

    In flows that are stable in accordance to the Rayleigh criterion there are long lived transient fluctuations that can lead to the onset of turbulence. We show examples of transitions to turbulence due to the positive nonlinear feedback from the transients. Simulations show that the intensity of the nonlinear decay processes depends on the angle between wave vectors of the interacting spatial Fourier harmonics. Positive nonlinear feedback occurs when vorticities of the perturbation are the same direction. Above some amplitude the cyclonic perturbation is self-sustained due to the feedback loop. Generalization and applications of the simulations for atmospheric and plasma flows are discussed. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG03-96ER-54346 and ISTC Grant G-5333.

  10. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  11. Family Theory versus the Theories Families Live By.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Argues that there is significant disjunction between the way that families live their lives and the way that professionals theorize about families. Using the metaphor of positive and negative spaces, argues that there are many negative spaces in our theorizing--everyday family activities that take up considerable time, energy, and attention but…

  12. HumanWildlife Interactions 8(2):218227, Fall 2014 Characteristics and distribution of live-

    E-print Network

    losses caused by wild carnivores in Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania batistiNo P. mPoNzi,1 Department­wildlife conflict. In Africa, such conflicts contribute to carnivore population declines in the form of human retaliation for livestock depredation. However, little knowledge exists about when and where carnivores attack

  13. [Characteristics of the antioxidant system of healthy people of main ethnic groups living near Baikal Lake].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaia, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Suturina, L V; Labygina, A V; Semenova, N V; Tsyrenov, T B; Darzhaev, Z Iu; Kurashova, N A; Tolpygina, O A

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant system of blood is the important factor that characterizes the adaptive possibilities of human organism. The estimation of state of the antioxidant protection and lipid peroxidation systems at men and women of two Baikal Lake ethnic groups was carried out. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were used during the study. Increase of by-products of lipid peroxidation with decrease of activity of the antioxidant protection system was observed at men of the Buryat ethnicity in comparison with Russian ones. At women of the Buryat ethnicity was observed the increase of the primary products of lipid peroxidation with the adequate antioxidant response in comparison with Russian ones. PMID:22888671

  14. Learning by Living: Life-Altering Medical Education through Nursing Home-Based Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliucci, Marilyn R.; Weiner, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    The University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine Learning by Living Project (referred to as Learning by Living) was piloted in 2006 as an experiential medical education learning model. Since its inception, medical and other health professions students have been "admitted" into nursing homes to live the life of an older adult nursing…

  15. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo, M.; Bravo, L.; Ramos, M.; Pizarro, O.; Karstensen, J.; Gallegos, M.; Correa-Ramirez, M.; Silva, N.; Farias, L.; Karp-Boss, L.

    2015-09-01

    Eastern boundary upwelling systems are characterized by high productivity that often leads to subsurface hypoxia on the shelf. Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of circulation in these regions, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from shelves to the open ocean. In austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, a subsurface layer (200-400 m) in which the concentration of oxygen was very low (< 2 ?mol kg-1 of O2) was observed in the eastern South Pacific, ~ 900 km offshore (30° S, 81° W). Satellite altimetry combined with CTD observations associated the local oxygen anomaly with an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a diameter of about 150 km. The eddy contained Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted near the coast. Undersaturation (44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (> 0.5 ?M) gave evidence for denitrification in this water mass. Based on satellite altimetry, we tracked the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). We estimate that the eddy formed in April 2010. Field studies conducted on the Chilean shelf in June 2010 provided approximate information on initial O2 and N2O concentrations of "source water" in the region at the time of eddy formation. Concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the offshore eddy were lower than its surroundings or "source water" on the shelf, suggesting that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. Our results show that mesoscale eddies in the ESP not only transport physical properties of the ESSW from the coast to the ocean interior, but also export and transform biogeochemical properties, creating suboxic environments in the oligotrophic region of the eastern South Pacific. Suboxic water masses that are advected by eddies act as hotspots for denitrification and loss of fixed nitrogen from the system.

  16. HIV-1 subtype characteristics of infected persons living in southwestern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Davanos, Nikolaos; Panos, George; Gogos, Charalambos A; Mouzaki, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid replication rate of HIV-1, coupled with a high mutation rate and recombination, is the underlying force driving its genetic diversity. In the infected individual, a population of highly related but nonidentical strains exists. At the population level, multiple subtypes often cocirculate, leading to the generation of intersubtype recombinant forms. As a result, the geographic distribution of subtypes and recombinant forms is complex and uneven. Genetic subtyping of HIV-1 isolates has been shown to be helpful for understanding the genetic evolution, the worldwide spread of the virus, and the evaluation of drug resistance. Materials and methods We determined the genetic heterogeneity of HIV-1 group M in southwestern Greece. Protease and partial reverse-transcriptase sequences were generated from 150 HIV-1-infected individuals attending the Division of Infectious Diseases of Patras University Hospital, Greece, from 2006 to 2012, and analyzed using online subtyping tools and phylogenetic methods. Results The majority of the infected individuals were male (77%). HIV-1 subtype A1 was responsible for 51.3% of infections, followed by subtypes B (34%), G (4%), F1 (2%), and the circulating recombinant forms 02_AG (2.7%), 14_BG (1.3%), 35_AD (1.3%), and 01_AE (0.7%). Additionally, we identified three cases with a recombinant B/CRF02_AG strain (2%) and one with a recombinant G/GRF_AG strain. Sexual transmission was responsible for 96.3% of cases. Heterosexual transmission was responsible for 70.2% of subtype-A1 infections, whereas subtype B was transmitted by men who have sex with men in 75.5% of cases. Protease substitutions I13V, E35D, M36I, R57K, H69K, and L89M, which serve as drug-resistance support mutations in subtype B, were present in the majority of subtype-A1 sequences of the population. Conclusion HIV-1 infection in southwestern Greece is sexually transmitted and highly heterogeneous. Subtype A1 has surpassed subtype B, and is the most prevalent strain. In the population studied, subtype A1 exhibited certain polymorphisms in the protease region, which may serve as drug-resistance support mutations in subtype B. PMID:26715861

  17. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  18. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shixiong; Cai, Liang; Sun, Qianlai; Li, Wenchao; Deng, Zhihong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs) near the patient’s house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7%) samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6%) markets in 98 (80.3%) counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%). All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential. PMID:26554921

  19. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mean byliving in another person's household”. (a) Household. For purposes of this subpart, we... boarding house is not a household but a household can exist within a commercial establishment. If you live... of the proprietor. You may, however, live in the household of a roomer or boarder within the hotel...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mean byliving in another person's household”. (a) Household. For purposes of this subpart, we... boarding house is not a household but a household can exist within a commercial establishment. If you live... of the proprietor. You may, however, live in the household of a roomer or boarder within the hotel...

  1. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    PubMed

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. PMID:23528675

  2. Saving fourth generation and baryon number by living long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Rentala, Vikram; Shu, Jing; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies of precision electroweak observables have led to the conclusion that a fourth generation is highly constrained. However, we point out that a long-lived fourth generation can reopen a large portion of the parameter space. In addition, it preserves baryon and lepton asymmetries against sphaleron erasure even if B - L = 0 . It opens up the possibility of exact B - L symmetry and hence Dirac neutrinos. The fourth generation can be observed at the LHC with unique signatures of long-lived particles in the near future.

  3. Privacy Preservation Technologies in Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Internet thirty years ago, we have witnessed a number of changes in the application of communication technologies. Today, the Internet can be described to a large extent as a ubiquitous infrastructure that is always accessible. After the era of connecting places and connecting people, the Internet of the future will also connect things. The idea behind the resulting Internet of Things is to seamlessly gather and use information about objects of the real world during their entire lifecycle. In this paper, we consider different approaches to technological protection of user data privacy in the world of Internet of Things. In particular,we consider what kind of security problems are being faced and what level of protection can be provided by applying approaches based on secure multi-party computations.

  4. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  5. Mechanics of living cells measured by laser tracking microrheology.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, S; Wirtz, D; Kuo, S C

    2000-01-01

    To establish laser-tracking microrheology (LTM) as a new technique for quantifying cytoskeletal mechanics, we measure viscoelastic moduli with wide bandwidth (5 decades) within living cells. With the first subcellular measurements of viscoelastic phase angles, LTM provides estimates of solid versus liquid behavior at different frequencies. In LTM, the viscoelastic shear moduli are inferred from the Brownian motion of particles embedded in the cytoskeletal network. Custom laser optoelectronics provide sub-nanometer and near-microsecond resolution of particle trajectories. The kidney epithelial cell line, COS7, has numerous spherical lipid-storage granules that are ideal probes for noninvasive LTM. Although most granules are percolating through perinuclear spaces, a subset of perinuclear granules is embedded in dense viscoelastic cytoplasm. Over all time scales embedded particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior and are not merely tethered by molecular motors. At low frequencies, lamellar regions (820 +/- 520 dyne/cm(2)) are more rigid than viscoelastic perinuclear regions (330 +/- 250 dyne/cm(2), p < 0.0001), but spectra converge at high frequencies. Although the actin-disrupting agent, latrunculin A, softens and liquefies lamellae, physiological levels of F-actin, alone (11 +/- 1.2 dyne/cm(2)) are approximately 70-fold softer than lamellae. Therefore, F-actin is necessary for lamellae mechanics, but not sufficient. Furthermore, in time-lapse of apparently quiescent cells, individual lamellar granules can show approximately 4-fold changes in moduli that last >10 s. Over a broad range of frequencies (0.1-30, 000 rad/s), LTM provides a unique ability to noninvasively quantify dynamic, local changes in cell viscoelasticity. PMID:10733956

  6. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies...disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies...provides, in part, that every packer, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner,...

  7. Where the Wild Things Are: Informal Experience and Ecological Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Category-based induction requires selective use of different relations to guide inferences; this article examines the development of inferences based on ecological relations among living things. Three hundred and forty-six 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children from rural, suburban, and urban communities projected novel "diseases" or "insides" from one…

  8. Five Foul Things That Are Also Good for You

    MedlinePLUS

    ... That Are Also Good for You Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Five Foul Things That Are Also ... more: NIH Human Microbiome Project This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  9. IV: When Things Get Hard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke; Mahoney, Meg Robson; Jordan, Kim; Jackson, Spoon; Gabel, Bonnie; Adams, Holly; Plemons, Anna

    2014-01-01

    It is definitely easier to write about work when things are going well, but it is even more important to write about what happens when things get challenging. The act of writing about the challenging times can be challenging in itself but can also provide invaluable insights into the process of teaching: important for the writer and just as…

  10. Assessment of transferrin recycling by Triplet Lifetime Imaging in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Geissbuehler, Matthias; Kadlecova, Zuzana; Klok, Harm-Anton; Lasser, Theo

    2012-01-01

    An optical method is presented that allows the measurement of the triplet lifetime of a fluorescent molecule. This is a characteristic specific to each fluorophore. Based on differences in triplet lifetimes of two fluorescent species (autofluorescence versus label), this novel approach measures relative quantities of a transmembrane receptor and associated fluorescently labeled ligand during its recycling in living cells. Similarly to fluorescence-lifetime based methods, our approach is almost insensitive to photobleaching. A simple theory for unmixing two known triplet lifetimes is presented along with validation of the method by measurements of transferrin recycling in a model system based on chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO). Transferrin is the delivery carrier for Fe3+ to the cell. PMID:23082293

  11. Local viscoelasticity of living cells measured by rotational magnetic spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    J. -F. Berret

    2015-12-03

    When submitted to a magnetic field, micron size wires with superparamagnetic properties behave as embedded rheometers and represent interesting sensors for micro-rheology. Here we use rotational magnetic spectroscopy to measure the shear viscosity of the cytoplasm of living cells. We address the question of whether the cytoplasm is a viscoelastic liquid or a gel. The main result of the study is the observation of a rotational instability between a synchronous and an asynchronous regime of rotation, found for murine fibroblasts and human cancer cells. For wires of susceptibility 3.6, the transition occurs in the range 0.01...1 rad s-1. The determination of the shear viscosity (10...100 Pa s) and elastic modulus (5...20 Pa) confirms the viscoelastic character of the cytoplasm. In contrast to earlier studies, it is concluded that the interior of living cells can be described as a viscoelastic liquid, and not as an elastic gel.

  12. Local viscoelasticity of living cells measured by rotational magnetic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Berret, J-F

    2016-01-01

    When submitted to a magnetic field, micron-size wires with superparamagnetic properties behave as embedded rheometers and represent interesting sensors for microrheology. Here we use rotational magnetic spectroscopy to measure the shear viscosity of the cytoplasm of living cells. We address the question of whether the cytoplasm is a viscoelastic liquid or an elastic gel. The main result of the study is the observation of a rotational instability between a synchronous and an asynchronous regime of rotation, found for murine fibroblasts and human cancer cells. For wires of susceptibility 3.6, the transition occurs in the range 0.01-1?rad?s(-1). The determination of the shear viscosity (10-100?Pa?s) and elastic modulus (5-20?Pa) confirms the viscoelastic character of the cytoplasm. In contrast to earlier studies, it is concluded that the interior of living cells can be described as a viscoelastic liquid, and not as an elastic gel. PMID:26729062

  13. In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

  14. Actin dynamics at the living cell submembrane imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence photobleaching.

    PubMed Central

    Sund, S E; Axelrod, D

    2000-01-01

    Although reversible chemistry is crucial to dynamical processes in living cells, relatively little is known about relevant chemical kinetic rates in vivo. Total internal reflection/fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (TIR/FRAP), an established technique previously demonstrated to measure reversible biomolecular kinetic rates at surfaces in vitro, is extended here to measure reversible biomolecular kinetic rates of actin at the cytofacial (subplasma membrane) surface of living cells. For the first time, spatial imaging (with a charge-coupled device camera) is used in conjunction with TIR/FRAP. TIR/FRAP imaging produces both spatial maps of kinetic parameters (off-rates and mobile fractions) and estimates of kinetic correlation distances, cell-wide kinetic gradients, and dependences of kinetic parameters on initial fluorescence intensity. For microinjected rhodamine actin in living cultured smooth muscle (BC3H1) cells, the unbinding rate at or near the cytofacial surface of the plasma membrane (averaged over the entire cell) is measured at 0.032 +/- 0.007 s(-1). The corresponding rate for actin marked by microinjected rhodamine phalloidin is very similar, 0.033 +/- 0.013 s(-1), suggesting that TIR/FRAP is reporting the dynamics of entire filaments or protofilaments. For submembrane fluorescence-marked actin, the intensity, off-rate, and mobile fraction show a positive correlation over a characteristic distance of 1-3 microm and a negative correlation over larger distances greater than approximately 7-14 microm. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters display a statistically significant cell-wide gradient, with the cell having a "fast" and "slow" end with respect to actin kinetics. PMID:10969025

  15. Inspecting for Quality. California's Lowest-Achieving Schools are Routinely Visited by Inspectors on the Lookout for, among Other things, Inadequate Textbook Supplies, Dirty Drinking Water, and Evidence of Vermin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the California's lowest-achieving schools are routinely visited by inspectors on the lookout for, among other things, inadequate textbook supplies, dirty drinking water, and evidence of vermin. Following the settlement from the case "Williams v. California," the laws known as the "Williams legislation"…

  16. The most important thing in social dance is to end up with the partner you started with. We shall illustrate this with square dance by tracking the movement of the women, assuming the

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Russell Bruce

    1 The most important thing in social dance is to end up with the partner you started with. We shall illustrate this with square dance by tracking the movement of the women, assuming the men do not move. This is readily modified to study contra dance, where both men and women move within sets of four (two couples

  17. How to feel things with words 

    E-print Network

    Laurier, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A person X says to person Y ‘it’s here”. A common enough thing for someone to say to someone else, and a common enough expression for both to understand, yet professional analysts of language are troubled by what ‘it’s ...

  18. Hispanics and Pancreatic Cancer: Things to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    HISPANICS AND PANCREATIC CANCER: THINGS TO KNOW By the National Cancer Institute One of the leading causes of cancer?related deaths among ... a rare but often fatal disease known as pancreatic cancer. This cancer, which is often detected only after ...

  19. Solastalgia: living with the environmental damage caused by natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-02-01

    Forced separation from one's home may trigger emotional distress. People who remain in their homes may experience emotional distress due to living in a severely damaged environment. These people experience a type of 'homesickness' similar to nostalgia because the land around them no longer resembles the home they knew and loved. What they lack is solace or comfort from their home; they long for the home environment to be the way it was before. "Solastalgia" is a term created to describe feelings which arise in people when an environment changes so much that it negatively affects an individual's quality of life. Such changed environments may include drought-stricken areas and open-cut mines. The aim of this article is to describe how solastalgia, originally conceptualized as the result of man-made environmental change, can be similarly applied to the survivors of natural disasters. Using volcanic eruptions as a case example, the authors argue that people who experience a natural disaster are likely to suffer from solastalgia for a number of reasons, which may include the loss of housing, livestock and farmland, and the ongoing danger of living in a disaster-prone area. These losses and fears challenge people's established sense of place and identity and can lead to feelings of helplessness and depression. PMID:24438454

  20. Live vaccines for human metapneumovirus designed by reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Ursula J; Nagashima, Kunio; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was first described in 2001 and has quickly become recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract disease worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. A vaccine against HMPV is required to prevent severe disease associated with infection in infancy. The primary strategy is to develop a live-attenuated virus for intranasal immunization, which is particularly well suited against a respiratory virus. Reverse genetics provides a means of developing highly characterized 'designer' attenuated vaccine candidates. To date, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed, each using a different mode of attenuation. One candidate involves deletion of the G glycoprotein, providing attenuation that is probably based on reduced efficiency of attachment. A second candidate involves deletion of the M2-2 protein, which participates in regulating RNA synthesis and whose deletion has the advantageous property of upregulating transcription and increasing antigen synthesis. A third candidate involves replacing the P protein gene of HMPV with its counterpart from the related avian metapneumovirus, thereby introducing attenuation owing to its chimeric nature and host range restriction. Another live vaccine strategy involves using an attenuated parainfluenza virus as a vector to express HMPV protective antigens, providing a bivalent pediatric vaccine. Additional modifications to provide improved vaccines will also be discussed. PMID:17181442

  1. Correlates of protection induced by live Aro- Salmonella typhimurium vaccines in the murine typhoid model.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J A; Villarreal-Ramos, B; Mastroeni, P; Demarco de Hormaeche, R; Hormaeche, C E

    1997-01-01

    Live attenuated salmonella vaccines generally confer better protection than killed vaccines. The immune responses in BALB/c mice elicited by immunization with a live attenuated Aro Salmonella typhimurium vaccine given orally, intravenously or subcutaneously were compared with those elicited by killed whole-cell vaccines (acetone or heat-treated) given subcutaneously. Live vaccines given by all routes elicited higher interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses in spleen cells against an alkali-treated whole-cell salmonella lysate than did killed vaccines. Live and killed vaccines elicited high total antibody levels to smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), but all live vaccine regimes elicited higher IgG2a, suggesting a Th1 response. Oral and intravenous vaccination with live organisms elicited IgA against smooth LPS which subcutaneous vaccination with live or killed salmonellae failed to evoke. Western blots using rough whole-cell lysates showed that all vaccines elicited a varied anti-protein response; however, all groups immunized with live organisms recognized three unidentified bands of MW 52,000, 46,000 and 18,000 which were consistently absent in groups immunized with killed organisms. The results indicate that immunization with live aroA salmonellae elicited a Th1 type of response, including bystander T-cell help to LPS, and a response to proteins not seen in mice that received killed vaccines. Images Figure 6 PMID:9176117

  2. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1997-06-01

    We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  3. Extending the Lorentz transformation by characteristic coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The problem considered is that of rectilinear motion with variable velocity. The paper gives, by an elementary construction, a system of coordinates which is conformal in a restricted region near the axis of the motion. In such coordinates the velocity of light remains invariant even for observers moving with variable velocity. By a particular choice of the scale relation the restricted conformal transformations can be made to reduce to the Lorentz transformation everywhere in the case of constant velocity and locally in the case of variable velocity.

  4. Facilitating the Integration and Interaction of Real-World Services for the Web of Things

    E-print Network

    Facilitating the Integration and Interaction of Real-World Services for the Web of Things Simon of Things" (WoT) is a vision of a World Wide Web that reaches into the physical world by providing to considerably facilitate the process of populating the Web of Things and illustrate the benefits with a concrete

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Building sustainable parking lots with the Web of Things

    E-print Network

    Sheng, Michael

    research directions in the Internet of Things (IoT) domain [4, 5]. Today, the IoT promises a ubiquitousORIGINAL ARTICLE Building sustainable parking lots with the Web of Things Sujith Samuel Mathew in areas such as the Web of Things are able to curtail some of these issues by creating scalable

  6. SOA-based Integration of the Internet of Things in Enterprise Services Patrik Spiess1

    E-print Network

    SOA-based Integration of the Internet of Things in Enterprise Services Patrik Spiess1 , Stamatis of the Internet of Things in enterprise services. 1 Motivation and Vision Traditionally, the systems will explode. As we are moving towards the "Internet of Things" as depicted by [3], millions of devices

  7. Security Challenges for User-Oriented RFID Applications within the `Internet of Things'

    E-print Network

    Hancke, Gerhard

    Security Challenges for User-Oriented RFID Applications within the `Internet of Things' G.P. HANCKE will need to address. Keywords: RFID, NFC, security, `Internet of Things', user-oriented architecture 1 to be an important building block of the `Internet of Things' and examine how RFID, assisted by the deployment of NFC

  8. A diffusion-consumption problem for oxygen in a living tissue perfused by capillaries

    E-print Network

    Primicerio, Mario

    concentric with a circular cross section of muscle tissue; the exchange of oxygen is modeled through a lawA diffusion-consumption problem for oxygen in a living tissue perfused by capillaries Andro Mikeli describing the nonlinear diffusion of oxygen in a living tissue, in presence of consumption due to metabolism

  9. Playing by Someone Else's Rules: A Phenomenological Study of Vocational Teachers' Lived Experiences under School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsel, Michael D.

    The experiences of six vocational education teachers from several high schools in Chesapeake County, Maryland, who "lived under" the educational reforms of the past 2 decades were examined in a phenomenological study. The study, which used the approach designed by Van Manen in "Researching Lived Experience," included consideration of the…

  10. Disease Risk Factors and Disease Progress in Coast Live Oak and Tanoak Affected by

    E-print Network

    383 Disease Risk Factors and Disease Progress in Coast Live Oak and Tanoak Affected by Phytophthora ramorum Canker (Sudden Oak Death)1 Tedmund J. Swiecki2 and Elizabeth Bernhardt2 Abstract This paper on the development of Phytophthora ramorum stem canker (sudden oak death) in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia

  11. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: Source characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed ofintensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability.

  12. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: source characteristics.

    PubMed

    Keefer, D K

    1984-03-23

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed of intensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability. PMID:17759365

  13. Application of the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaming; Zhang, Guoqing

    2011-12-01

    The Internet of Things is not yet very widespread, many people have little information about Internet of things. But, for magical properties of the Internet of things , its appearance immediately aroused people's great interest. This paper, aiming application of the Internet of Things , use AHP to analyze and look forward to prospects of IOT in many fields.

  14. Creating the Internet of Your Things

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Creating the Internet of Your Things Barb Edson General Manager Microsoft Corp. Executive Summary. The Internet of Things, also known as IoT, is one such trend. The Internet of Things provides vast opportunities, but it can also pose a challenge to enterprises. The Internet of Things has kept plenty

  15. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

  16. The Characteristics of a Model Technology Education Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Andrew R.; Warner, Scott A.; Buechele, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    The things that make the quality of a teacher stand out can cover a wide range of characteristics, actions, words, and experiences. The mark left on a student by a teacher, for good or bad, is written in an ink that will last a lifetime. This article describes a study that identifies the characteristics of exceptional technology education…

  17. Implementation of the Internet of Things on Public Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kesheng; Li, Xichun

    The development of the Internet of Things will occur within a new ecosystem that will be driven by a number of key players. The public security as one of the key players is going to make real-time communications will be possible not only by humans but also by things at anytime and from anywhere. This research will present the advent of the Internet of Things to create a plethora of innovative applications and services, which will enhance quality of life and reduce inequalities.

  18. Attachment Security among Mothers and Their Young Children Living in Poverty: Associations with Maternal, Child, and Contextual Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Nievar, M. Angela; Wright, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Studied variability in mother-child attachment security among high-risk families living in poverty. Maternal sensitivity and the presence of appropriate play materials were assessed. Findings indicated that maternal, child, and contextual variables were significantly associated with attachment security. Furthermore, greater cumulative assets were…

  19. ThingStore: A Platform for Internet-of-Things Application Development and Deployment

    E-print Network

    Hua, Kien A.

    ThingStore: A Platform for Internet-of-Things Application Development and Deployment Kutalmi" environ- ment to facilitate collaboration on Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications development; D.2.11 [Software Engineering]: Software Architectures Keywords ThingStore; Internet of Things; data

  20. Internet of Things Introduction to Internet ofThings (IoT)

    E-print Network

    Roussos, George

    Internet of Things Peng Du #12;Content Introduction to Internet ofThings (IoT) Challenges IPv6 / 6LoWPAN ROLL #12;What is Internet of Things (IoT) Internet TCP/IP Things Criteria #12;Elements A brief idea what Internet ofThings is and why it is interesting to us Appreciated IPv6 is one

  1. Internal performance characteristics of short convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles designed by the method of characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krull, H George; Beale, William T

    1956-01-01

    Internal performance data on a short exhaust nozzle designed by the method of characteristics were obtained over a range of pressure ratios from 1.5 to 22. The peak thrust coefficient was not affected by a shortened divergent section, but it occurred at lower pressure ratios due to reduction in expansion ratio. This nozzle contour based on characteristics solution gave higher thrust coefficients than a conical convergent-divergent nozzle of equivalent length. Abrupt-inlet sections permitted a reduction in nozzle length without a thrust-coefficient reduction.

  2. The Geoscience Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Klump, J.

    2012-04-01

    Internet of Things is a term that refers to "uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure" (Wikipedia). We here use the term to describe new and innovative ways to integrate physical samples in the Earth Sciences into the emerging digital infrastructures that are developed to support research and education in the Geosciences. Many Earth Science data are acquired on solid earth samples through observations and experiments conducted in the field or in the lab. The application and long-term utility of sample-based data for science is critically dependent on (a) the availability of information (metadata) about the samples such as geographical location where the sample was collected, time of sampling, sampling method, etc. (b) links between the different data types available for individual samples that are dispersed in the literature and in digital data repositories, and (c) access to the samples themselves. Neither of these requirements could be achieved in the past due to incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names, and the lack of a central catalog that allows researchers to find a sample's archiving location. New internet-based capabilities have been developed over the past few years for the registration and unique identification of samples that make it possible to overcome these problems. Services for the registration and unique identification of samples are provided by the System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR (www.geosamples.org). SESAR developed the International Geo Sample Number, or IGSN, as a unique identifier for samples and specimens collected from our natural environment. Since December 2011, the IGSN is governed by an international organization, the IGSN eV (www.igsn.org), which endorses and promotes an internationally unified approach for registration and discovery of physical specimens in the Geoscience community and is establishing a new modular and scalable architecture for the IGSN to advance global implementation. Use of the IGSN will, for the first time, allow to establish links between samples (or the digital representation of them), data acquired on these samples, and the publications that report these data. Samples can be linked to a dataset by including IGSNs in the metadata record of a dataset's DOI® when the dataset is registered with the DOI® system for unique identification. Links between datasets and publications already have been implemented based on dataset DOIs® between some Geoscience journals and data centers that are Publication Agents in the DataCite consortium (www.datacite.org). Links between IGSNs, dataset DOIs, and publication DOIs will in the future allow researchers to find and access with a single query and without ambiguity all data acquired on a specific sample across the entire literature.

  3. Humans Really Are Still Evolving, Study Finds By Charles Choi, LiveScience Contributor | LiveScience.com Mon, Apr 30, 2012

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Humans Really Are Still Evolving, Study Finds By Charles Choi, LiveScience Contributor | LiveScience.com ­ Mon, Apr 30, 2012 Natural forces of evolution still continue to shape humanity despite the power we shown advances have not challenged the fact that our species is still evolving, just like all the other

  4. Financial characteristics of hospitals purchased by investor-owned chains.

    PubMed Central

    McCue, M J; Furst, R W

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on the preacquisition financial condition of not-for-profit hospitals acquired by investor-owned hospital chains. Financial ratios are used to determine if not-for-profit hospitals acquired by investor-owned hospital systems have common financial characteristics which make them a likely target for a takeover. The results indicate that during the time period studied, investor-owned hospital systems did tend to purchase hospitals with common financial characteristics and that these characteristics provide a reasonable description of a financially distressed hospital. This finding has important consequences for our health care delivery system. PMID:3771232

  5. Detection and Identification of Free-living Amoeba from Environmental Water in Taiwan by PCR Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H. F.; Hsu, B. M.; Huang, K. H.; She, C. Y.; Kao, P. M.; Shen, S. M.; Tseng, S. F.; Chen, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia and Hartmannella all belong to free-living amoebae that are present ubiquitously in the environment including water, soil, and air. Free-living amoebae are parasites which can infect humans and can lead to serious illness and even death. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of free-living amoebae in aquatic environment in Taiwan, and to compare the differences between Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in diverse cultivation methods and conditions. In this study, we used molecular method by PCR amplification with specific primers to analyze the occurrence of free-living amoebae. We collected 176 samples from environmental water including drinking water treatment plants, stream water, and hot spring recreational areas in Taiwan. Based on the results of PCR, 43 water samples (24.4%) were detected positive for free-living amoebae. The most common Acanthamoeba genotype isolated from samples including T2, T4, T5, T12, and T15. N. australiensis and N. lovaniensis were also identified by molecular biology techniques. Furthermore, we found that both Acanthamoeba and Naegleria can be cultured by PYG in 30° C, but not all free-living amoebae can be isolated and enriched by using storage-cultivation method. Because of the widespread presence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in aquatic environments, the water quality and safety of aquatic environments should be more conscious in Taiwan and worldwide. Keywords: free-living amoebae; Acanthamoeba; Naegleria; Balamuthia; Hartmannella; PCR

  6. Correlates of Quality of Life for Individuals with Dementia Living at Home: The Role of Home Environment, Caregiver, and Patient-related Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Hodgson, Nancy; Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Hess, Edward; Hauck, Walter W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine prevalence of modifiable risk factors and their contribution to patient quality of life (QoL) as rated by dementia patients and family caregivers. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Home environment. Participants 88 patients and their caregivers. Measurements Modifiable characteristics of home environments, patients, and caregivers were observed or obtained through interview. Demographics and ratings of patients’ QoL were obtained from patients and caregivers. Results Patients had mean Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE) score = 17.7 ± 4.6, (range: 10 28) on an average 7.7 ± 2.4 neuropsychiatric behaviors, 6.0 ± 3.1 health conditions and moderate functional challenges; 70.7% (N = 58) had fall risk; 60.5% (N = 52) had sleep problems at least once weekly; and 42.5% (N = 37) had pain. An average of 8.1 ± 5.2 home hazards and 5.4 ± 4.1 adaptations were observed; 51.7% had unmet device/navigation needs. Patients’ and caregivers’ QoL ratings were unrelated to MMSE; and patients’ self-rated QoL was higher than rated by caregivers. Number of health conditions and unmet device/navigation needs were inversely associated with patient self-rated QoL, and number of health conditions, frequency of behaviors, and level of negative communications were inversely associated with caregiver’s assessment of patient QoL. Positive endorsement of caregiving was positively associated with caregiver’s appraisal of patient QoL. Other factors were unrelated. Conclusions Most patients lived at home with high fall risk, unmanaged behavioral symptoms, pain, sleep disturbances, environmental challenges, and multiple hazards. Except for health, factors associated with lower QoL differed for patients and caregivers. Results suggest need to improve QoL by addressing modifiable risk factors and tailoring interventions to patient and caregiver perspectives. PMID:23890928

  7. Synthetic Ion Channel Activity Documented by Electrophysiological Methods in Living Cells

    E-print Network

    Huettner, James E.

    Synthetic Ion Channel Activity Documented by Electrophysiological Methods in Living Cells W ion channels that use crown ethers as entry portals and that span phospholipid bilayer membranes removal, metabolism, signal transduction, and osmolyte homeostasis. Ion channels play a critical role

  8. SINGLE-CELL PIGMENT IDENTIFICATION IN LIVING PHOTOTROPHIC COMMUNITIES BY CONFOCAL IMAGING SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

    E-print Network

    SINGLE-CELL PIGMENT IDENTIFICATION IN LIVING PHOTOTROPHIC COMMUNITIES BY CONFOCAL IMAGING using pure pigments, cyanobacterial and green algae cultures and natural assemblages from hypogean pigments from a single cell in situ into thick samples without isolation and the discrimination

  9. Barriers to access to care reported by women living with HIV across 27 countries.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Margaret; Samarina, Anna; Xi, He; Valdez Ramalho Madruga, José; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Loutfy, Mona; Fournelle, Marie-Josée; Norton, Michael; Van Wyk, Jean; Zachry, Woodie; Martinez, Marisol

    2015-10-01

    Increased access to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary in order to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Importantly, slightly over half of the people living with HIV are women. Small studies have described many barriers to accessing treatment and care among women living with HIV. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, epidemiological study assessed the prevalence of barriers to accessing care for women living with HIV across 27 countries, divided into four global regions. HIV-positive women attending routine clinical visits were offered the opportunity to participate in the study. Data describing the study sites and demographic characteristics of the participating women were collected. Participating women filled out questionnaires including the Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire, on which they reported the extent to which they found each of the 12 potential barriers to accessing health care problematic. A total of 1931 women living with HIV were included in the study: 760 from Western Europe and Canada (WEC), 532 from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), 519 from Latin America (LA), and 120 from China. The mean age of participating women was 40.1 ± 11.4 years. A total of 88.2% were currently taking ART. A total of 81.8% obtained HIV treatment under a government health plan. The most prevalent barrier to care was community HIV/AIDS stigma. Community HIV/AIDS knowledge, lack of supportive/understanding work environments, lack of employment opportunities, and personal financial resources were also highly prevalent barriers to accessing care. These findings indicate that, more than 30 years after the start of the AIDS epidemic, stigma is still a major issue for women living with HIV. Continued efforts are needed to improve community education on HIV/AIDS in order to maximize access to health care among women living with HIV. PMID:26168817

  10. Barriers to access to care reported by women living with HIV across 27 countries

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Margaret; Samarina, Anna; Xi, He; Valdez Ramalho Madruga, José; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Loutfy, Mona; Fournelle, Marie-Josée; Norton, Michael; Van Wyk, Jean; Zachry, Woodie; Martinez, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Increased access to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary in order to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Importantly, slightly over half of the people living with HIV are women. Small studies have described many barriers to accessing treatment and care among women living with HIV. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, epidemiological study assessed the prevalence of barriers to accessing care for women living with HIV across 27 countries, divided into four global regions. HIV-positive women attending routine clinical visits were offered the opportunity to participate in the study. Data describing the study sites and demographic characteristics of the participating women were collected. Participating women filled out questionnaires including the Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire, on which they reported the extent to which they found each of the 12 potential barriers to accessing health care problematic. A total of 1931 women living with HIV were included in the study: 760 from Western Europe and Canada (WEC), 532 from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), 519 from Latin America (LA), and 120 from China. The mean age of participating women was 40.1 ± 11.4 years. A total of 88.2% were currently taking ART. A total of 81.8% obtained HIV treatment under a government health plan. The most prevalent barrier to care was community HIV/AIDS stigma. Community HIV/AIDS knowledge, lack of supportive/understanding work environments, lack of employment opportunities, and personal financial resources were also highly prevalent barriers to accessing care. These findings indicate that, more than 30 years after the start of the AIDS epidemic, stigma is still a major issue for women living with HIV. Continued efforts are needed to improve community education on HIV/AIDS in order to maximize access to health care among women living with HIV. PMID:26168817

  11. Mapping Biological Behaviors by Application of Longer-Lived Positron Emitting Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2012-01-01

    With the technological development of positron emission tomography (PET) and the advent of novel antibody-directed drug delivery systems, longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides are moving to the forefront to take important roles in tracking the distribution of biotherapeutics such as antibodies, and for monitoring biological processes and responses. Longer half-life radionuclides possess advantages of convenient on-site preparation procedures for both clinical and non-clinical applications. The suitability of the long half-life radionuclides for imaging intact monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their respective fragments, which have inherently long biological half-lives, has attracted increased interest in recent years. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent literature as it applies to the development of nine-selected longer-lived positron emitters with half-lives of 9–140 hours (e.g., 124I, 64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr), and describe the biological behaviors of radionuclide-labeled mAbs with respect to distribution and targeting characteristics, potential toxicities, biological applications, and clinical translation potentials. PMID:23123291

  12. Quantitative imaging of living cells by deep ultraviolet microscopy

    E-print Network

    Zeskind, Benjamin J

    2006-01-01

    Developments in light microscopy over the past three centuries have opened new windows into cell structure and function, yet many questions remain unanswered by current imaging approaches. Deep ultraviolet microscopy ...

  13. Efficient delivery of quantum dots in live cells by gold nanoparticle mediated photoporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ranhua; Joris, Freya; De Cock, Ine; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Skirtach, Andre G.; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    There is considerable interest in using Quantum Dots (QDs) as fluorescent probes such for cellular imaging due to unique advantages in comparison with conventional molecular dyes. However, cytosolic delivery of QDs into live cells remains a major challenge. Here we demonstrate highly efficient delivery of PEG-coated QDs into live cells by means of laser-induced vapour nanobubbles. Using this procedure we succeeded in high-throughput loading of ~80% of cells while maintaining a cell viability of ~85%.

  14. All Things Out of Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together and compares my own artistic practice of drawing/painting and the eighteenth-century novel "Tristram Shandy." In both cases, there is a free play of lines, textual or graphic, which sets "all things out of rule". A whole typology of lines is woven throughout Sterne's text and reappears,…

  15. SPRING THING 2008: " Swamp Feast! "

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    SPRING THING 2008: " Swamp Feast! " DATE: Saturday April 19, 2008 TIME: 1:00 PM - `til the evening TuskawillaRd. McDonalds Exit 44 to 434 434 434 Winter Springs Town Center University Blvd UCF Downtown: For inspiration use Marie Lebeau and Boudreaux. "SOGGY ACRES" 100 Tuskawilla Rd. Winter Springs, FL 32708 (407

  16. SUBJECTIVE PROBABILITY THE REAL THING

    E-print Network

    Fienberg, Stephen E.

    SUBJECTIVE PROBABILITY THE REAL THING Richard Jeffrey c 2002 November 4, 2002 #12;1 Contents, 1 1 on alien probabilities for diagnoses, 62 3.4.2 Updating on alien factors for diagnoses, 62 3.5 Softcore, in which the colors are all the real numbers from 0 to 1. The question of the precise relationship between

  17. 14 Conversations about Three Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, the author tries to look forward into the 21st century to divine three things: (i) What skills will researchers in the future need to solve the most pressing problems? (ii) What are some of the most likely candidates to be those problems? and (iii) What are some current areas of research that seem mined out and should not distract…

  18. Chemistry Education: Ten Dichotomies We Live By Vicente Talanquer*

    E-print Network

    Talanquer, Vicente A.

    reasons, chemistry is a science built upon a wide variety of dichotomic concepts, such as acid/base properties and behaviors: strong acids versus weak bases; strong reducers versus weak oxidizers.2 We also- ations based on either the confrontation between these opposites or by highlighting their complementary

  19. Thermoresponsive Polyphosphazene-Based Molecular Brushes by Living Cationic Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Wilfert, Sandra; Iturmendi, Aitziber; Henke, Helena; Brüggemann, Oliver; Teasdale, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Summary A series of polyphosphazenes with molecular brush type structures have been prepared with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities. The polymers show lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) between 18 and 90 °C, which can be easily tailored by choice of side-substituent to suit the required application. A temperature triggered self-assembly is observed to give stable colloidal aggregates with dimensions in the region of 100–300 nm. PMID:24926189

  20. A swimming robot actuated by living muscle tissue

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Hugh; Dennis, Robert G

    2004-01-01

    Biomechatronics is the integration of biological components with artificial devices, in which the biological component confers a significant functional capability to the system, and the artificial component provides specific cellular and tissue interfaces that promote the maintenance and functional adaptation of the biological component. Based upon functional performance, muscle is potentially an excellent mechanical actuator, but the larger challenge of developing muscle-actuated, biomechatronic devices poses many scientific and engineering challenges. As a demonstratory proof of concept, we designed, built, and characterized a swimming robot actuated by two explanted frog semitendinosus muscles and controlled by an embedded microcontroller. Using open loop stimulation protocols, the robot performed basic swimming maneuvers such as starting, stopping, turning (turning radius ~400 mm) and straight-line swimming (max speed >1/3 body lengths/second). A broad spectrum antibiotic/antimycotic ringer solution surrounded the muscle actuators for long term maintenance, ex vivo. The robot swam for a total of 4 hours over a 42 hour lifespan (10% duty cycle) before its velocity degraded below 75% of its maximum. The development of functional biomechatronic prototypes with integrated musculoskeletal tissues is the first critical step toward the long term objective of controllable, adaptive and robust biomechatronic robots and prostheses. PMID:15679914

  1. Production of a short-lived filament by a surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.

    1976-01-01

    A large surge was observed on September 17, 1971 part of which, after travelling 200,000 km across the surface, returned to the surface to form a filament. The filament lasted about 30 minutes, then rose up and returned to the source of the surge. This was interpreted as the filling of a semi-stable magnetic trap. Analysis of the microwave radio burst showed it to have been produced by a source optically thick at 8,800 MHz, with area 4 (arc min)squared and T approximately 275,000 deg, N squared sub eV approximately 7 x 10 to the 48th power. The soft x-ray burst showed a component at 12 x 1,00.000 deg with N squared sub eV approximately 3 x 10 to the 48th power.

  2. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  3. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  4. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  5. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  6. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  7. Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass

    E-print Network

    Volesky, Bohumil

    by different methods is capable of taking up more than 10% (11 mEq/g) of its dry weight in aluminum at pH 4Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass Hak Sung Lee1, * and Bohumil.5. There are indications that the biomass hydroxyl groups were involved in sequestering the aluminum in the form

  8. Material civilization: things and society.

    PubMed

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects. PMID:16759196

  9. Designing Environment for Teaching Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Konstantin; Vujin, Vladimir; Labus, Aleksandra; Stepanic, Ðorde; Stevanovic, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    One of the new topics taught at technical universities is Internet of Things. In this paper, a workshop for organizing a lab in academic environment for the subject Internet of Things is described. The architecture of the platform, scenario and a description of components used for creating the environment for learning Internet of things are also…

  10. 101 Things to Learn in Art School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kit

    2011-01-01

    What is the first thing to learn in art school? "Art can be anything." The second thing? "Learn to draw." With "101 Things to Learn in Art School", artist and teacher Kit White delivers and develops such lessons, striking an instructive balance between technical advice and sage concepts. These 101 maxims, meditations, and demonstrations offer both…

  11. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  12. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Schlee, Martin; Roth, Susanne; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Barchet, Winfried; Böttcher, Jan; Hain, Torsten; Geiger, Sergej; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Fritz, Jörg H; Civril, Filiz; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Kurts, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Hartmann, Gunther; Chakraborty, Trinad; Knolle, Percy A

    2012-01-01

    Immunity against infection with Listeria monocytogenes is not achieved from innate immune stimulation by contact with killed but requires viable Listeria gaining access to the cytosol of infected cells. It has remained ill-defined how such immune sensing of live Listeria occurs. Here, we report that efficient cytosolic immune sensing requires access of nucleic acids derived from live Listeria to the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Listeria released nucleic acids and that such secreted bacterial RNA/DNA was recognized by the cytosolic sensors RIG-I, MDA5 and STING thereby triggering interferon ? production. Secreted Listeria nucleic acids also caused RIG-I-dependent IL-1?-production and inflammasome activation. The signalling molecule CARD9 contributed to IL-1? production in response to secreted nucleic acids. In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria. PMID:23064150

  13. Characteristics of an Airfoil as Affected by Fabric Sag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kenneth E

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests made at a high value of the Reynolds Number in the N.A.C.A. variable-density wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil as affected by fabric sag. Tests were made of two Gottingen 387 airfoils, one having the usual smooth surface and the other having a surface modified to simulate two types of fabric sag. The results of these tests indicate that the usual sagging of the wind covering between ribs has a very small effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil.

  14. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, W.Y.; Min, S.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc. 14 figs.

  15. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wei-yang (Pleasanton, CA); Min, Shermann (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc.

  16. Investigation of Bunsen flame dynamics by the method of characteristics

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    burning velocity is normal to the flame front and directed towards the unburnt gas (Figure 1), and its:mbondar@win.tue.nl 1 #12; cannot equate the laminar burning velocity. Consequently, the flame does not reachInvestigation of Bunsen flame dynamics by the method of characteristics M.L. BONDAR # , R

  17. Quantitative analysis of gene expression in living adult neural stem cells by gene trapping

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    , processes such as differentiation are controlled by tightly regulated genes that are only expressed analysis of gene expression, making the system less affected by background fluorescence and cell density14Quantitative analysis of gene expression in living adult neural stem cells by gene trapping John R

  18. Requirements for in vivo IFN-induction by live microfilariae of the parasitic nematode, Brugia malayi

    E-print Network

    Allen, Judith

    (Mf) of the parasite induce significant levels of the inflammatory cytokine IFN-. In single-sex adult631 Requirements for in vivo IFN- induction by live microfilariae of the parasitic nematode, Brugia by the parasitic nematode, Brugia malayi, is a chronic human disease immunologically characterized by stimulation

  19. How Things Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the physics of liquid crystal displays (LCD) which is based on polarizing properties of crystals controlled by electric command. Production of alphanumerics, display control, and input are considered. (JM)

  20. Things You Can Try

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, Charlotte W.

    1971-01-01

    A Snip of the Scissors" describes the geometry involved in making stars by paper folding, and Checking the Calculated Average Through Subtraction" suggests practice in operations with negative numbers. (MM)

  1. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  2. Dispossession: The tenacity of things

    E-print Network

    Ekerdt, David

    2009-01-01

    durations within which things are cultivated or fall out of favor. Period effects on possessions come about when goods are historically new and enter households widely within a short span of time (e.g., forms of consumer electronics).Then there are goods... any souvenirs, they are over. The consumer economy, it has been observed, grows ever more skilled at the provision of merchandise that flees posses- sion-that needs frequent replacement. The lucrative possibili- ties of replacement consumption occurred...

  3. Ten Tips about 23 Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Learning 2.0--aka the "23 Things"--is a self-paced online learning program that the author designed in 2006 as a one-person crusade to move an entire organization of 500-plus staff onto the Web 2.0 bandwagon. Along with numerous requests to duplicate the program, many seek insight on how to do this successfully. In this article, the author shares…

  4. We live in a software jungle. Software helps run our cars, manage our money, plan our sched-

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    rapidly, they remind me of living things, which has exciting implications. I don't mean, of course us to new techniques for cybersecurity inspired by what we know about immune sys- tems. Even on the Internet -- one of the largest and most complex human artifacts ever created. Naturally, these biological

  5. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  6. Measuring the Right Thing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Angus

    Economic analysis of the quality of life in America must consider personal values and social indicators as well as economic indicators. Although the technical procedures and statistical techniques of economic research are constantly improving, the validity of the research is hampered by problems of definition and measurement. Definition and…

  7. Planning and Doing Things 

    E-print Network

    Tate, Austin

    2007-01-01

    I was interested in computers by the age of 15 and gave talks on them at school. I attended evening classes a couple of years later while still at school travelling on the bus for an hour in the evening to a college in Leeds to learn programming (in...

  8. It's the Little Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    Information technology (IT) departments are ruled by a kind of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The big-tech stuff--the operating systems, the networks, the data centers--gets the priority, food-and-shelter attention, while upgrading the backup power supplies, evaluating new projector mounts, and taming that rat's nest of classroom cords fall…

  9. Expectations about future use of long-term services and supports vary by current living arrangement.

    PubMed

    Henning-Smith, Carrie E; Shippee, Tetyana P

    2015-01-01

    Most Americans know little about options for long-term services and supports and underestimate their likely future needs for such assistance. Using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, we examined expectations about future use of long-term services and supports among adults ages 40-65 and how these expectations varied by current living arrangement. We found differences by living arrangement in expectations about both future need for long-term services and supports and who would provide such care if needed. Respondents living with minor children were the least likely to expect to need long-term services and supports and to require paid care if the need arose. In contrast, respondents living alone were the most likely to expect that it was "very likely" that they would need long-term services and supports and to rely on paid care. Overall, we found a disconnect between expectations of use and likely future reality: 60 percent of respondents believed that they were unlikely to need long-term services and supports in the future, whereas the evidence suggests that nearly 70 percent of older adults will need them at some point. These findings both underscore the need for programs that encourage people to plan for long-term services and supports and indicate that information about living arrangements can be useful in developing and targeting such programs. PMID:25561642

  10. Learn more about the most abundant group of living things!

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Randall J.

    vs. Interspecific (3) · Self thinning (6) · Competitive Exclusion Principle (10) · Mathematical are they the same? · Planthopper example (fig 13.6) http://www.everything.co.za/search/imhttp://visualsunlimited.photoshelter.com/image/I00003Pgm15skdDY Types of Competition · General Definitions of Competition ­ Interaction that negatively

  11. Increased Surface Fatigue Lives of Spur Gears by Application of a Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Cooper, Clark V.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Hansen, Bruce D.

    2003-01-01

    Hard coatings have potential for increasing gear surface fatigue lives. Experiments were conducted using gears both with and without a metal-containing, carbonbased coating. The gears were case-carburized AISI 9310 steel spur gears. Some gears were provided with the coating by magnetron sputtering. Lives were evaluated by accelerated life tests. For uncoated gears, all of fifteen tests resulted in fatigue failure before completing 275 million revolutions. For coated gears, eleven of the fourteen tests were suspended with no fatigue failure after 275 million revolutions. The improved life owing to the coating, approximately a six-fold increase, was a statistically significant result.

  12. Distributions of Long-Lived Radioactive Nuclei Provided by Star Forming Environments

    E-print Network

    Fatuzzo, M

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary --- but not sufficient --- for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This...

  13. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 ?g/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 ?g/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ? 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 ?g/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes. PMID:25386731

  14. A Sourcebook for Energy and the Way We Live. Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Ann

    The guide presents teaching suggestions and lists resources to be used with the twelfth Course by Newspaper, "Energy and the Way We Live." Courses by Newspaper is a program presenting college-level courses to the public through the cooperation of newspapers and participating colleges. Other components of this course are the Article Booklet (SO 012…

  15. Energy and the Way We Live. Article Booklet for the Twelfth Course by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Dorothy K.; And Others

    The 15 articles in this booklet were written for the twelfth Course by Newspaper, "Energy and the Way We Live." Courses by Newspaper is a program presenting college-level courses to the public through the cooperation of newspapers and participating colleges. Other components of this course are the Reader/Study Guide (SO 012 724) and the Source…

  16. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  17. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  18. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  19. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  20. 25 CFR 243.9 - Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what means?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of 43 CFR part 4, subpart D. During the pendency of such a proceeding, the authority to assume control over the affected Alaskan reindeer pursuant to 43 CFR 4.270 may be exercised by the Alaska... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who may inherit live Alaskan reindeer and by what...

  1. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of wheezing in children in the first year of life, living in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Lillian Sanchez Lacerda; Takano, Olga Akiko; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of wheezing in infants aged 12 to 15 months in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Midwest Brazil. METHODS: Parents and/or guardians of infants were interviewed and completed a written standardized questionnaire of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancia en Lactantes (EISL) - phase 3 at primary healthcare clinics at the same day of children vaccination or at home, from August of 2009 to November of 2010. RESULTS: 1,060 parents and/or guardians completed the questionnaire, and 514 (48.5%) infants were male. Among the studied infants, 294 (27.7%) had at least one episode of wheezing during the first year of life, beggining at 5.8±3.0 months of age, with a predominance of male patients. The prevalence of occasional wheezing (<3 episodes of wheezing) was 15.0% and recurrent wheezing (?3 episodes) was 12.7%. Among the infants with recurrent wheezing, the use of inhaled ?2-agonist, oral corticosteroid, leukotriene receptor antagonist, as well as night symptoms, respiratory distress, and hospitalization due to severe episodes were significantly more frequent. Physician-diagnosed asthma was observed in 28 (9.5%) of the wheezing infants. Among the wheezing infants, 80 (27.7%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, of whom 33 (11.2%) required hospitalization; neverthless, no differences between occasional and recurrent wheezing infants were found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of recurrent wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in infants were lower compared with those observed in other Brazilian studies. Recurrent wheezing had early onset and high morbity. PMID:25510994

  2. Compartmental Genomics in Living Cells Revealed by Single-Cell Nanobiopsy

    PubMed Central

    Actis, Paolo; Maalouf, Michelle; Kim, Hyunsung John; Lohith, Akshar; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R. Adam; Pourmand, Nader

    2014-01-01

    The ability to study the molecular biology of living single cells in heterogeneous cell populations is essential for next generation analysis of cellular circuitry and function. Here, we developed a single-cell nanobiopsy platform based on scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) for continuous sampling of intracellular content from individual cells. The nanobiopsy platform uses electrowetting within a nanopipette to extract cellular material from living cells with minimal disruption of the cellular milieu. We demonstrate the subcellular resolution of the nanobiopsy platform by isolating small subpopulations of mitochondria from single living cells, and quantify mutant mitochondrial genomes in those single cells with high throughput sequencing technology. These findings may provide the foundation for dynamic subcellular genomic analysis. PMID:24279711

  3. Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lu; Hu, Fanghao; Shen, Yihui; Chen, Zhixing; Yu, Yong; Lin, Chih-Chun; Wang, Meng C.; Min, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Functional small biomolecules play indispensable roles inside cells. However, sensitive and specific visualization of these molecules in living systems has proven to be highly challenging. Herein, we report stimulated Raman scattering imaging of alkyne tags as a general strategy for studying a broad spectrum of small biomolecules in live cells and animals. We demonstrate this technique by tracking alkyne-bearing drugs in mouse tissues, and visualizing de novo synthesis of DNA, RNA, proteomes, phospholipids and triglycerides, respectively, through metabolic incorporation of alkyne-tagged small precursors. PMID:24584195

  4. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  5. Movements of Individual BKCa Channels in Live Cell Membrane Monitored by Site-Specific Labeling Using Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sehoon; Kim, Hae-Deun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Chang, Sunghoe; Park, Chul-Seung

    2010-01-01

    The movements of BKCa channels were investigated in live cells using quantum dots (QDs). The extracellular N-terminus was metabolically tagged with biotin, labeled with streptavidin-conjugated QDs and then monitored using real-time time-lapse imaging in COS-7 cells and cultured neurons. By tracking hundreds of channels, we were able to determine the characteristics of channel movements quantitatively. Channels in COS-7 cells exhibited a confined diffusion in an area of 1.915 ?m2, with an initial diffusion coefficient of 0.033 ?m2/s. In neurons, the channel movements were more heterogeneous and highly dependent on subcellular location. While the channels in soma diffused slowly without clear confinement, axodendritic channels showed more rapid and pseudo-one-dimensional movements. Intriguingly, the channel movement in somata was drastically increased by the neuronal ?4 subunit, in contrast to the channels in the axodendritic area where the mobility were significantly decreased. Thus, our results demonstrate that the membrane mobility of BKCa channels can be greatly influenced by the expression system used, subunit composition, and subcellular location. This QD-based, single-molecule tracking technique can be utilized to investigate the cellular mechanisms that determine the mobility as well as the localization of various membrane proteins in live cells. PMID:21044582

  6. Musical Meaning in the Lives of Those Affected by the Holocaust: Implications for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the role of music in the lives of those affected by the Holocaust. Participants were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling techniques, and a total of five were selected based on their connection to the Holocaust. Participants included those incarcerated in camps and ghettos, those who escaped…

  7. HORRIFIC WEAPON OF WAR IS STILL DESTROYING LIVES By Mike Felker

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    HORRIFIC WEAPON OF WAR IS STILL DESTROYING LIVES By Mike Felker March 27 newspaper headline, and muscles could be destroyed and nerves severed. With horrific force, fragments of the weapon, along 45 Wed., April 13, 2005 #12;million to 50 million land mines in nearly 70 countries. All weapons

  8. 7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ONE OF TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE (AND BEDROOM NUMBER TWO IN BACKGROUND) AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. Teaching-Learning Process by Synchronic Communication Tools: The Elluminate Live Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santovena-Casal, Sonia Ma

    2012-01-01

    When integrating a new online tool in university educational system, it is necessary to know its features, applications and functions in depth, advantages and disadvantages, and the results obtained when it has been used by other educational institutions. Synchronous communication tool, "Elluminate Live" can be integrated into a virtual platform…

  10. PATHS OF MOTION AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF LIVING SPERM CELL STUDIED BY OPTICAL METHODS

    E-print Network

    PATHS OF MOTION AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF LIVING SPERM CELL STUDIED BY OPTICAL METHODS Academy of Sciencies, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668,Warszawa ABSTRACT The method of sperm motility analysis of the movie images illustrating the dynamics of the sperm cells movement. An appropriate analysis of a grey

  11. Golgi twins in late mitosis revealed by genetically encoded tags for live cell imaging and correlated

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Golgi twins in late mitosis revealed by genetically encoded tags for live cell imaging apparatus. This or- ganelle disassembles at the onset of mitosis and, after a sequence of poorly understood during mitosis remains unclear, partly due to limitations of molecular markers and the resolution

  12. Healthy Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  13. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many of the same services available in skilled nursing, either by employing personal care staff or contracting with home health agencies and other outside professionals. Learn more about assisted living services and amenities. ...

  14. Debate: What constitutes 'terminality' and how does it relate to a Living Will?

    PubMed Central

    Crippen, David; Levy, Mitchell; Truog, Robert; Whetstine, Leslie; Luce, John

    2000-01-01

    A moribund and debilitated patient arrives in an emergency department and is placed on life support systems. Subsequently it is determined that she has a 'living will' proscribing aggressive measures should her condition be judged 'terminal' by her physicians. But, as our round table of authorities reveal, the concept of 'terminal' means different things to different people. The patient's surrogates are unable to agree on whether she would desire continuation of mechanical ventilation if there was a real chance of improvement or if she would want to have her living will enforced as soon it's terms were revealed. The problem of the potential ambiguity of a living will is explored. PMID:11123876

  15. Pore Characteristics of Chitosan Scaffolds Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tully-Dartez, Stephanie; Cardenas, Henry E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), was used to examine the pore characteristics of chitosan scaffolds under aqueous conditions. The EIS was run with a constant current of 0.1 mA with the frequency sweep of 106 to 10?4 Hz. The resulting complex impedance measurement was then used to calculate porosity, which was determined to be 71%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), two commonly used methods for scaffold characterization, were used to independently evaluate the pore characteristics and compare with that of EIS. The SEM and MIP were performed and analyzed under standard conditions. The pore diameter values found by SEM and MIP are 107??m and 82??m, respectively, indicating that both the image-based (SEM) and pressure-based (MIP) analyses provide similar results. The porosity of 73% calculated by MIP is comparable to that of EIS. From these results, it can be suggested that EIS, a relatively nondestructive test, is able to obtain comparable data on pore characteristics, as compared to SEM and MIP. The advantage of the EIS as an nondestructive test is that it can be performed under physiologically relevant conditions, whereas SEM and MIP require dry samples and vacuum conditions for measurement. These benefits make EIS a viable option for the characterization and long-term observation of tissue-engineered scaffolds. PMID:19580421

  16. Active and long-lived permanent forearc deformation driven by the subduction seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron Melo, Felipe Alejandro

    I have used geological, geophysical and engineering methods to explore mechanisms of upper plate, brittle deformation at active forearc regions. My dissertation particularly addresses the permanent deformation style experienced by the forearc following great subduction ruptures, such as the 2010 M w8.8 Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquakes. These events triggered large, shallow seismicity on upper plate normal faults above the rupture reaching Mw7.0. First I present new structural data from the Chilean Coastal Cordillera over the rupture zone of the Maule earthquake. The study area contains the Pichilemu normal fault, which produced the large crustal aftershocks of the megathrust event. Normal faults are the major neotectonic structural elements but reverse faults also exist. Crustal seismicity and GPS surface displacements show that the forearc experiences pulses of rapid coseismic extension, parallel to the heave of the megathrust, and slow interseismic, convergence-parallel shortening. These cycles, over geologic time, build the forearc structural grain, reactivating structures properly-oriented respect to the deformation field of each stage of the interplate cycle. Great subduction events may play a fundamental role in constructing the crustal architecture of extensional forearc regions. Static mechanical models of coseismic and interseismic upper plate deformation are used to explore for distinct features that could result from brittle fracturing over the two stages of the interplate cycle. I show that the semi-elliptical outline of the first-order normal faults along the Coastal Cordillera may define the location of a characteristic, long-lived megathrust segment. Finally, using data from the Global CMT catalog I analyzed the seismic behavior through time of forearc regions that have experienced great subduction ruptures >Mw7.7 worldwide. Between 61% and 83% of the cases where upper plate earthquakes exhibited periods of increased seismicity above background levels occurred contemporaneous to megathrust ruptures. That correlation is stronger for normal fault events than reverse or strike-slip crustal earthquakes. More importantly, for any given megathrust the summation of the Mw accounted by the forearc normal fault aftershocks appears to have a positive linear correlation with the Mw of the subduction earthquake -- the larger the megathrust the larger the energy released by forearc events.

  17. Distributions of Long-lived Radioactive Nuclei Provided by Star-forming Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for 40K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in 40K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.

  18. Imaging live cell in micro-liquid enclosure by X-ray laser diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Shibuya, Akemi; Song, Changyong; Kim, Sangsoo; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Tamakoshi, Masatada; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Tairo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Nishino, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Emerging X-ray free-electron lasers with femtosecond pulse duration enable single-shot snapshot imaging almost free from sample damage by outrunning major radiation damage processes. In bioimaging, it is essential to keep the sample close to its natural state. Conventional high-resolution imaging, however, suffers from severe radiation damage that hinders live cell imaging. Here we present a method for capturing snapshots of live cells kept in a micro-liquid enclosure array by X-ray laser diffraction. We place living Microbacterium lacticum cells in an enclosure array and successively expose each enclosure to a single X-ray laser pulse from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser. The enclosure itself works as a guard slit and allows us to record a coherent diffraction pattern from a weakly-scattering submicrometre-sized cell with a clear fringe extending up to a 28-nm full-period resolution. The reconstructed image reveals living whole-cell structures without any staining, which helps advance understanding of intracellular phenomena.

  19. Sustained secretion of immunoglobulin by long-lived human tonsil plasma cells.

    PubMed

    van Laar, Jacob M; Melchers, Marc; Teng, Y K Onno; van der Zouwen, Boris; Mohammadi, Rozbeh; Fischer, Randy; Margolis, Leonid; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Lipsky, Peter E; Grammer, Amrie C

    2007-09-01

    Immunoglobulin-secreting cells comprise both short-lived proliferating plasmablasts and long-lived nonproliferating plasma cells. To determine the phenotype and functional activity of Ig-secreting cells in human lymphoid tissue, we used a tonsillar organ culture model. A significant proportion of IgA and IgG secretion was shown to be mediated by long-lived, nonproliferating plasma cells that coexpressed high levels of CD27 and CD38. The presence of such cells was further corroborated by the finding of enhanced expression in the CD19(+) B-cell population of XBP-1, IRF-4, and particularly Blimp-1 genes involved in the differentiation of plasma cells. Intact tissue seemed to be necessary for optimal functional activity of plasma cells. A strong correlation was found between concentrations of interleukin-6 and IgA or IgG, but not IgM, in culture supernatants suggesting a role for interleukin-6 in the survival of long-lived plasma cells. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that human lymphoid tissue harbors a population of nonproliferating plasma cells that are dependent on an intact microenvironment for ongoing Ig secretion. PMID:17690187

  20. Writing social psychology: fictional things and unpopulated texts.

    PubMed

    Billig, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the author's position on the question how to write social psychology. It reflects the author's long-term interest in rhetoric and his more recent concerns about the writing of social scientists. The author argues that social psychologists tend to produce unpopulated texts, writing about 'fictional things' rather than people. Social psychologists assume that their technical terms are more precise than ordinary language terms. The author contests this assumption. He suggests that when it comes to describing human actions, ordinary language on the whole tends to be more precise. The paper analyses why this should be the case, drawing on ideas from linguistics and Vaihinger's notion of fictions. The author presents examples to show how psychological writers, by using passives and nominals, can omit information about the agents of action and the nature of the actions that they are performing. Although their texts may appear impressively technical, they can, in fact, be highly imprecise. Moreover, social psychologists, by using this nominal style of writing, tend to write about processes as if they were things and then attribute actions to these things. In so doing, they create 'fictional things', which they treat as if they were real things. The author offers six recommendations for writing in simpler, clearer ways. PMID:21366609

  1. Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Laaha, G.

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of a drought are generally dependent on the severity of the hydrological drought event, which can be expressed by streamflow drought duration or deficit volume. For prediction and the selection of drought sensitive regions, it is crucial to know how streamflow drought severity relates to climate and catchment characteristics. In this study we investigated controls on drought severity based on a comprehensive Austrian dataset consisting of 44 catchments with long time series of hydrometeorological data (on average around 50 year) and information on a large number of physiographic catchment characteristics. Drought analysis was performed with the variable threshold level method and various statistical tools were applied, i.e. bivariate correlation analysis, heatmaps, linear models based on multiple regression, varying slope models, and automatic stepwise regression. Results indicate that streamflow drought duration is primarily controlled by storage, quantified by the Base Flow Index or by a combination of catchment characteristics related to catchment storage and release, e.g. geology and land use. Additionally, the duration of dry spells in precipitation is important for streamflow drought duration. Hydrological drought deficit, however, is governed by average catchment wetness (represented by mean annual precipitation) and elevation (reflecting seasonal storage in the snow pack and glaciers). Our conclusion is that both drought duration and deficit are governed by a combination of climate and catchment control, but not in a similar way. Besides meteorological forcing, storage is important; storage in soils, aquifers, lakes, etc. influences drought duration and seasonal storage in snow and glaciers influences drought deficit. Consequently, the spatial variation of hydrological drought severity is highly dependent on terrestrial hydrological processes.

  2. Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if the expected scenario is different from the originally planned one. This approach postulates that even a primitive living species possesses additional, non-Newtonian properties that are not included in the laws of Newtonian or statistical mechanics. These properties follow from a privileged ability of living systems to possess a self-image (a concept introduced in psychology) and to interact with it. The proposed mathematical system is based on the coupling of the classical dynamical system representing the motor dynamics with the corresponding Liouville equation describing the evolution of initial uncertainties in terms of the probability density and representing the mental dynamics. The coupling is implemented by the information-based supervising forces that can be associated with self-awareness. These forces fundamentally change the pattern of the probability evolution, and therefore, lead to a major departure of the behavior of living systems from the patterns of both Newtonian and statistical mechanics. This innovation is meant to capture the signature of life based only on observable behavior, not on any biochemistry. This will not prevent the use of this model for developing artificial living systems, as well as for studying some general properties of behavior of natural, living systems.

  3. Sensing in the collaborative Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Borges Neto, João B; Silva, Thiago H; Assunção, Renato Martins; Mini, Raquel A F; Loureiro, Antonio A F

    2015-01-01

    We are entering a new era of computing technology, the era of Internet of Things (IoT). An important element for this popularization is the large use of off-the-shelf sensors. Most of those sensors will be deployed by different owners, generally common users, creating what we call the Collaborative IoT. This collaborative IoT helps to increase considerably the amount and availability of collected data for different purposes, creating new interesting opportunities, but also several challenges. For example, it is very challenging to search for and select a desired sensor or a group of sensors when there is no description about the provided sensed data or when it is imprecise. Given that, in this work we characterize the properties of the sensed data in the Internet of Things, mainly the sensed data contributed by several sources, including sensors from common users. We conclude that, in order to safely use data available in the IoT, we need a filtering process to increase the data reliability. In this direction, we propose a new simple and powerful approach that helps to select reliable sensors. We tested our method for different types of sensed data, and the results reveal the effectiveness in the correct selection of sensor data. PMID:25808766

  4. Sensing in the Collaborative Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Borges Neto, João B.; Silva, Thiago H.; Assunção, Renato Martins; Mini, Raquel A. F.; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.

    2015-01-01

    We are entering a new era of computing technology, the era of Internet of Things (IoT). An important element for this popularization is the large use of off-the-shelf sensors. Most of those sensors will be deployed by different owners, generally common users, creating what we call the Collaborative IoT. This collaborative IoT helps to increase considerably the amount and availability of collected data for different purposes, creating new interesting opportunities, but also several challenges. For example, it is very challenging to search for and select a desired sensor or a group of sensors when there is no description about the provided sensed data or when it is imprecise. Given that, in this work we characterize the properties of the sensed data in the Internet of Things, mainly the sensed data contributed by several sources, including sensors from common users. We conclude that, in order to safely use data available in the IoT, we need a filtering process to increase the data reliability. In this direction, we propose a new simple and powerful approach that helps to select reliable sensors. We tested our method for different types of sensed data, and the results reveal the effectiveness in the correct selection of sensor data. PMID:25808766

  5. Teachers bullied by students: forms of bullying and perpetrator characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Teemu; Pörhölä, Maili

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is on the forms in which the bullying of school teachers by students manifests itself, the characteristics of the students who engage in the bullying, and the manner in which the students who engage in bullying behave in their own peer relationships. The data was gathered from primary and lower secondary school teachers by means of an Internet survey. The answers of 70 teachers who had experienced bullying by their students are examined. The teachers had been exposed to different forms of bullying by students. They had typically been bullied by male students. In most cases, the bullying had been perpetrated by an individual student or a small group of students. According to the teachers' assessment, the majority of the students who bullied them also bullied their fellow students. PMID:22852439

  6. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding, proliferation, fishing, resources protection and management of specific plans.

  7. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Canbek, Umut; ?merci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ula?; Ye?il, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. METHODS: The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). CONCLUSION: We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research. PMID:26401185

  8. [Characteristics of presbycusis: evaluated by pure tone audiometry].

    PubMed

    Gu, Z P

    1990-01-01

    In order to explore the incidence and course of presbycusis, 82 elderly and aged as well as 16 young persons were studied by Bekesy audiometry, including tone stimuli of different durations, SISI, and tone decay tests. Results showed that the hearing threshold has elevated in all the old persons. Positive correlations were found between age and hearing problems. Based on analyses of the DLI, temporal integration and tone decay tests, characteristics of the cochlear lesion had been suggested and some might exhibit retrocochlear dysfunctions. PMID:2363970

  9. Optical characteristics of pesticides measured by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Giyoung; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we measured the optical characteristics of pesticides by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Pesticide samples were prepared as pellets that were mixed with polyethylene powder and placed in the center of the path of a terahertz electromagnetic (EM) wave in the spectroscopy system. The absorbance of each sample showed obvious differences in absorption peaks. From this result, we showed that these pesticide products had resonance modes in the terahertz range, and this method can be used to make a sensor that is able to measure low concentrations of pesticides in farm produce.

  10. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? The following rules apply to all petitions filed by persons with HIV: (a) All petitions filed under...

  11. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? The following rules apply to all petitions filed by persons with HIV: (a) All petitions filed under...

  12. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? The following rules apply to all petitions filed by persons with HIV: (a) All petitions filed under...

  13. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? The following rules apply to all petitions filed by persons with HIV: (a) All petitions filed under...

  14. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public...for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? The following rules apply to all petitions filed by persons with HIV: (a) All petitions filed under...

  15. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  16. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  17. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  18. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  19. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Rules of Practice Governing Formal Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary (7 CFR 1... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry...

  20. Characteristics of microwave plasma induced by lasers and sparks.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yuji; Tsuruoka, Ryoji

    2012-03-01

    Characteristics of the plasma light source of microwave (MW) plus laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) or spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS) were studied. The plasma was initially generated by laser- or spark-induced breakdown as a plasma seed. A plasma volume was then grown and sustained by MWs in air. This MW plasma had a long lifetime, large volume, strong emission intensity, and high stability with time. These characteristics are suitable for applications in the molecular analysis of gases such as OH or N(2). Because the plasma properties did not depend on laser or spark plasma seeds, the resulting plasma was easily controllable by the input power and duration of the MWs. Therefore, a significant improvement was achieved in the spectral intensity and signal-to-noise ratio. For example, the peak intensity of the Pb spectra of LIBS increased 15 times, and that of SIBS increased 880 times without increases in their background noise. A MW-enhanced plasma light source could be used to make the total system smaller and cheaper than a conventional LIBS system, which would be useful for real-time and in situ analysis of gas molecules in, for example, food processing, medical applications, chemical exposure, and gas turbine or automobile air-to-fuel ratio and exhaust gas measurement. PMID:22410918

  1. Service provision patterns by main diagnoses and characteristics of patients.

    PubMed

    Brennan, D S; Spencer, A J; Szuster, F S

    2000-06-01

    Service provision patterns may be influenced not only by clinical oral health status leading to a diagnosis and treatment plan, but also by other variables such as patient characteristics. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether associations between services provided and patient factors would persist after controlling for the main presenting diagnosis or condition. A random sample of dentists surveyed in 1993-94 provided a response rate of 74%. Private general practitioners recorded service provision data from logs of 1-2 typical days of practice. Caries (26.5%) was the most prevalent diagnosis, followed by recall/maintenance care (19.0%), pulpal/periapical infection (10.9%), and failed restorations (10.4%). Diagnoses were associated with variation in the percentage of patients receiving services in main areas of service, and also with insurance status, sex and age distributions of patients, and type of visit (chi-square; P< 0.05). Logistic regressions of receipt of services indicated statistically significant associations with patient characteristics and diagnosis categories. Controlling for diagnosis, uninsured patients and those visiting for emergencies had less favourable service patterns (e.g., higher odds of extractions, but lower odds of preventive and crown and bridge services) compared to patients who had dental insurance or visited for check-ups or other non-emergency dental problems. The influence of these factors on services provided has implications of public health importance in terms of appropriateness of care and social inequality. PMID:10830650

  2. Baseline Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Self-Reported Diet and Physical Activity Shifts among Recent Immigrants Participating in the Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Intervention: “Live Well”

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Alison; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M.; Metayer, Nesly; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Chui, Kenneth; Pirie, Alex; Luongo, Christina Kamis; Economos, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this paper is to describe the baseline characteristics of Live Well (intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mother-child dyads from Brazil, Haiti, and Latin America) participants, and to explore self-reported changes in diet and physical activity post-immigration. Methods Baseline data from 383 mothers were used for this study. Dyads attended a measurement day, where they completed self-administered surveys collecting information about socio-demographics, diet, physical activity, other psychosocial variables, and height and weight. Results Haitian mothers’ socio-demographic profile differed significantly from that of Brazilians’ and Latinas’: They have been in the US for a shorter period of time, have higher rates of unemployment, are less likely to be married, more likely to have ?3 children, more likely to be obese, and have immigrated for family or other reasons. In multivariate models, self-reported changes in diet and physical activity since migrating to the US were significantly associated with BMI with non-linear relationships identified. Discussion Future research is needed to understand how shifts in diet and physical activity change in the process of acculturating to the US and explore adoption of both healthy and unhealthy dietary changes. PMID:23334749

  3. Self-Recognition in Live Videos by Young Children: Does Video Training Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of the experiment reported here was to establish whether self-recognition in live video can be facilitated when live video training is provided to children aged 2-2.5 years. While the majority of children failed the test of live self-recognition prior to video training, more than half exhibited live self-recognition post video…

  4. Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things

    E-print Network

    : Web technologies for application-layer interoperability of smart things Thing + Internet connection3. Hierarchy on the left) Conclusions Application of REST patterns in the design of an Internet of Things. From the Internet of Things to the Web of Things: Resource Oriented Architecture and Best Practices

  5. Quantitative measurement of permeabilization of living cells by terahertz attenuated total reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grognot, Marianne; Gallot, Guilhem

    2015-09-01

    Using Attenuated Total Reflection imaging technique in the terahertz domain, we demonstrate non-invasive, non-staining real time measurements of cytoplasm leakage during permeabilization of epithelial cells by saponin. The terahertz signal is mostly sensitive to the intracellular protein concentration in the cells, in a very good agreement with standard bicinchoninic acid protein measurements. It opens the way to in situ real time dynamics of protein content and permeabilization in live cells.

  6. Quantifying CO2 removal by living walls: a case study of the Center for Design Research

    E-print Network

    Rivera, Eric

    2014-04-01

    improper ventilation of the building, infiltration and combustion from stoves and fireplaces. Additionally, building materials and certain household products can emit gases in the air that contain organic solvents known as Volatile Organic Compounds... various environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient features, including a living wall located in the north side of the conference room (as shown in Figure 2) that measures 12 ft. tall by 33 ft. wide. This organic vertical plant wall was designed...

  7. Precipitation characteristics around Bangladesh revealed by TRMM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Furuzawa, Fumie A.; Nishikawa, Masanori; Shiratsu, Fumiya; Shrestha, Dibas

    2012-11-01

    Bangladesh region is interesting regions in a core region of the Asian monsoon. The Bangladesh region is a very flat region facing to the Bay of Bengal. The precipitaion characteristics are studied using the long-term Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. Over the Bangladesh, the stability of the atmosphere seems to affect the precipitation system in the vertical profiles. In the pre-monsoon season, rain rate increases with height in the lower part of the profile, while in the mature monsoon season, rain rate is nearly constant in the lower part of the profile. The structure of precipitation system is more persistent and homogenous in the mature monsoon season. The rain top is higher in premonsoon season than in mature monsoon season. The rain total is generally determined by rain frequency. The horizontal size of the precipitation systems is larger for pre-monsoon season than for mature monsoon season. In other words, the precipitation system is small but many in the mature monsoon season. This fact may be explained that the atmosphere is sufficently humid to be easily triggered by small liftings. These characteristics are reflected in the rain retrieval biases in precipitation radar and microwave radiometers in space.

  8. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by Atomic Force Microscopy with colloidal probes

    E-print Network

    Luca Puricelli; Massimiliano Galluzzi; Carsten Schulte; Alessandro Podestà; Paolo Milani

    2015-02-05

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells' fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cell elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured elastic modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in cell elasticity induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  9. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by atomic force microscopy with colloidal probes

    SciTech Connect

    Puricelli, Luca; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Schulte, Carsten; Podestà, Alessandro Milani, Paolo

    2015-03-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells’ fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cellular elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here, we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured Young’s modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in Young’s modulus induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  10. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by atomic force microscopy with colloidal probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puricelli, Luca; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Schulte, Carsten; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells' fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cellular elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here, we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured Young's modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in Young's modulus induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  11. Putting Thought in Accordance with Things: The Demise of Animal-Based Analogies for Plant Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Advances six practical suggestions in transpiration whereby teachers can support students in their struggle to put their thoughts, especially everyday mental models, in accordance with classroom experimental evidence. Discusses the wider implications for how to teach about living things and how to view the status of analogies in science generally.…

  12. Teacher's Resource Book. Small Things. Grade 5. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This document introduces fifth-grade children to the microscopic world, to the instruments needed to make it accessible, and to the appearance and structure of cells in nonliving as well as living things. Aims of the unit include providing children with an instrument which extends their senses in a radical manner, and leading them in using this…

  13. Neutron transport in WIMS by the characteristics method

    SciTech Connect

    Halsall, M.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The common methods of solving the neutron transport equation in reactor assembly geometries involve some geometric approximation. The standard differential transport methods and diffusion methods rely on pin-cell smearing, and transmission probability methods make approximations to the boundary fluxes linking pin cells. Integral transport methods (collision probabilities) can cope with pin geometries by numerical integration but require excessive computing times that increase with the square of the number of regions. The characteristics method in WIMS, known as CACTUS, solves the differential transport equation by a numerical tracking technique whose accuracy is limited only by computing resources; in its WIMS implementation it can handle any pin-type geometry without the need for preliminary spatial smearing.

  14. The Librarian Who Loves "LibraryThing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    "LibraryThing" is a great way for library media specialists to keep track of the books they personally read. "LibraryThing" allows them to create a personal library, give their books tags, choose book covers, give star ratings, generate citations, and review books. Library media specialists can also connect to other readers and see their reviews.…

  15. Children's Everyday Lives Shadowed by Stalking: Post separation Stalking Narratives of Finnish Children and Women.

    PubMed

    Nikupeteri, Anna; Laitinen, Merja

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study discusses post separation stalking and its implications in children's everyday lives. Based on narratives of 13 Finnish children and 20 women, the research fills a gap in the knowledge regarding the psychosocial, emotional, and physical impacts of stalking on children when their mothers are stalked by a former partner. It identifies four forms of impact: (a) an atmosphere of fear and feelings of insecurity; (b) disguised acts of stalking and the father's performance of care, love, and longing; (c) exploitation of children in stalking; and (d) physical abuse, acts of violence, and threats of death. The findings indicate that stalking severely constrains children's everyday lives and strengthens, yet often distorts, the mother-child bond. The study concludes that in cases where mothers are stalked, professionals in the social and health services, law enforcement, and criminal justice should view the children, too, as victims and construct supportive social relationships for women and children facing threatening life situations. PMID:26299800

  16. Substrate dependent differences in morphology and elasticity of living osteoblasts investigated by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Domke; Dannöhl; Parak; Müller; Aicher; Radmacher

    2000-12-30

    We have used the atomic force microscope (AFM) as a tool for testing the biocompatibility of implant materials by investigating the adhesion behavior of osteoblast cells in vitro. This technique allowed the investigation of cytomorphology and cytomechanical properties of living cells on a submicrometer scale. Cell adhesion was investigated on Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr), Titanium (Ti) and Titanium-Vanadium (TiV) substrates, which are of great interest in the field of implant research. The elastic properties and the morphology of living osteoblasts on the metallic substrates were compared with those of osteoblasts cultured on glass and tissue culture polystyrene (PS). Furthermore, a characterization of the surface roughness of the substrates was performed and the surface coverage of proteins after incubation with cell culture medium on the substrates was observed with the AFM. PMID:11064259

  17. Reverse transduction measured in the living cochlea by low-coherence heterodyne interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that the remarkable sensitivity and frequency selectivity of mammalian hearing depend on outer hair cell-generated force, which amplifies sound-induced vibrations inside the cochlea. This 'reverse transduction' force production has never been demonstrated experimentally, however, in the living ear. Here by directly measuring microstructure vibrations inside the cochlear partition using a custom-built interferometer, we demonstrate that electrical stimulation can evoke both fast broadband and slow sharply tuned responses of the reticular lamina, but only a slow tuned response of the basilar membrane. Our results indicate that outer hair cells can generate sufficient force to drive the reticular lamina over all audible frequencies in living cochleae. Contrary to expectations, the cellular force causes a travelling wave rather than an immediate local vibration of the basilar membrane; this travelling wave vibrates in phase with the reticular lamina at the best frequency, and results in maximal vibration at the apical ends of outer hair cells. PMID:26732830

  18. Selective Labeling of Living Cells by a Photo-Triggered Click Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Poloukhtine, Andrei A.; Mbua, Ngalle Eric; Wolfert, Margreet A.; Boons, Geert-Jan; Popik, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    Photo-triggering of the metal-free azide to acetylene cycloaddition reaction was achieved by masking the triple bond of dibenzocyclooctynes as cyclopropenone. Such masked cyclooctynes do not react with azides in the dark. Irradiation of cyclopropenones results in the efficient (?355 = 0.33) and clean regeneration of the corresponding dibenzocyclooctynes, which then undergo facile catalyst-free cycloadditions with azides to give corresponding triazoles under ambient conditions. In-situ light activation of a cyclopropenone linked to biotin made it possible to label living cells expressing glycoproteins containing N-azidoacetyl-sialic acid. The cyclopropenone-based photo-triggered click chemistry offers exciting opportunities to label living organisms in a temporally and spatially controlled manner and may facilitate the preparation of microarrays. PMID:19860481

  19. Exploring Dynamics of Molybdate in Living Animal Cells by a Genetically Encoded FRET Nanosensor

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Yoichi; Iida, Syuntaro; Ueoka-Nakanishi, Hanayo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Tomioka, Rie; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for almost all living organisms including animals. Mo is used as a catalytic center of molybdo-enzymes for oxidation/reduction reactions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism. Whilst living cells are known to import inorganic molybdate oxyanion from the surrounding environment, the in vivo dynamics of cytosolic molybdate remain poorly understood as no appropriate indicator is available for this trace anion. We here describe a genetically encoded Förester-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET)-based nanosensor composed of CFP, YFP and the bacterial molybdate-sensor protein ModE. The nanosensor MolyProbe containing an optimized peptide-linker responded to nanomolar-range molybdate selectively, and increased YFP:CFP fluorescence intensity ratio by up to 109%. By introduction of the nanosensor, we have been able to successfully demonstrate the real-time dynamics of molybdate in living animal cells. Furthermore, time course analyses of the dynamics suggest that novel oxalate-sensitive- and sulfate-resistant- transporter(s) uptake molybdate in a model culture cell. PMID:23472155

  20. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  1. ‘All those things together made me retire’: qualitative study on early retirement among Dutch employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early retirement have been identified in quantitative research, but little is known on why and how these factors influence early retirement. The present qualitative study investigated which non-health related factors influence early retirement, and why and how these factors influence early retirement. Methods A qualitative study among 30 Dutch employees (60–64 years) who retired early, i.e. before the age of 65, was performed by means of face-to-face interviews. Participants were selected from the cohort Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Results For most employees, a combination of factors played a role in the transition from work to early retirement, and the specific factors involved differed between individuals. Participants reported various factors that pushed towards early retirement (‘push factors’), including organizational changes at work, conflicts at work, high work pressure, high physical job demands, and insufficient use of their skills and knowledge by others in the organization. Employees who reported such push factors towards early retirement often felt unable to find another job. Factors attracting towards early retirement (‘pull factors’) included the wish to do other things outside of work, enjoy life, have more flexibility, spend more time with a spouse or grandchildren, and care for others. In addition, the financial opportunity to retire early played an important role. Factors influenced early retirement via changes in the motivation, ability and opportunity to continue working or retire early. Conclusion To support the prolongation of working life, it seems important to improve the fit between the physical and psychosocial job characteristics on the one hand, and the abilities and wishes of the employee on the other hand. Alongside improvements in the work environment that enable and motivate employees to prolong their careers, a continuous dialogue between the employer and employee on the (future) person-job fit and tailored interventions might be helpful. PMID:23714371

  2. Vibrational imaging of newly synthesized proteins in live cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lu; Yu, Yong; Shen, Yihui; Wang, Meng C; Min, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Synthesis of new proteins, a key step in the central dogma of molecular biology, has been a major biological process by which cells respond rapidly to environmental cues in both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the selective visualization of a newly synthesized proteome in living systems with subcellular resolution has proven to be rather challenging, despite the extensive efforts along the lines of fluorescence staining, autoradiography, and mass spectrometry. Herein, we report an imaging technique to visualize nascent proteins by harnessing the emerging stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic incorporation of deuterium-labeled amino acids. As a first demonstration, we imaged newly synthesized proteins in live mammalian cells with high spatial-temporal resolution without fixation or staining. Subcellular compartments with fast protein turnover in HeLa and HEK293T cells, and newly grown neurites in differentiating neuron-like N2A cells, are clearly identified via this imaging technique. Technically, incorporation of deuterium-labeled amino acids is minimally perturbative to live cells, whereas SRS imaging of exogenous carbon-deuterium bonds (C-D) in the cell-silent Raman region is highly sensitive, specific, and compatible with living systems. Moreover, coupled with label-free SRS imaging of the total proteome, our method can readily generate spatial maps of the quantitative ratio between new and total proteomes. Thus, this technique of nonlinear vibrational imaging of stable isotope incorporation will be a valuable tool to advance our understanding of the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of newly synthesized proteome in vivo. PMID:23798434

  3. Academics 2000: First Things First. Evaluation Report, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Program Evaluation.

    This evaluation report profiles Academics 2000: First Things First, the Texas initiative under the Goals 2000 Educate America Act to raise the level of academic achievement of all Texas students by ensuring that each child achieves fourth-grade mastery of the foundation subjects by the end of fourth grade. The report states that, at the local…

  4. Starting characteristics of direct current motors powered by solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, S.; Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current motors are used in photovoltaic systems. Important characteristics of electric motors are the starting to rated current and torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of the solar cell array and are different for the various dc motor types. Discussed here is the calculation of the starting to rated current ratio and starting to rated torque ratio of the permanent magnet, and series and shunt excited motors when powered by solar cells for two cases: with and without a maximum-power-point-tracker (MPPT) included in the system. Comparing these two cases, one gets a torque magnification of about 3 for the permanent magnet motor and about 7 for other motor types. The calculation of the torques may assist the PV system designer to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system.

  5. Resilience Processes Demonstrated by Young Gay and Bisexual Men Living with HIV: Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Hosek, Sybil G.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Rood, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Given the increasing numbers of young gay/bisexual men (YGBM) diagnosed with HIV, it is important to understand the resilience processes enacted by this population in order to develop interventions that support their healthy development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 YGBM (ages 17 to 24; 57% African American, 22% Latino) living with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics in the United States. Resilience processes clustered into four primary thematic areas: (1) engaging in health-promoting cognitive processes; (2) enacting healthy behavioral practices; (3) enlisting social support from others; and (4) empowering other young gay/bisexual men. These data suggest that YGBM living with HIV demonstrate resilience across multiple dimensions, including intrapersonal-level resilience related to individual cognitions and behaviors, as well as interpersonal-level resilience related to seeking support and providing support to others. Implications for the development of culturally-appropriate and strengths-based secondary prevention and other psychosocial interventions for YGBM living with HIV are discussed. PMID:25329778

  6. Imaging viscoelastic properties of live cells by AFM: power-law rheology on the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Fabian M; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schierbaum, Nicolas; Goldmann, Wolfgang H; Fabry, Ben; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2015-06-21

    We developed force clamp force mapping (FCFM), an atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique for measuring the viscoelastic creep behavior of live cells with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. FCFM combines force-distance curves with an added force clamp phase during tip-sample contact. From the creep behavior measured during the force clamp phase, quantitative viscoelastic sample properties are extracted. We validate FCFM on soft polyacrylamide gels. We find that the creep behavior of living cells conforms to a power-law material model. By recording short (50-60 ms) force clamp measurements in rapid succession, we generate, for the first time, two-dimensional maps of power-law exponent and modulus scaling parameter. Although these maps reveal large spatial variations of both parameters across the cell surface, we obtain robust mean values from the several hundreds of measurements performed on each cell. Measurements on mouse embryonic fibroblasts show that the mean power-law exponents and the mean modulus scaling parameters differ greatly among individual cells, but both parameters are highly correlated: stiffer cells consistently show a smaller power-law exponent. This correlation allows us to distinguish between wild-type cells and cells that lack vinculin, a dominant protein of the focal adhesion complex, even though the mean values of viscoelastic properties between wildtype and knockout cells did not differ significantly. Therefore, FCFM spatially resolves viscoelastic sample properties and can uncover subtle mechanical signatures of proteins in living cells. PMID:25891371

  7. Single-Molecule Studies of Integrins by AFM-Based Force Spectroscopy on Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Robert H.

    The characterization of cell adhesion between two living cells at the single-molecule level, i.e., between one adhesion receptor and its counter-receptor, appears to be an experimental challenge. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used in its force spectroscopy mode to determine unbinding forces of a single pair of adhesion receptors, even with a living cell as a probe. This chapter provides an overview of AFM force measurements of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands. A focus is given to major integrins expressed on leukocytes, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). These receptors are crucial for leukocyte trafficking in health and disease. LFA-1 and VLA-1 can be activated within the bloodstream from a low-affinity to a high-affinity receptor by chemokines in order to adhere strongly to the vessel wall before the receptor-bearing leukocytes extravasate. The experimental considerations needed to provide near-physiological conditions for a living cell and to be able to measure adequate forces at the single-molecule level are discussed in detail. AFM technology has been developed into a modern and extremely sensitive tool in biomedical research. It appears now that AFM force spectroscopy could enter, within a few years, medical applications in diagnosis and therapy of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

  8. Macrophage characteristics of stem cells revealed by transcriptome profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Charriere, Guillaume M.; Cousin, Beatrice; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Saillan-Barreau, Corinne; Andre, Mireille; Massoudi, Ali; Dani, Christian; Penicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis . E-mail: casteil@toulouse.inserm.fr

    2006-10-15

    We previously showed that the phenotypes of adipocyte progenitors and macrophages were close. Using functional analyses and microarray technology, we first tested whether this intriguing relationship was specific to adipocyte progenitors or could be shared with other progenitors. Measurements of phagocytic activity and gene profiling analysis of different progenitor cells revealed that the latter hypothesis should be retained. These results encouraged us to pursue and to confirm our analysis with a gold-standard stem cell population, embryonic stem cells or ESC. The transcriptomic profiles of ESC and macrophages were clustered together, unlike differentiated ESC. In addition, undifferentiated ESC displayed higher phagocytic activity than other progenitors, and they could phagocytoze apoptotic bodies. These data suggest that progenitors and stem cells share some characteristics of macrophages. This opens new perspectives on understanding stem cell phenotype and functionalities such as a putative role of stem cells in tissue remodeling by discarding dead cells but also their immunomodulation or fusion properties.

  9. Sleep electroencephalographic characteristics of the Cynomolgus monkey measured by telemetry.

    PubMed

    Rachalski, Adeline; Authier, Simon; Bassett, Leanne; Pouliot, Mylène; Tremblay, Gaétan; Mongrain, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as models of diseases and in pre-clinical studies to assess the impact of new pharmacotherapies on brain function and behaviour. However, the time course of electroencephalographic delta activity during sleep, which represents the main marker of sleep intensity associated with recovery during sleep, has never been described in this non-human primate. In this study, telemetry implants were used to record one spontaneous 24-h sleep-wake cycle in four freely-moving Cynomolgus monkeys, and to quantify the time course of electroencephalographic activity during sleep using spectral analysis. Animals presented a diurnal activity pattern interrupted by short naps. During the dark period, most of the time was spent in sleep with non-rapid eye movement sleep/rapid eye movement sleep alternations and sleep consolidation profiles intermediate between rodents and humans. Deep non-rapid eye movement sleep showed a typical predominance at the beginning of the night with decreased propensity in the course of the night, which was accompanied by a progressive increase in rapid eye movement sleep duration. Spectral profiles showed characteristic changes between vigilance states as reported in other mammalian species. Importantly, delta activity also followed the expected time course of variation, showing a build-up with wakefulness duration and dissipation across the night. Thus, Cynomolgus monkeys present typical characteristics of sleep architecture and spectral structure as those observed in other mammalian species including humans, validating the use of telemetry in this non-human primate model for translational sleep studies. PMID:25109588

  10. Effects of activation by proton irradiation on silicon particle detector electric characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Vaeyrynen, S.; Raeisaenen, J.; Tikkanen, P.; Kassamakov, I.; Tuominen, E.

    2009-07-15

    After irradiation with 7 and 9 MeV protons, activation-induced effects were encountered in measurements of current-voltage (IV) and capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics for Czochralski and float-zone grown silicon particle detectors prepared on printed circuit boards with copper electrodes. With the present detector construction, the {sup 30}Si(p,n){sup 30}P and {sup 63}Cu(p,n){sup 63}Zn reactions induce dominant interference in such measurements. The daughter nuclides are positron emitters with half-lives of 2.5 and 38.5 min, respectively, and the slowing down of the emitted positrons generates a significantly large concentration of electron-hole pairs in the detector volume increasing the leakage current level and decreasing the breakdown voltage. The observed time-dependent characteristics were verified by modeling the activation of the detector structure and the resulting leakage current. As a result, the electrical measurements cannot be performed immediately after irradiation due to silicon activation, and, generally, materials becoming easily activated should be avoided in the detector concept.

  11. Things I Should Have or Could Have Accomplished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2013-01-01

    The author wishes to divide this essay into two sections, one indicating things he might have added to a few earlier works, and a second indicating a project or two that he did not complete but would like to have done. First he discusses the incomplete projects. He begins by saying that he has done a lot of work on teacher organizations and has…

  12. Label-free detection of anticancer drug paclitaxel in living cells by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, H.; Derely, L.; Vegh, A.-G.; Durand, J.-C.; Gergely, C.; Larroque, C.; Fauroux, M.-A.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.

    2013-03-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy, a non-invasive, label-free, and high spatial resolution imaging technique is employed to trace the anticancer drug paclitaxel in living Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. The Raman images were treated by K-mean cluster analysis to detect the drug in cells. Distribution of paclitaxel in cells is verified by calculating the correlation coefficient between the reference spectrum of the drug and the whole Raman image spectra. A time dependent gradual diffusion of paclitaxel all over the cell is observed suggesting a complementary picture of the pharmaceutical action of this drug based on rapid binding of free tubulin to crystallized paclitaxel.

  13. Teaching Consumer Selection of Market Quality Beef by Observable Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Dorothy; Jacobson, Marion

    1977-01-01

    Through a series of five tests, a slide-tape instructional presentation on the identification of beef quality was developed. It was determined that the slide-tape instruction can enable consumers to score more accurately characteristics of raw beef in relation to the characteristics of cooked beef. (Editor/TA)

  14. Relating Things and Stuff via ObjectProperty Interactions.

    PubMed

    Min Sun; Byung-Soo Kim; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL '09 segmentation dataset. PMID:26353309

  15. Relating Things and Stuff via Object Property Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2013-10-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL'09 segmentation dataset. PMID:24101332

  16. Something New With Old Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.

    1971-01-01

    Collecting, utilizing, and displaying old or antique items will give elementary children some firsthand experience of how people in the past lived, what they worked with, and the progress of their industrial development. Using brainstorming, interviews with senior citizens, resource people, and classroom demonstrations are suggested techniques.…

  17. Gender Differences in Drinking and Alcohol Expectancies as Modified by Gender Stereotypes and Living Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Williams, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Students' drinking, gender stereotypes, and alcohol expectancies were examined in relation to three living arrangements: living either at home, on-campus, or independently. The results highlight the importance of gender stereotypes and living arrangements as influences on drinking behavior and sex differences within the student population. (EMK)

  18. Characteristics of pulsed power generator by versatile inductive voltage adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsui, Kiyoshi; Shimiya, Kouichi; Masugata, Katsumi; Shigeta, Masao; Shibata, Kazuhiko

    2005-10-01

    A pulsed power generator by inductive voltage adder, versatile inductive voltage adder (VIVA-I), which features a high average potential gradient (2.5 MV/m), was designed and is currently in operation,. It was designed to produce an output pulse of 4 MV/60 ns by adding 2 MV pulses in two-stages of induction cells, where amorphous cores are installed. As a pulse forming line, we used a Blumlein line with the switching reversed, where cores are automatically biased due to the presence of prepulse. Good reproducibility was obtained even in the absence of the reset pulse. Within [similar]40% of full charge voltage, pulsed power characteristics of Marx generator, pulse forming line (PFL), transmission line (TL), and induction cells were tested for three types of loads; open-circuit, dummy load of liquid (CuSO4) resistor, and electron beam diode. In the open-circuit test, [similar]2.0 MV of output voltage was obtained with good reproducibility. Dependences of output voltage on diode impedances were evaluated by using various dummy loads, and the results were found as expected. An electron-beam diode was operated successfully, and [similar]18 kA of beam current was obtained at the diode voltage of [similar]1 MV.

  19. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a /sup 14/C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism.

  20. IQGAP1 Interactome Analysis by In Vitro Reconstitution and Live Cell 3-Color FRET Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wallrabe, Horst; Cai, Ying; Sun, Yuansheng; Periasamy, A.; Luzes, R.; Fang, Xiaolan; Kan, Ho-Man; Cameron, L. C.; Schafer, Dorothy A.; Bloom, George S.

    2014-01-01

    IQGAP1 stimulates branched actin filament nucleation by activating N-WASP, which then activates the Arp2/3 complex. N-WASP can be activated by other factors, including GTP-bound Cdc42 or Rac1, which also bind IQGAP1. Here we report the use of purified proteins for in vitro binding and actin polymerization assays, and Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy of cultured cells to illuminate functional interactions among IQGAP1, N-WASP, actin, and either Cdc42 or Rac1. In pyrene-actin assembly assays containing N-WASP and Arp2/3 complex, IQGAP1 plus either small G protein cooperatively stimulated actin filament nucleation by reducing the lag time before 50% maximum actin polymerization was reached. Similarly, Cdc42 and Rac1 modulated the binding of IQGAP1 to N-WASP in a dose-dependent manner, with Cdc42 enhancing the interaction and Rac1 reducing the interaction. These in vitro reconstitution results suggested that IQGAP1 interacts by similar, yet distinct mechanisms with Cdc42 versus Rac1 to regulate actin filament assembly through N-WASP in vivo. The physiological relevance of these multi-protein interactions was substantiated by 3-color FRET microscopy of live MDCK cells expressing various combinations of fluorescent N-WASP, IQGAP1, Cdc42, Rac1 and actin. This study also establishes 3-color FRET microscopy as a powerful tool for studying dynamic intermolecular interactions in live cells. PMID:24124181

  1. [Characteristics of plague pathogen mutants, differing by pigment sorption signs].

    PubMed

    Podladchikova, O N; Ivanova, V S; Eremenko, N S; Lebedeva, S A

    2003-01-01

    Wild-type strains of plague agent Yersinia pestis are characterized by a pigmentation phenotype (Pgm+), which includes several traits: an ability of cells to adsorb pigments (Hms+), an ability to produce siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt+) and an ability to cause lethal infections in laboratory animals (Vir+) after subcutaneous injections. All these traits are encoded in the chromosomal pgm-locus, which gets rapidly lost due to deletion. One more trait related with the Pgm+ phenotype was detected in the present study, i.e. its siderophoric activity at 28 degrees C on the indication agar plates containing chrome azurol S (Sid+). After the four phenotypic characteristics of the Pgm+ phenotype were analyzed as well as after the four pgm-locus genes (hmsF, hmsR, irp2 and fyuA/psn) were detected by the method of hybridization and PCR, we compared 33 isogenous Pgm- mutants isolated from typical Y. pestis strain 923 by Hms-. The comparison showed that the mutants differed from each other according to the analyzed properties, which suggested that they were formed by different genetic mechanisms. Apart from the known mechanism of pgm-locus deletion, which causes an irreversible loss of Hms+, Ybt+ and Vir+ properties, two more mechanisms were detected. One of them is related with insertion damages to the pgm-locus genes, which also leads to the loss of the four traits but which can be reversed by the cultivation of cells at low temperature. The other mechanism is predetermined by unknown genetic processes ensuring the formation of mutants, which loose only their Hms+ properties and which can trigger its high-frequency reversion at 28 degrees C. PMID:12656044

  2. Photoporation of Biomolecules into Single Cells in Living Vertebrate Embryos Induced by a Femtosecond Laser Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Haruki; Iino, Takanori; Hiraoka, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of biomolecules into cells in living animals is one of the most important techniques in molecular and developmental biology research, and has potentially broad biomedical implications. Here we report that biomolecules can be introduced into single cells in living vertebrate embryos by photoporation using a femtosecond laser amplifier with a high pulse energy and a low repetition rate. First, we confirmed the efficiency of this photoporation technique by introducing dextran, morpholino oligonucleotides, or DNA plasmids into targeted single cells of zebrafish, chick, shark, and mouse embryos. Second, we demonstrated that femtosecond laser irradiation efficiently delivered DNA plasmids into single neurons of chick embryos. Finally, we successfully manipulated the fate of single neurons in zebrafish embryos by delivering mRNA. Our observations suggest that photoporation using a femtosecond laser with a high pulse energy and low repetition rate offers a novel way to manipulate the function(s) of individual cells in a wide range of vertebrate embryos by introduction of selected biomolecules. PMID:22110717

  3. Living organisms influence on environmental conditions: pH modulation by amphibian embryos versus aluminum toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Castañaga, Luis Alberto; D'Eramo, José Luis; Jourani, Victoria Platonova

    2015-11-01

    The LC10, 50 and 90/24h of aluminum for Rhinella arenarum embryos at complete operculum stage were 0.55, 0.75 and 1mgAl(3+)/L respectively. Those values did not change significantly by expanding the exposure period till 168h. The aluminum toxicity was evaluated in different pH conditions by means of a citrate buffer resulting for instance, 1mgAl(3+)/L at pH 4, 4.1, 5 and 6 in 100%, 70%, 35% and 0% of lethality respectively. As an outstanding feature, the embryos changed the pH of the maintaining media both in the case of Al(3+) or citrate buffer treatments toward neutral. 10 embryos in 40mL of AMPHITOX solution were able to increase the pH from 4.2 to 7.05, a fact related with a metabolic shift resulting in an increase in nitrogen loss as ammonia. Our study point out the natural selection of the most resistant amphibian embryos both for pH or aluminum as well as the capacity of living organisms (as a population) to alter their chemical environment toward optimal conditions for their survival. As these facts occur at early life stages, it expand the concept that living organisms at ontogenic stages are biomarker of environmental signatures of the evolutionary process (Herkovits, 2006) to a global Onto-Evo concept which imply also the feedback mechanisms from living organisms to shape environmental conditions in a way that benefits them. PMID:26126231

  4. Performance improvement of an ESD suppressor by studying its characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Li, P.-K.

    2013-03-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was used to study the characteristics of an ESD suppressor. The obtained capacitance of the ESD suppressor filled with air was validated by measurement data and another numerical result obtained by time-domain moment method (TDMM). Under the same conditions, no large differences are found among the obtained capacitances for the ESD suppressor filled with air, neon, argon, and helium. But the ESD suppressor filled with air has a much higher trigger and clamping voltages than the ESD suppressor filled with neon, argon, or helium. Capacitance is found to decrease with the increase of the spark gap distance or the operating frequency. But the capacitance increases with increasing relative dielectric constant of the substrate or the overcoat. t is observed that ESD currents with a transient waveform reach a maximum value and decays sharply as the time increases under the condition of the spark gap distance of 5 ?m. Outside the spark gap, the maximum electric field is below the breakdown strength, but the magnitude of the electric field radiated from ESD events is still very large when the distance from the ESD suppressor is less than 2 mm.

  5. DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL SHORT-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.

    2003-02-27

    In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-lived (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.

  6. Receiver operating characteristic analysis improves diagnosis by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.Z.; Forman, M.B.; Vaugh, W.K.; Sandler, M.P.; Kronenberg, M.W.

    1985-05-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) evaluates continuous variables to define diagnostic criteria for the optimal sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of a test. The authors studied exercise-induced chest pain (CP), ST-changes on electrocardiography (ECG) and rest-exercise gated radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) using ROC to clarify the optimal criteria for detecting myocardial ischemia due to coronary artherosclerosis (CAD). The data of 95 consecutive patients studied with coronary angiography, rest-exercise RVG and ECG were reviewed. 77 patients had ''significant'' CAD (greater than or equal to50% lesions). Exercise-induced CP, ECG abnormalities (ST-T shifts) and RVG abnormalities (change in ejection fraction, 2-view regional wall motion change and relative end-systolic volume) were evaluated to define optimal SENS/SPEC of each and for the combined data. ROC curves were constructed by multiple logistic regression (MLR). By MLR, RVG alone was superior to ECG and CP. The combination of all three produced the best ROC curve for the entire group and for clinical subsets based on the number of diseased vessels and the presence or absence of prior myocardial infarction. When CP, ECG and RVG were combined, the optimal SENS/SPEC for detection of single vessel disease was 88/86. The SENS/SPEC for 3 vessel disease was 93/95. Thus, the application of RVG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is improved with the inclusion of ECG and CP data by the use of a multiple logistic regression model. ROC analysis allows clinical application of multiple data for diagnosing CAD at desired SENS/SPEC rather than by arbitrary single-standard criteria.

  7. Bioerosion by euendoliths decreases in phosphate-enriched skeletons of living corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinot, C.; Tribollet, A.

    2012-07-01

    While the role of microboring organisms, or euendoliths, is relatively well known in dead coral skeletons, their function in live corals remains poorly understood. They are suggested to behave like ectosymbionts or parasites, impacting their host's health. However, the species composition of microboring communities, their abundance and dynamics in live corals under various environmental conditions have never been explored. Here, the effect of phosphate enrichment on boring microorganisms in live corals was tested for the first time. Stylophora pistillata nubbins were exposed to 3 different treatments (phosphate concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 2.5 ?mol l-1) during 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of phosphate enrichment, petrographic thin sections were prepared for observation with light microscopy, and additional samples were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Euendoliths comprised mainly phototrophic Ostreobium sp. filaments. Rare filaments of heterotrophic fungi were also observed. Filaments were densely distributed in the central part of nubbins, and less abundant towards the apex. Unexpectedly, there was a visible reduction of filament abundance in the most recently calcified apical part of phosphate-enriched nubbins. The overall abundance of euendoliths significantly decreased, from 9.12 ± 1.09% of the skeletal surface area in unenriched corals, to 5.81 ± 0.77% and 5.27 ± 0.34% in 0.5 and 2.5 ?mol l-1-phosphate enriched corals respectively. SEM observations confirmed this decrease. Recent studies have shown that phosphate enrichment increases coral skeletal growth and metabolic rates, while it decreases skeletal density and resilience to mechanical stress. We thus hypothesize that increased skeletal growth in the presence of phosphate enrichment occurred too fast for an effective expansion of euendolith growth. They could not keep up with coral growth, so they became diluted in the apex areas as nubbins grew with phosphate enrichment. Results from the present study suggest that coral skeletons of S. pistillata will not be further weakened by euendoliths under phosphate enrichment.

  8. Characteristics of the Swirling Flow Generated by an Axial Swirler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Yongqiang; Jeng, San-Mou; Tacina, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the confined, non-reacting, swirling flow field. The flow was generated by a helicoidal axial-vaned swirler with a short internal convergent-divergent venturi, which was confined within 2-inch square test section. A series of helicoidal axial-vaned swirlers have been designed with tip vane angles of 40 deg., 45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg. and 65 deg.. The swirler with the tip vane angle of 60 deg. was combined with several simulated fuel nozzle insertions of varying lengths. A two-component Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system was employed to measure the three-component mean velocities and Reynolds stresses. Detailed data are provided to enhance understanding swirling flow with different swirl degrees and geometries and to support the development of more accurate physicaVnumerica1 models. The data indicated that the degree of swirl had a clear impact on the mean and turbulent flow fields. The swirling flow fields changed significantly with the addition of a variety of simulated fuel nozzle insertion lengths

  9. Morphological characteristics of polypyrrole film fabricated by electrochemical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongbok; Kim, Jihong; Ha, Sang-Wook; Cho, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Pak, James J.

    2004-07-01

    The morphological characteristics such as surface area, thickness, and roughness of the Polypyrrole (PPy) on metal electrodes of electrochemical sensors affect sensitivity and selectivity of electrochemical sensors because the surface morphology of PPy affects reduction and oxidation of the electrodes. The PPy morphology was investigated by changing several polymerization parameters such as polymerization time, electrolytes, and metal electrodes. Indium tin oxide (ITO) or Au was used as a seed metal electrode on which PPy was electropolymerized. The electropolymerization was performed in an electrolyte, either sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDS) or sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (NaDBS). A homogeneous PPy morphology was obtained on ITO electrode when NaDBS solution was used as an electrolyte, but when NaDS solution was used for polymerizing on ITO electrode, the electropolymerized PPy showed uniform surface morphology and film thickness up to 1 min polymerization time while further polymerization resulted in non-uniform networks like a spider web. This increases the detection surface area with identical metal electrodes of electrochemical sensors. When Au was used, neither NaDBS nor NaDS solution resulted in any morphology change of the PPy film regardless of the polymerization time. The effect of the PPy morphology on the electrochemical sensors will also be presented.

  10. Estimating solar radiation absorbed by live phytoplankton from satellite ocean-color data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert J.; Ruddorff, Natalia M.; Kampel, Milton

    2014-11-01

    Primary production, PP, or the quantity of organic matter synthesized by phytoplankton per unit of surface and time, depends on the photo-synthetically available radiation absorbed by live phytoplankton, APAR. Computing APAR requires knowledge of the absorption coefficient of live phytoplankton and the total absorption coefficient, quantities that are difficult to retrieve accurately from satellite ocean-color data. In the proposed approach, APAR is estimated directly from a linear combination of marine reflectance in the PAR spectral range. Feasibility is demonstrated theoretically from simulations using a marine reflectance model, and experimentally using data collected at 19 biooptical stations during the February-March 2011 R/V Melville oceanographic cruise in the Southern Atlantic and Southeastern Pacific. Improvements in APAR accuracy are quantified in comparisons with estimates obtained from absorption coefficients or chlorophyll concentration determined from marine reflectance via standard satellite algorithms. The linear combination of marine reflectance is fairly robust to atmospheric correction errors. Due to the linear nature of the algorithm, their impact may be further reduced when using space- or time-averaged reflectance. The methodology is applied to actual MODIS imagery over the Southern Atlantic, and variability in the resulting APAR field is analyzed. The study suggests that determining APAR directly from marine reflectance has the potential to improve PP estimates from space.

  11. Assessment of glutamine synthetase activity by [13N]ammonia uptake in living rat brain.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Tonomura, Misato; Abe, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission or neurological disorder in the brain. [(13) N]Ammonia blood flow tracer has been reported to be metabolically trapped in the brain via the glutamate-glutamine pathway. The present study investigated the effect of an inhibitor of GS on [(13) N]ammonia uptake in order to clarify the feasibility of measuring GS activity in the living brain. l-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a selective GS inhibitor was microinjected into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. [(13) N]Ammonia uptake was quantified by autoradiography method as well as small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The GS activity of the brain homogenate was assayed from the ?-glutamyl transferase reaction. Autoradiograms showed a decrease of [(13) N]ammonia radioactivity on the MSO-injected side compared with the saline-injected side of the striatum. This reduction could be detected with a small animal PET scanner. MSO had no effect on cerebral blood flow measured by uptake of [(15) O]H2 O. The reduction of [(13) N]ammonia uptake was closely related to the results of GS activity assay. These results indicated that [(13) N]ammonia may enable measurement of GS activity in the living brain. PMID:25196365

  12. ACTIVE LONGITUDES REVEALED BY LARGE-SCALE AND LONG-LIVED CORONAL STREAMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing

    2011-07-10

    We use time-series ultraviolet full sun images to construct limb-synoptic maps of the Sun. On these maps, large-scale, long-lived coronal streamers appear as repetitive sinusoid-like arcs projected over the polar regions. They are caused by high altitude plasma produced from sunspot-rich regions at latitudes generally far from the poles. The non-uniform longitudinal distribution of these streamers reveals four longitudinal zones at the surface of the Sun from which sunspots erupt preferentially over the 5 year observing interval (2006 January to 2011 April). Spots in these zones (or clusters) have individual lifetimes short compared to the lifetimes of the coronal features which they sustain, and they erupt at different times. The four sunspot clusters contain >75% of all numbered sunspots in this period. They occupy two distinct longitudinal zones separated by {approx}180{sup 0} and each spanning {approx}100{sup 0} in longitude. The rotation rates of the spot clusters are {approx}5% faster than the rates at both the surface and the bottom of the convection zone. While no convincing theoretical framework exists to interpret the sunspot clusters in the longitude-time space, their persistent and nonuniform distribution indicates long-lived, azimuthal structures beneath the surface, and are compatible with the existence of previously reported active longitudes on the Sun.

  13. Uranus' southern circulation revealed by Voyager 2: Unique characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkoschka, Erich

    2015-04-01

    Revised calibration and processing of 1600 images of Uranus by Voyager 2 revealed dozens of discrete features south of -45° latitude, where only a single feature was known from Voyager images and none has been seen since. Tracking of these features over five weeks defined the southern rotational profile of Uranus with high accuracy and no significant gap. The profile has kinks unlike previous profiles and is strongly asymmetric with respect to the northern profile by Sromovsky et al. (Sromovsky, L.A., Fry, P.M., Hammel, H.B., de Pater, I., Rages, K.A. [2012]. Icarus 220, 694-712). The asymmetry is larger than that of all previous data on jovian planets. A spot that included the South Pole off-center rotated with a period of 12.24 h, 2 h outside the range of all previous observations of Uranus. The region between -68° and -59° latitude rotated almost like a solid body, with a shear that was about 30 times smaller than typical shears on Uranus. At lower latitudes, features were sheared into tightly wound spirals as Voyager watched. The zone at -84° latitude was exceptionally bland; reflectivity variations were only 18 ppm, consistent with a signal-to-noise ratio estimated at 55,000. The low noise was achieved by smoothing over dozens of pixels per image and averaging 1600 images. The presented data set in eight filters contains rich information about temporal evolution and spectral characteristics of features on Uranus that will be the basis for further analysis.

  14. Live cell tracking of symmetry break in actin cytoskeleton triggered by abrupt changes in micromechanical environments.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Frank, V; Hörning, M; Kaufmann, S; Yoshikawa, H Y; Madsen, J P; Lewis, A L; Armes, S P; Tanaka, M

    2015-12-10

    With the aid of stimulus-responsive hydrogel substrates composed of ABA triblock copolymer micelles, we monitored the morphological dynamics of myoblast (C2C12) cells in response to an abrupt change in the substrate elasticity by live cell imaging. The remodeling of actin cytoskeletons could be monitored by means of transient transfection with LifeAct-GFP. Dynamic changes in the orientational order of actin filaments were characterized by an order parameter, which enables one to generalize the mechanically induced actin cytoskeletons as a break of symmetry. The critical role that acto-myosin complexes play in the morphological transition was verified by the treatment of cells with myosin II inhibitor (blebbistatin) and the fluorescence localization of focal adhesion contacts. Such dynamically tunable hydrogels can be utilized as in vitro cellular micro-environments that can exert time-dependent stimuli to mechanically regulate target cells. PMID:26347909

  15. Engineering Multifunctional Living Paints: Thin, Convectively-Assembled Biocomposite Coatings of Live Cells and Colloidal Latex Particles Deposited by Continuous Convective-Sedimentation Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jessica Shawn

    Advanced composite materials could be revolutionized by the development of methods to incorporate living cells into functional materials and devices. This could be accomplished by continuously and rapidly depositing thin ordered arrays of adhesive colloidal latex particles and live cells that maintain stability and preserve microbial reactivity. Convective assembly is one method of rapidly assembling colloidal particles into thin (<10 microm thick), ordered films with engineered compositions, thicknesses, and particle packing that offer several advantages over thicker randomly ordered composites, including enhanced cell stability and increased reactivity through minimized diffusion resistance to nutrients and reduced light scattering. This method can be used to precisely deposit live bacteria, cyanobacteria, yeast, and algae into biocomposite coatings, forming reactive biosensors, photoabsorbers, or advanced biocatalysts. This dissertation developed new continuous deposition and coating characterization methods for fabricating and characterizing <10 microm thick colloid coatings---monodispersed latex particle or cell suspensions, bimodal blends of latex particles or live cells and microspheres, and trimodal formulations of biomodal latex and live cells on substrates such as aluminum foil, glass, porous Kraft paper, polyester, and polypropylene. Continuous convective-sedimentation assembly (CSA) is introduced to enable fabrication of larger surface area and long coatings by constantly feeding coating suspension to the meniscus, thus expanding the utility of convective assembly to deposit monolayer or very thin films or multi-layer coatings composed of thin layers on a large scale. Results show thin, tunable coatings can be fabricated from diverse coating suspensions and critical coating parameters that control thickness and structure. Particle size ratio and charge influence deposition, convective mixing or demixing and relative particle locations. Substrate wettability and suspension composition influence coating microstructure by controlling suspension delivery and spreading across the substrate. Microbes behave like colloidal particles during CSA, allowing for deposition of very thin stable biocomposite coatings of latex-live cell blends. CSA of particle-cell blends result in open-packed structures (15-45% mean void space), instead of tightly packed coatings attainable with single component systems, confirming the existence of significant polymer particle-cell interactions and formation of particle aggregates that disrupt coating microstructure during deposition. Tunable process parameters, such as particle concentration, fluid sonication, and fluid density, influence coating homogeneity when the meniscus is continuously supplied. Fluid density modification and fluid sonication affect particle sedimentation and distribution in the coating growth front whereas the suspended particle concentration strongly affects coating thickness, but has almost no effect on void space. Changing the suspension delivery mode (topside versus underside CCSA) yields disparate meniscus volumes and uneven particle delivery to the drying front, which enables control of the coating microstructure by varying the total number of particles available for deposition. The judicious combination of all these parameters will enable deposition of uniform, thin, latex-cell monolayers over areas on the order of tens of square centimeters or larger. To demonstrate the utility of biocomposite coatings, this dissertation investigated photoreactive coatings (artificial leaves) from suspensions of latex particles and nitrogen-limited Rps. palustris CGA009 or sulfur-limited C. reinhardtii CC-124. These coatings demonstrated stable, sustained (>90 hours) photohydrogen production under anoxygenic conditions. Nutrient reduction slows cell division, minimizing coating outgrowth, and promotes photohydrogen generation, improving coating reactivity. Scanning electron microscopy of microstructure revealed how coating reactivity can be controlled by the size

  16. Characteristics of negative lightning leaders to ground observed by TVLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Jiang, Zhidong; Shi, Lihua; Niu, Zhencong; Zhang, Peng

    2015-12-01

    The Thunder and VHF lightning Locating System (termed TVLS) is established and utilized to observe leader behaviors of negative cloud to ground (CG) flashes. This system takes advantages of VHF broadband interferometer and thunder imaging technique, which could provide the temporal and quasi-3D spatial evolution of lightning discharges. In conjunction with synchronized electric field changes (E-changes) and electric field derivatives (dE/dt) records, 10 leaders from two CG flashes are presented and analyzed. Based on the characteristic evolution of leader velocities, E-changes, dE/dt waveforms and VHF intervals, three stepped leaders, five dart leaders and two dart-stepped leaders are identified. The stepped leaders behave impulsive while approaching ground, with average speed (1.3?3.9)×105 m/s. All normal dart leaders presented here exhibit irregular (or termed "chaotic") fluctuations in E-change and dE/dt waveforms, with the similar speeds ((1.0?2.9)×107 m/s) and durations ((300?700) ?s) of the "chaotic" leaders observed by other investigators. The irregular fluctuations would be weak if the channels keep conductive until the leader enters the less conductive branches, coinciding with VHF radiations in time sequence. The dart-stepped leader could be divided into the dart stage and the stepped stage by a transition region, which usually lies around the branch junctions of previous active channel. The dart stage resembles the normal dart leader, and the stepped stage usually associates with regular pulse trains in E-change and dE/dt waveforms.

  17. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. Seaweeds live in habitats characterized by continuous, time-varying water motion. In the intertidal zone, organisms must

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    Seaweeds live in habitats characterized by continuous, time- varying water motion. In contrast, flows subtidally are more benign, and organisms, particularly seaweeds, may grow quite large and Pterygophora californica using a numerical model that approximates these seaweeds as vertically oriented

  2. In situ observation of photo-bleaching in human single living cell excited by a NIR femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jae-Goo; Whang, Kyoung-Hyun; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Sohn, Seong-Hyang

    2008-03-01

    The photo-bleaching of single living cells excited by femtosecond laser irradiation was observed in situ to study the nonlinear interaction between ultrafast laser pulses and living human breast MDA-MB-231 cells. We conducted a systematic study of the energy dependence of plasma-mediated photo-disruption of fluorescently labeled subcellular structures in the nucleus of living cells using near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulses through a numerical aperture objective lens (0.75 NA). The behavior of photo-bleached living cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei was observed for 18 h after femtosecond laser irradiation under a fluorescence microscope. The photo-bleaching of single living cells without cell disruption occurred at between 470 and 630 nJ. To study the photo-disruption of subcellular organelles in single living cells using the nonlinear absorption excited by a NIR femtosecond laser pulse, the process of photo-bleaching without photo-disruption provides key information for clarifying the nonlinear interaction between NIR ultrashort, high-intensity laser light and transparent fluorescently labeled living cells.

  3. Live-Cell Imaging of the Estrogen Receptor by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kisler, Kassandra; Dominguez, Reymundo

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking studies of plasma membrane-localized intracellular estrogen receptors have mainly relied on biochemical and histological techniques to locate the receptor before and after estradiol stimulation. More often than not these experiments were performed using postmortem, lysed, or fixed tissue samples, whose tissue or cellular structure is typically severely altered or at times completely lost, making the definitive localization of estrogen receptors difficult to ascertain. To overcome this limitation we began using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to study the trafficking of plasma membrane estrogen receptors. This real-time imaging approach, described in this chapter, permits observation of live, intact cells while allowing visualization of the steps (in time and spatial distribution) involved in receptor activation by estradiol and movements on and near the membrane. TIRFM yields high-contrast real-time images of fluorescently labeled E6BSA molecules on and just below the cell surface and is ideal for studying estrogen receptor trafficking in living cells. PMID:26585135

  4. Kidney Function in Living Donors Undergoing Nephrectomy by Sevoflurane or Desflurane Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Rim; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Ham, Sung-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although there is no clinical evidence of nephrotoxicity with the volatile anesthetics currently used in general anesthesia, a better agent should be needed in terms of preserving postoperative renal function in living kidney donors who have only single remaining kidney. The purpose of the current retrospective, single-center study was to evaluate and compare renal function of living kidney donors after nephrectomy under either sevoflurane or desflurane anesthesia. Materials and Methods From January 2006 through December 2011, a total of 228 donors undergoing video assisted minilaparotomy surgery nephrectomy for kidney donation were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The donors were categorized into a sevoflurane group or desflurane group based on the type of volatile anesthetic used. We collected laboratory data from the patients preoperatively, immediately after the operation, on the first postoperative day and on the third postoperative day. We also compared renal function of the kidney donors after donor nephrectomy by comparing creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results The decrease in renal function after surgery in both groups was the most prominent on the first postoperative day. There were no significant differences between the two groups in postoperative changes of creatinine or eGFR. Conclusion Sevoflurane and desflurane can be used safely as volatile anesthetics in donors undergoing nephrectomy. PMID:23918580

  5. Elastic Membrane Heterogeneity of Living Cells Revealed by Stiff Nanoscale Membrane Domains

    PubMed Central

    Roduit, Charles; van der Goot, F. Gisou; De Los Rios, Paolo; Yersin, Alexandre; Steiner, Pascal; Dietler, Giovanni; Catsicas, Stefan; Lafont, Frank; Kasas, Sandor

    2008-01-01

    Many approaches have been developed to characterize the heterogeneity of membranes in living cells. In this study, the elastic properties of specific membrane domains in living cells are characterized by atomic force microscopy. Our data reveal the existence of heterogeneous nanometric scale domains with specific biophysical properties. We focused on glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, which play an important role in membrane trafficking and cell signaling under both physiological and pathological conditions and which are known to partition preferentially into cholesterol-rich microdomains. We demonstrate that these GPI-anchored proteins reside within domains that are stiffer than the surrounding membrane. In contrast, membrane domains containing the transferrin receptor, which does not associate with cholesterol-rich regions, manifest no such feature. The heightened stiffness of GPI domains is consistent with existing data relating to the specific condensation of lipids and the slow diffusion rates of lipids and proteins therein. Our quantitative data may forge the way to unveiling the links that exist between membrane stiffness, molecular diffusion, and signaling activation. PMID:17981897

  6. Long-Lived States to Monitor Protein Unfolding by Proton NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bornet, Aurélien; Ahuja, Puneet; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Fernandes, Laetitia; Hadji, Sonia; Lee, Shirley Y.; Haririnia, Aydin; Fushman, David; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Vasos, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The relaxation of long-lived states (LLS) corresponds to the slow return to statistical thermal equilibrium between symmetric and antisymmetric proton spin states. This process is remarkably sensitive to the presence of external spins and can be used to obtain information about partial unfolding of proteins. We detected the appearance of a destabilized conformer of ubiquitin when urea is added to the protein in its native state. This conformer shows increased mobility in the C-terminus, which significantly extends the lifetimes of proton LLS magnetisation in Ser-65. These changes could not be detected by conventional measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation times of protons, and would hardly be sensed by carbon-13 or nitrogen-15 relaxation measurements. Conformers with similar dynamic and structural features, as revealed by LLS relaxation times, could be observed, in the absence of urea, in two ubiquitin mutants, L67S and L69S. PMID:21882334

  7. Coexistence and efficiency of normal and anomalous transport by molecular motors in living cells

    E-print Network

    Igor Goychuk; Vasyl O. Kharchenko; R. Metzler

    2013-09-26

    Recent experiments reveal both passive subdiffusion of various nanoparticles and anomalous active transport of such particles by molecular motors in the molecularly crowded environment of living biological cells. Passive and active microrheology reveals that the origin of this anomalous dynamics is due to the viscoelasticity of the intracellular fluid. How do molecular motors perform in such a highly viscous, dissipative environment? Can we explain the observed co-existence of the anomalous transport of relatively large particles of 100 to 500 nm in size by kinesin motors with the normal transport of smaller particles by the same molecular motors? What is the efficiency of molecular motors in the anomalous transport regime? Here we answer these seemingly conflicting questions and consistently explain experimental findings in a generalization of the well-known continuous diffusion model for molecular motors with two conformational states in which viscoelastic effects are included.

  8. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to (1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and 25 years, respectively; and (2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  9. Drug screening boosted by hyperpolarized long-lived states in NMR.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Roberto; Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Salvi, Nicola; Singh, Maninder; Laguerre, Aurélien; Passemard, Solène; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Transverse and longitudinal relaxation times (T1? and T1) have been widely exploited in NMR to probe the binding of ligands and putative drugs to target proteins. We have shown recently that long-lived states (LLS) can be more sensitive to ligand binding. LLS can be excited if the ligand comprises at least two coupled spins. Herein we broaden the scope of ligand screening by LLS to arbitrary ligands by covalent attachment of a functional group, which comprises a pair of coupled protons that are isolated from neighboring magnetic nuclei. The resulting functionalized ligands have longitudinal relaxation times T1((1)H) that are sufficiently long to allow the powerful combination of LLS with dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Hyperpolarized weak "spy ligands" can be displaced by high-affinity competitors. Hyperpolarized LLS allow one to decrease both protein and ligand concentrations to micromolar levels and to significantly increase sample throughput. PMID:25196781

  10. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Investigating the role of F-actin in human immunodeficiency virus assembly by2 live-cell microscopy3

    E-print Network

    Schwarz, Ulrich

    microscopy, prompted us to revisit the role of F-34 actin in HIV-1 assembly by live-cell microscopy.35 HeLa are dispensable for HIV-147 Gag assembly at the plasma membrane of HeLa cells.48 #12;3 Importance49 HIV-11 1 Investigating the role of F-actin in human immunodeficiency virus assembly by2 live-cell

  12. Precipitation Characteristics around Nepal and Bangladesh revealed by TRMM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Furuzawa, F. A.; Nishikawa, M.; Shiratsu, F.; Shrestha, D.

    2012-04-01

    Bangladesh and Nepal regions are interesting regions in a core region of the Asian monsoon. The Nepal region is characterized by a very steep mountain slope. On the other hand, Bangladesh is a very flat region facing to the Bay of Bengal. The precipitaion characteristics are studied using the long-term Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. For the Nepal region, the precipitation is strongly affected by the mountains. In the mature monsoon season, two precipitation bands parallel to the mountain range appear. The first one is above a front (southern) low mountain range and the other is above the steep slope. The former is more convective and the latter is more frequent and maybe more persistent. The front precipitation band is less clear in the pre-monsoon season. It is suggested that the atmosphere is less moist to trigger convections in the pre-monsoon season, and sufficiently moist in mature monsoon season. The convections over the front low mountain range may moisten the middle layer, and the water vapor in the atmosphere condensates due to the forced lifting along the slope making the second rain band. The total rain amount is primarily determined by the frequency of rain. The rain conditioned rain rate along the slope monotonically decreases with elevation. This fact suggests that the precipitation is due to forced lifting. Over the Bangladesh, the stability of the atmosphere seems to affect the precipitation system in the vertical profiles. In the pre-monsoon season, rain rate increases with height in the lower part of the profile, while in the mature monsoon season, rain rate is nearly constant in the lower part of the profile. The structure of precipitation system is more persistent and homogenous in the mature monsoon season. The rain top is higher in pre-monsoon season than in mature monsoon season. The rain total is generally determined by rain frequency. The horizontal size of the precipitation systems is larger for pre-monsoon season than for mature monsoon season. In other words, the precipitation system is small but many in the mature monsoon season. This fact may be explained that the atmosphere is sufficently humid to be easily triggered by small liftings. Keywords: TRMM, precipitation, Asian monsoon, Nepal, Bangladesh

  13. Characteristics of visual disturbances reported by subjects with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Treleaven, Julia; Takasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Visual symptoms are often reported by patients with neck pain. The aim of the study was to report on the prevalence and most troublesome visual disturbances in subjects with neck pain. Seventy subjects with neck pain and seventy healthy control subjects answered questions about the presence and magnitude (/12) - product of frequency (0-4) and intensity (0-3) of each of 16 visual symptoms noted to be associated with neck pain and other possible causes. A visual complaint index (VCI) (/168) was generated from the sum of the magnitude rating of 14 significant symptoms. The neck pain group had significantly (P > 0.05) greater prevalence and magnitude of 14/16 visual complaints and VCI (mean 27.4) compared to control subjects (mean 6.2). The most prevalent symptoms were 'need to concentrate to read' (70%) and 'sensitivity to light' (58.6%). The least prevalent were 'double vision' (28.6%) and 'dizzy reading' (38.6%). The most troublesome symptoms (greatest magnitude) were 'need to concentrate to read' (3.4/12), 'visual fatigue' (3/12), 'difficulty judging distances' (2.1/12) and 'sensitivity to light' (2.1/12) while the least troublesome complaints were 'double vision' (0.5/12), 'red eyes' (1/12) and 'spots and words moving' (1/12). The characteristics of the visual symptoms were mostly consistent for those previously associated with neck pain. Subjects with traumatic neck pain had a significantly higher VCI compared to those with idiopathic neck pain. The results could help with differential diagnosis. The visual symptoms might be related to eye movement control disturbances in neck pain, however further research is required. PMID:24521926

  14. Seismic characteristics of tensile fracture growth induced by hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Van der Baan, M.; Boroumand, N.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process of injecting high-pressure slurry into a rockmass to enhance its permeability. Variants of this process are used for unconventional oil and gas development, engineered geothermal systems and block-cave mining; similar processes occur within volcanic systems. Opening of hydraulic fractures is well documented by mineback trials and tiltmeter monitoring and is a physical requirement to accommodate the volume of injected fluid. Numerous microseismic monitoring investigations acquired in the audio-frequency band are interpreted to show a prevalence of shear-dominated failure mechanisms surrounding the tensile fracture. Moreover, the radiated seismic energy in the audio-frequency band appears to be a miniscule fraction (<< 1%) of the net injected energy, i.e., the integral of the product of fluid pressure and injection rate. We use a simple penny-shaped crack model as a predictive framework to describe seismic characteristics of tensile opening during hydraulic fracturing. This model provides a useful scaling relation that links seismic moment to effective fluid pressure within the crack. Based on downhole recordings corrected for attenuation, a significant fraction of observed microseismic events are characterized by S/P amplitude ratio < 5. Despite the relatively small aperture of the monitoring arrays, which precludes both full moment-tensor analysis and definitive identification of nodal planes or axes, this ratio provides a strong indication that observed microseismic source mechanisms have a component of tensile failure. In addition, we find some instances of periodic spectral notches that can be explained by an opening/closing failure mechanism, in which fracture propagation outpaces fluid velocity within the crack. Finally, aseismic growth of tensile fractures may be indicative of a scenario in which injected energy is consumed to create new fracture surfaces. Taken together, our observations and modeling provide evidence that failure mechanisms documented by passive monitoring of hydraulic fractures may contain a significant component of tensile failure, including fracture opening and closing, although creation of extensive new fracture surfaces may be a seismically inefficient process that radiates at sub-audio frequencies.

  15. A Possible Mechanism for Evading Temperature Quantum Decoherence in Living Matter by Feshbach Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Innocenti, Davide; Bianconi, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A new possible scenario for the origin of the molecular collective behaviour associated with the emergence of living matter is presented. We propose that the transition from a non-living to a living cell could be mapped to a quantum transition to a coherent entanglement of condensates, like in a multigap BCS superconductor. Here the decoherence-evading qualities at high temperature are based on the Feshbach resonance that has been recently proposed as the driving mechanism for high Tc superconductors. Finally we discuss how the proximity to a particular critical point is relevant to the emergence of coherence in the living cell. PMID:19564941

  16. Activities of Daily Living Indexing by Hierarchical HMM for Dementia Diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Karaman, Svebor; Dartigues, Jean-François; Gaëstel, Yann; Mégret, Rémi; Pinquier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for indexing human ac- tivities in videos captured from a wearable camera being worn by patients, for studies of progression of the dementia diseases. Our method aims to produce indexes to facilitate the navigation throughout the individual video recordings, which could help doctors search for early signs of the dis- ease in the activities of daily living. The recorded videos have strong motion and sharp lighting changes, inducing noise for the analysis. The proposed approach is based on a two steps analysis. First, we propose a new approach to segment this type of video, based on apparent motion. Each segment is characterized by two original motion de- scriptors, as well as color, and audio descriptors. Second, a Hidden-Markov Model formulation is used to merge the multimodal audio and video features, and classify the test segments. Experiments show the good properties of the ap- proach on real data.

  17. Intracellular Confinement of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Living Cells: Impact for Imaging and Therapeutic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeau, Florence; Lévy, Michael; Wilhelm, Claire

    2011-03-01

    Superparamagnetic properties of iron-oxide nanoparticles paved the way for various biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic targeting of drug vectors or magnetically-induced therapeutic hyperthermia. Living cells interact with nanoparticles by internalizing them within intracellular compartments, called lysosomes. In the course of cellular uptake, the spatial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles changes from dilute isolated nanoparticles to a highly concentrated assembly of nanoparticles confined in micrometric lysosomes. This local organization of nanoparticles, which is induced by the intracellular environment, may have important consequences for their superparamagnetic behaviour. In particular, it may deeply affect their magnetic properties used for biomedical purposes and therefore must be considered when optimizing the properties of nanoparticles for a peculiar application. In this paper, we review the role of intracellular confinement of nanoparticles for their three main biomedical uses: MR cellular imaging, magnetic targeting of cells and magnetically induced hyperthermia.

  18. Characterization of Curli A Production on Living Bacterial Surfaces by Scanning Probe Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Cui, Yidan; Kim, Hyunseok; Li, Yinhua; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Park, Sungsu

    2012-01-01

    Curli are adhesive surface fibers produced by many Enterobacteriaceae, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. They are implicated in bacterial attachment and invasion to epithelial cells. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to determine the effects of curli on topology and mechanical properties of live E. coli cells. Young's moduli of both curli-deficient and curli-overproducing mutants were significantly lower than that of their wild-type (WT) strain, while decay lengths of the former strains were higher than that of the latter strain. Surprisingly, topological images showed that, unlike the WT and curli-overproducing mutant, the curli-deficient mutant produced a large number of flagella-like fibers, which may explain why the strain had a lower Young's modulus than the WT. These results suggest that the mechanical properties of bacterial surfaces are greatly affected by the presence of filamentous structures such as curli and flagella. PMID:23083709

  19. Introduction of Foreign Genes into Tissues of Living Mice by DNA-Coated Microprojectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders Williams, R.; Johnston, Stephen A.; Riedy, Mark; Devit, Michael J.; McElligott, Sandra G.; Sanford, John C.

    1991-04-01

    Foreign genes were expressed in liver and skin cells of live mice by using a new apparatus to accelerate DNA-coated microprojectiles into tissues. After introduction of a plasmid in which the firefly luciferase gene was controlled by the human ?-actin promoter, luciferase activity was detectable for up to 14 days in mouse tissues (skin and liver). In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that microprojectiles penetrated through multiple cell layers without evidence of tissue injury and that 10-20% of the cells in the bombarded area expressed the foreign gene. An advantage of the new design is that internal organs, such as liver, can be transfected without subjecting the tissue to a vacuum. This procedure potentially is applicable to a wide variety of tissues and cell types for studies of transcriptional control elements and for expression of foreign proteins in intact animals.

  20. Protein delivery into live cells by incubation with an endosomolytic agent

    PubMed Central

    Erazo-Oliveras, Alfredo; Najjar, Kristina; Dayani, Laila; Wang, Ting-Yi; Johnson, Gregory A.; Pellois, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We report on how a dimer of the cell-penetrating peptide TAT, dfTAT, penetrates live cells by escaping from endosomes with a particularly high efficiency. By mediating endosomal leakage, dfTAT also delivers proteins into cultured cells after a simple co-incubation procedure. Cytosolic delivery is achieved in most cells in a culture and only a relatively small amount of material remains trapped inside endosomes. Delivery does not require binding interactions between dfTAT and a protein, multiple molecules can be delivered at once, and delivery can be repeated. Remarkably, dfTAT-mediated delivery does not noticeably impact cell viability, proliferation, or gene expression. This new delivery strategy should be extremely useful for cell-based assays, cellular imaging applications, and the ex vivo manipulation of cells. PMID:24930129

  1. Complementary medicine use by people living with HIV in Australia - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Forrester, Catherine A; Rawlins, Matthew Dm; Levy, Russell W; Penm, Jonathan; Graham, Marissa M; Mackie, Kathryn F; Aran, Sohileh; Bridle, Sylvia; Bailey, Michael J; Duncan, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary medicines by people living with HIV in Australia since the advent of more effective combination antiretroviral therapy. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1211 adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy from one of eight specialist HIV clinics across Australia, aiming to identify the current patterns of use of ingestible complementary medicines. Data collected included reasons for use, information sources and rates of disclosure of use of complementary medicines to medical practitioners and pharmacists. Ingestible complementary medicine was used by up to 53% of the 1037 patients returning a survey. Complementary medicine was commonly used for general health, to boost immune function and, to a lesser extent, to address co-morbidities. Disclosure of complementary medicines use to doctors was far higher than to pharmacists. Given the potential for interactions, pharmacists should be more aware of patients' complementary medicines use. PMID:25681264

  2. The Effective Teacher's Characteristics as Perceived by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.; Longden, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Students (N = 1,883) from 10 European countries answered a web questionnaire pertaining to three dimensions of what they expect and what they experience from their teachers. The dimensions were personality, classroom environment, and teaching style characteristics. Parametric statistics identified high communalities among variables, while gender,…

  3. Information Source Characteristics and Environmental Scanning by Academic Library Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalhavaeji, Fahimeh; Farhadpoor, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines characteristics of the external environment of library and information centres of Islamic Azad University in Iran, focusing on perceived environmental uncertainty and perceived source accessibility and quality, and their impacts on the amount of scanning and the frequency of information source use. Methods: This…

  4. Job Satisfaction Characteristics of Higher Education Faculty by Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate, at a national level, the job satisfaction characteristics of higher education faculty of 5 different races. Data for this quantitative secondary analysis study were taken from the national study of postsecondary faculty (NSOPF) collected in the year 2004. The study used chi-square, one-way-ANOVA,…

  5. National Job Corps Study: Impacts by Center Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, John; Schochet, Peter Z.

    The question of whether the Job Corps's impacts on students' employment and related outcomes differ according to the characteristics of the Job Corps center attended was examined. The study sample consisted of approximately 9,400 program group members and 6,000 control group members who were randomly selected from among the nearly 81,000…

  6. Create the Internet of Your Things The Internet of Things (IoT) is here today, and it begins

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Create the Internet of Your Things The Internet of Things (IoT) is here today, and it begins you create the Internet of Your Things, beginning with what matters most to your business. Using if you qualify for a Quick Start consultation. Transform Your Business With the Internet of Your Things

  7. The Virtual Environment of Things (VEoT): A Framework for Integrating Smart Things into Networked Virtual Environments

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    of the Internet of Things (IoT) is linking physical smart things to the Internet to make them active participants on the Internet. The Web of Things (WoT) uses the World Wide Web platform and its associated technologies. Keywords--VEoT; Virtual Environment of Things; IoT; WoT; NVE; RFID; WSN; REST I. INTRODUCTION The Internet

  8. Use and Evaluation of Disposable Absorbent Products for Managing Fecal Incontinence by Community-Living People

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Lewis, Jaclyn; Hasselman, Keegan; Savik, Kay; Lowry, Ann; Whitebird, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The use of disposable absorbent products by community-dwelling people with fecal incontinence was described. Differences in product use or evaluation based on sex, age, or severity of fecal incontinence were evaluated. Suggestions for modifying absorbent products to be more suitable for fecal incontinence were described. Methods A survey was administered to 189 community-living individuals with fecal incontinence at the start of a clinical trial about the effects of dietary fiber on fecal incontinence Results An absorbent product was used to manage fecal incontinence by 45% (86/189) of respondents. More women (88%, 76/86, p = .009) and older persons 65+ years (44%, 38/86, p = .001) wore an absorbent product. Participants who wore an absorbent product for fecal incontinence had a higher (worse) usual fecal incontinence severity score (median 4.75, range 1–27, p = .006). Sixty three users wore pantiliners and were the only ones who used more than three products per day. Feminine hygiene products were worn more than incontinence products. Half of users were satisfied with the product they used. Evaluations of product features differed by type of product; odor control had some of the lowest ratings. Conclusions Community-living individuals with FI, especially women and older individuals, tend to wear absorbent products. Perceptions of FI severity, preference, leakage of liquid stool, and presence of urinary incontinence influence the product type and pattern of wear. Participants report that modification of several features of absorbent products might make them more suitable for FI and increase satisfaction. PMID:21464770

  9. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Objective Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. Methods Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. Results Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children’s development and potential use of marijuana. PMID:21660209

  10. Comparing the characteristics of people living with and without HIV in long-term care and home care in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Foebel, Andrea D; Hirdes, John P; Lemick, Rita; Tai, Justin Wei-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Population aging and successful drug therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management mean that more people are living longer with HIV. As these individuals age, they become more at risk of developing other chronic health conditions which will have many implications for disease management and choice of care setting. As people living with HIV turn to home care and long-term care (LTC) settings for care, understanding the particular needs of this population is becoming increasingly important. This study sought to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and social attributes of people living with HIV in the home care and institutional environments. This work involved secondary analysis of data collected from both the international Resident Assessment Instruments (interRAI) home care and minimum data set instruments in the Canadian province of Ontario. Descriptive analysis was used to describe key attributes of people living with and without HIV in LTC, complex continuing care, and home care settings. A comparison of differences between people living with HIV across the three environments was also done using Chi-square analysis. People living with HIV were often younger, male and unmarried than other populations in the care settings studied. Together with specific health needs associated with issues like mental health and social isolation, people living with HIV represent a population with complex and distinctive health needs. Finding ways to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population will help to develop strategies to provide better formal and informal care and improve the quality of life of this group. interRAI standardized assessment instruments may be important tools for meeting this challenge. PMID:26367102

  11. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Hosey, G. M.; Samo, M.; Gregg, E. W.; Barker, L.; Padden, D.; Bibb, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment) and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural) with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years). Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (<9 years) than among those with postsecondary education (>12 years). Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends. PMID:26464859

  12. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ?3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ?3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  13. Removal of long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 ?m from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener’s energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  14. Nuclear dynamics of influenza A virus ribonucleoproteins revealed by live-cell imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Loucaides, Eva M.; Kirchbach, Johann C. von; Foeglein, Agnes; Sharps, Jane; Fodor, Ervin; Digard, Paul

    2009-11-10

    The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by the viral RNA polymerase. Only four viral polypeptides are required but multiple cellular components are potentially involved. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to characterise the dynamics of GFP-tagged viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) components in living cells. The nucleoprotein (NP) displayed very slow mobility that significantly increased on formation of transcriptionally active RNPs. Conversely, single or dimeric polymerase subunits showed fast nuclear dynamics that decreased upon formation of heterotrimers, suggesting increased interaction of the full polymerase complex with a relatively immobile cellular component(s). Treatment with inhibitors of cellular transcription indicated that in part, this reflected an interaction with cellular RNA polymerase II. Analysis of mutated influenza virus polymerase complexes further suggested that this was through an interaction between PB2 and RNA Pol II separate from PB2 cap-binding activity.

  15. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose...have an ownership interest or a life estate interest in the home; (2) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose... (4) You pay at least a pro rata share of household and...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose...have an ownership interest or a life estate interest in the home; (2) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose... (4) You pay at least a pro rata share of household and...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose...have an ownership interest or a life estate interest in the home; (2) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose... (4) You pay at least a pro rata share of household and...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose...have an ownership interest or a life estate interest in the home; (2) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose... (4) You pay at least a pro rata share of household and...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean byliving in another person's household”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose...have an ownership interest or a life estate interest in the home; (2) You (or your spouse who lives with you or any person whose... (4) You pay at least a pro rata share of household and...

  20. Role of observation of live cases done by Japanese experts in the acquisition of ESD skills by a western endoscopist

    PubMed Central

    Draganov, Peter V; Chang, Myron; Coman, Roxana M; Wagh, Mihir S; An, Qi; Gotoda, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of observation of experts performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the acquisition of ESD skills. METHODS: This prospective study is documenting the learning curve of one Western endoscopist. The study consisted of three periods. In the first period (pre-observation), the trainee performed ESDs in animal models in his home institution in the United States. The second period (observation) consisted of visit to Japan and observation of live ESD cases done by experts. The observation of cases occurred over a 5-wk period. During the third period (post-observation), the trainee performed ESD in animal models in a similar fashion as in the first period. Three animal models were used: live 40-50 kg Yorkshire pig, explanted pig stomach model, and explanted pig rectum model. The outcomes from the ESDs done in the animal models before and after observation of live human cases (main study intervention) were compared. Statistical analysis of the data included: Fisher’s exact test to compare distributions of a categorical variable, Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare distributions of a continuous variable between the two groups (pre-observation and post-observation), and Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the impact of lesion location and type of model (ex-vivo vs live pig) on lesion removal time. RESULTS: The trainee performed 38 ESDs in animal model (29 pre-observation/9 post-observation). The removal times post-observation were significantly shorter than those pre-observation (32.7 ± 15.0 min vs 63.5 ± 9.8 min, P < 0.001). To minimize the impact of improving physician skill, the 9 lesions post-observation were compared to the last 9 lesions pre-observation and the removal times remained significantly shorter (32.7 ± 15.0 min vs 61.0 ± 7.4 min, P = 0.0011). Regression analysis showed that ESD observation significantly reduced removal time when controlling for the sequence of lesion removal (P = 0.025). Furthermore, it was also noted a trend towards decrease in failure to remove lesions and decrease in complications after the period of observation. This study did not find a significant difference in the time needed to remove lesions in different animal models. This finding could have important implications in designing training programs due to the substantial difference in cost between live animal and explanted organ models. The main limitation of this study is that it reflects the experience of a single endoscopist. CONCLUSION: Observation of experts performing ESD over short period of time can significantly contribute to the acquisition of ESD skills. PMID:24782619

  1. Absorption of visible spectrum radiation by the wing membranes of living pteropodid bats.

    PubMed

    Thomson, S C; Speakman, J R

    1999-04-01

    The wing membranes of bats present a large surface area upon which radiation might be taken up, increasing heat load to the animals. This, combined with the high amount of heat produced during flight, has been advanced as one hypothesis explaining the fact that bats are almost exclusively nocturnal. The proportion of short-wave (visible) radiation absorbed by bat wing membrane has previously been measured at between 0.7 and 0.92. These measurements were made on pieces of membrane taken from the wings of dead, mainly insectivorous bats from temperate regions. Here we examined the amount of light transmitted through and reflected off the wing membranes of four species of live pteropodid bats. There were significant differences in wing reflection between species. At 0.68, the average proportion of light absorbed into the wing membranes was lower than previously reported. This might be because we worked with live animals or because ours were tropical bats which are routinely exposed to tropical sun when roosting. Variation in wing tension strongly affected light absorption. It was predicted that the relaxed state of wing membrane through part of the wing beat cycle would increase the absorption of light into the wings of day-flying bats. The proportion of light absorbed into wings was shown to be an important factor in the heat balance of hypothetical bats flying during the day. Our results raise the predicted temperature at which bats flying during the day might experience hyperthermia by approximately 2 degrees C and suggest that variation in albedo of wings between species may make some species more susceptible to overheating than others. PMID:10335616

  2. Psychological characteristics of patients treated by chronic maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada D; Polenakovic, Momir H

    2013-02-01

    Studies related to psychological aspects of dialysis patients show that depression and anxiety are the most common characteristics. The aim of our study was to analyze the personality profile in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis and to evaluate more specifically the level of depression. The total number of patients was 68 (30 females and 38 males), with mean age 62.3 and 56.5 for females and males respectively. Mean duration of dialysis was 6.73 years for females and 6.68 years for men (the period varied from 0.5 to 18 years). For the evaluation of psychological characteristics, we used two psychometric instruments: Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI- 201) and Beck Depression Inventory. The obtained results confirmed the presence of depression in patients treated with hemodialysis. The level of depression is variable (minimal is present in 21.43%; mild in 35.71%; moderate in 17.85% and severe in 14.28% of patients). The depression is significantly positively correlated with age (p<0.05) as well as with educational level, and negatively with the duration of dialysis. Specific characteristics of personality obtained with MMPI are hypersensitivity, depressive mood, and withdrawal from friends and relatives. More specific emotional traits are the accentuated anxiety, low level of hostility, but very high passive aggression which destroys their social communications. Some response measures for depression such as relaxation training, psychological support, music therapy, or peripheral biofeedback are recommended. PMID:23335381

  3. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching between the data and the inspected at the device terminal in a timely manner. PMID:26628938

  4. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching between the data and the inspected at the device terminal in a timely manner. PMID:26628938

  5. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  6. Superior protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines in the murine model of paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pallab; Shippy, Daniel C; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection in ruminants with severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. Currently, available vaccines have limited protective efficacy against disease progression and does not prevent spread of the infection among animals. Because of their ability to elicit wide-spectrum immune responses, we adopted a live-attenuated vaccine approach based on a sigH knock-out strain of M. paratuberculosis (?sigH). Earlier analysis of the ?sigH mutant in mice indicated their inadequate ability to colonize host tissues, unlike the isogenic wild-type strain, validating the role of this sigma factor in M. paratuberculosis virulence. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the ?sigH mutant compared to inactivated vaccine constructs in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. The presented analysis indicated that ?sigH mutant with or without QuilA adjuvant is capable of eliciting strong immune responses (such as interferon gamma-?, IFN-?) suggesting their immunogenicity and ability to potentially initiate effective vaccine-induced immunity. Following a challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis, ?sigH conferred protective immunity as indicated by the reduced bacterial burden accompanied with reduced lesions in main body organs (liver, spleen and intestine) usually infected with M. paratuberculosis. More importantly, our data indicated better ability of the ?sigH vaccine to confer protection compared to the inactivated vaccine constructs even with the presence of oil-adjuvant. Overall, our approach provides a rational basis for using live-attenuated mutant strains to develop improved vaccines that elicit robust immunity against this chronic infection. PMID:26546738

  7. Home theater projectors: the next big thing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnock, Christopher B.

    2002-04-01

    The business presentation market has traditionally been the mainstay of the projection business, but as these users find the projectors work well at showing movies at home, interest in the home entertainment market is heating up. The idea of creating a theater environment in the home, complete with big screen projector and quality audio system, is not new. Wealthy patrons have been doing it for years. But can the concept be extended to ordinary living rooms? Many think so. Already pioneers like Sony, InFocus, Toshiba and Plus Vision are offering first generation products - and others will follow. But this market will require projectors that have different performance characteristics than those designed for data projection. In this paper, we will discuss how the requirements for a home theater projector differ from those of a data projector. We will provide updated information on who is doing what in this segment and give some insight into the growth potential.

  8. Spectral characteristics of VUV radiation emitted by a laser plume

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, Mohamed A.

    2013-12-16

    We study some experimental parameters and conditions of laser-generated plasma plumes using time-integrated, spatially resolved emission spectroscopy in the VUV range. The influences of the laser focusing lens type, laser wavelength, as well as laser pulse energy on the emission characteristics of the laser plasmas are investigated. The aim of the work is to improve the detection capability of the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) technique. The results obtained demonstrate a set of optimum conditions for maximum spectral line intensities and signal-to-background ratios of laser-produced plasmas in the VUV regime.

  9. "We always live in fear": antidepressant prescriptions by unlicensed doctors in India.

    PubMed

    Ecks, Stefan; Basu, Soumita

    2014-06-01

    In India, psychopharmaceuticals have seeped deep into both formal and informal pharmaceutical markets, and unlicensed "quack" doctors have become ready prescribers of psychotropics. These ethnographic insights trouble policies that aim at closing the treatment gap for psychiatric medications by "task shifting" to low-skilled health workers as if medications were exclusively available by prescription from public sector psychiatrists. This article describes what these doctors, known as rural medical practitioners (RMPs), know about psychotropics and how they use them in everyday practice. Unlicensed doctors learn about psychopharmaceuticals through exchanges with licensed doctors, through visits by drug companies' sales representatives, and through prescriptions brought by patients. Although the RMPs exist outside the margins of legitimacy, they are constrained by a web of relations with patients, licensed doctors, pharmacists, drug wholesalers, and government agents. The RMPs do not only prescribe but also dispense, which leads to conflicts with licensed medicine sellers. They "always live in fear" both because they are illegal prescribers and because they are illegal sellers of medications. The article shows that any form of strategic ignorance among policy makers about the local importance of informal practitioners in India can only lead to lopsided interventions. PMID:24705978

  10. Whole-body live mouse imaging by hybrid reflection-mode ultrasound and optoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Mer?ep, Elena; Burton, Neal C; Claussen, Jing; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-10-15

    We present a hybrid preclinical imaging scanner that optimally supports image acquisition in both reflection-mode ultrasonography and optoacoustic (OA) tomography modes. The system comprises a quasi-full-ring tomographic geometry capable of the simultaneous dual-mode imaging through entire cross sections of mice with in-plane spatial resolution in the range of 150 and 350 ?m in the respective OA and ultrasound (US) imaging modes with an imaging speed of up to 10 two-dimensional frames per second. Three-dimensional whole-body data is subsequently rendered by rapid scanning of the imaged plane. The system further incorporates rapid laser wavelength tuning for real-time acquisition of multispectral OA data, which enables studies of longitudinal dynamics as well as fast kinetics and biodistribution of contrast agents. In vivo imaging performance is demonstrated by label-free hybrid anatomical scans through living mice, as well as real-time visualization of optical contrast agent perfusion. By setting new standards for whole-body tomographic imaging performance in both the OA and pulse-echo US modes, the developed hybrid imaging approach is expected to benefit numerous applications where the availability of high-quality structural information provided by the tomographic reflection-mode US can ease interpretation of the functional and molecular imaging results attained by the OA modality. PMID:26469584

  11. PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Optimism in Close Relationships: How Seeing Things

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    life. Romantic relationships, in particular, have long been observed by poets and writersPERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Optimism in Close Relationships: How Seeing Things Stanford University Does expecting positive outcomes--especially in important life domains

  12. RFID as a key enabler of the internet of things : localization and communication

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jue, 1986-

    2014-01-01

    By having everything in our physical world digitally connected, the Internet of Things is expected to transform how we interact with our environments and unlock tremendous business values through advance analytics. Owing ...

  13. Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

    The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

  14. The Influence of Substance Use, Social Sexual Environment, Psychosocial Factors, and Partner Characteristics on High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Young Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387

  15. Revealing lives: a qualitative study with children and young people affected by parental alcohol problems 

    E-print Network

    Hill, Louise Catherine

    2012-06-29

    In recent decades, there has been recognition that children and young people have considerable knowledge about their own lives that merits academic attention. The overall aim of this study is to reflexively engage with ...

  16. Transcription Inhibition by Platinum DNA Cross-links in Live Mammalian Cells

    E-print Network

    Ang, Wee Han

    We have investigated the processing of site-specific Pt?DNA cross-links in live mammalian cells to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of platinum-based anticancer drugs. The activity of platinum drugs ...

  17. Application of Multi Factor Authentication in Internet of Things Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Udit

    2015-08-01

    Authentication forms the gateway to any secure system. Together with integrity, confidentiality and authorization it helps in preventing any sort of intrusions into the system. Up until a few years back password based authentication was the most common form of authentication to any secure network. But with the advent of more sophisticated technologies this form of authentication although still widely used has become insecure. Furthermore, with the rise of 'Internet of Things' where the number of devices would grow manifold it would be infeasible for user to remember innumerable passwords. Therefore, it's important to address this concern by devising ways in which multiple forms of authentication would be required to gain access to any smart devices and at the same time its usability would be high. In this paper, a methodology is discussed as to what kind of authentication mechanisms could be deployed in internet of things (IOT).

  18. Relevance of long-lived CD8+ T effector memory cells for protective immunity elicited by heterologous prime-boost vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, José R.; Dominguez, Mariana R.; Araújo, Adriano F.; Ersching, Jonatan; Tararam, Cibele A.; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the importance of major histocompatibility complex class Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells for host survival following viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection, it has become largely accepted that these cells should be considered in the design of a new generation of vaccines. For the past 20 years, solid evidence has been provided that the heterologous prime-boost regimen achieves the best results in terms of induction of long-lived protective CD8+ T cells against a variety of experimental infections. Although this regimen has often been used experimentally, as is the case for many vaccines, the mechanism behind the efficacy of this vaccination regimen is still largely unknown. The main purpose of this review is to examine the characteristics of the protective CD8+ T cells generated by this vaccination regimen. Part of its efficacy certainly relies on the generation and maintenance of large numbers of specific lymphocytes. Other specific characteristics may also be important, and studies on this direction have only recently been initiated. So far, the characterization of these protective, long-lived T cell populations suggests that there is a high frequency of polyfunctional T cells; these cells cover a large breadth and display a T effector memory (TEM) phenotype. These TEM cells are capable of proliferating after an infectious challenge and are highly refractory to apoptosis due to a control of the expression of pro-apoptotic receptors such as CD95. Also, they do not undergo significant long-term immunological erosion. Understanding the mechanisms that control the generation and maintenance of the protective activity of these long-lived TEM cells will certainly provide important insights into the physiology of CD8+ T cells and pave the way for the design of new or improved vaccines. PMID:23264773

  19. Stigmatization and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS by the general public in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, L P; Syuhada, A R Nur

    2011-09-01

    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences. PMID:22299438

  20. Quantitative Understanding of Probabilistic Behavior of Living Cells Operated by Vibrant Intracellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yu Rim; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Park, Seong Jun; Yang, Gil-Suk; Song, Sanggeun; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Lee, Nam Ki; Sung, Jaeyoung

    2015-07-01

    For quantitative understanding of probabilistic behaviors of living cells, it is essential to construct a correct mathematical description of intracellular networks interacting with complex cell environments, which has been a formidable task. Here, we present a novel model and stochastic kinetics for an intracellular network interacting with hidden cell environments, employing a complete description of cell state dynamics and its coupling to the system network. Our analysis reveals that various environmental effects on the product number fluctuation of intracellular reaction networks can be collectively characterized by Laplace transform of the time-correlation function of the product creation rate fluctuation with the Laplace variable being the product decay rate. On the basis of the latter result, we propose an efficient method for quantitative analysis of the chemical fluctuation produced by intracellular networks coupled to hidden cell environments. By applying the present approach to the gene expression network, we obtain simple analytic results for the gene expression variability and the environment-induced correlations between the expression levels of mutually noninteracting genes. The theoretical results compose a unified framework for quantitative understanding of various gene expression statistics observed across a number of different systems with a small number of adjustable parameters with clear physical meanings.

  1. Tomographic phase microscopy with 180° rotation of live cells in suspension by holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Habaza, Mor; Gilboa, Barak; Roichman, Yael; Shaked, Natan T

    2015-04-15

    We present a new tomographic phase microscopy (TPM) approach that allows capturing the three-dimensional refractive index structure of single cells in suspension without labeling, using 180° rotation of the cells. This is obtained by integrating an external off-axis interferometer for wide-field wave front acquisition with holographic optical tweezers (HOTs) for trapping and micro-rotation of the suspended cells. In contrast to existing TPM approaches for cell imaging, our approach does not require anchoring the sample to a rotating stage, nor is it limited in angular range as is the illumination rotation approach. Thus, it allows noninvasive TPM of suspended live cells in a wide angular range. The proposed technique is experimentally demonstrated by capturing the three-dimensional refractive index map of yeast cells, while collecting interferometric projections at an angular range of 180° with 5° steps. The interferometric projections are processed by both the filtered back-projection method and the diffraction theory method. The experimental system is integrated with a spinning disk confocal fluorescent microscope for validation of the label-free TPM results. PMID:25872098

  2. Solar system genealogy revealed by extinct short-lived radionuclides in meteorites

    E-print Network

    Gounelle, Matthieu; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219031

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the stellar environment and the genealogy of our solar system. Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs, mean lifetime shorter than 100 Myr) that were present in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Gyr ago could potentially provide insight into that key aspect of our history, were their origin understood. Previous models failed to provide a reasonable explanation of the abundance of two key SLRs, 26Al (mean lifetime = 1.1 Myr) and 60Fe (mean lifetime = 3.7 Myr), at the birth of the solar system by requiring unlikely astrophysical conditions. Our aim is to propose a coherent and generic solution based on the most recent understanding of star-forming mechanisms. Iron-60 in the nascent solar system is shown to have been produced by a diversity of supernovae belonging to a first generation of stars in a giant molecular cloud. Aluminum-26 is delivered into a dense collected shell by a single massive star wind belonging to a second star generation. The Sun formed in the collected shell as part of a thir...

  3. Stepwise Movements in Vesicle Transport of HER2 by Motor Proteins in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Higuchi, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    The stepwise movements generated by myosin, dynein, and kinesin were observed in living cells in an attempt to understand the molecular mechanisms of movement within cells. First, the sequential process of the transport of vesicles, including human epidermal factor 2 receptor, after endocytosis was observed for long periods in three dimensions using quantum dots (QDs) and a three-dimensional confocal microscope. QD vesicles, after being endocytosed into the cells, moved along the membrane by transferring actin filaments and were then rapidly transported toward the nucleus along microtubules. Second, the position of vesicles was detected with a precision up to 1.9 nm and 330 ?s using a new two-dimensional tracking method. The movement of the QDs transported by myosin VI lying just beneath the cell membrane consisted of 29- and 15-nm steps with a transition phase between these two steps. QD vesicles were then transported toward the nucleus or away from the nucleus toward the cell membrane with successive 8-nm steps. The stepwise movements of these motor proteins in cells were observed using new imaging methods that allowed the molecular mechanisms underlying traffic to and from the membrane to be determined. PMID:17369416

  4. Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, E.; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very short-lived substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ˜83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ˜52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

  5. Assisted Living

    MedlinePLUS

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  6. Studying early stages of fibronectin fibrillogenesis in living cells by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gudzenko, Tetyana; Franz, Clemens M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is an extracellular matrix protein that can be assembled by cells into large fibrillar networks, but the dynamics of FN remodeling and the transition through intermediate fibrillar stages are incompletely understood. Here we used a combination of fluorescence microscopy and time-lapse atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize initial stages of FN fibrillogenesis in living fibroblasts at high resolution. Initial FN nanofibrils form within <5 min of cell–matrix contact and subsequently extend at a rate of 0.25 ?m/min at sites of cell membrane retraction. FN nanofibrils display a complex linear array of globular features spaced at varying distances, indicating the coexistence of different conformational states within the fibril. In some cases, initial fibrils extended in discrete increments of ?800 nm during a series of cyclical membrane retractions, indicating a stepwise fibrillar extension mechanism. In presence of Mn2+, a known activator of integrin adhesion to FN, fibrillogenesis was accelerated almost threefold to 0.68 ?m/min and fibrillar dimensions were increased, underlining the importance of integrin activation for early FN fibrillogenesis. FN fibrillogenesis visualized by time-lapse AFM thus provides new structural and mechanistic insight into initial steps of cell-driven FN fibrillogenesis. PMID:26371081

  7. Surgical removal of a live worm by stereotactic targeting in cerebral sparganosis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Nobayashi, Misato; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Fukui, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Shigeaki; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2006-03-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with generalized tonic clonic convulsion followed by weakness of the right lower extremity. He had a medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and right cerebellar infarction. Computed tomography (CT) showed a small high density nodule with an enhanced perifocal low density area in the left occipital lobe. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a ring-shaped and partial string-like nodule with enhancement by gadolinium. T2-weighted MR imaging showed the white matter of the left occipital lobe as high intensity. CT and MR imaging seemed to indicate metastatic brain tumors, although cortical atrophy and ventricular dilation were recognized. Left parietal craniotomy was performed under stereotactic targeting to obtain a definitive diagnosis. During manipulation at the center of the targeted lesion, a white, tape-like body was found and recognized to be a live worm. Serological testing revealed strong immunopositivity against Spirometra mansoni. The infection route in the present case was probably through eating raw chicken meat. Cerebral sparganosis is extremely rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of metastatic brain tumors, especially in endemic areas. PMID:16565589

  8. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. PMID:26196087

  9. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; López-López, J. Pablo; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host. PMID:26445111

  10. Branched micelles by living crystallization-driven block copolymer self-assembly under kinetic control.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huibin; Gao, Yang; Du, Van An; Harniman, Rob; Winnik, Mitchell A; Manners, Ian

    2015-02-18

    We have found that the width and shape (from rectangular to elliptical, to almost circular in cross-section) of the crystalline core of fiberlike micelles of polyferrocenyldimethylsilane (PFDMS) diblock copolymers can be varied by altering the degree of polymerization of PFDMS, and also the chemistry of the complementary corona-forming block. This enabled detailed studies of living crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA) processes that involved the addition of unimers with a short, crystallizable core-forming PFDMS block to a seed solution of short micelles with a large diameter crystalline core, derived from block copolymers with a longer PFDMS block. The morphology of resultant micelles was found to be highly dependent on the polarity of the solvent and temperature. For example, linear micelles were formed in less polar solvents (which are moderately poor solvents for PFDMS) and/or at higher temperatures. In contrast, the formation of branched structures could be "switched on" when the opposite conditions were used. Thus, the use of more polar solvents (which are very poor solvents for PFDMS) and ambient or subambient temperatures allowed the formation of branched micelles and block comicelles with variable and spatially distinct corona chemistries, including amphiphilic nanostructures. Rapid crystallization of added unimers at the seed micelle termini under nonequilibrium self-assembly conditions appears to facilitate the formation of the branched micellar structures as a kinetically trapped morphology. This is evidenced by the transformation of the branched micelles into linear micelles on heating at elevated temperatures. PMID:25585041

  11. Secondhand smoke avoidance by preteens living with smokers: To leave or stay?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) is hazardous to children’s health. Designing interventions to reduce exposure requires understanding children’s behavior in the presence of smokers, yet little is known about this behavior. Purpose To determine whether children’s avoidance of SHS is associated with lower exposure and to explore predictors of avoidance based on a behavioral ecological model. Method Preteens aged 8–13 (N=358) living with a smoker identified their primary source of SHS exposure, and reported whether they left (avoided exposure) or stayed the last time they were exposed to that person’s smoke. The SHS avoidance measure was validated by examining associations with SHS exposure. Multivariable Logistic Regression was used to determine predictors of SHS avoidance. Results Based on urine cotinine and reported exposure, preteens who left the presence of SHS had lower exposure than those who stayed. Preteens were more likely to leave SHS if they were less physically mature, had not tried smoking, had a firm commitment not to smoke, did not assist family smoking, had family/friends who discouraged breathing SHS, or had friends who disliked smoking. Discussion Most SHS exposure reduction interventions have targeted changes in smokers’ behavior. Reductions can also be achieved by changing exposed nonsmokers’ behavior, such as avoiding the exposure. Future studies should measure young people’s SHS avoidance and test interventions to increase their avoidance practices. PMID:20634003

  12. A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

  13. A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

  14. Live Single-Cell Plant Hormone Analysis by Video-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takafumi; Miyakawa, Shinya; Esaki, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hajime; Masujima, Tsutomu; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-07-01

    Studies have indicated that endogenous concentrations of plant hormones are regulated very locally within plants. To understand the mechanisms underlying hormone-mediated physiological processes, it is indispensable to know the exact hormone concentrations at cellular levels. In the present study, we established a system to determine levels of ABA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) from single cells. Samples taken from a cell of Vicia faba leaves using nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) tips under a microscope were directly introduced into mass spectrometers by infusion and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Stable isotope-labeled [D(6)]ABA or [(13)C(6)]JA-Ile was used as an internal standard to compensate ionization efficiencies, which determine the amount of ions introduced into mass spectrometers. We detected ABA and JA-Ile from single cells of water- and wound-stressed leaves, whereas they were almost undetectable in non-stressed single cells. The levels of ABA and JA-Ile found in the single-cell analysis were compared with levels found by analysis of purified extracts with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These results demonstrated that stress-induced accumulation of ABA and JA-Ile could be monitored from living single cells. PMID:25759328

  15. Report on the First International Workshop on Personal Data Analytics in the Internet of Things (PDA@IOT 2014)

    E-print Network

    Palpanas, Themis

    sectors (both consumer2 and industrial3 markets). According to the IoT vision, "smart things" will "disappear" in our living environments (aka Pervasive Computing), or be embodied in humans (aka Wearable information, smart home sensors5 capture accurate indoor environmental information and energy consumption

  16. Shifting from Stories to Live by to Stories to Leave By: Early Career Teacher Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Lee; Downey, C. Aiden; Clandinin, D. Jean

    2014-01-01

    We began this research by asking questions about the high number of teachers who leave teaching in their first five years of teaching. The literature on early career teacher attrition (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Guarino, Santibanez & Daly, 2006; Macdonald, 1999; Smith & Ingersoll, 2004) left us with wonders around the experiences of…

  17. Public by Day, Private by Night: Examining the Private Lives of Kenya's Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of the public university in Kenya as a key provider of private higher education, characterised mainly by the phenomenon of the "private public university student." It probes the broader socio-economic reforms circumscribing the privatisation of Kenya's public universities and the local and global forces…

  18. Intersecting the Architecture of the Internet of Things with the Future Retail Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerkurth, Carsten; Haller, Stephan; Hagedorn, Pascal

    This paper discusses the approach of SAP Research in Switzerland to investigate, develop and evaluate future Internet of Things architectures and prototypes with their unique combination of three scientific pillars: SAP Research combines an environment of co-located academic education at leading universities ("Campus-Based Engineering Centers") with the concept of living laboratories in which real-world prototypes and systems are rigorously tested. SAP Research Switzerland hosts the "Future Retail Center" (FRC) in order to validate innovations in the retail industry. As an orthogonal element, we also structure our research activities in technological dimensions as opposed to the industry-specific living labs. The "Smart Items Research Program" bundles and focuses all research topics that are related to Ambient Intelligence (AmI), Internet of Things, and Pervasive Computing. With the researchers from the engineering centers, the industry focus in the living labs, and the different research projects and research programs, a holistic research perspective is created that ensures a highly effective and focused execution of research, unifying technical Internet of Things architectures with the corresponding business needs and forming a unique landscape of innovation.

  19. Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

    2008-04-01

    A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

  20. Live coral cover may provide resilience to damage from the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum by preventing larval settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, N. E.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Dendropoma maximum is a vermetid gastropod (a sessile tube-forming snail) commonly associated with living corals throughout shallow-water reefs of the Indo-Pacific. Recent work suggests that, once established, this species can adversely affect growth and survival of corals. Here, we test the hypotheses that disturbances to live coral substrates (e.g., creation of bare patches) facilitate successful larval settlement and subsequent population growth of D. maximum, and conversely, that live coral inhibits D. maximum settlement. In the shallow lagoon of Moorea, French Polynesia, we selected patch reefs where D. maximum was either present or absent (to evaluate potential effects of resident adult conspecifics on recruitment) and established focal quadrats on each reef. In each quadrat, we either experimentally removed 50 % of live coral cover or left the quadrat with 100 % live coral cover. In addition, we deployed units of bare substrate (coral rubble) to each reef. We conducted a census of deployed substrates and quadrats after 6 months and found that D. maximum settled irrespective of resident vermetid populations, and only onto nonliving surfaces (i.e., cleared patches in quadrats, coral rubble, and marine epoxy). In laboratory experiments, we exposed larvae of D. maximum to live coral and found species-specific effects on survival of D. maximum larvae. Porites lobata and Pocillopora sp. killed larvae of D. maximum, Porites rus caused weaker mortality, and Millepora sp. had no effect on larval survival. Collectively, these results suggest that D. maximum requires disturbances that create bare patches to successfully settle onto reefs, and that a high cover of living corals contributes resilience to reefs by limiting settlement opportunities of a species known to reduce coral growth and survival.

  1. An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continued presence of stigma and its persistence even in areas where HIV prevalence is high makes it an extraordinarily important, yet difficult, issue to eradicate. The study aimed to assess current and emerging HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination trends in South Africa as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Methods The PLHIV Stigma Index, a questionnaire that measures and detects changing trends in relation to stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV, was used as the survey tool. The study was conducted in 10 clinics in four provinces supported by the Foundation for Professional Development (FPD), with an interview total of 486 PLHIV. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the study, and both descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted on the data. Results Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services. Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. Conclusion The findings can be used to develop and inform programmes and interventions to reduce stigma experienced by PLHIV. The current measures for dealing with stigma should be expanded to incorporate the issues related to health, education and discrimination experienced in the workplace, that were highlighted by the study. PMID:24461042

  2. Walking Devices Used by the Elderly Living in Rural Areas of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Patcharawan, SUWANNARAT; THAWEEWANNAKIJ, Thiwabhorn; KAEWSANMUNG, Supapon; KAEWJOHO, Chonticha; SAENGSUWAN, Jiamjit; AMATACHAYA, Sugalya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of all types of external devices was previously investigated for elderly with and without orthopaedic problems of a developed country. This study describes the proportion, types and the reasons of using a walking device in elderly who live in many rural areas of Thailand. Methods: Participants (n = 390) were interviewed using a questionnaire to ascertain their demographics, health status and types of walking device required for daily activities. Results: Forty-one participants (11%) used a walking device, particularly when walking long distances due to a fear of falling, musculoskeletal pain, and impaired walking ability. The proportion of walking devices used dramatically increased in participants aged 75 years and over (six times of those aged 60–74 years). Most of the participants used a modified walking stick by their own determination (81%), while only 7% used one according to medical prescription. A significant increase in the need of a walking device was seen in participants aged 75 years and over (OR = 13.9; 95% CI 5.9–32.7; P < 0.001), with a medical problem (OR = 45.9; 95% CI 6.7–73.4; P < 0.001) and who required regular medication (OR = 12.7; 95% CI 5.0–33.6; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The findings emphasise the importance of a community health service to promote health status, particularly before 75 years of age. PMID:26023295

  3. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development. PMID:24878351

  4. Analysis of protein mobilities and interactions in living cells by multifocal fluorescence fluctuation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Heuvelman, Gerrit; Erdel, Fabian; Wachsmuth, Malte; Rippe, Karsten

    2009-07-01

    The spatial and temporal fluctuation microscope (STFM) presented here extends the concept of a fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope to illumination and detection along a line. The parallel multichannel acquisition of the fluorescence signal was accomplished by using a single line of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera at 14 mus time resolution for detection of the fluorescence signal. The STFM system provided fast confocal imaging (30 images per second) and allowed for the spatially resolved detection of particle concentration fluctuations in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments. For the application of the STFM, an approximated theoretical description of the beam geometry, the point-spread function, and the fluorescence auto- and cross-correlation functions were derived. The STFM was applied to studies of the dynamics of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, green fluorescent protein, and chromatin-remodeling complexes in living cells. The results demonstrate the unique capabilities of the STFM for characterizing the position-dependent translocations and interactions of proteins in the cell. PMID:19543723

  5. Polymer nanostructures synthesized by controlled living polymerization for tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christine E; Stayton, Patrick S; Pun, Suzie H; Convertine, Anthony J

    2015-12-10

    The development of drug delivery systems based on well-defined polymer nanostructures could lead to significant improvements in the treatment of cancer. The design of these therapeutic nanosystems must account for numerous systemic and circulation obstacles as well as the specific pathophysiology of the tumor. Nanoparticle size and surface charge must also be carefully selected in order to maintain long circulation times, allow tumor penetration, and avoid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Targeting ligands such as vitamins, peptides, and antibodies can improve the accumulation of nanoparticle-based therapies in tumor tissue but must be optimized to allow for intratumoral penetration. In this review, we will highlight factors influencing the design of nanoparticle therapies as well as the development of modern controlled "living" polymerization techniques (e.g. ATRP, RAFT, ROMP) that are leading to the creation of sophisticated new polymer architectures with discrete spatially-defined functional modules. These innovative materials (e.g. star polymers, polymer brushes, macrocyclic polymers, and hyperbranched polymers) combine many of the desirable properties of traditional nanoparticle therapies while substantially reducing or eliminating the need for complex formulations. PMID:26342661

  6. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2015-09-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  7. Tissue engineering by self-assembly and bio-printing of living cells

    PubMed Central

    Jakab, Karoly; Marga, Francoise; Norotte, Cyrille; Murphy, Keith; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Forgacs, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Biofabrication of living structures with desired topology and functionality requires the interdisciplinary effort of practitioners of the physical, life, medical and engineering sciences. Such efforts are being undertaken in many laboratories around the world. Numerous approaches are being pursued, such as those based on the use of natural or artificial scaffolds, decellularized cadaveric extracellular matrices and lately bioprinting. To be successful in this endeavor it is crucial to provide in vitro micro-environmental clues for the cells resembling those in the organism. Therefore scaffolds populated with differentiated cells or stem cells of increasing complexity and sophistication are being fabricated. However, scaffolds, no matter how sophisticated they are, can cause problems stemming from their degradation, eliciting immunogenic reactions and other a priori unforeseen complications. It is also being realized that ultimately the best approach is to rely on the self-assembly and self-organizing properties of cells and tissues and the innate regenerative capability of the organism itself, not just simply prepare tissue and organ structures in vitro followed by their implantation. Here we briefly review the different strategies for the fabrication of three-dimensional biological structures, in particular bioprinting. We detail a fully biological, scaffoldless, print-based engineering approach that uses self-assembling multicellular units as bioink particles and employs early developmental morphogenetic principles, such as cell sorting and tissue fusion. PMID:20811127

  8. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  9. Free-living spirochetes from Cape Cod microbial mats detected by electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teal, T. H.; Chapman, M.; Guillemette, T.; Margulis, L.

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes from microbial mats and anaerobic mud samples collected in salt marshes were studied by light microscopy, whole mount and thin section transmission electron microscopy. Enriched in cellobiose-rifampin medium, selective for Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, seven distinguishable spirochete morphotypes were observed. Their diameters ranged from 0.17 micron to > 0.45 micron. Six of these morphotypes came from southwest Cape Cod, Massachusetts: five from Microcoleus-dominated mat samples collected at Sippewissett salt marsh and one from anoxic mud collected at School Street salt marsh (on the east side of Eel Pond). The seventh morphotype was enriched from anoxic mud sampled from the north central Cape Cod, at the Sandy Neck salt marsh. Five of these morphotypes are similar or identical to previously described spirochetes (Leptospira, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi and Treponema), whereas the other two have unique features that suggest they have not been previously described. One of the morphotypes resembles Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi (the largest free-living spirochete described), in its large variable diameter (0.4-3.0 microns), cytoplasmic granules, and spherical (round) bodies with composite structure. This resemblance permits its tentative identification as a Sippewissett strain of Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Microbial mats samples collected in sterile Petri dishes and stored dry for more than four years yielded many organisms upon rewetting, including small unidentified spirochetes in at least 4 out of 100 enrichments.

  10. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  11. A Platform for Learning Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanovic, Zorica; Simic, Konstantin; Milutinovic, Miloš; Radenkovic, Božidar; Despotovic-Zrakic, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model for conducting Internet of Things (IoT) classes based on a web-service oriented cloud platform. The goal of the designed model is to provide university students with knowledge about IoT concepts, possibilities, and business models, and allow them to develop basic system prototypes using general-purpose microdevices and…

  12. Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…

  13. Assisted living nursing practice: medication management: part 2 supervision and monitoring of medication administration by unlicensed assistive personnel.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    More than half the states permit assistance with or administration of medications by unlicensed assistive personnel or med techs. Authorization of this nursing activity (or task) is more likely because of state assisted living regulation than by support and approval of the state Board of Nursing. In many states, the definition of "assistance with" reads exactly like "administration of" thereby raising concern with regard to delegation, accountability, and liability for practice. It is, as well, a hazardous path for the assisted living nurse who must monitor and evaluate the performance of the individual performing this nursing task. This article, the second in a series on medication management, addresses delegation, standards of practice of medication administration, types of medication errors, the components of a performance evaluation tool, and a culture of safety. Maintaining professional standards of assisted living nursing practice courses throughout the suggested recommendations. PMID:17561014

  14. Kinetic characteristics of sludge pyrolysis by the electric thermal furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.L.; Chang, G.M.; Tsai, J.H.; Chen, T.C.

    1999-07-01

    Volume reduction and recovery as resources are the goal of waste disposal. This study investigated the kinetic reaction and the characteristics of the exhaust gases from incineration of a petrochemical sludge in an oxygen free environment. Sludge samples were pre-dried in an oven at 105 C for 24 hrs, result indicated 68% of the weight became water and volatile compounds, and the rest 32 % became drying sludge. Volatile organic compounds were generated from the sludge at 400 to 900 C, furthermore, it displayed a significant decomposition at 900 C. The volatile sulfur compounds were also generated and results denoted they were decomposed when pyrolysis temperature was excess 700 C. The reaction rate of the pyrolysis ranged from 1.5 x 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.47 x 10{sup {minus}1} sec{sup {minus}1} when the pyrolytic temperature ranged from 200 to 900 C. The average reaction order was 2.5. Results demonstrated the slope of activation energy (Ea/R) and frequent factor was 3,243 and 0.99 sec{sup {minus}1}, respectively.

  15. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, D.M.; Hall-Griswold, J.A. )

    1992-09-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squawfish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squawfish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squawfish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squawfish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squawfish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead).

  16. Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis Reactions Catalyzed by a Long-Lived Negatively Charged Leptonic Particle

    E-print Network

    Masayasu Kamimura; Yasushi Kino; Emiko Hiyama

    2009-06-13

    An accurate quantum three-body calculation is performed for the new type of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) reactions that are catalyzed by a long-lived negatively-charged, massive leptonic particle (called X^-) such as the supersymmetric (SUSY) particle stau. The reactions studied here includes, i) 4He-transfer reactions such as (4He X)+d --> 6Li+X, ii) radiative capture reactions such as (7Be X)+ p --> (8B X) + gamma, iii) three-body breakup reactions such as (7Li X)+ p --> 4He+4He+X, iv) charge-exchange reactions such as (p X)+4He -->(4He X) +p, and v) neutron induced reactions such as (8Be X)+ n -->9Be+X, where (A X) denotes a Coulombic bound state of a nucleus A and X^-. In recent papers it has been claimed that some of the catalyzed BBN reactions have significantly large cross sections so as to markedly change the abundances of some elements, not only giving a solution to the 6Li-7Li problem (calculated underproduction of 6Li by a factor of 1000 and overproduction of 7Li+7Be by a factor of nearly 3) but also imposing strong restrictions on the lifetime and the primordial abundance of X^-. However, most of the calculations of these reaction cross sections in the literature were performed assuming too naive models or approximations that are unsuitable for the complicated low-energy nuclear reactions. We use a high-accuracy few-body calculational method developed by the authors, and provide precise cross sections and rates of these catalyzed BBN reactions for use in the BBN network calculation.

  17. Left Hand Mode Transmission Line Characteristics Made by F-SIR Structure on PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Ryosuke; Kayano, Yoshiki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    Basic left hand mode transmission line (LH mode TL) characteristics made on PCB is an important future issue for the application of the EMC field. In this paper, possibility of a LH mode TL characteristic made by a folded-stepped impedance resonator (F-SIR) type is investigated experimentally and numerically. The experimental and calculated from FEM and equivalent circuit results indicate that some backward propagation characteristic and negative group delay can be established by F-SIR structure.

  18. Retrieval of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase from Phagosomes Revealed by Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Margaret; Maddera, Lucinda; Engel, Ulrike; Gerisch, Günther

    2010-01-01

    Background The vacuolar H+-ATPase, or V-ATPase, is a highly-conserved multi-subunit enzyme that transports protons across membranes at the expense of ATP. The resulting proton gradient serves many essential functions, among them energizing transport of small molecules such as neurotransmitters, and acidifying organelles such as endosomes. The enzyme is not present in the plasma membrane from which a phagosome is formed, but is rapidly delivered by fusion with endosomes that already bear the V-ATPase in their membranes. Similarly, the enzyme is thought to be retrieved from phagosome membranes prior to exocytosis of indigestible material, although that process has not been directly visualized. Methodology To monitor trafficking of the V-ATPase in the phagocytic pathway of Dictyostelium discoideum, we fed the cells yeast, large particles that maintain their shape during trafficking. To track pH changes, we conjugated the yeast with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Cells were labeled with VatM-GFP, a fluorescently-tagged transmembrane subunit of the V-ATPase, in parallel with stage-specific endosomal markers or in combination with mRFP-tagged cytoskeletal proteins. Principal Findings We find that the V-ATPase is commonly retrieved from the phagosome membrane by vesiculation shortly before exocytosis. However, if the cells are kept in confined spaces, a bulky phagosome may be exocytosed prematurely. In this event, a large V-ATPase-rich vacuole coated with actin typically separates from the acidic phagosome shortly before exocytosis. This vacuole is propelled by an actin tail and soon acquires the properties of an early endosome, revealing an unexpected mechanism for rapid recycling of the V-ATPase. Any V-ATPase that reaches the plasma membrane is also promptly retrieved. Conclusions/Signficance Thus, live cell microscopy has revealed both a usual route and alternative means of recycling the V-ATPase in the endocytic pathway. PMID:20052281

  19. Quantification of Förster resonance energy transfer by monitoring sensitized emission in living plant cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sara M; Galliardt, Helena; Schneider, Jessica; Barisas, B George; Seidel, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) describes excitation energy exchange between two adjacent molecules typically in distances ranging from 2 to 10 nm. The process depends on dipole-dipole coupling of the molecules and its probability of occurrence cannot be proven directly. Mostly, fluorescence is employed for quantification as it represents a concurring process of relaxation of the excited singlet state S1 so that the probability of fluorescence decreases as the probability of FRET increases. This reflects closer proximity of the molecules or an orientation of donor and acceptor transition dipoles that facilitates FRET. Monitoring sensitized emission by 3-Filter-FRET allows for fast image acquisition and is suitable for quantifying FRET in dynamic systems such as living cells. In recent years, several calibration protocols were established to overcome to previous difficulties in measuring FRET-efficiencies. Thus, we can now obtain by 3-filter FRET FRET-efficiencies that are comparable to results from sophisticated fluorescence lifetime measurements. With the discovery of fluorescent proteins and their improvement toward spectral variants and usability in plant cells, the tool box for in vivo FRET-analyses in plant cells was provided and FRET became applicable for the in vivo detection of protein-protein interactions and for monitoring conformational dynamics. The latter opened the door toward a multitude of FRET-sensors such as the widely applied Ca(2+)-sensor Cameleon. Recently, FRET-couples of two fluorescent proteins were supplemented by additional fluorescent proteins toward FRET-cascades in order to monitor more complex arrangements. Novel FRET-couples involving switchable fluorescent proteins promise to increase the utility of FRET through combination with photoactivation-based super-resolution microscopy. PMID:24194740

  20. Quantification of Förster resonance energy transfer by monitoring sensitized emission in living plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sara M.; Galliardt, Helena; Schneider, Jessica; Barisas, B. George; Seidel, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) describes excitation energy exchange between two adjacent molecules typically in distances ranging from 2 to 10 nm. The process depends on dipole-dipole coupling of the molecules and its probability of occurrence cannot be proven directly. Mostly, fluorescence is employed for quantification as it represents a concurring process of relaxation of the excited singlet state S1 so that the probability of fluorescence decreases as the probability of FRET increases. This reflects closer proximity of the molecules or an orientation of donor and acceptor transition dipoles that facilitates FRET. Monitoring sensitized emission by 3-Filter-FRET allows for fast image acquisition and is suitable for quantifying FRET in dynamic systems such as living cells. In recent years, several calibration protocols were established to overcome to previous difficulties in measuring FRET-efficiencies. Thus, we can now obtain by 3-filter FRET FRET-efficiencies that are comparable to results from sophisticated fluorescence lifetime measurements. With the discovery of fluorescent proteins and their improvement toward spectral variants and usability in plant cells, the tool box for in vivo FRET-analyses in plant cells was provided and FRET became applicable for the in vivo detection of protein-protein interactions and for monitoring conformational dynamics. The latter opened the door toward a multitude of FRET-sensors such as the widely applied Ca2+-sensor Cameleon. Recently, FRET-couples of two fluorescent proteins were supplemented by additional fluorescent proteins toward FRET-cascades in order to monitor more complex arrangements. Novel FRET-couples involving switchable fluorescent proteins promise to increase the utility of FRET through combination with photoactivation-based super-resolution microscopy. PMID:24194740

  1. Induction of vigorous cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses by live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R P; Glickman, R L; Yang, J Q; Kaur, A; Dion, J T; Mulligan, M J; Desrosiers, R C

    1997-01-01

    Although live attenuated vaccine strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have proven highly effective in protecting macaques against challenge with pathogenic SIV strains, little is known about the mechanisms of protective immunity induced by these vaccines. We examined cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against SIV in animals infected with SIVmac239delta nef (deficient in nef) or SIVmac239delta 3 (deficient in nef, vpr, and upstream sequences in U3). To enhance detection of SIV-specific CTL activity, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells with autologous B-lymphoblastoid cell lines which had been infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing SIV proteins and subsequently inactivated with psoralen and UV light. Animals chronically infected with SIV239delta nef or SIV239delta 3 mounted vigorous CTL responses against the SIV Gag and Env proteins. This CTL activity was major histocompatibility class restricted and mediated by CD8+ T lymphocytes. CTL responses persisted at relatively high levels for more than 6 years after infection. Limiting dilution precursor frequency assays demonstrated that the frequency of SIV-specific CTLs was as high as 234 CTL precursors per 100,000 cells. Animals acutely infected with SIV239delta nef developed CTL activity by day 14 after infection, coincident with decreases in viral load. Animals acutely infected with SIV239delta 3 developed CTL responses within 4 weeks of infection. Thus, vaccination of juvenile or adult animals with SIV239delta nef or SIV239delta 3 results in the induction of a vigorous CTL response which arises early in the course of infection and persists for years after a single inoculation of virus. PMID:9311855

  2. Time to Talk: 5 Things You Should Know about Yoga

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu 5 Things You Should Know About Yoga Yoga typically ... you’re thinking about practicing yoga, here are 5 things you should know: Studies suggest that yoga ...

  3. Volumetric Deformation of Live Cells Induced by Pressure-Activated Cross-Membrane Ion Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, T. H.; Zhou, Z. L.; Qian, J.; Lin, Y.; Ngan, A. H. W.; Gao, H.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we developed a method that allows precise control over changes in the size of a cell via hydrostatic pressure changes in the medium. Specifically, we show that a sudden increase, or reduction, in the surrounding pressure, in the physiologically relevant range, triggers cross-membrane fluxes of sodium and potassium ions in leukemia cell lines K562 and HL60, resulting in reversible volumetric deformation with a characteristic time of around 30 min. Interestingly, healthy leukocytes do not respond to pressure shocks, suggesting that the cancer cells may have evolved the ability to adapt to pressure changes in their microenvironment. A model is also proposed to explain the observed cell deformation, which highlights how the apparent viscoelastic response of cells is governed by the microscopic cross-membrane transport.

  4. Automatic compensation of phase aberrations in digital holographic microscopy for living cells investigation by using spectral energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuo; Xiao, Wen; Pan, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Phase aberration compensation is crucial for quantitative phase-contrast imaging in digital holographic microscopy. In this paper, an automatic compensation method is proposed for living cells investigation in digital holographic microscopy. The phase aberrations are extracted and corrected automatically with a single hologram by using spectral energy analysis. Zernike polynomials are adopted to model the phase aberrations. The polynomial coefficients related to the amount of phase aberrations are calculated in a nonlinear optimization procedure, in which a spectral energy metric that places more weight on low-frequency components is maximized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with experimental result of mouse osteoblastic living cells.

  5. Distributions of short-lived radioactive nuclei produced by young embedded star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Fred C.; Fatuzzo, Marco; Holden, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Most star formation in the Galaxy takes place in clusters, where the most massive members can affect the properties of other constituent solar systems. This paper considers how clusters influence star formation and forming planetary systems through nuclear enrichment from supernova explosions, where massive stars deliver short-lived radioactive nuclei (SLRs) to their local environment. The decay of these nuclei leads to both heating and ionization, and thereby affects disk evolution, disk chemistry, and the accompanying process of planet formation. Nuclear enrichment can take place on two spatial scales: (1) within the cluster itself (? ? 1 pc), the SLRs are delivered to the circumstellar disks associated with other cluster members. (2) On the next larger scale (? ? 2-10 pc), SLRs are injected into the background molecular cloud; these nuclei provide heating and ionization to nearby star-forming regions and to the next generation of disks. For the first scenario, we construct the expected distributions of radioactive enrichment levels provided by embedded clusters. Clusters can account for the SLR mass fractions inferred for the early Solar Nebula, but typical SLR abundances are lower by a factor of ?10. For the second scenario, we find that distributed enrichment of SLRs in molecular clouds leads to comparable abundances. For both the direct and distributed enrichment processes, the masses of {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe delivered to individual circumstellar disks typically fall in the range 10-100 pM {sub ?} (where 1 pM {sub ?} = 10{sup –12} M {sub ?}). The corresponding ionization rate due to SLRs typically falls in the range ?{sub SLR} ? 1-5 × 10{sup –19} s{sup –1}. This ionization rate is smaller than that due to cosmic rays, ?{sub CR} ? 10{sup –17} s{sup –1}, but will be important in regions where cosmic rays are attenuated (e.g., disk mid-planes).

  6. Ionizing irradiation-induced radical stress stalls live meiotic chromosome movements by altering the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Illner, Doris; Scherthan, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Meiosis generates haploid cells or spores for sexual reproduction. As a prelude to haploidization, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine to undergo segregation during the first meiotic division. During the entire meiotic prophase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chromosomes perform rapid movements that are suspected to contribute to the regulation of recombination. Here, we investigated the impact of ionizing radiation (IR) on movements of GFP–tagged bivalents in live pachytene cells. We find that exposure of sporulating cultures with >40 Gy (4-krad) X-rays stalls pachytene chromosome movements. This identifies a previously undescribed acute radiation response in yeast meiosis, which contrasts with its reported radioresistance of up to 1,000 Gy in survival assays. A modified 3?-end labeling assay disclosed IR-induced dsDNA breaks (DSBs) in pachytene cells at a linear dose relationship of one IR-induced DSB per cell per 5 Gy. Dihydroethidium staining revealed formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells. Immobility of fuzzy-appearing irradiated bivalents was rescued by addition of radical scavengers. Hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS did reduce bivalent mobility similar to 40 Gy X IR, while they failed to induce DSBs. IR- and H2O2-induced ROS were found to decompose actin cables that are driving meiotic chromosome mobility, an effect that could be rescued by antioxidant treatment. Hence, it appears that the meiotic actin cytoskeleton is a radical-sensitive system that inhibits bivalent movements in response to IR- and oxidant-induced ROS. This may be important to prevent motility-driven unfavorable chromosome interactions when meiotic recombination has to proceed in genotoxic environments. PMID:24046368

  7. Rapid Strategy for Screening by Pyrosequencing of Influenza Virus Reassortants - Candidates for Live Attenuated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbik, Svetlana V.; Pearce, Nicholas C.; Levine, Marnie L.; Klimov, Alexander I.; Villanueva, Julie M.; Bousse, Tatiana L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs) can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV) and a seasonal wild-type (wt) virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6?2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. Methodology/Principal Findings This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012) or influenza A (H7N9) (A/Anhui/1/2013) wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2). Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates. PMID:24647786

  8. Long-lived guided phonons in fiber by manipulating two-level systems

    E-print Network

    R. O. Behunin; P. Kharel; W. H. Renninger; H. Shin; F. Carter; E. Kittlaus; P. T. Rakich

    2015-01-23

    The synthesis of ultra-long lived acoustic phonons in a variety of materials and device geometries could enable a range of new coherent information processing and sensing technologies; many forms of phonon dissipation pose a barrier to this goal. We explore linear and nonlinear contributions to phonon dissipation in silica at cryogenic temperatures using fiber-optic structures that tightly confine both photons and phonons to the fiber-optic core. When immersed in helium, this fiber system supports nearly perfect guidance of 9 GHz acoustic phonons; strong electrostrictively mediated photon-phonon coupling (or guided-wave stimulated Brillouin scattering) permits a flexible form of laser-based phonon spectroscopy. Through linear and nonlinear phonon spectroscopy, we isolate the effects of disorder-induced two-level tunneling states as a source of phononic dissipation in this system. We show that an ensemble of such two-level tunneling states can be driven into transparency--virtually eliminating this source of phonon dissipation over a broad range of frequencies. Experimental studies of phononic self-frequency saturation show excellent agreement with a theoretical model accounting for the phonon coupling to an ensemble of two-level tunneling states. Extending these results, we demonstrate a general approach to suppress dissipation produced by two-level tunneling states via cross-saturation, where the lifetime of a phonons at one frequency can be extended by the presence of a high intensity acoustic beam at another frequency. Although these studies were carried out in silica, our findings are quite general, and can be applied to a range of materials systems and device geometries.

  9. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus by Free-Living Wild Animals in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Garayzábal, José-Francisco; Domínguez, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was analyzed in different free-living wild animals to assess the genetic diversity and predominant genotypes on each animal species. Samples were taken from the skin and/or nares, and isolates were characterized by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The proportion of MSSA carriers were 5.00, 22.93, 19.78, and 17.67% in Eurasian griffon vulture, Iberian ibex, red deer, and wild boar, respectively (P = 0.057). A higher proportion of isolates (P = 0.000) were recovered from nasal samples (78.51%) than skin samples (21.49%), but the 9.26% of red deer and 18.25% of wild boar would have been undetected if only nasal samples had been tested. Sixty-three different spa types were identified, including 25 new spa types. The most common were t528 (43.59%) in Iberian ibex, t548 and t11212 (15.79% and 14.04%) in red deer, and t3750 (36.11%) in wild boar. By MLST, 27 STs were detected, of which 12 had not been described previously. The most frequent were ST581 for Iberian ibex (48.72%), ST425 for red deer (29.82%), and ST2328 for wild boar (42.36%). Isolates from Eurasian griffon vulture belong to ST133. Host specificity has been observed for the most frequent spa types and STs (P = 0.000). The highest resistance percentage was found against benzylpenicillin (average, 22.2%), although most of the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested. Basically, MSSA isolates were different from those MRSA isolates previously detected in the same animal species. PMID:24907325

  10. Rapid detection and typing of live bacteria from human joint fluid samples by utilizing an integrated microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wang, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chih-Lin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lee, Mel S; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2015-04-15

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most dreading complications that hinder the merits of an arthroplasty. A prerequisite for treatment of the above procedure is rapid detection of live bacteria to prevent its recurrence and proper choice of antibiotics. Conventional culture methods are time-consuming and associated with a high false negative rate. Amplification of bacterial genetic materials requires a tedious process but is associated with a high false positive rate. An integrated microfluidic system capable of molecular diagnosis for detecting live bacteria was reported in our previous work. However, the system could not provide detailed information about infectious bacteria for the subsequent antibiotic choices. Furthermore, it took at least 55min to finish the entire process. In this work, a microfluidic platform using ethidium monoazide (EMA) which can only penetrate into dead bacteria is presented for live bacteria detection and typing within a short period of time (30min for the detection of live bacteria and another 40min for the typing of bacteria strains). We tested the proposed system by using human joint fluid samples and found its limit of detection for bacterial detection equal to 10(2)CFU (colony formation unit) for live bacteria detection with gold nanoparticle probes and 10(2)-10(4)CFU for typing bacteria by an on-chip polymerase chain reaction. The whole procedure of the integrated microfluidic system is automated with little human intervention. Moreover, this is the first time that sequential live bacteria detection and typing are demonstrated on the same microfluidic platform. Based on the promising results, the proposed system may become in the near future an auxiliary tool for immediate medical decision and choice of antibiotics in routine arthroplasties or PJI's. PMID:25460896

  11. Monitoring plasmid replication in live mammalian cells over multiple generations by fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Norby, Kathryn; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Sugden, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Few naturally-occurring plasmids are maintained in mammalian cells. Among these are genomes of gamma-herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), which cause multiple human malignancies (1-3). These two genomes are replicated in a licensed manner, each using a single viral protein and cellular replication machinery, and are passed to daughter cells during cell division despite their lacking traditional centromeres (4-8). Much work has been done to characterize the replications of these plasmid genomes using methods such as Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods are limited, though. Quantitative PCR and Southern blots provide information about the average number of plasmids per cell in a population of cells. FISH is a single-cell assay that reveals both the average number and the distribution of plasmids per cell in the population of cells but is static, allowing no information about the parent or progeny of the examined cell. Here, we describe a method for visualizing plasmids in live cells. This method is based on the binding of a fluorescently tagged lactose repressor protein to multiple sites in the plasmid of interest (9). The DNA of interest is engineered to include approximately 250 tandem repeats of the lactose operator (LacO) sequence. LacO is specifically bound by the lactose repressor protein (LacI), which can be fused to a fluorescent protein. The fusion protein can either be expressed from the engineered plasmid or introduced by a retroviral vector. In this way, the DNA molecules are fluorescently tagged and therefore become visible via fluorescence microscopy. The fusion protein is blocked from binding the plasmid DNA by culturing cells in the presence of IPTG until the plasmids are ready to be viewed. This system allows the plasmids to be monitored in living cells through several generations, revealing properties of their synthesis and partitioning to daughter cells. Ideal cells are adherent, easily transfected, and have large nuclei. This technique has been used to determine that 84% of EBV-derived plasmids are synthesized each generation and 88% of the newly synthesized plasmids partition faithfully to daughter cells in HeLa cells. Pairs of these EBV plasmids were seen to be tethered to or associated with sister chromatids after their synthesis in S-phase until they were seen to separate as the sister chromatids separated in Anaphase(10). The method is currently being used to study replication of KSHV genomes in HeLa cells and SLK cells. HeLa cells are immortalized human epithelial cells, and SLK cells are immortalized human endothelial cells. Though SLK cells were originally derived from a KSHV lesion, neither the HeLa nor SLK cell line naturally harbors KSHV genomes(11). In addition to studying viral replication, this visualization technique can be used to investigate the effects of the addition, removal, or mutation of various DNA sequence elements on synthesis, localization, and partitioning of other recombinant plasmid DNAs. PMID:23271393

  12. Interfacing the Internet of a Trillion Things Bradford Campbell

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabal

    Interfacing the Internet of a Trillion Things Bradford Campbell , Pat Pannuto , and Prabal Dutta for the Internet of Things. We borrow both the name, accessor, and several key design concepts from a recent are standardized, higher-level exploration pros- pers. This standardization process for the Internet of Things

  13. Internet of Things Exploring and Securing a Future

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    Internet of Things Exploring and Securing a Future Concept CRISTIAN BUDE and ANDREAS KERVEFORS of the proposed solutions. Keywords: Internet of Things, IoT, information security, identification, authentication, secure communication #12;#12;Sammanfattning | iii Sammanfattning Internet of Things (IoT) är ett koncept

  14. Securityenhanced Search Engine Design in Internet of Things Xiaojun Qian

    E-print Network

    Security­enhanced Search Engine Design in Internet of Things Xiaojun Qian (Nanjing Normal --- a security­enhanced search engine for Internet of Things based on El­ liptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) security protocol. We also report our preliminary experimental results. Key Words: Internet of Things

  15. Mitigating Security Issues in the Internet of Things Mobility Forensics

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    Mitigating Security Issues in the Internet of Things Mobility Forensics Keyonna Brown, Mohammad Nourreddine, Masooda Bashir Motivation Security Architecture of the Internet of Things Goals Methodology Future Work · The Internet of Things (IOT) is the notion that all objects and devices will be connected

  16. Get started with the Internet of Things in

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Get started with the Internet of Things in your organization Introducing Microsoft Azure Internet the Internet of Things (IoT). When you see definitions and hype about IoT, it's easy to feel overwhelmed. When on the flexible and scalable Microsoft Cloud Platform. With Microsoft Azure Internet of Things services, you can

  17. Directed Path Based Authentication Scheme for the Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    overhead and computation load is suitable for the IoT applications. Key Words: Internet of things, securityDirected Path Based Authentication Scheme for the Internet of Things Huansheng Ning, Hong Liu University, Nanjing, China njnulq@163.com; glji@njnu.edu.cn) Abstract: The Internet of Things (Io

  18. Security Challenges in the IP-based Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    Security Challenges in the IP-based Internet of Things Tobias Heer , Oscar Garcia-Morchon , Ren of standard IP security protocols. Keywords: Security, Internet of Things, IETF 1 Introduction The Internet.garcia,sye.loong.keoh,sandeep.kumar}@philips.com Abstract. A direct interpretation of the term Internet of Things refers to the use of standard Internet

  19. Triathlon of Lightweight Block Ciphers for the Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Triathlon of Lightweight Block Ciphers for the Internet of Things Daniel Dinu , Yann Le Corre to the question of how well these ciphers are suited to secure the Internet of Things (IoT). The benchmarking Introduction The Internet of Things (IoT) is a frequently-used term to describe the currently ongoing evolution

  20. From the Internet of Computers to the Internet of Things

    E-print Network

    From the Internet of Computers to the Internet of Things Friedemann Mattern and Christian building blocks of the "Internet of Things". In particu- lar, we consider RFID and other important with a discussion of social and governance issues that are likely to arise as the vision of the Internet of Things

  1. Service Oriented Middleware for the Internet of Things: A Perspective

    E-print Network

    Teixeira, Thiago

    Service Oriented Middleware for the Internet of Things: A Perspective (Invited Paper) Thiago. The Internet of Things plays a central role in the foreseen shift of the Internet to the Future Internet that the Internet of Things will cooperate with the Internet of Services to provide users with services

  2. Mobile Interaction with the Internet of Things Sven Siorpaes1

    E-print Network

    Mobile Interaction with the Internet of Things Sven Siorpaes1 , Gregor Broll1 , Massimo Paolucci2 hand the Internet of Things provides a set of standards and methods to tag objects in the real world and an early prototype currently under development for mobile interactions with the Internet of Things. Hereby

  3. Diss. ETH No. 22203 Interacting with the Web of Things

    E-print Network

    them into smart things. In the resulting Internet of Things, physical items are no longer disconnected time. To do this, we use an augmented reality overlay on the camera feed of handheld or wearableDiss. ETH No. 22203 Interacting with the Web of Things A dissertation submitted to ETH Zurich

  4. Visualizing fusion of pseudotyped HIV-1 particles in real time by live cell microscopy

    E-print Network

    Koch, Peter; Lampe, Marko; Godinez, William J.; Muller, Barbara; Rohr, Karl; Kraeusslich, Hans-Georg; Lehmann, Maik J.

    2009-09-18

    . Results We generated human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) particles pseudotyped with the envelope (Env) protein of ecotropic murine leukemia virus eMLV to study retrovirus entry at the plasma membrane using live-cell microscopy. This Env protein mediates...

  5. New Television Documentary Underscores Challenges Faced by Adults Living with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Over the next 10 to 15 years, an estimated 800,000 children with autism will age out of their school systems and look to state and federal governments for support services and resources to meet their many needs. "Autism: Coming of Age" provides an inside look at the lives of three adults with autism and their families. The film delves into the…

  6. Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

    1999-01-01

    A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

  7. Emergency Psychiatric Service Use by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Living with Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Tint, Ami; Robinson, Suzanne; Khodaverdian, Alin; Jaskulski, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their families in the emergency department (ED). Hospital chart audits were conducted on a sample of 20 individuals with ID living with family who had visited the ED for a psychiatric crisis. Individuals had a combined total of 44 ED…

  8. Measurement of glucose utilization by Pseudomonas fluorescens that are free-living and that are attached to surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, M.

    1986-10-01

    The assimilation and respiration of glucose by attached and free-living Pseudomonas fluorescens were compared. The attachment surfaces were polyvinylidene fluoride, polyethylene, and glass. Specific uptake of (/sup 1/C)glucose was determined after bacterial biomass was measured by (1) microscopic counts or (2) prelabelling of cells by providing (/sup 3/H)leucine as substrate, followed by dual-labelling scintillation counting. The glucose concentration was 1.4, 3.5, 5.5, 7.6, or 9.7 ..mu..M. Glucose assimilation by cells which became detached from the surfaces during incubation with glucose was also measured after the detached cells were collected by filtration. The composition of the substratum had no effect on the amount of glucose assimilated by attached cells. Glucose assimilation by attached cells exceeded that by free-living cells by a factor of between 2 and 5 or more, and respiration of glucose by surface-associated cells was greater than that by free-living bacteria. Glucose assimilation by detached cells was greater than that by attached bacteria. Measurements of biomass by microscopic counts gave more consistent results than those obtained with dual-labelling, but in general, results obtained by both methods were corroborative.

  9. Monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by propidium monoazide quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture independent methods: (1) LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ (LD) and (2) propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were f...

  10. Space Unseen: A Case Study of Renovations to a Shared Living Space by Four People with Visual Impairments in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Huang, Kuang-Hsu

    2009-01-01

    This case study investigated a shared living space used by four participants with severe visual impairments and their four sighted children. In this case study, the authors discovered that the participants with visual impairments focused on two aspects of design features: tactile and visual. At the same time, they revealed a unique aesthetic…

  11. The Modes of Communication Used by Children with Cochlear Implants and the Role of Sign in Their Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Merv; Punch, Renee

    2011-01-01

    In a mixed-methods study, which included surveys of 247 parents and 151 teachers, the researchers investigated the modes of communication used by children with cochlear implants and the role of signed communication in the children's lives. Findings indicated that 15%-20% of the children in the parent surveys and approximately 30% of the children…

  12. Future Male Birth Control May Zap Sperm with Sound Waves1 by Jennifer Welsh, LiveScience2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Future Male Birth Control May Zap Sperm with Sound Waves1 by Jennifer Welsh, LiveScience2 3 Two 15 available4 ultrasound machinery could be used to kill off sperm-growing cells, technology that could render males infertile. "Our5 noninvasive ultrasound treatment reduced sperm reserves in rats far below levels

  13. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, E.; Jauvert, E.; Laplatine, L.; Viallet, B.; Thibault, C.; Ressier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  14. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM...

  15. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM...

  16. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM...

  17. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM...

  18. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM...

  19. Conductivity imaging by the method of characteristics in the 1-Laplacian

    E-print Network

    Tamasan, Alexandru C.

    Conductivity imaging by the method of characteristics in the 1-Laplacian Alexandru Tamasan planar conductivity from the knowledge of the magnitude |J| of one current density field inside. The conductivity can be recovered in the region flown by the characteristics originating at parts of the boundary

  20. Measurement of Separase Proteolytic Activity in Single Living Cells by a Fluorogenic Flow Cytometry Assay

    PubMed Central

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Müller, Martin C.; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110)-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110) as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90–180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic activity in leukemic cell lines and peripheral blood samples from leukemia patients. PMID:26267133

  1. Adsorption characteristics of pesticides methamidophos and glyphosate by two soils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2005-02-01

    Contributions of organic matter and minerals in soil were evaluated by comparing changes in adsorption of methamidophos (MDP) and glyphosate (GPS) before and after removal of organic matter from argaltoll (mollisol) and typustalf (alfisol) soils. Adsorption isotherms of MDP and GPS by the two soils comforted to Freundlich equation, and the adsorption capacity of GPS by argaltoll soil was higher than that of MDP. Due to the removal of organic matter from soils, K(f) values of MDP and GPS adsorbed by argaltoll soil, which were calculated from Freundlich equations and the measure of adsorption capacity, decreased by 46.1% and 75.0%, and these by typustalf soil decreased by 34.9% and 52.5%, respectively. Results from this study suggested that soil organic matter made greater contributions to adsorption of GPS, but soil minerals could provide more available adsorption sites for MDP. PMID:15621194

  2. Characteristics of vestibulosensory reactions studied by experimental caloric test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapranov, V. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibulo-sensory reactions were studied in 135 workers who were in contact with nitroethers, by the method of an experimental caloric test. The response vestibulo-sensory reactions were recorded by means of an electroencephalograph. The changes in the sensory reaction depended on the duration of the workers' contact with toxic agents. A study of illusion reactions by the labyrinth calorization widens diagnostic possibilities in the examination of functional condition of the vestibular analyser considerably.

  3. Physicochemical and structural characteristics of rice starch modified by irradiation.

    PubMed

    Polesi, Luís Fernando; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira; Moraes, Jaqueline de; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-01-15

    This work evaluated the physicochemical and structural properties of rice starch of the cultivars IAC 202 and IRGA 417 modified by irradiation. Starch samples were irradiated by (60)Co in doses 1, 2 and 5kGy, on a rate of 0.4kGy/h. A control not irradiated was used for comparison. The granule morphology and A-type X-ray diffraction pattern were not altered by irradiation. There was an increase in amylose content, carboxyl content and acidity with irradiation. Gamma radiation did not affect the thermal properties of IAC202, but increased gelatinization temperature of IRGA417, in the higher dose (5kGy). The number of long chains of amylopectin was reduced and short chains were increased for IAC202, whereas for IRGA 417, the opposite was observed, probably due to cross-linking of starch chains. Starches had their physicochemical and structural properties modified by irradiation differently. PMID:26258702

  4. Characteristics of silicon etching by silicon chloride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tomoko; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Kang, Song-Yun

    2013-05-15

    Plasmas generated from halogen-containing gases, such as Cl{sub 2} or HBr, have been widely used in gate etching processes for semiconductor chip manufacturing. Such plasmas may contain silicon halide ions formed by the ionization of etching products that enter the plasma. In this study, to illustrate Si etching by such silicon halide ions, the sputtering yield of Si by SiCl{sub x}{sup +} (with x = 1 or 3) ions has been obtained as a function of the incident ion energy by using a mass-selected ion beam injection system. It has been found that, at sufficiently low energy, the incidence of SiCl{sup +} ions leads to the deposition of Si which may affect profile control in microelectronic device fabrication processes.

  5. Positive and negative features of a computer assisted drug treatment program delivered by mentors to homeless drug users living in hostels.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne; Stevenson, Caral

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores positive and negative features of computer assisted therapy (CAT) delivered by mentors to homeless drug users (HDUs) living in hostels. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 HDUs and 15 mentors (all hostel staff) at the beginning and end of a 12-week CAT program. Findings indicate that successful delivery of the CAT relates to: 'program features' (e.g. its accessibility, flexibility, user-friendly interface); 'delivery context' (e.g. privacy, having appropriate computing equipment), 'client characteristics' (HDUs being recovery-focused and committed to using the program), and 'mentor support' (clients having personalized attention from an encouraging and sympathetic other). It is concluded that CATs can be used with HDUs but are unlikely to replace addiction therapists. Rather, they are more likely to be effective when combined with a strong therapeutic relationship. Services using CATs with HDUs need to provide staff training, support, and time to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25037480

  6. Resolving pore-space characteristics by rate-controlled porosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, H.H.; Swanson, B.F.

    1989-03-01

    By monitoring the mercury capillary pressure in rate-controlled porosimetry (intrusion) experiments, new information regarding the pore space of a rock sample has been obtained. With this technique, called an apparatus for pore examination (APEX), it is now possible to resolve the pore space of a rock sample into two interconnected parts. One part identifies the individual pore systems (pore bodies), which are low-energy sumps or regions of low capillarity. The other part corresponds to the pore throats that interconnect with pore systems. New capillary-pressure curves have been obtained by partitioning the total capillary-pressure curve (normal capillary-pressure curve) into two subcurves: the subison capillary-pressure curve, which details the distribution of pore bodies, and the rison capillary-pressure curve, which details the distribution of pore throats. The authors present APEX data on Berea sandstone and San Andres dolomite that show the volume distribution of low-capillarity regions within the pore space of these rocks. These regions of low capillarity are the principal pore-space regions that trap the residual nonwetting phase upon imbibition of a strongly wetting fluid, as measured by toluene/air systems. The residual nonwetting-phase saturations as determined by the APEX method and by the toluene/air method are in excellent agreement. Thus, the detailed volume distribution of pore systems responsible for trapped nonwetting-phase saturation is determined from APEX measurements, which can have important implications for EOR.

  7. Modelling mechanical characteristics of microbial biofilms by network theory

    PubMed Central

    Ehret, Alexander E.; Böl, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a constitutive model to describe the mechanical behaviour of microbial biofilms based on classical approaches in the continuum theory of polymer networks. Although the model is particularly developed for the well-studied biofilms formed by mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, it could easily be adapted to other biofilms. The basic assumption behind the model is that the network of extracellular polymeric substances can be described as a superposition of worm-like chain networks, each connected by transient junctions of a certain lifetime. Several models that were applied to biofilms previously are included in the presented approach as special cases, and for small shear strains, the governing equations are those of four parallel Maxwell elements. Rheological data given in the literature are very adequately captured by the proposed model, and the simulated response for a series of compression tests at large strains is in good qualitative agreement with reported experimental behaviour. PMID:23034354

  8. Long-Lived States of Magnetically Equivalent Spins Populated by Dissolution-DNP and Revealed by Enzymatic Reactions**

    PubMed Central

    Bornet, Aurélien; Ji, Xiao; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (d-DNP) offers a way of enhancing NMR signals by up to five orders of magnitude in metabolites and other small molecules. Nevertheless, the lifetime of hyperpolarization is inexorably limited, as it decays toward thermal equilibrium with the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. This lifetime can be extended by storing the hyperpolarization in the form of long-lived states (LLS) that are immune to most dominant relaxation mechanisms. Levitt and co-workers have shown how LLS can be prepared for a pair of inequivalent spins by d-DNP. Here, we demonstrate that this approach can also be applied to magnetically equivalent pairs of spins such as the two protons of fumarate, which can have very long LLS lifetimes. As in the case of para-hydrogen, these hyperpolarized equivalent LLS (HELLS) are not magnetically active. However, a chemical reaction such as the enzymatic conversion of fumarate into malate can break the magnetic equivalence and reveal intense NMR signals. PMID:25346515

  9. MINIMIZATION OF COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been well recognized that, although there are many potential solid waste treatment technologies, none are as universally applicable as incineration for the treatment of the many types of waste which are governed by the many different Federal laws and State regulations. owe...

  10. Reveal protein dynamics by combining computer simulation and neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liang; Smith, Jeremy; CenterMolecular Biophysics Team

    2014-03-01

    Protein carries out most functions in living things on the earth through characteristic modulation of its three-dimensional structure over time. Understanding the microscopic nature of the protein internal motion and its connection to the function and structure of the biomolecule is a central topic in biophysics, and of great practical importance for drug design, study of diseases, and the development of renewable energy, etc. Under physiological conditions, protein exhibits a complex dynamics landscape, i.e., a variety of diffusive and conformational motions occur on similar time and length scales. This variety renders difficult the derivation of a simplified description of protein internal motions in terms of a small number of distinct, additive components. This difficulty is overcome by our work using a combined approach of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and the Neutron Scattering experiments. Our approach enables distinct protein motions to be characterized separately, furnishing an in-depth understanding of the connection between protein structure, dynamics and function.

  11. Identification of biomolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters in living cells by inverse modeling

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush; Montas, Hubert J; Shirmohammadi, Adel

    2006-01-01

    Background Quantification of in-vivo biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters from experimental data obtained by Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) is becoming more important. Methods and results The Osborne-Moré extended version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was coupled with the experimental data obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) protocol, and the numerical solution of a set of two partial differential equations governing macromolecule mass transport and reaction in living cells, to inversely estimate optimized values of the molecular diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor. The results indicate that the FRAP protocol provides enough information to estimate one parameter uniquely using a nonlinear optimization technique. Coupling FRAP experimental data with the inverse modeling strategy, one can also uniquely estimate the individual values of the binding rate coefficients if the molecular diffusion coefficient is known. One can also simultaneously estimate the dissociation rate parameter and molecular diffusion coefficient given the pseudo-association rate parameter is known. However, the protocol provides insufficient information for unique simultaneous estimation of three parameters (diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters) owing to the high intercorrelation between the molecular diffusion coefficient and pseudo-association rate parameter. Attempts to estimate macromolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters simultaneously from FRAP data result in misleading conclusions regarding concentrations of free macromolecule and bound complex inside the cell, average binding time per vacant site, average time for diffusion of macromolecules from one site to the next, and slow or rapid mobility of biomolecules in cells. Conclusion To obtain unique values for molecular diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters from FRAP data, we propose conducting two FRAP experiments on the same class of macromolecule and cell. One experiment should be used to measure the molecular diffusion coefficient independently of binding in an effective diffusion regime and the other should be conducted in a reaction dominant or reaction-diffusion regime to quantify binding rate parameters. The method described in this paper is likely to be widely used to estimate in-vivo biomolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters. PMID:17034642

  12. Characteristics and significance of ischemia detected by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nabel, E.G.; Rocco, M.B.; Selwyn, A.B.

    1987-06-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring of ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) provides a new technique for the assessment of ischemic activity and the evaluation of therapies outside of the hospital. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the majority of patients with CAD have episodes of symptomatic and asymptomatic ST segment depression during routine daily activities. Rubidium-82 positron-emission tomographic studies have provided evidence for decreased myocardial perfusion during these episodes of ST segment depression. The prognostic importance of asymptomatic ischemia has been shown in patients with unstable angina to be a marker for early unfavorable cardiac events. Preliminary results suggest a poorer outcome for those patients with chronic stable angina who show episodes of ischemia as well. Ambulatory monitoring studies suggest that total ischemic activity may be underestimated by conventional testing. Whether all ischemic activity detected by ambulatory monitoring requires treatment awaits further study. 69 references.

  13. Characteristics of PVDF Membranes Irradiated by Electron Beam

    PubMed Central

    Jaleh, Babak; Gavary, Negin; Fakhri, Parisa; Muensit, Nakatan; Taheri, Soheil Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were exposed vertically to a high energy electron beam (EB) in air, at room temperature. The chemical changes were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphologies were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and showed some changes in the pore size. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis represented an increase in the thermal stability of PVDF due to irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) showed the presence of free radicals in the irradiated PVDF. The effect of EB irradiation on the electrical properties of the membranes was analyzed in order to determine the dielectric constant, and an increase in the dielectric constant was found on increasing the dose. The surface hydrophilicity of the modified membrane was characterized by water contact angle measurement. The contact angle decreased compared to the original angle, indicating an improvement of surface hydrophilicity. Filtration results also showed that the pure water flux (PWF) of the modified membrane was lower than that of the unirradiated membrane. PMID:25569360

  14. Characteristics of PVDF Membranes Irradiated by Electron Beam.

    PubMed

    Jaleh, Babak; Gavary, Negin; Fakhri, Parisa; Muensit, Nakatan; Taheri, Soheil Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were exposed vertically to a high energy electron beam (EB) in air, at room temperature. The chemical changes were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphologies were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and showed some changes in the pore size. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis represented an increase in the thermal stability of PVDF due to irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) showed the presence of free radicals in the irradiated PVDF. The effect of EB irradiation on the electrical properties of the membranes was analyzed in order to determine the dielectric constant, and an increase in the dielectric constant was found on increasing the dose. The surface hydrophilicity of the modified membrane was characterized by water contact angle measurement. The contact angle decreased compared to the original angle, indicating an improvement of surface hydrophilicity. Filtration results also showed that the pure water flux (PWF) of the modified membrane was lower than that of the unirradiated membrane. PMID:25569360

  15. Characteristics of Plasma Jet by using the Modified Pseudospark Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Kamada, Takaharu; Itagaki, Minoru; Ishikawa, Toshiaki

    2000-10-01

    Pseudospark discharge (PSD) is one of the low-pressure gas discharges. In PSD, the parallel plane electrodes are replaced by that with a circular hole on the axis. This cathode has a cylindrical cavity behind the circular hole. PSD can be formed by using such modified electrodes in the low-pressure region under the Paschen minimum. PSD is characterized as follows: (1)Discharge is formed through the holes of electrode. (2)Breakdown voltage is a function of plasma pressure. (3)Since the hollow cathode effect, high current glow discharge can be formed. (4)Damage of electrode is low. We have been studying the plasma jet by using the modified PSD. In this plasma jet, diameter of anode hole is widened in comparison with that of cathode hole. The force of plasma acceleration is Lorentz force, which is similar to that of MPD arc jet. This plasma jet is characterized as follows: (1)Plasma is spouted at high speed (2)High temperature plasma will be formed due to the high current discharge. (3)Since the damage of electrodes is low, lifetime of the device is long. (4)Strong magnetic field with the plasma jet generates. This strong magnetic field may be possible to transport with plasma jet. In this poster, the space distribution of plasma jet and lifetime of electrode are reported in detail.

  16. Conservative management of live tubal pregnancies by ultrasound guided potassium chloride injection and systemic methotrexate treatment.

    PubMed

    Verma, Usha; Jacques, Elvire

    2005-12-01

    Unruptured live tubal ectopic pregnancies are often managed surgically. Significantly elevated beta-hCG levels in these patients make treatment with methotrexate ineffective. However, achieving cardiac asystole via sonographically guided injection of potassium chloride (KCl) along with systemic methotrexate can improve treatment outcome. We describe the successful conservative management of 3 cases of unruptured tubal pregnancy with cardiac activity and significantly elevated beta-hCG levels. Under sonographic guidance, KCl was injected into the fetal heart to achieve cardiac asystole, and patients concurrently received a systemic methotrexate injection. The resolution of ectopic pregnancy was achieved and surgery was avoided in all 3 cases. Conservative management may thus be an option for patients with live ectopic pregnancies. PMID:16281271

  17. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario By W. E. Adams Jr1

    E-print Network

    Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario By W. E. Adams Jr1 Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake

  18. Highly resolved chemical imaging of living cells by using synchrotron infrared microspectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jamin, Nadège; Dumas, Paul; Moncuit, Janine; Fridman, Wolf-Herman; Teillaud, Jean-Luc; Carr, G. Lawrence; Williams, Gwyn P.

    1998-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation as an ultra-bright infrared source, we have been able to map the distributions of functional groups such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids inside a single living cell with a spatial resolution of a few microns. In particular, we have mapped the changes in the lipid and protein distributions in both the final stages of cell division and also during necrosis. PMID:9560189

  19. Bioerosion by euendoliths decreases in phosphate-enriched skeletons of living corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinot, C.; Tribollet, A.; Grover, R.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.

    2012-03-01

    While the role of microboring organisms, or euendoliths, is relatively well known in dead coral skeletons, their function in live corals remains poorly understood. They are suggested to behave like ectosymbionts or parasites, impacting their host health. However, the species composition of microboring communities, their abundance and dynamics in live corals under various environmental conditions have never been explored. Here, the effect of phosphate enrichment on boring microorganisms in live corals was tested for the first time. S. pistillata nubbins were exposed to 3 different treatments (phosphate enrichments of 0, 0.5 and 2.5 ?mol l-1) during 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of phosphate enrichment, petrographic thin sections were prepared for observation with light microscopy, and additional samples were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Euendoliths comprised mainly autotrophic Ostreobium sp. filaments. Rare filaments of heterotrophic fungi were also observed. Filaments were densely distributed in the central part of nubbins, and less abundant towards the apex. Unexpectedly, there was a visible reduction of filaments abundance in the most recently-calcified apical part of phosphate-enriched nubbins. The overall abundance of euendoliths significantly decreased, from 9.12 ± 1.09% of the skeletal surface area in unenriched corals, to 5.81 ± 0.77% and 5.27 ± 0.34% in 0.5 and 2.5 ?mol l-1-phosphate enriched corals respectively. SEM observations confirmed this decrease. Recent studies have shown that phosphate enrichment increases coral skeletal growth and metabolic rates, while it decreases skeletal density and resilience to mechanical stress. We thus hypothesize that increased skeletal growth in the presence of phosphate enrichment occurred too fast for an effective euendolith colonization. They could not keep up with coral growth, so they became diluted in the apex areas as nubbins grew with phosphate enrichment. The possible advantages and downsides of the reduction of euendoliths associated with phosphate eutrophication in live corals are discussed in this article.

  20. Dynamic views of living cell fine structure revealed by birefringence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2001-11-01

    We have been developing and applying a new type of polarized light microscope, the new Pol-Scope, which dramatically enhances the unique capabilities of the traditional polarizing microscope. In living cells, without applying exogenous dyes or florescent labels, we have studied the dynamic organization of filamentous actin in neuronal growth cones and improved the efficiency of spindle imaging for in-vitro fertilization and enucleation procedures.