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Sample records for lnelaid alar nurkse

  1. Alar

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Alar ; CASRN 1596 - 84 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects ) a

  2. The Articulated Alar Rim Graft: Reengineering the Conventional Alar Rim Graft for Improved Contour and Support.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Annelyse C; Kim, Haena; Chance, Elizabeth; Davis, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Surgical refinement of the wide nasal tip is challenging. Achieving an attractive, slender, and functional tip complex without destabilizing the lower nasal sidewall or deforming the contracture-prone alar rim is a formidable task. Excisional refinement techniques that rely upon incremental weakening of wide lower lateral cartilages (LLC) often destabilize the tip complex and distort tip contour. Initial destabilization of the LLC is usually further exacerbated by "shrink-wrap" contracture, which often leads to progressive cephalic retraction of the alar margin. The result is a misshapen tip complex accentuated by a conspicuous and highly objectionable nostril deformity that is often very difficult to treat. The "articulated" alar rim graft (AARG) is a modification of the conventional rim graft that improves treatment of secondary alar rim deformities, including postsurgical alar retraction (PSAR). Unlike the conventional alar rim graft, the AARG is sutured to the underlying tip complex to provide direct stationary support to the alar margin, thereby enhancing graft efficacy. When used in conjunction with a well-designed septal extension graft (SEG) to stabilize the central tip complex, lateral crural tensioning (LCT) to tighten the lower nasal sidewalls and minimize soft-tissue laxity, and lysis of scar adhesions to unfurl the retracted and scarred nasal lining, the AARG can eliminate PSAR in a majority of patients. The AARG is also highly effective for prophylaxis against alar retraction and in the treatment of most other contour abnormalities involving the alar margin. Moreover, the AARG requires comparatively little graft material, and complications are rare. We present a retrospective series of 47 consecutive patients treated with the triad of AARG, SEG, and LCT for prophylaxis and/or treatment of alar rim deformities. Outcomes were favorable in nearly all patients, and no complications were observed. We conclude the AARG is a simple and effective method for

  3. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079

  4. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. PMID:21404164

  5. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding instrument which recorded general…

  6. The Seesaw Technique for Correction of Vertical Alar Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sang Min; Medikeri, Gaurav Shankar; Jung, Dong-Hak

    2015-09-01

    Alar vertical discrepancy including alar base has been viewed as one of the most challenging reconstructive problems in rhinoplasty. The authors have created a simple technique that consistently gives aesthetically acceptable results. The authors have designed the seesaw technique to correct alar discrepancy (type 1 to 3). Type 1 has been used in 14 patients, type 2 has been used in three patients, and type 3 has been used in seven patients. Alar discrepancy was corrected satisfactorily in all cases, with good cosmetic outcome. One case required scar revision and another case required revision for overcorrection; satisfactory results were ultimately achieved in both cases. This new technique is quite easy to design and is effective in the correction of alar discrepancy. It yields good postoperative results along with satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. PMID:26313821

  7. Correction of Alar Retraction Based on Frontal Classification.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Sung Wan; Bartlett, Erica; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    Among the various types of alar deformations in Asians, alar retraction not only has the highest occurrence rate, but is also very complicated to treat because the ala is supported only by cartilage and its soft tissue envelope cannot be easily stretched. As patients' knowledge of aesthetic procedures is becoming more extensive due to increased information dissemination through various media, doctors must give more accurate, logical explanations of the procedures to be performed and their anticipated results, with an emphasis on relevant anatomical features, accurate diagnoses, detailed classifications, and various appropriate methods of surgery. PMID:26648808

  8. Relationship between Hyperactivity of Depressor Septi Nasi Muscle and Changes of Alar Base and Flaring during Smile

    PubMed Central

    Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash; Rezaei, Ezatollah; Zanjani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperactivity of depressor septi nasi muscle leads to smiling deformity and nasal tip depression. Lateral fascicles of this muscle help in widening the nostrils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length changes and the alar base and the alar flaring changes during smile. METHODS Standard photographs are performed in the face and lateral views with forward gaze in the repose and maximum smile. Nasal length, alar base, and alar flaring were measured on the prints of the photographs. To decrease possible errors in the size of the printed photographs, middle face height from glabella to ANS was measured in the lateral view and the interpupil distance in the face view to standardize the measurements. RESULTS Fifty cases were enrolled in this study. In 39 cases (78%), the nasal length was increased during smile. Forty-six cases (92%) had an increase in alar base diameter during smile. Alar flaring during smile increased in 48 cases (96%). Nasal length and alar base changes during smiling were not significantly correlated. Nasal length and alar flaring changes during smiling were not significantly related too. On the other hand, alar base and alar flaring changes during smile showed correlation. Alar base and alar flaring changes during smile were not significantly different in hyperactive and non-hyperactive cases. CONCLUSION Nasal length change during smiling and hypertrophy of the medial fascicles of depressor septi nasi were not related to alar base or alar flaring change during smile. PMID:27308240

  9. Reconstruction of Congenital Isolated Alar Defect Using Mutaf Triangular Closure Technique in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Temel, Metin; Gunal, Ertan; Kahraman, Serif Samil

    2016-06-01

    Congenital isolated alar defects are extremely rare, occurring in approximately 1 in 20,000 to 40,000 live births. The patients are presented here of 2 pediatric patients operated on for congenital isolated alar defect. The reconstruction of congenital isolated alar defects was made in a 3-layered fashion. The skin defects were covered using the Mutaf triangular closure technique in which 2 cutaneous local flaps are designed in an unequal Z-plasty manner. Conchal cartilage graft was used between the skin and mucosal closure to replace the missing part of the lower lateral cartilage in these patients. The early results were promising in Patient 1, but sufficient improvement was detected in the alar cartilage postoperative follow-up period in Patient 2. Hence, this patient required revision 1 to 2 years postoperatively. This technique provides excellent aesthetic and functional results, except for this problem in Tessier 2 cleft patients. The use of the Stair step flap technique with Mutaf triangle closure technique achieved cosmetically and functionally excellent results in the reconstruction and repair of a large, irregular, narrow cleft, in the inadequate rotation of the lateral part of the lower lateral cartilage. However, because of this problem, evaluation of the long-term follow-up of patients is necessary. PMID:27192642

  10. Alar-spanning suture for tip contouring in closed approach rhinoplasty for African-Caucasian noses.

    PubMed

    Cedin, Antonio Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The alar-spanning suture is one of the easiest techniques for correcting the width of the alar complex that reduces the bulbous tip of African-Caucasian patients. This conservative technique does not weaken the lateral crura and yields long- term predictable results. Rhinoplastic surgeons should keep in mind this useful and reliable tool in their options for refinement of these challenging wide tips and not create so dramatic a change that the appearance is not consonant with the patient's ethnic heritage. Despite cosmetic surgeons usually performing it through an external columellar incision approach, it is possible, in many cases, to do it in a closed access, and thus avoid the risk of hyperpigmentation or hypertrophic scarring. PMID:23761120

  11. Management of the droopy tip: a comparison of three alar cartilage-modifying techniques.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-10-01

    The droopy tip is a common nasal deformity in which the tip is inferiorly rotated. Five hundred consecutive rhinoplasty cases were studied to assess the incidence and causes of the droopy tip deformity and to evaluate the role of three alar cartilage-modifying techniques--lateral crural steal, lateral crural overlay, and tongue in groove--in correcting such a deformity. The external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Only one of the three alar cartilage-modifying techniques was used in each case, and the degree of tip rotation and projection was measured both preoperatively and postoperatively. The incidence of droopy tip was 72 percent, and the use of an alar cartilage-modifying technique was required in 85 percent of these cases to achieve the desired degree of rotation. The main causes of droopy tip included inferiorly oriented alar cartilages (85 percent), overdeveloped scrolls of upper lateral cartilages (73 percent), high anterior septal angle (65 percent), and thick skin of the nasal lobule (56 percent). The lateral crural steal technique increased nasal tip rotation and projection, the lateral crural overlay technique increased tip rotation and decreased tip projection, and the tongue-in-groove technique increased tip rotation without significantly changing the amount of projection. The lateral crural overlay technique resulted in the highest degrees of rotation, followed by the lateral crural steal and finally the tongue-in-groove technique. According to these results, the lateral crural steal technique is best indicated in cases with droopy underprojected nasal tip, the lateral crural overlay technique in cases of droopy overprojected nasal tip, and the tongue-in-groove technique in cases where the droopy nasal tip is associated with an adequate amount of projection. PMID:14504527

  12. Primary rhinocheiloplasty: Comparison of open and closed methods of alar cartilage reposition

    PubMed Central

    Yasonov, S. A.; Lopatin, A. V.; Kugushev, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To establish which rhinoplasty method for primary repairing of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) is better. Settings and Design: Two patient groups with cleft lip were compared. Each group was operated on either by McComb's technique as closed rhinoplasty method or by Vissarionov–Kosin technique as an open method. Subjects and Methods: First group included 29 patients and the second consisted of 31. All patients were operated on by single surgeon over 10 years. Randomization was based on wishes and intention of surgeon to use one of two methods. Evaluation of results was based on impartial data, and subjective information collected from respondents with different levels of knowledge about UCL. The objective scale was based on the evaluation of five noticeable residual deformations of nose that usually appear after primary lip-nose surgery: Alar flattening, low position of alar, widening or narrowing of nostril, and deformation of the upper part of nostril rim. Subjective evaluation was based on the opinion of respondents who were ranged every case depending on own judgment. Statistical Analysis: Was performed using Fisher method and Chi-square by Statistica 10.0, StatSoft Inc. Results: Approach with general analysis indicated no difference between two methods. Despite of absence of clear differences between two groups we consider the closed rhinoplasty more favorable due to less damage to alar cartilages and no scars inside nostrils. Conclusions: We think that mentioned scarring may complicate secondary rhinoplasty, which is often needed to correct nose deformation. PMID:27563601

  13. S-1 and S-2-alar-iliac screw fixation via intraoperative navigation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Jakoi, Andre M; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2016-07-01

    Adult deformity patients often require fixation to the sacrum and pelvis for construct stability and improved fusion rates. Although certain sacropelvic fixation techniques can be challenging, the availability of intraoperative navigation has made many of these techniques more feasible. In this video case presentation, the authors demonstrate the techniques of S-1 bicortical screw and S-2-alar-iliac screw fixation under intraoperative navigation in a 67-year-old female. This instrumentation placement was part of an overall T-10-pelvis construct for the correction of adult spinal deformity. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/3HZo-80jQr8 . PMID:27364427

  14. Rhinoplasty. The difficult nasal tip: total resection of the alar cartilages.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Camps, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    There are many ways to reconstruct and make nasal tips more attractive. Sometimes we cannot find the best way unless we at least remove all surplus from the tip. This may occur in primary or secondary rhinoplasty. In principle, anything is possible when relocating and reconstructing. However, sometimes we face reality when we uncover the tip: broken or bulging cartilages that are difficult to put right. For this reason, in 1987 we thought of totally resectioning the alar cartilages in a case of secondary rhinoplasty with an unsightly appearance. After a year the result was seen to be correct from an aesthetic and a functional perspective and is still so today. Aesthetically, it kept its shape and did not collapse with nasal respiratory failure. We covered the end of the crus medialis with a small, temporary, one- to two-layered fascia patch. Except in exceptional cases, we now use this procedure: Total sectioning of the alar cartilages including the domes, or maintenance of them by preserving the fibroadipose tip tissue with a suture in the middle of the end of the crus medialis and by covering this with temporary fascia, which usually has two layers depending on the thickness of the skin of the tip. This procedure is indicated mainly in secondary rhinoplasty when the cartilages of the tip are completely destroyed, and in primary rhinoplasty when the tip is excessively wide and bulbous. Our philosophy is, therefore, elegance and beauty of the nasal tip with a solid and equilateral base without prejudices. PMID:18797961

  15. Is Early Nasal Shaping With a Limited Alar Base Incision Possible in the Repair of Cleft Lips?

    PubMed

    Kapi, Emin; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Ozer, Torun; Celik, Mehmet Yusuf

    2016-05-01

    The repair of cleft lips has an important place in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In the treatment of these deformities, the aim was to restore the normal lip morphology in the cleft area as well as repairing any coexisting nasal deformities. Various methods are in use for this purpose. One of the most commonly employed surgical methods is Millard repair. However, this method may lead to additional scarring in the alar base on the cleft side subsequent to the incision. In this study, the results obtained from a group who have been applied alar base incisions during the modified Millard repair are compared to a group who have undergone intranasal wide dissections.The patients enrolled in the study were randomized into 2 groups. The first group were applied the modified Millard repair. In the second group, the rotation, advancement, and C-flaps were prepared according to Millard surgical repair technique; however, instead of an alar base and nasofacial groove incision on the cleft side, a nasal and maxillary supraperiosteal wide dissection was made through the incision in the mucosa of the nostril.The intranasal dissection performed during the study was observed to provide the targeted outcome and a more satisfactory cosmetic result through the modified Millard repair. In conclusion, the authors are of the opinion that the limited alar base incision and the wide supraperiosteal dissection performed in patients with cleft lips is an alternative method that can be employed in a wide range of patients. PMID:27092908

  16. Toward less misleading comparisons of uncertain risks: the example of aflatoxin and alar.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, A M

    1995-01-01

    Critics of comparative risk assessment (CRA), the increasingly common practice of juxtaposing disparate risks for the purpose of declaring which one is the "larger" or the "more important," have long focused their concern on the difficulties in accommodating the qualitative differences among risks. To be sure, people may disagree vehemently about whether "larger" necessarily implies "more serious," but the attention to this aspect of CRA presupposes that science can in fact discern which of two risks has the larger statistical magnitude. This assumption, encouraged by the indiscriminate calculation of risk ratios using arbitrary point estimates, is often incorrect: the fact that environmental and health risks differ in unknown quantitative respects is at least as important a caution to CRA as the fact that risks differ in known qualitative ways. To show how misleading CRA can be when uncertainty is ignored, this article revisits the claim that aflatoxin contamination of peanut butter was "18 times worse" than Alar contamination of apple juice. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the number 18 is shown to lie within a distribution of plausible risk ratios that ranges from nearly 400:1 in favor of aflatoxin to nearly 40:1 in the opposite direction. The analysis also shows that the "best estimates" of the relative risk of aflatoxin to Alar are much closer to 1:1 than to 18:1. The implications of these findings for risk communication and individual and societal decision-making are discussed, with an eye toward improving the general practice of CRA while acknowledging that its outputs are uncertain, rather than abandoning it for the wrong reasons. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7607139

  17. A Novel Approach for Full-Thickness Defect of the Nasal Alar Rim: Primary Closure of the Defect and Reduction of the Contralateral Normal Ala for Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Min-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In full-thickness defects of the nasal alar rim, to achieve projection and maintain airway patency, cartilage graft is frequently needed. However, cartilage graft presents a challenge in considerations such as appropriate donor site, skeletal shape and size, and healing of the donor area. To avoid these demerits, we tried primary closure of alar rim defects by also making the contralateral normal ala smaller. We treated two patients who had a full-thickness nasal alar defect after tumor excision. Cartilage graft was considered for the reconstruction. However, their alar rims were overly curved and their nostril openings were large. To utilize their nasal shape, we did primary closure of the defect rather than cartilage graft, and then downsized the contralateral nasal ala by means of wedge resection to make the alae symmetric. Both patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results, which showed a smaller nostril and nearly straight alar rims. Moreover, functionally, there was no discomfort during breathing in both patients. We propose our idea as one of the reconstruction options for nasal alar defects. It is a simple and easy-to-perform procedure, in addition to enhancing the nasal contour. This method would be useful for patients with a large nostril and an overly curved alar rim. PMID:26719646

  18. A novel approach to navigated implantation of S-2 alar iliac screws using inertial measurement units.

    PubMed

    Jost, Gregory F; Walti, Jonas; Mariani, Luigi; Cattin, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT The authors report on a novel method of intraoperative navigation with inertial measurement units (IMUs) for implantation of S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screws in sacropelvic fixation of the human spine and its application in cadaveric specimens. METHODS Screw trajectories were planned on a multiplanar reconstruction of the preoperative CT scan. The pedicle finder and screwdriver were equipped with IMUs to guide the axial and sagittal tilt angles of the planned trajectory, and navigation software was developed. The entry points were chosen according to anatomical landmarks on the exposed spine. After referencing, the sagittal and axial orientation of the pedicle finder and screwdriver were wirelessly monitored on a computer screen and aligned with the preoperatively planned tilt angles to implant the S2AI screws. The technique was performed without any intraoperative imaging. Screw positions were analyzed on postoperative CT scans. RESULTS Seventeen of 18 screws showed a good S2AI screw trajectory. Compared with the postoperatively measured tilt angles of the S2AI screws, the IMU readings on the screwdriver were within an axial plane deviation of 0° to 5° in 15 (83%) and 6° to 10° in 2 (11%) of the screws and within a sagittal plane deviation of 0° to 5° in 15 (83%) and 6° to 10° in 3 (17%) of the screws. CONCLUSIONS IMU-based intraoperative navigation may facilitate accurate placement of S2AI screws. PMID:26565762

  19. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  20. Morphology of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the alar ligaments in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes var)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent new anatomical and histological features of craniocervical junction in dogs and cats were described providing evidence of differences between the carnivore species. No information on these structures in foxes exists. Results Two parts of the alar ligaments were found. A longer one aroused from dens of axis to the internal (medial) surface of the occipital condyles and was called apical part. A shorter part originated from the entire length of the lateral edge of the dens of axis and terminated on the internal wall of the vertebral foramen of atlas and thus was called the lateral part. The transverse ligament of the atlas was widened in the mid region, above the dens of axis, and thickened at enthesis. Periosteal fibrocartilage was detected in the transverse ligament of the atlas at the enthesis, and sesamoid fibrocartilage was present on periphery in the middle of the ligament. Conclusions The craniocervical junction in foxes differs in part from other carnivores such as dogs and cats but resembles that of mesaticephalic dogs. The sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilage supports the transverse ligament of the atlas whereas the alar ligaments have no cartilage. PMID:23557095

  1. Technique and nuances of an S-2 alar iliac screw for lumbosacral fixation in patients with transitional and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Junichi; Vogel, Todd D; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berven, Sigurd; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screw fixation has recently been recognized as a useful technique for pelvic fixation. The authors demonstrate two cases where S2AI fixation was indicated: one case was a sacral insufficiency fracture following a long-segment fusion in a patient with a transitional S-1 vertebra; the other case involved pseudarthrosis following lumbosacral fixation. S2AI screws offer rigid fixation, low profile, and allow easy connection to the lumbosacral rod. The authors describe and demonstrate the surgical technique and nuances for the S2AI screw in a case with transitional S-1 anatomy and in a case with normal S-1 anatomy. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Sj21lk13_aw . PMID:27364429

  2. Supra-thyroid alar cartilage approach for the complete resection of laryngeal submucosal tumors and postoperative voice quality.

    PubMed

    Ueha, Rumi; Nito, Takaharu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Fujimaki, Yoko; Yamauchi, Akihito; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    Various surgical approaches for the treatment of laryngeal submucosal tumors have been reported. Endoscopic excision is indicated for small lesions, while external approaches are recommended for larger tumors. This report introduces a supra-thyroid alar cartilage approach (STACA), which has strong advantages for the preservation of the laryngeal framework and voice recovery after surgery. Case series with chart review. Four patients with laryngeal submucosal tumors in the paraglottic space underwent complete tumor removal through STACA. Medical charts were reviewed to evaluate patient background, major complaints, tumor type, tumor size, the time period from operation to tracheostomy closure, tumor recurrence, and the difference between pre- and postoperative voice quality. Voice quality was assessed using the GRBAS score, maximum phonation time (MPT) and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) 6 months after surgery. All patients were females between 43 and 67 years of age. Two patients had schwannoma, one laryngocele, and one lipoma. Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm. The main complaints were hoarseness in all patients, and dyspnea in one. The periods of time from surgery to oral intake and tracheostomy closure were 3.5 and 7 days, respectively. No patient developed recurrence during a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. The postoperative GRBAS scores, MPT and VHI-10 improved in all patients. STACA has advantages including minimal trauma, no deformity to the laryngeal framework, and good voice qualities after the resection of laryngeal submucosal tumors. PMID:26048355

  3. Nostril and alar reshaping.

    PubMed

    Planas, J; Planas, J

    1993-01-01

    The authors recommend, when necessary, the use of external excisions for correcting variations in the shape of the nostrils and alae in the cleft lip-nose deformity, in primary rhinoplasties, and in secondary rhinoplasties. Their experience in the use of external incisions was originally stimulated by Millard's paper of 1960 which recommended different types of remodeling external excisions in his analysis of how to handle variations in the shape of the nostrils and alae. PMID:8517221

  4. An aid to tailoring the alar cartilages in tip rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cucin, R L

    1980-06-01

    An aid to achieving a more precisely symmetric and individualized result in tip rhinoplasty is presented as an aid to both neophytes and experienced surgeons. It is thought to be particularly helpful in teaching variations of tip rhinoplasty and anticipating the results of proper resection. PMID:7384286

  5. [Features of the receptors of the alar system of locusts which have lost their ability to fly].

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, N I

    1986-02-01

    Using two species of locusts, Romalia microptera Beavy and Podisma pedestris L., receptors of the wing apparatus are described: campaniform sensillas of the wing, hair receptors of the tegula, chordotonal organ and thorax stretch receptor. A comparative analysis of the receptors mentioned with the homologous sensitive organs, participating in the control of wing movements, is performed in well flying species (Locusta migratoria migratorioides and Schistocerca gregaria). Loss of ability to fly is accompanied with a sharp decrease in the wing campaniform sensillas and in the tegula proprioceptive hairs. Simultaneously, there is loss of connection between the thorax receptors and the wing elements that are present in good flyers. The thorax stretch receptor begins to innervate the longitudinal dorsal muscle, as it is observed in the abdominal segments. The data obtained make it possible to speak about homology of the tergal chordotonal organs and the thorax and abdomen stretch receptors and about the pathways of their evolution, when the insects obtain and loose their ability to fly. PMID:3707362

  6. Nasal Tip Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cerkes, Nazim

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tip deficiency can be congenital or secondary to previous nasal surgeries. Underdeveloped medial crura usually present with underprojected tip and lack of tip definition. Weakness or malposition of lateral crura causes alar rim retraction and lateral nasal wall weakness. Structural grafting of alar cartilages strengthens the tip framework, reinforces the disrupted support mechanisms, and controls the position of the nasal tip. In secondary cases, anatomic reconstruction of the weakened or interrupted alar cartilages and reconstitution of a stable nasal tip tripod must be the goal for a predictable outcome. PMID:26616702

  7. Yes You Can! Personal Experience of Writing for "School Science Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alaric; Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Alaric Thompson describes his experience of writing for "School Science Review" for the first time in the hope that his experience will encourage others. Geoff Auty introduces his piece and explains how it came about.

  8. Subcutaneous Nasolabial Flap for Eliminating Depressed Nasal Floor in Adult Cleft Rhinoplasty: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Torabizadeh Siraji, Arman

    2015-06-01

    Depressed nasal floor extension into the nostril in cleft patients is difficult to solve. Suggested ways for solving this problem need skin incisions other than routine open rhinoplasty incisions. Nasolabia subcutaneous flap makes the infrastructure in depressed nasal floor in cleft patients. Alar advancement and medial nasal floor triangular flap cover it. PMID:26180711

  9. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  10. The Learning Conference: Knowledge Creation through Participation and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the principles and characteristics of a learning conference which uses action learning and action research (ALAR) processes to create: optimal learning for all participants through a collaborative, inclusive conference culture; further knowledge creation in publishing conference papers post-conference…

  11. Descending Mediastinitis in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Driel, E. M.; Janssen, M. J. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Our case report describes a previously healthy 34-year-old male who develops a descending mediastinitis as a complication of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mediastinitis was suspected to have developed by a breakthrough of a peritonsillar abscess through the space between the alar and prevertebral space. PMID:25740774

  12. Conditional cell ablation via diphtheria toxin reveals distinct requirements for the basal plate in the regional identity of diencephalic subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bumwhee; Lam, Duc Tri; Baek, Kwanghee; Yoon, Jaeseung; Jeong, Yongsu

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian diencephalon is the caudal derivative of the embryonic forebrain. Early events in diencephalic regionalization include its subdivision along the dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes. The prosomeric model by Puelles and Rubenstein (1993) suggests that the alar plate of the posterior diencephalon is partitioned into three different prosomeres (designated p1-p3), which develop into the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus, respectively. Here, we report the developmental consequences of genetic ablation of cell populations from the diencephalic basal plate. The strategy for conditionally regulated cell ablation is based on the targeted expression of the diphtheria toxin gene (DTA) to the diencephalic basal plate via tamoxifen- induced, Cre-mediated recombination of the ROSA(DTA) allele. We show that activation of DTA leads to specific cell loss in the basal plate of the posterior diencephalon, and disrupted early regionalization of distinct alar territories. In the basal plate-deficient embryos, the p1 alar plate exhibited reduced expression of subtype-specific markers in the pretectum, whereas p2 alar plate failed to further subdivide into two discrete thalamic subpopulations. We also show that these defects lead to abnormal nuclear organization at later developmental stages. Our data have implications for increased understanding of the interactive roles between discrete diencephalic compartments. PMID:25950659

  13. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  14. Repair of "coup de sabre," a linear form of scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sengezer, M; Deveci, M; Selmanpakoglu, N

    1996-10-01

    A case of coup de sabre, a linear form of scleroderma, is presented. Treatment consisted of soft-tissue expansion and autologous bone grafting to the forehead, a composite graft for alar reconstruction, and a scalp graft for eyebrow reconstruction. None of the linear scleroderma cases reported in the literature consisted of bony reconstruction. PMID:8905054

  15. Technique in Cleft Rhinoplasty: The Foundation Graft.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Holger G; Schwan, Franziska; Haubner, Frank; Suárez, Gustavo A; Vielsmeier, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    Secondary cleft rhinoplasty represents a particular surgical challenge. The authors have identified the deficit in skeletal projection of the cleft-sided piriform rim as an important contributor to the pathology. A graft is described to augment the piriform crest on the cleft side. This foundation graft is suture fixated to the piriform crest after complete release of all soft tissue attachments to the alar base. The foundation graft is articulated with a long alar strut graft, which allows for powerful projection of the cleft-sided nasal tip. An advancement flap of vestibular skin is described to correct the vestibular stenosis. A transplant of diced cartilage in fascia is added to augment maxillary soft tissue volume. Subjective and objective measures of form and function are presented in a retrospective series of five cases, illustrating the efficacy of the techniques described. PMID:27097143

  16. Further characterization of Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sood, S M; Slattery, C W; Filley, S J; Wu, M X; Hill, K A

    1996-04-15

    Selected physical and thermodynamic parameters for Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) have been determined primarily to assess the quaternary structure of this enzyme. The extinction coefficient (epsilon) at 280 nm was determined experimentally to be 0.71 ml mg-1 cm-1, and the partial specific volume (nu) was calculated from the amino acid composition to be 0.73 ml g-1. From viscosity experiments the intrinsic viscosity (eta) of AlaRS was extrapolated to be 3.4 ml g-1 and the degree of hydration (delta 1) estimated to be 0.67 gH2O g(-1)(AlaRS). Laser light-scattering studies indicated some heterogeneity; a radius of 6.3 nm was calculated for the major fraction with a diffusion coefficient (D20,W) of 3.89 x 10(-7) cm2 s-1. In 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, 20 mM KCl, 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and at a protein concentration of 4.2 mg ml-1 the sedimentation coefficient (S20,W) was 6.36 S; this value increased slightly when the protein concentration was decreased. The combination of S20,W and D20,W under these conditions yielded a molecular weight of approximately 186,000 Da, corresponding to a dimer. The S20,W was virtually independent of temperature in the range of 10-37 degrees C, while an Arrhenius plot of aminoacylation activity was biphasic. The isoelectric point was determined experimentally to be 4.9. Sedimentation equilibrium data were best fit to a decamer association complex in which dimeric AlaRS is the predominant species at 25 degrees C. PMID:8645007

  17. Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).

    PubMed

    Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell. PMID:24659451

  18. Regional expression of Pax7 in the brain of Xenopus laevis during embryonic and larval development

    PubMed Central

    Bandín, Sandra; Morona, Ruth; Moreno, Nerea; González, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Pax7 is a member of the highly conserved Pax gene family that is expressed in restricted zones of the central nervous system (CNS) during development, being involved in early brain regionalization and the maintenance of the regional identity. Using sensitive immunohistochemical techniques we have analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of Pax7 expression in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, during development. Pax7 expression was first detected in early embryos in the basal plate of prosomere 3, roof and alar plates of prosomere 1 and mesencephalon, and the alar plate of rhombomere 1. As development proceeded, Pax7 cells were observed in the hypothalamus close to the catecholaminergic population of the mammillary region. In the diencephalon, Pax7 was intensely expressed in a portion of the basal plate of prosomere 3, in the roof plate and in scattered cells of the thalamus in prosomere 2, throughout the roof of prosomere 1, and in the commissural and juxtacommissural domains of the pretectum. In the mesencephalon, Pax7 cells were localized in the optic tectum and, to a lesser extent, in the torus semicircularis. The rostral portion of the alar part of rhombomere 1, including the ventricular layer of the cerebellum, expressed Pax7 and, gradually, some of these dorsal cells were observed to populate ventrally the interpeduncular nucleus and the isthmus (rhombomere 0). Additionally, Pax7 positive cells were found in the ventricular zone of the ventral part of the alar plate along the rhombencephalon and the spinal cord. The findings show that the strongly conserved features of Pax7 expression through development shared by amniote vertebrates are also present in the anamniote amphibians as a common characteristic of the brain organization of tetrapods. PMID:24399938

  19. Molecular Regionalization of the Diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Martinez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The anatomic complexity of the diencephalon depends on precise molecular and cellular regulative mechanisms orchestrated by regional morphogenetic organizers at the neural tube stage. In the diencephalon, like in other neural tube regions, dorsal and ventral signals codify positional information to specify ventro-dorsal regionalization. Retinoic acid, Fgf8, BMPs, and Wnts signals are the molecular factors acting upon the diencephalic epithelium to specify dorsal structures, while Shh is the main ventralizing signal. A central diencephalic organizer, the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), appears after neurulation in the central diencephalic alar plate, establishing additional antero-posterior positional information inside diencephalic alar plate. Based on Shh expression, the ZLI acts as a morphogenetic center, which cooperates with other signals in thalamic specification and pattering in the alar plate of diencephalon. Indeed, Shh is expressed first in the basal plate extending dorsally through the ZLI epithelium as the development proceeds. Despite the importance of ZLI in diencephalic morphogenesis the mechanisms that regulate its development remain incompletely understood. Actually, controversial interpretations in different experimental models have been proposed. That is, experimental results have suggested that (i) the juxtaposition of the molecularly heterogeneous neuroepithelial areas, (ii) cell reorganization in the epithelium, and/or (iii) planar and vertical inductions in the neural epithelium, are required for ZLI specification and development. We will review some experimental data to approach the study of the molecular regulation of diencephalic regionalization, with special interest in the cellular mechanisms underlying planar inductions. PMID:22654731

  20. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Madrigal, M Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  1. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  2. Internal Nasal Valve Incompetence Is Effectively Treated Using Batten Graft Functional Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, J. C.; Buchanan, M. A.; Frosh, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Internal nasal valve incompetence (INVI) has been treated with various surgical methods. Large, single surgeon case series are lacking, meaning that the evidence supporting a particular technique has been deficient. We present a case series using alar batten grafts to reconstruct the internal nasal valve, all performed by the senior author. Methods. Over a 7-year period, 107 patients with nasal obstruction caused by INVI underwent alar batten grafting. Preoperative assessment included the use of nasal strips to evaluate symptom improvement. Visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment of nasal blockage (NB) and quality of life (QOL) both pre- and postoperatively were performed and analysed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results. Sixty-seven patients responded to both pre- and postoperative questionnaires. Ninety-one percent reported an improvement in NB and 88% an improvement in QOL. The greatest improvement was seen at 6 months (median VAS 15 mm and 88 mm resp., with a P value of <0.05 for both). Nasal strips were used preoperatively and are a useful tool in predicting patient operative success in both NB and QOL (odds ratio 2.15 and 2.58, resp.). Conclusions. Alar batten graft insertion as a single technique is a valid technique in treating INVI and produces good outcomes. PMID:23653651

  3. Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-04-01

    Whiplash injuries continue to have significant societal cost; however, the mechanism and location of whiplash injury is still under investigation. Recently, the upper cervical spine ligaments, particularly the alar ligament, have been identified as a potential whiplash injury location. In this study, a detailed and validated explicit finite element model of a 50th percentile male cervical spine in a seated posture was used to investigate upper cervical spine response and the potential for whiplash injury resulting from vehicle crash scenarios. This model was previously validated at the segment and whole spine levels for both kinematics and soft tissue strains in frontal and rear impact scenarios. The model predicted increasing upper cervical spine ligament strain with increasing impact severity. Considering all upper cervical spine ligaments, the distractions in the apical and alar ligaments were the largest relative to their failure strains, in agreement with the clinical findings. The model predicted the potential for injury to the apical ligament for 15.2 g frontal or 11.7 g rear impacts, and to the alar ligament for a 20.7 g frontal or 14.4 g rear impact based on the ligament distractions. Future studies should consider the effect of initial occupant position on ligament distraction. PMID:22284991

  4. NMR studies of protonation and hydrogen bond states of internal aldimines of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate acid-base in alanine racemase, aspartate aminotransferase, and poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Chan-Huot, Monique; Dos, Alexandra; Zander, Reinhard; Sharif, Shasad; Tolstoy, Peter M; Compton, Shara; Fogle, Emily; Toney, Michael D; Shenderovich, Ilya; Denisov, Gleb S; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2013-12-01

    Using (15)N solid-state NMR, we have studied protonation and H-bonded states of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) linked as an internal aldimine in alanine racemase (AlaR), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and poly-L-lysine. Protonation of the pyridine nitrogen of PLP and the coupled proton transfer from the phenolic oxygen (enolimine form) to the aldimine nitrogen (ketoenamine form) is often considered to be a prerequisite to the initial step (transimination) of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Indeed, using (15)N NMR and H-bond correlations in AspAT, we observe a strong aspartate-pyridine nitrogen H-bond with H located on nitrogen. After hydration, this hydrogen bond is maintained. By contrast, in the case of solid lyophilized AlaR, we find that the pyridine nitrogen is neither protonated nor hydrogen bonded to the proximal arginine side chain. However, hydration establishes a weak hydrogen bond to pyridine. To clarify how AlaR is activated, we performed (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR experiments on isotopically labeled PLP aldimines formed by lyophilization with poly-L-lysine. In the dry solid, only the enolimine tautomer is observed. However, a fast reversible proton transfer involving the ketoenamine tautomer is observed after treatment with either gaseous water or gaseous dry HCl. Hydrolysis requires the action of both water and HCl. The formation of an external aldimine with aspartic acid at pH 9 also produces the ketoenamine form stabilized by interaction with a second aspartic acid, probably via a H-bond to the phenolic oxygen. We postulate that O-protonation is an effectual mechanism for the activation of PLP, as is N-protonation, and that enzymes that are incapable of N-protonation employ this mechanism. PMID:24147985

  5. Topography of Somatostatin Gene Expression Relative to Molecular Progenitor Domains during Ontogeny of the Mouse Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Delgado, Nicanor; Merchan, Paloma; Bardet, Sylvia M.; Ferrán, José L.; Puelles, Luis; Díaz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus comprises alar, basal, and floor plate developmental compartments. Recent molecular data support a rostrocaudal subdivision into rostral (terminal) and caudal (peduncular) halves. In this context, the distribution of neuronal populations expressing somatostatin (Sst) mRNA was analyzed in the developing mouse hypothalamus, comparing with the expression pattern of the genes Orthopedia (Otp), Distal-less 5 (Dlx5), Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Nk2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1). At embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), Sst mRNA was first detectable in the anterobasal nucleus, a Nkx2.1-, Shh-, and Otp-positive basal domain. By E13.5, nascent Sst expression was also related to two additional Otp-positive domains within the alar plate and one in the basal plate. In the alar plate, Sst-positive cells were observed in rostral and caudal ventral subdomains of the Otp-positive paraventricular complex. An additional basal Sst-expressing cell group was found within a longitudinal Otp-positive periretromamillary band that separates the retromamillary area from tuberal areas. Apart of subsequent growth of these initial populations, at E13.5 and E15.5 some Sst-positive derivatives migrate tangentially into neighboring regions. A subset of cells produced at the anterobasal nucleus disperses ventralward into the shell of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Cells from the rostroventral paraventricular subdomain reach the suboptic nucleus, whereas a caudal contingent migrates radially into lateral paraventricular, perifornical, and entopeduncular nuclei. Our data provide a topologic map of molecularly defined progenitor areas originating a specific neuron type during early hypothalamic development. Identification of four main separate sources helps to understand causally its complex adult organization. PMID:21441981

  6. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    PubMed

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair. PMID:26147027

  7. Nasal tip support: A finite element analysis of the role of the caudal septum during tip depression

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Cyrus T.; Leary, Ryan; Protsenko, Dmitriy E.; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis Although minor and major tip support mechanisms have been described in detail, no quantitative models exist to provide support for the relative contributions of the structural properties of the major alar cartilage, the fibrous attachments to surrounding structures, and the rigid support structures in an objective manner. Study Design The finite element method was used to compute the stress distribution in the nose during simple tip compression, and then identify the specific anatomic structures that resist deformation and thus contribute to “tip support”. Additionally, the impact of caudal septal resection on nasal tip support was examined. Method The computer models consisted of three tissue components with anatomically correct geometries for skin and bone derived from CT data. Septum, upper lateral cartilages, and major alar cartilages were fitted within the model using 3D CAD software. 5mm nasal tip compression was performed on the models with caudal septal resection (3mm and 5 mm) and without resection to simulate palpation, then the resulting spatial distribution of stress and displacement was calculated. Results The von Mises stress in the normal model was primarily concentrated along medial crural angle. As caudal septum length was reduced, stress was redistributed to adjacent soft tissue and bone, resulting in less force acting on the septum. In all models, displacement was greatest near the intermediate crura. Conclusions These models are the first step in the comprehensive mechanical analysis of nasal tip dynamics. Our model supports the concept of the caudal septum and major alar cartilage as providing the majority of critical load-bearing support. Level of Evidence N/A PMID:23878007

  8. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed. PMID:25691860

  9. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed. PMID:25691860

  10. Conserved localization of Pax6 and Pax7 transcripts in the brain of representatives of sarcopterygian vertebrates during development supports homologous brain regionalization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Nerea; Joven, Alberto; Morona, Ruth; Bandín, Sandra; López, Jesús M.; González, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Many of the genes involved in brain patterning during development are highly conserved in vertebrates and similarities in their expression patterns help to recognize homologous cell types or brain regions. Among these genes, Pax6 and Pax7 are expressed in regionally restricted patterns in the brain and are essential for its development. In the present immunohistochemical study we analyzed the distribution of Pax6 and Pax7 cells in the brain of six representative species of tetrapods and lungfishes, the closest living relatives of tetrapods, at several developmental stages. The distribution patterns of these transcription factors were largely comparable across species. In all species only Pax6 was expressed in the telencephalon, including the olfactory bulbs, septum, striatum, and amygdaloid complex. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, mainly in prosomeres 1 and 3. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the optic tectum (superior colliculus) and Pax6, but not Pax7, cells were found in the tegmentum. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum and Pax7 labeling was detected in cells of the ventricular zone of the rostral alar plate and in migrated cells in the basal plate, including the griseum centrale and the interpeduncular nucleus. Caudally, Pax6 cells formed a column, whereas the ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Since the observed Pax6 and Pax7 expression patterns are largely conserved they can be used to identify subdivisions in the brain across vertebrates that are not clearly discernible with classical techniques. PMID:25147506

  11. A Practical Approach to Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ahmad, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    Rhinoplasty continues to be one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgical procedures. Over the past 25 years, the open approach has increased in popularity and is the focus of this article. The principles for successful rhinoplasty include comprehensive clinical analysis and defining rhinoplasty goals, preoperative consultation and planning, precise operative execution, postoperative management, and critical analysis of one's results. Systematic nasal analysis is critical to establish the goals of surgery. Techniques to address the nasal dorsum, nasal airway, tip complex, alar rims, and bony vault that provide consistent results are discussed. PMID:27018701

  12. Controversies in the Management of Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Rodman, Regina E; Tatum, Sherard

    2016-08-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies. For many years, surgeons have been attempting to reduce the severity of the deformity before the surgical repair to achieve a better outcome. The nasoalveolar molding technique uses acrylic nasal stents attached to the vestibular shield of an oral molding plate to mold the nasal alar cartilages into a more normal form and position during the presurgical period. Proponents of nasoalveolar molding claim several benefits, including improved aesthetic outcome, reduced overall costs, and a psychosocial benefit to the family. Research on these outcomes is not conclusive. PMID:27400840

  13. Heminasal agenesis: a reconstructive challenge.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Zelken, Jonathan; Redett, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    Heminasal agenesis is a rare congenital malformation often associated with deformities of the eyes and lacrimal system, midface, and proboscis lateralis. Reconstruction is especially challenging because of missing lining, cartilage, and skin. We present a case of heminasal agenesis in a 5-year-old girl with concomitant hypertelorism, coloboma of the eyelids, and maxillary hypoplasia. The patient underwent facial bipartition for hypertelorism correction and cantilever bone graft. A forehead flap was designed using an anaplastic model from the patient's twin sister. Cartilage harvested from the conchal bowl and rib provided alar and dorsal support. Reconstructive goals, timing, and options are discussed. PMID:24777004

  14. Augmentation rhinoplasty with custom-made S-shape silicone implant in Asians: A 15-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Chuangsuwanich, Apirag; Lohsiriwat, Visnu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asians have low nasal dorsum, thick skin envelope, low defined alar cartilage, low projection of nasal tip and broad alar base. Augmentation rhinoplasty with silicone prosthesis has been performed with predictable results, but unfavourable results and complications still present. This series show techniques and results from single surgeon experience. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 548 patients chart during January 1995 to December 2009. All patients underwent custom-made S-shape implant silicone augmentation rhinoplasty operated by a single surgeon. There were three major operative steps: (1) Intra-operative S-shape implant carving; (2) pocket dissection through bilateral rim incision and (3) tension adjustment before closure. All the patients were recorded for early surgical complications and satisfaction. Results: There were 519 women and 29 men. The mean age is 25.5 years (18-56 years). Mean follow-up period was 6 months (1-60 months). The majority of patient were appointed for esthetic augmentation (86.8%). 515 cases (94.9%) showed well satisfaction following the operation. The total complication rate was 6.5% (4.9% deviation, 0.7% extrusion, 0.5% hematoma and 0.3% infection). All the complications were corrected with uneventful sequelae. Conclusion: Augmentation rhinoplasty with custom-made S-shape silicone implant by closed approach provides high satisfaction with acceptable early complication rate. PMID:24459345

  15. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning. PMID:27622116

  16. Contemporary Concepts for the Bilateral Cleft Lip and Nasal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rohit K.; McGregor, Jyoti; Kelley, Patrick K.; Gruss, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    The bilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity presents a complex challenge for repair. Surgical techniques continue to evolve and are focused on primary anatomic realignment of the tissues. This can be accomplished in a single-stage or two-stage repair early in infancy to provide a foundation for future growth of the lip and nasal tissue. Most cleft surgeons currently perform a single-stage repair for simplifying patient care. Certain institutions utilize presurgical orthopedics for alignment of the maxillary segments and nasal shaping. Methods for the bilateral cleft lip repair are combined with various open and closed rhinoplasty techniques to achieve improved correction of the primary nasal deformity. There is recent focus on shaping the nose for columellar and tip support, as well as alar contour and alar base position. The authors will present a new technique for closure of the nasal floor to prevent the alveolar cleft fistula. Although the alveolar fistula is closed, alveolar bone grafting is still required at the usual time in dental development to fuse the maxilla. It is paramount to try and minimize the stigmata of secondary deformities that historically have been characteristic of the repaired bilateral cleft lip. A properly planned and executed repair reduces the number of revisions and can spare a child from living with secondary deformities. PMID:24179448

  17. Calcium hydroxylapatite associated soft tissue necrosis: a case report and treatment guideline.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Lauren; Ridgway, James; Nelson, J Stuart; Lowe, Nelson; Wong, Brian

    2014-04-01

    We present an uncommon case of nasal alar and facial necrosis following calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection performed elsewhere without direct physician supervision. The patient developed severe full-thickness necrosis of cheek and nasal alar skin 24 h after injections into the melolabial folds. Management prior to referral included oral antibiotics, prednisone taper, and referral to a dermatologist (day 3) who prescribed valacyclovir for a presumptive herpes zoster reactivation induced by the injection. Referral to our institution was made on day 11, and after herpetic outbreak was ruled out by a negative Tzanck smear, debridement with aggressive local wound care was initiated. After re-epithelialization and the fashioning of a custom intranasal stent to prevent vestibular stenosis, pulsed dye laser therapy was performed for wound modification. The patient healed with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. This report underscores the importance of facial vasculature anatomy, injection techniques, and identification of adverse events when using fillers. A current treatment paradigm for such events is also presented. PMID:23993752

  18. Differential regulation of the zebrafish orthopedia1 gene during fate determination of diencephalic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Del Giacco, Luca; Sordino, Paolo; Pistocchi, Anna; Andreakis, Nikos; Tarallo, Raffaella; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Cotelli, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Background The homeodomain transcription factor Orthopedia (Otp) is essential in restricting the fate of multiple classes of secreting neurons in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus of vertebrates. However, there is little information on the intercellular factors that regulate Otp expression during development. Results Here, we identified two otp orthologues in zebrafish (otp1 and otp2) and explored otp1 in the context of the morphogenetic pathways that specify neuroectodermal regions. During forebrain development, otp1 is expressed in anterior groups of diencephalic cells, positioned in the preoptic area (PO) (anterior alar plate) and the posterior tuberculum (PT) (posterior basal plate). The latter structure is characterized by Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells, suggesting a role for otp1 in the lineage restriction of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons. Disruptions of Hedgehog (HH) and Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) pathways point to the ability of SHH protein to trigger otp1 expression in PO presumptive neuroblasts, with the attenuating effect of Dzip1 and FGF8. In addition, our data disclose otp1 as a determinant of CA neurons in the PT, where otp1 activity is strictly dependent on Nodal signaling and it is not responsive to SHH and FGF. Conclusion In this study, we pinpoint the evolutionary importance of otp1 transcription factor in cell states of the diencephalon anlage and early neuronal progenitors. Furthermore, our data indicate that morphogenetic mechanisms differentially regulate otp1 expression in alar and basal plates. PMID:17074092

  19. Ontogenetic Expression of Sonic Hedgehog in the Chicken Subpallium

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Ferran, José L. E.; Sanchez-Arrones, Luisa; Puelles, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a secreted signaling factor that is implicated in the molecular patterning of the central nervous system (CNS), somites, and limbs in vertebrates. SHH has a crucial role in the generation of ventral cell types along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the neural tube. It is secreted early in development by the axial mesoderm (prechordal plate and notochord) and the overlying ventral neural tube. Recent studies clarified the impact of SHH signaling mechanisms on dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord, but the corresponding phenomena in the rostral forebrain are slightly different and more complex. This notably involves separate Shh expression in the preoptic part of the forebrain alar plate, as well as in the hypothalamic floor and basal plates. The present work includes a detailed spatiotemporal description of the singular alar Shh expression pattern in the rostral preoptic forebrain of chick embryos, comparing it with FoxG1, Dlx5, Nkx2.1, and Nkx2.2 mRNA expression at diverse stages of development. As a result of this mapping, we report a subdivision of the preoptic region in dorsal and ventral zones; only the dorsal part shows Shh expression. The positive area impinges as well upon a median septocommissural preoptic domain. Our study strongly suggests tangential migration of Shh-positive cells from the preoptic region into other subpallial domains, particularly into the pallidal mantle and the intermediate septum. PMID:20700498

  20. State-of-the-art three-dimensional analysis of soft tissue changes following Le Fort I maxillary advancement.

    PubMed

    Almukhtar, A; Ayoub, A; Khambay, B; McDonald, J; Ju, X

    2016-09-01

    We describe the comprehensive 3-dimensional analysis of facial changes after Le Fort I osteotomy and introduce a new tool for anthropometric analysis of the face. We studied the cone-beam computed tomograms of 33 patients taken one month before and 6-12 months after Le Fort I maxillary advancement with or without posterior vertical impaction. Use of a generic facial mesh for dense correspondence analysis of changes in the soft tissue showed a mean (SD) anteroposterior advancement of the maxilla of 5.9 (1.7) mm, and mean (SD) minimal anterior and posterior vertical maxillary impaction of 0.1 (1.7) mm and 0.6 (1.45) mm, respectively. It also showed distinctive forward and marked lateral expansion around the upper lip and nose, and pronounced upward movement of the alar curvature and columella. The nose was widened and the nostrils advanced. There was minimal forward change at the base of the nose (subnasale and alar base) but a noticeable upward movement at the nasal tip. Changes at the cheeks were minimal. Analysis showed widening of the midface and upper lip which, to our knowledge, has not been reported before. The nostrils were compressed and widened, and the lower lip shortened. Changes at the chin and lower lip were secondary to the limited maxillary impaction. PMID:27325452

  1. External rhinoplasty: a critical analysis of 500 cases.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-06-01

    The study presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a series of 500 consecutive rhinoplasties of which 380 (76 per cent) were primary and 120 (24 per cent) were secondary cases. All cases were operated upon using the external rhinoplasty technique; simultaneous septal surgery was performed in 350 (70 per cent) of the cases. Deformities of the upper two-thirds of the nose that occurred significantly more in the secondary cases included; dorsal saddling, dorsal irregularities, valve collapse, open roof and pollybeak deformities. In the lower third of the nose; secondary cases showed significantly higher incidences of depressed tip, tip over-rotation, tip asymmetry, retracted columella, and alar notching. Suturing techniques were used significantly more in primary cases, while in secondary cases grafting techniques were used significantly more. The complications encountered intra-operatively included; septal flap tears (2.8 per cent) and alar cartilage injury (1.8 per cent), while post-operative complications included; nasal trauma (one per cent), epistaxis (two per cent), infection (2.4 per cent), prolonged oedema (17 per cent), and nasal obstruction (0.8 per cent). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 95.6 per cent and the transcolumellar scar was found to be unacceptable in only 0.8 per cent of the patients. PMID:12818057

  2. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human external nose.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; De Menezes, Marcio; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2011-01-30

    The objective of this study was to measure: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of external nose (linear distances, ratios, angles, volume and surface area); and (2) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the external nose were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized digitizer in 519 male and 340 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. The subjects were divided into 11 non-overlapping age groups: for children and preadolescent subjects, 2-year spans were used, while larger intervals were used for adolescent and adult subjects. From the landmarks, nasal volume and external surface area; nasal and alar base widths, nasal height, nasal bridge length, philtrum length, nasal tip protrusion, right and left nostril lengths, superior and inferior nostril widths; nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height, and nasal width-to-nasal height ratios; nasal convexity, alar slope, and nasal tip angles were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. On average, men had larger nasal external volume and area, linear distances and nasal width-to-height ratio than women (p<0.01); no sex differences were found for the angles and the nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height ratio. Age significantly influenced all analyzed measurements (p<0.001): nasal volume, area, linear distances increased from childhood to old age, while the nasal tip angle decreased as a function of age. No consistent age related patterns were found for the ratios and the nasal convexity and alar slope angles. Men and women had different age related patterns, with significant sex by age interactions (p<0.001). Overall, in most occasions male increments in nasal dimensions were larger than female ones. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human nasal morphology during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic

  3. Intra And Extra Nasal Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selking, Stuart G.

    1988-06-01

    The author describes his experience with 400 intranasal laser surgical procedures done with the carbon dioxide laser and the surgical microscope. Procedures include excision and vaporization of polyps, turbinates, tumors, telangiectasia, synechia, nasal stenosis, intranasal cysts, papillomata, and septal spurs. The author describes a suction speculum and drape of his own design which provide smoke free access to the internal nose, and protection of the alar rim and the face from laser energy. Relief of obstruction is comparable to that obtained from the more traditional means of intranasal surgery. Intraoperative and early and delayed post operative bleeding is less with laser surgery than with any other means. Avoidance of technical problems is emphasized in this manuscript, since intranasal laser surgery is in some respects difficult to perform. Included are practical suggestions about patient positioning, use of protective devices, and patient selection.

  4. Preoperative non-surgical over-correction of cleft lip nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, K; Hirose, T

    1991-01-01

    Alar cartilage, which is elastic like auricular cartilage, is correctable in the early neonatal period. Taking advantage of this correctability, we have performed preoperative non-surgical over-correction for cleft lip nasal deformity of incomplete and complete cleft lips with a Simonart's band. The device for this correction was made by processing a nostril retainer into a nostril over-corrector which utilises a spring of silicone rubber, works like a tissue expander and is supported by the nostril floor. Twenty cases are reviewed whose follow-up lasted more than 19 months. The earlier the non-surgical over-correction began, the more satisfactory were the results that were obtained. PMID:1993238

  5. Restoration of facial symmetry in a patient with bell palsy using a modified maxillary complete denture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Gautam; Nath, Dilip Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Permanent facial paralysis can be devastating for a patient. Modern society's emphasis on appearance and physical beauty contributes to this problem and often leads to isolation of patients embarrassed by their appearance. Lagophthalmos with ocular exposure, loss of oral competence with resultant drooling, alar collapse with nasal airway obstruction, and difficulties with mastication and speech production are all potential consequences of facial paralysis. Affected patients are confronted with both a cosmetic defect and the functional deficits associated with loss of facial nerve function. In this case history report, a modified maxillary complete denture permitted a patient with Bell palsy to carry on daily activities with minimal facial distortion, pain, speech difficulty, and associated emotional trauma. PMID:22545260

  6. Primary Nasal Reconstruction in Self-Inflicted Nasal Injury.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Abizer; John, Jerry R; Gaba, Sunil; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Self-inflicted injury of the nose is extremely rare. It may be associated with severe psychopathology and suicidal ideation. The authors report a case of a 24-year-old man, who presented with soft-tissue loss over both the alae of his nose. He had cut off the alar rims with an ordinary razor blade. He was overtly concerned about his nose being excessively broad and fat. A diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder with nonsuicidal self-injury was made. Patient was observed during 72 hours in hospital with psychiatric support and local dressings. The authors undertook primary nasal reconstruction with nasolabial flaps on both sides for coverage. In conclusion, self-inflicted nasal injury mandates a judicious balancing of psychiatric support and surgical reconstruction. This can prevent untoward sequelae including further self-harm and suicide. PMID:26468831

  7. Rhinoplasty in the patient of African descent.

    PubMed

    Harris, Monte O

    2010-02-01

    We are in the midst of truly changing times, as patients of African descent actively embrace facial cosmetic surgery. Gaining surgical consistency in patients of African descent has proven to be elusive and unpredictable for many rhinoplasty surgeons. Surgical success relies on the surgeon's ability precisely to identify anatomic variables and reconcile these anatomic realities with the patient's expectations for aesthetic improvement and ethnic identity. An appreciation for underlying heritage provides a link culturally to connect with prospective patients and serves as a tool for establishing realistic aesthetic goals. This article highlights the significance of exploring ancestry in the rhinoplasty consultation; identifies key anatomic variables in the nasal tip, dorsum, and alar base; and reviews surgical logic that has facilitated the achievement of consistent, balanced aesthetic outcomes. PMID:20206100

  8. Humans are born too soon: impact on pediatric otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, Charles D

    2005-01-01

    Humans are born 12 months too early. Gestation should be 21 months. Humans evolved to become the pre-eminent animal in the world, but our big brain, bipedalism, and small female pelvic outlet have caused us to pay the price of being born too soon with all of its disadvantages. Early birth has an impact on diseases and disorders encountered by the otolaryngologist, including otitis media, laryngomalacia, tracheomalacia, congenital vocal cord paralysis, subglottic and tracheal stenosis, gastroesophageal reflux, congenital micrognathia, and congenital nasal alar collapse. Many of these conditions improve or resolve completely in the first year of life as an infant's immune system and anatomy matures. Knowledge of this evolutionary process can help us understand why some infants will grow out of certain diseases and disorders encountered in pediatric otolaryngology, while others will not. PMID:15627440

  9. Laser turbinectomy as an adjunct to rhinoseptoplasty.

    PubMed

    Selkin, S G

    1985-07-01

    One hundred two inferior turbinectomies were done with the carbon dioxide laser as an adjunct to rhinoseptoplasty. Indications for surgery were airway obstruction on one or both sides not relieved by medical means (42 cases), patient inability to tolerate medication (36 cases), and patient unwillingness to continue to receive medication for prolonged periods (24 cases) in patients unhappy with their appearance. Pathologic processes included allergic rhinitis (34 cases), vasomotor rhinitis (28 cases), and rhinitis medicamentosum (40 cases). A newly designed suction speculum provided easy access to the internal nose and protected the alar rim and the face from laser energy. Only a few minutes of extra operating time were required. Relief of obstruction was comparable to that obtained from cryosurgery, submucous resection of the turbinate, and partial turbinectomy. Intraoperative and postoperative bleeding was less with laser turbinectomy than with any other means. PMID:4015497

  10. Cellular Neurothekeoma in a Female with Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Divya; Barnhill, Raymond L.; Taylor, Emma; Worswick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Cellular neurothekeoma is a rare cutaneous tumor that occurs more frequently in women. A 68-year-old female with a history of left nasal alar basal cell carcinoma and Guillain-Barré syndrome presented to the clinic with a 3-mm firm skin-colored papule with scattered telangiectasias. Histopathologic examination with immunochemistry of the lesion was consistent with cellular neurothekeoma. It stained positive for microphthalmia transcription factor and NKI-C3 and negative for HMB-45 and S-100. The lesion was excised with 3-mm margins, and no recurrence was noted within 1 year of follow-up. We present a case of cellular neurothekeoma in a patient with a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome as well as a review of the literature. Our case report is unique in that no prior association has been found in the literature between cellular neurothekeoma and Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:27047928

  11. Alveolar bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft. PMID:19884665

  12. Parallel Douglas-Kroll energy and gradients in NWChem: Estimating scalar relativistic effects using Douglas-Kroll contracted basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, W. A.; Harrison, R. J.; Dixon, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    A parallel implementation of the spin-free one-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonian in NWChem is discussed. An efficient and accurate method to calculate DKH gradients is introduced. It is shown that the use of a standard (nonrelativistic) contracted basis set can produce erroneous results for elements beyond the first row elements. The generation of DKH contracted cc-pVXZ(X=D,T,Q,5) basis sets for H, He, B-Ne, Al-Ar, and Ga-Br is discussed. The effect of DKH at the Hartree-Fock level on the bond distances, vibrational frequencies, and total dissociation energies for CF4, SiH4, SiF4, and Br2CO is discussed. It is suggested that the predominant effect of the scalar relativistic correction on the total dissociation energy can be calculated at the Hartree-Fock level if an adequate basis set is used.

  13. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  14. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection.

    PubMed

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  15. [Johanson-Blizzard's syndrome: another cause of pancreatic lipomatosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bresson, J L; Schmitz, J; Saudubray, J M; Lesec, G; Hummel, J A; Rey, J

    1980-01-01

    A new case of Johanson-Blizzard's syndrome is reported. It concerns a boy born to consanguineous parents and who died at the age of 10 months from malnutrition. Anal imperforation, alar agenesia, hair anomalies, mental retardation and external pancreatic failure were associated. Neither deafness nor hypothyroidism appeared to be present. Autopsy revealed lipomatous hypoplasia of the exocrine pancreas, hitherto unobserved in this syndrome, and probably responsible for the external pancreatic failure noted in published cases. The variability within a given family of the Johanson-Blizzard malformative syndrome is illustrated by two other cases reported in the anamnesis, one involving a brother who had died earlier with cutaneous aplasia at the fontanella and lacrimal canal malposition and one involving a second cousin who presented with isolated anal imperforation. PMID:7469679

  16. Efficient aminoacylation of the tRNA(Ala) acceptor stem: dependence on the 2:71 base pair.

    PubMed Central

    Beuning, Penny J; Nagan, Maria C; Cramer, Christopher J; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Gelpí, Josep-Lluis; Bashford, Donald

    2002-01-01

    Specific aminoacylation by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases requires accurate recognition of cognate tRNA substrates. In the case of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), RNA duplexes that mimic the acceptor stem of the tRNA are efficient substrates for aminoacylation in vitro. It was previously shown that recognition by AlaRS is severely affected by a simple base pair transversion of the G2:C71 pair at the second position in the RNA helix. In this study, we determined the aminoacylation efficiencies of 50 variants of the tRNA(Ala) acceptor stem containing substitutions at the 2:71 position. We find that there is not a single functional group of the wild-type G2:C71 base pair that is critical for positive recognition. Rather, we observed that base-pair orientation plays an important role in recognition. In particular, pyrimidine2:purine71 combinations generally resulted in decreased aminoacylation efficiency compared to the corresponding purine:pyrimidine pair. Moreover, the activity of a pyrimidine:purine variant could be partially restored by the presence of a major groove amino group at position 71. In an attempt to understand this result further, dielectric continuum electrostatic calculations were carried out, in some cases with additional inclusion of van der Waals interaction energies, to determine interaction potentials of the wild-type duplexAla and seven 2:71 variants. This analysis revealed a positive correlation between major groove negative electrostatic potential in the vicinity of the 3:70 base pair and measured aminoacylation efficiency. PMID:12022232

  17. Biomechanical characterisation of the human nasal cartilages; implications for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M F; Premakumar, Y; Seifalian, A M; Szarko, M; Butler, P E M

    2016-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction is currently performed using autologous grafts provides but is limited by donor site morbidity, tissue availability and potentially graft failure. Additionally, current alternative alloplastic materials are limited by their high extrusion and infection rates. Matching mechanical properties of synthetic materials to the native tissue they are replacing has shown to be important in the biocompatibility of implants. To date the mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilages has not been studied in depth to be able to create tissue-engineered replacements with similar mechanical properties to native tissue. The young's modulus was characterized in compression on fresh-frozen human cadaveric septal, alar, and lateral cartilage. Due to the functional differences experienced by the various aspects of the septal cartilage, 16 regions were evaluated with an average elastic modulus of 2.72 ± 0.63 MPa. Furthermore, the posterior septum was found to be significantly stiffer than the anterior septum (p < 0.01). The medial and lateral alar cartilages were tested at four points with an elastic modulus ranging from 2.09 ± 0.81 MPa, with no significant difference between the cartilages (p < 0.78). The lateral cartilage was tested once in all cadavers with an average elastic modulus of 0.98 ± 0.29 MPa. In conclusion, this study provides new information on the compressive mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilage, allowing surgeons to have a better understanding of the difference between the mechanical properties of the individual nasal cartilages. This study has provided a reference, by which tissue-engineered should be developed for effective cartilage replacements for nasal reconstruction. PMID:26676857

  18. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results.

    PubMed

    Bhangoo, Kulwant S

    2013-05-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption. PMID:24501471

  19. Eppur Si Muove: Evidence for an External Granular Layer and Possibly Transit Amplification in the Teleostean Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Biechl, Daniela; Dorigo, Alessandro; Köster, Reinhard W.; Grothe, Benedikt; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive. Therefore, we used an existing zebrafish transgenic line Tg(2.4shha-ABC-GFP)sb15; Shkumatava et al., 2004) to show this gene activity and its cellular localization in the larval zebrafish brain. Clearly, GFP expressing cells occur in larval alar zebrafish brain domains, i.e., optic tectum and cerebellum. Analysis of critical cerebellar cell markers on this transgenic background and a PH3 assay for mitotic cells reveals that Purkinje cells and eurydendroid cells are completely non-overlapping postmitotic cell populations. Furthermore, shh-GFP cells never express Zebrin II or parvalbumin, nor calretinin. They are thus neither Purkinje cells nor calretinin positive migrating rhombic lip derived cells. The shh-GFP cells also never correspond to PH3 positive cells of the ventral cerebellar proliferative zone or the upper rhombic lip-derived EGL. From this marker analysis and the location of shh-GFP cells sandwiched between calretinin positive rhombic lip derived cells and parvalbumin positive Purkinje cells, we conclude that shh-GFP expressing cells qualify as previously reported olig2 positive eurydendroid cells, which are homologous to the amniote deep cerebellar nuclei. We confirm this using double transgenic progeny of shh-GFP and olig2-dsRed zebrafish. Thus, these zebrafish eurydendroid cells may have the same role in transit amplification as Purkinje cells do in amniotes. PMID:27199681

  20. Evo-devo and the primate isocortex: the central organizing role of intrinsic gradients of neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Christine J.; Finlay, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial gradients in the initiation and termination of basic processes, such as cytogenesis, cell-type specification and dendritic maturation are ubiquitous in developing nervous systems. Such gradients can produce a niche adaptation in a particular species. For example, the high density of photoreceptors and neurons in the “area centralis” of some vertebrate retinas result from the early maturation of its center relative to its periphery. Across species, regularities in allometric scaling of brain regions can derive from conserved spatial gradients: longer neurogenesis in the alar versus the basal plate of the neural tube is associated with relatively greater expansion of alar plate derivatives in larger brains. We describe gradients of neurogenesis within the isocortex and their effects on adult cytoarchitecture within and across species. Longer duration of neurogenesis in the caudal isocortex is associated with increased neuron number and density per column relative to the rostral isocortex. Later-maturing features of single neurons, such as soma size and dendritic spine numbers reflect this gradient. Considering rodents and primates, the longer duration of isocortical neurogenesis in each species, the greater the rostral-to-caudal difference in neuron number and density per column. Extended developmental duration produces substantial, predictable changes in the architecture of the isocortex in larger brains, and presumably, a progressively changed functional organization whose properties we do not yet fully understand. Many features of isocortical architecture previously viewed as species- or niche-specific adaptations can now be integrated as the natural outcomes of spatiotemporal gradients that are deployed in larger brains. PMID:25247448

  1. Model for Estimating the Threshold Mechanical Stability of Structural Cartilage Grafts Used in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zemek, Allison; Garg, Rohit; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Characterizing the mechanical properties of structural cartilage grafts used in rhinoplasty is valuable because softer engineered tissues are more time- and cost-efficient to manufacture. The aim of this study is to quantitatively identify the threshold mechanical stability (e.g., Young’s modulus) of columellar, L-strut, and alar cartilage replacement grafts. Study Design Descriptive, focus group survey. Methods Ten mechanical phantoms of identical size (5 × 20 × 2.3 mm) and varying stiffness (0.360 to 0.85 MPa in 0.05 MPa increments) were made from urethane. A focus group of experienced rhinoplasty surgeons (n = 25, 5 to 30 years in practice) were asked to arrange the phantoms in order of increasing stiffness. Then, they were asked to identify the minimum acceptable stiffness that would still result in favorable surgical outcomes for three clinical applications: columellar, L-strut, and lateral crural replacement grafts. Available surgeons were tested again after 1 week to evaluate intra-rater consistency. Results For each surgeon, the threshold stiffness for each clinical application differed from the threshold values derived by logistic regression by no more than 0.05 MPa (accuracy to within 10%). Specific thresholds were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.49 MPa for columellar, L-strut, and alar grafts, respectively. For comparison, human nasal septal cartilage is approximately 0.8 MPa. Conclusions There was little inter- and intra-rater variation of the identified threshold values for adequate graft stiffness. The identified threshold values will be useful for the design of tissue-engineered or semisynthetic cartilage grafts for use in structural nasal surgery. PMID:20513022

  2. Nasal Sculpting: Calculated and Predictable Tip Elevation With Cephalic Trim

    PubMed Central

    Redstone, Jeremiah S.; Nguyen, Jonathan; North, Durham Alan; Hazani, Ron; Drury, Brad; Yoder, Eric M.; Cooperman, Ross D.; Yoder, Virginia; Little, Jarrod A.; Florman, Larry D.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhinoplasty techniques to affect nasal tip rotation are well described. Cephalic alar trim is a powerful method for achieving tip elevation. Previous studies and texts provide aesthetic guidelines for nasolabial angles. Often, surgeon experience determines the degree of lower lateral cartilage resection to achieve optimal results. This study analyzes the change in tip elevation with measured resections of the lower lateral cartilages. This can aid the surgeon in accurately predicting the effect of cephalic alar trim on tip elevation. Methods: Ten fresh cadaveric dissections were performed to determine the change in nasolabial angles after cephalic trim of the lower lateral cartilage. Closed rhinoplasty technique was performed using marginal and intercartilaginous incisions to expose the lower lateral cartilage. Caliper measurements of the lower lateral cartilage were recorded. Serial cephalic trim was performed in 25% increments. True lateral photographs were obtained before and after each serial excision. Nasolabial angle measurements were obtained using a digital goniometer for digital photo analysis. Results: Four female and 6 male cadavers were evaluated. The mean initial nasolabial angle was 106° ± 2°. The mean lower lateral cartilage width was 9.45 ± 1.38 mm. Serial 25% reductions in lower lateral cartilage height resulted in a mean total nasolabial angle change of 7.4°, 12.9°, and 19.6°, respectively. The mean incremental change in the nasolabial angle was 6.47° ± 1.25°. Conclusion: The nasolabial angle is an essential aesthetic feature. Cephalic trim is a key maneuver in affecting the nasolabial angle. A 25% lower lateral cartilage cephalic trim correlates with an average change in the nasolabial angle of 6.47°. Knowledge of the cephalic trim to nasolabial angle relationship aids in achieving desired tip elevation. PMID:26171091

  3. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N.; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral

  4. Airborne Observations of Urban-Derived Water Vapor and Potential Impacts on Chemistry and Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Grundman, R. M., II; Stirm, B. H.; Ren, X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric conditions typical of wintertime, such as lower boundary layer heights and reduced turbulent mixing, provide a unique environment for anthropogenic pollutants to accumulate and react. Wintertime enhancements in water vapor (H2O) have been observed in urban areas, and are thought to result from fossil fuel combustion and urban heat island-induced evaporation. The contribution of urban-derived water vapor to the atmosphere has the potential to locally influence atmospheric chemistry and weather for the urban area and surrounding region due to interactions between H2O and other chemical species, aerosols, and clouds. Airborne observations of urban-derived H2O, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and aerosols were conducted from Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) and the University of Maryland's (UMD) Twin Cessna research aircraft during the winter of 2015. Measurements were conducted as part of the collaborative airborne campaign, Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER), which investigated seasonal trends in anthropogenic emissions and reactivity in the Northeastern United States. ALAR and the UMD aircraft participated in mass balance experiments around Washington D.C.-Baltimore to determine total city emission rates of H2O and other greenhouse gases. Average enhancements in H2O mixing ratio of 0.048%, and up to 0.13%, were observed downwind of the urban centers on ten research flights. In some cases, downwind H2O concentrations clearly track CO2 and NO2 enhancements, suggesting a strong combustion signal. Analysis of Purdue and UMD data collected during the WINTER campaign shows an average urban-derived H2O contribution of 5.3%, and as much as 13%, to the local boundary layer from ten research flights flown in February and March of 2015. In this paper, we discuss the potential chemical and physical implications of these results.

  5. Eppur Si Muove: Evidence for an External Granular Layer and Possibly Transit Amplification in the Teleostean Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Biechl, Daniela; Dorigo, Alessandro; Köster, Reinhard W; Grothe, Benedikt; Wullimann, Mario F

    2016-01-01

    The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive. Therefore, we used an existing zebrafish transgenic line Tg(2.4shha-ABC-GFP)sb15; Shkumatava et al., 2004) to show this gene activity and its cellular localization in the larval zebrafish brain. Clearly, GFP expressing cells occur in larval alar zebrafish brain domains, i.e., optic tectum and cerebellum. Analysis of critical cerebellar cell markers on this transgenic background and a PH3 assay for mitotic cells reveals that Purkinje cells and eurydendroid cells are completely non-overlapping postmitotic cell populations. Furthermore, shh-GFP cells never express Zebrin II or parvalbumin, nor calretinin. They are thus neither Purkinje cells nor calretinin positive migrating rhombic lip derived cells. The shh-GFP cells also never correspond to PH3 positive cells of the ventral cerebellar proliferative zone or the upper rhombic lip-derived EGL. From this marker analysis and the location of shh-GFP cells sandwiched between calretinin positive rhombic lip derived cells and parvalbumin positive Purkinje cells, we conclude that shh-GFP expressing cells qualify as previously reported olig2 positive eurydendroid cells, which are homologous to the amniote deep cerebellar nuclei. We confirm this using double transgenic progeny of shh-GFP and olig2-dsRed zebrafish. Thus, these zebrafish eurydendroid cells may have the same role in transit amplification as Purkinje cells do in amniotes. PMID:27199681

  6. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  7. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery. PMID:23547534

  8. Correction of Asian Short Nose with Lower Lateral Cartilage Repositioning and Ear Cartilage Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asians with short nose lack the cartilage needed to extend the length of the nose. A rhinoplasty technique using lower lateral cartilage (LLC) repositioning and ear cartilage grafting allows for sufficient nasal lengthening and nasal tip mobility in the correction of short nose in Asians. Methods: Short nose was classified into 3 subtypes: type I, II, or III. During LLC repositioning, the LLC was separated from surrounding retaining structures, except at the footplate. The LLC was approximated medially and advanced with a Medpor strut. A silicone dorsal implant was inserted to suit the newly projected nasal tip. An ear cartilage onlay graft or ear cartilage extension graft was applied to further project and enhance the nasal tip and columella. Results: Of the 854 primary rhinoplasty procedures performed on Asian patients between January 2008 and December 2011, 295 were performed on patients with short nose. LLC repositioning and ear cartilage onlay grafting were performed on 228 patients. LLC repositioning and ear cartilage extension grafting with or without ear cartilage onlay grafting were performed on 67 patients. Short nasal tip, alar retraction, and columellar retraction were corrected. Wound dehiscence with marginal necrosis occurred in 7 patients. One patient developed nasal infection. Conclusions: LLC repositioning and ear cartilage grafting aid in the correction of short nose in Asians. With LLC repositioning and ear cartilage grafting, the nasal tip can be positioned in accordance with the patient’s anatomic limits. The entire nasal tip and columella can be lengthened, while the tip maintains its mobility. PMID:25289239

  9. Anatomy of the Facial Nerve at the Condylar Area: Measurement Study and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hun-Mu; Yoo, Young-Bok

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the facial nerve (FN) at the condylar area to helping physicians preventing the iatrogenic trauma on the nerve. We dissected 25 specimens of the embalmed Korean cadavers (13 males and 2 females; mean age 76.9 years). The FN course at the condylar was examined, and the location of the FN branches was measured with superficial standards. The trunks of the FN emerged in the condylar area as one trunk, two trunks, and a loop or plexiform in 36%, 12%, and 52% areas, respectively. The zygomatic branch (Zbr) of FN passed over the tragus-alar line 23 mm anterior to the tragus (Tg) in most of the cases. The Zbr passed over the vertical line 2 cm anterior to the Tg through the area about 6 to 20 mm inferior to the Tg. Regardless of careful approach techniques to the condylar area, the FN could be damaged by a careless manipulation. Any reference landmarks could not guarantee the safety during the approach to the condylar area because more than half of the cases present the complicated branching type in the front of the Tg. PMID:25379533

  10. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos M; Rodriguez, Luis; Rodas, Juan D; Arboleda, John Jairo

    2010-01-01

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study, we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detectable antibodies against VSNJV prior to being inoculated with 10(6.5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of VSNJV by two routes; intraepithelial/subepithelial (IE/SE) inoculation and scarification in the muzzle (SM). Clinical response was monitored daily and animals were tested for viral shedding. All infected animals developed vesicles and ulcers on the tongue and inflammation of the nasal alar folds. Virus was isolated from esophagus-pharynx, nasal, and from ocular swabs and lesions samples. The failure to detect viremia in these animals indicates that a source other than blood may be required for transmission to insect vectors. Our results suggest that D. marsupialis could play a role in the maintenance of VSNJV outside of domestic animal populations and could provide a model to study vesicular stomatitis virus pathogenesis. PMID:20090034

  11. Dynamic expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein in neurons of the striatum and amygdala of mice, and experimental evidence of their multiple embryonic origin.

    PubMed

    Bupesh, Munisamy; Vicario, Alba; Abellán, Antonio; Desfilis, Ester; Medina, Loreta

    2014-05-01

    Emotional and motivational dysfunctions observed in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction are associated to an alteration of the mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, which include axons projecting to the prefrontal cortex, the ventral striatum, and the amygdala. Subpopulations of catecholaminergic neurons have been described in the cortex and striatum of several mammals, but the presence of such cells in the adult amygdala is unclear in murine rodents, and in other rodents appears to show variations depending on the species. Moreover, the embryonic origin of telencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) cells is unknown, which is essential for trying to understand aspects of their evolution, distribution and function. Herein we investigated the expression of TH mRNA and protein in cells of the striatum and amygdala of developing and adult mice, and analyzed the embryonic origin of such cells using in vitro migration assays. Our results showed the presence of TH mRNA and protein expressing cells in the striatum (including nucleus accumbens), central and medial extended amygdala during development, which are persistent in adulthood although they are less numerous, generally show weak mRNA expression, and some appear to lack the protein. Fate mapping analysis showed that these cells include at least two subpopulations with different embryonic origin in either the commissural preoptic area of the subpallium or the supraopto-paraventricular domain of the alar hypothalamus. These data are important for future studies trying to understand the role of catecholamines in modulation of emotion, motivation, and reward. PMID:23479178

  12. Safer approaches and landings: A multivariate analysis of critical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Durwood J.

    The approach-and-landing phases of flight represent 27% of mission time while resulting in 61 of the accidents and 39% of the fatalities. The landing phase itself represents only 1% of flight time but claims 45% of the accidents. Inadequate crew situation awareness (SA), crew resource management (CRM), and crew decision-making (DM) have been implicated in 51%, 63%, and 73% respectively of these accidents. The human factors constructs of SA, CRM, and DM were explored; a comprehensive definition of SA was proposed; and a "proactive defense" safety strategy was recommended. Data from a 1997 analysis of worldwide fatal accidents by the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-Landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force was used to isolate crew- and weather-related causal factors that lead to approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs). Logistic regression and decision tree analysis were used on samplings of NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident records ("near misses") and the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) accident reports to examine hypotheses regarding factors and factor combinations that can dramatically increase the opportunity for accidents. An effective scale of risk factors was introduced for use by crews to proactively counter safety-related error-chain situations.

  13. Outcomes following V-Y advancement flap reconstruction of large upper lip defects

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Garrett R.; Weber, Stephen; Baker, Shan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize revision surgery following V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap repair of large upper lip skin defects. Methods Retrospective review of upper lip skin defects ≥3.0 cm2 that were reconstructed with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap at an academic tertiary care center. Depth and area of the defect, as well as involvement of the vermilion and nasal ala, were recorded as independent variables. Revision techniques were analyzed to identify patterns. Results Thirty patients were identified with upper lip skin defects ranging from 3.0 to 14.0 cm2 (mean 7.0 cm2, median 6.25 cm2). The defect involved the nasal ala in four cases and the vermilion in three cases. At least one revision surgery was performed in 14/30 (47%) patients. Alar or vermilion involvement was a significant factor in revision by chi-square analysis (p=0.026). Larger defect size did not predict a need for revision, even among cases where the defect did not involve the ala or vermilion (p=0.68). Conclusion Reconstruction of large upper lip skin defects with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap is associated with a 47% revision rate, and when the defect involves the ala or vermilion, the revision rate is increased. Defect size alone cannot be used to predict the need for revision surgery. Revision techniques are demonstrated. PMID:22801764

  14. Lhx2 and Lhx9 determine neuronal differentiation and compartition in the caudal forebrain by regulating Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Daniela; Weber, Sabrina; Lumsden, Andrew; Scholpp, Steffen

    2011-12-01

    Initial axial patterning of the neural tube into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain primordia occurs during gastrulation. After this patterning phase, further diversification within the brain is thought to proceed largely independently in the different primordia. However, mechanisms that maintain the demarcation of brain subdivisions at later stages are poorly understood. In the alar plate of the caudal forebrain there are two principal units, the thalamus and the pretectum, each of which is a developmental compartment. Here we show that proper neuronal differentiation of the thalamus requires Lhx2 and Lhx9 function. In Lhx2/Lhx9-deficient zebrafish embryos the differentiation process is blocked and the dorsally adjacent Wnt positive epithalamus expands into the thalamus. This leads to an upregulation of Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain. Lack of Lhx2/Lhx9 function as well as increased Wnt signaling alter the expression of the thalamus specific cell adhesion factor pcdh10b and lead subsequently to a striking anterior-posterior disorganization of the caudal forebrain. We therefore suggest that after initial neural tube patterning, neurogenesis within a brain compartment influences the integrity of the neuronal progenitor pool and border formation of a neuromeric compartment. PMID:22180728

  15. Lhx2 and Lhx9 Determine Neuronal Differentiation and Compartition in the Caudal Forebrain by Regulating Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Daniela; Weber, Sabrina; Lumsden, Andrew; Scholpp, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Initial axial patterning of the neural tube into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain primordia occurs during gastrulation. After this patterning phase, further diversification within the brain is thought to proceed largely independently in the different primordia. However, mechanisms that maintain the demarcation of brain subdivisions at later stages are poorly understood. In the alar plate of the caudal forebrain there are two principal units, the thalamus and the pretectum, each of which is a developmental compartment. Here we show that proper neuronal differentiation of the thalamus requires Lhx2 and Lhx9 function. In Lhx2/Lhx9-deficient zebrafish embryos the differentiation process is blocked and the dorsally adjacent Wnt positive epithalamus expands into the thalamus. This leads to an upregulation of Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain. Lack of Lhx2/Lhx9 function as well as increased Wnt signaling alter the expression of the thalamus specific cell adhesion factor pcdh10b and lead subsequently to a striking anterior-posterior disorganization of the caudal forebrain. We therefore suggest that after initial neural tube patterning, neurogenesis within a brain compartment influences the integrity of the neuronal progenitor pool and border formation of a neuromeric compartment. PMID:22180728

  16. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  17. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  18. A new genus and species of the subtribe Thyreophorina (Diptera, Piophilidae) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Toyohei

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Diacanthomyia gen. nov. assigned to the subtribe Thyreophorina of the family Piophilidae is described based on a new species, Diacanthomyia okidoi sp. nov. recently found in Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. The new genus is somewhat similar to the European Centrophlebomyia of the subtribe. However, the new genus is distinguished from the known genera of the subtribe by the following combination of characters: body extensively pollinose or pruinose, 2 pairs of strong reclinate fronto-orbital bristles, 1-2 strong subvibrissal bristles in addition to 2 strong vibrissae, prosternum setose, 1 presutural dorsocentral, 1 strong anterior postsutural intra-alar, scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellar bristles without additional setulae, extensively microtrichose wing membrane, a dark round spot at r-m crossvein and a dark stripe covering m-m crossvein, and vein CuA+CuP abruptly terminated distant from wing margin. The type species inhabits evergreen broadleaved and deciduous broadleaved forests and adults appear during the cold season from December to March. Adults are attracted to decaying carcasses of Japanese deer and wild boar and traps baited with decaying pork spareribs and chicken meat with bones. The larvae of this species feed on decaying meat and marrow of deer, take less than 2 months to grow to mature larvae, and enter into diapause in the soil until autumn. PMID:26701565

  19. Pythiosis in the Nasal Cavity of Horses.

    PubMed

    Souto, E P F; Maia, L A; Olinda, R G; Galiza, G J N; Kommers, G D; Miranda-Neto, E G; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge. Macroscopically, in case 1, the lesion affected the nasal vestibule, extending to the alar cartilage and nasal septum. In case 2, the lesion extended through the turbinates and the meatuses of the nasal cavity, as well as the ethmoid region. In both cases, the lesions were characterized by having a yellow-grey granular surface with cavitations of different sizes containing coral-like masses of necrotic tissue (kunkers). Histologically, multifocal necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis associated with hyphae (2-8 μm) similar to Pythium insidiosum were observed. In case 2, the lesions extended to the muscle, cartilage and bone adjacent to the nasal cavity and lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is concluded that nasal pythiosis occurs sporadically in horses in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil where cutaneous pythiosis is prevalent. PMID:27406311

  20. Interdomal Suture through a Nondelivery Endonasal Approach: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Leibou, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of interdomal sutures for tip refinement is common in open rhinoplasty and in endonasal rhinoplasty using a delivery technique, but there is paucity of reports in the literature regarding the use of interdomal suturing techniques when the nondelivery endonasal approach is chosen. Objective: The authors describe a technique designed to refine the nasal tip with an interdomal suture placed through a nondelivery endonasal approach. Methods: In this study, the authors retrospectively review the cases of 45 patients who underwent endonasal rhinoplasty with the authors’ interdomal suturing technique between the years 2011 and 2013. The average age of the patients was 25.3 years. Intercrural sutures (PDS 4.0 straight needle, Cincinnati, Ohio) were placed as mattress-like suture in the tip region, with the knot buried between both alar cartilages. The suture is tightened progressively according to the tip definition and narrowing sought. Results: The patients were followed for 12 months. All of the patients demonstrated a significant reduction in lobule and tip widths. This series had only 1 complication of tip asymmetry that was revised 1 year after the initial operation. There were no cases of infection, allergic reaction, or extrusion of the suture. Conclusions: Despite the lack of a large volume of patients, our study confirms that this technique is indeed an attractive and highly predictable option for achieving adequate tip refinement and definition when using a nondelivery endonasal rhinoplasty. PMID:27622086

  1. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  2. Differential requirements for Gli2 and Gli3 in the regional specification of the mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Tóvolli, Roberta; Paul, Fabian A.; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Zhou, Xunlei; Theil, Thomas; Puelles, Luis; Blaess, Sandra; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ventralizes the neural tube by modulating the crucial balance between activating and repressing functions (GliA, GliR) of transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3. This balance—the Shh-Gli code—is species- and context-dependent and has been elucidated for the mouse spinal cord. The hypothalamus, a forebrain region regulating vital functions like homeostasis and hormone secretion, shows dynamic and intricate Shh expression as well as complex regional differentiation. Here we asked if particular combinations of Gli2 and Gli3 and of GliA and GliR functions contribute to the variety of hypothalamic regions, i.e., we wanted to approach the question of a possible hypothalamic version of the Shh-Gli code. Based on mouse mutant analysis, we show that: (1) hypothalamic regional heterogeneity is based in part on differentially stringent requirements for Gli2 or Gli3; (2) another source of diversity are differential requirements for Shh of neural vs. non-neural origin; (3) the medial progenitor domain known to depend on Gli2 for its development generates several essential hypothalamic nuclei plus the pituitary and median eminence; (4) the suppression of Gli3R by neural and non-neural Shh is essential for hypothalamic specification. Finally, we have mapped our results on a recent model which considers the hypothalamus as a transverse region with alar and basal portions. Our data confirm the model and are explained by it. PMID:25859185

  3. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with a full range of severe clinical manifestations--case report.

    PubMed

    Gawrych, Elżbieta; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Chojnacka, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a rare congenital malformation consisting of epibulbar dermoids, lid colobomas, auricular deformities, hypoplasia of the soft and bony tissues of the face, associated oral deformities and vertebral anomalies. This report presents a child with a choroid of the right eye, coloboma of the upper eyelid, epibulbar dermoid of the left eye, mandibular hypoplasia, facial asymmetry, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, hypoplasia of the left alar cartilage, appendage of the left nose, butterfly vertebral defects of Th-1, Th-2 and abnormality of rib XI. Widened sulci of frontal and parietal lobes, bilateral white matter density decrease and calcifications of falx cerebelli were noted. Axial hypotony and delayed psycho-motor development were apparent. This rare case presents a range of severe clinical manifestations of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. Despite a normal cervical vertebral column, tracheostenosis was present. It caused difficulties in tracheal intubation, creating the need for a tracheostomy, and death after a failed attempt at decannulation. This case indicates that in patients with clinical manifestations including cerebral anomalies, a risk of respiratory insufficiency should be always taken under consideration, when planning surgery. PMID:22154733

  4. Ganglion Cyst of Knee from Hoffa’s Fat Pad Protruding Anterolaterally Through Retinacular Rent: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Utpal; Mukhopadhyay, Anindya S.; Kundu, Srikanta; Mandal, Subhadip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee joint are rare occurrences. They are usually encountered as incidental findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or in arthroscopy. They may originate from both the cruciate ligaments and the menisci, from the popliteus tendon and alar folds, infrapatellar fat pad of Hoffa, and subchondral bone cysts. Those arising from the Hoffa’s fat pad, usually present as palpable mass at anterior aspect of the knee joint. We report a case of intraarticular ganglion cyst of knee arising from the infrapatellar fat pad and protruding anterolaterally through retinacular rent into the subcutaneous plane. Case Report: A 19-year-old young man, presented with a painless gradually increasing swelling at the anterior aspect of left knee of 9 months duration. MRI scan revealed a multilobulated, cyst with septations within the anterior aspect of the knee joint, just inferolateral to the patella, with deep extension into the infrapatellar fat pad, and superficial extension into the subcutaneous space across the retinaculum. After diagnostic arthroscopy, we performed an open excision of the cystic mass and confirmed the retinacular rent pre-operatively. Conclusion: Arthroscopic resection and debridement is the gold standard treatment in ganglion cyst of the knee. However, a subcutaneous extension may lead to incomplete arthroscopic resection: Leaving behind the residual tissue which may cause recurrence. Therefore, proper pre-operative evaluation of MR images of these cases is very important. PMID:27299075

  5. Introduction to Lumbosacral and Sacropelvic Fixation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Patrick C; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    We are pleased to present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation strategies. Despite advancement in surgical techniques and technologies in spine, achieving consistent solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction remains a major challenge. The anatomy of the lumbosacral junction allows for a higher range of motion compared to other areas of the thoracolumbar spine. The L5-S1 interspace is exposed to significant shear forces. As a result, complications such as pseudoarthrosis, screw pull-out, implant fracture, or sacral fractures can occur. Complications are particularly seen in long fusion constructs ending across the lumbosacral junction. To reduce these complications, various lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation techniques have been developed and utilized. The current supplement is intended to provide instructional videos that illustrate several current techniques for lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation. The collection includes techniques for anterior L5-S1 interbody fusion, minimally invasive L5-S1 interbody fusions, lumbosacral pedicle screw placement, sacroiliac fusion, and sacro-alar-iliac screw placement. The authors of the videos in the supplement have provided detailed narration and video illustration to describe the nuances of the various open and minimally invasive techniques for lumbosacral and sacral-pelvic fixation. We are pleased to have such a collection of quality video illustration from experts in the field. It's been our privilege to serve as guest editors for this supplement and we believe that you will enjoy the contents of this supplement. PMID:27364425

  6. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  7. Systematic review of changes in maxillary incisor exposure and upper lip position with Le Fort I type osteotomies with or without cinch sutures and/or VY closures.

    PubMed

    Khamashta-Ledezma, L; Naini, F B

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to systematically review the maxillary incisor exposure and upper lip position changes with Le Fort I type osteotomies for advancement ± impaction with rigid internal fixation, taking into account the use of cinch sutures and VY closures. Electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science) were searched using medical subject headings (MeSH), key words, truncations, and Boolean operators. Hand searching was also undertaken. Of 979 articles identified, 15 were included (11 retrospective, two prospective, and two unspecified). Relevant study details and outcomes were recorded on a spreadsheet, along with an assessment of their quality. In total, these studies assessed 419 patients (266 female, 118 male) with a mean age of 26.4 years (range 14-57 years). Soft tissue changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs. The mean maxillary hard tissue advancement and impaction ranged between 0.94 and 8.77 mm and -0.56 and 4.2 mm, respectively. The ranges of ratios demonstrated that from pronasale (0.24-0.35) to labrale superius (0.36-1.43), the soft tissues followed the underlying horizontal hard tissue movement increasingly more closely. Alar base cinch sutures and VY closures tended to increase these ratios. The soft tissue response was more variable vertically. None of the studies reported on maxillary incisor exposure change. More good quality prospective studies are needed. PMID:24103543

  8. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  9. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers’ reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions. PMID:27507713

  10. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers' reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions. PMID:27507713

  11. Fgf15 regulates thalamic development by controlling the expression of proneural genes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Lloret-Quesada, Cosme; Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang; Rubenstein, John L R; Martinez, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of the brain structural complexity requires a precisely orchestrated interplay between extrinsic and intrinsic signals modulating cellular mechanisms to guide neuronal differentiation. However, little is known about the nature of these signals in the diencephalon, a complex brain region that processes and relays sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. Morphogenetic signals from brain organizers regulate histogenetic processes such as cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the key signal of the ZLI, identified as the diencephalic organizer. Fgf15, the mouse gene orthologous of human, chick, and zebrafish Fgf19, is induced by Shh signal and expressed in the diencephalic alar plate progenitors during histogenetic developmental stages. This work investigates the role of Fgf15 signal in diencephalic development. In the absence of Fgf15, the complementary expression pattern of proneural genes: Ascl1 and Nng2, is disrupted and the GABAergic thalamic cells do not differentiate; in addition dorsal thalamic progenitors failed to exit from the mitotic cycle and to differentiate into neurons. Therefore, our findings indicate that Fgf15 is the Shh downstream signal to control thalamic regionalization, neurogenesis, and neuronal differentiation by regulating the expression and mutual segregation of neurogenic and proneural regulatory genes. PMID:26311466

  12. Prosomeric organization of the hypothalamus in an elasmobranch, the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Menuet, Arnaud; Lagadec, Ronan; Mayeur, Hélène; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus has been a central topic in neuroanatomy because of its important physiological functions, but its mature organization remains elusive. Deciphering its embryonic and adult organization is crucial in an evolutionary approach of the organization of the vertebrate forebrain. Here we studied the molecular organization of the hypothalamus and neighboring telencephalic domains in a cartilaginous fish, the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula, focusing on ScFoxg1a, ScShh, ScNkx2.1, ScDlx2/5, ScOtp, and ScTbr1 expression profiles and on the identification α-acetylated-tubulin-immunoreactive (ir), TH-ir, 5-HT-ir, and GFAP-ir structures by means of immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the results within the updated prosomeric model framework support the existence of alar and basal histogenetic compartments in the hypothalamus similar to those described in the mouse, suggesting the ancestrality of these subdivisions in jawed vertebrates. These data provide new insights into hypothalamic organization in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the generality of key features of the prosomeric model in jawed vertebrates. PMID:25904850

  13. Combination Nasolabial Transposition Flap and Island Pedicle Flap Following Mohs Surgery of Simultaneous Basal Cell Carcinomas Involving Both Nasal Alae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Young; Lee, Yeong Kyu; Choi, Kyu Won; Lee, Chae Wook; Kim, Ki Ho

    2008-01-01

    The nasal ala is a challenging area for surgical reconstruction, with thick sebaceous skin, the lack of an ample tissue reservoir, and an adjacent free margin. Numerous flaps have been reported for the repair of alae defects. A 71-year-old woman with simultaneous basal cell carcinomas involving both nasal alae was treated by Mohs micrographic surgery. The surgical defects measured 1.5×1.5 cm on the center of the right nasal ala and 1.0×1.0 cm on the left nasal ala, including the alar crease and rim. The right nasal ala was used as a nasolabial transposition flap and the left nasal ala was reconstructed by an island pedicle flap. The final shape and texture were satisfactory. The flaps survived and nasal symmetry was preserved. Combined nasolabial transposition and island pedicle flaps thus offer a superior esthetic and functional result owing to minimized tension. This may be a valuable reconstructive option in the repair of bilateral nasal alae defects.

  14. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  15. "Three-unit" muscle reconstruction in secondary cleft lip repair.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qi; Li, Yu; Danning, Zheng; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Siqi; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background :  Secondary deformities are common in people born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. In recent years, more and more attempts and efforts have been directed toward muscle reconstruction. The authors present a new method of orbicularis oris repair in correction of secondary cleft lip deformities. Methods :  From April 2009 to April 2013, a total of 28 patients underwent this procedure in the authors' department and had a follow-up with a minimum length of 1 year. Muscle reconstruction was divided into three units that deal with the nasal floor, white lip, and red lip. Common anatomical pathologies including a deviated columella, blunted alar-facial groove, lack of philtral column, "free border" deficiency, and unapparent vermilion tubercle can be corrected in a single operation. Results :  The average follow-up period was 14.6 months (range, 12 to 24 months). Contractubex gel (Merz Pharma, Frankfurt, Germany) was used to treat prominent or reddish scars in 16 patients. No major complications occurred. All the patients were satisfied with their nasolabial appearance. Conclusions :  "Three-unit" muscle repair was found to be effective and practical in secondary repair. Improved aesthetic and functional results can be achieved with this comprehensive procedure. PMID:24443976

  16. Comparative microanatomy of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans: evolutionary divergence of lip function

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Carolyn R; Mooney, Mark P; Smith, Timothy D; Weinberg, Seth M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A; Docherty, Beth A; Bonar, Christopher J; Reinholt, Lauren E; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B; Siegel, Michael I; Marazita, Mary L; Burrows, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    The orbicularis oris muscle plays a role in the production of primate facial expressions and vocalizations, nutrient intake, and in some non-human primates it is used as a prehensile, manipulative tool. As the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the closest living relative of humans, a comparison of the orbicularis oris muscle between these species may increase our understanding of the morphological specializations related to the differing functional demands of their lips and the factors responsible for their divergent evolution. To this end, this study compares the microanatomy of the mid-line upper fibers of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans. A mid-line portion of the orbicularis oris muscle was harvested from the upper lips of three chimpanzee and five human cadavers. The sampled blocks included the area between the lateral borders of the nasal alar cartilages in both species. Each sample was processed for paraffin histology, sectioned and stained with a variety of protocols. Sections were examined for fiber direction and relative thickness of muscle layers. Ratios of cross-sectional connective tissue area vs. cross-sectional muscle tissue area, muscle fiber diameter and relative dermal thickness were calculated for each species. In both species, a clear pars marginalis layer was recognized, contrary to previous reports that only humans possess this layer. In chimpanzees, the relative fiber diameter and relative amount of muscle tissue (i.e. based on ratio of connective tissue area : muscle tissue area) were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in humans. In contrast, measurements of relative dermal thickness showed that humans have a greater average dermal thickness of the upper lip than chimpanzees. Taken together, these results suggest that both human and chimpanzee orbicularis oris muscle upper fibers meet the specific functional demands associated with their divergent vocal and facial display repertoires, the development of human

  17. Repositioned lateral crural flap technique for cephalic malposition in rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, A; Azizi, A; Tabatabaiee, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cephalic malposition of the lower lateral cartilage (CMLLC) is a relatively common anatomical variant, particularly in Middle Eastern patients. The characteristics of CMLLC include long alar creases, a boxy and ball-shaped nasal tip, parenthesis tip deformity and external valvular incompetence. The gold standard for correcting CMLLC is the lateral crural strut graft (Gunter graft), but many patients experience problems after this technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the repositioned lateral crural flap (RLCF) technique in correcting CMLLC, and to discuss the cosmetic and functional results. METHODS: In the present study, 123 primary septorhinoplasty operations using the RLCF technique were performed between May 2012 and March 2013. The mean follow-up period was 11.4 months (range nine to 24 months). Four parameters were measured and compared pre- and postoperatively: the angle between the line connecting the maximum convexity of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) to the tip-defining point and midline on each side (angle of rotation); the total distance between the maximum convexity of LLC right and left to midline (representing the size of the parenthesis deformity); satisfaction scale rating of the patients’ nasal tip appearance; and the satisfaction scale rating of patients’ breathing through their nostrils. RESULTS: The mean angle of the LLC to the midline significantly increased and the mean distance between the maximum convexities was significantly reduced, indicating correction of the malposition and reduction of the parenthesis deformity, respectively. The mean satisfactory scale ratings of nasal tip appearance and breathing quality were also significantly improved. CONCLUSION: CMLLC can be corrected using the RLCF technique, resulting in both aesthetic and functional improvements. PMID:26361626

  18. Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ferran, José L.; Puelles, Luis; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The prosomeric model proposes that the hypothalamus is a rostral forebrain entity, placed ventral to the telencephalon and rostral to the diencephalon. Gene expression markers differentially label molecularly distinct dorsoventral progenitor domains, which represent continuous longitudinal bands across the hypothalamic alar and basal regions. There is also circumstantial support for a rostrocaudal subdivision of the hypothalamus into transverse peduncular (caudal) and terminal (rostral) territories (PHy, THy). In addition, there is evidence for a specialized acroterminal domain at the rostral midline of the terminal hypothalamus (ATD). The PHy and THy transverse structural units are presently held to form part of two hypothalamo-telencephalic prosomeres (hp1 and hp2, respectively), which end dorsally at the telencephalic septocommissural roof. PHy and THy have distinct adult nuclei, at all dorsoventral levels. Here we report the results of data mining from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas database, looking for genes expressed differentially in the PHy, Thy, and ATD regions of the hypothalamus at several developmental stages. This search allowed us to identify additional molecular evidence supporting the postulated fundamental rostrocaudal bipartition of the mouse hypothalamus into the PHy and THy, and also corroborated molecularly the singularity of the ATD. A number of markers were expressed in Thy (Fgf15, Gsc, Nkx6.2, Otx1, Zic1/5), but were absent in PHy, while other genes showed the converse pattern (Erbb4, Irx1/3/5, Lmo4, Mfap4, Plagl1, Pmch). We also identified markers that selectively label the ATD (Fgf8/10/18, Otx2, Pomc, Rax, Six6). On the whole, these data help to explain why, irrespective of the observed continuity of all dorsoventral molecular hypothalamic subdivisions across PHy and THy, different nuclear structures originate within each of these two domains, and also why singular structures arise at the ATD, e.g., the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the

  19. Disparidad en Salud: Un Fenómeno Multidimensional.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Cianelli, Rosina

    2010-03-01

    La Disparidad en Salud (DS) ha llamado la atención pública desde el siglo pasado, ha sido analizada desde diversas perspectivas y enfoques incluso variados términos han sido utilizados como sinónimos pudiendo llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Sin embargo es importante señalar que las publicaciones coinciden en que la DS es uno de las determinantes esenciales a considerar al momento de definir polĺticas públicas. El propósito de esta publicación es analizar la disparidad en salud incorporando; a) los aspectos claves de su conceptualización, b) la evolución histórica del concepto, c) las estrategias que se han generado para enfrentarla, d) los factores considerados determinantes, y e) los aspectos éticos y la contribución de la investigación en la disminución de la DS.Health Disparities (HD) have been at the center of public attention for the past century. They have been analyzed from diverse perspectives utilizing various terms as synonyms that can lead to confusion and inequality at the moment of operationalization. Despite this, it is important to indicate that publications agree that HD are essential determinants that must be considered in the definition of public policy. The objective of this publication is to analyze health disparities incorporating; (a) key aspects in their conceptualization, (b) the historic evolution of the concept, (c) strategies that have been generated to confront them, (d) determining factors, and (e) ethical aspects and the contribution of research in decreasing HD. PMID:22581053

  20. Mesencephalic origin of the rostral Substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, M Pilar; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Martínez-López, Jesús E; Martínez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    In embryonic development, the neurons that will constitute a heterogeneous nucleus may have distinct origins. The different components of these populations reach their final location by radial and tangential migrations. The Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) presents a high level of neuronal heterogeneity. It is composed by GABAergic neurons located in the mes-diencephalic basal plate. These inhibitory neurons usually display tangential migrations and it has been already described that the caudal SNR is colonized tangentially from rhombomere 1. Our aim is to unveil the origin of the rostral SNR. We have localized a Nkx6.2 positive ventricular domain located in the alar midbrain. Nkx6.2 derivatives' fate map analysis showed mainly a rostral colonization of this GABAergic neuronal population. We confirmed the mesencephalic origin by the expression of Six3. Both transcription factors are sequentially expressed along the differentiation of these neurons. We demonstrated the origin of the rostral SNR; our data allowed us to postulate that this nucleus is composed by two neuronal populations distributed in opposite gradients with different origins, one from rhombomere 1, caudal to rostral, and the other from the midbrain, rostral to caudal. We can conclude that the SNR has multiple origins and follows complex mechanisms of specification and migration. Our results support vital information for the study of genetic modifications in these extremely complex processes that result in devastating behavioral alterations and predisposition to psychiatric diseases. Understanding the development, molecular identity and functional characteristics of these diverse neuronal populations might lead to better diagnosis and treatment of several forms of neurological and psychiatric disease. PMID:25579066

  1. Selection of tRNA(Asp) amber suppressor mutants having alanine, arginine, glutamine, and lysine identity.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, F; Reinbolt, J; Dirheimer, G; Gangloff, J; Eriani, G

    1996-01-01

    Elements that confer identity to a tRNA in the cellular environment, where all aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are competing for substrates, may be delineated by in vivo experiments using suppressor tRNAs. Here we describe the selection of active Escherichia coli tRNAAsp amber mutants and analyze their identity. Starting from a library containing randomly mutated tRNA(CUA)Asp genes, we isolated four amber suppressors presenting either lysine, alanine, or glutamine activity. Two of them, presenting mainly alanine or lysine activity, were further submitted to a second round of mutagenesis selection in order to improve their efficiency of suppression. Eleven suppressors were isolated, each containing two or three mutations. Ten presented identities of the two parental mutants, whereas one had switched from lysine to arginine identity. Analysis of the different mutants revealed (or confirmed for some nucleotides) their role as positive and/or negative determinants in AlaRS, LysRS, and ArgRS recognition. More generally, it appears that tRNAAsp presents identity characteristics closely related to those of tRNALys, as well as a structural basis for acquiring alanine or arginine identity upon moderate mutational changes; these consist of addition or suppression of the corresponding positive or negative determinants, as well as tertiary interactions. Failure to isolate aspartic acid-inserting suppressors is probably due to elimination of the important G34 identity element and its replacement by an antideterminant when changing the anticodon of the tRNAAsp to the CUA triplet. PMID:8809018

  2. MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).

    PubMed

    Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis. PMID:23404316

  3. Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ferran, José L; Puelles, Luis; Rubenstein, John L R

    2015-01-01

    The prosomeric model proposes that the hypothalamus is a rostral forebrain entity, placed ventral to the telencephalon and rostral to the diencephalon. Gene expression markers differentially label molecularly distinct dorsoventral progenitor domains, which represent continuous longitudinal bands across the hypothalamic alar and basal regions. There is also circumstantial support for a rostrocaudal subdivision of the hypothalamus into transverse peduncular (caudal) and terminal (rostral) territories (PHy, THy). In addition, there is evidence for a specialized acroterminal domain at the rostral midline of the terminal hypothalamus (ATD). The PHy and THy transverse structural units are presently held to form part of two hypothalamo-telencephalic prosomeres (hp1 and hp2, respectively), which end dorsally at the telencephalic septocommissural roof. PHy and THy have distinct adult nuclei, at all dorsoventral levels. Here we report the results of data mining from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas database, looking for genes expressed differentially in the PHy, Thy, and ATD regions of the hypothalamus at several developmental stages. This search allowed us to identify additional molecular evidence supporting the postulated fundamental rostrocaudal bipartition of the mouse hypothalamus into the PHy and THy, and also corroborated molecularly the singularity of the ATD. A number of markers were expressed in Thy (Fgf15, Gsc, Nkx6.2, Otx1, Zic1/5), but were absent in PHy, while other genes showed the converse pattern (Erbb4, Irx1/3/5, Lmo4, Mfap4, Plagl1, Pmch). We also identified markers that selectively label the ATD (Fgf8/10/18, Otx2, Pomc, Rax, Six6). On the whole, these data help to explain why, irrespective of the observed continuity of all dorsoventral molecular hypothalamic subdivisions across PHy and THy, different nuclear structures originate within each of these two domains, and also why singular structures arise at the ATD, e.g., the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the

  4. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  5. Prepatterning and patterning of the thalamus along embryonic development of Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Bandín, Sandra; Morona, Ruth; González, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Previous developmental studies of the thalamus (alar part of the diencephalic prosomere p2) have defined the molecular basis for the acquisition of the thalamic competence (preparttening), the subsequent formation of the secondary organizer in the zona limitans intrathalamica, and the early specification of two anteroposterior domains (rostral and caudal progenitor domains) in response to inducing activities and that are shared in birds and mammals. In the present study we have analyzed the embryonic development of the thalamus in the anuran Xenopus laevis to determine conserved or specific features in the amphibian diencephalon. From early embryonic stages to the beginning of the larval period, the expression patterns of 22 markers were analyzed by means of combined In situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemical techniques. The early genoarchitecture observed in the diencephalon allowed us to discern the boundaries of the thalamus with the prethalamus, pretectum, and epithalamus. Common molecular features were observed in the thalamic prepatterning among vertebrates in which Wnt3a, Fez, Pax6 and Xiro1 expression were of particular importance in Xenopus. The formation of the zona limitans intrathalamica was observed, as in other vertebrates, by the progressive expression of Shh. The largely conserved expressions of Nkx2.2 in the rostral thalamic domain vs. Gbx2 and Ngn2 (among others) in the caudal domain strongly suggest the role of Shh as morphogen in the amphibian thalamus. All these data showed that the molecular characteristics observed during preparttening and patterning in the thalamus of the anuran Xenopus (anamniote) share many features with those described during thalamic development in amniotes (common patterns in tetrapods) but also with zebrafish, strengthening the idea of a basic organization of this diencephalic region across vertebrates. PMID:26321920

  6. An Economical Approach to Ethnic Asian Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Zelken, Jonathan; Chang, Chun-Shin; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh; Yang, Jui-Yung; Hsiao, Yen-Chang

    2016-02-01

    Septal cartilage is deficient in Asians seeking augmentation rhinoplasty. Economized utilization of resources is necessary for durable tip enhancement that complements a dorsal implant. We introduce a modified tongue-in-groove method designed to transmit forces across the dorsum, eliminating the need for robust caudal support and prioritizing nasal lengthening and tip projection. We aim to promote the roundness index parameter and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel method in the context of Asian rhinoplasty. Between 2012 and 2014, a total of 104 Taiwanese patients underwent rhinoplasty with dorsal augmentation and lengthening with a modified tongue-in-groove technique. The concept borrows from methods established by Byrd, Guyuron, and Toriumi but distinguished by exaggerated forward positioning of a septal extension graft. Paired extended spreader grafts obviate the need for a columellar strut. Soft-tissue changes were analyzed with photogrammetry. A new parameter, the roundness index, was measured. Tip projection, dorsal length, nasal height, alar and columellar length increased significantly after 5.5 months of follow-up. Nasal tip angle, roundness, columella-labial angle, and nostril axis inclination decreased. There were no statistically significant differences in the magnitude of change in patients followed for less than and greater than 6 months. The most common complication was new or persistent tip deviation in five cases (5%). This technique was designed for a nasal anatomy typified by deficient septal cartilage. Significant photogrammetric changes were maintained after 6 months. Economized tissue allocation, dorsal septal load sharing, and relative independence from caudal support are key features of this feasible method. PMID:26862970

  7. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Brieba, Luis G.; Grøtli, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  8. Contribution of genoarchitecture to understanding forebrain evolution and development, with particular emphasis on the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Medina, Loreta; Bupesh, Munisamy; Abellán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The amygdala is a forebrain center involved in functions and behaviors that are critical for survival (such as control of the neuroendocrine system and homeostasis, and reproduction and fear/escape responses) and in cognitive functions such as attention and emotional learning. In mammals, the amygdala is highly complex, with multiple subdivisions, neuronal subtypes, and connections, making it very difficult to understand its functional organization and evolutionary origin. Since evolution is the consequence of changes that occurred in development, herein we review developmental data based on genoarchitecture and fate mapping in mammals (in the mouse model) and other vertebrates in order to identify its basic components and embryonic origin in different species and understand how they changed in evolution. In all tetrapods studied, the amygdala includes at least 4 components: (1) a ventral pallial part, characterized by expression of Lhx2 and Lhx9, that includes part of the basal amygdalar complex in mammals and a caudal part of the dorsal ventricular ridge in sauropsids and also produces a cell subpopulation of the medial amygdala; (2) a striatal part, characterized by expression of Pax6 and/or Islet1, which includes the central amygdala in different species; (3) a pallidal part, characterized by expression of Nkx2.1 and, in amniotes, Lhx6, which includes part of the medial amygdala, and (4) a hypothalamic part (derived from the supraoptoparaventricular domain or SPV), characterized by Otp and/or Lhx5 expression, which produces an important subpopulation of cells of the medial extended amygdala (medial amygdala and/or medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). Importantly, the size of the SPV domain increases upon reduction or lack of Nkx2.1 function in the hypothalamus. It appears that Nkx2.1 expression was downregulated in the alar hypothalamus during evolution to mammals, which may have produced an enlargement of SPV and the amygdalar cell subpopulation

  9. Morphogenetic and Histogenetic Roles of the Temporal-Spatial Organization of Cell Proliferation in the Vertebrate Corticogenesis as Revealed by Inter-specific Analyses of the Optic Tectum Cortex Development

    PubMed Central

    Rapacioli, Melina; Palma, Verónica; Flores, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system areas displaying the highest structural and functional complexity correspond to the so called cortices, i.e., concentric alternating neuronal and fibrous layers. Corticogenesis, i.e., the development of the cortical organization, depends on the temporal-spatial organization of several developmental events: (a) the duration of the proliferative phase of the neuroepithelium, (b) the relative duration of symmetric (expansive) versus asymmetric (neuronogenic) sub phases, (c) the spatial organization of each kind of cell division, (e) the time of determination and cell cycle exit and (f) the time of onset of the post-mitotic neuronal migration and (g) the time of onset of the neuronal structural and functional differentiation. The first five events depend on molecular mechanisms that perform a fine tuning of the proliferative activity. Changes in any of them significantly influence the cortical size or volume (tangential expansion and radial thickness), morphology, architecture and also impact on neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis affecting the cortical wiring. This paper integrates information, obtained in several species, on the developmental roles of cell proliferation in the development of the optic tectum (OT) cortex, a multilayered associative area of the dorsal (alar) midbrain. The present review (1) compiles relevant information on the temporal and spatial organization of cell proliferation in different species (fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals), (2) revises the main molecular events involved in the isthmic organizer (IsO) determination and localization, (3) describes how the patterning installed by IsO is translated into spatially organized neural stem cell proliferation (i.e., by means of growth factors, receptors, transcription factors, signaling pathways, etc.) and (4) describes the morpho- and histogenetic effect of a spatially organized cell proliferation in the above mentioned species. A brief section on the OT evolution is

  10. Disparidad en Salud: Un Fenómeno Multidimensional

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Cianelli, Rosina

    2012-01-01

    La Disparidad en Salud (DS) ha llamado la atención pública desde el siglo pasado, ha sido analizada desde diversas perspectivas y enfoques incluso variados términos han sido utilizados como sinónimos pudiendo llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Sin embargo es importante señalar que las publicaciones coinciden en que la DS es uno de las determinantes esenciales a considerar al momento de definir polĺticas públicas. El propósito de esta publicación es analizar la disparidad en salud incorporando; a) los aspectos claves de su conceptualización, b) la evolución histórica del concepto, c) las estrategias que se han generado para enfrentarla, d) los factores considerados determinantes, y e) los aspectos éticos y la contribución de la investigación en la disminución de la DS. Health Disparities (HD) have been at the center of public attention for the past century. They have been analyzed from diverse perspectives utilizing various terms as synonyms that can lead to confusion and inequality at the moment of operationalization. Despite this, it is important to indicate that publications agree that HD are essential determinants that must be considered in the definition of public policy. The objective of this publication is to analyze health disparities incorporating; (a) key aspects in their conceptualization, (b) the historic evolution of the concept, (c) strategies that have been generated to confront them, (d) determining factors, and (e) ethical aspects and the contribution of research in decreasing HD. PMID:22581053

  11. The olfactory amygdala in amniotes: an evo-devo approach.

    PubMed

    Abellán, Antonio; Desfilis, Ester; Medina, Loreta

    2013-09-01

    In tetrapods, the medial amygdala is a forebrain center that integrates olfactory and/or vomeronasal signals with the endocrine and autonomic systems, playing a key role in different social behaviors. The vomeronasal system has undergone important changes during evolution, which may be behind some interspecies differences in chemosensory-mediated social behavior. These evolutionary changes are associated with variations in vomeronasal-recipient brain structures, including the medial amygdala. Herein, we employed an evolutionary developmental biology approach for trying to understand the function and evolution of the medial amygdala. For that purpose, we reviewed published data on fate mapping in mouse, and the expression of orthologous developmental regulatory genes (Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Shh, Tbr1, Lhx9, Lhx5, Otp, and Pax6) in embryos of mouse, chicken, emydid turtles, and a pipid frog. We also analyzed novel data on Lhx9 and Otp in a lacertid lizard. Based on distinct embryonic origin and genetic profile, at least five neuronal subpopulations exist in the medial amygdala of rodents, expressing either Nkx2.1/Lhx6, Shh, Lhx9, Otp/Lhx5, or Pax6. Each neuronal subpopulation appears involved in different functional pathways. For example, Lhx6 cells are specifically activated by sex pheromones and project to preoptic and hypothalamic centers involved in reproduction. Based on data in nonmammals, at least three of these neuronal subtypes might have been present in the medial amygdala of the amniote common ancestor. During mammalian evolution, the downregulation of Nkx2.1 in the alar hypothalamus may have been a driving force for an increment of the Otp/Lhx5 subpopulation. PMID:23904411

  12. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Mertens, Haydyn; Svergun, Dmitri; Brieba, Luis G; Grøtli, Morten; Torres-Larios, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  13. Sedimentology of tufa facies and continental microbialites from the Palaeogene of Mallorca Island (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, C.; Cabrera, L.; Ramos, E.

    2007-04-01

    The Middle Eocene and Oligocene basins in northwestern half of Mallorca are filled by detrital rocks (conglomerates, calcarenites and lutites) and carbonates deposited in alluvial, fluvial, palustrine and lacustrine settings. The sediment supplied to these continental basins was transported by alkaline, bicarbonate-rich waters. As a consequence, these non-marine carbonate deposits display extensive developments of diverse kinds of organosedimentary facies. The sedimentary record from three localities (Peguera, Alaró and Sineu) enabled one to characterize well-preserved Eocene tufa deposits as well as Eocene and Oligocene stromatolites and oncolites. A total of ten carbonate facies are described and interpreted. The facies related to tufa deposits are diverse types of boundstones, rudstones and packstones of bryophytes, in situ stems s.l., phytoclasts, etc. and associated oncolite rudstones and bioclastic mudstones-to-packstones. These facies deposited in littoral lacustrine and fluvio-lacustrine environments. Oncolites and stromatolites present a great variety of shapes and sizes (oncolites from centimetres to several meters in diameter) that somehow were conditioned by environmental conditions within shallow lacustrine and fluvial settings. Three types of lamination apparently dependent on the type of microorganisms responsible for calcite precipitation are distinguished (fan-shaped and bush-shaped grouped filaments and isolated to loosely grouped filaments). The δ 13C and δ 18O composition of these deposits agrees with carbonate precipitation in freshwater, hydrologically open systems with similar carbon sources throughout the Eocene and Oligocene. However, Eocene and Oligocene samples are set apart by the δ 18O. Oligocene facies present lower δ 18O values, which might indicate deposition from isotopically less evolved waters, perhaps under slightly greater precipitation/evaporation conditions. Tufa facies have the highest δ 13C composition and show some

  14. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care. PMID:15666046

  15. Study of Impacts of Arctic Sea Ice Reduction on Atmospheric Chemical Processes - The BROMEX 2012 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic perennial sea ice has decreased drastically in the last decade and still remained low in spring 2012 as observed from scatterometer datasets acquired by QuikSCAT and Oceansat-2 satellites. In particular, the thinner, weaker, and saltier seasonal sea ice has dominated over the perennial ice in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea. To investigate impacts of sea ice reduction on atmospheric chemical processes, we conducted the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment in (BROMEX) in March-April 2012 around Barrow, extending out to a large region offshore and inland. Here we present overview results from BROMEX, which was successfully carried out by about 30 scientists, researchers, and field workers from multiple international institutions. For BROMEX, we coordinated and collected satellite data, including a number of near-real-time products, from multiple satellite instruments including MODIS, AMSR-E, GOME-2, SCIAMACHY, OMI, RADARSAT-2, Envisat ASAR, TanDEM-X, SMOS, CryoSat-2, and Oceansat-2. Over the BROMEX field region, we made measurements and collected sea ice, snow, ocean, and air samples for physical, meteorological, chemical, biological, and acoustic studies. A helicopter was used to deploy chemical and meteorological buoys in the Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea. Measurements were also made with airborne sensors across sea ice, leads, lagoon, and tundra along various flight patterns of the ALAR aircraft. Furthermore, we coordinated with the NASA IceBridge P3 aircraft to collect surface temperature, surface height, snow depth, and ice thickness measurements. We set up and maintained field sites on sea ice and in the tundra to measure bromine, ozone, mercury, and other chemical species. Moreover, we obtained temperature data from many different types of temperature sensors for temperature accuracy assessment to identify potential issues that might cause errors or biases in temperature measurements. An enormous amount of in-situ snow and ice data was collected

  16. Configuration of water resources for a typical river basin in an arid region of China based on the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hongbo; Guo, Bin; Xu, Hailiang; Fu, Jinyi

    2014-11-01

    Desert riparian vegetation is a natural cover promoting the stability and development of inland river ecosystems in arid regions. Calculating the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation is an important step in achieving reasonable water utilization. Therefore, this study examined the Tarim River, located in an extremely arid region of China, and collected relevant data on hydrology, weather and vegetation using remote sensing. Subsequently, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the desert riparian vegetation in four sections of the Tarim River and calculated the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation using the phreatic evaporation model; additionally, we determined the required runoffs at five hydrologic stations based on the water balance principle. Ultimately, the necessary protection ranges and goals for desert riparian vegetation were established according to the water resource variations in the Tarim River. Our research showed that the total area of desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River is 16,285.3 km2; this distribution area gradually decreased as the distance from the river increased, and areas varied in the different river sections. The EWRs of desert riparian vegetation from Sections 1 to 5 are 5.698 × 108, 7.585 × 108, 4.900 × 108, 4.101 × 108 m3 and 1.078 × 108 m3, respectively. Therefore, the total EWR of the study region is 23.362 × 108 m3. In terms of the transpiration law of the "unimodal type", the peak value of EWR of natural vegetation occurs in July, and the decreasing trend appears in the other months. Based on the water balance principle, the required runoffs in Alar, Xinquman, Yingbaza, Wusiman and Qiala were determined to be 47.105 × 108, 35.174 × 108, 22.734 × 108, 15.775 × 108 and 7.707 × 108 m3, respectively. According to the water resource frequency and the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River, we divided the region into three protection ranges: key protection (8

  17. Review of secondary alveolar cleft repair

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Lee, Gui-Youn; García-Díez, Eloy-Miguel; Nunes, Richard-Agostinho; Martí-Pagès, Carles; Sieira-Gil, Ramón; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    achieves all these several objectives: (1) to obtain maxillary arch continuity, (2) to maximize bone support for the dentition, (3) to stabilize the maxillary segments after orthodontic treatment, (4) to eliminate oronasal fistulae, (5) to provide nasal alar cartilage support, (6) to establish ideal alveolar morphology, and (7) to provide available bone with attached soft tissue for future endosteal implant placement in cases where there is a residual dental space. We advocate for the use of a minimal incision to obtain the iliac crest bone graft and for the use of a corticocancellous block of bone in combination with bone chips. PMID:23662259

  18. Efficiency of Natural Gas Flares Associated with Shale Formation Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirm, B.; Caulton, D.; Shepson, P.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Mccabe, D. C.; Baum, E.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has increased access and economic viability of shale oil reserves. Currently the Bakken Oil field in North Dakota is experiencing a rapid increase in the drilling of shale oil wells. However, this process typically results in the simultaneous release of natural gas. Low natural gas prices and the lack of local gas pipeline infrastructure have decreased the incentive for companies to capture this natural gas, with many opting to vent or flare the natural gas instead. The impact of these operations on greenhouse gas emissions has not been well characterized. An undocumented variable of interest is the destruction efficiency of methane in active oil field flares. In situ measurements of flare efficiency are difficult to obtain because of the inaccessibility of the flares. In June of 2012 we conducted flights over shale oil wells and flares in the Bakken Formation near Williston, ND using Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) which is equipped with a 0.5 Hz Picarro CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer and a Best Air Turbulence (BAT) probe that measures the wind vectors. In addition, one flare in the Marcellus Formation near Washington, PA was also sampled. Flare signals were identified based on the enhancements of CO2 above the ambient background signal and the corresponding colocated CH4 concentration. Enhancements were isolated by subtracting the background concentrations of CO2 and CH4 to obtain delta CO2 and delta CH4 values. Emission factors to be reported are obtained as the ratio delta CH4 divided by delta CO2. We will report first in situ measurements of natural gas flare efficiency. We observed a variety of meteorological conditions with winds ranging from 4 to 15 m/s and will report on the relationship between wind speed and flare efficiency. We observed very high flare efficiency even under strong winds (at least 99.8% CO2 for all flares). During flare sampling, we observed a number of CH4 enhancements that were

  19. Site-selective chemical modification of chymotrypsin using peptidyl derivatives bearing optically active diphenyl 1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonate: Stereochemical effect of the diphenyl phosphonate moiety.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shin; Nakai, Takahiko; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Miyatake, Ryuta; Horino, Yoshikazu; Abe, Hitoshi; Umezaki, Masahito; Oyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Diphenyl (α-aminoalkyl)phosphonates act as mechanism-based inhibitors against serine proteases by forming a covalent bond with the hydroxy group of the active center Ser residue. Because the covalent bond was found to be broken and replaced by 2-pyridinaldoxime methiodide (2PAM), we employed a peptidyl derivative bearing diphenyl 1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonate moiety (Phe(p) (OPh)2 ) to target the active site of chymotrypsin and to selectively anchor to Lys175 in the vicinity of the active site. Previously, it was reported that the configuration of the α-carbon of phosphorus in diphenyl (α-aminoalkyl)phosphonates affects the inactivation reaction of serine proteases, i.e., the (R)-enantiomeric diphenyl phosphonate is comparable to l-amino acids and it effectively reacts with serine proteases, whereas the (S)-enantiomeric form does not. In this study, we evaluated the stereochemical effect of the phosphonate moiety on the selective chemical modification. Epimeric dipeptidyl derivatives, Ala-(R or S)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 , were prepared by separation with RP-HPLC. A tripeptidyl (R)-epimer (Ala-Ala-(R)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 ) exhibited a more potent inactivation ability against chymotrypsin than the (S)-epimer. The enzyme inactivated by the (R)-epimer was more effectively reactivated with 2PAM than the enzyme inactivated by the (S)-epimer. Finally, N-succinimidyl (NHS) active ester derivatives, NHS-Suc-Ala-Ala- (R or S)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 , were prepared, and we evaluated their action when modifying Lys175 in chymotrypsin. We demonstrated that the epimeric NHS derivative that possessed the diphenyl phosphonate moiety with the (R)-configuration effectively modified Lys175 in chymotrypsin, whereas that with the (S)-configuration did not. These results demonstrate the utility of peptidyl derivatives that bear an optically active diphenyl phosphonate moiety as affinity labeling probes in protein bioconjugation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 521-530, 2016

  20. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis. PMID:23870714

  1. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  2. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Exchange above a Heterogeneous Northern-latitude Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, O. E.; Caulton, D.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Metzger, S.; Musinsky, J.; Munger, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Northern latitude forests represent an important global sink for carbon dioxide (CO2). Estimating the landscape-scale exchange of CO2 is complicated by the heterogeneity of forested areas. Airborne eddy-covariance measurements can complement continuous tower-based measurements for determining the magnitude and spatial variability of carbon uptake in forested areas, and to assess means for scaling-up. While aircraft provide accessibility, the resulting flux measurements represent a narrow time slice, and average over a comparatively large source area. The goal of this study is to improve our ability to attribute aircraft flux data to finer spatial scales. We hypothesize that this can be achieved by (i) improving the spatial scale of the sampling method, (ii) examining inter-day variability, and (iii) relating airborne eddy-covariance flux estimates to remote sensing determinations of the land cover. For this purpose identical flight experiments were conducted on May 29 and June 1, 2014 over a 240 km2 region encompassing the Harvard University EMS eddy flux tower at Harvard Forest, MA, using the Purdue University ALAR aircraft. In the early afternoon of each day, 19 flight legs, 20 km in length, were flown over the heterogeneous forest canopy. The two replicate experiments allow assessment of inter-day variability in CO2 exchange under similar meteorological conditions. Furthermore, the experiments were coordinated with high-resolution (≤1 m) and medium-resolution (≤100 m) remote sensing retrievals of forest canopy structure and composition (NEON AOP) and soil moisture (NASA AirMOSS), respectively. This unprecedented hierarchy of observations enables evaluation of the ability of different data processing approaches to calculate finer scale CO2 exchange with the surface. Analyses of the flights conducted on May 29 and June 1 show a transect-averaged (± 1σ) CO2 uptake of 13 ± 3 µmol m-2s-1 and 11 ± 2 µmol m-2s-1, respectively. In complement to the aircraft

  3. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  4. Strain rate dependent properties of human craniovertebral ligaments.

    PubMed

    Mattucci, Stephen F E; Moulton, Jeffrey A; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Cronin, Duane S

    2013-07-01

    Craniovertebral ligaments were tested to failure under tensile loading. Ligaments tested included: transverse ligament, anterior atlanto occipital membrane, posterior atlanto occipital membrane, capsular ligaments between Skull-C1 and C1-C2, anterior atlantoaxial membrane, posterior atlantoaxial membrane and the tectorial membrane/vertical cruciate/apical/alar ligament complex. The objective of this study was to obtain mechanical properties of craniovertebral ligaments of a younger population, at varying strain rates representative of automotive crash scenarios, and investigate rate and gender effects for use in numerical models of the cervical spine. There have been few studies conducted on the mechanical properties of human craniovertebral ligaments. Only one study has tested all of the ligaments, and previous studies use older age specimens (mean age 67, from most complete study). Further, tests were often not performed at elongation rates representative of car crash scenarios. Previous studies did not perform tests in an environment resembling in vivo conditions, which has been shown to have a significant effect on ligament tensile behaviour. Fifty-four craniovertebral ligaments were isolated from twenty-one spines, and tested to failure in tension under simulated in vivo temperature and hydration levels, at quasi-static (0.5 s(-1)) and high strain rates (150 s(-1)). Values for failure force, failure elongation, stiffness, and toe region elongation were obtained from force-displacement curves. Values were analyzed for strain rate and gender effects. Increased strain rate produced several significant effects including: higher failure forces for the transverse ligament and capsular ligament (Skull-C1), lower failure elongation for the tectorial membrane complex, higher stiffness for the tectorial membrane complex and capsular ligament (Skull-C1), and lower toe region elongation for capsular ligament (Skull-C1). Gender effects were limited. Ligament tests

  5. Systematics within Gyps vultures: a clade at risk

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeff A; Lerner, Heather RL; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Mindell, David P

    2006-01-01

    molecular phylogenies strongly support the treatment of indicus and tenuirostris as separate species, as does morphological data showing that these two taxa of similar overall size differ in proportions, especially in rostral, alar, and pedal characters. In addition, grouping of bengalensis and africanus together in the genus Pseudogyps, as historically proposed, is not upheld based on mitochondrial data. Conclusion Both molecular and morphological data provide strong support for considering the "Long-billed" Vulture to be comprised of two species (G. indicus and G. tenuirostris), and further analysis is warranted to determine the taxonomic distinctiveness of G. f. fulvescens. Our phylogenetic analyses and conservative estimates suggest the diversification of Gyps taxa to be within the past 6 million years. Diclofenac susceptibility has been previously demonstrated for four Gyps species (G. indicus, G. fulvus, G. africanus, G. bengalensis), and the phylogenetic position of these species each forming a sister relationship with at least one of the remaining species, support concern that other Gyps taxa may be susceptible as well. Determining genetic and evolutionary distinctiveness for Gyps lineages is increasingly important as a breeding program is being established to prevent extinction.

  6. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvetsky, Nitai; Peterson, Kirk A.; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H-He, B-Ne, and Al-Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis set limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl4) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than "valence limit + CV correction" approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from CCSD-F12b/cc-pV{Q,5}Z-F12

  7. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Nitai; Peterson, Kirk A; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M L

    2016-06-01

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H-He, B-Ne, and Al-Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis set limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl4) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than "valence limit + CV correction" approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from CCSD-F12b/cc-pV{Q,5}Z-F12

  8. Speaking, writing, and memory span in children: output modality affects cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    franceses quiénes compararon la ejecución en la capacidad de retención en la memoria oral y escrita. Las dificultades observadas en niños, pero no en adultos, en procesos de bajo nivel en la escritura pueden derivarse de la inadecuación grafomotriz u ortográfica. Informamos sobre cinco experimentos diseñados para replicar y ampliar los resultados originales. Primero, los resultados franceses fueron replicados con éxito para alemanes en tercer curso y para estudiantes universitarios. Después, los cambios evolutivos en costes cognitivos en la escritura fueron estudiados durante la educación primaria, comparando la ejecución de los alumnos del segundo y cuarto curso. Posteriormente, demostramos que las formas de escribir no practicadas, que se han inducido experimentalmente, conducen a la disminución de la ejecución en la memoria también en adultos, lo cual apoya la hipótesis de que la falta de la automatización grafomotriz es la responsable de los efectos encontrados en niños. Sin embargo, la escritura a mano muestra resultados más claros que la escritura a máquina. Por último, hemos intentado separar la influencia de la grafomotricidad frente a las dificultades ortográficas componiendo las palabras señalando en una "pizarra de ortografía". Este intento, sin embargo, no ha tenido éxito, probablemente porque señalar letras ha introducido otros costes de bajo nivel. Resumiendo, a lo largo de los cuatro años de la educación primaria, los niños alemanes muestran peor ejecución en retención en memoria en la escritura, en comparación con el recuerdo oral, con un incremento general en ambas modalidades. Por tanto, al final de la educación primaria, la escritura no ha igualado todavía el habla en cuanto a los costes cognitivos. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones están relacionadas con la cuestión de cómo evaluar cualquier tipo de conocimiento o habilidades mediante la producción de lenguaje. Les processus de bas niveau de la production du langage