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1

A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds.  

PubMed

The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire. PMID:23305750

Vílchez, Juan A; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

2013-02-15

2

LNG spill experiments: dispersion, RPT, and vapor burn analysis  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is conducting safety research under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the possible consequences of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills. The LLNL program includes both the collection of data from various size experiments and development of an ensemble of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests cannot be performed. In spills of 40 cubic metres (m/sup 3/) of liquefied natural gas onto water done at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California in 1980 and 1981, data was collected on gas cloud dispersion and combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. Analysis of the data from these tests, including comparisons between the predictions of various models and the data, are presented. The results suggest that large-scale spills may be more hazardous than would have been predicted based on earlier small-scale tests.

Ermak, D L; Koopman, R P; McRae, T G; Hogan, W J

1982-05-01

3

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Forced Dispersion Modeling of LNG Vapor Clouds  

E-print Network

to investigate the forced dispersion of LNG vapor using upward-oriented full-cone spray nozzles. A Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was applied to simulate the energy and momentum exchange between the continuous (gas flow) and discrete (droplets) phases. Discussed...

Kim, Byung-Kyu

2013-05-31

4

Computational fluid dynamics for LNG vapor dispersion modeling: a key parameters study  

E-print Network

?hazards?are?of?an?LNG?spill?are?described?in?the?following?pages.? ? Cryogenic?hazards? ? Over?pressurization? ? Flash?fire? ? Pool?fire? ? Jet?fire? ? Rapid?phase?transition?(RPT)? ? Vapor?cloud?explosion?(VCE)? ? Rollover? 1.1.4.1 Cryogenic?hazards? LNG...?is?stored?and?transported?at?very?low?temperature,?around??260?F.??Cryogenic?hazards? include?extreme?thermal?effects?associated?with?freezing?of?living?tissue?as?a?result?of?direct? contact?with?very?cold?liquid.??Cryogenic?fluids?may?cause?the?brittlement?and?subsequent? failure?of?containment?materials...

Cormier, Benjamin Rodolphe

2009-05-15

5

Application of computational fluid dynamics for LNG vapor dispersion modeling: A study of key parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has led to the construction of several new LNG terminals in the United States (US) and around the world. To ensure the safety of the public, consequence modeling is used to estimate exclusion distances. For LNG industry, the purpose of identifying these exclusion distances is to protect the public from being reached

Benjamin R. Cormier; Ruifeng Qi; GeunWoong Yun; Yingchun Zhang; M. Sam Mannan

2009-01-01

6

Control of Vapor Dispersion and Pool Fire of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with Expansion Foam  

E-print Network

of flammable characteristics and dense gas behaviors, expansion foam has been recommended as one of the safety provisions for mitigating accidental LNG releases. However, the effectiveness of foam in achieving this objective has not been sufficiently reported...

Yun, Geun Woong

2011-10-21

7

Study of the Effects of Obstacles in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion using CFD Modeling  

E-print Network

of this phenomenon through the application of advanced simulation tools. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) tools are often used to estimate the exclusion zones in an event of accidental LNG spill. In practice these releases are more likely to occur in the confines...

Ruiz Vasquez, Roberto

2012-10-19

8

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion Modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes  

E-print Network

.......................................... 12 1.3 LNG Hazards ................................................................................................... 12 1.3.1 Cryogenic Hazards .............................................................................. 13 ix Page 1... suitable for cryogenic service. These materials include 9 % nickel steel, aluminum or other cryogenic alloy. The outer wall is generally made of carbon steel or reinforced concrete. The annular space between two tank walls is filled with insulation...

Qi, Ruifeng

2012-10-19

9

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01

10

Forced Dispersion of Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Clouds with Water Spray Curtain Application  

E-print Network

, disperse and warm a heavier-than-air vapor cloud. Dispersion of cryogenic LNG vapor behaves differently from other dense gases because of low molecular weight and extremely low temperature. So the interaction between water curtain and LNG vapor... .............................................................................................. 5 1.4.1 Cryogenic Hazards ............................................................................. 5 1.4.2 Flash Fire ........................................................................................... 6 1.4.3 Pool Fire...

Rana, Morshed A.

2011-02-22

11

Performance metrics for evaluating liquefied natural gas, vapor dispersion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

New performance metrics are necessary to quantify the inherent margins of safety11In this paper, margin of safety is an occupational safety phrase, and it is expressed as a ratio. in vapor dispersion models for liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills. Currently, vapor dispersion model calculations in the 49 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 193 as well as Standard 59A of the

Frank A. Licari

2010-01-01

12

Four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development by JPL of a four band differential radiometer (FBDR) which is capable of providing a fast rate of response, accurate measurements of methane, ethane, and propane concentrations on the periphery of a dispersing LNG cloud. The FBDR is a small, low power, lightweight, portable instrument system that uses differential absorption of near infrared radiation by the LNG cloud as a technique for the determination of concentration of the three gases as the LNG cloud passes the instrument position. Instrument design and data analysis approaches are described. The data obtained from the FBDR prototype instrument system deployed in an instrument array during two 40 cubic meter spill tests are discussed.

Simmonds, J. J.

1981-01-01

13

The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation  

E-print Network

.............................................................. 72 4.5.10 Flow Meter ....................................................................................... 72 4.5.11 LNG Volumetric Flow Measurement .............................................. 72 4.5.12 Non-cryogenic Liquid Volumetric Flow...]. _______________ This dissertation follows the style of Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2? ? Source: [1] Figure 1. Energy source in the US There are several potential hazards that could arise from an LNG spill and have been identified as follows: ? Cryogenic hazards LNG...

Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

2009-05-15

14

High-expansion foam for LNG vapor mitigation. Topical report, September 1987-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

One of the purposes of these high expansion foam systems is to reduce the extent of the hazardous vapor cloud generated during an accidental LNG release. Should the LNG ignite, these systems serve the additional function of controlling the LNG fire and minimizing its radiation to the surroundings. Foam generators have been installed along the tops of dike walls surrounding some LNG storage tanks, and around other fenced containment areas where LNG may be accidentally released, such as LNG pump pits and pipe rack trenches. To date there are no technically justifiable guidelines for the design and installation of these systems. Furthermore, there are no models that may be used describe the vapor source so as to be able to predict the reduction in the hazardous vapor cloud zone when high expansion foam is applied to an LNG spill. Information is essential not only for the optimal design of high expansion foam systems, but also for comparing the cost effectiveness of alternative LNG vapor mitigation measures.

Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.; Peterlinz, M.E.

1990-05-01

15

Closed-cycle gas turbines for power generation and LNG vaporization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling by LNG (liquefied nitrogen gas) in closed-cycle gas turbines results in double the electrical output of water cooled turbines. A circuit scheme of the LNG turbine is presented with the temperatures and pressures of the cycle. The turbine inlet temperature is limited to 720 C. Pressure level control and bypass control are the two basic types of control applied. The power station has an output of 4 x 100 MW, with four heaters arranged in series. The basic design of the heater, turbine, compressor, recuperator, and vaporizer is given. A cost comparison is made between the closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine power stations with open rack vaporizer, submerged combustion vaporizer, or both. Using an LNG terminal with a closed-cycle gas turbine for the generation of electric power and LNG vaporization would mean a potential world-wide saving of 2,350 MW thermal power or 4.2 x 10(6) kg of LNG/day by 1985.

Weber, D.

1980-09-01

16

Closed-cycle gas turbines for power generation and LNG vaporization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooling by LNG (liquefied nitrogen gas) in closed-cycle gas turbines results in double the electrical output of water cooled turbines. A circuit scheme of the LNG turbine is presented with the temperatures and pressures of the cycle. The turbine inlet temperature is limited to 720 C. Pressure level control and bypass control are the two basic types of control applied.

D. Weber

1980-01-01

17

Application of CFD (Fluent) to LNG spills into geometrically complex environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discussions on the fate of LNG spills into impoundments have suggested that the commonly used combination of SOURCE5 and DEGADIS to predict the flammable vapor dispersion distances is not accurate, as it does not account for vapor entrainment by wind. SOURCE5 assumes the vapor layer to grow upward uniformly in the form of a quiescent saturated gas cloud that

Filippo Gavelli; Edward Bullister; Harri Kytomaa

2008-01-01

18

Chemical vapor infiltration: Dispersed and graded depositions for ceramic composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structured-geometry model for dispersed and graded deposits was developed for chemical vapor infiltration of multiply-woven substrates of carbon filters. An earlier model was modified to allow for two reactants in the feed. The model predicts gas-phase concentration profiles in the voids of substrates and deposition amounts of two reactants as a function of time and location. Results are shown

G. Y. Chung; B. J. McCoy; J. M. Smith; Domenick E. Cagliostro

1993-01-01

19

Falcon series data report: 1987 LNG vapor barrier verification field trials  

SciTech Connect

A series of five Liquefied Natural Gas Spills up to 66 m{sup 3} in volume were performed on water within a vapor barrier structure at Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site as a part of a joint government/industry study. This data report presents a description of the tests, the test apparatus, the instrumentation, the meteorological conditions, and the data from the tests. 16 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

Brown, T.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Chan, S.T.; Ermak, D.L.; Koopman, R.P.; Lamson, K.C.; McClure, J.W.; Morris, L.K.

1990-06-01

20

Method for processing LNG for rankine cycle  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for processing lng using a mixed heat medium for performing a rankine cycle to gasify the lng. The medium is prepared by batch distillation using only lng. The method comprises the steps of condensing an upflow vapor in a single distillation column employing part of the lng in an lng batch distillation cycle, venting one fraction having low boiling point components mainly containing methane, and accumulating the other fractions containing ethane and components heavier than ethane. The supply of lng to be distilled in the column is halted. A total condensing operation is performed in which the other fractions are sequentially condensed by part of the lng at the condenser to sequentially recover and mix each component with the other fractions. Lng is added as the methane component to the recovered mixture of components to prepare a mixed heat medium consisting of components selected from hydrocarbons having 1-6 carbon atoms, or hydrocarbons having 1-6 carbon atoms and nitrogen. The mixed heat medium is stored. A mixed heat medium vapor generated by heat input to the stored mixed heat medium is condensed by lng and returned to the mixed heat medium; collection and complete gasification of the low boiling point components mainly containing methane and the lng is gasified by condensation to provide an lng vapor gas. Lng is gasified by performing the rankine cycle with the mixed heat medium.

Aoki, I.; Matsumoto, O.

1983-06-14

21

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2010-10-01

22

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2014-10-01

23

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2012-10-01

24

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2013-10-01

25

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2011-10-01

26

Structure of partly dispersed normal shock waves in vapor-droplet flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical and analytical study has been made to reveal the internal structures of partly dispersed shock waves in pure vapor-droplet media. The results clearly demonstrate the effects of different relaxation phenomena present and their associated time scales on the structure. The study systematically analyzes the relative effects of different flow parameters on the structure and thickness of the shock

A. Guha

1992-01-01

27

First principles Monte Carlo simulations of vapor--liquid equilibria: Density functionals, basis sets, and dispersion corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations are used to compute the vapor--liquid equilibria for water, methanol, and methane using Kohn-Sham density functional theory. Results for BLYP and PBE functionals, BLYP with Grimme D2 and D3 dispersion corrections, and various basis sets are compared. Although none of the combinations of functional, dispersive correction, and basis set is found to yield highly accurate predictions for liquid densities, vapor pressures, and heats of vaporization for all three compounds, the results for dispersion corrected BLYP with large basis set are promising.

Siepmann, J. Ilja; McGrath, Matthew J.; Kuo, I.-F. William; Mundy, Christopher J.

2012-02-01

28

Pressure drop in fully developed, duct flow of dispersed liquid-vapor mixture at zero gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of steady, fully developed dispersed liquid-vapor flow in a straight duct at 0-g is simulated by flowing water containing n-butyl benzoate droplets. Water and benzoate are immiscible and have identical density at room temperature. The theoretical basis of the simulation is given. Experiments showed that, for a fixed combined flow rate of water and benzoate, the frictional pressure

K. R. Sridhar; B. T. Chao; S. L. Soo

1990-01-01

29

A review of large-scale LNG spills: Experiments and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from

Anay Luketa-Hanlin

2006-01-01

30

Determination of the dispersion constant in a constrained vapor bubble thermosyphon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isothermal profiles of the extended meniscus in a quartz cuvette were measured in a gravitational field using an image analyzing interferometer which is based on computer enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. The experimental results for heptane and pentane menisci were analyzed using the extended Young Laplace Equation. These isothermal results characterized the interfacial force field in-siru at the start of the heat transfer experiments by quantifying the dispersion constant, which is a function of the liquid-solid system and cleaning procedures. The experimentally obtained values of the disjoining pressure and the dispersion constants were compared to that predicted from the DLP theory and good agreements were obtained. The measurements are critical to the subsequent non-isothermal experiments because one of the major variables in the heat sink capability of the Constrained Vapor Bubble Thermosyphon, CVBT, is the dispersion constant. In all previous studies of micro heat pipes the value of the dispersion constant has been 'estimated'. One of the major advantages of the current glass cell is the ability to view the extended meniscus at all times. Experimentally, we find that the extended Young-Laplace Equation is an excellent model for the force field at the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces.

Dasgupta, Sunando; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.

1995-01-01

31

Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

2014-12-01

32

Pressure drop in fully developed, duct flow of dispersed liquid-vapor mixture at zero gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of steady, fully developed dispersed liquid-vapor flow in a straight duct at 0-g is simulated by flowing water containing n-butyl benzoate droplets. Water and benzoate are immiscible and have identical density at room temperature. The theoretical basis of the simulation is given. Experiments showed that, for a fixed combined flow rate of water and benzoate, the frictional pressure drop is unaffected by large changes in the volume fraction of benzoate drops and their size distribution. Measured power spectra of the static wall pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent water-benzoate flow also revealed that their dynamics is essentially unaltered by the presence of the droplets. These experimental findings, together with the theoretical analysis, led to the conclusion that the pressure drop in fully developed, dispersed liquid-vapor flow in straight ducts of constant cross section at 0-g is identical to that due to liquid flowing alone at the same total volumetric flow rate of the liquid-vapor mixture and, therefore, can be readily determined.

Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

1990-09-01

33

Pressure drop in fully developed, duct flow of dispersed liquid-vapor mixture at zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of steady, fully developed dispersed liquid-vapor flow in a straight duct at 0-g is simulated by flowing water containing n-butyl benzoate droplets. Water and benzoate are immiscible and have identical density at room temperature. The theoretical basis of the simulation is given. Experiments showed that, for a fixed combined flow rate of water and benzoate, the frictional pressure drop is unaffected by large changes in the volume fraction of benzoate drops and their size distribution. Measured power spectra of the static wall pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent water-benzoate flow also revealed that their dynamics is essentially unaltered by the presence of the droplets. These experimental findings, together with the theoretical analysis, led to the conclusion that the pressure drop in fully developed, dispersed liquid-vapor flow in straight ducts of constant cross section at 0-g is identical to that due to liquid flowing alone at the same total volumetric flow rate of the liquid-vapor mixture and, therefore, can be readily determined.

Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

1990-01-01

34

On the recovery of LNG physical exergy by means of a simple cycle or a complex system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum and minimum temperatures available limit the usable fraction (or Carnot efficiency) of a power cycle. The construction of LNG terminals and the need to vaporize LNG offers a thermal sink at a very much lower temperature than seawater. By using this thermal sink in a combined plant, it is possible to recover power from the vaporization of LNG.

G. Bisio; L. Tagliafico

2002-01-01

35

Determination of the dispersion constant in a constrained vapor bubble thermosyphon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isothermal profiles of the extended meniscus in a quartz cuvette were measured in a gravitational field using an image analyzing interferometer which is based on computer enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. The experimental results for heptane and pentane menisci were analyzed using the extended Young-Laplace equation. These isothermal results characterized the interfacial force field in-situ at the start of the heat transfer experiments by quantifying the dispersion constant, which is a function of the liquid-solid system and cleaning procedures. The experimentally obtained values of the disjoining pressure and the dispersion constants were compared to that predicted from the DLP theory and good agreements were obtained. The measurements are critical to the subsequent non-isothermal experiments because one of the major variables in the heat sink capability of the CVBT is the dispersion constant. In all previous studies of micro heat pipes the value of the dispersion constant has been 'guesstimated'. One of the major advantages of the current glass cell is the ability to view the extended meniscus at all times. Experimentally. we find that the extended Young-Laplace equation is an excellent model for the force field at the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces.

Dasgupta, SUNANDO.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.

1993-01-01

36

Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

2014-01-01

37

75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas of the NFPA. Several years ago...LNG Facilities. Subject: Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of...used with justification provided for the selection of pool diameter(s),...

2010-08-31

38

Analysis and optimization of a cascading power cycle with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective utilization of the cryogenic energy associated with LNG vaporization is quite important. In this paper a cascading power cycle with LNG directly expanding consisting of a Rankine cycle with ammonia–water as working fluid and a power cycle of combustion gas is proposed to recover cryogenic energy of LNG. Energy equilibrium equations and exergy equilibrium equations of each equipment

T. Lu

2009-01-01

39

Proposal for a high efficiency LNG power-generation system utilizing waste heat from the combined cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-efficiency power-generation with an LNG vaporizing system is proposed: it utilizes the LNG's cold energy to the best potential limit. This system can be applied to LNG vaporizers in gas companies or electric power companies and recover the LNG's cold energy as electric power. The system consists of a Rankine cycle using a freon mixture, natural-gas Rankine cycle and a

Y. Hisazumi; Y. Yamasaki; S. Sugiyama

1998-01-01

40

Loading hose for LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kabel- and Metallwerke Gutehoffnungshutte A.G. developed the Flexwell-LNG Tube for the ARGE '76 consortium's offshore LNG plant and storage buoy, which will be connected by four 700 m lines built into a bundle. Modifications were made to a flexible pipe used in regional heating systems to produce the Flexwell-LNG tube. The LNG pipe consists of two corrugated coaxial metal tubes

D. Gerth; K. Schimmelpfennig

1978-01-01

41

Vapor-liquid Coexistence Curves for Methanol and Methane using Dispersion-Corrected Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect

First principles Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs and isobaric-isothermal ensembles were performed to map the vapor-liquid coexistence curves (VLCC) of methanol and methane described by Kohn-Sham density functional theory using the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) exchange and correlation functionals with the Grimme correction term for dispersive (D2) interactions. The simulations indicate that the BLYP-D2 description underpredicts the saturated vapor densities and overpredicts the saturated liquid densities and critical and boiling temperatures for both compounds. Although the deviations are quite large, these results present a significant improvement over the BLYP functional without the correction term which misses the experimental results by a larger extent in the opposite direction. With the D2 correction, an increase in the basis set does not lead to significant changes in the VLCC properties. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

McGrath, Matthew J.; Kuo, I-F W.; Ghogomu, Julius N.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Siepmann, Joern I.

2011-10-13

42

Thermal and chemical vapor deposition of Si nanowires: Shape control, dispersion, and electrical properties  

SciTech Connect

We investigate and compare complementary approaches to SiNW production in terms of yield, morphology control, and electrical properties. Vapor-phase techniques are considered, including chemical vapor deposition (with or without the assistance of a plasma) and thermal evaporation. We report Au-catalyzed nucleation of SiNWs at temperatures as low as 300 deg. C using SiH{sub 4} as precursor. We get yields up to several milligrams by metal-free condensation of SiO powders. For all processes, we control the final nanostructure morphology. We then report concentrated and stable dispersions of SiNWs in solvents compatible with semiconducting organic polymers. Finally, we investigate the electrical response of intrinsic SiNWs grown by different methods. All our SiNWs exhibit p-type behavior and comparable performance, though in some cases ambipolar devices are observed. Thus, processing and morphology, rather than the growth technique, are key to achieve optimal samples for applications.

Colli, A.; Fasoli, A.; Beecher, P.; Servati, P.; Pisana, S.; Fu, Y.; Flewitt, A. J.; Milne, W. I.; Robertson, J.; Ducati, C.; De Franceschi, S.; Hofmann, S.; Ferrari, A. C. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 6GF (United Kingdom); Laboratoire de Transport Electronique Quantique et Supraconductivite, CEA-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

2007-08-01

43

Determination of octane numbers and Reid vapor pressure in commercial gasoline using dispersive fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersive fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy utilizing CCD detection and near-IR DBR diode laser excitation is used to remotely analyze 205 petroleum fuels of varying composition for pump octane number, motor octane number (MON), research octane number (RON), and Reid vapor pressure (RVP). Partial least squares regression analysis in tandem with several preprocessing techniques was used to model pump octane, MON, RON,

Philip E. Flecher; William T. Welch; Sacharia Albin; John B. Cooper

1997-01-01

44

The influence of the dispersion method on the electrical properties of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites  

PubMed Central

The influence of the dispersion of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) on the electrical properties of VGCNF/Epoxy composites has been studied. A homogenous dispersion of the VGCNF does not imply better electrical properties. In fact, it is demonstrated that the most simple of the tested dispersion methods results in higher conductivity, since the presence of well-distributed nanofiber clusters appears to be a key factor for increasing composite conductivity. PACS: 72.80.Tm; 73.63.Fg; 81.05.Qk PMID:21711873

2011-01-01

45

Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched  

SciTech Connect

World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

NONE

1997-10-20

46

New LNG process scheme  

SciTech Connect

A new LNG cycle has been developed for base load liquefaction facilities. This new design offers a different technical and economical solution comparing in efficiency with the classical technologies. The new LNG scheme could offer attractive business opportunities to oil and gas companies that are trying to find paths to monetize gas sources more effectively; particularly for remote or offshore locations where smaller scale LNG facilities might be applicable. This design offers also an alternative route to classic LNG projects, as well as alternative fuel sources. Conceived to offer simplicity and access to industry standard equipment, This design is a hybrid result of combining a standard refrigeration system and turboexpander technology.

Foglietta, J.H.

1999-07-01

47

Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

1982-07-01

48

High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG  

DOEpatents

A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-18

49

Costs are estimated for LNG terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical direct costs (in constant 1977 U.S. dollars with inflation neglected) for the major units of an LNG base-load terminal include $35 million for marine and unloading facilities; $20\\/bbl of storage capacity; $34,500\\/million std cu ft\\/day for vaporization and sendout facilities that use sea water at a 10°F allowable temperature drop and $50,000\\/million std cu ft\\/day at a 5°F allowable

Dinapoli

1978-01-01

50

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23

51

Proposal for a high efficiency LNG power-generation system utilizing waste heat from the combined cycle 1 Published in co-operation with the Japanese Society of Energy Resources. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-efficiency power-generation with an LNG vaporizing system is proposed: it utilizes the LNG's cold energy to the best potential limit. This system can be applied to LNG vaporizers in gas companies or electric power companies and recover the LNG's cold energy as electric power. The system consists of a Rankine cycle using a freon mixture, natural-gas Rankine cycle and a

Y Hisazumi; Y Yamasaki; S Sugiyama

1998-01-01

52

A review of large-scale LNG spills : experiment and modeling.  

SciTech Connect

The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from spills on water and land are reviewed. Explosion, pool boiling, and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosion studies are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion and thermal hazard distances. Although there have been significant advances in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps to improve hazard prediction are identified. Some of these gaps can be addressed with current modeling and testing capabilities. A discussion of the state of knowledge and recommendations to further improve the understanding of the behavior of LNG spills on water is provided.

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

2005-04-01

53

Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization  

E-print Network

sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of boiling heat transfer regimes, friction, thermal contact/roughness correction parameter and VLE/mixture thermodynamics on the pool spreading behavior. The aim was to provide a better understanding...

Basha, Omar 1988-

2012-11-20

54

Chemical reactions on the surface of dispersed silica during gas-phase modification with MoCl{sub 5} vapors  

SciTech Connect

The characteristic features of the gas-phase modification of silica by molybdenum pentachloride vapors were investigated. The grafted molybdenum chloride groups {triple_bond}SiOMoCl{sub 4} formed as a result of the reaction of MoCl{sub 5} with the silanol groups and siloxane bridges of the SiO{sub 2} surface undergo a rearrangement as a result of their instability, forming chlorosilyl groups and molybdenum oxychloride, which is removed from the silica surface. In the presence of an excess of the modifier MoCl{sub 5}, the reaction with siloxane bridges of the surface layer leads to the formation of silicon tetrachloride and is accompanied by etching of the surface of the dispersed silica globules.

Plyuto, Yu.V.; Gomenyuk, A.A.; Babich, I.V.; Nuiko, A.A. [Institute of Surface Chemistry, Kiev (Ukraine)

1994-05-01

55

LNG infrastructure and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Sound engineering principals have been used by every company involved in the development of the LNG infrastructure, but there is very little that is new. The same cryogenic technology that is used in the manufacture and sale of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen infrastructure is used in LNG infrastructure. The key component of the refueling infrastructure is the LNG tank which should have a capacity of at least 15,000 gallons. These stainless steel tanks are actually a tank within a tank separated by an annular space that is void of air creating a vacuum between the inner and outer tank where superinsulation is applied. Dispensing can be accomplished by pressure or pump. Either works well and has been demonstrated in the field. Until work is complete on NFPA 57 or The Texas Railroad Commission Rules for LNG are complete, the industry is setting the standards for the safe installation of refueling infrastructure. As a new industry, the safety record to date has been outstanding.

Forgash, D.J.

1995-12-31

56

LNG annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

1982-09-01

57

Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal doped with carbon nanotubes for dimethyl methylphosphonate vapor-sensing application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a sensitive gas sensor composed of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection. The sensing element comprises a PDLC sensing film doped with carbon nanotubes (CNT-PDLC) and a planar interdigital electrode pair. The concentration of DMMP exposed to the CNT-PDLC material is detectable by measuring the change in conductivity of the material. Compared to conventional LC-based sensors, the proposed PDLC device is robust against mechanical shocks, and can fully operate with a simple read-out circuit. The sensor response is linear for gas concentrations from 5 to 250 ppm, and the response time is approximately 125 s.

Lai, Yu-Tse; Kuo, Jui-Chang; Yang, Yao-Joe

2013-05-01

58

LNG to the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

By 2000, about 190 MM metric-tpy of LNG will be moving in world trade, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer By the year 2000, approximately 190 million metric tons per year of LNG will be moving in worldwide trade. Production of LNG will be spread throughout most of the world, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer. LNG will be delivered only to the heavily industrialized areas of North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The success of any LNG project will be dependent on its individual economics, market needs, financial planning, and governmental permit processes. We hope industry will be able to put together the LNG projects required to meet the quanitities of production forecast here for the year 2000.

Davenport, S.T.

1984-04-01

59

Thermodynamic analysis of an LNG fuelled combined cycle power plant with waste heat recovery and utilization system  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper has proposed an improved liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled combined cycle power plant with a waste heat recovery and utilization system. The proposed combined cycle, which provides power outputs and thermal energy, consists of the gas\\/steam combined cycle, the subsystem utilizing the latent heat of spent steam from the steam turbine to vaporize LNG, the subsystem that

Xiaojun Shi; Defu Che

2007-01-01

60

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127.319 Navigation...Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be...

2010-07-01

61

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling...ensure that— (1) The marine transfer area for LNG is under the...

2013-07-01

62

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling...ensure that— (1) The marine transfer area for LNG is under the...

2012-07-01

63

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling...ensure that— (1) The marine transfer area for LNG is under the...

2014-07-01

64

Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.  

PubMed

With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect. PMID:25194555

Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

2014-09-15

65

LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power.  

PubMed

Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H2O and CO2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are burning in the LNG fire. The paper discusses the procedure by which the fire spectral data are used to predict the thermal emission from large LNG fires. Unfortunately, no direct measurements of the soot density or smoke characteristics were made in the tests. These parameters have significant effect on the thermal emission from large LNG fires. PMID:16920262

Raj, Phani K

2007-04-11

66

California meets the LNG terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal by California's gas utilities to build a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal on the coast has generated five years of controversy, stalemates among agencies, and new state legislation, with no final decision yet in sight. Different perceptions of the public safety risks from LNG have played a major role in this controversy. Agencies and other parties have generally

William R. Ahern

1980-01-01

67

Bubbles in liquids with phase transition—part 2: on balance laws for mixture theories of disperse vapor bubbles in liquid with phase change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study averaging methods for the derivation of mixture equations for disperse vapor bubbles in liquids. The carrier liquid is modeled as a continuum, whereas simplified assumptions are made for the disperse bubble phase. An approach due to Petrov and Voinov is extended to derive mixture equations for the case that there is a phase transition between the carrier liquid and the vapor bubbles in water. We end up with a system of balance laws for a multi-phase mixture, which is completely in divergence form. Additional non-differential source terms describe the exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the phases. The sources depend explicitly on evolution laws for the total mass, the radius and the temperature of single bubbles. These evolution laws are derived in a prior article (Dreyer et al. in Cont Mech Thermodyn. doi:10.1007/s00161-0225-6, 2011) and are used to close the system. Finally, numerical examples are presented.

Dreyer, Wolfgang; Hantke, Maren; Warnecke, Gerald

2014-07-01

68

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

2001-03-27

69

Vaporizing Vapor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration, relative humidity is modeled using a sponge and a pan of water, and the concept of saturation is depicted. Students answer questions examining the relationship between temperature and the capacity of air to hold water vapor. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Sci Files: The Case of the Phenomenal Weather. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

70

LNG -- Technology on the edge  

SciTech Connect

With immense promise and many supporters, LNG as a vehicular fuel is still, a nascent industry. In about two years, an array of LNG engines should be commercially available, and infrastructure greatly expanded. These developments should reduce the present premium of LNG equipment, greatly improving industry economics. The most propitious sign for LNG-market developed lies in the natural gas industry`s recently refined strategy for natural gas vehicles. The new strategy targets the right competitor--diesel, not gasoline. It also targets the right market for an emerging fuel--high-fuel-usage fleets made up of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, often driven long distances. But problems persist in critical areas of development. These problems are related to the materials handling of LNG and the refueling of vehicles. The paper discusses the studies on LNG handling procedures, its performance benefits to high-fuel use vehicles, economic incentives for its use, tax disadvantages that are being fought, and LNG competition with ``clean`` diesel fuels.

Alexander, C.B.

1995-10-01

71

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

2013-01-01

72

LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream  

SciTech Connect

The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

NONE

1997-01-01

73

International LNG report/Developments proceed slowly in world LNG industry  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of developments in the world LNG industry covers U.S. developments, including the Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, the National Fire Protection Association's 1979 edition of Standard 59A for the production, storage, and handling of LNG, and progress in the permitting of major LNG import projects changes in U.S. rules on LNG pricing; LNG accidents, including the grounding of the LNG carrier Vertical BarEl Paso Paul Kaise.

Hale, D.

1980-03-01

74

North American LNG Project Sourcebook  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

NONE

2007-06-15

75

LNG plants in the US and abroad  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT`s LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

1992-12-31

76

Whitening of Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes by Dispersing Vapor of an Orange Fluorescent Dye into a Blue-Emitting Polymer Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whitening of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on the blue-emitting poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PDOF) films was possible by dispersing vapor of an orange fluorescent dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) into the film by means of the solution-free vapor transportation method (VTM). Devices prepared with this method showed good color stability with bias voltage increase, while those formed with conventional spin-coating, where dyes and polymers were mixed in a solution (solution-mixed), showed color change from yellow to white-yellow. The maximum luminance of the PLED formed by the VTM was higher than that formed by conventional spin-coating process.

Mizokuro, Toshiko; Heck, Claire; Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Hiraga, Takashi; Tanaka, Norio

2008-02-01

77

Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water.  

PubMed

Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG. PMID:17112658

Johnson, David W; Cornwell, John B

2007-02-20

78

Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions.

Franco, A.; Casarosa, C.

2014-11-01

79

76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. CP10-477-000] Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011...to the environmental analysis of Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG...

2011-01-14

80

Recommended research on LNG safety  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

1981-03-01

81

LNG to CNG refueling stations  

SciTech Connect

While the fleet operator is concerned about the environment, he or she is going to make the choice based primarily on economics. Which fuel provides the lowest total operating cost? The calculation of this costing must include the price-per-gallon of the fuel delivered, as well as the tangible and intangible components of fuel delivery, such as downtime for vehicles during the refueling process, idle time for drivers during refueling, emissions costings resulting from compressor oil blow-by, inclusion of non-combustible constituents in the CNG, and energy consumption during the refueling process. Also, the upfront capital requirement of similar delivery capabilities must be compared. The use of LNG as the base resource for the delivered CNG, in conjunction with the utilization of a fully temperature-compressed LNG/CNG refueling system, eliminates many of the perceived shortfalls of CNG. An LNG/CNG refueling center designed to match the capabilities of the compressor-based station will have approximately the same initial capital requirement. However, because it derives its CNG sales product from the {minus}260 F LNG base product, thus availing itself of the natural physical properties of the cryogenic product, all other economic elements of the system favor the LNG/CNG product.

Branson, J.D. [ECOGAS Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

82

Introduction to LNG vehicle safety. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled in this report to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

Bratvold, D.; Friedman, D.; Chernoff, H.; Farkhondehpay, D.; Comay, C.

1994-03-01

83

Keys to modeling LNG spills on water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they

D. W. Hissong

2007-01-01

84

Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-02-01

85

LNG decision making approaches compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard zones associated with LNG handling activities have been a major point of contention in recent terminal development applications. Debate has reflected primarily worst case scenarios and discussion of these. This paper presents results from a maximum credible event approach. A comparison of results from several models either run by the authors or reported in the literature is presented. While

Robin Pitblado; John Baik; Vijay Raghunathan

2006-01-01

86

Consequences of LNG Marine Incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LNG industry in the US is currently facing challenges obtaining approvals for new receiving terminals. A factor of concern at public meetings relates to the potential hazards associated with marine transport accidents or terrorist events. The purpose of this study is to develop a range of well conceived maximum credible failure cases from accidental or terrorism causes and to

R M Pitblado; J Baik; G J Hughes; C Ferro; S J Shaw

2004-01-01

87

Thermal Hazard from LNG Fireballs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidents with many hydrocarbon materials such as propane, butane and gasoline frequently result in the formation of fireballs. The shipment of liquified natural gas (LNG) involves large quantities of fuel which, in the event of an accident, could ignite to form a fireball. Depending on atmospheric conditions, the thermal effects from such a fireball could produce third degree skin burns

H. C. HARDEE; D. O. LEE; W. B. BENEDICK

1978-01-01

88

LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

1992-01-01

89

Cove Point: A step back into the LNG business  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, ships began unloading LNG from Algeria at Cove Point`s berthing facilities 1.25 miles offshore. An underwater pipeline transported the LNG to land, where it was stored in the terminal`s four 140-foot-high cryogenic storage tanks. When the LNG was needed, the terminals 10 vaporizers converted it back to gas for send out via an 87-mile-long, 36-inch-diameter pipeline linking the terminal with interstate pipelines of CNG Transmission Corp. and Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. in Loudon County, Va. But Cove Point handled only about 80 shiploads of LNG before shutting down in December 1980, after a dispute about gas prices between US customers and Algeria. The plant sat dormant until the natural gas industry`s deregulation under Order 636. Deregulation resulted in major pipelines abandoning their sales service, and gas distributors and large customers found it was now their obligation to ensure that they had adequate gas supplies during winter peak-demand periods. Enter Cove Point`s peaking capabilities. They had to add the liquefaction unit and recommission other parts of the plant, but the timing was right. Cove Point`s new liquefaction unit is liquefying about 15 million cubic feet (MMcf) of LNG per day of domestic gas. It chills the gas to {minus}260 degrees Fahrenheit to turn it into a liquid for injection and storage in one of the facility`s double-walled insulated tanks. During its initial injection season, which ends Dec. 15, Cove Point is expected to produce enough LNG to almost fill one tank, which can store up to 1.25 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Were the gas not intended for peak-shaving purposes, it would be enough to supply 14,000 homes for a year. As it is, most of the gas will be returned as pipeline gas, during next January and February`s expected cold snaps, to the utilities and users who supplied it. Cove Point`s initial daily sendout capacity is about 400 MMcf.

Katz, M.G.

1995-12-31

90

Floating LNG terminal and LNG carrier interaction analysis for side-by-side offloading operation  

E-print Network

Floating LNG terminals are a relatively new concept with the first such terminal in the world installed this year. The hydrodynamic interaction effects between the terminal and a LNG carrier in a side-by-side offloading arrangement is investigated...

Kuriakose, Vinu P.

2005-11-01

91

Environmental and Economical Evaluation of Integrating NGL Extraction and LNG Liquefaction Technology in Iran LNG Project  

E-print Network

The combination of changing global markets for natural gas liquids (NGL) with the simultaneous increase in global demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has stimulated an interest in the integration of NGL recovery technology with LNG liquefaction...

Manesh, M. H. K.; Mazhari, V.

92

COGAS propulsion for LNG ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propulsion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships is undergoing significant change. The traditional steam plant is losing favor because of its low cycle efficiency. Medium-speed diesel-electric and slow-speed diesel-mechanical drive ships are in service, and more are being built. Another attractive alternative is combined gas and steam turbine (COGAS) drive. This approach offers significant advantages over steam and diesel propulsion. This paper presents the case for the COGAS cycle.

Wiggins, Edwin G.

2011-06-01

93

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping.  

E-print Network

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping. 1917 First commercial natural gas liquefaction plant built in West Virginia. 1944 At an LNG peak-shaving plant in Cleveland, an LNG storage tank with a low nickel- steel content (only 3.5%) fails. LNG spills

94

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with programmed temperature vaporization-large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for multiclass pesticides in water.  

PubMed

A simple solvent-less procedure for the determination of seventeen pesticides and related compounds in environmental water and wastewater using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS) with large-volume injection, having a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV-LVI), is described. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from water samples were systematically investigated. A response surface Doehlert design was used. The best extraction conditions involved a rapid injection of a mixture of 1.9 mL of acetonitrile (as a dispersant) and 178 ?L of trichloroethane (as an extractant) into 10 mL of water placed in a conical bottom glass tube. After manually shaken for 3.0 min and centrifugation at 3600 rpm (5 min), 50 ?L of the sedimented phase was directly injected into the PTV-LVI-GC-MS/MS system. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.5 to 18 ng L?¹ for all pesticides, except empentrin (132 ng L?¹). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the analytes ranged between 0.8 and 14.6% for both intraday and interday precision. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 70 and 130%. Using the internal standard method and surrogate deuterated standards, the total concentration of pesticides was in the range from 2.7 to 440 ng L?¹ in seawater, river water and sewage water. PMID:22818774

Carro, A M; Fernández, S; Racamonde, I; García-Rodríguez, D; González, P; Lorenzo, R A

2012-08-31

95

Optimizing PT Arun LNG main heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of a LNG liquefaction unit has been increased by upgrading the refrigeration system, without making changes to the main heat exchanger (MHE). It is interesting, that after all modifications were completed, a higher refrigerant circulation alone could not increase LNG production. However, by optimizing the refrigerant component ratio, the UA of the MHE increased and LNG production improved. This technical evaluation will provide recommendations and show how the evaluation of the internal temperature profile helped optimize the MHE operating conditions.

Irawan, B. [PT Arun NGL Co., Sumatra (Indonesia)

1995-12-01

96

Salt-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with programmed temperature vaporization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of haloacetonitriles in drinking water.  

PubMed

We report here a new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven haloacetonitriles (HANs) in drinking water by coupling salt-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SADLLME) with programmed temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS). The newly developed method involves the dispersion of the extractant in aqueous sample by addition of a few grams of salt and no dispersion liquid was required as compared to the traditional DLLME methods. The extractant (CH2Cl2, 50?L) and the salt (Na2SO4, 2.4g) were successively added to water (8mL) in a conical centrifuge tube that was shaken for 1min and centrifuged (3500rpm, 3min). The aliquot of sedimented phase (4?L) was then directly injected into the PTV-GC-MS system. The limits of detection and quantification for the HANs were 0.4-13.2ngL(-1) and 1.2-43.9ngL(-1), respectively. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)?0.9904) over 3 orders of magnitude. The repeatability of the method was investigated by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) obtained were lower than 10.2% and 7.8% at low and high concentration levels. The relative recoveries ranged from 79.3% to 105.1%. The developed methodology was applied for the analysis of seven HANs in several drinking water samples in coastal and inland cities of China. It was demonstrated to be a simple, sensible, reproducible and environment friendly method for the determination of trace HANs in drinking water samples. PMID:24997512

Ma, Huilian; Li, Yun; Zhang, Haijun; Shah, Syed Mazhar; Chen, Jiping

2014-09-01

97

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2010-10-01

98

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

2010-10-01

99

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2012-10-01

100

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2014-10-01

101

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

2013-10-01

102

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2012-10-01

103

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2011-10-01

104

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2013-10-01

105

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2011-10-01

106

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

2012-10-01

107

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

2014-10-01

108

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2014-10-01

109

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2013-10-01

110

Potential for long-term LNG supplies to the United States  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed here include: (1) terminal capacity; (2) potential sources for US LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports; (3) LNG liquefaction and transportation capacity; (4) historical US LNG imports; (5) LNG supply costs; (6)delivered cost of future LNG imports.

Lihn, M.L.

1992-02-01

111

On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-{var_epsilon} model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Koopman, Ronald P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Ermak, Donald (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)

2006-02-01

112

Developmental of a Vapor Cloud Explosion Risk Analysis Tool Using Exceedance Methodology  

E-print Network

................................................ 5 II SOURCE, DISPERSION AND IGNITION MODELS ....................... 7 Source Models ................................................................................ 7 Gas Dispersion Models... .................................................................. 12 Ignition Models .............................................................................. 18 III VAPOR CLOUD EXPLOSION CONSEQUENCE MODELING ...... 19 Vapor Cloud Explosion...

Alghamdi, Salem

2012-10-19

113

LNG links remote supplies and markets  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas.

Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N. [Mobil LNG Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Rethore, T.J. [Arthur D. Little Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-06-02

114

Strategic evaluation central to LNG project formation  

SciTech Connect

An efficient-scale, grassroots LNG facility of about 6 million metric tons/year capacity requires a prestart-up outlay of $5 billion or more for the supply facilities--production, feedgas pipeline, liquefaction, and shipping. The demand side of the LNG chain requires a similar outlay, counting the import-regasification terminal and a combination of 5 gigawatts or more of electric power generation or the equivalent in city gas and industrial gas-using facilities. There exist no well-developed commodity markets for free-on-board (fob) or delivered LNG. A new LNG supply project is dedicated to its buyers. Indeed, the buyers` revenue commitment is the project`s only bankable asset. For the buyer to make this commitment, the supply venture`s capability and commitment must be credible: to complete the project and to deliver the LNG reliably over the 20+ years required to recover capital committed on both sides. This requirement has technical, economic, and business dimensions. In this article the authors describe a LNG project evaluation system and show its application to typical tasks: project cost of service and participant shares; LNG project competition; alternative project structures; and market competition for LNG-supplied electric power generation.

Nissen, D. [Poten and Partners Inc., New York, NY (United States); DiNapoli, R.N. [Merlin Associates, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yost, C.C. [Merlin Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-07-03

115

Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

2001-01-25

116

Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards  

SciTech Connect

In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

Not Available

1980-08-01

117

Reserves hike to buoy Bontang LNG  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a redetermination of reserves in an Indonesian production sharing contract (PSC) will boost liquefied natural gas sales for an Indonesian joint venture (IJV) of Lasmo plc, Union Texas (South East Asia) Inc., Chinese Petroleum Corp. (CPC), and Japex Rantau Ltd. The Indonesian reserves increase involves the Sanga PSC operated by Virginia Indonesia Co., a 50-50 joint venture of Lasmo and Union Texas. Union Texas holds a 38% interest in the IJV and Lasmo 37.8%, with remaining interests held by CPC and Japex. meantime, in US LNG news: Shell LNG Co. has shelved plans to buy an added interest in the LNG business of Columbia Gas System Inc. Panhandle Eastern Corp. units Trunkline Gas Co., Trunkline LNG Co., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. (PEPL) filed settlement agreements with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to recover from customers $243 million in costs associated with Panhandle's Trunkline LNG operation at Lake Charles, Louisiana.

Not Available

1992-07-27

118

Demonstration of an excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter at 1529 nm by use of an electrodeless discharge rubidium vapor lamp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (ESFADOF) operating on the rubidium 5P3/2-4D5/2 transition (1529.4 nm in vacuum) is demonstrated, which utilizes an electrodeless discharge lamp rather than a laser-pumped Rb vapor cell as in a traditional ESFADOF system. When the lamp operates in the red mode with 3.5 W radio-frequency driving power, a twin-peak line-shaped transmission spectrum is obtained, which has a maximum transmittance of 21.9% (without taking into account the system loss and fluorescence background). ESFADOF by exploiting the 5P3/2-4D3/2 transition (1529.3 nm in vacuum) is also explored. A single-peak transmission spectrum with a maximum transmittance of about 3% is achieved. The electrodeless discharge lamp based ESFADOF holds promise for realizing a compact, low-cost, and good long-term frequency-stabilized laser system for optical communication applications.

Sun, Qinqing; Hong, Yelong; Zhuang, Wei; Liu, Zhiwen; Chen, Jingbiao

2012-11-01

119

LNG -- A paradox of propulsion potential  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been demonstrating its viability as a clean-burning alternative fuel for buses and medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the past 30 years. The first known LNG vehicle project began in San Diego in 1965, When San Diego Gas and Electric converted 22 utility trucks and three passenger vehicles to dedicated LNG. A surge in LNG vehicle project activity over the past five years has led to a fairly robust variety of vehicles testing the fuel, from Class 8 tractors, refuse haulers and transit buses to railroad locomotives and ferry boats. Recent technology improvements in engine design, cryogenic tanks, fuel nozzles and other related equipment have made LNG more practical to use than in the 1960s. LNG delivers more than twice the driving range from the same-sized fuel tank as a vehicle powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). Although technical and economic hurdles must be overcome before this fuel can achieve widespread use, various ongoing demonstration projects are showing LNG`s practicality, while serving the vital role of pinpointing those areas of performance that are the prime candidates for improvement.

McKay, D.J.

1995-12-31

120

Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals  

SciTech Connect

LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

1999-07-01

121

Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M

1980-01-01

122

World economic growth pushing LNG use  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas, especially liquefied (LNG), is in position to participate in the energy growth now being triggered by strong worldwide economic growth, increasingly open markets, and expanding international trade. Natural gas is abundant, burns cleanly, and is highly efficient in combined-cycle, gas-turbine power plants. Moreover, the comparative remoteness of much of the resource base to established and emerging markets can make LNG a compelling processing and transportation alternative. Discussed here are the resource distribution and emerging market opportunities that can make LNG attractive for monetizing natural-gas reserves.

Brown, R.L. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States); Clary, R. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-06-02

123

Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report  

SciTech Connect

Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

Battelle

1999-07-01

124

77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...12-156-LNG] SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy...Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, P.O. Box 44375,...

2012-12-11

125

Damage-detection system for LNG carriers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

1978-01-01

126

Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

Not Available

2004-07-01

127

Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

128

LNG production for peak shaving operations  

SciTech Connect

LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

Price, B.C.

1999-07-01

129

LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues  

SciTech Connect

The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture.

Acord, H.K. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1995-07-03

130

Thermodynamic analysis of solar energy utilization combined with the exploitation of the LNG physical energy  

SciTech Connect

The consumption of LNG (liquid natural gas) is growing and will probably increase rapidly in the near future. Consequently, (in addition to the use of the chemical exergy) the exploitation of the physical energy of LNG, due to its state in liquid phase at a temperature under that of the environment, is becoming more important. Nowadays most of LNG is regassified using the thermal energy of sea water or of warm sea water effluent from a power plant, destroying in this way its physical exergy. Several processes have been considered to utilize the physical exergy of fluids in liquid phase by vaporizing these fluids at atmospheric pressure and cryogenic temperatures. Two general alternatives may be envisaged: (a) direct utilization in cryogenic facilities (cold storage or other process uses); (b) indirect utilization in the generation of electric power. Griepentrog and Weber and others proposed a closed-cycle gas turbine with several kinds of heat sources and with liquid natural gas or hydrogen as the heat sink. In this paper a combined system utilizing a gas turbine with solar heating and LNG refrigerating is examined.

Bisio, G.; Pisoni, C. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Energy Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

131

LNG shipments in 1994 set records  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide LNG shipments by ocean-going vessels in 1994 increased to 1,619 voyages, according to an LNG shipping industry statistical annual. LNG Log 20 published the recently compiled 1994 data in the last quarter of 1995. The publication is from the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators Ltd., London. The year`s total was 8.8% more than for 1993 and the most in 35 years of records. The trips were made and the vessels loaded and discharged without report of serious safety or environmental incident, says the publication. Of the voyages completed during the year, 596 were to European receiving terminals (up 2.8% over 1993), and 1,003 went to the Far East (an increase of 10.7%); shipments to the US, however, dropped to 20, from 32 in 1993. This paper shows that the 1,619 voyages represent 3.6 million nautical miles logged by 78 vessels active during the year. These ships pumped ashore record annual volumes of approximately 144.3 million cu m of LNG, 110.1 million cu m (76.3%) of which went to Far Eastern customers. The paper also summarizes containment systems in use in 1994 and since LNG began to be shipped in 1959.

NONE

1996-01-15

132

Raley's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

Raley's, a large retail grocery company based in Northern California, began operating heavy-duty trucks powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 1997, in cooperation with the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) sponsored a research project to collect and analyze data on the performance and operation costs of eight of Raley's LNG trucks in the field. Their performance was compared with that of three diesel trucks operating in comparable commercial service. The objective of the DOE research project, which was managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel fuel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

Chandler, K. (Battelle); Norton, P. (NREL); Clark, N. (West Virginia University)

2000-05-03

133

Dispersed flow film boiling  

E-print Network

Dispersed flow consists of small liquid droplets entrained in a flowing vapor. This flow regime can occur in cryogenic equipment, in steam generators, and during nuclear reactor loss of coolant accidents. A theoretical ...

Yoder, Graydon L.

1980-01-01

134

75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard...permanent security zone in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to...NPRM) entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in the Federal...

2010-03-10

135

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2010-07-01

136

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2011-07-01

137

Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production – Part one  

Microsoft Academic Search

In LNG regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. The authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved CHP plant (combined heat and power). Considering the LNG regasification projects in progress all

Celidonio Dispenza; Giorgio Dispenza; Vincenzo La Rocca; Giuseppe Panno

2009-01-01

138

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2013-07-01

139

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2014-07-01

140

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2012-07-01

141

Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

2005-04-01

142

Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa.

Not Available

1992-11-16

143

LNG plant design in the 1990`s  

SciTech Connect

Advances in LNG plant design are needed to improve LNG chain economics. Improving the economics is essential to insure the feasibility of proposed and future projects and will compel new developments. This paper discusses anticipated changes and their significance. Topics include: Technology and Plant Design; Train Capacity; Reliability/Availability. Likely improvements in technology include: new and improved computation and analytical tools; larger and more efficient compressors and mechanical drivers; increased plant life expectancy; improved gas treating for H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and mercury removal; and the application of recent equipment developments. Train capacities are becoming larger, resulting in improved economics. Discussion on size, bottlenecks, compressor and turbine configurations, economics, and construction techniques are included. Closely related to train capacity and design are the reliability and availability of each LNG train and of the plant common facilities. Methods of analysis and design are presented to attain the desired availability for each train and the entire complex, and to optimize the complete LNG chain (production, liquefaction and storage, shipping, and receiving).

Coyle, D.A.; Durr, C.A.; Vega, F.F. de la; Hill, D.K. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States); Collins, C. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Middlesex (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01

144

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure build up due to boil-off for 21 days, the pressure in the cargo... (c) Boilers, inert gas generators, and combustion engines in the main propelling machinery space that use boil-off...

2010-10-01

145

Technology advances keeping LNG cost-competitive  

SciTech Connect

LNG plants, often very expensive in the past, will in the future need to cost less to build and operate and yet maintain high safety and reliability standards, both during construction and operation. Technical advancements, both in the process and in equipment scaling, manufacturing, and metallurgy, will provide much of the impetus for the improved economics. Although world energy demand is predicted to grow on average of about 2% annually over the next decade, LNG is expected to contribute an increasing portion of this growth with annual growth rates averaging about 7%. This steep growth increase will be propelled mainly by the environmentally friendlier burning characteristics of natural gas and the strong industrial growth in Asian and pacific Rim countries. While LNG is emerging as the fuel of choice for developing economies, its delivered cost to consumers will need to stay competitive with alternate energy supplies if it is to remain in front. The paper discusses LNG process development, treating process, equipment developments (man heat exchanger, compressors, drivers, and pressure vessels), and economy of scale.

Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Ghazal, F.P.; Silverman, A.J. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Myers, S.D. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02

146

LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A. [Mobil Shipping and Transportation, Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02

147

Operating history of Arun LNG Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arun LNG plant is owned by PERTAMINA (The Oil And Gas State Enterprise Of The Republic Of Indonesia) and is located at Blang Lancang, North Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. It is about 15 km west of the port of Lhokseumawe, or about 300 km north-west of the city of Medan. The plant is operated by PT Arun NGL Co. The

Suyanto

1984-01-01

148

Large Neighborhood Search for LNG Inventory Routing  

E-print Network

to the above problem can also be used to evaluate the effects of pooling shipping ... travel time (including berth time) from terminal j to terminal j for voyage ... This section describes the time-space network formulation for the LNG IRP ...... in Distribution Logistics, volume 619 of Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical.

2011-12-15

149

Bound Improvement for LNG Inventory Routing  

E-print Network

delivery schedule can be key to optimize the economics of an LNG project; .... which all ships are traveling from production terminals and return back to ... a time-space network formulation proposed in Savelsbergh and Song [2008]. ..... decomposition procedure encounters the typical tailing-off effect of DW decomposition.

2013-10-29

150

LNG imports make strong recovery in 1996; exports increase also  

SciTech Connect

LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.`s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports.

Swain, E.J. [Swain (Edward J.), Houston, TX (United States)

1998-01-19

151

LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010  

SciTech Connect

The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

True, W.R.

1998-02-09

152

Nippon Kokan technical report No. 42, December 1984: overseas. LNG technology special issue  

SciTech Connect

Contents INCLUDE: fracture toughness of 9% Ni steel and safety of LNG storage tank; fatigue strength and safety assessment of membrane components; comparison of LNG carriers of membrane tank system and spherical tank system; diesel-driven LNG carrier with reliquefaction plant; construction of TGZ MK I system LNG carrier model tank and its cryogenic tests; vacuum insulation test using LNG model tank; estimation of impact pressure and hydrodynamic force due to sloshing in LNG carrier; Higashi-Ohgishima LNG receiving facility for the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.; design of LNG receiving facility; receiving and circulation control system of Higashi-Ohgishima LNG terminal; welding procedure of LNG pipelines; the design method of inground LNG storage tank; the design method of aboveground LNG storage tank; various applications of LNG tank roll-over simulation program ROSP.

Not Available

1984-01-01

153

First LNG from North field overcomes feed, start-up problems  

SciTech Connect

Qatar Gas LNG is the first LNG project in the gas-development program of the world`s largest gas reservoir, North field. The LNG plant was completed within the budget and schedule. The paper discusses the LNG plant design, LNG storage and loading, alternative mercaptan removal, layout modification, information and control systems, training, data management systems, start-up, and performance testing.

Redha, A.; Rahman, A.; Al-Thani, N.H. [Qatar Liquefied Gas Co., Doha (Qatar); Ishikura, Masayuki; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1998-08-24

154

First LNG from North field overcomes feed, start-up problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qatar Gas LNG is the first LNG project in the gas-development program of the world`s largest gas reservoir, North field. The LNG plant was completed within the budget and schedule. The paper discusses the LNG plant design, LNG storage and loading, alternative mercaptan removal, layout modification, information and control systems, training, data management systems, start-up, and performance testing.

A. Redha; A. Rahman; N. H. Al-Thani; Masayuki Ishikura; Yoshitsugi Kikkawa

1998-01-01

155

LNG pump anti-slam device  

SciTech Connect

In pumping LNG (liquefied natural gas) from one receiver to another, eg., from a vessel's tank to a shore installation, it is conventional to use a submerged pump, a riser pipe connecting the pump to a stop valve and flexible joint connecting the stop valve to a header. If a pocket of gaseous lng is present in the riser pipe, when the pump commences its operation, the advancing column of liquid in the riser pipe slams against the stop valve and may damage it. The invention provides the improvement of a removable or bypassable flow restrictor incorporated between the pump and the riser pipe, permitting to ensure that the riser pipe is completely liquid-filled, before the pump commences to operate.

Tornay, E.G.

1980-05-27

156

Ultra-dispersive adaptive prism  

E-print Network

We have experimentally demonstrated an ultra-dispersive optical prism made from coherently driven Rb atomic vapor. The prism possesses spectral angular dispersion that is six orders of magnitude higher than that of a prism made of optical glass; it is the highest spectral angular dispersion that has ever been shown (such angular dispersion allows one to spatially resolve light beams with different frequencies separated by a few kHz). The prism operates near the resonant frequency of atomic vapor and its dispersion is optically controlled by a coherent driving field.

Vladimir A. Sautenkov; Hebin Li; Yuri V. Rostovtsev; Marlan O. Scully

2007-01-30

157

Technical efforts focus on cutting LNG plant costs  

SciTech Connect

LNG demand is growing due to the nuclear setback and environmental issues spurred by concern about the greenhouse effect and acid rain, especially in the Far East. However, LNG is expensive compared with other energy sources. Efforts continue to minimize capital and operating costs and to increase LNG plant availability and safety. Technical trends in the LNG industry aim at reducing plant costs in pursuit of a competitive LNG price on an energy value basis against the oil price. This article reviews key areas of technical development. Discussed are train size, liquefaction processes, acid gas removal, heavy end removal, nitrogen rejection, refrigeration compressor and drivers, expander application, cooling media selection, LNG storage and loading system, and plant availability.

Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1995-07-03

158

75 FR 2126 - Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...PF08-24-000] Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application January...Take notice that on December 18, 2009, Calais LNG Project Company, LLC (Calais LNG) and Calais Pipeline Company, LLC (Calais...

2010-01-14

159

76 FR 81925 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-29-000] Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), filed an application pursuant to Section...

2011-12-29

160

LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined  

SciTech Connect

With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

Chiu, C.H. [Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-11-24

161

LNG FEM: Graded Meshes on Domains of Polygonal Structures  

E-print Network

entitled LNG FEM, which comes from "LiNear Graded Finite Element Method." The software package LNG FEM of graded mesh in the finite element approximation of singular solutions. We develop a sofware package with a polygonal structures [6, 7, 11], and for the construction of linear finite element solutions of elliptic

Nistor, Victor

162

Optimal operation of a mixed fluid cascade LNG process  

E-print Network

Deparment of Chemical Engineering, NTNU Trondheim Norway Introduction Large amounts of natural gas (NG distances is to first produce liquefied natural gas (LNG) and then transport the LNG by ships Manipulated variables ·5 Compressor powers Ws,i ·4 Choke valve openings zi ·4 SW flows in coolers ·1 NG flow

Skogestad, Sigurd

163

Spread of large LNG pools on the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the standard model of LNG pool spreading on water, comparing it with the model and experiments on oil pool spread from which the LNG model is extrapolated, raises questions about the validity of the former as applied to spills from marine tankers. These questions arise from the difference in fluid density ratios, in the multi-dimensional flow at

J. A. Fay

2007-01-01

164

Model of spills and fires from LNG and oil tankers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive model for predicting the dynamics of spills from LNG and oil product tankers is constructed from fluid mechanics principles and empirical properties of oil and LNG spills on water. The analysis utilizes the significant tanker hold and discharge flow area dimensions to specify the cargo liquid outflow history and the ensuing pool characteristics, including the establishment of a

J. A. Fay

2003-01-01

165

LNG development across Europe: Infrastructural and regulatory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a cross-section infrastructural and regulatory analysis of the European LNG sector is presented. The LNG chain is maintained as being a good tool to enlarge the number of natural gas exporters to Europe, adding in this way to competition and to the achievement of the targets of the liberalisation process, which is a decrease in price for

Susanna Dorigoni; Sergio Portatadino

2008-01-01

166

Imported LNG (liquid natural gas) as an alternative fuel  

SciTech Connect

Imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) first arrived in the United States in 1972 at the rate of one billion cubic feet (Bcf) per year. By 1979, they had reached 252 Bcf/year. However, as US as demand declined and domestic deliverability grew, inflexible LNG prices led to the complete collapse of trade during the 1980s. In 1987, all four US import terminals were idle and no LNG was imported. The situation bean to change with renegotiation of Distrigas' contract to import LNG from Algeria's Sonatrach. In 1988, the company imported 19 Bcf of gas to its Everett, Massachusetts terminal, with greater volumes in 1989. Panhandle Eastern has also renegotiated its Algerian supply contract and reactivated the company's Trunkline LNG terminal at Lake Charles, Louisiana. It received its first cargo in December 1989. Moves are also being made to bring the other two US import terminals, at Cove Point, Maryland and Elba Island, Georgia, back into service. On the supply side too, there are major new developments. Not only is Algeria seeking to expand its existing exports, but new LNG projects in Nigeria, Norway and Venezuela in particular are aimed at the US market. The purpose of this report is to describe the current status and potential development of LNG imports to the US with a view to identifying those circumstances in which an electric utility might consider LNG as an alternate back-up fuel to distillate or residual oil, in gas-fired generating facilities. 9 figs., 10 tabs.

Kelly, M. (Jensen Associates, Inc., Boston, MA (USA))

1990-11-01

167

Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production – Part two  

Microsoft Academic Search

In liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. In a previous paper, the authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Considering

Celidonio Dispenza; Giorgio Dispenza; Vincenzo La Rocca; Giuseppe Panno

2009-01-01

168

Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a

1998-01-01

169

Union Pacific Railroad`s LNG locomotive test program  

SciTech Connect

Union Pacific Railroad is testing LNG in six locomotives through 1997 to determine if the liquefied natural gas technology is right for them. Two of the six LNG test locomotives are switch, or yard, locomotives. These 1,350 horsepower locomotives are the industry`s first locomotives totally fueled by natural gas. They`re being tested in the yard in the Los Angeles area. The other four locomotives are long-haul locomotives fueled by two tenders. These units are duel-fueled, operating on a mixture of LNG and diesel and are being tested primarily on the Los Angeles to North Platte, Nebraska corridor. All the information concerning locomotive emissions, locomotive performance, maintenance requirements, the overall LNG system design and the economic feasibility of the project will be analyzed to determine if UPR should expand, or abandon, the LNG technology.

Grimaila, B.

1995-12-31

170

77 FR 66830 - LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...PF12-18-000; Docket No. PF12-20-000] LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline...Extension of Comment Period for the Oregon LNG Export and Washington Expansion Projects...process and comment period for the Oregon LNG Export Project proposed by LNG...

2012-11-07

171

78 FR 20312 - Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CP07-53-000; CP07-53-001] Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice...Impact Statement for the Proposed Downeast LNG Project The staff of the Federal Energy...Impact Statement (EIS) for the Downeast LNG Project, proposed by Downeast LNG,...

2013-04-04

172

LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and

Wensheng Lin; Na Zhang; Anzhong Gu

2010-01-01

173

Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part II: Optimal operation  

E-print Network

Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part II: Optimal operation Jørgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd of work that goes into the design of LNG processes, there is surprisingly little attention simple LNG process, namely the PRICO process. Keywords: PRICO, LNG, operation 1 Introduction The process

Skogestad, Sigurd

174

Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain  

SciTech Connect

The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or a gas distribution network. The huge sums required for these projects make their finance ability critical to implementation. Lenders have become increasingly comfortable with LNG as a business and now have achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with it. Raising debt financing for many future LNG projects, however, will present new and increasingly difficult challenges. The challenge of financing these projects will be formidable: political instability, economic uncertainty, and local currency volatility will have to be recognized and mitigated. Described here is the evolution of financing LNG projects, including the Rasgas LNG project financing which broke new ground in this area. The challenges that lie ahead for sponsors seeking to finance future projects selling LNG to emerging markets are also discussed. And the views of leading experts from the field of project finance, specifically solicited for this article, address major issues that must be resolved for successful financing of these projects.

Minyard, R.J.; Strode, M.O. [Mobil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02

175

New energy saving system for future LNG carriers  

SciTech Connect

Steam turbine plant, which burns BOG (Boil-Off Gas) as fuel, has bene installed for LNG carriers with the necessity of disposing BOG safely. Are other plants unpractical for LNG carriers? To answer to this question, this paper evaluates (1) dual fuel diesel, (2) diesel with reliquefaction plant, (3) diesel with auxiliary boiler and power assist motor, (4) gas turbine/steam turbine and (5) steam turbine with CRP (Contra Rotating Propeller) from several aspects, such as safety and reliability, maintainability and operability, economy and effect on environment. Based on the above studies, this paper proposes Steam turbine with CRP plant as a new energy saving system for future LNG carriers.

Kahara, Susumu; Suetake, Yoshihiro [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ishimaru, Junshiro; Hiraoka, Kazuyoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan)

1994-12-31

176

Fitness for service applications in LNG plants  

SciTech Connect

Fitness-for-service assessments can provide information regarding operational reliability of equipment. However, to be meaningful, such assessments require an analytical procedure to determine the ability of engineering structures to tolerate the presence of weld flaws. In recent years, there has been a significant interest in this technology by the refining and petrochemical industries for predicting and avoiding fracture in pressurized components. Most applications have covered pressure vessel and piping where carbon and low alloy steels are the traditional materials of construction. More recently, fitness for service questions have developed for equipment with highly ductile materials such as aluminum alloys. In order to handle these questions ductile tearing resistance must be considered and R curve methods are required. In this paper examples are cited where fitness for service assessments were required for an aluminum heat exchanger in LNG service. Suitable R curve data were developed in order to establish flaw tolerance following UT inspections of this equipment.

Bagnoli, D.L.; Polk, C.J.; Yin, H. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States); Gordon, J.R. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

177

The Separation of Hydrocarbon Vapors with Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial processes which handle volatile hydrocarbons produce organic vapors. These vapors which are generated during storage, trans- portation and the handling of hydrocarbons cause environmental problems. The contaminants dispersed in the air are contributing factors to the development of photochemical smog. In addition they represent valuable resources which should be recovered, GKSS has developed a membrane and a membrane

K. Ohlrogge; K.-V. Peinemann; J. Wind; R.-D. Behling

1990-01-01

178

Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in "West-to-east pipeline gas" in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

2006-04-01

179

Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design  

SciTech Connect

Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J. [Mobil E and P Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1998-03-09

180

Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Data Report  

SciTech Connect

U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final data.

Chandler, K.; Proc, K.

2005-02-01

181

Dimethyl ether fuel proposed as an alternative to LNG  

SciTech Connect

To cope with the emerging energy demand in Asia, alternative fuels to LNG must be considered. Alternative measures, which convert the natural gas to liquid fuel, include the Fischer-Tropsch conversion, methanol synthesis, and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis. Comparisons are evaluated based on both transportation cost and feed-gas cost. The analysis will show that DME, one alternative to LNG as transportation fuel, will be more economical for longer distances between the natural-gas source and the consumer. LNG requires a costly tanker and receiving terminal. The break-even distance will be around 5,000--7,000 km and vary depending on the transported volume. There will be risk, however, since there has never been a DME plant the size of an LNG-equivalent plant [6 million metric tons/year (mty)].

Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Aoki, Ichizo [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1998-04-06

182

75 FR 26744 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

[Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 26744-26745] [FR...Rapp, Senior Regulatory Counsel at Cameron LNG, LLC, 101 Ash Street, HQ-12, San Diego, CA 92101 or by calling...

2010-05-12

183

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...safety in the State in which the portable LNG equipment is to be located must be provided with a location description for the installation at least 2 weeks in advance, including to the extent practical, the details of siting, leakage...

2010-10-01

184

Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes  

E-print Network

the global energy demands. This work addresses the simulation and optimization of an LNG plant. First, the process flowsheet is constructed based on a common process configuration. Then, the key units are simulated using ASPEN Plus to determine...

Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

2009-05-15

185

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

None

1980-10-01

186

Life cycle CO 2 analysis of LNG and city gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was conducted on greenhouse gas emissions from the liquified natural gas (LNG) chain and life cycle of City Gas 13A [caloric value: 46 MJ\\/Nm3(11,000 kcal\\/Nm3)], which is produced from LNG. The analysis was based on highly reliable data which are qualified in terms of source and representativeness. Actually, the latest data for CO2 and CH4 emissions from the

Itaru Tamura; Toshihide Tanaka; Toshimasa Kagajo; Shigeru Kuwabara; Tomoyuki Yoshioka; Takahiro Nagata; Kazuhiro Kurahashi; Hisashi Ishitani

2001-01-01

187

The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

2010-12-01

188

Experiments for the Measurement of LNG Mass Burning Rates  

E-print Network

inals, both 3 been impacted by the discovery of plentiful domestic coal-bed methane resources. 1.1.2 Hazards LNG is an odorless, clear, non-corrosive, non-toxic, asphyxiant, flammable liquid at cryogenic temperatures. As with other... temperatures for prolonged times. ? Pool fire: occurs when liquid LNG is spilled on the ground or on water and ignited. ? Jet fire: occurs when a leak from a pressurized container is ignited. ? Cryogenic hazards: occur from the thermal characteristics...

Herrera Gomez, Lady Carolina

2012-07-16

189

Cellular glass insulation keeps liquefied gas from vaporizing  

SciTech Connect

The North West Shelf Project, located on the Burrup Peninsula in Western Australia, supplies much of that vast state with natural gas for domestic and industrial applications. Some of the gas is also exported to Japan as liquefied natural gas (LNG). While awaiting shipment to Japan, the LNG is stored at {minus}322 F in four storage tanks, each with a capacity of 2.5 million ft{sup 3}. When Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty Ltd., operator of the LNG facility, selected insulation material for the storage tanks, it went in search of a material with more than just insulating value. Since the insulation is installed inside the tanks, it must be able to resist wicking or absorbing the LNG. Also, it had to have sufficient strength to withstand the weight of the 2.5 million ft{sup 3} of LNG without being crushed or losing its insulting properties. And, as a safety precaution, the selected materials should neither burn nor support combustion. Ultimately, Woodside selected a cellular glass insulation called Foamglas, from Pittsburgh Corning Corp., that met all the performance criteria and was cost competitive with the lesser-performing alternatives. Foamglas is produced from strong, inert borosilicate glass. Its insulating capability is provided by the tiny, closed cells of air encapsulated within the foam-like structure of the glass. Since the cells are closed,neither liquid nor vapor can enter the structure of the insulation. The inert glass itself will not absorb or react with LNG, nor will it burn or support a fire. The cellular structure provides effective insulation in both not and cold applications, and offers a fire barrier.

NONE

1995-11-01

190

Aussie LNG players target NE Asia in expansion bid  

SciTech Connect

Australia's natural gas players, keen to increase their presence in world liquefied natural gas trade, see Asia as their major LNG market in the decades to come. That's despite the fact that two spot cargoes of Australian Northwest Shelf LNG were shipped to Europe during the last 12 months and more are likely in 1994. Opportunities for growth are foreseen within the confines of the existing Northwest Shelf gas project for the rest of the 1990s. But the main focus for potential new grassroots project developers and expansions of the existing LNG plant in Australia is the expected shortfall in contract volumes of LNG to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan during 2000--2010. Traditionally the price of crude oil has been used as a basis for calculating LNG prices. This means the economics of any new 21st century supply arrangements are delicately poised because of the current low world oil prices, a trend the market believes is likely to continue. In a bid to lessen the effect of high initial capital outlays and still meet projected demand using LNG from new projects and expansion of the existing plant, Australia's gas producers are working toward greater cooperation with prospective Asian buyers.

Not Available

1994-02-28

191

The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development  

SciTech Connect

The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

Hovdestad, W.R.

1995-10-01

192

U.S. LNG imports 1996--1997 should recover from low 1995 levels  

SciTech Connect

Imports of LNG into the US in 1995 were the lowest since 1988, when 17.5 billion cu ft were imported. Total 1995 LNG imported from Algeria was 17.92 bcf compared to 50.78 in 1994, a decrease of 64.7%. About 72% of imported Algerian LNG was received at the Distrigas Corp. terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Trunkline LNG CO. terminal, Lake Charles, La., which was reopened in December 1989. The dramatic decline in LNG imports over the past 2 years (78%) can largely be attributed to Sonatrach`s multiyear renovation project to restore its LNG plants to their original capacities. This major renovation project has resulted in LNG export curtailments to all of its customers. The paper discusses US terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports.

Swain, E.J. [Swain (Edward J.), Houston, TX (United States)

1997-01-27

193

Unusual Fire Hazard of LNG Tanker Spills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spreading and evaporation rates of liquified natural gas spilled on water are estimated theoretically. Subsequent gravitational spread and heating of the vapor evolved from the spill generates a pancake-shaped cloud in 15 minutes or less. Downwind drift of this ground-level cloud to land areas could result in its ignition and complete combustion.

JAMES A. FAY

1973-01-01

194

LNG vehicle markets and infrastructure. Final report, October 1994-October 1995  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive primary research of the LNG-powered vehicle market was conducted, including: the status of the LNG vehicle programs and their critical constraints and development needs; estimation of the U.S. LNG liquefaction and delivery capacity; profiling of LNG vehicle products and services vendors; identification and evaluation of key market drivers for specific transportation sector; description of the critical issues that determine the size of market demand for LNG as a transportation fuel; and forecasting the demand for LNG fuel and equipment.

Nimocks, R.

1995-09-01

195

78 FR 42587 - Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary Suspension of Operations at the Neptune LNG Deepwater Port AGENCY: Maritime Administration...decision to approve the request of Neptune LNG LLC (Neptune) for a temporary...

2013-07-16

196

77 FR 59603 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Oregon LNG Export...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...is referred to as the Oregon LNG Export Project (Export Project) and has been assigned...PF12-18-000. Oregon LNG plans to amend its pending application...filing review process for the Export Project. The Oregon LNG...

2012-09-28

197

LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

2011-12-01

198

Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety  

SciTech Connect

Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

1997-07-01

199

The diseconomics of long-haul LNG trading  

SciTech Connect

Long-haul liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports yield little or no economic rent. Trades, such as Borneo to Japan, are economical, but government takes otherwise are minimal. Today, the price of LNG is capped by the technical option of modifying gas turbines to bum liquid fuels. The maximum premium for LNG is less than 50 cents per thousand cubic feet (/Mcf), and buyers are resisting any price above oil parity. Costs of LNG are high and increase with distance. The netback value is zero or even negative for the longer-distance trades. The value of extracted co-products (natural gas liquids) is 50 cents to $1/Mcf. These credits are the principal source of profit, especially for foreign partners because natural gas liquids are taxed at low {open_quotes}industrial{close_quotes} rates. Returns are even less when the gas supply is nonassociated so that the project must {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} the production costs as well. Some exporting countries profit; but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries as a whole looses because low-revenue LNG energy displaces at the margin fully taxed oil.

Stauffer, T.R.

1995-12-31

200

Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems  

SciTech Connect

The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

1982-03-01

201

Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over mesoporous nickel–alumina xerogel catalysts: Effect of nickel content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous nickel–alumina xerogel (XNiAl) catalysts with various nickel contents were prepared by a single-step sol–gel method for use in hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of nickel content on the catalytic performance of XNiAl catalysts was investigated. Nickel species were finely dispersed in the XNiAl catalysts through the formation of Ni–O–Al composite structure. The

Jeong Gil Seo; Min Hye Youn; Ho-In Lee; Jae Jeong Kim; Eunsun Yang; Jin Suk Chung; Pil Kim; In Kyu Song

2008-01-01

202

Thermal boundary layer development in dispersed flow film boiling  

E-print Network

Dispersed flow film boiling consists of a dispersion of droplets which are carried over a very hot surface by their vapor. This process occurs in cryogenic equipment and wet steam turbines. It is also of interest in the ...

Hull, Lawrence M.

1982-01-01

203

33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must...

2010-07-01

204

Bayesian-lopa methodology for risk assessment of an LNG importation terminal  

E-print Network

of transporting large volumes of natural gas over long distance. LNG itself poses little danger as long as it is contained within storage 5 tanks, piping, and equipment designed for use at LNG cryogenic conditions. However, if it is accidentally released... in an uncontrolled manner from its containment system, LNG may cause dangerous events from its flammable and cryogenic characteristics. In order to use the LOPA to LNG terminals, the following information is required: hazard identification to find out possible...

Yun, Geun-Woong

2009-05-15

205

75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. CP11-32-000] Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application November...that on November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street...gas compressor at its existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, located in Cameron Parish,...

2010-11-30

206

76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-486-000 ] Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under...Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial...to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial...

2011-05-31

207

76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...of a waterway for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) marine...Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOR Letter of...

2011-12-16

208

75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP10-477-000] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August...Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563, Birmingham,...

2010-08-24

209

75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. RP10-829-000] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference...Washington, DC 20426. On June 7, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a tariff sheet to revise its tariff...

2010-09-01

210

77 FR 788 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. CP12-31-000] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application...notice that on December 15, 2011, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (SLNG), 569 Brookwood...compressor unit at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal located at Elba Island,...

2012-01-06

211

33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that...Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the...authorized by the operator; and (b) No person...allowed into the marine transfer area for LNG...

2012-07-01

212

33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that...Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the...authorized by the operator; and (b) No person...allowed into the marine transfer area for LNG...

2014-07-01

213

33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that...Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the...authorized by the operator; and (b) No person...allowed into the marine transfer area for LNG...

2013-07-01

214

33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that...Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the...authorized by the operator; and (b) No person...allowed into the marine transfer area for LNG...

2011-07-01

215

Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part I: Optimal design  

E-print Network

Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part I: Optimal design Jørgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd the design optimization of a relatively simple LNG pro- cess; the PRICO process. A simple economic objective. Keywords: PRICO, LNG, design 1 Introduction Stebbing and O'Brien (1975) reported on the performance

Skogestad, Sigurd

216

The influence of chemical composition on vaporisation of LNG and LPG on unconfined water surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is proposed for estimating the rate of vaporisation of LNG and LPG cryogen mixtures spreading on unconfined water surfaces. The model is used to examine the influence of chemical composition on the vaporisation rate of LNG and LPG during spreading. Calculations have been performed whereby the vaporisation rate of the LNG and LPG mixtures has been compared to

C. Conrado; V. Vesovic

2000-01-01

217

Novel cogeneration power system with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic exergy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new cogeneration power system with two energy sources of fuel chemical energy and liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic energy, and two outputs of electrical power and cooling power. Due to the advanced integration of system and cascade utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, the system has excellent energy saving: chemical energy of fuel and LNG cryogenic energy are

Shimin Deng; Hongguang Jin; Ruixian Cai; Rumou Lin

2004-01-01

218

Large LNG fire thermal radiation—modeling issues and hazard criteria revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models for evaluating the exclusion (hazard) zones around LNG fires in both US Regulations and NFPA-59A standard are prescriptive and require the consideration of large LNG releases. These models do not consider the effects of the combustion dynamics associated with large size pool burning. Oxygen starvation in the core of LNG fires of diameters larger than about 35 m

Phani K. Raj

2005-01-01

219

A probabilistic assessment of design sloshing pressure time histories in LNG tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The violent motion (sloshing) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in cargo tanks has attracted significant attention. Transformations of the LNG market have led to the increased transport of LNG in partially filled tanks, but established technology is mainly based on engineering experience with completely filled containers. This paper investigates a large sample of sloshing pressure measurements. It focuses on the

Mateusz Graczyk; Torgeir Moan

2008-01-01

220

Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations

Q.-S Chen; J. Wegrzyn; V. Prasad

2004-01-01

221

Impact Vaporization of Planetesimal Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree of mixing and chemical equilibration between the iron cores of planetesimals and the mantle of the growing Earth has important consequences for understanding the end stages of Earth's formation and planet formation in general. At the Sandia Z machine, we developed a new shock-and-release technique to determine the density on the liquid-vapor dome of iron, the entropy on the iron shock Hugoniot, and the criteria for shock-induced vaporization of iron. We find that the critical shock pressure to vaporize iron is 507(+65,-85) GPa and show that decompression from a 15 km/s impact will initiate vaporization of iron cores, which is a velocity that is readily achieved at the end stages of planet formation. Vaporization of the iron cores increases dispersal of planetesimal cores, enables more complete chemical equilibration of the planetesimal cores with Earth's mantle, and reduces the highly siderophile element abundance on the Moon relative to Earth due to the expanding iron vapor exceeding the Moon's escape velocity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Securities Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Kraus, R. G.; Root, S.; Lemke, R. W.; Stewart, S. T.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Mattsson, T. R.

2013-12-01

222

Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators  

SciTech Connect

Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

True, W.R.

1998-11-16

223

Analysis of LNG peakshaving-facility release-prevention systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of release prevention systems for a reference LNG peakshaving facility. An overview assessment of the reference peakshaving facility, which preceeded this effort, identified 14 release scenarios which are typical of the potential hazards involved in the operation of LNG peakshaving facilities. These scenarios formed the basis for this more detailed study. Failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis were used to estimate the expected frequency of each release scenario for the reference peakshaving facility. In addition, the effectiveness of release prevention, release detection, and release control systems were evaluated.

Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Powers, T.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Hobbs, J.M.; Daling, P.M.

1982-05-01

224

Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover

C. A. Stokes; D. E. Steppe

1991-01-01

225

Lng vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment. Final report, April 1991-June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e. Btu/lb and Btu/gal), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

Powars, C.A.; Moyer, C.B.; Lowell, D.D.

1994-02-01

226

Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery. Work was done in the following areas: (1) production of natural gas pipeline methane for liquefaction at an existing LNG facility, (2) production of LNG from sewage digester gas, (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling in the production of LNG, liquid CO{sub 2} and pipeline methane, (4) cost estimates for an LNG production facility at the Arden Landfill in Washington PA.

Brown, W.R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L.A.

2000-10-20

227

Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local examen LNG 1010 Langage et cognition Daniel Valois Jeudi 16 h 19 h  

E-print Network

Local Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local examen LNG 1010 Langage et cognition Daniel Valois Jeudi 16 h à 19 h LNG 1080 Lexicologie, sémantique et morphologie Mireille Tremblay Vendredi 8 h 30 à 11 h 30 LNG 1120 Histoire de la langue française Lundi 8 h 30 à 11 h 30 LNG 1125 Temps et espaces

Parrott, Lael

228

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to verify that each of the following conditions does not impair the structural integrity or safety of the tank: (a) Foundation and tank movement during normal operation and after a major meteorological or geophysical...

2011-10-01

229

Robust management and pricing of LNG contracts with cancellation ...  

E-print Network

110 Estrada Dona Castorina, Jardim Botanico, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ... plement to their own natural gas (NG) resources. A proper mix of NG and LNG contracts allows a gas company not only to diversify its portfolio, but to hedge risk better.

2012-12-18

230

Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait  

E-print Network

on the deck of the LNG terminal concept........................................50 33. The global moments on the vertical slab between the two tanks.......................................52 34. Max Fx for Node 415 (Airy vs Stream...).............................................................................53 35. Min Fz for Node 415 (Airy vs Stream)..............................................................................54 36. Min Mx for Node 415 (Airy vs Stream)............................................................................55 37...

Aljeeran, Fares

2006-08-16

231

Soot-Free Combustion Of Methane And LNG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neither methane nor liquefied natural gas (LNG) produces soot when burned in turbine simulator with liquid oxygen under conditions like those in gas-generator section of rocket engine. Experiments conducted to determine if these fuels behave similarly to other hydrocarbon fuels, which give off soot coating turbomachinery and reducing performance.

Bossard, John

1992-01-01

232

Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam.  

PubMed

Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the nominal deck on a conventional carrier, which is protected only by a steel weather cover from exposure to heat from a tank-engulfing fire, is being underestimated. Secondly, aluminum foil-covered polystyrene foam insulation applied to the exterior of the LNG tank is protected above the deck only by the steel weather cover under which the insulation could begin to melt in as little as 1-3 min, and could completely liquefy in as few as 10 min. U.S. and International Regulations require that the insulations on the above-deck portion of tanks have approved fire proofing and stability under fire exposure. Polystyrene foam, as currently installed on LNG carriers, does not appear to meet these criteria. As a result of these findings, but giving no consideration to the significant potential for further damage if the polystyrene should burn, the boil-off rate is predicted to be an order-of-magnitude higher than provided for by current PRV sizing requirements. PMID:18372107

Havens, Jerry; Venart, James

2008-10-30

233

Reliability assessment of reliquefaction systems on LNG carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an introduction to reliability assessment of reliquefaction systems for boil-off gas (BOG) on LNG carriers with focus on redundancy optimization and maintenance strategies. The reliability modeling is based on a time-dependent Markov approach. Four different system options are studied, with varying degree of redundancy. Failures in the reliquefaction system may require flaring of the BOG, and the

Chang Kwang Pil; Marvin Rausand; Jørn Vatn

2008-01-01

234

Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates

William Lehr; Debra Simecek-Beatty

2004-01-01

235

A predictive model for rollover in stratified LNG tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incubation period preceding ''rollover'' within a stratified LNG tank involves intensive heat and mass transfers between layers. Numerical integration of equations describing these processes leads to predicted time-history and boil-off characteristics which are in excellent agreement with Sarsten's (1972) documentation of the LaSpezia rollover incident.

Janet Heestand; J. W. Meader; C. W. Shipman

1983-01-01

236

Development of mid-scale and floating LNG facilities  

SciTech Connect

The development of large-scale base load LNG facilities has dominated the process industry for decades. However, in many areas of the world, base load facilities are not feasible due to inadequate reserves. Mid-scale facilities can be economically attractive in certain locations and, in fact, have several advantages which aid in their development. The PRICO II LNG liquefaction process offers a process configuration which fits well with these developments. The process has been used in a range of facility sizes from base load to peak shaving applications. In addition to onshore facilities, floating liquefaction facilities can be developed on barges or tankers to handle mid-scale to large scale LNG production. Concepts for several sizes and configurations of floating facilities have been developed using the PRICO II process integrated into a total production, liquefaction, and load-out system. This paper covers the PRICO process concept, application areas and facility configurations which are currently being developed for mid-scale and floating LNG facilities.

Price, B.C.; Mortko, R.A. [Black and Veatch Pritchard, Inc., Overland Park, KS (United States)

1998-12-31

237

Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use  

SciTech Connect

This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

1993-12-01

238

The development of mathematical model for cool down technique in the LNG pipe-line system  

SciTech Connect

An increase in demand for LNG as energy source can be expected since LNG is clean, in stable supply and produces low levels of carbon dioxide. Expansion of various LNG plants is planned. However, the optimal design of the LNG pipe-line systems has not yet been determined since the LNG transport phenomenon is not yet fully understood clearly. For example, in the LNG pipe-line system, large temperature gradients occur when the LNG transport starts. Therefore, although the necessity to cool down the pipe in order to minimize serious deformation is clear, the studies to understand it quantitatively have not been carried out. In this study, experiments on a commercial plant scale and a computer simulation, made up of structural analysis and two phase flow simulation were carried out to establish a prediction model of pipe deformation and to understand the phenomenon in the pipe.

Hamaogi, Kenji; Takatani, Kouji; Kosugi, Sanai; Fukunaga, Takeshi

1999-07-01

239

Supplying LNG markets using nitrogen rejection units at Exxon Shute Creek Facility  

SciTech Connect

Interest is growing in the United States for using Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) as an alternative transportation fuel for diesel and as a source of heating fuel. For gas producers, LNG offers a premium price opportunity versus conventional natural gas sales. To supply this developing market, two existing Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) at the Exxon Shute Creek Facility in Wyoming were modified allowing LNG extraction and truck loading for transport to customers. The modifications involved adding heat exchanger capacity to the NRUs to compensate for the refrigeration loss when LNG is removed. Besides allowing for LNG extraction, the modifications also debottlenecked the NRUs resulting in higher methane recovery and lower compression costs. With the modifications, the NRUs are capable of producing for sale 60,000 gpd (5 MMscfd gas equivalent) of high purity LNG. Total investment has been $5 million with initial sales of LNG occurring in September 1994.

Hanus, P.M.; Kimble, E.L. [Exxon Co. USA, Midland, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

240

Potential for long-term LNG supplies to the United States  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been a component of the US gas supply mix since 1970. Between 1970 and 1981 LNG terminals were constructed that have the current capability of receiving annual LNG shipments equivalent to about 700 Bcf. Additional terminal capacity was proposed and sites were under consideration in 1985 when reduced demand for natural gas and softening of gas prices resulted in the termination of plans for new capacity and suspension of contracts for imports. In the 1990s, however, shipments of LNG are again being received, and it is expected that imports of LNG by seaborne trade will play a significant role in meeting the growing US requirements for natural gas supply. It is expected that all existing US terminals will be operational by the mid-1990s, and the existing terminal capacity would be fully utilized by the year 2000. The report summarizes the analysis of the LNG terminal capacity aimed at identifying future LNG liquefaction and transportation needs.

Not Available

1992-02-01

241

Analysis of LNG import terminal release prevention systems  

SciTech Connect

The release prevention systems of liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal were analyzed. A series of potential release scenarios were analyzed to determine the frequency of the release events, the probability these releases are not stopped or isolated by emergency shutdown systems, the estimated release quantities, and the critical components of the system. The two plant areas identified as being most significant with respect to safety are the unloading system and the storage system. Rupture of the main transfer line and gross failure of the storage tanks are the two release scenarios of primary safety interest. Reducing the rate of failure by improved design, better maintenance and testing, or adding redundancy of the critical system components for these plant areas and release scenarios will result in improved safety. Several design alternatives which have the potential to significantly reduce the probability of a large release of LNG occurring at an import terminal are identified. These design alternatives would reduce the probability of a large release of LNG by reducing the expected number of failures which could cause a release or by reducing the magnitude of releases that do occur. All of these alternatives are technically feasible and have been used or considered for use in at least one LNG facility. A more rigorous analysis of the absolute risk of LNG import terminal operation is necessary before the benefits of these design alternatives can be determined. In addition, an economic evaluation of these alternatives must be made so the costs and benefits can be compared. It is concludd that for remotely located facilities many of these alternatives are probably not justified; however, for facilities located in highly populated areas, these alternatives deserve serious consideration.

Baker, E G

1982-04-01

242

Non-contraceptive uses of levonorgestrel-releasing hormone system (LNG-IUS)—A systematic enquiry and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS) were originally developed as a method of contraception in the mid 1970s. The only LNG-IUS approved for general public use is the Mirena® LNG-IUS, which releases 20mcg of levonorgestrel per day directly in to the uterine cavity. However, new lower dose (10 and 14mcg per day) and smaller sized LNG-IUS (MLS, FibroPlant-LNG) are currently under clinical

Rajesh Varma; Deepali Sinha; Janesh K. Gupta

2006-01-01

243

LNG scene; Qatar's export plans intensify; sale of Columbia's U. S. terminal in doubt  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Activity continues to percolate in Qatar's massive liquefied natural gas export program. In the latest development, France's Ste. Nationale Elf Aquitaine and Japan's Sumitomo Corp. agreed to promote development of Qatar's LNG export project based on supergiant North Offshore gas field and step up discussions with potential buyers in coming months. Target markets lie in Japan and the Far East. Among other LNG operations, Columbia Gas System Inc. last week the it was told by Shell LNG Co. it is unlikely that presale conditions will be met prior to Shell LNG's scheduled purchase July 29 of 40.8% of the stock in Columbia LNG. Columbia LNG owns and LNG receiving terminal at Cove Point, Md., with a design sendout capacity of 1 bcfd of regasified LNG. That makes it the biggest in type U.S. Columbia the it had not received work on what action Shell LNG will take on the purchase agreement. However, failure to meet the undisclosed conditions will allow Shell LNG to end the agreement.

Not Available

1992-07-20

244

Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG during saturated flow boiling in a horizontal tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG (liquefied natural gas) have been measured in a horizontal smooth tube with an inner diameter of 8 mm. The experiments were conducted at inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa with a heat flux of 8-36 kW m-2, and mass flux of 49.2-201.8 kg m-2 s-1. The effect of vapor quality, inlet pressure, heat flux and mass flux on the heat transfer characteristic are discussed. The comparisons of the experimental data with the predicted value by existing correlations are analyzed. Zou et al. (2010) correlation shows the best accuracy with 24.1% RMS deviation among them. Moreover four frictional pressure drop methods are also chosen to compare with the experimental database.

Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

2013-12-01

245

Using LNG as a Fuel in Heavy-Duty Tractors  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the lack of operational data on alternative fuel heavy-truck trucks, NREL contracted with the Trucking Research Institute (TRI) in 1994 to obtain a cooperative agreement with Liquid Carbonic. The purpose of this agreement was to (1) purchase and operate liquid natural gas- (LNG-) powered heavy-duty tractor-trailers with prototype Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) Series 60 natural gas (S60G) engines in over-the-road commercial service applications; and (2) collect and provide operational data to DDC to facilitate the on-road prototype development of the engine and to NREL for the Alternative Fuels Data Center. The vehicles operated from August 1994 through April of 1997 and led to a commercially available, emissions-certified S60G in 1998. This report briefly documents the engine development, the operational characteristics of LNG, and the lessons learned during the project.

Liquid Carbonic, Inc. and Trucking Research Institute

1999-08-09

246

US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

Attanasi, E.D.

1994-01-01

247

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

248

Zero-Emission Combined Power Cycle Using LNG Cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential zero emission combined power generation plant fired by liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been investigated. A mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2)-steam is used as the working fluid of a gas turbine cycle, which replaces the normal combustion-in-air products and air, notably as the thermal ballast for the control of flame temperature. Oxygen (O2) is used as the fuel

Sanjayan Velautham; Takehiro Ito; Yasuyuki Takata

2001-01-01

249

Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues  

SciTech Connect

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1998-02-01

250

Development of a simple 5-15 litre per hour LNG refueling system  

SciTech Connect

A variable capacity, small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) refueling system has been designed, built, and tested at the Cryofuel Systems` Laboratory, University of Victoria, Canada. The system, designed to continuously liquefy between 5 and 15 litres of NG, utilizes liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) as its cold source and contains most of the components found in a typical commercial refueling system; i.e. purification system, liquefier, LNG storage, automatic control and monitoring system. This paper describes the design of the system as well as the results of a set of LNG production trials. The performance of the system exceeded expected LNG production rates, but at levels of efficiency somewhat less than predicted. Cryofuel Systems expects to use this system to implement an LNG vehicle demonstration program and to gain experience in the integration of LNG refueling systems which exploit advanced liquefaction technology such as magnetic refrigeration.

Corless, A.J.; Sarangi, S.; Hall, J.L.; Barclay, J.A. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

251

Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues  

SciTech Connect

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1997-07-01

252

Design advanced for large-scale, economic, floating LNG plant  

SciTech Connect

A floating LNG plant design has been developed which is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. This technology will allow monetization of small marginal fields and improve the economics of large fields. Mobil`s world-scale plant design has a capacity of 6 million tons/year of LNG and up to 55,000 b/d condensate produced from 1 bcfd of feed gas. The plant would be located on a large, secure, concrete barge with a central moonpool. LNG storage is provided for 250,000 cu m and condensate storage for 650,000 bbl. And both products are off-loaded from the barge. Model tests have verified the stability of the barge structure: barge motions are low enough to permit the plant to continue operation in a 100-year storm in the Pacific Rim. Moreover, the barge is spread-moored, eliminating the need for a turret and swivel. Because the design is generic, the plant can process a wide variety of feed gases and operate in different environments, should the plant be relocated. This capability potentially gives the plant investment a much longer project life because its use is not limited to the life of only one producing area.

Naklie, M.M. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-06-30

253

Dispersion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A webcast presentation by Dr. Timothy Spangler (Director of the COMET Program and a former air quality consultant). This 25-minute lecture provides an overview of the basics of dispersion, the effects of different atmospheric conditions on dispersion, and how dispersion is commonly modeled after an accidental release of a hazardous material.

COMET

2002-11-12

254

78 FR 53750 - EcoEléctrica, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG Supply Pipeline Project and Request for...discuss the environmental impacts of the LNG Supply Pipeline Project involving construction...ctrica) at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Pe[ntilde]uelas,...

2013-08-30

255

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

256

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26

257

HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

ANDERSON, T.J.

2006-12-20

258

75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...within the LNG Terminal site; Dredging an approximate 118 acre area in the Patapsco River to 45 feet below mean lower low water to accommodate the LNG vessels and transport of the processed dredge material to its disposal location; and...

2010-03-10

259

LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

Kiani, B.

1990-01-01

260

75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Register Volume 75, Number 183 (Wednesday, September 22, 2010)] [Notices...2010, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101...Rapp, Counsel for Cameron LNG, LLC, 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California...

2010-09-22

261

Seed Dispersal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity and bingo-like game, learners explore why and how seeds spread far from the plants that produce them. To understand natural adaptions that let seeds and fruit be dispersed, learners make modifications to dried beans and peas so they could be dispersed by natural forces like water, air, or an animal moving from one place to another. In the "Seed-Go" Game, learners match ways that seeds are dispersed, to fill rows on the game board.

2012-06-26

262

Water Vapor Imagery: Water Vapor Imagery Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced, interactive tutorial enables learners to discover practical uses for water vapor imagery from weather satellites. The module introduces the concept and function of the water vapor channel of satellite imagery, and teaches how to interpret and apply data obtained from the water vapor channel. At the end of the tutorial, links are provided to real world data collected by NASA satellites where learners can apply the skills they have acquired. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Water Vapor Imagery. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

263

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

2012-03-01

264

Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local examen LNG 6350 Morphologie Jean-Yves Morin Jeudi 16 h 19 h C-9019  

E-print Network

Local Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local examen LNG 6350 Morphologie Jean-Yves Morin Jeudi 16 h à 19 h C-9019 LNG 6360 Phonologie Lundi 16 h à 19 h C-9019 LNG 6570 Neuro et psycholinguistique Gonia Jarema-Arvanitakis Mercredi 8 h 30 à 11 h 30 C-9019 LNG 6775 Sémantique François Lareau Mardi 8 h 30 à 11

Parrott, Lael

265

76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RP11-2136-000; RP11-2137-000] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference On May 27, 2011, pursuant...section 4 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed revised tariff records in Docket...

2011-07-11

266

Numerical Simulation of Sloshing in LNG Tanks with a Compressible Two-Phase Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of liquid dynamics in LNG tanks is getting more and more important with the actual trend of LNG tankers sailing with partially filled tanks. The effect of sloshing liquid in the tanks on pressure levels at the tank walls and on the overall ship motion indicates the relevance of an accurate simulation of the fluid behaviour. This paper

Rik Wemmenhove; Roel Luppes; Arthur E. P. Veldman; Tim Bunnik

2007-01-01

267

Utilization of the cryogenic exergy of liquid natural gas (LNG) for the production of electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid natural gas (LNG) delivered by means of sea-ships is compressed and then evaporated before its introduction to the system of pipelines. The possibilities of the utilization of cryogenic exergy of LNG for electricity production without any additional combustion of any its portion, have been analyzed. Three variants of the plant have been investigated. A cascade system with two working

Jan Szargut; Ireneusz Szczygiel

2009-01-01

268

Visual Simulation of Offshore Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals in a Decision-Making Context1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to legislation passed in 1977, the Coastal Commission tock part in a study analyzing potential offshore Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) sites and the types of terminals that might occupy those sites. The study had to evaluate the engineering feasibility of siting an LNG receiving terminal offshore in relation to the maximum protection of coastal resource provisions required by the

Brian E. Baird; Stephen R. J. Sheppard; Richard C. Smardon

269

Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.

2000-11-07

270

A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia–water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component

Xiaojun Shi; Defu Che

2009-01-01

271

A combined power cycle using refuse incineration and LNG cold energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to develop a combined power generation cycle using refuse incineration and LNG cold energy, and to conduct parametric analysis to investigate the effects of key parameters on the thermal and exergy efficiencies. The combined cycle consists of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with refuse incinerator and a LNG cold energy cycle. The combined cycle is

T Miyazaki; Y. T Kang; A Akisawa; T Kashiwagi

2000-01-01

272

Risk-based siting considerations for LNG terminals – Comparative perspectives of United States & Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siting regulations and industrial standards for liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals are evolving along different paths within Europe and the United States (U.S.). The 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 190 continues to delineate the United States process to adopt and revise safety regulations pertaining to LNG terminals and peak shaving plant sitting.11Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part

Frank A. Licari; C. David Weimer

2011-01-01

273

Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car  

SciTech Connect

Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

NONE

1994-03-07

274

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2011-07-01

275

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2012-07-01

276

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2014-07-01

277

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2013-07-01

278

LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

1993-01-06

279

75 FR 57269 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. CP10-477-000] Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project and Request for Comments...discuss the environmental impacts of the LNG Truck Loading Project involving...

2010-09-20

280

75 FR 61475 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. CP10-496-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Cameron LNG Export Project and Request for Comments...the environmental impacts of the Cameron LNG Export Project involving the export of...

2010-10-05

281

75 FR 353 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CP07-62-000; CP07-63-000] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC...Maryland for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project December 29...and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas...

2010-01-05

282

75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and CP07-63-000] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC...Pennsylvania for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project April 13...and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas...

2010-04-20

283

Comparative Life-cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity Generation  

E-print Network

1 Comparative Life-cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity from the LNG life-cycle. Notice that local distribution of natural gas falls outside our analysis boundary. Figure 1S: Domestic Natural Gas Life-cycle. Figure 2S: LNG Life-cycle. Processing Transmission

Jaramillo, Paulina

284

An Analysis of the Risks of a Terrorist Attack on LNG Receiving Facilities in the United States  

E-print Network

An Analysis of the Risks of a Terrorist Attack on LNG Receiving Facilities in the United States #12;An Analysis of the Risks of a Terrorist Attack on LNG Receiving Facilities in the United States 3-D Aerial View from Proposed SES LNG Receiving Facility Site to Downtown Long Beach [White line is 2

Wang, Hai

285

77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Gulf Coast proposes to export LNG from a proposed natural...Texas, which Gulf Coast plans to develop, to any country...Gulf Coast seeks to export this LNG on its own behalf...percent). Gulf Coast plans to develop, own and...liquefaction facility and LNG export terminal at the...

2012-06-04

286

Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na ?wiecie powoduje, ?e produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje si? coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem zwi?zanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze oko?o 111K pod ci?nieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezb?dny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciek?ej w gazow? dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umo?liwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do ró?nych zastosowa?, mi?dzy innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znan? technik? analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na okre?lenie dystrybucji, ?ród?a i wielko?ci nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a wi?c ustali? wytyczne dotycz?ce efektywnego zu?ycia energii. Poniewa? zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego s? energoch?onne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezb?dny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

?aciak, Mariusz

2013-06-01

287

The potential for LNG as a railroad fuel in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

Freight railroad operations in the US represent a substantial opportunity for liquefied natural gas (LNG) to displace diesel fuel. With the promise of achieving an overwhelming economic advantage over diesel fuel, this paper presents some discussion to the question, ``Why is the application of LNG for railroad use in the US moving so slowly?'' A brief overview of the freight railroad operations in the US is given, along with a summary of several railroad LNG demonstration projects. US Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board exhaust emission regulations may cause the railroad industry to move from small-scale LNG demonstration projects to using LNG as a primary freight railroad transportation fuel in selected regions or route-specific applications.

Fritz, S.G.

2000-01-01

288

Fundamental Study on Coking Inhibition for Regenerative Cooled LNG Rocket Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is lower cost, higher density and easier handling than Liquefied hydrogen (LH2), therefore, is expected as the most promising candidate for the next generation rocket propellant. For LNG propellant, a full expander or an expander cycle rocket engine with regenerative cooling system is expected because its molecular weight is middle value between LH2 and Kerosene. Temperature of turbopump driven LNG gas should be higher to improve the specific impulse or combustion pressure for these rocket engine. In this case, coking of LNG in heat exchanger or regenerative cooling system becomes a significant problem. In the present study, two coking inhibition methods, n-C6H14 coating and graphite coating, are presented and their effects are evaluated. Contrary to our expectation, the former method is accelerated the LNG pyrolysis, resulting of coking promotion. On the other hand graphite coating can successfully inhibit coking up to 973K.

??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

289

Feasibility of LNG-IUS in a baboon model  

PubMed Central

Background The baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) is an attractive model for intrauterine contraception research due to anatomic similarity to the human. Although non-human primates have previously been used for intrauterine contraception research, it was unknown whether modern intrauterine devices (IUDs) can be placed in an anatomically similar position in the baboon. This study sought to determine whether human-use IUDs could be seated correctly in the uterus of the baboon. Study Design The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) was placed ex vivo into two baboon uteri collected at necropsy and in 3 living, reproductively proven baboons. Results Correct placement of human-use IUDs in the baboon was confirmed by both MRI and ultrasound. This study establishes that a LNG-IUS can be inserted into the baboon uterus and maintained without clinically adverse effects for at least 6 months. The positioning of the device is similar to positioning found in women. Conclusion These findings provide important support for studying IUD safety and efficacy in the baboon. PMID:23114737

Bell Jason, Jason D.; Bergin, Ingrid L.; Natavio, Melissa F.; Jibrel, Fatima; Zochowski, Melissa K.; Weadock, William J.; Swanson, Scott D.; Aronoff, David M.; Patton, Dorothy L.

2012-01-01

290

Water Vapor Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure the total precipitable water vapor (column water vapor) in the atmosphere above an observer's site. Students point a GLOBE/GIFTS water vapor instrument at the sun and record the voltage readings from a digital voltmeter. They observe sky conditions near the Sun and perform the Cloud Protocols. Intended outcomes are that students understand the concept that the atmosphere prevents some of the sun's light from reaching Earth's surface, how water vapor measurements relate to the hydrologic cycle, and how greenhouse gases, such as water vapor, play an important role in weather and climate. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

291

Stratospheric water vapor feedback.  

PubMed

We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)?K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H

2013-11-01

292

Vapor phase pyrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor phase pyrolysis process is designed exclusively for the lunar production of oxygen. In this concept, granulated raw material (soil) that consists almost entirely of metal oxides is vaporized and the vapor is raised to a temperature where it dissociates into suboxides and free oxygen. Rapid cooling of the dissociated vapor to a discrete temperature causes condensation of the suboxides, while the oxygen remains essentially intact and can be collected downstream. The gas flow path and flow rate are maintained at an optimum level by control of the pressure differential between the vaporization region and the oxygen collection system with the aid of the environmental vacuum.

Steurer, Wolfgang

1992-01-01

293

A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed by fourth quarter 2005 and the terminal could be operational by 2009. This terminal allows the large volume importa

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

2005-05-31

294

The effects of refueling system operating pressure on LNG and CNG economics  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas (NG) liquefaction and compression are energy intensive processes which make up a significant portion of the overall delivered price of liquefied NG (LNG) and compressed NG (CNG). Increases in system efficiency and/or process changes which reduce the required amount of work will improve the overall economics of NG as a vehicle fuel. This paper describes a method of reducing the delivered cost of LNG by liquefying the gas above ambient pressures. Higher pressure LNG is desirable because OEM NG engine manufacturers would like NG delivered to the engine intake manifold at elevated pressures to avoid compromising engine performance. Producing LNG at higher pressures reduces the amount of work required for liquefaction but it is only practical when the LNG is liquefied on-site. Using a thermo-economic approach, it is shown that NG fuel costs can be reduced by as much as 10% when producing LNG at higher pressures. A reduction in the delivered cost is also demonstrated for CNG produced on-site from high pressure LNG.

Corless, A.J.; Barclay, J.A. [Univ. of Victoria (Canada)

1996-12-31

295

Analysis of the sloshing flows of a LNG cargo tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sloshing flows in a LNG cargo tank model (1/50 scale) of a ship are measured by an embedded panoramicPIV system. The measurement system consists of a Nd-Yag laser(120mJ, 15Hz), two cameras(1k x 1k) and a host computer. Four experimental cases were tested for the tank model, in which swaying motions are made by a 6 DOF-motion platform. The amplitudes of swaying are 9.76mm and 29.29mm, and the swaying frequencies are 0.633Hz and 0.828Hz. The measurement regions are the vertical plane 50mm away from the front wall of the tank where a pump tower is installed. It was verified that the flow patterns of the sloshing are similar to each other when the swaying amplitudes are similar.

Doh, Deog Hee; Jo, Hyo Je; Shin, Byeong Rog; Ryu, Min Cheol; Hwang, Yoon Sik

2011-10-01

296

World`s first SPB LNG carrier ``POLAR EAGLE``  

SciTech Connect

The world`s first Self-supporting Prismatic-shape IMO type B (SPB) LNG Carrier named ``POLAR EAGLE`` has been delivered to Phillips 66 Natural Gas Company and Marathon Oil Company in June, 1993. The cargo containment system installed onboard the vessel, SPB cargo containment system, was developed by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI) and fully complies with IMO Gas Carrier Code for a type B independent tank. ``POLAR EAGLE`` was constructed in the authors` Aichi works and delivered 34 months after the contract of the vessel. Its performance was confirmed through various kinds of tests and inspections during construction of the vessel. Results of typical tests and inspections are introduced.

Aoki, Eiji; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Koichiro [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-12-31

297

Developments in non-utility uses of liquefied natural gas (LNG)  

SciTech Connect

The development uses, and market for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is addressed. Applications discussed include aircraft fuel, rocket fuel, diesel locomotive fuel, and as a refrigeration source for a shrimp boat in a demonstration program. 3 figs. (CBS)

Anderson, P.J.

1988-01-01

298

77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [USCG-2006-24644] Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Deepwater port, application withdrawal...

2012-06-26

299

33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.703 Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that—...

2010-07-01

300

49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2013-10-01

301

49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2012-10-01

302

49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2013-10-01

303

49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2011-10-01

304

49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2014-10-01

305

49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2011-10-01

306

49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2012-10-01

307

49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2014-10-01

308

Opportunities for LNG supply infrastructure and demand growth in US and International markets  

E-print Network

Countries are looking beyond their borders for options to satiate a forecasted increase in natural gas consumption. A strong option for importing natural gas is by way of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply chain where ...

Connell, Richard Perry

2004-01-01

309

Results of the evaluation and preliminary validation of a primary LNG mass flow standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LNG custody transfer measurements at large terminals have been based on ship tank level gauging for more than 50 years. Flow meter application has mainly been limited to process control in spite of the promise of simplified operations, potentially smaller uncertainties and better control over the measurements for buyers. The reason for this has been the lack of LNG flow calibration standards as well as written standards. In the framework of the EMRP1 ‘Metrology for LNG’ project, Van Swinden Laboratory (VSL) has developed a primary LNG mass flow standard. This standard is so far the only one in the world except for a liquid nitrogen flow standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The VSL standard is based on weighing and holds a Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) of 0.12% to 0.15%. This paper discusses the measurement principle, results of the uncertainty validation with LNG and the differences between water and LNG calibration results of four Coriolis mass flow meters. Most of the calibrated meters do not comply with their respective accuracy claims. Recommendations for further improvement of the measurement uncertainty will also be discussed.

van der Beek, Mijndert; Lucas, Peter; Kerkhof, Oswin; Mirzaei, Maria; Blom, Gerard

2014-10-01

310

Basic research opportunities to support LNG technology. Topical report, July 1989-December 1990  

SciTech Connect

As additional gas reserves come on production during the next decade in areas with limited local markets, worldwide LNG trade is expected to expand. The availability of dedicated LNG tankers may well determine the rate at which this growth occurs. Plans are being made now to bring the four U.S. import terminals up to capacity during this period. As LNG becomes a more significant factor in the domestic natural gas market, consideration should be given to applications other than simply regassifying and comingling it with other supplies entering the pipeline grid. The higher energy density and the low temperature of LNG offer opportunities for expanding the use of natural gas into the industrial and transportation sectors. Greater use of LNG in peak shaving and intermediate storage may also provide benefits in increased reliability and performance of the gas transmission and distribution grid. In order to provide new and more cost-effective technologies to respond to these opportunities, it is recommended that GRI broaden the range of research it is currently performing on LNG.

Groten, B.

1991-03-01

311

Comparison of LNG, CNG, and diesel transit bus economics. Topical report, July 1992-September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the report is to compare the expected costs of operating a transit bus fleet on liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and diesel fuel. The special report is being published prior to the overall project final report in response to the current high level of interest in LNG transit buses. It focuses exclusively on the economics of LNG buses as compared with CNG and diesel buses. The reader is referred to the anticipated final report, or to a previously published 'White Paper' report (Reference 1), for information regarding LNG vehicle and refueling system technology and/or the economics of other LNG vehicles. The LNG/CNG/diesel transit bus economics comparison is based on total life-cycle costs considering all applicable capital and operating costs. The costs considered are those normally borne by the transit property, i.e., the entity facing the bus purchase decision. These costs account for the portion normally paid by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA). Transit property net costs also recognize the sale of emissions reduction credits generated by using natural gas (NG) engines which are certified to levels below standards (particularly for NOX).

Powars, C.A.; Moyer, C.B.; Luscher, D.R.; Lowell, D.D.; Pera, C.J.

1993-10-20

312

Diagnostic measurements of fuel spray dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plume shape, vaporization, droplet size distribution and number density of a fuel spray were studied with conventional and novel measurement techniques. Minor differences in spray plume shape were observed by measurements with photography, pulsed laser shadowgraphy and inline infrared spectroscopy. Laser Mie scattering showed the dispersion of small numbers of droplets beyond spray boundaries as determined by other measurements. A new optical method for nonintrusive, local, time-averaged measurement of vapor concentration, droplet size distribution and number density within a spray is introduced. For the spray studied this method showed that vaporization is confined within the spray plume and that vapor concentration and the concentration of small-diameter droplets exhibit analogous behavior.

Tishkoff, J. M.; Hammond, D. C., Jr.; Chraplyvy, A. R.

1980-11-01

313

Best available practices for lng fueling of fleet vehicles. Topical report, March-November 1995, tasks 85 and 86  

SciTech Connect

The report provides essential information on the design and operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations for fleet vehicles. The report serves to evaluate current practices in LNG fleet vehicle fueling station designs, and provide fleet operators with a tool for use in discussions with permitting agencies, engineering firms, fabricators, and contractors who permit, design, or construct LNG fueling stations. Representative sites (i.e., LNG fueling stations) were evaluated for technical feasibility, customer satisfaction, economics, operating and maintenance history, problems encountered/overcome, and regulatory environment. The compiled information in this report reveals that LNG fueling stations have advanced to the point where LNG is a viable alternative to gasoline and/or diesel fuel.

Midgett, D.E.

1996-02-01

314

Vapor Pressure Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Professor Shuzo Ohe of the Graduate School of Chemical Engineering and the Science University or Tokyo, this site offers vapor pressure data. Available in graph form, data represent vapor pressure (mmHg) as a function of temperature (C, or F). Substances are listed alphabetically and include acetaldehyde, acetic acid, benzene, butane, carbon dioxide, and water, to name a few.

Ohe, Shuzo.

315

Hydrocarbon vapor recovery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most vapor recovery units are available as packaged units, designed to fit the specific operating conditions of the lease on which they are installed. Actual installation normally requires only connection of the suction and discharge piping and addition of necessary power and control circuits. The content of packaging of vapor recovery units starts with a basic design incorporating (1) compressors;

1974-01-01

316

Fluorescence of Naphthacene Vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption spectrum of naphthacene vapor is similar to that in solution. There is an absorption band with pronounced vibrational structure running from about 5000 to 3500 Å and a second stronger band from 2700 Å to shorter wavelengths. We have examined the fluorescence spectrum of the vapor at low pressures, such that molecules have no collisions during the lifetime

R. Williams; G. J. Goldsmith

1963-01-01

317

Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical  

EPA Science Inventory

The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

318

Using LNG to meet the challenge of gas composition  

SciTech Connect

Currently NGV fuel providers are taking actions in response to customer concerns regarding moisture and oil in compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel. Dryers are being installed and oil coalescing or non-lubricated compression equipment is being evaluated in order to minimize problems. Some utilities actively pursuing the NGV market utilize propane-air peak shaving plants to meet cold weather distribution systems demands. The effects of adding these heavier hydrocarbons have not yet appeared to result in major NGV engine problems. However, commercialization of new engine technologies will result in engines that are more fuel sensitive. As the market matures and engine tolerances narrow, increasingly stringent fuel quality standards will be developed and enforced. The Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Partnership has a proposed plan for its Fuel Composition Project which tentatively targets establishing an enforcement mechanisms for meeting gas composition standards in all fifty states as early as December 1996. Propane-air peak shaving utilities need to evaluate how they will address NGV gas quality requirements or risk serious engine problems and customer dissatisfaction. LNG may be a viable solution to meeting gas composition requirements.

Pehrson, N.C. [Minnegasco, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-12-31

319

Vacuum vapor deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

Poorman, Richard M. (inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (inventor)

1995-01-01

320

Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10°C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver—on demand—continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290fg/lto1.05?g/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process.

Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

2006-08-01

321

Vapor resistant arteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

322

Study of power generation systems for CO2 collection: LNG combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power generation system for CO2 collection was studied. When a pressure swing adsorption method is used to separate CO2 from exhaust gas of conventional power plant (LNG (liquefied natural gas) combined cycle power plant), three stage process is required and 5.1 percent power of total power generation is consumed. For CO2 closed reheat gas turbine combined cycle power generation system where oxygen is used to combust fuel and to avoid nitrogen mixture in exhaust gas by oxygen blow out, net generation efficiency is 36.8 percent owing to oxygen generation and power plant consumtion. For a LNG reformed CO removal combined cycle power generating system where hydrogen is separared from LNG reformed gas to supply to gas turbine and remained CO is combusted in the reformer to collect CO2, net generation efficiency is 38.5 percent after subtracting power to generate oxygen and power consumed in the power plant. For a LNG reformed MC type fuel cell power generation system where LNG is reformed to supply fuel to the MC type fuel cell and oxygen is supplied to oxygen pole, final net generation efficiency becomes 49.2 percent, indicating very high efficiency.

Moritsuka, H.; Hamamatsu, T.; Ishikawa, H.

1989-10-01

323

Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

2011-06-01

324

Qatargas exporting LNG from Qatar`s new Ras Laffan Port  

SciTech Connect

When the 135,000 cu m LNG carrier Al Zubarah departed Ras Laffan Port in December, Qatar entered a new era of commerce that will both boost the emirate`s economic development and influence energy trade around the world. The event capped more than a decade of planning, design, and construction of Ras Laffan Port--the world`s newest and largest LNG exporting facility. During the 1980s, the focus in Qatar was on exploration and development of North field, which holds the world`s largest reserves of nonassociated natural gas. In the 1990s, efforts concentrated on establishing a direct production and export link between North field, the new multi-billion-dollar Qatar Liquefied Gas Co. (Qatargas) gas liquefaction plant at Ras Laffan, and LNG export facilities at the 8.5 sq km Ras Laffan Port. Markets of the Far East will be first to be served by LNG from Ras Laffan Port. Two 25-year LNG supply contracts have been signed with buyers in Japan and South Korea, and negotiations are under way with potential customers from China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The paper describes the port, its operations, and export projects.

NONE

1997-02-24

325

Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

Hayes, Mark Hanley

326

AMTEC vapor-vapor series connected cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) having a plurality of cells structurally connected in series to form a septum dividing a plenum into two chambers, and electrically connected in series, is provided with porous metal anodes and porous metal cathodes in the cells. The cells may be planar or annular, and in either case a metal alkali vapor at a high temperature is provided to the plenum through one chamber on one side of the wall and returned to a vapor boiler after condensation at a chamber on the other side of the wall in the plenum. If the cells are annular, a heating core may be placed along the axis of the stacked cells. This arrangement of series-connected cells allows efficient generation of power at high voltage and low current.

Underwood, Mark L. (inventor); Williams, Roger M. (inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (inventor); Nakamura, Barbara J. (inventor); Oconnor, Dennis E. (inventor)

1995-01-01

327

Gasoline Vapor Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

1979-01-01

328

Biofiltration of methanol vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofiltration of solvent and fuel vapors may offer a cost-effective way to comply with increasingly strict air emission standards. An important step in the development of this technology is to derive and validate mathematical models of the biofiltration process for predictive and scaleup calculations. For the study of methanol vapor biofiltration, an 8-membered bacterial consortium was obtained from methanol-exposed soil.

Zarook Shareefdeen; Basil C. Baltzis; Young-Sook Oh; Richard Bartha

1993-01-01

329

Directed vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the invention, design, construction, experimental evaluation and modeling of a new physical vapor deposition technique (U.S. Patent #5,534,314) for high rate, efficient deposition of refractory elements, alloys, and compounds onto flat or curved surfaces. The new Directed Vapor Deposition (DVD) technique examined in this dissertation was distinct from previous physical vapor deposition techniques because it used low vacuum electron beam (e-beam) evaporation in combination with a carrier gas stream to transport and vapor spray deposit metals, ceramics, and semiconducting materials. Because of the system's unique approach to vapor phase materials processing, detailed analyses of critical concepts (e.g. the e-beam accelerating voltage and power required for evaporation, the vacuum pumping capacity necessary to generate specific gas flow velocities exiting a nozzle) were used to reduce to practice a functioning materials synthesis tool. After construction, the ability to create low contamination films of pure metals, semi-conducting materials, and compounds via this new method was demonstrated, and oxide deposition using an oxygen-doped gas stream in combination with a pure metal evaporant source was shown to be feasible. DVD vapor transport characteristics were experimentally investigated with deposition chamber pressure, carrier gas type, and e-beam power being identified as major processing parameters which affected vapor atom trajectories. The low vacuum carrier gas streams employed in DVD showed a dramatic ability to focus the vapor stream during transport to the substrate and thereby enhance material deposition rates and efficiencies significantly under certain process conditions. Conditions for maximum deposition efficiency onto flat substrates and continuous fibers were experimentally identified by varying chamber pressure, carrier gas velocity (Mach number), and e-beam power. Deposition efficiencies peaked at about 0.5 Torr when coating flat or fibrous substrates. Higher Mach numbers led to higher efficiencies below the efficiency peak, but above the peak this Mach number trend reversed. Increasing e-beam power decreased the magnitude of the deposition efficiency peak and shifted it to higher chamber pressures. Fiber coating experiments revealed a maximum deposition efficiency over twice the level expected for pure line-of-sight deposition, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that, for conditions of maximum efficiency, vapor was depositing simultaneously on the front of the fiber facing the incoming vapor and on the fiber's sides and back. The vapor transport and deposition trends appeared to result from vapor atom collisions with gas atoms in the carrier flow, collisions which affected vapor atom form (single atom or clusters), location in the flow, and interaction with the substrate (leading to line and non-line-of-sight coating). Atomic vapor transport in DVD was investigated using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) methods and biatomic collision theory (BCT). For atoms transported to a flat surface perpendicular to the vapor-laden carrier gas stream, the velocity vector during transport and impact location were calculated, making possible determination of adatom deposition efficiency, spatial distribution, impact energy, and incident angle with the substrate. Model results compared favorably with random walk predictions, independent experimental data of sputter atom energy loss, and low e-beam power experimental results. The model suggested that the atoms deposited in a DVD process had a low impact energy (< 0.1 eV) and a broad incident angular distribution with the substrate. The DSMC and BCT models were used to design an improved DVD system with significantly enhanced deposition efficiency.

Groves, James Frederick

330

Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

Beck, Douglas S.

2003-01-10

331

Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control  

SciTech Connect

The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

1982-06-01

332

Puerto Rico`s EcoElectrica LNG/power project marks a project financing first  

SciTech Connect

On Dec. 15, 1997, Enron International and Kenetech Energy Services achieved financial close on the $670 million EcoElectrica liquefied natural gas terminal and cogeneration project proposed for Puerto Rico. The project involves construction of a liquefied natural gas terminal, cogeneration plant, and desalination unit on the southern coast of Puerto Rico, in the Penuelas/Guayanilla area. EcoElectrica will include a 500-mw, combined-cycle cogeneration power plant fueled mainly by LNG imported from the 400 MMcfd Atlantic LNG project on the island of Trinidad. Achieving financial close on a project of this size is always a time-consuming matter and one with a number of challenges. These challenges were increased by the unique nature of both the project and its financing--no project financing had ever before been completed that combined an LNG terminal and power plant. The paper discusses the project, financing details and challenges, key investment considerations, and integrated project prospects.

Lammers, R. [Enron International, Houston, TX (United States); Taylor, S. [Kenetech Energy Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-02-23

333

The utilization of LH2 and LNG cold for generation of electric power by a cryogenic-type Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a regasification process for LNG and LH2, a cryogenic-type Stirling engine combined with an electric generator is used as the main component. This engine is cooled by LNG or LH2 and is heated by hot water rejected from the power station, so that the engine runs and supplies additional electric power together with fuel gas supplied at room temperature.

K. Oshima; Y. Ishizaki; S. Kamiyama; M. Akiyama; M. Okuda

1978-01-01

334

Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water  

Microsoft Academic Search

While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention

Gerald William Wellman; Brian Matthew Melof; Anay Josephine Luketa-Hanlin; Marion Michael Hightower; John Morgan Covan; Louis Alan Gritzo; Michael James Irwin; Michael Jiro Kaneshige; Charles W. Morrow

2004-01-01

335

An Analysis of the Risks of a Terrorist Attack on LNG Receiving Facilities in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placement of liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving facilities in areas of high population or critical infrastructure densities within the United States is a concern because such facilities house flammable materials in quantities sufficient to be potential targets for terrorism. Mitsubishi has proposed the development of an LNG receiving facility in Long Beach, California, the state’s fifth most populous city.

Carl Southwell

2005-01-01

336

76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...business unit of DRI. DCP plans to develop, own, and...LNG onto tankers for export to foreign markets...liquefaction and LNG export services. DCP plans to enter into those contracts...to the date of first export. DCP anticipates...

2011-12-08

337

Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines  

PubMed Central

This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

2012-01-01

338

Vapor-Screen-Density Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Density of vapor screen in wind tunnel maintained for vapor-screen photography. Vapor-screen density controller developed to control reflectivity by closed-loop means. Eliminates large step-response corrections and possesses more than enough frequency response to maintain nearly constant density in vapor screen in undisturbed flow ahead of model. Device enables user to control density of vapor screen via set-point indicator. User given indication of percentage transmittance across test section.

Byrd, James E.

1991-01-01

339

Refrigeration cycles for future base-load LNG plants need a close look  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews the liquefaction cycles which are presently used in base-load liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants, and presents some information for equipment and process selection for new facilities. Twelve base-load LNG facilities are described. The facilities are categorized according to the general type of refrigeration cycle used: classical cascade, mixed refrigerant, and propane-precooled/mixed-refrigerant. Variations exist within each category, depending on the process licensor and the specific requirements at each facility. Each type of refrigeration cycle is described.

Geist, J.M.

1985-02-04

340

Aligning vapor-grown carbon fibers in polydimethylsiloxane using dc electric or magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trace amount of vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs), which, as received, had an aggregated lump form, was completely dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane, a nonpolar viscous liquid, at room temperature by mechanical stirring. Using this uniformly dispersed sample as a starting material, a dc electric or magnetic field was applied to induce the formation of an aligned structure. In situ transmission optical

Tatsuhiro Takahashi; Taichi Murayama; Ayumu Higuchi; Hiroshi Awano; Koichiro Yonetake

2006-01-01

341

Differences in the response of German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) field strains to vapors of pyrethroid formulations.  

PubMed

Late-instar German cockroaches from an insecticide-susceptible field strain (Fairbanks) and four pyrethroid-resistant field strains were exposed to vapors of a cyfluthrin flowable concentrate (FC) and the formulation blank (formulation without the active ingredient). Experiments with other pyrethroid formulations were done with the Fairbanks strain and an insecticide-resistant field strain (K-851) because these strains exemplified the maximum interstrain variation in experiments with the FC. In these experiments, I used a cyfluthrin wettable powder (WP) and its blank, a cyfluthrin emulsifiable concentrate (EC), and a permethrin aerosol and its blank. Vapors of the FC and its blank caused the most rapid dispersal. Dispersal induced by vapors of the WP, EC, and aerosol formulations was low and variable. In general, less of a dispersal response occurred in the resistant strains than in the susceptible strain. The strain mostly highly resistant to pyrethroids (K-851) dispersed slowly compared with the other resistant strains in experiments with the FC and its blank. When vapor-induced dispersal was relatively low (less than 50%), a trend was still evident towards less dispersal in the K-851 strain than in the Fairbanks strain. Although dispersal in experiments with the FC did not differ significantly from that in experiments with the FC formulation blank, mean percentage dispersal at the end of the experiments was higher with the formulation blanks than with the complete formulations in experiments with the WP and permethrin aerosol. PMID:1607473

Ross, M H

1992-02-01

342

Effective Hamiltonian for liquid-vapor interfaces.  

PubMed

Starting from a density functional theory for inhomogeneous fluids we derive an effective Hamiltonian for liquid-vapor interfaces of simple fluids which goes beyond the common phenomenological capillary-wave description. In contrast to other approaches we take into account the long-ranged power-law decay of the dispersion forces between the fluid particles which changes the functional form of the wave-vector-dependent surface tension qualitatively. In particular, we find two different forms of the bending rigidity for the capillary waves, a negative one for small wave vectors determined by the long-ranged dispersion forces and a positive rigidity for large wave vectors due to the distortions of the intrinsic density profile in the vicinity of the locally curved interface. The differences to the standard capillary-wave theory and the relevance of these results for the interpretation of scattering experiments are discussed. PMID:11969664

Mecke, K R; Dietrich, S

1999-06-01

343

Vapor core propulsion reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many research issues were addressed. For example, it became obvious that uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) is a most preferred fuel over uranium hexafluoride (UF6). UF4 has a very attractive vaporization point (1 atm at 1800 K). Materials compatible with UF4 were looked at, like tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, carbon. It was found that in the molten state, UF4 and uranium attacked most everything, but in the vapor state they are not that bad. Compatible materials were identified for both the liquid and vapor states. A series of analyses were established to determine how the cavity should be designed. A series of experiments were performed to determine the properties of the fluid, including enhancement of the electrical conductivity of the system. CFD's and experimental programs are available that deal with most of the major issues.

Diaz, Nils J.

1991-01-01

344

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOEpatents

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08

345

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOEpatents

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01

346

Vapor transport mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Raman scattering furnace for investigating vapor transport mechanisms was completed and checked out. Preliminary experiments demonstate that a temperature resolution of plus and minus 5 C is possible with this system operating in a backscatter mode. In the experiments presented with the GeI 4 plus excess Ge system at temperatures up to 600 C, only the GeI4 band at 150 cm superscript minus 1 was observed. Further experiments are in progress to determine if GeI2 does become the major vapor species above 440 C.

Workman, G. L.

1978-01-01

347

Vaporizing particle velocimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A velocimeter measures flow characteristics of a flow traveling through a chamber in a given direction. Tracer particles are entrained in the flow and a source of radiant energy produces an output stream directed transversely to the chamber, having a sufficient intensity to vaporize the particles as they pass through the output stream. Each of the vaporized particles explodes to produce a shock wave and a hot core, and a flow visualization system tracks the motion of the hot cores and shock waves to measure the velocity of each tracer particle and the temperature of the flow around the tracer.

Weinstein, Leonard M. (inventor)

1992-01-01

348

Thermal non-equilibrium in dispersed flow film boiling in a vertical tube  

E-print Network

The departure from thermal equilibrium between a dispersed liquid phase and its vapor at high quality during film boiling is investigated, The departure from equilibruim is manifested by the high resistance to heat transfer ...

Forslund, Robert Paul

1966-01-01

349

LNG FEM: GENERATING GRADED MESHES AND SOLVING ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON 2-D DOMAINS OF POLYGONAL STRUCTURES  

E-print Network

. Introduction LNG FEM, short for the linear graded finite element method (FEM), is a free software package in the finite element method. We hope it triggers more interest and discoveries both in academia and in industry structures [16, 24, 26], and for construction of linear finite element solutions for elliptic boundary value

350

LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS  

SciTech Connect

This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

VANDOR,D.

1999-03-01

351

75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In a final rule published May 26, 2010, the Coast Guard amended Letter of Intent (LOI) and Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities. The amendment triggered information collection requirements affecting these facilities. The Coast Guard now announces that the collection of information has been approved by the......

2010-09-03

352

A parametric sensitivity study on LNG tank sloshing loads by numerical simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of parametric sensitivity studies on unmatched dimensionless scale parameters is carried out on the liquified natural gas (LNG) tank sloshing loads by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. First, a brief dimensional analysis is conducted to identify the governing and non-matched non-dimensional parameters, assuming that Froude scaling law is adopted. Then the sensitivity of impact pressure is

D. H. Lee; M. H. Kim; S. H. Kwon; J. W. Kim; Y. B. Lee

2007-01-01

353

Engineering characterization of hydraulic properties in a pilot rock cavern for underground LNG storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility of storing LNG in a lined rock cavern was evaluated using a pilot cryogenic rock cavern constructed in Daejeon, Korea. The pilot program included hydrogeological and engineering characterization of the rock mass around the cavern, design and construction of a drainage system, and pilot operation of the cryogenic cavern. An appropriate drainage system is most important to protect the

Sung-Soo Cha; Jin-Yong Lee; Dae-Hyuck Lee; Eric Amantini; Kang-Kun Lee

2006-01-01

354

Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant  

SciTech Connect

Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N. [Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (United States); Denton, R.D. [Exxon Production Malaysia, Inc., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

1996-12-31

355

Sloshing in the LNG shipping industry: risk modelling through multivariate heavy-tail analysis  

E-print Network

extremal dependence between variables becomes difficult to assess. Based on a spectral clustering approachSloshing in the LNG shipping industry: risk modelling through multivariate heavy-tail analysis of very high pressures in the tanks of the vessel. The issue of modelling or estimating the probability

356

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes Overview (LSD) vanes are used to smoothly align the flow and minimize the losses. These vanes are fixed a diffuser with movable LSD vanes that can be incorporated into test rigs for centrifugal gas compressors

Demirel, Melik C.

357

Department of Mechanical Engineering Dresser-Rand 1: LNG Test Rig Movable LSD Vanes  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Dresser-Rand 1: LNG Test Rig Movable LSD (LSD) vanes which can easily be incorporated into current test rigs for centrifugal gas compressors of the system Approach Our team started the project by doing an extensive study on LSD vanes and current

Demirel, Melik C.

358

Cryogenic Performance of Adhesively Bonded Metal Joints for LNG Containment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic performance of adhesively bonded joints composed of aluminum sandwich structures and stainless steel foils for LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) containment system was studied. Surface treatment processes such as mechanical treatment, flame treatment, and sulfuric acid etching were applied to the stainless steel foil, whose morphology and chemical composition were determined by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) and XPS (X-ray

Chang Seon Bang; Jin Gyu Kim; Dai Gil Lee

2012-01-01

359

Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

2007-01-01

360

Vapor Pressure measurements for dichlorosilane  

E-print Network

trichlorosilane and silicon tetrachloride, or other chemicals which are not in the silane family. Accurate information about the vapor pressure is necessary in the production of these mixtures. Measurements reported previously for the vapor pressure of pure...

Morris, Tony Knimbula

1997-01-01

361

BioVapor Model Evaluation  

EPA Science Inventory

General background on modeling and specifics of modeling vapor intrusion are given. Three classical model applications are described and related to the problem of petroleum vapor intrusion. These indicate the need for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Evaluation of Bi...

362

Water vapor diffusion membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program is reported, which was designed to define the membrane technology of the vapor diffusion water recovery process and to test this technology using commercially available or experimental membranes. One membrane was selected, on the basis of the defined technology, and was subjected to a 30-day demonstration trial.

Holland, F. F., Jr.; Smith, J. K.

1974-01-01

363

Water vapor lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility was studied of measuring atmospheric water vapor by means of a tunable lidar operated from the space shuttle. The specific method evaluated was differential absorption, a two-color method in which the atmospheric path of interest is traversed by two laser pulses. Results are reported.

Ellingson, R.; Mcilrath, T.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

1976-01-01

364

Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

365

33 CFR 154.828 - Vapor recovery and vapor destruction units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Vapor recovery and vapor destruction... POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor...154.828 Vapor recovery and vapor destruction...or mooring at the facility; (2)...

2010-07-01

366

Large effective area all-solid dispersion compensating fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a large-mode-area (LMA) dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) design amenable to fabrication by the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) technique. The design utilizes resonance between two concentric cores, one of which is highly asymmetric to achieve high negative dispersion. The magnitude and wavelength bandwidth of negative dispersion can be controlled by various design parameters. Here we demonstrate numerically simulated designs for (i) narrowband dispersion compensation and (ii) broadband dispersion compensation. In narrowband DCF designs we show negative dispersion as large as - 14 500 ps nm - 1 km - 1 with corresponding mode effective area 86 µm2. In the broadband designs, we show dispersion ranging between - 80 and - 280 ps nm - 1 km - 1 over a 40 nm wavelength range, the kappa value (ratio of dispersion and dispersion slope) near 30 nm, the figure of merit (ratio of magnitude of dispersion and fiber loss coefficient) 1030 ps (dB km) - 1, and the mode effective area 63 µm2. A fiber with such a high negative dispersion and large effective area would be useful for efficient dispersion compensation in single-wavelength as well as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical communication systems.

Rastogi, Vipul; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Ajeet

2011-12-01

367

Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor  

E-print Network

of complexities in the water vapor life cycle. How- ever, our pre- liminary calcula- tions indicate early in its development cycle. We are skeptical, however, that water vapor produced by combustion canHydrogen Cars and Water Vapor D.W.KEITHANDA.E.FARRELL'S POLICY FORUM "Rethinking hydrogen cars" (18

Colorado at Boulder, University of

368

Stratified vapor generator  

DOEpatents

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20

369

Chemical vapor deposition growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber was used for the growth of Si films on glass, glass-ceramic, and polycrystalline ceramic substrates. Silicon vapor was produced by pyrolysis of SiH4 in a H2 or He carrier gas. Preliminary deposition experiments with two of the available glasses were not encouraging. Moderately encouraging results, however, were obtained with fired polycrystalline alumina substrates, which were used for Si deposition at temperatures above 1,000 C. The surfaces of both the substrates and the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, reflection electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy optical microscopy, and surface profilometric techniques. Several experiments were conducted to establish baseline performance data for the reactor system, including temperature distributions on the sample pedestal, effects of carrier gas flow rate on temperature and film thickness, and Si film growth rate as a function of temperature.

Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

1976-01-01

370

Role of Co-Vapors in Vapor Deposition Polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers were fabricated by vapor phase polymerization. Importantly, the vapor-phase deposition of PPy onto cellulose was assisted by employing different co-vapors namely methanol, ethanol, benzene, water, toluene and hexane, in addition to pyrrole. The resulting PPCL papers possessed high mechanical flexibility, large surface-to-volume ratio, and good redox properties. Their main properties were highly influenced by the nature of the co-vaporized solvent. The morphology and oxidation level of deposited PPy were tuned by employing co-vapors during the polymerization, which in turn led to change in the electrochemical properties of the PPCL papers. When methanol and ethanol were used as co-vapors, the conductivities of PPCL papers were found to have improved five times, which was likely due to the enhanced orientation of PPy chain by the polar co-vapors with high dipole moment. The specific capacitance of PPCL papers obtained using benzene, toluene, water and hexane co-vapors was higher than those of the others, which is attributed to the enlarged effective surface area of the electrode material. The results indicate that the judicious choice and combination of co-vapors in vapor-deposition polymerization (VDP) offers the possibility of tuning the morphological, electrical, and electrochemical properties of deposited conducting polymers.

Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Younghee; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Huh, Jinyoung; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Sampath, Gayathri; Im, Won Bin; Huh, Yang–Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

2015-02-01

371

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

SciTech Connect

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01

372

18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this section for other natural gas facilities shall include the...location. (3) For natural gas facilities other than LNG terminal...related jurisdictional natural gas facilities, an explanation of...state agencies in the project area with permitting...

2010-04-01

373

Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.  

SciTech Connect

While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

2004-12-01

374

18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...which Commission staff may make a selection to assist in the preparation of the requisite NEPA document. (9) For natural gas facilities other than LNG terminal...which Commission staff may make a selection to assist in the preparation...

2014-04-01

375

18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which Commission staff may make a selection to assist in the preparation of the requisite NEPA document. (9) For natural gas facilities other than LNG terminal...which Commission staff may make a selection to assist in the preparation...

2011-04-01

376

18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...which Commission staff may make a selection to assist in the preparation of the requisite NEPA document. (9) For natural gas facilities other than LNG terminal...which Commission staff may make a selection to assist in the preparation...

2012-04-01

377

18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...which Commission staff may make a selection to assist in the preparation of the requisite NEPA document. (9) For natural gas facilities other than LNG terminal...which Commission staff may make a selection to assist in the preparation...

2013-04-01

378

Comparison between the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of endometrial thermal ablation and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the management of menorrhagia. Study design: Fifty women attending a gynaecology clinic at a District General Hospital in south-west England were randomised to either surgical treatment using thermal ablation (Thermochoice, Gynecare) or medical treatment using a LNG-IUS (Mirena, Schering Healthcare). A pictorial menstrual chart

Julian W. Barrington; Angamuthu S. Arunkalaivanan; Mohammed Abdel-Fattah

2003-01-01

379

A morphometric study on the endometrial activity of women before and after one year with LNG-IUD in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endometrium was studied by morphometry in 34 healthy women before and after one year's use of an IUD releasing levonorgestrel at a rate of 20 ?g\\/24 hr (LNG-IUD-20). The effect was compared with that of an IUD releasing 2 ?g levonorgestrel\\/24hr. (LNG-IUD-2). The appearance of suppressed endometrial proliferative activity and increased inflammatory reaction was similar in the two experimental

Zhao Gu; Pengdi Zhu; Hongzhi Luo; Xiaohong Zhu; Guanghua Zhang; Shangchu Wu

1995-01-01

380

Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with conjugated oral equine estrogen: a successful regimen for HRT in perimenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the long-term efficacy (5 years) of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in protecting the endometrium from hyperplasia during estrogen replacement therapy in perimenopausal women. METHODS: Prospective, open, outpatient clinical trial in London and Oxford. Eighty-two women received oral conjugated equine estrogen 1.25mg daily and LNG-IUS releasing 20mg levonor- gestrel per 24h. Endometrial biopsy

N. R. E. Hampton; M. C. P. Rees; D. G. Lowe; I. Rauramo; D. Barlow; J. Guillebaud

2005-01-01

381

Dispersed flow film boiling - Study of droplet size distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of upward forced convection film boiling in vertical tubes, with flow of liquid droplets dispersed in a superheated vapor, is extended to a more realistic analysis of droplet size distribution. The existing computational model for studying kinetics and heat transfer on the basis of a single average droplet size (droplet breaking up and evaporating as the flow proceeds

G. Raulino; R. P. Forslund

1976-01-01

382

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15

383

Mechanical Characteristics of 9% Ni Steel Welded Joint for Lng Storage Tank at Cryogenic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To confirm the safety performance of LNG storage tank, the change in fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness within X-grooved weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of newly developed 9% Ni steel, which was SMAW welded, was investigated. These materials were produced by QT (quenching, tempering) heat treatment. The weld metal specimens were prepared by taking the same weld procedure applied in actual inner shell of LNG storage tank. All tests were performed in the temperature ranging from R.T. and -162°C. The fatigue crack growth behavior was carried out using CT specimen. Investigation has been carried out to study the influence of temperature and weld effect on fatigue crack growth behavior. Also, Fracture surfaces after tests were observe by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Yoon, Yong-Keun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Shim, Kyu-Taek; Kim, Young-Kyun

384

Thermodynamic analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production cycle in APCI process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appropriate production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) with least consuming energy and maximum efficiency is quite important. In this paper, LNG production cycle by means of APCI Process has been studied. Energy equilibrium equations and exergy equilibrium equations of each equipment in the APCI cycle were established. The equipments are described using rigorous thermodynamics and no significant simplification is assumed. Taken some operating parameters as key parameters, influences of these parameters on coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency of the cascading cycle were analyzed. The results indicate that COP and exergy efficiency will be improved with the increasing of the inlet pressure of MR (mixed refrigerant) compressors, the decreasing of the NG and MR after precooling process, outlet pressure of turbine, inlet temperature of MR compressor and NG temperature after cooling in main cryogenic heat exchanger (MCHE). The COP and exergy efficiency of the APCI cycle will be above 2% and 40%, respectively, after optimizing the key parameters.

Nezhad, Shahrooz Abbasi; Shabani, Bezhan; Soleimani, Majid

2012-12-01

385

Integrated Cryogenic System for CO2 Separation and Lng Production from Landfill Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated cryogenic system to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and produce LNG from landfill gas is investigated and designed. The main objective of this design is to eliminate the requirement of a standard CO2 removal process in the liquefaction system such distillation or (temperature or pressure) swing adsorption, and to directly separate carbon dioxide as frost at the liquefying channel of methane. Two identical sets of heat exchangers are installed in parallel and switched alternatively with a time period so that one is in separation-liquefaction mode while the other is in CO2 clean-up mode. A thermal regeneration scheme is presented for the purpose of saving energy and avoiding the stoppage of LNG production followed by the flow switching. The switching period is determined from results of a combined heat and mass transfer analysis on the CO2 freeze-out process.

Chang, H. M.; Chung, M. J.; Park, S. B.

2010-04-01

386

Second Stage Intercooling Using LNG for Turbocharged Heavy Duty Road Vehicles Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

It is well documented in engine performance literature that reduced engine inlet air temperature increases power output and reduces NO, emissions for both diesel and spark ignited (SI) engines. In addition, reduced inlet temperature increases the knock resistance of SI engines. In that most HD natural gas engines are SI derivatives of diesel engines it is appropriate to evaluate the benefits of reduced engine air temperature through LNG fuel. This project investigated the ''real world'' possibilities of a patented process for utilizing the ''cold'' in LNG to chill engine inlet air. The results support the conclusion that doing so is a practical means to increase engine power and reduce engine-out NO{sub x}.

None

1999-09-21

387

An exergy analysis of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four processes for small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) production are evaluated. These include a single-stage mixed refrigerant (SMR), a two-stage expander nitrogen refrigerant and two open-loop expander processes. Steady-state simulations were undertaken to ensure that each process was compared on an identical basis, was fully optimised and was in agreement with published results. Composite curves for the feed and recycle

C. W. Remeljej; A. F. A. Hoadley

2006-01-01

388

LNG fires: A review of experimental results, models and hazard prediction challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experimental investigations of LNG fires (of sizes 35m diameter and smaller) were undertaken, world wide, during the 1970s and 1980s to study their physical and radiative characteristics. This paper reviews the published data from several of these tests including from the largest test to date, the 35m, Montoir tests.Also reviewed in this paper is the state of

Phani K. Raj

2007-01-01

389

Who knew? looks like we're in for an LNG glut  

SciTech Connect

U.S. domestic production of natural gas has grown considerably in the recent past, especially from unconventional domestic resources. Recession has reduced demand. Further, the U.S. may end up on the receiving end of much of the excess global production and transportation capacity because of its massive storage capacity. Charts of U.S. natural gas production and LNG imports are given.

NONE

2009-04-15

390

A novel near-zero CO 2 emission thermal cycle with LNG cryogenic exergy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO2 and other emissions and a high efficiency. Natural gas is fired in highly enriched oxygen and recycled CO2 flue gas. The plant operates in a quasi-combined cycle mode with a supercritical CO2 Rankine-like cycle and a CO2 Brayton cycle, interconnected by the heat transfer

Na Zhang; Noam Lior

2006-01-01

391

Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Some Concentrated Aqueous PolymerSolutions  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid-equilibrium data were obtained for binary aqueous solutions of six water-soluble linear polymers in the range 70-95 C. A classical gravimetric sorption method was used to measure the amount of solvent absorbed as a function of vapor-phase water pressure. Polymers studied were polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethyleneoxide, polyvinylalcohol, hydroxyethylcellulose, polyethylenimine, polymethylvinylether. The experimental data were reduced with Hino's lattice model that distinguished the interactions due to London dispersion forces and those due to hydrogen bonding.

Striolo, Alberto; Prausnitz, John M.

1999-07-01

392

Dispersion coalescence: Kinetic stability of creamed dispersions  

SciTech Connect

A model is developed to predict the coalescence behavior in liquid-liquid dispersions. Coalescence times are based on the lifetimes of the single films that are formed between adjoining drops in a creamed or sedimented dispersion. The model is developed for smaller drop sized dispersions (< 100[mu]m) in which the drops are not substantially deformed due to gravitational forces. The model predicts that coalescence occurs between the emulsion drops without the gross separation of the dispersed phase (that is, the dispersion does not separate into distinct oil and water phases). As a result of interdrop coalescence, the mean drop size of the dispersed phase increases along with an increase in the polydispersity of the drop size. The model's predictions are used to develop a quantitative relationship between the lifetime of the single film and the rate of increase of the mean drop size of the dispersion. The model also accounts for the effect of surfactant on dispersion stability via the models of single film drainage in the presence of surfactant.

Lobo, L.; Ivanov, I.; Wasan, D. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (United States))

1993-02-01

393

Process study and exergy analysis of a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to resolve the problems of the current air separation process such as the complex process, cumbersome operation and high operating costs, a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy is proposed in this paper, which is based on high-efficiency heat exchanger network and chemical packing separation technology. The operating temperature range of LNG cold energy is widened from 133K-203K to 113K-283K by high-efficiency heat exchanger network and air separation pressure is declined from 0.5MPa to about 0.35MPa due to packing separation technology, thereby greatly improve the energy efficiency. Both the traditional and novel air separation processes are simulated with air handling capacity of 20t·h-1. Comparing with the traditional process, the LNG consumption is reduced by 44.2%, power consumption decrease is 211.5 kWh per hour, which means the annual benefit will be up to 1.218 million CNY. And the exergy efficiency is also improved by 42.5%.

Xu, Wendong; Duan, Jiao; Mao, Wenjun

2014-02-01

394

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

2001-01-01

395

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

2001-01-01

396

Water Vapor Circulation on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water vapor plays an important role in the water cycle and in the distribution of heat around the planet. By observing the movement of water vapor, scientists can study global wind patterns and the development of cyclonic storms. This simulation from the National Center for Atmospheric Research shows the circulation of water vapor around the Earth over the course of a year. The segment is four minutes fifty-two seconds in length.

397

Cost-effectiveness analysis of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) 13.5mg in contraception  

PubMed Central

Background LNG-IUS 13.5mg (total content) is a low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine system for up to three years of use. This analysis evaluated the cost-effectiveness of LNG-IUS 13.5mg in comparison with short-acting reversible contraceptive (SARC) methods in a cohort of young women in the US from a third-party payer’s perspective. Study Design A state-transition model consisting of three mutually exclusive health states – initial method, unintended pregnancy (UP) and subsequent method – was developed. Cost-effectiveness of LNG-IUS 13.5mg was assessed versus SARC methods in a cohort of 1,000 women aged 20–29 years. SARC methods comprise oral contraceptives (OC), ring, patch and injections which are the methods commonly used by this cohort. Failure and discontinuation probabilities were based on published literature, contraceptive uptake was determined by the most recent data from the National Survey of Family Growth and costs were taken from standard US databases. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted around key inputs while scenario analysis assessed a comparison between LNG-IUS 13.5mg and the existing IUS, LNG-IUS 20mcg/24 hours. The key model output was cost per UP avoided. Results Compared to SARC methods, initiating contraception with LNG-IUS 13.5mg resulted in fewer UP (64 UP vs. 276 UP) and lower total costs ($1,283,479 USD vs. $1,862,633 USD, a 31% saving) over the three-year time horizon. Results were most sensitive to the probability of failure on OC, the probability of LNG-IUS 13.5mg discontinuation and the cost of live births. Scenario analysis suggests that further cost savings may be generated with the initiation of LNG-IUS 20mcg/24 hours in place of SARC methods. Conclusions From a third-party payer perspective, LNG-IUS 13.5mg is a more cost-effective contraceptive option than SARC. Therefore, women switching from current SARC use to LNG-IUS 13.5mg are likely to generate cost savings to third-party healthcare payers, driven principally by decreased UP-related expenditures and long-term savings in contraceptive costs. PMID:24576791

Trussell, James; Hassan, Fareen; Henry, Nathaniel; Pocoski, Jennifer; Law, Amy; Filonenko, Anna

2014-01-01

398

Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local examen LNG 1050 Ancien et moyen franais Isabelle Delage-Bland Jeu 13h00 16h00 B-4265 B-4265  

E-print Network

Local Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local examen LNG 1050 Ancien et moyen français Isabelle Delage-Béland Jeu 13h00 à 16h00 B-4265 B-4265 LNG 1300 Dictionnaires : analyse de contenu Louise Dagenais Ven 13h00 à 16h00 B-4240 B-4240 LNG 1540 Notions de syntaxe Mireille Tremblay Mar 13h00 à 16h00 D-550 D-550

Leclercq, Remi

399

Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local LNG 1050 Ancien et moyen franais Philippe Leblond Jeu 13h00 16h00 B-4340 B-4295  

E-print Network

Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local Local examen LNG 1050 Ancien et moyen français Philippe Leblond Jeu 13h00 à 16h00 B-4340 B-4295 LNG 1300 Dictionnaires : analyse de contenu Louise Dagenais Ven 13h00 à 16h00 B-4220 B-3290 LNG 1540 Notions de syntaxe Mireille Tremblay Mar 13h00 à 16h00 B-2245 B

Parrott, Lael

400

Vapor pressure of perfluoroalkylalkanes: the role of the dipole.  

PubMed

The vapor pressure of four liquid perfluoroalkylalkanes (CF3(CF2)n(CH2)mCH3; n = 3, m = 4,5,7; n = 5, m = 5) was measured as a function of temperature between 278 and 328 K. Molar enthalpies of vaporization were calculated from the experimental data, and the results were compared with data from the literature for the corresponding alkanes and perfluoroalkanes. The heterosegmented statistical associating fluid theory was used to interpret the results at the molecular level both with and without the explicit inclusion of the dipolar nature of the molecules. Additionally, ab initio calculations were performed for all perfluoroalkylalkanes studied to determine the dipole moment to be used in the theoretical calculations. We demonstrate that the inclusion of a dipolar term is essential for describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of perfluoroalkylalkanes. It is also shown that vapor-liquid equilibria in these compounds result from a subtle balance between dipolar interactions, which decrease the vapor pressure, and the relatively weak dispersive interactions between the hydrogenated and fluorinated segments. PMID:25526174

Morgado, Pedro; Das, Gaurav; McCabe, Clare; Filipe, Eduardo J M

2015-01-29

401

A Planar-Fluorescence Imaging Technique for Studying Droplet-Turbulence Interactions in Vaporizing Sprays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Droplet turbulence interactions directly affect the vaporization and dispersion of droplets in liquid sprays and therefore play a major role in fuel oxidizer mixing in liquid fueled combustion systems. Proper characterization of droplet turbulence interactions in vaporizing sprays require measurement of droplet size velocity and size temperature correlations. A planar, fluorescence imaging technique is described which is being developed for simultaneously measuring the size, velocity, and temperature of individual droplets in vaporizing sprays. Preliminary droplet size velocity correlation measurements made with this technique are presented. These measurements are also compared to and show very good agreement with measurements made in the same spray using a phase Doppler particle analyzer.

Santavicca, Dom A.; Coy, E.

1990-01-01

402

Seed Dispersal 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute radio program introduces listeners to the variety of agents that disperse seeds. The program's guest, a plant biologist, cites examples of nonliving and living dispersal agents that include the wind, water, and such animals as birds and bats. He also explains that a plant's fruits or seeds often offer clues about how they are dispersed. The program, which is available here in audio and text, is the first in a series about seed dispersal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2007-07-26

403

Plasmon-assisted chemical vapor deposition.  

PubMed

We introduce a new chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process that can be used to selectively deposit materials of many different types. The technique makes use of the plasmon resonance in nanoscale metal structures to produce the local heating necessary to initiate deposition when illuminated by a focused low-power laser. We demonstrate the technique, which we refer to as plasmon-assisted CVD (PACVD), by patterning the spatial deposition of PbO and TiO(2) on glass substrates coated with a dispersion of 23 nm gold particles. The morphology of both oxide deposits is consistent with local laser-induced heating of the gold particles by more than 150 degrees C. We show that temperature changes of this magnitude are consistent with our analysis of the heat-loss mechanisms. The technique is general and can be used to spatially control the deposition of virtually any material for which a CVD process exists. PMID:17090097

Boyd, David A; Greengard, Leslie; Brongersma, Mark; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Goodwin, David G

2006-11-01

404

DISPERSAL IN FRESHWATER INVERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Movement between discrete habitat patches can present significant challenges to organisms. Freshwater invertebrates achieve dispersal using a variety of mechanisms that can be broadly categorized as active or passive, and which have important consequences for processes of colonization, gene flow, and evolutionary divergence. Apart from flight in adult freshwater insects, active dispersal appears rela- tively uncommon. Passive dispersal

David T. Bilton; Joanna R. Freeland; Beth Okamura

2001-01-01

405

FIELD DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...

406

Thermodynamic parameters of cesium vapor  

SciTech Connect

The pVT relationship has been measured for cesium vapor over the range 1366-2514 degrees K at 1.48-13.83 MPa. The apparatus and methods are described; the results have been used in formulating an equation of state for cesium vapor. Tables of the calculated thermodynamic properties are included.

Vargaftik, N.B.; Baumshtein, P.I.; Shcherbakov, V.D.; Stepanov, V.G.; Volyak, L.D.

1986-01-01

407

Student Exposure to Mercury Vapors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem of mercury vapors caused by spills in high school and college laboratories. Describes a study which compared the mercury vapor levels of laboratories in both an older and a newer building. Concludes that the mercurial contamination of chemistry laboratories presents minimal risks to the students. (TW)

Weber, Joyce

1986-01-01

408

Stage 2 vapor recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vapor recovery system is described, comprising: a set of elongated underground storage tanks, each storage tank containing a different grade of gasoline; vent pipes; a series of dispensing units; fuel flow lines; vapor return lines; an array of fuel pumps for pumping gasoline from said storage tanks to said dispenser units; an elongated condensate liquid pickup tube; an elongated

W. H. Koch; D. J. Strock; M. S. Butkovich; H. B. Hartman

1993-01-01

409

Stock tank vapor recovery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion of the development of Imperial Oil Ltd.'s stock tank, vapor recovery system includes basic design considerations, operating problems associated with gathering the gas, and simple economics. Successful operations of a stock tank, vapor recovery system depend upon the proper design of the gas gathering boot and the compressor. In addition to these 2 items of equipment, most units

Vanderlinde

1967-01-01

410

Seed Dispersal: Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The guest scientist in this two-minute radio program discusses seed dispersal in plants. He first explains why it is important for seeds to be distributed away from the mother plant. Then he contrasts wind-dispersed seeds with animal-dispersed seeds, pointing out that animals can disperse larger seeds that contain more nutrients for an emerging seedling. The program, which is available here in audio and text, is part of a Pulse of the Planet series on seed dispersal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2007-08-02

411

Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

1965-01-01

412

Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

Stephens, Edgar R.

1977-01-01

413

Vapor compression distillation module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

414

Constrained Vapor Bubble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonisothermal Constrained Vapor Bubble, CVB, is being studied to enhance the understanding of passive systems controlled by interfacial phenomena. The study is multifaceted: 1) it is a basic scientific study in interfacial phenomena, fluid physics and thermodynamics; 2) it is a basic study in thermal transport; and 3) it is a study of a heat exchanger. The research is synergistic in that CVB research requires a microgravity environment and the space program needs thermal control systems like the CVB. Ground based studies are being done as a precursor to flight experiment. The results demonstrate that experimental techniques for the direct measurement of the fundamental operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and interfacial curvature fields) have been developed. Fluid flow and change-of-phase heat transfer are a function of the temperature field and the vapor bubble shape, which can be measured using an Image Analyzing Interferometer. The CVB for a microgravity environment, has various thin film regions that are of both basic and applied interest. Generically, a CVB is formed by underfilling an evacuated enclosure with a liquid. Classification depends on shape and Bond number. The specific CVB discussed herein was formed in a fused silica cell with inside dimensions of 3x3x40 mm and, therefore, can be viewed as a large version of a micro heat pipe. Since the dimensions are relatively large for a passive system, most of the liquid flow occurs under a small capillary pressure difference. Therefore, we can classify the discussed system as a low capillary pressure system. The studies discussed herein were done in a 1-g environment (Bond Number = 3.6) to obtain experience to design a microgravity experiment for a future NASA flight where low capillary pressure systems should prove more useful. The flight experiment is tentatively scheduled for the year 2000. The SCR was passed on September 16, 1997. The RDR is tentatively scheduled for October, 1998.

Huang, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Plawsky, J.; Wayner, P. C., Jr.

1999-01-01

415

Vapor Transport in Unsaturated Soil Columns: Implications for Vapor Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model was derived to examine the impact of gas advection, gas diffusion, gas-water mass transfer, gas-water partitioning, sorption, and intraaggregate diffusion on subsurface movement of organic vapors. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the validity of the model and to investigate the impact of the various mechanisms on vapor transport. Columns were packed with a uniform Ottawa sand and an aggregated porous soil material (APSM) to compare transport in different soil structures. Toluene vapor transport was observed in the sand under dry and wet (27% water saturation) conditions. The experiments with the APSM were performed dry and at 67% water saturation. In all the sand and the dry APSM experiments, gas advection and diffusion had the greatest impact. In a wet APSM experiment, intraaggregate (liquid) diffusion was also important to consider for gas velocities greater than approximately 0.05 cm s-1. For both soil materials, sorption of toluene vapors occurred for dry conditions, while vapor sorption was negligible when liquid water was present. These findings imply that vapor extraction performance in moist, aggregated soils will be affected by nonequilibrium transport. Therefore models that are developed for predicting the complete removal of contaminants by vapor extraction must account for nonequilibrium.

Gierke, John S.; Hutzler, Neil J.; McKenzie, David B.

1992-02-01

416

Analytical and experimental investigation of the dispersion process during rapid transients for the aluminum-based nuclear fuel plates  

SciTech Connect

A thermally induced fuel-plate dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine the onset of fuel plate dispersion for aluminum-based research and test reactor fuels. The effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for aluminum-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) facility in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility in Idaho, US, were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that the onset of fuel dispersion is clearly linked to a sharp rise in the predicted strain rate, which further coincides with the onset of aluminum vaporization. Analysis also shows that aluminum oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and aluminum can significantly affect: the energy deposition characteristics and, therefore dispersion onset connected with aluminum vaporization, and the onset of aluminum vaporization.

Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Kim, S.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fuketa, T.; Soyama, K.; Ishijima, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-06-01

417

Thermally induced dispersion mechanisms for aluminum-based plate-type fuels under rapid transient energy deposition  

SciTech Connect

A thermally induced dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine onset of fuel plate dispersion for Al-based research and test reactor fuels. Effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for Al-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test in Idaho were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that onset of fuel dispersion is linked to a sharp rise in predicted strain rate, which futher coincides with onset of Al vaporization. Analysis also shows that Al oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and Al can significantly affect the energy deposition characteristics, and therefore dispersion onset connected with Al vaporization, and affect onset of vaporization.

Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkham, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.

1995-12-31

418

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-06-30

419

Vapor Deposited Polymeric-Organic Composite Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, polymeric films have played an important role in advanced IC technologies and optoelectronics. In depositing these polymeric films with tailorable and desired properties, vapor deposition techniques have potential advantages over spin-on techniques. This thesis explores the vapor deposition of polymeric-organic composite films, and investigates the resulted Nm's composition, structure and electro-optic (EO) effect. The source materials chosen are the newly commercialized polymer, Teflon AF ^circler, and the highly nonlinear organic chromophore, N,N-dimethyl aminonitrostilbene (DANS). We developed a novel two-step deposition process to fabricate smooth and uniform Teflon AF films using a physical vapor deposition technique. These films are found to be chemically equivalent to the spin-on films and source material. The films are always amorphous, but their morphology depends greatly on the deposition conditions. We successfully co-deposited Teflon AF-DANS polymeric -organic composite films with large EO effects, which, to our knowledge, is the first to be reported for a vapor deposited composite EO film. A mathematical procedure to determine the composition of the composite films using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was developed, and the compositions, structures, and electro-optic effects of the composite films were investigated. We find that Teflon AF-DANS composite films remain amorphous and there is no interaction between Teflon AF and DANS components when the DANS density is below 10%. The films behave as a pure guest-host system with the DANS molecules dispersed in a Teflon AF matrix, the increase of electro-optic effects following a DANS composition increase. At DANS concentrations of 10%, the EO coefficient reaches its maximum value of about 2.4 pm/V, which is close to that predicted by theory. The decrease and disappearance of EO effects in the films with high DANS density are believed to be caused by an anti -pair effect and phase separation since the DANS anti-pairs and DANS crystallites have no contribution to EO effect. The anti-pair effect can begin to manifest at concentration of 10% DANS due to the dipole-dipole interaction among highly polar DANS molecules, and phase separation is found in films containing more than 25% DANS.

Ma, Xinfa

1995-11-01

420

The effectiveness of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia—A long-term follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMedical treatment of non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia with oral progestogens has limited efficacy and poor compliance. A levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) has been shown to successfully treat hyperplasia in small-sized studies. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of LNG-IUS in a larger study with long-term follow up.

Rajesh Varma; Hemi Soneja; Kalsang Bhatia; Raji Ganesan; Terence Rollason; T. Justin Clark; Janesh K. Gupta

2008-01-01

421

The effect of LNG on the relationship between UK and Continental Europena natural gas markets  

E-print Network

; positive = export from UK, negative = import into UK Figure 3: Interconnector Daily Pipeline Flows post LNG (Weekly average in mcm/day) 2008- 2011, Source: Interconnector 2 Relevant literature There is a growing body of literature analyzing the relationship... -the-Counter (OTC) day-ahead or ’spot’ market price. Trade on the OTC market is conducted bilaterally or through a broker and terms are therefore confidential. The OTC price used is provided by brokers, such as ICAP and Spectron, and obtained via Bloomberg...

Koenig, Philipp

2012-12-10

422

Feasibility study on Thailand LNG project. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

This study, conducted by Bechtel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report specifically addresses an LNG terminal and associated gas pipeline, the crude oil pipeline component of the Southern Seaboard project, in addition to a power plant which uses a portion of the gas. Volume I, the Final Report, is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Design Basis; (3.0) Analysis; (4.0) System Definition; (5.0) Implementation; (6.0) Schedule; (7.0) Economics; (8.0) Recommendations.

NONE

1995-08-01

423

Vapor-liquid contacting system  

SciTech Connect

A vapor-liquid contacting tray is described wherein a perforated portion of the tray member forms an active surface area for vapor-liquid contact in the interior of the tray member. The active surface area portion of the tray member is circumscribed by an imperforate peripheral portion of the tray member with a width of from 0.05 to 0.35 times the radius of the tray. The disclosed tray provides upwardly directed laminar jetting of liquid over the tray perforation openings for high selectivity vapor-liquid contacting and has particular utility in the absorption of hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.

Butwell, K.F.; Sigmund, P.W.

1981-10-27

424

Dispersible carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

A method is proposed to produce nanoparticles dispersible and recyclable in any class of solvents, and the concept is illustrated with the carbon nanotubes. Classically, dispersions of CNTs can be achieved through steric stabilization induced by adsorbed or grafted polymer chains. Yet, the surface modification of CNTs surfaces is irreversible, and the chemical nature of the polymer chains imposes the range of solvents in which CNTs can be dispersed. To address this limitation, supramolecular bonds can be used to attach and to detach polymer chains from the surface of CNTs. The reversibility of supramolecular bonds offers an easy way to recycle CNTs as well as the possibility to disperse the same functional CNTs in any type of solvent, by simply adapting the chemical nature of the stabilizing chains to the dispersing medium. The concept of supramolecular functionalization can be applied to other particles, for example, silica or metal oxides, as well as to dispersing in polymer melts, films or coatings. PMID:24458908

Soulié-Ziakovic, Corinne; Nicolaÿ, Renaud; Prevoteau, Alexandre; Leibler, Ludwik

2014-01-27

425

Is dispersal neutral?  

PubMed

Dispersal is difficult to quantify and often treated as purely stochastic and extrinsically controlled. Consequently, there remains uncertainty about how individual traits mediate dispersal and its ecological effects. Addressing this uncertainty is crucial for distinguishing neutral versus non-neutral drivers of community assembly. Neutral theory assumes that dispersal is stochastic and equivalent among species. This assumption can be rejected on principle, but common research approaches tacitly support the 'neutral dispersal' assumption. Theory and empirical evidence that dispersal traits are under selection should be broadly integrated in community-level research, stimulating greater scrutiny of this assumption. A tighter empirical connection between the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape dispersal will enable richer understanding of this fundamental process and its role in community assembly. PMID:24962790

Lowe, Winsor H; McPeek, Mark A

2014-08-01

426

Chemical vapor deposition growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to investigate and develop chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the growth of large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with resulting sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells that would meet the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. The program involved six main technical tasks: (1) modification and test of an existing vertical-chamber CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using impurity diffusion and other standard and near-standard processing techniques supplemented late in the program by the in situ CVD growth of n(+)/p/p(+) sheet structures subsequently processed into experimental cells.

Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Campbell, A. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Shaw, G. L.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

1978-01-01

427

Naturally occurring vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Whisker growth of germanium sulfide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first naturally occurring terrestrial example of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been observed in condensates from gases released by burning coal in culm banks. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis indicate that the crystals consist of elongated rods (??? 100 ??m) of germanium sulfide capped by bulbs depleted in germanium. ?? 1974.

Finkelman, R.B.; Larson, R.R.; Dwornik, E.J.

1974-01-01

428

Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-12

429

Water vapor diffusion membranes, 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transport mechanisms were investigated for the three different types of water vapor diffusion membranes. Membranes representing porous wetting and porous nonwetting structures as well as dense diffusive membrane structures were investigated for water permeation rate as a function of: (1) temperature, (2) solids composition in solution, and (3) such hydrodynamic parameters as sweep gas flow rate, solution flow rate and cell geometry. These properties were measured using nitrogen sweep gas to collect the effluent. In addition, the chemical stability to chromic acid-stabilized urine was measured for several of each type of membrane. A technology based on the mechanism of vapor transport was developed, whereby the vapor diffusion rates and relative susceptibility of membranes to fouling and failure could be projected for long-term vapor recovery trials using natural chromic acid-stabilized urine.

Holland, F. F.; Klein, E.; Smith, J. K.; Eyer, C.

1976-01-01

430

Design, fabrication and testing of porous tungsten vaporizers for mercury ion thrusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dispersions in the characteristics, performance and reliability of vaporizers for early model 30-cm thrusters were investigated. The purpose of the paper is to explore the findings and to discuss the approaches that were taken to reduce the observed dispersion and present the results of a program which validated those approaches. The information that is presented includes porous tungsten materials specifications, a discussion of assembly procedures, and a description of a test program which screens both material and fabrication processes. There are five appendices providing additional detail in the areas of vaporizer contamination, nitrogen flow testing, bubble testing, porosimeter testing, and mercury purity. Four neutralizers, seven cathodes and five main vaporizers were successfully fabricated, tested, and operated on thrusters. Performance data from those devices is presented and indicates extremely repeatable results from using the design and fabrication procedures.

Zavesky, R.; Kroeger, E.; Kami, S.

1983-01-01

431

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOEpatents

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19

432

Method for testing vapor recovery lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for testing the integrity of the vapor recovery unit of a gasoline station dispensing station where the vapor recovery unit has phase 11 capability is described, comprising the steps of: sealing the vapor recovery unit from the dispensing station at the point most proximal to the dispensing station; sealing the vapor recovery unit from the gasoline reservoir; installing

Tuma

1993-01-01

433

Anomalous dispersion in atomic line filters applied for spatial frequency detection  

SciTech Connect

The anomalous dispersion of an atomic line filter near a resonant transition is exploited for full-field frequency measurements. The influence of the line shape function on the dispersion in atomic vapors near resonance and the possibilities to increase sensitivity are discussed. From the model-calculated absorption of iodine vapor at frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser wavelengths, the corresponding refractive index is obtained through the Kramers-Kronig relations. Both variables are used to assess the performance of a iodine vapor cell as a dispersive element in an interferometric setup for Doppler frequency shift detection. With good agreement, the predicted sensitivity of the setup is compared to an experimental calibration. Observed discrepancies are attributed to the assumption of a Gaussian line shape in the absorption model. The full-field Doppler frequency measurement capacity of the technique is demonstrated in a rotating disk experiment, and the measurement performance is assessed.

Landolt, Andrin; Roesgen, Thomas

2009-11-01

434

Visualizing Dispersion Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

2014-01-01

435

Dispersal of forest insects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

Mcmanus, M. L.

1979-01-01

436

Spores Disperse, Too!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests the use of spores and spore-producing structures to show adaptations facilitating spore dispersal and dispersal to favorable environments. Describes several activities using horsetails, ferns, and mosses. Lists five safety factors related to use of mold spores in the classroom. (DS)

Schumann, Donna N.

1981-01-01

437

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1990-01-09

438

A Column Dispersion Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

1982-01-01

439

Thermogravimetry system designed for use in dispersion strengthening studies.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermogravimetry system, designed to study the reduction of oxides in metal and alloy powders to be used in dispersion strengthened materials, is described. The apparatus was devised for use at high temperatures with controlled atmospheres. Experimental weight change and moisture evolution results for the thermal decomposition of calcium oxalate monohydrate in dry helium, and experimental weight change results for the reduction of nickel oxide in dry hydrogen and hydrogen containing 15,000 p.p.m. water vapor are presented. The system is currently being successfully applied to the evaluation of the reduction characteristics and the removal of impurities from metals and alloys to be used for dispersion strengthening.

Herbell, T. P.

1972-01-01

440

Thermogravity system designed for use in dispersion strengthening studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermogravimetry system designed to study the reduction of oxides in metal and alloy powders to be used in dispersion strengthened materials is described. The apparatus was devised for use at high temperatures with controlled atmospheres. Experimental weight change and moisture evolution results for the thermal decomposition of calcium oxalate monohydrate in dry helium, and experimental weight change results for the reduction of nickel oxide in dry hydrogen and hydrogen containing 15,000 PPM water vapor are presented. The system is currently being successfully applied to the evaluation of the reduction characteristics and the removal of impurities from metals and alloys to be used for dispersion strengthening.

Herbell, T. P.

1972-01-01

441

Chemically assisted release of transition metals in graphite vaporizers for atomic spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes associated with the vaporization of microgram samples and modifiers in a graphite tube ET AAS were investigated by the example of transition metals. The vapor absorption spectra and vaporization behavior of ?g-amounts Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn and Cr were studied using the UV spectrometer with CCD detector, coupled with a continuum radiation source. The pyrocoated, Ta or W lined tubes, with Ar or He as internal gases, and filter furnace were employed in the comparative experiments. It was found that the kinetics of atomic vapor release changed depending on the specific metal-substrate-gas combination; fast vaporization at the beginning was followed by slower 'tailing.' The absorption continuum, overlapped by black body radiation at longer wavelengths, accompanied the fast vaporization mode for all metals, except Cd and Zn. The highest intensity of the continuum was observed in the pyrocoated tube with Ar. For Cu and Ag the molecular bands overlapped the absorption continuum; the continuum and bands were suppressed in the filter furnace. It is concluded that the exothermal interaction of sample vapor with the material of the tube causes the energy evolution in the gas phase. The emitted heat is dispersed near the tube wall in the protective gas and partially transferred back to the surface of the sample, thus facilitating the vaporization. The increased vapor flow causes over-saturation and gas-phase condensation in the absorption volume at some distance from the wall, where the gas temperature is not affected by the reaction. The condensation is accompanied by the release of phase transition energy via black body radiation and atomic emission. The particles of condensate and molecular clusters cause the scattering of light and molecular absorption; slow decomposition of the products of the sample vapor-substrate reaction produces the 'tailing' of atomic absorption signal. The interaction of graphite with metal vapor or oxygen, formed in the decomposition of metal oxide, is the most probable source of chemical energy, which facilitates the vaporization. Intensity of the process depends on chemical properties of the sample and substrate and efficiency of mass and heat transfer by the protective gas. The discussed mechanism of chemically assisted vapor release signifies the energy exchange between all participants of the vaporization process in ET AAS including the matrix, modifier, purge gas and analyte. The finding contributes in the ET AAS theory regarding the mechanisms of vaporization and mass transfer in the presence of matrix and modifiers.

Katskov, Dmitri; Darangwa, Nicholas; Grotti, Marco

2006-05-01

442

Breakup and vaporization of droplets under locally supersonic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disruption and vaporization of simulated fuel droplets in an accelerating supersonic flow was examined experimentally in a draw-down supersonic wind tunnel. The droplets achieved supersonic velocities relative to the surrounding air to give relative Mach numbers of up to 1.8 and Weber numbers of up to 300. Mono-disperse, 100 ?m-diameter fluid droplets were generated using a droplet-on-demand generator upstream of the tunnel entrance. Direct close-up single- and multiple-exposure imaging was used to examine the features of droplet breakup and to determine the droplet velocities. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of the disrupting droplets was performed using acetone fluorescence to determine the dispersion of the expelled vapor. Three test liquids were employed: 2-propanol and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether as non-volatile fluids and a 50/50 hexanol-pentane mixture (Hex-Pen 50/50). The vapor pressure of the Hex-Pen 50/50 was sufficiently high to cause the droplet fluid to potentially become superheated in the decreased static pressure of the supersonic stream. The dynamics for 2-propanol and Hex-Pen 50/50 droplets were similar up to the point of disruption, which occurred more rapidly for the more volatile Hex-Pen 50/50. A 1D dynamic droplet model was developed to provide a first estimate of the expected droplet acceleration and velocity. The actual droplet velocities were in reasonable agreement with the model up to the point at which significant droplet disruption and mass loss commenced. The droplet deformation and breakup patterns for these supersonic flow conditions can be classified into four different flow regions characterized by changes in the Weber number with downstream distance as the droplets accelerate, however, those flow regimes and Weber number ranges were different than those seen for droplets disrupting in shock tubes. The disruption patterns were seen to be generally similar for the different fluids, though droplet disruption occurred more rapidly for the more volatile fluid. LIF imaging established the extent of the dispersion of the expelled vapor. Examination of the vapor clouds surrounding the droplets suggests that Hex-Pen 50/50 droplets had a greater rate of vaporization than 2-propanol droplets starting at approximately 2 mm downstream of the nozzle throat, where the air static pressure became lower than the liquid vapor pressure. This suggests that droplet superheating can have an effect on the extent and rate of droplet vaporization under locally supersonic conditions. The degree of vaporization for Hex-Pen 50/50 was approximately 1.3 times greater than that of the non-volatile fluids over all downstream distances in the supersonic flow.

Kim, YoungJun; Hermanson, James C.

2012-07-01

443

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

2007-01-01

444

77 FR 66454 - Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...title to the LNG at the time of export. The Application was filed...contract authorization to export up to 11.5 mtpa of domestically...service on October 1, 2011. GLLC plans to build natural gas processing...pre-treatment, liquefaction, and export facilities with a capacity...

2012-11-05

445

Optimizingof Tangential Tool Shift in Gear Hobbing" Prof. Dr.-lng. habil. K.-D. Bouzakis (I), Aristoteles Universityof Thessaloniki;  

E-print Network

Optimizingof Tangential Tool Shift in Gear Hobbing" Prof. Dr.-lng. habil. K.-D. Bouzakis (I Institution of Serres/Greece Received on January 10,1995 Abstract Gear hobbing is an efficient method of gear a certain number of cuts. The optimum selection of the shift displacement and the number of gears (shift

Aristomenis, Antoniadis

446

Experimental study on liquid\\/solid phase change for cold energy storage of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) refrigerated vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper addresses an experimental investigation of the cold storage with liquid\\/solid phase change of water based on the cold energy recovery of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) refrigerated vehicles. Water as phase change material (PCM) was solidified outside the heat transfer tubes that were internally cooled by cryogenic nitrogen gas substituting cryogenic natural gas. The ice layer profiles were

Hongbo Tan; Yanzhong Li; Hanfei Tuo; Man Zhou; Baocong Tian

2010-01-01

447

77 FR 7568 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...treatment for trade in natural gas, (2) which has...prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The Application...treatment for trade in natural gas, which has developed...prohibited by U.S. law or policy. FLEX states...enter into long-term natural gas supply or LNG...

2012-02-13

448

Series-Connected Vapor/Vapor AMTEC Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Size and weight reduced; operating lifetime increased. Developmental alkali-metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) in which cells fed from common supply of high-pressure sodium vapor and connected electrically in series. No liquid sodium makes contact with any part of AMTEC cells. Sodium vapor supplied to solid electrolyte of each cell through porous metal anode on upstream side. Proposed design reduces need for high-temperature feedthroughs in that cells internally connected. Power withdrawn through feedthrough at lower temperature without significant thermal loss.

Underwood, Mark L.; Williams, Roger M.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Oconnor, Dennis

1993-01-01

449

Electrical Breakdown in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper investigations of the voltage required to break down water vapor are reported for the region around the Paschen minimum and to the left of it. In spite of numerous applications of discharges in biomedicine, and recent studies of discharges in water and vapor bubbles and discharges with liquid water electrodes, studies of the basic parameters of breakdown are lacking. Paschen curves have been measured by recording voltages and currents in the low-current Townsend regime and extrapolating them to zero current. The minimum electrical breakdown voltage for water vapor was found to be 480 V at a pressure times electrode distance (pd) value of around 0.6 Torr cm ({approx}0.8 Pa m). The present measurements are also interpreted using (and add additional insight into) the developing understanding of relevant atomic and particularly surface processes associated with electrical breakdown.

Skoro, N.; Maric, D.; Malovic, G.; Petrovic, Z. Lj. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Graham, W. G. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15

450

Chapter 6--Dispersal Introduction  

E-print Network

in the Early morning on the Pumice Plain (July 29, 2001). Seeds dispersed onto this surface from several the Pumice Plain. Backlit in the late afternoon, the view was inspiring. Happily for the future course of suc

del Moral, Roger

451

Pallid Sturgeon Egg Dispersal  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Fertilized pallid sturgeon eggs are gently dispersed over the gravel substrate.  The PVC pipes are used to support a canopy of shade cloth to more closely mimic the muddy depths of the Missouri River. ...

452

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1989-01-01

453

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1990-01-01

454

Dispersion strengthened copper  

SciTech Connect

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1988-12-05

455

Policy with Dispersed Information  

E-print Network

Information regarding economic fundamentals is widely dispersed in society, is only imperfectly aggregated through prices or other indicators of aggregate activity, and cannot be centralized by the government or any other ...

Angeletos, George-Marios

456

Low level vapor verification of monomethyl hydrazine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor scrubbing system and the coulometric test procedure for the low level vapor verification of monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) are evaluated. Experimental data on precision, efficiency of the scrubbing liquid, instrument response, detection and reliable quantitation limits, stability of the vapor scrubbed solution, and interference were obtained to assess the applicability of the method for the low ppb level detection of the analyte vapor in air. The results indicated that the analyte vapor scrubbing system and the coulometric test procedure can be utilized for the quantitative detection of low ppb level vapor of MMH in air.

Mehta, Narinder

1990-01-01

457

Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

458

LNG combined cycle power plant for stable power supply for Kiheung semiconductor plant  

SciTech Connect

Reserve margins of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was 12% in 1993, however it was reduced to less than 3% in the summer of 1994 due to increase of electric power consumption caused by life style change based on economic growth. Therefore stable supply of electric power to industrial plant was threatened during last summer`s peak. The process of semiconductor manufacturing is very precious and full processing time reaches several months. Furthermore interruption of power supply to the process causes abortion of every product in the process. Therefore, power failure of less than one (1) second, may result in enormous loss of capital. In order to protect disaster caused by power shortage during summer peaks. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd (SEC) planned to construct LNG combined cycle power plant for the Klheung semiconductor plant which is the world`s leading maker of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips.

Chang, Choong Koo [Samsung Electronic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyo Jeong [Samsung Electronics, Kiheung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Chool [Samsung Heavy Industries, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-12-31

459

Experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of LNG in a vertical smooth tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental apparatus is set up in this work to study the upward flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of LNG (liquefied natural gas) in vertical smooth tubes with inner diameters of 8 mm and 14 mm. The experiments were performed at various inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa. The results were obtained over the mass flux range from 16 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat fluxes ranging from 8.0 to 32 kW m-2. The influences of quality, heat flux and mass flux, tube diameter on the heat transfer characteristic are examined and discussed. The comparisons of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted values from the existing correlations are analyzed. The correlation by Zou et al. [16] shows the best accuracy with the RMS deviation of 31.7% in comparison with the experimental data.

Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

2013-10-01

460

Numerical study on mixing of sprayed liquid in an LNG storage tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a numerical method to simulate the mixing of heavier LNG sprayed on lighter layer. Numerical results for evolutions of flow field and density field are obtained in a rectangular computational domain which includes the vicinity of the liquid surface. At the surface boundary, uniform distributions of the fluid velocity and the density are assumed. Detail structure of flow caused by impingements of liquid drops are neglected. But, to trigger a realistic motion, a series of random numbers is employed. It is used as an initial distribution of the density near the surface. This method successfully gives a realistic simulation of the mixing process. Numerical results for mixing velocity shows good agreement with experimental data.

Uchida, Hiroyuki; Arai, Tatsuya; Sugihara, Makoto; Nakayama, Mariko

1992-01-01

461

Image Storage in Hot Vapors  

E-print Network

We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

2007-10-22

462

Vapor deposition of thin films  

DOEpatents

A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

463

Quantification of vapor screen analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The traditionally qualitative method of vapor screening is applied to the task of gathering quantitative density measurements in supersonic flows. Quantitative density information for flow around a two-dimensional biconvex airfoil at Mach 2.8 is extracted from digitized images of vapor screens by assuming a linear relation between particle density and scattering intensity. Intensity readings are calibrated through known conditions in the free stream and at the airfoil bow shock. The experimental results are compared to densities generated by a Euler code and determined to have errors of less than ten percent.

Benedict, Lance H.; Griffith, Wayland C.; Yanta, William J.; Spring, W. C., III; Boyd, Christopher F.

1991-01-01

464

Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase{reg_sign}, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism{reg_sign} and Business Objects{trademark}. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project`s Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994.

Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

1994-09-01

465

Examination of vapor sorption by fullerene, fullerene-coated surface acoustic wave sensors, graphite, and low-polarity polymers using linear solvation energy relationships  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of vapors by fullerene is compared with the sorption of vapors by an assembled fullerene thin film on a surface acoustic wave vapor sensor. A linear solvation energy relationship derived for solid fullerene at 298 K was used to calculate gas/solid partition coefficients for the same vapors as those examined using the vapor sensor. This relationship correctly predicted the relative vapor sensitivities observed with the vapor sensor. A new linear solvation energy relationship for vapor adsorption by graphite at 298 K has been determined, and solid fullerene and solid graphite are found to be quite similar in their vapor sorption properties. Comparisons have also been made with linear organic and inorganic polymers, including poly(isobutylene), poly(epichorophydrin), OV25, and OV202. In all cases, sorption is driven primarily by dispersion interactions. The assembled fullerene material is generally similar in vapor selectivity to the other nonpolar sorbent materials considered but yields less sensitive vapor sensors than linear organic polymers. 39 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Grate, J.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Abraham, M.H.; Du, C.M. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); McGill, R.A. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shuely, W.J. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

466

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process  

DOEpatents

A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

1990-08-21

467

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

R. W. Wyeth; J. A. Paisner; T. Story

1990-01-01

468

INDOOR AIR VAPOR INTRUSION SEMINAR  

EPA Science Inventory

This seminar is sponsored by the ORD in collaboration with the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The goal of this seminar is to present information and guidance to evaluate, assess and characterize chemical vapor pathways migrating into structures resulting from conta...

469

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOEpatents

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01

470

Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviewed.

James I. Davis

1983-01-01

471

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique applicable to many elements. A major present application to the enrichement of uranium for lightwater power reactor fuel has been under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1973. In June 1985, the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet future

J. A. Paisner

1988-01-01

472

Water vapor adsorption on goethite.  

PubMed

Goethite (?-FeOOH) is an important mineral contributing to processes of atmospheric and terrestrial importance. Their interactions with water vapor are particularly relevant in these contexts. In this work, molecular details of water vapor (0.0-19.0 Torr; 0-96% relative humidity at 25 °C) adsorption at surfaces of synthetic goethite nanoparticles reacted with and without HCl and NaCl were resolved using vibrational spectroscopy. This technique probed interactions between surface (hydr)oxo groups and liquid water-like films. Molecular dynamics showed that structures and orientations adopted by these waters are comparable to those adopted at the interface with liquid water. Particle surfaces reacted with HCl accumulated less water than acid-free surfaces due to disruptions in hydrogen bond networks by chemisorbed waters and chloride. Particles reacted with NaCl had lower loadings below ?10 Torr water vapor but greater loadings above this value than salt-free surfaces. Water adsorption reactions were here affected by competitive hydration of coexisting salt-free surface regions, adsorbed chloride and sodium, as well as precipitated NaCl. Collectively, the findings presented in this study add further insight into the initial mechanisms of thin water film formation at goethite surfaces subjected to variations in water vapor pressure that are relevant to natural systems. PMID:23721420

Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-François

2013-07-01

473

Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

Pedersen, Henrik

2014-01-01

474

Final OSWER Vapor Intrusion Guidance  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is preparing to finalize its guidance on assessing and addressing vapor intrusion, which is defined as migration of volatile constituents from contaminated media in the subsurface (soil or groundwater) into the indoor environment. In November 2002, EPA issued draft guidance o...

475

Acoustic Droplet Vaporization through PDMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) involves the generation of bubbles from albumin-encapsulated perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets that have been insonated with high intensity ultrasound (US). Gas embolotherapy, utilizing ADV, may facilitate occlusion of blood flow in the vasculature as bubbles undergo volume expansion of up to 125 times. Cancer therapy could benefit from such occlusions through starvation of the tumor. In order

David Li; Stanley Samuel; J. Brian Fowlkes; Joseph Bull

2009-01-01

476

Ethanol vapor phase carburetion. [For irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental prototype device, called a ''vapor-phase carburetor'' (VPC) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The principle of operation was to vaporize the ethanol\\/water fuel blend utilizing residual heat from the coolant of the internal combustion engine in a slightly pressurized (10 to 15 psi) heat exchanger with vapor temperature about 232°F; mix the vaporous fuel with preheated air at about

J. R. Myron; B. F. Hanson

1983-01-01

477

Acoustic droplet vaporization is initiated by superharmonic focusing.  

PubMed

Acoustically sensitive emulsion droplets composed of a liquid perfluorocarbon have the potential to be a highly efficient system for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, or for tumor imaging. The physical mechanisms underlying the acoustic activation of these phase-change emulsions into a bubbly dispersion, termed acoustic droplet vaporization, have not been well understood. The droplets have a very high activation threshold; its frequency dependence does not comply with homogeneous nucleation theory and localized nucleation spots have been observed. Here we show that acoustic droplet vaporization is initiated by a combination of two phenomena: highly nonlinear distortion of the acoustic wave before it hits the droplet and focusing of the distorted wave by the droplet itself. At high excitation pressures, nonlinear distortion causes significant superharmonics with wavelengths of the order of the droplet size. These superharmonics strongly contribute to the focusing effect; therefore, the proposed mechanism also explains the observed pressure thresholding effect. Our interpretation is validated with experimental data captured with an ultrahigh-speed camera on the positions of the nucleation spots, where we find excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the presented mechanism explains the hitherto counterintuitive dependence of the nucleation threshold on the ultrasound frequency. The physical insight allows for the optimization of acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic applications, in particular with respect to the acoustic pressures required for activation, thereby minimizing the negative bioeffects associated with the use of high-intensity ultrasound. PMID:24449879

Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; Vos, Hendrik J; de Jong, Nico; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel

2014-02-01

478

Acoustic droplet vaporization is initiated by superharmonic focusing  

PubMed Central

Acoustically sensitive emulsion droplets composed of a liquid perfluorocarbon have the potential to be a highly efficient system for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, or for tumor imaging. The physical mechanisms underlying the acoustic activation of these phase-change emulsions into a bubbly dispersion, termed acoustic droplet vaporization, have not been well understood. The droplets have a very high activation threshold; its frequency dependence does not comply with homogeneous nucleation theory and localized nucleation spots have been observed. Here we show that acoustic droplet vaporization is initiated by a combination of two phenomena: highly nonlinear distortion of the acoustic wave before it hits the droplet and focusing of the distorted wave by the droplet itself. At high excitation pressures, nonlinear distortion causes significant superharmonics with wavelengths of the order of the droplet size. These superharmonics strongly contribute to the focusing effect; therefore, the proposed mechanism also explains the observed pressure thresholding effect. Our interpretation is validated with experimental data captured with an ultrahigh-speed camera on the positions of the nucleation spots, where we find excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the presented mechanism explains the hitherto counterintuitive dependence of the nucleation threshold on the ultrasound frequency. The physical insight allows for the optimization of acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic applications, in particular with respect to the acoustic pressures required for activation, thereby minimizing the negative bioeffects associated with the use of high-intensity ultrasound. PMID:24449879

Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; Vos, Hendrik J.; de Jong, Nico; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel

2014-01-01

479

Dispersal characteristics of swift foxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1997 to 2001, we monitored movements of 109 adult and 114 juvenile swift foxes, Vulpes velox (Say, 1823), at study sites in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas to determine patterns of dispersal. Significantly more male (93%) than female (58%) juveniles dispersed, and both sexes had similar bimodal dispersal patterns with peaks in September-October and January-February. Adult dispersal occurred more

Jan F. Kamler; Warren B. Ballard; Eric M. Gese; Robert L. Harrison; Seija M. Karki

2004-01-01

480

When Seed Dispersal Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience journal is about the varying importance of seed dispersal within plant communities. A profusion of fruit forms implies that seed dispersal plays a central role in plant ecology, yet the chance that an individual seed will ultimately produce a reproductive adult is low to infinitesimal. Extremely high variance in survival implies that variations in fruit production or transitions from seed to seedling will contribute little to population growth. The key issue is that variance in survival of plant life-history stages, and therefore the importance of dispersal, differs greatly among and within plant communities. In stable communities of a few species of long-lived plants, variances in seed and seedling survival are immense, so seed-to-seedling transitions have little influence on overall population dynamics. However, when seedlings in different circumstances have very different chances of survival--in ecological succession, for example, or when dispersed seeds escape density-dependent mortality near parent trees--the biased survival of dispersed seeds or seedlings in some places rather than others results in pervasive demographic impacts.

HENRY F. HOWE and MARIA N. MIRITI (; )

2004-07-01

481

Vaporization Enthalpy and Vapor Pressure of Valproic Acid by Correlation Gas Chromatography  

E-print Network

Vaporization Enthalpy and Vapor Pressure of Valproic Acid by Correlation Gas Chromatography Joe A by correlation-gas chromatography. This resulted in a vaporization enthalpy, Hvap(298.15 K) of (74.8 ± 2.4) k at T/K = 298.15, both derived by correlation-gas chromatography. The measurement of vaporization

Chickos, James S.

482

33 CFR 154.808 - Vapor control system, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor control system, general. 154.808 Section 154.808...TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.808 Vapor control system, general. (a) A vapor...

2010-07-01

483

Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor. The

Isaac Maya; Nils J. Diaz; Edward T. Dugan; Yoichi Watanabe; James A. McClanahan; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Robert L. Carman

1993-01-01

484

Vapor-Resistant Heat-Pipe Artery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor lock in heat pipe delayed or prevented. Modifications of wick prevent flow of vapor into, or formation of vapor in, liquid-return artery. Small pores of fine-grained sintered wick help to prevent formation of large bubbles. Slotted tube offers few nucleation sites for bubbles. Improves return of liquid in heat pipe.

Dussinger, Peter M.; Shaubach, Robert M.; Buchko, Matt

1991-01-01

485

Four new ideas in vapor recovery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producers in the Permian basin of West Texas have significantly improved the utility of conventional vapor recovery equipment by modifying it to solve the following special production situations: (1) Installation of a simple, economic stabilizer vessel, which can be made from surplus water filters, that allows sufficient vapor recovery from a battery without vapor tight tankage. (2) A slightly more

Lieb

1966-01-01

486

Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative method that uses a simple apparatus to measure vapor pressure versus temperature in a closed system, in which the total pressure is the vapor pressure of the liquid sample, is described. The use of this apparatus gives students a more direct picture of vapor pressure than the isoteniscope method and results have generally been quite…

Iannone, Mark

2006-01-01

487

The use of long acting subcutaneous levonorgestrel (LNG) gel depot as an effective contraceptive option for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).  

PubMed

Cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) are a critically endangered species that have been bred successfully in captivity for many years. For two decades, the Cotton-top Tamarin SSP(©) has been challenged with a high rate of reproduction combined with a history of contraceptive failures and nonrecommended births using the current Depo Provera(®) (medroxyprogesterone acetate) injection followed by MGA (melengestrol acetate) implant contraception combination. To address these issues we have developed and tested the use of levonorgestrel (LNG) as an effective contraception option for cotton-top tamarins. LNG was delivered in an injectable, gel matrix consisting of polylactic-co-glycolic acid, triethyl citrate and N-methylpyrrolidone. This gel matrix forms a biodegradable depot at the subcutaneous injection site providing slow release of the active ingredient. Gel matrix composition and LNG concentration were adjusted in four gel formulations to maximize the duration of contraceptive efficacy while minimizing immediate post-injection increases in fecal LNG concentration. LNG treatment (68.44 ± 8.61 mg/kg) successfully eliminated ovarian cycles (fecal pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1) C)) for 198.8 ± 70.3 days (formulation four; range 19-50 weeks). It was demonstrated that subcutaneous LNG depot injection was an effective, reversible contraceptive option for the management of cotton-top tamarins in captivity. PMID:20938969

Wheaton, C J; Savage, A; Shukla, A; Neiffer, D; Qu, W; Sun, Y; Lasley, B L

2011-01-01

488

Seed Dispersal: Lemurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees in Madagascar's forests have evolved traits that promote the dispersal of their seeds by lemurs. This two-minute radio program focuses on the interaction between forest plants and lemurs--the main seed dispersers in the forests. A guest scientist explains why lemurs ingest seeds that are large relative to their body size. He also notes that the fruits of Madagascar's trees have evolved to be strong smelling but drably colored in accordance with lemurs' keen sense of smell and poor vision. The program is available in text and audio formats. The latter includes audio of ring-tailed lemurs. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2007-09-20

489

Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds  

SciTech Connect

Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition.

Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1996-04-01

490

Stochastic and Risk Management Models and Solution Algorithm for Natural Gas Transmission Network Expansion and LNG Terminal Location Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing demands for natural gas, it is playing a more important role in the energy system, and its system expansion\\u000a planning is drawing more attentions. In this paper, we propose expansion planning models which include both natural gas transmission\\u000a network expansion and LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) terminals location planning. These models take into account the uncertainties\\u000a of

Qipeng P. Zheng; Panos M. Pardalos

2010-01-01

491

Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS) was developed to detect vapors of hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in air at parts-per-billion (ppb) concentration levels. The sampler consists of a commercial personal pump that draws ambient air through paper tape treated with vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). The paper tape is sandwiched in a thin cardboard housing inserted in one of the two specially designed holders to facilitate sampling. Contaminated air reacts with vanillin to develop a yellow color. The density of the color is proportional to the concentration of HZ or MMH. The AHVS can detect 10 ppb in less than 5 minutes. The sampler is easy to use, low cost, and intrinsically safe and contains no toxic material. It is most beneficial for use in locations with no laboratory capabilities for instrumentation calibration. This paper reviews the development, laboratory test, and field test of the device.

Young, Rebecca C.; Mcbrearty, Charles F.; Curran, Daniel J.

1993-01-01

492

Estimates of abundance of vapor condensate from the impacts of asteroids and comets on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypervelocity impacts of asteroids and comets on the Moon and planets can vaporize a substantial mass of target rock comparable with the mass of a projectile. The vapor expands, forming a vapor plume, and, when it cools and reaches the liquid-vapor coexistence curve, molten spherules can condense from the vapor. Ejecta layers bearing condensate spherules have been found on the Earth along with melt droplet spherules, however, the impact-vapor condensate is extremely rare among the lunar samples. The current average impact velocities on the Moon and Earth differ only slightly, and the main distinction is probably that the vapor plume expands to the atmosphere on the Earth and into vacuum on the Moon. Using available ANEOS equations of states for quartz and dunite we have determined parameters behind shock waves for impact velocities from 9 to 30 km/s and calculated release adiabats from various points on the Hugoniot curves to very low pressures. For impacts of quartz projectiles on quartz targets at velocities 9-16 km/s the release adiabats come to the liquid branch of the two-phase curve and, during the following expansion of two-phase mixture, the shock-compressed material vaporizes and does not condense. The condensate can appear during the plume expansion only at higher impact velocities. Using our hydrocode SOVA, we have made numerical simulations of the impacts of quartz and dunite spherical projectiles on the targets from the same materials. Along with the masses of condensates we calculated the masses of melted material. The calculated ratio of vaporized mass to the melted mass proved to be of the order of 0.1. However, we obtained that at velocities below 20 km/s the condensate mass is only a small fraction of vapor and melt masses and, consequently, the major part of vapor disperses in vacuum in the form of separate molecules. At impact velocity 15 km/s the relative abundance of silicate condensates is 0.001 - 0.0001 in accordance with the studies of lunar samples. For the observed condensate abundances the velocities of major asteroidal impacts on the Moon could not substantially exceed 20 km/s. Cometary impacts at the same velocities produce much smaller amounts of vapor condensate because of low comet densities and, therefore, lower pressures behind the shock waves. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 13-05-00694-a.

Svetsov, Vladimir; Shuvalov, Valery

493

Dispersion of Whistlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As recommended at the thirteenth General Assembly of the International Scientific Radio Union1 in London, observations of dispersion (D) of whistlers at calm and disturbed periods are very useful for the examination of geophysical phenomena and for their application to space communications, though very little has so far been done. Since the beginning of the International Geophysical Year (July 1957),

Atsushi Kimpara

1962-01-01

494

Phonon dispersion in graphene  

SciTech Connect

Taking into account the constraints imposed by the lattice symmetry, we calculate the phonon dispersion for graphene with interactions between the first and second nearest neighbors. We show that only five force constants give a very good fitting to the elastic constants and phonon frequencies observed in graphite.

Falkovsky, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: falk@itp.ac.ru

2007-08-15

495

Phonon dispersion in graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account the constraints imposed by the lattice symmetry, we calculate the phonon dispersion for graphene with\\u000a interactions between the first and second nearest neighbors. We show that only five force constants give a very good fitting\\u000a to the elastic constants and phonon frequencies observed in graphite.

L. A. Falkovsky; L. D. Landau

2007-01-01

496

Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

1991-01-01

497

Studies on Vapor Adsorption Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project consisted of performing experiments on single and dual bed vapor adsorption systems, thermodynamic cycle optimization, and thermal modeling. The work was described in a technical paper that appeared in conference proceedings and a Master's thesis, which were previously submitted to NASA. The present report describes some additional thermal modeling work done subsequently, and includes listings of computer codes developed during the project. Recommendations for future work are provided.

Shamsundar, N.; Ramotowski, M.

1998-01-01

498

Evaporation by mechanical vapor recompression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the development of a study of the application of the technologies of mechanical vapor recompression and falling film evaporation as applied to the beet sugar industry is reported. Progress is reported in the following areas: technical literature search; report on visit to European factories using these technologies; energy balance studies of factories offered by the industry as candidates for the demonstration plants; and report on energy balance studies and the recommendations as to the site for the demonstration plant.

Iverson, C. H.; Coury, G. E.

1980-04-01

499

Measurements of vaporized and liquid fuel concentration fields in a burning spray jet of acetone using planar laser induced fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planar LIF of acetone has been performed in the near development field of a burning spray jet. The main difficulty of such investigations comes from the large range of signal levels provided by the vapor and the size dispersed spray, which cannot be covered by the camera dynamics. The key point of the present work lies in a strong compression

R. Bazile; D. Stepowski

1995-01-01

500

Water vapor diffusion membrane development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An application of the water vapor diffusion technique is examined whereby the permeated water vapor is vented to space vacuum to alleviate on-board waste storage and provide supplemental cooling. The work reported herein deals primarily with the vapor diffusion-heat rejection (VD-HR) as it applies to the Space Shuttle. A stack configuration was selected, designed and fabricated. An asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane, used in reverse osmosis application was selected and a special spacer was designed to enhance mixing and promote mass transfer. A skid-mount unit was assembled from components used in the bench unit although no attempt was made to render it flight-suitable. The operating conditions of the VD-HR were examined and defined and a 60-day continuous test was carried out. The membranes performed very well throughout the test; no membrane rupture and no unusual flux decay was observed. In addition, a tentative design for a flight-suitable VD-HR unit was made.

Tan, M. K.

1977-01-01