Science.gov

Sample records for load calculation procedures

  1. Refining the calculation procedure for estimating the influence of flashing steam in steam turbine heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, V. B.; Shekhter, M. V.

    2012-12-01

    A refined procedure for estimating the effect the flashing of condensate in a steam turbine's regenerative and delivery-water heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load is presented. The results of calculations carried out according to the proposed procedure as applied to the delivery-water and regenerative heaters of a T-110/120-12.8 turbine are given.

  2. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  3. Loads and calculations of army airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelmachowski, Ing

    1921-01-01

    By comparing airplanes of known strength that have resisted all the usual and even extreme air loads with those that under like conditions were found to be insufficiently strong, the researchers, aided by scientific investigations, developed standards which are satisfactory for the calculation of airplane structures. Given here are standards applicable to loads on wing trusses, load factors for use in stress analysis, load factors required in sand testing, loads on control surfaces, loads on wing ribs, loads on landing gear, and rigidity of materials.

  4. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  5. Updated Miscellaneous Electricity Loads and Appliance Energy Usage Profiles for Use in Home Energy Ratings, the Building America Benchmark Procedures and Related Calculations. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny; Fairey, Philip; Hendron, Robert

    2011-06-10

    This report discusses how TIAX data, supplemented by the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS)public use data set was used to make significant improvements in the prediction metods for estimating energy use of miscellaneous electric loads.

  6. New unifying procedure for PC index calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. Currently, there are now the three separate PC index versions constructed from the different procedures used at the three institutes: the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), and the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space). It is demonstrated in this presentation, that two consistent unifying procedures can be built from the best elements of the three different versions. One procedure uses a set of coefficients aimed at the calculation of final PC index values to be accepted by IAGA. The other procedure uses coefficients aimed at on-line real-time production of preliminary PC index values for Space Weather monitoring applications. For each of the two cases the same procedure is used for the northern (PCN) and the southern (PCS) polar cap indices, and the derived PCN and PCS coefficients are similar.

  7. Space Heating Load Estimation Procedure for CHP Systems sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocale, P.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.

    2015-11-01

    Due to its environmental and energy benefits, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) represents certainly an important measure to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Since the energy performance of the CHP systems strongly depends on the fraction of the useful cogenerated heat (i.e. the cogenerated heat that is actually used to meet building thermal demand), in building applications of CHP, it is necessary to know the space heating and cooling loads profile to optimise the system efficiency. When the heating load profile is unknown or difficult to calculate with a sufficient accuracy, as may occur for existing buildings, it can be estimated from the cumulated energy uses by adopting the loads estimation procedure (h-LEP). With the aim to evaluate the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat for different operating conditions in terms of buildings characteristics, weather data and system capacity, the h-LEP is here implemented with a single climate variable: the hourly average dry- bulb temperature. The proposed procedure have been validated resorting to the TRNSYS simulation tool. The results, obtained by considering a building for hospital use, reveal that the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat can be estimated with an average accuracy of ± 3%, within the range of operative conditions considered in the present study.

  8. Calculating Dynamics Of Helicopters And Slung Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, Luigi; Kanning, Gerd

    1991-01-01

    General equations derived for numerical simulations of motions of multiple-lift, slung-load systems consisting of two or more lifting helicopters and loads slung from them by various combinations of spreader bars, cables, nets, and attaching hardware. Equations readily programmable for efficient computation of motions and lend themselves well to analysis and design of control strategies for stabilization and coordination.

  9. Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  11. Development of an efficient procedure for calculating the aerodynamic effects of planform variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. E.; Geller, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical procedures to compute gradients in aerodynamic loading due to planform shape changes using panel method codes were studied. Two procedures were investigated: one computed the aerodynamic perturbation directly; the other computed the aerodynamic loading on the perturbed planform and on the base planform and then differenced these values to obtain the perturbation in loading. It is indicated that computing the perturbed values directly can not be done satisfactorily without proper aerodynamic representation of the pressure singularity at the leading edge of a thin wing. For the alternative procedure, a technique was developed which saves most of the time-consuming computations from a panel method calculation for the base planform. Using this procedure the perturbed loading can be calculated in about one-tenth the time of that for the base solution.

  12. Improved Program For Calculation Of Heat-Load Multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Valentine, Mark

    1995-01-01

    PRM1940 computer program computes heat-load multiplier for use in Power Balance Model (PBM) computer program which calculates hundreds of operating parameters of main engine of space shuttle from relatively few measurement data. PRM1940 is stand-alone program which incorporates only those PBM calculations necessary to compute heat-load multiplier. Developed to accelerate and partly automate calculation of heat-load multiplier. Although programs specific to space shuttle application, also of interest to engineers concerned with monitoring of conditions in turbines, chemical-processing plants, and other high-temperature flow machinery.

  13. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  14. 49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...

  15. 49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...

  16. 49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Act and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. (b) A manufacturer that is eligible to elect a model year in... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...

  17. 49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...

  18. Calculation method of load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shoujun; Gao, Lianxin; An, Qi

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new calculation method that can calculate the load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load. On the basis of elastic mechanics, the new method was developed by analyzing each thread tooth, and a new deformation and covariant equation by making a mechanics analysis on each thread tooth was obtained. Compared with the traditional method proposed by the previous references, the new deformation and covariant equation could be used to describe the relation between the previous and the next thread tooth. By applying the new method on the sample of P-110S pipe threaded connection, the obtained results show that the load on thread tooth mainly concentrates on the four or five threads engaged and the middle teeth were not utilized well to bear the loads. The model offers a new way to calculate the loads carried on the thread teeth under tension load.

  19. A simple method of calculating lower-bound limit loads for axisymmetric thin shells

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.T.; Hamilton, R.; Shi, J.; Mackenzie, D.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, a simple method for calculating lower-bound limit loads for shells is presented, based on Ilyushin`s and Ivanov`s generalized yield criterion, respectively, and using the elastic compensation procedure. Several examples, including torispherical and conical ends, radial nozzles, and a skirted vessel, are examined using this method. The results are compared with previously published results.

  20. Approximate calculation of multispar cantilever and semicantilever wings with parallel ribs under direct and indirect loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, Eugen

    1932-01-01

    A method is presented for approximate static calculation, which is based on the customary assumption of rigid ribs, while taking into account the systematic errors in the calculation results due to this arbitrary assumption. The procedure is given in greater detail for semicantilever and cantilever wings with polygonal spar plan form and for wings under direct loading only. The last example illustrates the advantages of the use of influence lines for such wing structures and their practical interpretation.

  1. A procedure for calculation of boundary layer trip protuberances in overexpanded rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure is described for sizing, scaling, positioning and performance loss calculation of a boundary layer trip protuberance. The theoretical results are compared with some experimental data. The application of boundary layer trips, such as secondary injection, wall angle discontinuities, circumferential grooves, and circumferential trip protuberances for reducing side loads on rocket nozzle walls is discussed.

  2. A new programmable calculator procedure for individualizing phenytoin dosage.

    PubMed

    Messori, A; Valenza, T; Zaccara, G; Arnetoli, G; Bartoli, C; Donati-Cori, G; Tendi, E; Zappoli, R

    1983-12-01

    A programmable calculator procedure allowing nonlinear least-squares fit to pharmacokinetic data conforming to the Michaelis-Menten model is described. Model parameter estimation is performed according to the iterative Gauss-Newton technique as modified by Hartley. This procedure thus employs the same theoretical approach used by most pharmacokinetic computer programs. No programming skill is needed to run the program described. The proposed procedure is discussed in detail and applied to some sets of pharmacokinetic data. PMID:6653404

  3. A Procedure Using Calculators to Express Answers in Fractional Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Earnest

    A procedure is described that enables students to perform operations on fractions with a calculator, expressing the answer as a fraction. Patterns using paper-and-pencil procedures for each operation with fractions are presented. A microcomputer software program illustrates how the answer can be found using integer values of the numerators and…

  4. Impeller response calculation due to complex pressure loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellstein, Carl

    1990-01-01

    An analysis technique is described to calculate the harmonic response of the first-stage impeller of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump. The excitation is a complex pressure loading at various locations on the impeller blades. The pressure loading was predicted using computational fluid dynamic techniques and was given as a Fourier series at 48 different locations on each of the three impeller blade types. The analysis consisted of mapping the pressures onto a three-dimensional finite element model, then converting these pressure loads to complex nodal force vectors at specified equal time intervals. The resulting vectors were then converted to modal force time histories that were then transformed into the frequency domain where the frequency response was calculated directly. This technique resulted in an improvement to the previously used direct integration technique and in a substantial analysis cost reduction.

  5. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  6. Numerical procedures for the calculation of the stresses in monocoques III : calculation of the bending moments in fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A; Klein, Bertran

    1946-01-01

    This report deals with the calculation of the bending moments in and the distortions of fuselage rings upon which known concentrated and distributed loads are acting. In the procedure suggested, the ring is divided into a number of beams each having a constant radius of curvature. The forces and moments caused in the end sections of the beams by individual unit displacements of the end sections are listed in a table designated as the operations table in conformity with Southwell's nomenclature. The operations table and the external loads are equivalent to a set of linear equations. For their solution the following three procedures are presented: 1) Southwell's method of systematic relaxations. This is a step-by-step approximation procedure guided by the physical interpretation of the changes in the values of the unknown. 2) The growing unit procedure in which the individual beams are combined successively into beams of increasing length until finally the entire ring becomes a single beam. In each step of the procedure a set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations is solved. 3) Solution of the entire set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the matrix calculus. In order to demonstrate the manner in which the calculations may be carried out, the following numerical examples are worked out: 1) Curved beam with both its end sections rigidly fixed. The load is a concentrated force. 2) Egg-shape ring with symmetric concentrated loads. 3) Circular ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 4) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. 5) Egg-shape ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 6) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. The results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis. The agreement is found to be good. The amount of work necessary for the solution of ring problems by

  7. Efficient Load Balancing and Data Remapping for Adaptive Grid Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1997-01-01

    Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured- grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. We present a novel method to dynamically balance the processor workloads with a global view. This paper presents, for the first time, the implementation and integration of all major components within our dynamic load balancing strategy for adaptive grid calculations. Mesh adaption, repartitioning, processor assignment, and remapping are critical components of the framework that must be accomplished rapidly and efficiently so as not to cause a significant overhead to the numerical simulation. Previous results indicated that mesh repartitioning and data remapping are potential bottlenecks for performing large-scale scientific calculations. We resolve these issues and demonstrate that our framework remains viable on a large number of processors.

  8. Calculating Nozzle Side Loads using Acceleration Measurements of Test-Based Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joe

    2007-01-01

    As part of a NASA/MSFC research program to evaluate the effect of different nozzle contours on the well-known but poorly characterized "side load" phenomena, we attempt to back out the net force on a sub-scale nozzle during cold-flow testing using acceleration measurements. Because modeling the test facility dynamics is problematic, new techniques for creating a "pseudo-model" of the facility and nozzle directly from modal test results are applied. Extensive verification procedures were undertaken, resulting in a loading scale factor necessary for agreement between test and model based frequency response functions. Side loads are then obtained by applying a wide-band random load onto the system model, obtaining nozzle response PSD's, and iterating both the amplitude and frequency of the input until a good comparison of the response with the measured response PSD for a specific time point is obtained. The final calculated loading can be used to compare different nozzle profiles for assessment during rocket engine nozzle development and as a basis for accurate design of the nozzle and engine structure to withstand these loads. The techniques applied within this procedure have extensive applicability to timely and accurate characterization of all test fixtures used for modal test.A viewgraph presentation on a model-test based pseudo-model used to calculate side loads on rocket engine nozzles is included. The topics include: 1) Side Loads in Rocket Nozzles; 2) Present Side Loads Research at NASA/MSFC; 3) Structural Dynamic Model Generation; 4) Pseudo-Model Generation; 5) Implementation; 6) Calibration of Pseudo-Model Response; 7) Pseudo-Model Response Verification; 8) Inverse Force Determination; 9) Results; and 10) Recent Work.

  9. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-A: Calculation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the second in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals exclusively with the calculation procedures, including simplified mixing formulas, aeration tank…

  10. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  11. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  12. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  13. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  14. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  15. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  16. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  17. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  18. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  19. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  20. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  1. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  2. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  3. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  4. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  5. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1993-10-27

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.

  6. A loudness calculation procedure applied to shaped sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is a procedure that can be used to calculate the loudness of sonic booms. The procedure is applied to a wide range of sonic booms, both classical N-waves and a variety of other shapes of booms. The loudness of N-waves is controlled by overpressure and the associated rise time. The loudness of shaped booms is highly dependent on the characteristics of the initial shock. A comparison of the calculated loudness values indicates that shaped booms may have significantly reduced loudness relative to N-waves having the same peak overpressure. This result implies that a supersonic transport designed to yield minimized sonic booms may be substantially more acceptable than an unconstrained design.

  7. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-09-12

    This paper presents an analysis of the applicability of alternative systems for electric vehicle (EV) heating and air conditioning (HVAC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. These systems are ranked according to their overall weight The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best, because minimum vehicle weight decreases the energy required for propulsion, and therefore increases the vehicle range. Three systems are considered as the best choices for EV HVAC. These are, vapor compression, ice storage and adsorption systems. These systems are evaluated, including calculations of system weight, system volume, and COP. The paper also includes a calculation on how the battery energy storage capacity affects the overall system weights and the selection of the optimum system. The results indicate that, at the conditions analyzed in this paper, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor compression air conditioners become the system with the minimum weight for battery storage capacities above 230 kJ/kg.

  8. Experimental Verification of Buffet Calculation Procedure Using Unsteady PSP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    Typically a limited number of dynamic pressure sensors are employed to determine the unsteady aerodynamic forces on large, slender aerospace structures. The estimated forces are known to be very sensitive to the number of the dynamic pressure sensors and the details of the integration scheme. This report describes a robust calculation procedure, based on frequency-specific correlation lengths, that is found to produce good estimation of fluctuating forces from a few dynamic pressure sensors. The validation test was conducted on a flat panel, placed on the floor of a wind tunnel, and was subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body. The panel was coated with fast response Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP), which allowed time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations on a dense grid of spatial points. The first part of the report describes the detail procedure used to analyze the high-speed, PSP camera images. The procedure includes steps to reduce contamination by electronic shot noise, correction for spatial non-uniformities, and lamp brightness variation, and finally conversion of fluctuating light intensity to fluctuating pressure. The latter involved applying calibration constants from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Excellent comparison in the spectra, coherence and phase, calculated via PSP and dynamic pressure sensors validated the PSP processing steps. The second part of the report describes the buffet validation process, for which the first step was to use pressure histories from all PSP points to determine the "true" force fluctuations. In the next step only a selected number of pixels were chosen as "virtual sensors" and a correlation-length based buffet calculation procedure was applied to determine "modeled" force fluctuations. By progressively decreasing the number of virtual sensors it was observed that the present calculation procedure was able to make a close estimate of the "true

  9. WINDOW 4.0: Documentation of calculation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson, E.U.; Arasteh, D.K.; Huizenga, C.; Rubin, M.D.; Reilly, M.S.

    1993-07-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Building Technologies Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating the thermal and optical properties necessary for heat transfer analyses of fenestration products. This report explains the calculation methods used in WINDOW 4.0 and is meant as a tool for those interested in understanding the procedures contained in WINDOW 4.0. All the calculations are discussed in the International System of units (SI). WINDOW 4.0 is the latest in a series of programs released by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The WINDOW program has its roots in a paper detailing a method for calculating heat transfer through windows [Rubin, 1982]. WINDOW 4.0 replaces the widely used 3.1 version. Although WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision, many of the algorithms used in WINDOW 4.0 build upon those previously documented [Arasteh, 1989b], [Furler, 1991]. This report documents the calculations that are unchanged from WINDOW 3.1, as well as those calculations that are new to WINDOW 4.0. This report uses the organization of the WINDOW 4.0 program. Results displayed on a WINDOW 4.0 screen are discussed in a section describing that screen. In the conclusion the aspects of the calculation method currently slated for revision are discussed. A glossary of variables used throughout the report is found in Section 11.

  10. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (IBM version) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives.

  11. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (Macintosh version) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives.

  12. A fundamental procedure and calculation formula for evaluating gravel liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong

    2011-09-01

    Field investigations following the 2008 M s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake identified 118 liquefaction sites, most of which are underlain by gravelly sediment in the Chengdu Plain and adjacent Mianyang area, in the Sichuan Province. Gravel sediment in the Sichuan province is widely distributed; hence it is necessary to develop a method for prediction and evaluation of gravel liquefaction behavior. Based on liquefaction investigation data and in-situ testing, and with reference to existing procedures for sandy soil liquefaction evaluation, a fundamental procedure for gravel liquefaction evaluation using dynamic penetration tests (DPT) is proposed along with a corresponding model and calculation formula. The procedure contains two stages, i.e., pre-determination and re-determination. Pre-determination excludes impossible liquefiable or non-liquefiable soils, and re-determination explores a DPT-based critical N 120 blows calculation model. Pre-determination includes three criteria, i.e., geological age, gravel contents, gravel sediment depths and water tables. The re-determination model consists of five parameters, i.e., DPT reference values, gravel contents, gravel sediment depths, water tables and seismic intensities. A normalization method is used for DPT reference values and an optimization method is used for the gravel sediment depth coefficient and water table coefficient. The gravel liquefaction evaluation method proposed herein is simple and takes most influencing factors on gravel sediment liquefaction into account.

  13. A general, accurate procedure for calculating molecular interaction force.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pinghai; Qian, Xiaoping

    2009-09-15

    The determination of molecular interaction forces, e.g., van der Waals force, between macroscopic bodies is of fundamental importance for understanding sintering, adhesion and fracture processes. In this paper, we develop an accurate, general procedure for van der Waals force calculation. This approach extends a surface formulation that converts a six-dimensional (6D) volume integral into a 4D surface integral for the force calculation. It uses non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces to represent object surfaces. Surface integrals are then done on the parametric domain of the NURBS surfaces. It has combined advantages of NURBS surface representation and surface formulation, including (1) molecular interactions between arbitrary-shaped objects can be represented and evaluated by the NURBS model further common geometries such as spheres, cones, planes can be represented exactly and interaction forces are thus calculated accurately; (2) calculation efficiency is improved by converting the volume integral to the surface integral. This approach is implemented and validated via its comparison with analytical solutions for simple geometries. Calculation of van der Waals force between complex geometries with surface roughness is also demonstrated. A tutorial on the NURBS approach is given in Appendix A. PMID:19596335

  14. Calculation of Rotor Performance and Loads Under Stalled Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    2003-01-01

    Rotor behavior in stalled conditions is investigated using wind tunnel test data of a l/l0-scale CH-47B/C type rotor, which provides a set of test conditions extending from unstalled to light stall to some deep stall conditions over a wide range of advance ratios. The rotor performance measured in the wind tunnel is similar to the main rotor performance measured during the NASA/Army UH-60A Airloads Program, although the two rotors are quite different. The analysis CAMRAD II has been used to predict the rotor performance and loads. Full-scale airfoil test data are corrected for Reynolds number effects for comparison with the model-scale rotor test. The calculated power coefficient shows good correlation with the measurements below stall with the Reynolds number-corrected airfoil table. Various dynamic stall models are used in the calculations. The Boeing model shows the lift augmentation at low advance ratios and the Leishman-Beddoes model shows better correlation of torsion moment than the other models at mu = 0.2. However, the dynamic stall models, in general, show only a small influence on the rotor power and torsion moment predictions especially at higher advance ratios.

  15. Inverse Load Calculation of Wind Turbine Support Structures - A Numerical Verification Using the Comprehensive Simulation Code FAST: Preprint (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Pahn, T.; Jonkman, J.; Rolges, R.; Robertson, A.

    2012-11-01

    Physically measuring the dynamic responses of wind turbine support structures enables the calculation of the applied loads using an inverse procedure. In this process, inverse means deriving the inputs/forces from the outputs/responses. This paper presents results of a numerical verification of such an inverse load calculation. For this verification, the comprehensive simulation code FAST is used. FAST accounts for the coupled dynamics of wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity and turbine controls. Simulations are run using a 5-MW onshore wind turbine model with a tubular tower. Both the applied loads due to the instantaneous wind field and the resulting system responses are known from the simulations. Using the system responses as inputs to the inverse calculation, the applied loads are calculated, which in this case are the rotor thrust forces. These forces are compared to the rotor thrust forces known from the FAST simulations. The results of these comparisons are presented to assess the accuracy of the inverse calculation. To study the influences of turbine controls, load cases in normal operation between cut-in and rated wind speed, near rated wind speed and between rated and cut-out wind speed are chosen. The presented study shows that the inverse load calculation is capable of computing very good estimates of the rotor thrust. The accuracy of the inverse calculation does not depend on the control activity of the wind turbine.

  16. Comparison of calculated and experimental load distributions on thin wings at high subsonic and sonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crigler, John L

    1957-01-01

    A method for calculating the aerodynamic loading on a wing in combination with a body is presented. Calculated results are compared with experimentally measured data for two wing-body configurations throughout a range of Mach number up to 1.0. The magnitude and the distribution of spanwise loading of the calculated data are generally in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.

  18. Site And Neighborhood Design (SAND): Development of simplified automated building thermal load procedures, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diderrich, G. T.; Hrabak, R. A.

    1980-07-01

    Preliminary efforts toward the development of simplified procedures for estimating the thermal-loads of buildings are presented. The acquisition implementation, and documentation of the thermal load procedures and associated data files actually used by the five SAND participants are described.

  19. Uncertainty-accounted calculational-experimental approach for improved conservative evaluations of VVER RPV radiation loading parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Borodkin, P.G.; Borodkin, G.I.; Khrennikov, N.N.

    2011-07-01

    The approach of improved uncertainty-accounted conservative evaluation of vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) (reactor-) pressure-vessel (RPV) radiation loading parameters has been proposed. This approach is based on the calculational-experimental procedure, which takes into account C/E ratio, depending on over- or underestimation, and uncertainties of measured and calculated results. An application of elaborated approach to the full-scale ex-vessel neutron dosimetry experiments on Russian VVERs combined with neutron-transport calculations has been demonstrated in the paper. (authors)

  20. Comparison of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seven computer codes for analyzing performance and loads in large, horizontal-axis wind turbines were used to calculate blade bending moment loads for two operational conditions of the 100 kW Mod-O wind turbine. Results are compared with test data on the basis of cyclic loads, peak loads, and harmonic contents. Four of the seven codes include rotor-tower interaction and three are limited to rotor analysis. With a few exceptions, all calculated loads were within 25% of nominal test data.

  1. Comparison of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seven computer codes for analyzing performance and loads in large, horizontal axis wind turbines were used to calculate blade bending moment loads for two operational conditions of the 100 kW Mod-0 wind turbine. Results were compared with test data on the basis of cyclic loads, peak loads, and harmonic contents. Four of the seven codes include rotor-tower interaction and three were limited to rotor analysis. With a few exceptions, all calculated loads were within 25 percent of nominal test data.

  2. Calculation of Hub Loads at Low Airspeeds with Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of individual blade control (IBC) on the full-scale, low airspeed, level flight UH-60A oscillatory fixed system 4P hub loads and the rotating system blade bending moments is studied. The effect of a single 3P IBC input has been considered in this analytical study. At the low speed under consideration, it has been found that convergence of the comprehensive analysis is important for obtaining good predictions. Good correlation has been obtained with the measured full-scale wind tunnel data for the shapes of the fixed system 4P hub loads variations with the 3P IBC input phase, and also for the "best" phase of the 3P input (for minimum hub loads). The blade bending moment comparison shows mixed results. The 3P lead lag and the 4P flap bending moment trends with the 3P IBC input phase are reasonably predicted, whereas the 5P lead lag bending moment trend is not predicted well. Finally, the prediction of the baseline (no IBC) bending moments needs further study.

  3. Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  4. A new procedure for calculating contact stresses in gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical procedure for evaluating and monitoring contact stresses in meshing gear teeth is discussed. The procedure is intended to extend the range of applicability and to improve the accuracy of gear contact stress analysis. The procedure is based upon fundamental solution from the theory of elasticity. It is an iterative numerical procedure. The method is believed to have distinct advantages over the classical Hertz method, the finite-element method, and over existing approaches with the boundary element method. Unlike many classical contact stress analyses, friction effects and sliding are included. Slipping and sticking in the contact region are studied. Several examples are discussed. The results are in agreement with classical results. Applications are presented for spur gears.

  5. Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading

    PubMed Central

    Nagode, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of the standardized damage parameters are thus surpassed. The damage parameters derived initially for closed and isothermal cycles assuming that the elastoplastic stress–strain response follows the Masing and memory rules can now be used to take the mean stress effect into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. The method includes:•stress and elastoplastic strain history transformation into the corresponding amplitude and mean values;•stress and elastoplastic strain amplitude and mean value transformation into the damage parameter amplitude history;•damage parameter amplitude history transformation into the damage parameter history. PMID:26150939

  6. Computational methods. [Calculation of dynamic loading to offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, H. . Inst. of Industrial Science)

    1993-02-01

    With regard to the computational methods for hydrodynamic forces, first identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology is discussed. Then general computational methods, the state of the arts and uncertainty on flow problems in offshore technology in which developed, developing and undeveloped problems are categorized and future works follow. Marine hydrodynamics consists of water surface and underwater fluid dynamics. Marine hydrodynamics covers, not only hydro, but also aerodynamics such as wind load or current-wave-wind interaction, hydrodynamics such as cavitation, underwater noise, multi-phase flow such as two-phase flow in pipes or air bubble in water or surface and internal waves, and magneto-hydrodynamics such as propulsion due to super conductivity. Among them, two key words are focused on as the identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology; they are free surface and vortex shedding.

  7. Assessment of Comprehensive Analysis Calculation of Structural Loads on Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Blade flap bending moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speeds: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO-105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations mere made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap bending moment between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2 with the rolled-up wake. The calculated flap bending moments differ significantly from measurements for the UH-60A and BO-105. Better correlation is obtained for the UH-60A by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. Although the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model shows good correlation on the normal force for the BO-105, the same analysis shows poor correlation on the flap bending moment. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally good agreement with the research Puma flight data in both magnitude and phase. However, poor agreement is obtained for the other rotors examined. Although the analysis significantly underpredicts the vibratory normal force on the advancing side for the H-34, the vibratory bending moment correlation is fair to good on both magnitude and phase.

  8. Boundary condition computational procedures for inviscid, supersonic steady flow field calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbett, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    Results are given of a comparative study of numerical procedures for computing solid wall boundary points in supersonic inviscid flow calculatons. Twenty five different calculation procedures were tested on two sample problems: a simple expansion wave and a simple compression (two-dimensional steady flow). A simple calculation procedure was developed. The merits and shortcomings of the various procedures are discussed, along with complications for three-dimensional and time-dependent flows.

  9. Comparison of Rotor Structural Loads Calculated using Comprehensive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    2005-01-01

    Blade flap and chord bending and torsion moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speed: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO- 105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations were made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap and chord bending moments between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2. Torsion moment correlation, in general, is fair to good for all the rotors investigated. Better flap bending and torsion moment correlation is obtained for the UH-60A and BO-105 rotors by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally better correlation in magnitude than in phase for the flap bending and torsion moments. However, a significant underprediction of chord bending moment is observed for the research Puma and UH-60A. The poor chord bending moment correlation appears to be caused by the airloads model, not the structural dynamics.

  10. An efficient pressure-velocity procedure for gas-droplet two-phase flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Jiang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a noniterative numerical technique for computing time-dependent gas-droplet flows. The method is a fully interacting combination of Eulerian fluid and Lagrangian particle calculations. The interaction calculations between the two phases are formulated on a pressure-velocity-coupling procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. This procedure eliminates the global iterations required in the conventional particle-source-in-cell procedure. Turbulent dispersion calculations are treated by a stochastic procedure. Numerical calculations and comparisons with available experimental data as well as efficiency assessments are given for some sprays typical of spray combustion applications.

  11. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  12. Calculation Method for Flight Limit Load of V-band Clamp Separation Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Takashi; Shi, Qinzhong

    A simplified calculation method for estimating a flight limit load of the V-band clamp separation shock was established. With this method, the flight limit load is estimated through addition of an appropriate envelope margin to the results acquired with the simplified analysis method proposed in our previous paper. The envelope margin used in the method was calculated based on the reviews on the differences observed between the results of a pyroshock test and the analysis. Using the derived envelope margin, a calculating formula of the flight limit load, which envelopes the actual pyroshock responses with a certain probability, was developed. Based on the formula, flight limit loads for several actual satellites were estimated and compared to the test results. The comparative results showed that the estimated flight limit loads appropriately envelope the test results, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Acceptance test procedure, 241-SY-101/241-C-106 shot loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, M.J.

    1994-11-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure is for the 241-SY-101/241-C-106 Shot Loading System. The procedure will test the components of the Shot Loading System and its capability of adequately loading shot into the annular space of the Container. The loaded shot will provide shielding as required for transporting and storage of a contaminated pump after removal from the tank. This test serves as verification that the SLS is acceptable for use in the pump removal operations for Tanks 241-SY-101, 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The pump removal operation for these three tanks will be performed by two different organizations with different equipment, but the Shot Loading System will be compatible between the two operations.

  14. Procedure for calculating general aircraft noise based on ISO 3891

    SciTech Connect

    Hediger, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The standard ISO-3891 specifies the presentation of aircraft noise heard on the ground or of noise exposure by succession of aircraft, without giving any details on different parameters required to their calculation. The following study provides some of these parameters considering acoustic measurements as well as laboratory analysis realized in co-operation with the Swiss Federal Office for Civil Aviation.

  15. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Heat Load Calculations for the Solenoid Chimney

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-05-26

    This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the chimney heat loads. These heat load numbers were reported in the D0 solenoid upgrade design report. The heat loads to the LN2 circuit were done by Andrew Stefanik, RDIMechanical Systems group. They were part of his LN2 shield calculations dated 2/23/93. Pages 1 thru 3 of his calculations that apply to the chimney are attached. The heat loads to the LHe circuit were done originally on 12/16/92 and then revised on 12/23/92 to be more conservative. The raw calculations are attached. I include both the original 12/16 version and the 12/23 revised version to document the amount of conservativeness added.

  16. Seismic Load Rating Procedure for Welded Steel Frames Oligo-cyclic Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Ratiu, Mircea D.; Moisidis, Nicolae T.

    2004-07-01

    A dynamic load rating approach for seismic qualification of cold-formed steel welded frames is presented. Allowable seismic loads are developed from cyclic and monotonic tests of standard cold-formed steel components commonly used for piping and electrical raceway supports. The method permits simplified qualification of all connections of frame components through a single load comparison. Test input consists of rotation/cycles-to-failure data and monotonic moment/rotation data. Cyclic data are statistically evaluated to determine an acceptable maximum seismic rotation for the connection. The allowable seismic load is determined from the corresponding static rotation. Application to seismic qualification procedures is discussed. (authors)

  17. Comparison of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The development of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in horizontal axis wind turbines was examined, and a brief overview of each code was given. The performance of individual codes was compared against two sets of test data measured on a 100 KW Mod-0 wind turbine. All codes are aeroelastic and include loads which are gravitational, inertial and aerodynamic in origin.

  18. Including Aeroelastic Effects in the Calculation of X-33 Loads and Control Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiler, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now, loads analyses of the X-33 RLV have been done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using aerodynamic loads derived from CFD and wind tunnel models of a rigid vehicle. Control forces and moments are determined using a rigid vehicle trajectory analysis and the detailed control load distributions for achieving the desired control forces and moments, again on the rigid vehicle, are determined by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. However, static aeroelastic effects upon the load distributions are not known. The static aeroelastic effects will generally redistribute external loads thereby affecting both the internal structural loads as well as the forces and moments generated by aerodynamic control surfaces. Therefore, predicted structural sizes as well as maneuvering requirements can be altered by consideration of static aeroelastic effects. The objective of the present work is the development of models and solutions for including static aeroelasticity in the calculation of X-33 loads and in the determination of stability and control derivatives.

  19. Calculation of multi-layer plate damper under one-axial load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Yan; Lu, Zhang; Hong-Yuan, Jiang; Alexander, M. Ulanov

    2016-02-01

    A multi-layer damper with waved plates under one-axial load is considered. A method of theoretical calculation of its energy dissipation coefficient is proposed. An experimental research of own frequencies and vibration transfer ratios for different parameters of damper structure, harmonic vibration load and random load is performed. Results of this research are approximated by functions; it is possible to use these functions for the calculation of the damper too. Project supported by the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (Grant No. B07018).

  20. Calculation of Centrally Loaded Thin-Walled Columns Above the Buckling Limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinitzhuber, F.

    1945-01-01

    When thin-walled columns formed from flanged sheet, such as used in airplane construction, are subjected to axial load, their behavior at failure varies according to the slenderness ratio. On long columns the axis deflects laterally while the cross section form is maintained; buckling results. The respective breaking load in the elastic range is computed by Euler's formula and for the plastic range by the Engesser- Karman formula. Its magnitude is essentially dependent upon the length. On intermediate length columns, especially where open sections are concerned, the cross section is distorted while the cross section form is preserved; twisting failure results. The buckling load in twisting is calculated according to Wagner and Kappus. On short columns the straight walls of low-bending resistance that form the column are deflected at the same time that the cross section form changes - buckling occurs without immediate failure. Then the buckling load of the total section computable from the buckling loads of the section walls is not the ultimate load; quite often, especially on thin-walled sections, it lies considerably higher and is secured by tests. Both loads, the buckling and the ultimate load are only in a small measure dependent upon length. The present report is an attempt to theoretically investigate the behavior of such short, thin-walled columns above the buckling load with the conventional calculating methods.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  6. A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, I.; Tabakoff, W.

    1979-01-01

    A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine rotors is presented. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible stream function vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation, over the rotor blade-to-blade stream channels. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system that suits the most complicated blade geometries. A numerical scheme is used to carry out the necessary integration of the elliptic governing equations. The flow characteristics within the rotor of a radial inflow turbine are investigated over a wide range of operating conditions. The calculated results are compared to existing experimental data. The flow in a radial compressor is analyzed in order to study the behavior of viscous flow in diffusing cascades. The results are compared qualitatively to known experimental trends. The solution obtained provides insight into the flow phenomena in this type of turbomachine. It is concluded that the method of analysis is quite general and gives a good representation of the actual flow behavior within turbomachine passages.

  7. A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.

    2006-10-01

    A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with

  8. Comparison of Iterative and Non-Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Load Calculation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of iterative and non-iterative strain-gage balance load calculation methods was compared using data from the calibration of a force balance. Two iterative and one non-iterative method were investigated. In addition, transformations were applied to balance loads in order to process the calibration data in both direct read and force balance format. NASA's regression model optimization tool BALFIT was used to generate optimized regression models of the calibration data for each of the three load calculation methods. This approach made sure that the selected regression models met strict statistical quality requirements. The comparison of the standard deviation of the load residuals showed that the first iterative method may be applied to data in both the direct read and force balance format. The second iterative method, on the other hand, implicitly assumes that the primary gage sensitivities of all balance gages exist. Therefore, the second iterative method only works if the given balance data is processed in force balance format. The calibration data set was also processed using the non-iterative method. Standard deviations of the load residuals for the three load calculation methods were compared. Overall, the standard deviations show very good agreement. The load prediction accuracies of the three methods appear to be compatible as long as regression models used to analyze the calibration data meet strict statistical quality requirements. Recent improvements of the regression model optimization tool BALFIT are also discussed in the paper.

  9. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  10. Finite difference time domain calculation of transients in antennas with nonlinear loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.; Chamberlin, Kent

    1991-01-01

    In this paper transient fields for antennas with more general geometries are calculated directly using Finite Difference Time Domain methods. In each FDTD cell which contains a nonlinear load, a nonlinear equation is solved at each time step. As a test case the transient current in a long dipole antenna with a nonlinear load excited by a pulsed plane wave is computed using this approach. The results agree well with both calculated and measured results previously published. The approach given here extends the applicability of the FDTD method to problems involving scattering from targets including nonlinear loads and materials, and to coupling between antennas containing nonlinear loads. It may also be extended to propagation through nonlinear materials.

  11. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. R.; Miller, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS computer program L218 which calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: (1) translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; (2) panel aerodynamic forces; (3) net panel forces; and (4) shears, bending moments, and torsions.

  12. The results of near-field thermal and mechanical calculations of thermal loading schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Two waste emplacement schemes,borehole and in-drift are under evaluation as potential repository drift geometries for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Calculations were performed to examinethe systems implications of various thermal loadings on the near- and far-field repository environments. Ms paper reports the results of two-dimensional finite element analyses of the near-field thermal and structural response of the potential repository. Thermal calculations were run to 1000 years and mechanical calculations were run to 75 years. the time when the drifts will be backfilled. Local areal power densities (LAPDs) of 57, 80, and 100 kW/acre were used in the calculations. Both emplacement schemes meet current near-field thermal performance goals for all loadings examined. The mechanical calculations predict no intact rock failure, limited joint slippage around the drifts, and closure of apertures for vertical fractures above and below the drifts.

  13. Comparison of three methods of calculating strain in the mouse ulna in exogenous loading studies.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie C; Wagner, David W; Beaupre, Gary S; Castillo, Alesha B

    2015-01-01

    Axial compression of mouse limbs is commonly used to induce bone formation in a controlled, non-invasive manner. Determination of peak strains caused by loading is central to interpreting results. Load-strain calibration is typically performed using uniaxial strain gauges attached to the diaphyseal, periosteal surface of a small number of sacrificed animals. Strain is measured as the limb is loaded to a range of physiological loads known to be anabolic to bone. The load-strain relationship determined by this subgroup is then extrapolated to a larger group of experimental mice. This method of strain calculation requires the challenging process of strain gauging very small bones which is subject to variability in placement of the strain gauge. We previously developed a method to estimate animal-specific periosteal strain during axial ulnar loading using an image-based computational approach that does not require strain gauges. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between load-induced bone formation rates and periosteal strain at ulnar midshaft using three different methods to estimate strain: (A) Nominal strain values based solely on load-strain calibration; (B) Strains calculated from load-strain calibration, but scaled for differences in mid-shaft cross-sectional geometry among animals; and (C) An alternative image-based computational method for calculating strains based on beam theory and animal-specific bone geometry. Our results show that the alternative method (C) provides comparable correlation between strain and bone formation rates in the mouse ulna relative to the strain gauge-dependent methods (A and B), while avoiding the need to use strain gauges. PMID:25443882

  14. Finite difference time domain calculation of transients in antennas with nonlinear loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.; Chamberlin, Kent

    1991-01-01

    Determining transient electromagnetic fields in antennas with nonlinear loads is a challenging problem. Typical methods used involve calculating frequency domain parameters at a large number of different frequencies, then applying Fourier transform methods plus nonlinear equation solution techniques. If the antenna is simple enough so that the open circuit time domain voltage can be determined independently of the effects of the nonlinear load on the antennas current, time stepping methods can be applied in a straightforward way. Here, transient fields for antennas with more general geometries are calculated directly using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. In each FDTD cell which contains a nonlinear load, a nonlinear equation is solved at each time step. As a test case, the transient current in a long dipole antenna with a nonlinear load excited by a pulsed plane wave is computed using this approach. The results agree well with both calculated and measured results previously published. The approach given here extends the applicability of the FDTD method to problems involving scattering from targets, including nonlinear loads and materials, and to coupling between antennas containing nonlinear loads. It may also be extended to propagation through nonlinear materials.

  15. Design procedures for fiber composite structural components: Panels subjected to combined in-plane loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Step by step procedures are described which can be used to design panels made from fiber composite angleplied laminates and subjected to combined in plane loads. The procedures are set up as a multistep sample design. Steps in the sample design procedure range from selection of the laminate configuration to the subsequent analyses required to check design requirements for: (1) displacement, (2) ply stresses, and (3) buckling. The sample design steps are supplemented with appropriate tabular and graphical data which can be used to expedite the design process.

  16. Evaluation criteria and procedure for nuclear power plant temporary loads/temporary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, H.T.; Minichiello, J.C.; Olson, D.E.

    1996-12-01

    Operating nuclear power plants frequently encounter temporary loads/temporary conditions in plant normal operation and maintenance (O and M). The most obvious examples are installation of temporary shielding and scaffolding, or removal of certain supports, to facilitate plant refueling and maintenance outage activities. Short-term operability calls such as those due to snubber failures or unanticipated transients also create temporary loads/temporary conditions. These temporary situations often generate loads that are outside the original plant design basis. Consequently, separate evaluations are needed to ensure that plant structures, systems and components (SSCs) maintain their integrity and functionality while these temporary loads are active. Also, the temporary structures and components need to be evaluated to ensure their integrity during the temporary duration of use. Three types of approaches are normally adopted either individually or in combination to perform needed evaluations: relax the design allowables, use a more refined analysis model but retain the design basis acceptance criteria, or offset temporary loads by eliminating or reducing part of the design basis loads based on short duration considerations. This paper reviews temporary loading/temporary condition issues and the current industry criteria and procedures proposed in dealing with these issues. Where appropriate, regulatory positions on temporary loads/temporary conditions are discussed.

  17. A Method for Calculating Strain Energy Release Rates in Preliminary Design of Composite Skin/Stringer Debonding Under Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Minguet, Pierre J.; OBrien, T. Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Three simple procedures were developed to determine strain energy release rates, G, in composite skin/stringer specimens for various combinations of unaxial and biaxial (in-plane/out-of-plane) loading conditions. These procedures may be used for parametric design studies in such a way that only a few finite element computations will be necessary for a study of many load combinations. The results were compared with mixed mode strain energy release rates calculated directly from nonlinear two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analyses using the virtual crack closure technique. The first procedure involved solving three unknown parameters needed to determine the energy release rates. Good agreement was obtained when the external loads were used in the expression derived. This superposition technique was only applicable if the structure exhibits a linear load/deflection behavior. Consequently, a second technique was derived which was applicable in the case of nonlinear load/deformation behavior. The technique involved calculating six unknown parameters from a set of six simultaneous linear equations with data from six nonlinear analyses to determine the energy release rates. This procedure was not time efficient, and hence, less appealing. A third procedure was developed to calculate mixed mode energy release rates as a function of delamination lengths. This procedure required only one nonlinear finite element analysis of the specimen with a single delamination length to obtain a reference solution for the energy release rates and the scale factors. The delamination was extended in three separate linear models of the local area in the vicinity of the delamination subjected to unit loads to obtain the distribution of G with delamination lengths. This set of sub-problems was Although additional modeling effort is required to create the sub- models, this local technique is efficient for parametric studies.

  18. A design procedure for the phase-controlled parallel-loaded resonant inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger J.

    1989-01-01

    High-frequency-link power conversion and distribution based on a resonant inverter (RI) has been recently proposed. The design of several topologies is reviewed, and a simple approximate design procedure is developed for the phase-controlled parallel-loaded RI. This design procedure seeks to ensure the benefits of resonant conversion and is verified by data from a laboratory 2.5 kVA, 20-kHz converter. A simple phasor analysis is introduced as a useful approximation for design purposes. The load is considered to be a linear impedance (or an ac current sink). The design procedure is verified using a 2.5-kVA 20-kHz RI. Also obtained are predictable worst-case ratings for each component of the resonant tank circuit and the inverter switches. For a given load VA requirement, below-resonance operation is found to result in a significantly lower tank VA requirement. Under transient conditions such as load short-circuit, a reversal of the expected commutation sequence is possible.

  19. Detailed heat load calculations for the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, C.A.

    1993-12-01

    A very detailed MCNP model of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor has been developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. All reactor components inside the reflector vessel were included, and al components were highly segmented. Specific heat loads (watts per gram) have been calculated for each segment in the model, and system-integrated total powers are compared with the design value for the total reactor fission power. The calculated results agree very well with the design values. Axial profiles of the heat loads are provided for all components of the reactor. Individual segment statistical uncertainties were limited wherever possible, and the heat loads for all important reflector components have a standard deviation below 5%.

  20. Calculation of Dynamic Loads Due to Random Vibration Environments in Rocket Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Eric R.; Brown, Andrew M.; Frady, Greg P.

    2007-01-01

    An important part of rocket engine design is the calculation of random dynamic loads resulting from internal engine "self-induced" sources. These loads are random in nature and can greatly influence the weight of many engine components. Several methodologies for calculating random loads are discussed and then compared to test results using a dynamic testbed consisting of a 60K thrust engine. The engine was tested in a free-free condition with known random force inputs from shakers attached to three locations near the main noise sources on the engine. Accelerations and strains were measured at several critical locations on the engines and then compared to the analytical results using two different random response methodologies.

  1. A simple method using MAFIA to calculate external Q values of waveguide-loaded cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Tatsuya

    1989-06-01

    A fundamental theory on waveguide-loaded cavities in the book of Microwave Electronics by Slater was applied to numerical calculation with MAFIA of the external Q value of a klystron output cavity. This method is also applicable to accelerating structures with slots for damping out higher modes as proposed for future linear colliders.

  2. Calculating mercury loading to the tidal Hudson River, New York, using rating curve and surrogate methodologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, G.R.; Ingleston, H.H.; Litten, S.

    2005-01-01

    Total mercury (THg) load in rivers is often calculated from a site-specific "rating-curve" based on the relation between THg concentration and river discharge along with a continuous record of river discharge. However, there is no physical explanation as to why river discharge should consistently predict THg or any other suspended analyte. THg loads calculated by the rating-curve method were compared with those calculated by a "continuous surrogate concentration" (CSC) method in which a relation between THg concentration and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) is constructed; THg loads then can be calculated from the continuous record of SSC and river discharge. The rating-curve and CSC methods, respectively, indicated annual THg loads of 46.4 and 75.1 kg for the Mohawk River, and 52.9 and 33.1 kg for the upper Hudson River. Differences between the results of the two methods are attributed to the inability of the rating-curve method to adequately characterize atypical high flows such as an ice-dam release, or to account for hysteresis, which typically degrades the strength of the relation between stream discharge and concentration of material in suspension. ?? Springer 2005.

  3. An assessment of the capability to calculate tilting prop-rotor aircraft performance, loads and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1984-01-01

    Calculated performance, loads, and stability of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft are compared with wind tunnel and flight measurements, to define the level of the current analytical capability for tilting prop rotor aircraft, and to define the requirements for additional experimental data and further analysis development. The correlation between calculated and measured behavior is generally good, although there are some significant discrepancies. Based on this correlation, the analysis is assessed overall as being adequate for the design, evaluation, and testing of tilting prop rotor aircraft. A general assessment of the state of the art of tilt rotor predictive capability is given. Specific areas are identified where improvements in the capability to calculate performance, loads, and stability are desirable. Requirements for more accurate and detailed data which support the development of improved analytical models are identified as well.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  5. Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huayamave, Victor; Divo, Eduardo; Ceballos, Andres; Barriento, Carolina; Stephen, Barkaszi; Hubert, Seigneur

    2014-03-21

    The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals

  6. An analytical calculation of the fluid load support fraction in a biphasic material: An alternative technique

    PubMed Central

    Stops, A.J.F.; Wilcox, R.K.; Jin, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background The fluid load support fraction (WF/WT) can be used to define the mechanical contribution of the interstitial fluid (WF) to the total force (WT) in the deformation of cartilage. Traditionally, WF/WT is calculated using complex experimental setups or time-consuming micromechanical poroelastic Finite Element (FE) simulations. Aim To define and validate a fast and efficient technique to predict WF/WT using an analytical approach that can be applied without micromechanical detail or experimental measurement. Methodology Poroelastic FE simulations defined accurate values of WF/WT for a range of loading configurations and were used to validate subsequent predictions. The analytical prediction of WF/WT used elastic contact mechanics to calculate WF, and viscoelastic FE representation to calculate WT. Subsequently, these independent calculations of WF and WT provided values of WF/WT that were compared with the poroelastic FE calculations. Results and discussion The analytical prediction of WF/WT proved effective and suitably accurate (mean difference S<0.05). This technique demonstrated how WF and WT can be determined independently, without a biphasic constitutive model. Here we used viscoelasticity to calculate WT as an example, however, WT could be measured experimentally or predicted computationally. PMID:23026695

  7. Methods for combining payload parameter variations with input environment. [calculating design limit loads compatible with probabilistic structural design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are presented for calculating design limit loads compatible with probabilistic structural design criteria. The approach is based on the concept that the desired limit load, defined as the largest load occurring in a mission, is a random variable having a specific probability distribution which may be determined from extreme-value theory. The design limit load, defined as a particular of this random limit load, is the value conventionally used in structural design. Methods are presented for determining the limit load probability distributions from both time-domain and frequency-domain dynamic load simulations. Numerical demonstrations of the method are also presented.

  8. Calculation procedures for oil free scroll compressors based on mathematical modelling of working process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranin, Y.; Burmistrov, A.; Salikeev, S.; Fomina, M.

    2015-08-01

    Basic propositions of calculation procedures for oil free scroll compressors characteristics are presented. It is shown that mathematical modelling of working process in a scroll compressor makes it possible to take into account such factors influencing the working process as heat and mass exchange, mechanical interaction in working chambers, leakage through slots, etc. The basic mathematical model may be supplemented by taking into account external heat exchange, elastic deformation of scrolls, inlet and outlet losses, etc. To evaluate the influence of procedure on scroll compressor characteristics calculations accuracy different calculations were carried out. Internal adiabatic efficiency was chosen as a comparative parameter which evaluates the perfection of internal thermodynamic and gas-dynamic compressor processes. Calculated characteristics are compared with experimental values obtained for the compressor pilot sample.

  9. The effect of varying the radiative/convective split for internal gains on cooling load calculations: A case study for the Pentagon

    SciTech Connect

    Liesen, R.J.; Strand, R.K.; Pedersen, C.O.

    1998-10-01

    Two new methods for calculating cooling loads have just been introduced. The first algorithm, called the heat balance (HB) method, is a complete formulation of fundamental heat balance principles. The second is called the radiant time series (RTS) method. While based on the HB method, the RTS method is an approximate procedure that separates some of the processes to better show the influence of individual heat gain components. In the HB method, all of the heat transfer mechanisms participate in three simultaneous heat balances: the balance on the outside face of all the building elements that enclose the space, the balance on the inside face of the building elements, and the balance between the surfaces inside the space and the zone air. The focus of this paper is on the second heat balance. It has been customary to define a radiative/convective split for the heat introduced into a zone from such sources as equipment, lights, people, etc. The radiative part is then distributed over the surfaces within the zone in some prescribed manner, and the convective part is assumed to go immediately into the air. Simplified techniques simply cannot accurately portray the complex interaction of building surfaces, so previously used load calculation procedures were not up to the task of analyzing the effect of internal load radiant/convective split variation. This paper will present an investigation of the influence of the radiative/convective split on cooling loads obtained using the heat balance procedure. It will begin with an overview of the model used for a heat balance procedure and then present an exhaustive case study of the effects of changing the mode split on load calculations for Wedge 1 of the Pentagon building.

  10. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures for correcting ministerial errors. (b) Disclosure. The Secretary will disclose to a party to the proceeding calculations performed, if any, in connection with a preliminary determination under section 703(b) or section 733(b) of the Act, a final determination under section 705(a) or section 735(a) of the...

  11. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations. 86.164-00 Section 86.164-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  12. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations. 86.164-08 Section 86.164-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  13. Interaction of loading pattern and nuclear data uncertainties in reactor core calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.; Gallner, L.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pautz, A.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W.

    2012-07-01

    Along with best-estimate calculations for design and safety analysis, understanding uncertainties is important to determine appropriate design margins. In this framework, nuclear data uncertainties and their propagation to full core calculations are a critical issue. To deal with this task, different error propagation techniques, deterministic and stochastic are currently developed to evaluate the uncertainties in the output quantities. Among these is the sampling based uncertainty and sensitivity software XSUSA which is able to quantify the influence of nuclear data covariance on reactor core calculations. In the present work, this software is used to investigate systematically the uncertainties in the power distributions of two PWR core loadings specified in the OECD UAM-Benchmark suite. With help of a statistical sensitivity analysis, the main contributors to the uncertainty are determined. Using this information a method is studied with which loading patterns of reactor cores can be optimized with regard to minimizing power distribution uncertainties. It is shown that this technique is able to halve the calculation uncertainties of a MOX/UOX core configuration. (authors)

  14. Buckling Load Calculations of the Isotropic Shell A-8 Using a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.

    2002-01-01

    As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a test series of 7 isotropic shells carried out by Aristocrat and Babcock at Caltech is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called 'high fidelity analysis', where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  15. On a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach to Buckling Load Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.; Nemeth, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a recent test series of 5 composite shells carried out by Waters at NASA Langley Research Center is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called "high fidelity analysis", where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  16. Importance of loading and unloading procedures for gecko-inspired controllable adhesives.

    PubMed

    Tamelier, John; Chary, Sathya; Turner, Kimberly L

    2013-08-27

    The importance of loading and unloading procedures has been shown in a variety of different methods for biological dry adhesives, such as the fibers on the feet of the Tokay gecko, but biomimetic dry adhesives have yet to be explored in a similar manner. To date, little work has systematically varied multiple parameters to discern the influence of the testing procedure, and the effect of the approach angle remains uncertain. In this study, a synthetic adhesive is moved in 13 individual approach and retraction angles relative to a flat substrate as well as 9 different shear lengths to discern how loading and unloading procedures influence the preload, adhesion, and shear/friction forces supported. The synthetic adhesive, composed of vertical 10 μm diameter semicircular poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers, is tested against a 4 mm diameter flat glass puck on a home-built microtribometer using both vertical approach and retraction tests and angled approach and retraction tests. The results show that near maximum adhesion and friction can be obtained for most approach and retraction angles, provided that a sufficient shear length is performed. The results also show that the reaction forces during adhesive placement can be significantly reduced by using specific approach angles, resulting for the vertical fibers in a 38-fold increase in the ratio of adhesion force to preload force, μ', when compared to that when using a vertical approach. These results can be of use to those currently researching gecko-inspired adhesives when designing their testing procedures and control algorithms for climbing and perching robots. PMID:23875720

  17. Nuclear heat load calculations for the NBSR cold neutron source using MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M. ); Rowe, J.M.; Williams, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-hydrogen (LH2) cold neutron source is being designed for installation in the 20-MW National Bureau of Standards reactor (NBSR) at National Institute of Standards and Technology to replace the D[sub 2]O-ice cold source currently in use. An accurate estimate of the heat deposited in the cold source is needed to ensure that it can be adequately cooled for successful operation. The heat load is caused by the interaction of neutrons and gamma rays with the cold moderator and the walls of the moderator chamber. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP (Version 4.2), was used to model the entire NBSR core and both the existing and the proposed cold sources. The model was used to calculate not only the heat load but also the reactivity and neutron gain of each source.

  18. An evaluation of inside surface heat balance models for cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Liesen, R.J.; Pedersen, C.O.

    1997-12-31

    The heat balance method is a fundamental procedure that can be used for a specified control volume to describe building physics. With a better understanding of building physics and the cost-effectiveness of computers, these types of procedures are accessible to all practicing engineers. The heat balance method describes the processes using the three fundamental modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. The control volumes naturally divide the building processes into an outside balance, an inside balance, an air balance, and conduction through the building elements. This allows the building heat balance to be solved in a number of fundamental ways. This paper looks at the general formulation of the inside surface heat balance from the conduction through the building elements to the radiant exchange and convection to the air in the zone. Development of many radiant exchange models is shown; these models range from the exact solutions using uniform radiosity networks and exact view factors to mean radiant temperature (MRT) and area-weighted view factors. These radiant exchange models are directly compared to each other for a simple zone with varying aspect ratios. The radiant exchange models are then compared to determine their effect on the cooling load. Finally, other parameters that affect the inside surface heat balance are investigated to determine their sensitivity to the cooling load.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  1. Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents.

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J. P.; Gabor, R.; Neubauer, J.

    2000-11-29

    In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or wobbled beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material.

  2. A reevaluaion of data on atmospheric turbulence and airplane gust loads for application in spectral calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Press, Harry; Meadows, May T; Hadlock, Ivan

    1956-01-01

    The available information on the spectrum of atmospheric turbulence is first briefly reviewed. On the basis of these results, methods are developed for the conversion of available gust statistics normally given in terms of counts of gusts or acceleration peaks into a form appropriate for use in spectral calculations. The fundamental quantity for this purpose appears to be the probability distribution of the root-mean-square gust velocity. Estimates of this distribution are derived from data for a number of load histories of transport operations; also, estimates of the variation of this distribution with altitude and weather condition are derived from available data and the method of applying these results to the calculation of airplane gust-response histories in operations is also outlined. (author)

  3. [Calculation of radiation loads in a space station compartment with a secondary shielding].

    PubMed

    Kartashov, D A; Tolochek, R V; Shurshakov, V A; Yarmanova, E N

    2013-01-01

    Doses from space ionizing radiation were estimated using a model of ISS cosmonaut's quarters (CQ) outfitted with secondary shielding ("Protective shutter" (PS) as part of experiment MATRYOSHKA-R). Protective shutter is a "blanket" of water-containing material with mass thickness of - 6 g/cm2 covering the CQ exterior wall. Calculation was performed specifically for locations of experimental dosimetry assemblies. Agreement of calculations and experimental data reaching accuracy - 15% proves model applicability to estimating protective effectiveness of secondary shielding in the present-day and future space vehicles. This shielding may reduce radiation loading onto crewmembers as an equivalent dose by more than 40% within a broad range of orbit altitudes equally during the solar minimum and maximum. PMID:24660246

  4. Calculation procedures for potential and viscous flow solutions for engine inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.; Stockman, N. O.

    1973-01-01

    The method and basic elements of computer solutions for both potential flow and viscous flow calculations for engine inlets are described. The procedure is applicable to subsonic conventional (CTOL), short-haul (STOL), and vertical takeoff (VTOL) aircraft engine nacelles operating in a compressible viscous flow. The calculated results compare well with measured surface pressure distributions for a number of model inlets. The paper discusses the uses of the program in both the design and analysis of engine inlets, with several examples given for VTOL lift fans, acoustic splitters, and for STOL engine nacelles. Several test support applications are also given.

  5. A note on geometric method-based procedures to calculate the Hurst exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinidad Segovia, J. E.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Sánchez-Granero, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    Geometric method-based procedures, which we will call GM algorithms hereafter, were introduced in M.A. Sánchez-Granero, J.E. Trinidad Segovia, J. García Pérez, Some comments on Hurst exponent and the long memory processes on capital markets, Phys. A 387 (2008) 5543-5551, to calculate the Hurst exponent of a time series. The authors proved that GM algorithms, based on a geometrical approach, are more accurate than classical algorithms, especially with short length time series. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a mathematical background for the validity of these two algorithms to calculate the Hurst exponent H of random processes with stationary and self-affine increments. In particular, we show that these procedures are valid not only for exploring long memory in classical processes such as (fractional) Brownian motions, but also for estimating the Hurst exponent of (fractional) Lévy stable motions.

  6. A block-corrected subdomain solution procedure for recirculating flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braaten, M. E.; Patankar, S. V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a robust and efficient subdomain solution procedure for two-dimensional recirculating flows. The solution domain is divided into a number of overlapping subdomains, and a direct fully coupled solution is obtained for each subdomain using a sparse matrix form of LU decomposition. An effective parabolic block correction procedure, which calculates global corrections to the tentative solution by a marching technique similar to that used for boundary layer flows, is used to accelerate the convergence of the basic procedure. The use of effective block correction is found to be essential for the success of the subdomain approach on strongly recirculating flows. In a number of laminar two-dimensional flows, the new block-corrected method performed extremely well, rivaling the best direct methods in execution time, while requiring substantially less computer storage. The new method proved to be from two to ten times faster than conventional iterative methods, while requiring only a moderate increase in storage.

  7. Calculation of conversion factors for effective dose for various interventional radiology procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnone, Gaetano; Giampalma, Emanuela; Domenichelli, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Golfieri, Rita

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To provide dose-area-product (DAP) to effective dose (E) conversion factors for complete interventional procedures, based on in-the-field clinical measurements of DAP values and using tabulated E/DAP conversion factors for single projections available from the literature. Methods: Nine types of interventional procedures were performed on 84 patients with two angiographic systems. Different calibration curves (with and without patient table attenuation) were calculated for each DAP meter. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were recorded in-the-field for each projection and for all patients, and a conversion factor linking DAP and effective doses was derived for each complete procedure making use of published, Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors for single static projections. Results: Fluoroscopy time and DAP values for the lowest-dose procedure (biliary drainage) were approximately 3-fold and 13-fold lower, respectively, than those for the highest-dose examination (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS). Median E/DAP conversion factors from 0.12 (abdominal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) to 0.25 (Nephrostomy) mSvGy{sup -1} cm{sup -2} were obtained and good correlations between E and DAP were found for all procedures, with R{sup 2} coefficients ranging from 0.80 (abdominal angiography) to 0.99 (biliary stent insertion, Nephrostomy and TIPS). The DAP values obtained in this study showed general consistency with the values provided in the literature and median E values ranged from 4.0 mSv (biliary drainage) to 49.6 mSv (TIPS). Conclusions: Values of E/DAP conversion factors were derived for each procedure from a comprehensive analysis of projection and dosimetric data: they could provide a good evaluation for the stochastic effects. These results can be obtained by means of a close cooperation between different interventional professionals involved in patient care and dose optimization.

  8. Mathematical simulation and calculation of the soil compaction under dynamic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotarevskaya, D. I.

    2011-04-01

    The deformation and compaction of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils under linear dynamic changes in the compressive stresses and in the course of the soil creeping were studied in field experiments. The rheological properties of these soils occurring in the viscoelastic state were described by a first-order differential equation relating the compressive stresses, the rates of their changes, and the velocities of the relative vertical compressive deformation. Regression equations were derived for the viscoelastic properties of the studied soil as functions of its density, moisture, and linear compaction velocity. Methods were proposed for the calculation of indices of the stress-strain state and the compaction of soils under specified conditions of changes in their compressive stresses with time and in the course of the soil creeping after the initial linear increase in load. Corresponding computer programs were developed. The effect of the main factors due to the linear increase in the compressive loads and in the course of the soil creeping on the rheological properties, the stress-strain state, and the density of soils was quantitatively estimated. The calculation showed that the values of the soil deformation and the density under compressive stresses lower than the ultimate strength were stabilized with time, and the properties of the viscoelastic soil approached elastic ones.

  9. Calculation procedures for the analysis of integral experiments for fusion-reactor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, R. T.; Barnes, J. M.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.; Oblow, E. M.

    1981-07-01

    The calculational models, nuclear data, and radiation transport codes that are used in the analysis of integral measurements of the transport of approxmately 14 MeV neutrons through laminated slabs of materials typical of those found in fusion reactor shields are described. The two dimensional discrete ordinates calculations to optimize the experimental configuration of reducing the neutron and gamma ray background levels and for obtaining and equivalent, reduced geometry of the calculational model to reduce computer core storage and running times are also presented. The equations and data to determine the energy-angle relations to neutrons produced in the reactions of 250 keV deuterons in a titanium tritide target are given. The procedures used to collapse the 17ln 36gamma VATAMIN C cross section library to a 53n 21 gamma broad group library are described.

  10. Calculation of reinforced-concrete frame strength under a simultaneous static cross section load and a column lateral impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Nikolay; Yugov, Nikolay; Kopanitsa, Dmitry; Kopanitsa, Georgy; Yugov, Alexey; Kaparulin, Sergey; Plyaskin, Andrey; Kalichkina, Anna; Ustinov, Artyom

    2016-01-01

    When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.

  11. Waste load allocation in rivers under uncertainty: application of social choice procedures.

    PubMed

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a waste load allocation model is developed which can incorporate uncertainties due to randomness as well as vagueness regarding some variables and parameters. A probabilistic water quality index is also presented and used in the waste load allocation model. For any discharger of the system, different wastewater treatment scenarios are defined. All possible combinations of these scenarios make different wastewater treatment alternatives for the system. An optimization model having the objectives of minimizing total treatment cost as well as water quality violation risk is also developed for finding the optimum treatment alternatives. The uncertainty related to the upstream river flow is addressed through considering probability distribution functions with fuzzy parameters. To deal with fuzzy and random inputs, the fuzzy transformation technique and Monte Carlo analysis are respectively used, and for each alternative, fuzzy membership function of the violation risk is obtained. The optimization model only takes into account the economic and environmental objectives and does not specifically consider the stakeholders satisfaction. To consider this and help the decision maker choose a final alternative among non-dominated solutions, three different social choice procedures which focus on stakeholders priorities are employed. The applicability and effectiveness of the methodology are evaluated by applying it to the Zarjub River in Iran facing serious water quality issues. The results indicate that the presented methodology can effectively take account of priorities of various decision makers as well as economic and environmental considerations, while incorporating multiple forms of uncertainties. PMID:25604063

  12. Loading, absorption, and Fokker-Planck calculations for upcoming ICRF experiments on ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, T.D.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Kwon, M.

    1989-01-01

    ICRF experiments on ATF at the 100-kW level are planned for the current 1989 operating period. These plans include the 2..omega../sub cH/ regime at f/sub RF/ = 28.88 MHz, D(H) at 14.44 MHz, and /sup 4/He(/sup 3/He) and D(/sup 3/He) at 9.63 MHz. ECH target plasmas have n/sub eO/ /approx lt/ 0.15 /times/ 10/sup 20/ m/sup /minus/3/ and B = 0.95 T. The density and temperature profiles obtained are broader than those from 1988, owing to recent field error corrections. The values used for target-plasma parameters in the calculations were taken from initial 1989 ATF data. Loading and absorption calculations have been performed using the 3D RF heating code ORION with a helically symmetric equilibrium, and Fokker-Planck calculations were performed using the steady-state code RFTRANS with two velocity dimensions and one spatial dimension. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  13. A fuzzy finite element procedure for the calculation of uncertain frequency-response functions of damped structures: Part 1—Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, David; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2005-12-01

    This work introduces a numerical algorithm to calculate frequency-response functions (FRFs) of damped finite element (FE) models with fuzzy uncertain parameters. Part one of this paper describes the numerical algorithm for the solution of the underlying interval finite element (IFE) problem. First, the IFE procedure for the calculation of undamped envelope FRFs is discussed. Starting from the undamped procedure, a strategy is developed to analyse damped structures based on the principle of Rayleigh damping. This is achieved by analysing the effect of the proportional damping coefficients on the subsequent steps of the undamped procedure. This finally results in a procedure for the calculation of fuzzy damped FRFs based on an analytical extension of the undamped algorithm. Part one of this paper introduces the numerical procedure. Part two of this paper illustrates the application of the methodology on four numerical case studies.

  14. Efficient Procedure for the Numerical Calculation of Harmonic Vibrational Frequencies Based on Internal Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-08-15

    We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson’s GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C1 symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N – 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. Finally, in all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm–1 from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.

  15. Lessons on the calculation of static stress loading from the 2003 Bingol, Turkey earthquake [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbant, Suleyman S.; McCloskey, John; Steacy, Sandy

    2005-07-01

    The 2003 Bingol earthquake ( Mw = 6.4) occurred very close to a region along the east Anatolian fault zone which was identified in 2002 as posing a particularly high seismic risk. This damaging earthquake occurred on a conjugate right-lateral blind fault that was inconsistent with the stress-change field calculated for preceding large earthquakes in the region. In this paper, four reasons which might be responsible for this stress discrepancy are identified and investigated individually. Firstly, co-seismic stress changes are considered. The time frame of the previous stress calculations is extended to include the large earthquakes in the 1780s which were not included in the earlier study. A sensitivity analysis is then conducted on the more recent events since 1822 to examine the effect of errors in their location and sizes. The possibility of the occurrence of a small magnitude event close to the 2003 epicentre is considered. We argue that, barring the occurrence of a low-probability, unmodelled local event, the Bingol earthquake was unlikely to have been triggered by co-seismic stress transfer from any known sequence of previous earthquakes. Finally we examine and modify the secular loading model used in the 2002 study and show that loading which is properly constrained by regional GPS data produces a positive stress change on the 2003 rupture. As a result of our examination of the stressing history of the Bingol hypocentre we argue that it is through a combination of historical seismology, guided and constrained by structural geology, directed paleoseismology in which the locations and extent of historical events are confirmed, and stress modelling which has been informed by detailed GPS data, that an integrated seismic hazard program might have the best chance of success.

  16. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-B: Calculation Procedures for Step-Feed Process Responses and Addendum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the third in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals with the calculation procedures associated with a step-feed process. Illustrations and examples are included to…

  17. Comparison of the calculation of HDR RPV-1 blowdown loads for test V32 with the experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, G.A.; Santee, G.E. Jr.; Chang, F.H.; Brockett, G.F.; Gross, M.; Belytschko, T.

    1984-08-01

    Using the three-dimensional STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program, researchers calculated blowdown loads for HDR test V32 on a large-scale reactor vessel. The calculation, which compared well with test results, provides a good example of the predictive capability of the computer program. The program can be applied to nuclear and nonnuclear fluid-structure interaction problems.

  18. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.

  19. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less

  20. Uncertainty in nutrient loads from tile-drained landscapes: Effect of sampling frequency, calculation algorithm, and compositing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark R.; King, Kevin W.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Ford, William; Van Esbroeck, Chris; Brunke, Richard I.; English, Michael C.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2015-11-01

    Accurate estimates of annual nutrient loads are required to evaluate trends in water quality following changes in land use or management and to calibrate and validate water quality models. While much emphasis has been placed on understanding the uncertainty of nutrient load estimates in large, naturally drained watersheds, few studies have focused on tile-drained fields and small tile-drained headwater watersheds. The objective of this study was to quantify uncertainty in annual dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) load estimates from four tile-drained fields and two small tile-drained headwater watersheds in Ohio, USA and Ontario, Canada. High temporal resolution datasets of discharge (10-30 min) and nutrient concentration (2 h to 1 d) were collected over a 1-2 year period at each site and used to calculate a reference nutrient load. Monte Carlo simulations were used to subsample the measured data to assess the effects of sample frequency, calculation algorithm, and compositing strategy on the uncertainty of load estimates. Results showed that uncertainty in annual DRP and NO3-N load estimates was influenced by both the sampling interval and the load estimation algorithm. Uncertainty in annual nutrient load estimates increased with increasing sampling interval for all of the load estimation algorithms tested. Continuous discharge measurements and linear interpolation of nutrient concentrations yielded the least amount of uncertainty, but still tended to underestimate the reference load. Compositing strategies generally improved the precision of load estimates compared to discrete grab samples; however, they often reduced the accuracy. Based on the results of this study, we recommended that nutrient concentration be measured every 13-26 h for DRP and every 2.7-17.5 d for NO3-N in tile-drained fields and small tile-drained headwater watersheds to accurately (±10%) estimate annual loads.

  1. Minimum-mass design of filamentary composite panels under combined loads: Design procedure based on simplified buckling equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Agranoff, N.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical procedure is presented for designing hat stiffened and corrugated panels made of composite material and subjected to longitudinal (in the direction of the stiffeners) compression and shear loadings. The procedure is based on nonlinear mathematical programming techniques and a simplified set of buckling equations. Design requirements considered are buckling, strength, and extensional and shear stiffness. The effects of specified thickness, variation of cross-section dimensions, stiffness requirements, local buckling boundary conditions, and the effect of combined compression and shear loadings are shown.

  2. A calibration procedure for load cells to improve accuracy of mini-lysimeters in monitoring evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, R. K.; Padhi, J.; Payero, J. O.

    2011-08-01

    SummaryWe used twelve load cells (20 kg capacity) in a mini-lysimeter system to measure evapotranspiration simultaneously from twelve plants growing in separate pots in a glasshouse. A data logger combined with a multiplexer was used to connect all load cells with the full-bridge excitation mode to acquire load-cell signal. Each load cell was calibrated using fixed load within the range of 0-0.8 times the full load capacity of load cells. Performance of all load cells was assessed on the basis of signal settling time, excitation compensation, hysteresis and temperature. Final calibration of load cells included statistical consideration of these effects to allow prediction of lysimeter weights and evapotranspiration over short-time intervals for improved accuracy and sustained performance. Analysis of the costs for the mini-lysimeter system indicates that evapotranspiration can be measured economically at a reasonable accuracy and sufficient resolution with robust method of load-cell calibration.

  3. Double-step truncation procedure for large-scale shell-model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coraggio, L.; Gargano, A.; Itaco, N.

    2016-06-01

    We present a procedure that is helpful to reduce the computational complexity of large-scale shell-model calculations, by preserving as much as possible the role of the rejected degrees of freedom in an effective approach. Our truncation is driven first by the analysis of the effective single-particle energies of the original large-scale shell-model Hamiltonian, in order to locate the relevant degrees of freedom to describe a class of isotopes or isotones, namely the single-particle orbitals that will constitute a new truncated model space. The second step is to perform a unitary transformation of the original Hamiltonian from its model space into the truncated one. This transformation generates a new shell-model Hamiltonian, defined in a smaller model space, that retains effectively the role of the excluded single-particle orbitals. As an application of this procedure, we have chosen a realistic shell-model Hamiltonian defined in a large model space, set up by seven proton and five neutron single-particle orbitals outside 88Sr. We study the dependence of shell-model results upon different truncations of the original model space for the Zr, Mo, Ru, Pd, Cd, and Sn isotopic chains, showing the reliability of this truncation procedure.

  4. Calculation and Optimization of ITER Upper VS Feeder Under an Electromagnetic Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Xie, Fei; Jin, Huan

    2014-11-01

    The upper vertical stability (VS) feeder is a part connected to the upper VS coil by a welding joint. The function of the feeder is to transfer current and coolant water to the VS coil. A giant electromagnetic force will be generated during normal operation by the current flowing in the VS coils, interacting with the external background field. The Lorentz force will induce Tresca stress in the feeder. The amplitudes of the magnetic field and Lorentz force along the conductor running direction have been calculated based on Maxwell's equations. To extract the Tresca stress in the feeder, a finite element model was created using the software ANSYS and an electromagnetic load was applied on the model. According to the analytical design, the stresses were classified and evaluated based on ASME. In order to reduce the Tresca stress, some optimization works have been done and the Tresca stress has had a significant reduction in the optimized model. This analytical work figured out the stress distribution in the feeder and checked the feasibility of the prototype design model. The ANSYS analysis results will provide a guidance for later improvement and fabrication.

  5. Probabilistic analysis of local ice pressures. [Calculation of ice load and impact effects on offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Jordaan, I.J.; Brown, P.W. ); Maes, M.A.; Hermans, I.P. . Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics)

    1993-02-01

    Extensive work in recent years has been carried out on the calculation of global ice loads on a probabilistic basis. An analysis method is presented for local ice pressures, which yields values of pressure for specific values of exceedance probability. In developing this method, particular attention has been paid to problems of exposure (length, position and number of impacts), as well as the area of exposure (area within area versus nominal contact area). The solution has been formulated for a series of discrete impacts, e.g., rams by a vessel, or a series of periods of continuous interactions. Data for the MV CANMAR Kigoriak and USCGC Polar Sea were ranked and curves were fitted through the tail of probability plots for three panel sizes. This allowed determination of exceedance probabilities of the design coefficients for pressure as a junction of area. The method developed was then applied to an example for a ship based on the data and expected number of rams per year. Formulas useful in the design of structures in ice are presented.

  6. Development of transmucosal patch loaded with anesthetic and analgesic for dental procedures and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nidhi, Malviya; Patro, M Nagaraju; Kusumvalli, Somisetty; Kusumdevi, Vemula

    2016-01-01

    Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac (Dic) diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion–evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box–Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP) prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF) and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN “S8” were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP loaded with Lig base and Dic diethylamine-SLNs exhibited immediate and complete permeation with tissue accumulation of Lig followed by controlled prolonged release and tissue accumulation of Dic at the site of application. Thus, it could be anticipated from the in vivo studies that the

  7. A procedure for combining acoustically induced and mechanically induced loads (first passage failure design criterion)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, D. R.; Henricks, W.

    1983-01-01

    The combined load statistics are developed by taking the acoustically induced load to be a random population, assumed to be stationary. Each element of this ensemble of acoustically induced loads is assumed to have the same power spectral density (PSD), obtained previously from a random response analysis employing the given acoustic field in the STS cargo bay as a stationary random excitation. The mechanically induced load is treated as either (1) a known deterministic transient, or (2) a nonstationary random variable of known first and second statistical moments which vary with time. A method is then shown for determining the probability that the combined load would, at any time, have a value equal to or less than a certain level. Having obtained a statistical representation of how the acoustic and mechanical loads are expected to combine, an analytical approximation for defining design levels for these loads is presented using the First Passage failure criterion.

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING WEIGHT CALCULATION (IIT-A-9.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken to calculate sampling weights. The sampling weights are needed to obtain weighted statistics of the NHEXAS data. This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropriate QA/QC procedures by t...

  9. A novel procedure for rapid surface functionalisation and mediator loading of screen-printed carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pchelintsev, Nikolay A; Millner, Paul A

    2008-04-01

    We report a simple and rapid procedure that leads to incorporation of mediator and introduction of amine functionality onto the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE). The electrodes were doped with cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) by enhanced adsorption in a process that uses minimal amounts of this redox mediator as compared with CoPc loaded inks. The CoPc-doped SPCE showed a substantially increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and thiocholine as compared to unmodified electrodes. This greatly facilitated their use as transducers for the construction of amperometric biosensors based on enzymes producing oxidizable products such as hydrogen peroxide or thiols. Immobilisation of enzymes including glucose oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase was achieved through their multi-contact electrostatic interaction with polyethyleneimine (PEI) which was electrodeposited on the surface of CoPc-doped electrodes in one step from ethanolic solution. The efficiency of enzyme immobilisation was shown to depend on the molecular weight of the PEI used, reaching a maximum for 25 kDa PEI. The biosensors shown sensitivity to glucose at 130 nA mM(-1) (LOD 0.15 mM) and to acetylcholine at 70 nA mM(-1) (LOD 0.10mM) under +0.6 V. Detection of glucose has been demonstrated at +0.4V with the sensitivity of 60 nA mM(-1) and LOD of 0.33 mM. Possibility of the inhibition analysis of pesticides has been shown for acetylcholinesterase-based sensors. PMID:18358865

  10. A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Arjomandy, Bijan; Ciangaru, George; Lii, MingFwu; Amos, Richard; Wu, Richard; Gillin, Michael T.

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU)=ROF{center_dot}SOBPF{center_dot}RSF{center_dot}SOBPOCF{center_dot}OCR{center_dot}FSF{center_dot}ISF{center_dot}CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose

  11. A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X Ronald; Arjomandy, Bijan; Ciangaru, George; Lii, MingFwu; Amos, Richard; Wu, Richard; Gillin, Michael T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU) = ROF SOBPF. RSF SOBPOCF.OCR.FSF.ISF.CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose (D) to the POI can be obtained from MU = D / (d/MU). The accuracy and

  12. Deformed Shape Calculation of a Full-Scale Wing Using Fiber Optic Strain Data from a Ground Loads Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Ko, William L.; Stephens, Craig A.; Bakalyar, John A.; Richards, W. Lance

    2011-01-01

    A ground loads test of a full-scale wing (175-ft span) was conducted using a fiber optic strain-sensing system to obtain distributed surface strain data. These data were input into previously developed deformed shape equations to calculate the wing s bending and twist deformation. A photogrammetry system measured actual shape deformation. The wing deflections reached 100 percent of the positive design limit load (equivalent to 3 g) and 97 percent of the negative design limit load (equivalent to -1 g). The calculated wing bending results were in excellent agreement with the actual bending; tip deflections were within +/- 2.7 in. (out of 155-in. max deflection) for 91 percent of the load steps. Experimental testing revealed valuable opportunities for improving the deformed shape equations robustness to real world (not perfect) strain data, which previous analytical testing did not detect. These improvements, which include filtering methods developed in this work, minimize errors due to numerical anomalies discovered in the remaining 9 percent of the load steps. As a result, all load steps attained +/- 2.7 in. accuracy. Wing twist results were very sensitive to errors in bending and require further development. A sensitivity analysis and recommendations for fiber implementation practices, along with, effective filtering methods are included

  13. Application of RELAP5/MOD1 for calculation of safety and relief valve discharge piping hydrodynamic loads. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    A series of operability tests of spring-loaded safety valves was performed at Combustion Engineering in Windsor, CT as part of the PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program conducted by EPRI on behalf of PWR Utilities in response to the recommendations of NUREG-0578 and the requirements of the NRC. Experimental data from five of the safety valve tests are compared with RELAP5/MOD1 calculations to evaluate the capability of the code to determine the fluid-induced transient loads on downstream piping. Comparisons between data and calculations are given for transients with discharge of steam, water, and water loop seal followed by steam. RELAP5/MOD1 provides useful engineering estimates of the fluid-induced piping loads for all cases.

  14. Theory and procedure for determining loads and motions in chine-immersed hydrodynamic impacts of prismatic bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitzer, Emanuel

    1953-01-01

    A theoretical method is derived for the determination of the motions and loads during chine-immersed water landings of prismatic bodies. This method makes use of a variation of two-dimensional deflected water mass over the complete range of immersion, modified by a correction for three-dimensional flow. Equations are simplified through omission of the term proportional to the acceleration of the deflected mass for use in calculation of loads on hulls having moderate and heavy beam loading. The effects of water rise at the keel are included in these equations. In order to make a direct comparison of theory with experiment, a modification of the equations was made to include the effect of finite test-carriage mass. A simple method of computation which can be applied without reading the body of this report is presented as an appendix along with the required theoretical plots for determination of loads and motions in chine-immersed landings.

  15. [CALCULATION OF RADIATION LOADS ON THE ANTHROPOMORPHIC PHANTOM ONBOARD THE SPACE STATION IN THE CASE OF ADDITIONAL SHIELDING].

    PubMed

    Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of calculating doses from space ionizing radiation for a modeled orbital station cabin outfitted with an additional shield aimed to reduce radiation loads on cosmonaut. The shield is a layer with the mass thickness of -6 g/cm2 (mean density = 0.62 g/cm3) that covers the outer cabin wall and consists of wet tissues and towels used by cosmonauts for hygienic purposes. A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom imitates human body. Doses were calculated for the standard orbit of the International space station (ISS) with consideration of the longitudinal and transverse phantom orientation relative to the wall with or without the additional shield. Calculation of dose distribution in the human body improves prediction of radiation loads. The additional shield reduces radiation exposure of human critical organs by -20% depending on their depth and body spatial orientation in the ISS compartment. PMID:26554132

  16. A revised load estimation procedure for the Susquehanna, Potomac, Patuxent, and Choptank rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochum, Steven E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey?s Chesapeake Bay River Input Program has updated the nutrient and suspended-sediment load data base for the Susquehanna, Potomac, Patuxent, and Choptank Rivers using a multiple-window, center-estimate regression methodology. The revised method optimizes the seven-parameter regression approach that has been used historically by the program. The revised method estimates load using the fifth or center year of a sliding 9-year window. Each year a new model is run for each site and constituent, the most recent year is added, and the previous 4 years of estimates are updated. The fifth year in the 9-year window is considered the best estimate and is kept in the data base. The last year of estimation shows the most change from the previous year?s estimate and this change approaches a minimum at the fifth year. Differences between loads computed using this revised methodology and the loads populating the historical data base have been noted but the load estimates do not typically change drastically. The data base resulting from the application of this revised methodology is populated by annual and monthly load estimates that are known with greater certainty than in the previous load data base.

  17. Improvements in sparse matrix/vector technique applications for on-line load flow calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Ristanovic, P.; Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S.

    1989-02-01

    Sparsity technique is applied to a wide range of problems in power systems analysis. In this paper the authors propose several analytical and computational improvements in sparsity applications. The new partial matrix refactorization method and ordering algorithm are presented. The proposed method is very efficient when applied to various kinds of programs, such as: on-line load flow, optimal power flow and steady-state security analysis. The proposed methodology is applied in a fast decoupled load flow program which include the treatment of tap violations on under-load tap changing (ULTC) transformers and reactive power generation on PV buses. Effects of proposed improvements are well tested and documented on the three networks: 118 bus IEEE test network and two utility networks with 209 and 519 buses, respectively. Keywords: sparsity technique, load flow analysis, security analysis.

  18. Criteria of evaluation of anthropogenic changes and calculation of the anthropogenic component of the dissolved load of rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, M.P.

    1986-03-01

    Considerable amounts of chlorine and sodium enter river waters during exploration and operation of oil and gas fields due to lifting highly mineralized formation waters to the surface (the Volga-Ural gas and oil region). Urban and agricultural wastewaters are sources of entry for the components of a salt composition. Magnesium and sulfate ions are considerably inferior to chlorine and sodium with respect to the intensity of involvement in technogenic geochemical flows. Criteria of anthropogenic eutrophication at an early state, methods of separating natural and anthropogenic components of the biogenic runoff (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) of rivers, and methods of their quantitative calculation have been developed. The results of the calculations for all ions are given. The anthropogenic component of the dissolved load successfully increased. Total dissolved load of the Volga reaches 22%.

  19. Elastic modulus calculations from load/displacement curves using spherical and pointed indenters

    SciTech Connect

    Riester, L.; Ferber, M.K.; Breder, K.; Bridge, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    Hard materials with known mechanical properties were probed with spherical and Berkovich indenters using a Nanoindenter{trademark}. A simple analysis of the loading portion of the indentation experiment was found to give reasonable estimates of the elastic modulus for a variety of brittle materials.

  20. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  1. Increased Memory Load during Task Completion when Procedures Are Presented on Mobile Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Keena S.; Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to compare procedure-based task performance using three common mobile screen sizes: ultra mobile personal computer (7 in./17.8 cm), personal data assistant (3.5 in./8.9 cm), and SmartPhone (2.8 in./7.1 cm). Subjects used these three screen sizes to view and execute a computer maintenance procedure.…

  2. Lens of the eye dose calculation for neuro-interventional procedures and CBCT scans of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhenyu; Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay; Jain, Amit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a method to calculate lens dose for fluoroscopically-guided neuro-interventional procedures and for CBCT scans of the head. EGSnrc Monte Carlo software is used to determine the dose to the lens of the eye for the projection geometry and exposure parameters used in these procedures. This information is provided by a digital CAN bus on the Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system which is saved in a log file by the real-time skin-dose tracking system (DTS) we previously developed. The x-ray beam spectra on this machine were simulated using BEAMnrc. These spectra were compared to those determined by SpekCalc and validated through measured percent-depth-dose (PDD) curves and half-value-layer (HVL) measurements. We simulated CBCT procedures in DOSXYZnrc for a CTDI head phantom and compared the surface dose distribution with that measured with Gafchromic film, and also for an SK150 head phantom and compared the lens dose with that measured with an ionization chamber. Both methods demonstrated good agreement. Organ dose calculated for a simulated neuro-interventional-procedure using DOSXYZnrc with the Zubal CT voxel phantom agreed within 10% with that calculated by PCXMC code for most organs. To calculate the lens dose in a neuro-interventional procedure, we developed a library of normalized lens dose values for different projection angles and kVp's. The total lens dose is then calculated by summing the values over all beam projections and can be included on the DTS report at the end of the procedure.

  3. Spatial adaptation procedures on tetrahedral meshes for unsteady aerodynamic flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, Russ D.; Batina, John T.; Yang, Henry T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Spatial adaptation procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaptation procedures were developed and implemented within a three-dimensional, unstructured-grid, upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in high gradient regions of the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational cost. A detailed description of the enrichment and coarsening procedures are presented and comparisons with experimental data for an ONERA M6 wing and an exact solution for a shock-tube problem are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady results, obtained using spatial adaptation procedures, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that discontinuities such as shock waves are captured very sharply.

  4. Calculation of cracking under pulsed heat loads in tungsten manufactured according to ITER specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakcheev, A. S.; Skovorodin, D. I.; Burdakov, A. V.; Shoshin, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Postupaev, V. V.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Kasatov, A. A.; Huber, A.; Mertens, Ph; Wirtz, M.; Linsmeier, Ch; Kreter, A.; Löwenhoff, Th; Begrambekov, L.; Grunin, A.; Sadovskiy, Ya

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model of surface cracking under pulsed heat load was developed. The model correctly describes a smooth brittle-ductile transition. The elastic deformation is described in a thin-heated-layer approximation. The plastic deformation is described with the Hollomon equation. The time dependence of the deformation and stresses is described for one heating-cooling cycle for a material without initial plastic deformation. The model can be applied to tungsten manufactured according to ITER specifications. The model shows that the stability of stress-relieved tungsten deteriorates when the base temperature increases. This proved to be a result of the close ultimate tensile and yield strengths. For a heat load of arbitrary magnitude a stability criterion was obtained in the form of condition on the relation of the ultimate tensile and yield strengths.

  5. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  6. Classical scattering calculations for diatomic molecules: A general procedure and application to the microwave spectrum O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingelgrin, U.

    1972-01-01

    Many properties of gaseous systems such as electromagnetic absorption and emission, sound dispersion and absorption, may be elucidated if the nature of collisions between the particles in the system is understood. A procedure for the calculation of the classical trajectories of two interacting diatomic molecules is described. The dynamics of the collision will be assumed to be that of two rigid rotors moving in a specified potential. The actual outcome of a representative sample of many trajectories at 298K was computed, and the use of these values at any temperature for calculations of various molecular properties will be described. Calculations performed for the O2 microwave spectrum are given to demonstrate the use of the procedure described.

  7. Finite-element procedure for calculating the three-dimensional inelastic bowing of fuel rods (AWBA development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S E

    1982-05-01

    An incremental finite element procedure is developed for calculating the in-pile lateral bowing of nuclear fuel rods. The fuel rod is modeled as a viscoelastic beam whose material properties are derived as perturbations of the results of an axisymmetric stress analysis of the fuel rod. The effects which are taken into account in calculating the rod's lateral bowing include: (a) lateral, axial, and rotational motions and forces at the rod supports, (b) transverse gradients of temperature, fast-neutron flux, and fissioning rate, and (c) cladding circumferential wall thickness variation. The procedure developed in this report could be used to form the basis for a computer program to calculate the time-dependent bowing as a function of the fuel rod's operational and environmental history.

  8. A stable procedure to calculate the transient scattering by conducting surfaces of arbitrary shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vechinski, Douglas A.; Rao, Sadasiva M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a solution procedure is presented to obtain the transient scattering by arbitrarily shaped conducting objects directly in the time-domain using the marching-on-in-time method. The late-time oscillations are eliminated by a simple stabilization procedure which involves negligible amount of extra computation. Numerical results for surface current density and far-scattered fields are given for various structures and compared with other methods.

  9. Eigenvalue calculation procedure for an Euler/Navier-Stokes solver with application to flows over airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Dowell, Earl H.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1991-01-01

    A Lanczos procedure is presently applied to a Navier-Stokes (N-S) solver for eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the small-perturbation analysis of the N-S equations' finite-difference representation for airfoil flows; the matrix used is very large, sparse, real, and nonsymmetric. The Lanczos procedure is shown to furnish complete spectral information for the eigenvalues, as required for transient-stability analysis of N-S solvers.

  10. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p < 0.00001). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p < 0.001). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. PMID:26240834

  11. Calculation of theoretical and empirical nutrient N critical loads in the mixed conifer ecosystems of southern California.

    PubMed

    Breiner, Joan; Gimeno, Benjamin S; Fenn, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Edaphic, foliar, and hydrologic forest nutrient status indicators from 15 mixed conifer forest stands in the Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, and San Bernardino National Forest were used to estimate empirical or theoretical critical loads (CL) for nitrogen (N) as a nutrient. Soil acidification response to N deposition was also evaluated. Robust empirical relationships were found relating N deposition to plant N uptake (N in foliage), N fertility (litter C/N ratio), and soil acidification. However, no consistent empirical CL were obtained when the thresholds for parameters indicative of N excess from other types of ecosystems were used. Similarly, the highest theoretical CL for nutrient N calculated using the simple mass balance steady state model (estimates ranging from 1.4-8.8 kg N/ha/year) was approximately two times lower than the empirical observations. Further research is needed to derive the thresholds for indicators associated with the impairment of these mixed conifer forests exposed to chronic N deposition within a Mediterranean climate. Further development or parameterization of models for the calculation of theoretical critical loads suitable for these ecosystems will also be an important aspect of future critical loads research. PMID:17450298

  12. Waste-Mgmt: A computer model for calculation of waste loads, profiles, and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kotek, T.J.; Avci, H.I.; Koebnick, B.L.

    1995-04-01

    WASTE-MGMT is a computational model that provides waste loads, profiles, and emissions for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The model was developed to account for the considerable variety of waste types and processing alternatives evaluated by the WM PEIS. The model is table-driven, with three types of fundamental waste management data defining the input: (1) waste inventories and characteristics; (2) treatment, storage and disposal facility characteristics; and (3) alternative definition. The primary output of the model consists of tables of waste loads and contaminant profiles at facilities, as well as contaminant air releases for each treatment and storage facility at each site for each waste stream. The model is implemented in Microsoft{reg_sign} FoxPro{reg_sign} for MS-DOS{reg_sign} version 2.5 and requires a microcomputer with at least a 386 processor and a minimum 6 MBytes of memory and 10 MBytes of disk space for temporary storage.

  13. WASTE{_}MGMT: A computer model for calculation of waste loads, profiles, and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kotek, T.J.; Avci, H.I.; Koebnick, B.L.

    1996-12-01

    Waste{_}MGMT is a computational model developed to provide waste loads, profiles, and emissions for the US Department of Energy`s Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WP PEIS). The model was developed to account for the considerable variety of waste types and processing alternatives evaluated for the WM PEIS. The model is table-driven, with three types of fundamental waste management data defining the input: (1) waste inventories and characteristics; (2) treatment, storage, and disposal facility characteristics; and (3) alternative definition. The primary output of the model consists of tables of waste loads and contaminant profiles at facilities, as well as contaminant air releases for each treatment and storage facility at each site for each waste stream. The model is implemented in Microsoft{reg_sign} FoxPro{reg_sign} for MS-DOS{reg_sign} version 2.5 and requires a microcomputer with at least a 386 processor and a minimum 6 Mbytes of memory and 10 Mbytes of disk space for temporary storage.

  14. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-12 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...

  15. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-14 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...

  16. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-13 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...

  17. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-11 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...

  18. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-10 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...

  19. Windows based computer program for gasket determination based on two different calculation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, F.; Borovnicar, I.; Ghirlanda, M.

    1996-12-01

    The windows based computer program for gasket calculation was presented. C++ computer language was used. On the basis of experimental results and data sets available in the literature and calculated with the help of FSA and PVRC method, the assembly parameters were determined. The result is DONIT TESNITI Diskette, a smart tool to select gaskets on the basis of service conditions and tightness requirements.

  20. Practical preparation procedures for docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles using polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Chang-Gu; Noh, Young-Wook; Baek, Jong-Suep; Lim, Ji-Ho; Hwang, Chan-Ju; Na, Young-Guk; Shin, Sang-Chul; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2011-01-01

    Background Nanoparticles fabricated from the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), are the most intensively investigated polymers for drug delivery systems. The objective of this study was to explore fully the development of a PLGA nanoparticle drug delivery system for alternative preparation of a commercial formulation. In our nanoparticle fabrication, our purpose was to compare various preparation parameters. Methods Docetaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by a single emulsion technique and solvent evaporation. The nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology, dynamic light scattering for size and zeta potential, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface chemistry, and high-performance liquid chromatography for in vitro drug release kinetics. To obtain a smaller particle, 0.2% polyvinyl alcohol, 0.03% D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), 2% Poloxamer 188, a five-minute sonication time, 130 W sonication power, evaporation with magnetic stirring, and centrifugation at 8000 rpm were selected. To increase encapsulation efficiency in the nanoparticles, certain factors were varied, ie, 2–5 minutes of sonication time, 70–130 W sonication power, and 5–25 mg drug loading. Results A five-minute sonication time, 130 W sonication power, and a 10 mg drug loading amount were selected. Under these conditions, the nanoparticles reached over 90% encapsulation efficiency. Release kinetics showed that 20.83%, 40.07%, and 51.5% of the docetaxel was released in 28 days from nanoparticles containing Poloxamer 188, TPGS, or polyvinyl alcohol, respectively. TPGS and Poloxamer 188 had slower release kinetics than polyvinyl alcohol. It was predicted that there was residual drug remaining on the surface from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Conclusion Our research shows that the choice of surfactant is important for controlled release of

  1. Recurrence procedure for calculating kernels of the nonlinear collision integral of the Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Flegontova, E. Yu.; Ender, A. Ya.; Ender, I. A.

    2016-04-01

    A recurrence procedure for a sequential construction of kernels G_{{l_1},{l_2}}^l ( c, c 1, c 2) appearing upon the expansion of a nonlinear collision integral of the Boltzmann equation in spherical harmonics is developed. The starting kernel for this procedure is kernel G 0,0 0 ( c, c 1, c 2) of the collision integral for the distribution function isotropic with respect to the velocities. Using the recurrence procedure, a set of kernels G_{{l_1},{l_2}}^{ + l} ( c, c 1, c 2) for a gas consisting of hard spheres and Maxwellian molecules is constructed. It is shown that the resultant kernels exhibit similarity and symmetry properties and satisfy the relations following from the conservation laws.

  2. Apollo experience report: The development of design-loads criteria, methods, and operational procedures for prelaunch, lift-off, and midboost conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, A. C.; Schwartz, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    The prelaunch, lift-off, and midboost conditions that are important to the design of spacecraft are described. Original Apollo design concepts that were deficient in realistic and accurate analysis of spacecraft structural loads in a wind environment also are included. Important improvements in design criteria, mathematical models, wind-monitoring procedures, and loads analyses are discussed. Recommendations for future programs are presented.

  3. Calculation of Shallow Shell Subject to Influence of Load Local Effect by the Difference Technique on Irregular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Duc, Chinh

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of shallow shell with positive Gauss radius, and boundaries supported on the rectangular plane subject to influence of uniform load and concentrated forces has been considered. In order to solve differential equations (written in the form that assumes deflections as unknowns) of bending shallow shell theory, the author has used the finite difference technique on irregular networks. A detailed algorithm has been formulated that enables to solve the problem by computer. By the above algorithm, the author has obtained numerical results in the form of internal forces and deflections diagrams.

  4. A Finite Element Procedure for Calculating Fluid-Structure Interaction Using MSC/NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chargin, Mladen; Gartmeier, Otto

    1990-01-01

    This report is intended to serve two purposes. The first is to present a survey of the theoretical background of the dynamic interaction between a non-viscid, compressible fluid and an elastic structure is presented. Section one presents a short survey of the application of the finite element method (FEM) to the area of fluid-structure-interaction (FSI). Section two describes the mathematical foundation of the structure and fluid with special emphasis on the fluid. The main steps in establishing the finite element (FE) equations for the fluid structure coupling are discussed in section three. The second purpose is to demonstrate the application of MSC/NASTRAN to the solution of FSI problems. Some specific topics, such as fluid structure analogy, acoustic absorption, and acoustic contribution analysis are described in section four. Section five deals with the organization of the acoustic procedure flowchart. Section six includes the most important information that a user needs for applying the acoustic procedure to practical FSI problems. Beginning with some rules concerning the FE modeling of the coupled system, the NASTRAN USER DECKs for the different steps are described. The goal of section seven is to demonstrate the use of the acoustic procedure with some examples. This demonstration includes an analytic verification of selected FE results. The analytical description considers only some aspects of FSI and is not intended to be mathematically complete. Finally, section 8 presents an application of the acoustic procedure to vehicle interior acoustic analysis with selected results.

  5. Alternative Methods for Calculating Intercoder Reliability in Content Analysis: Kappa, Weighted Kappa and Agreement Charts Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Namjun

    If content analysis is to satisfy the requirement of objectivity, measures and procedures must be reliable. Reliability is usually measured by the proportion of agreement of all categories identically coded by different coders. For such data to be empirically meaningful, a high degree of inter-coder reliability must be demonstrated. Researchers in…

  6. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...

  7. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...

  8. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...

  9. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...

  10. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...

  11. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...

  12. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...

  13. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...

  14. An automated procedure for calculating system matrices from perturbation data generated by an EAI Pacer and 100 hybrid computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.; Krosel, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are presented for determining the elements of the A, B, C, and D state variable matrices for systems simulated on an EAI Pacer 100 hybrid computer. An automated procedure systematically generates disturbance data necessary to linearize the simulation model and stores these data on a floppy disk. A separate digital program verifies this data, calculates the elements of the system matrices, and prints these matrices appropriately labeled. The partial derivatives forming the elements of the state variable matrices are approximated by finite difference calculations.

  15. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine

  16. Three-dimensional calculations of fields and loading for loop and folded waveguide ICRF antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Baity, F. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Hoffman, D. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Swain, D. W.; Haste, G. R.

    The ANT and ORION codes have been combined and used to study the loading of various antenna geometries with simple three-dimensional (3-D) effects. Both codes use a slab model with periodic Fourier analysis for modeling the toroidal and poloidal directions. The ANT code is used to prescribe current sets in a vacuum region where the field solutions are obtained analytically of each Fourier mode and matching conditions are used at poloidal/toroidal current sheet locations. Multiple current sheets are permitted and various feeder options are available to model the radial antenna currents. Current elements may be oriented at arbitrary angles to the static magnetic field and may be independently phased in time. The fields at the plasma surface are prescribed by an impedance matrix for each Fourier mode. The ORION code solves for the fields in the plasma region using finite difference techniques, a plasma dispersion relation that retains the lowest-order finite gyroradius effects, and all three electric field components. Results are presented for a folded waveguide mock-up and for a loop antenna design under identical plasma conditions.

  17. Three-dimensional calculations of fields and loading for loop and folded waveguide ICRF antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.D.; Baity, F.W.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Swain, D.W.; Haste, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The ANT and ORION codes have been combined and used to study the loading of various antenna geometries with simple three-dimensional (3-D) effects. Both codes use a slab model with periodic Fourier analysis for modeling the toroidal and poloidal directions. The ANT code is used to prescribe current sets in a vacuum region where the field solutions are obtained analytically of each Fourier mode and matching conditions are used at poloidal/toroidal current sheet locations. Multiple current sheets are permitted and various feeder options are available to model the radial antenna currents. Current elements maybe oriented at arbitrary angles to the static magnetic field and may be independently phased in time. The fields at the plasma surface are prescribed by an impedance matrix for each Fourier mode. The ORION code solves for the fields in the plasma region using finite difference techniques, a plasma dispersion relation that retains the lowest-order finite gyroradius effects, and all three electric field components. Results are presented for a folded waveguide mock-up and for a loop antenna design under identical plasma conditions.

  18. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PESTICIDE LOADS AND TRENDS IN THE CENTRAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA: CALCULATED USING TWO PARAMETRIC METHODS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, D.; Domagalski, J. L.; Johnson, H. M.; Lorenz, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Mass loading and trends in concentration were calculated for four pesticides in two watersheds with different land uses in the Central Valley, California, by using two parametric models: (1) the Seasonal Wave model (SeaWave), in which a pulse signal is used to describe the annual cycle of pesticide occurrence in a stream; and, (2) the Sine Wave model (SineWave), in which first-order Fourier series sine and cosine terms are used to simulate seasonal loading patterns. The models were applied to data for water years 1997 through 2005 provided by the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The pesticides considered in this study were carbaryl, diazinon, metolachlor, and molinate. Data were analyzed for two seasons: precipitation season (October through March), and the irrigation season (April through September). Results from the two models show that the ability to capture seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations was affected by pesticide use patterns and the methods by which pesticides are transported to streams. When compared with results from previous studies, both models well estimated seasonal loads and trends in concentrations. It is important to point out that loads estimated by the two models did not differ substantially from each other, with the exceptions of carbaryl and molinate during the precipitation season, where loads were affected by application patterns and precipitation. At the same time, trends in pesticide concentrations over time, as estimated by both models, were nearly identical indicating that either model can be used equally for calculating trends in concentrations. However, in watersheds where pesticides are applied in specific patterns— involving multiple applications of various amounts—the SeaWave model might be a better model to use due to its robust capability to describe seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations. As a case study, trends in pesticide concentrations for streams in the Central Valley were

  19. A NASTRAN DMAP procedure for calculation of base excitation modal participation factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for calculating the modal participation factors for base excitation problems using a DMAP alter to the NASTRAN real eigenvalue analysis Rigid Format. The DMAP program automates the generation of the seismic mass to add to the degrees of freedom representing the shaker input directions and calculates the modal participation factors. These are shown in the paper to be a good measure of the maximum acceleration expected at any point on the structure when the subsequent frequency response analysis is run.

  20. Improved sonic-box computer program for calculating transonic aerodynamic loads on oscillating wings with thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruo, S. Y.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program was developed to account approximately for the effects of finite wing thickness in transonic potential flow over an oscillation wing of finite span. The program is based on the original sonic box computer program for planar wing which was extended to account for the effect of wing thickness. Computational efficiency and accuracy were improved and swept trailing edges were accounted for. Account for the nonuniform flow caused by finite thickness was made by application of the local linearization concept with appropriate coordinate transformation. A brief description of each computer routine and the applications of cubic spline and spline surface data fitting techniques used in the program are given, and the method of input was shown in detail. Sample calculations as well as a complete listing of the computer program listing are presented.

  1. Subject-specific geometrical detail rather than cost function formulation affects hip loading calculation.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Mariska; De Groote, Friedl; Bosmans, Lode; Bartels, Ward; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the relative importance of introducing an increasing level of medical image-based subject-specific detail in bone and muscle geometry in the musculoskeletal model, on calculated hip contact forces during gait. These forces were compared to introducing minimization of hip contact forces in the optimization criterion. With an increasing level of subject-specific detail, specifically MRI-based geometry and wrapping surfaces representing the hip capsule, hip contact forces decreased and were more comparable to contact forces measured using instrumented prostheses (average difference of 0.69 BW at the first peak compared to 1.04 BW for the generic model). Inclusion of subject-specific wrapping surfaces in the model had a greater effect than altering the cost function definition. PMID:26930478

  2. [Procedure for calculating various parameters of the metabolism of amino acid mixtures].

    PubMed

    Fauth, U; Heinrichs, W; Puénte-Gonzales, I; Tzanova, I; Halmágyi, M

    1989-12-01

    For the evaluation of indirect calorimetry, elements are used, which specify the relation between nitrogen (N) excretion and amount of oxidized amino acids (AS/N) and between nitrogen excretion and oxygen-/carbon dioxide-exchange of the corresponding amounts of amino acids (O2/N, CO2/N). These elements are only valid for the amino acid mixture which was used for their determination, and only under the condition of complete combustion of deaminized amino acid skeletons. We developed a computer program, which is able to simulate complete oxidation, maximal gluconeogenesis, and maximal lipogenesis for a given amino acid mixture of any composition. The parameters AS/N, O2/N and CO2/N were calculated by the program for various parenteral amino acid solutions. Range of error was determined exemplarily for the use of standard parameters. The calculations demonstrate errors up to 50% for the calculation of substrate turnover in indirect calorimetry, depending on composition and actual metabolism of amino acid mixtures. As long as these influencing factors are not known in stress metabolism, we recommend to use those elements, which were calculated for the amino acid solution in use, assuming complete combustion. PMID:2516505

  3. Development of an analytic procedure to calculate damage accumulation in composites during low velocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, E. A.; Goering, J.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized procedure was developed to model the response of a laminated composite plate subjected to low velocity impact. The methodology incorporated transient dynamics finite element analysis coupled with composite layer and interlaminar stress predictions. Damage was predicted using a stress based failure criteria and incorporated into the solution as stiffness modifications. The force-displacement relation between the impactor and plate was modelled with a nonlinear contact spring similar to Hertzian contact. Analyses performed predicted ply damage early in the impact event when the displacement fields were characteristic of high frequency flexurable response.

  4. A Fuzzy Goal Programming Procedure for Solving Multiobjective Load Flow Problems via Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Papun; Chakraborti, Debjani

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes how the genetic algorithms (GAs) can be efficiently used to fuzzy goal programming (FGP) formulation of optimal power flow problems having multiple objectives. In the proposed approach, the different constraints, various relationships of optimal power flow calculations are fuzzily described. In the model formulation of the problem, the membership functions of the defined fuzzy goals are characterized first for measuring the degree of achievement of the aspiration levels of the goals specified in the decision making context. Then, the achievement function for minimizing the regret for under-deviations from the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership goals to the extent possible on the basis of priorities is constructed for optimal power flow problems. In the solution process, the GA method is employed to the FGP formulation of the problem for achievement of the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership functions to the extent possible in the decision making environment. In the GA based solution search process, the conventional Roulette wheel selection scheme, arithmetic crossover and random mutation are taken into consideration to reach a satisfactory decision. The developed method has been tested on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus System. Numerical results show that this method is promising for handling uncertain constraints in practical power systems.

  5. Mapping and calculating of technogeneous loading on geological environment by using satellite data and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidova, Diana; Kadyrhodjaev, Azam

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of geological environment is a base for rational utilization of natural resources and country's sustainable development. Natural processes are getting more and more interlaced with anthropogenic processes and as a result becoming man-caused. It was the very reason why the necessity to develop new methodological and technological aspects for estimation of geological environment condition appeared. Modern satellite data and GIS (Geographical Information System) can be used for solving this task. The task of the research was an assessment of a level of disturbed natural cover and the ruts due to motor vehicles, which is geographically reflected on the damages-map of a natural surface by roads. For the investigation of the topsoil damage on the roads of Ustyurt region, the topographic maps of 1:200 000 scale, digital satellite images of Landsat-7 and SAR images have been used. These data provide bigger swat width and temporal resolution, which is needed for the solution of the task. The data, mentioned above are the most easy to access, of good quality and reliable. As an illustrative example, the Aktumsuk block of gas-oil field is considered in the present paper. As a result of our study, a density of road lines has been determined and calculated in GIS using satellite data. It became a basis for developing a map of natural cover disturbed by roads. Three gradations are distinguished: strong, moderate and weakly disturbed. The disturbance level corresponds to certain density of the roads. By the density of the roads here we mean number of roads in the unit area. The area and the place of extention of disturbed natural cover are very dynamic. Annually, the are of different cathegories of degraded soil can increase, and can decrease if rational measures are used and applied. In this connection, it is necessary to create a data base of different cathegories of degraded soil and conduct constant observation on the intensity of the process development, create a

  6. Assessment of theoretical procedures for calculating barrier heights for a diverse set of water-catalyzed proton-transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Karton, Amir; O'Reilly, Robert J; Radom, Leo

    2012-04-26

    Accurate electronic barrier heights are obtained for a set of nine proton-transfer tautomerization reactions, which are either (i) uncatalyzed, (ii) catalyzed by one water molecule, or (iii) catalyzed by two water molecules. The barrier heights for reactions (i) and (ii) are obtained by means of the high-level ab initio W2.2 thermochemical protocol, while those for reaction (iii) are obtained using the W1 protocol. These three sets of benchmark barrier heights allow an assessment of the performance of more approximate theoretical procedures for the calculation of barrier heights of uncatalyzed and water-catalyzed reactions. We evaluate initially the performance of the composite G4 procedure and variants thereof (e.g., G4(MP2) and G4(MP2)-6X), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g., MP2, SCS-MP2, and MP4). We find that the performance of the G4(MP2)-type thermochemical procedures deteriorates with the number of water molecules involved in the catalysis. This behavior is linked to deficiencies in the MP2-based basis-set-correction term in the G4(MP2)-type procedures. This is remedied in the MP4-based G4 procedure, which shows good performance for both the uncatalyzed and the water-catalyzed reactions, with mean absolute deviations (MADs) from the benchmark values lying below the threshold of "chemical accuracy" (arbitrarily defined as 1 kcal mol(-1) ≈ 4.2 kJ mol(-1)). We also examine the performance of a large number of density functional theory (DFT) and double-hybrid DFT (DHDFT) procedures. We find that, with few exceptions (most notably PW6-B95 and B97-2), the performance of the DFT procedures that give good results for the uncatalyzed reactions deteriorates with the number of water molecules involved in the catalysis. The DHDFT procedures, on the other hand, show excellent performance for both the uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions. Specifically, almost all of them afford MADs below the "chemical accuracy" threshold, with ROB2-PLYP and B2K

  7. Monte Carlo calculations on extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff at interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Carinou, E; Ferrari, P; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Struelens, L

    2011-03-01

    There are many factors that can influence the extremity and eye lens doses of the medical staff during interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Numerical simulations can play an important role in evaluating extremity and eye lens doses in correlation with many different parameters. In the present study, the first results of the ORAMED (Optimisation of Radiation protection of MEDical staff) simulation campaign are presented. The parameters investigated for their influence on eye lens, hand, wrist and leg doses are: tube voltage, filtration, beam projection, field size and irradiated part of the patient's body. The tube voltage ranged from 60 to 110 kV(p), filtration from 3 to 6 mm Al and from 0 to 0.9 mm Cu. For all projections, the results showed that doses received by the operator decreased with increasing tube voltage and filtration. The magnitude of the influence of the tube voltage and the filtration on the doses depends on the beam projection and the irradiated part of the patient's body. Finally, the influence of the field size is significant in decreasing the doses. PMID:21212075

  8. Analyzing astrophysical neutrino signals using realistic nuclear structure calculations and the convolution procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2011-12-01

    Convoluted differential and total cross sections of inelastic ν scattering on 128,130Te isotopes are computed from the original cross sections calculated previously using the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We adopt various spectral distributions for the neutrino energy spectra such as the common two-parameter Fermi-Dirac and power-law distributions appropriate to explore nuclear detector responses to supernova neutrino spectra. We also concentrate on the use of low-energy β-beam neutrinos, originating from boosted β--radioactive 6He ions, to decompose original supernova (anti)neutrino spectra that are subsequently employed to simulate total cross sections of the reactions 130Te(ν˜,ν˜')130Te*. The concrete nuclear regimes selected, 128,130Te, are contents of the multipurpose CUORE and COBRA rare event detectors. Our present investigation may provide useful information about the efficiency of the Te detector medium of the above experiments in their potential use in supernova neutrino searches.

  9. A procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of CFD calculations based on grid refinement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Eça, L.; Hoekstra, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: • Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. • Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. • Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. • Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. • Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.

  10. A new simplified volume-loaded heterotopic rabbit heart transplant model with improved techniques and a standard operating procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Pan, Xu-Dong; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Wang, Long-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background The classic non-working (NW) heterotopic heart transplant (HTX) model in rodents had been widely used for researches related to immunology, graft rejection, evaluation of immunosuppressive therapies and organ preservation. But unloaded models are considered not suitable for some researches. Accordingly, We have constructed a volume-loaded (VL) model by a new and simple technique. Methods Thirty male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, group NW with 14 rabbits and group VL with 16 rabbits, which served as donors and recipients. We created a large and nonrestrictive shunt to provide left heart a sufficient preload. The donor superior vena cave and ascending aorta (AO) were anastomosed to the recipient abdominal aorta (AAO) and inferior vena cava (IVC), respectively. Results No animals suffered from paralysis, pneumonia and lethal bleeding. Recipients’ mortality and morbidity were 6.7% (1/15) and 13.3% (2/15), respectively. The cold ischemia time in group VL is slight longer than that in group NW. The maximal aortic velocity (MAV) of donor heart was approximately equivalent to half that of native heart in group VL. Moreover, the similar result was achieved in the parameter of late diastolic mitral inflow velocity between donor heart and native heart in group VL. The echocardiography (ECHO) showed a bidirectional flow in donor SVC of VL model, inflow during diastole and outflow during systole. PET-CT imaging showed the standard uptake value (SUV) of allograft was equal to that of native heart in both groups on the postoperative day 3. Conclusions We have developed a new VL model in rabbits, which imitates a native heart hemodynamically while only requiring a minor additional procedure. Surgical technique is simple compared with currently used HTX models. We also developed a standard operating procedure that significantly improved graft and recipient survival rate. This study may be useful for investigations in transplantation

  11. Timber Harvest Effects on Sediment and Water Yields and Analysis of Sediment Load Calculation Methods in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elverson, C.; Karwan, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Timber harvest practices have a long-standing association with changes in water and sediment yields. We quantify the trends in water and sediment yields in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in relation to management practices with linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From 1991 to 2013, an increase in water yield resulted from both clearcutting and thinning treatments, with monthly water yield rate increases of 13-57% and annual water yield increases up to 210 mm (40%) in the clearcut watershed. Following treatment, annual sediment yields increased in the clearcut watershed by 40-131% and the thinned watershed by 33-163%, both relative to the control watershed, with statistically-significant monthly load increases in the year immediately following treatment. Water and sediment yield changes do not follow the same post-treatment patterns. Water yields increased immediately following treatment and, over time, gradually dropped towards pre-harvest levels. Annual sediment yields increased in some years after the harvest, but in some cases the increase was years after treatment. Monthly sediment yields increased in the first year following the clearcut harvest, but elevated monthly loads following the partial cut harvest came years later. Hence, we investigate the changes in sediment yield through an examination of water yield and sediment concentration and in response to events. We test the sensitivity of our results to different methods for computing sediment yields based on total suspended solids concentration and continuous discharge measurements. Flow-weighted sediment yield averaged 24% higher than sediment yield computed from linear-interpolated total suspended solids concentration values. During typical summer and fall conditions, flow-weighting was found to overweight storm measurements and produce large sediment yield estimates. Further work is suggested to test methods of calculating monthly sediment yields with irregularly

  12. Total maximum allocated load calculation of nitrogen pollutants by linking a 3D biogeochemical-hydrodynamic model with a programming model in Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Aiquan; Li, Keqiang; Ding, Dongsheng; Li, Yan; Liang, Shengkang; Li, Yanbin; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiulin

    2015-12-01

    The equal percent removal (EPR) method, in which pollutant reduction ratio was set as the same in all administrative regions, failed to satisfy the requirement for water quality improvement in the Bohai Sea. Such requirement was imposed by the developed Coastal Pollution Total Load Control Management. The total maximum allocated load (TMAL) of nitrogen pollutants in the sea-sink source regions (SSRs) around the Bohai Rim, which is the maximum pollutant load of every outlet under the limitation of water quality criteria, was estimated by optimization-simulation method (OSM) combined with loop approximation calculation. In OSM, water quality is simulated using a water quality model and pollutant load is calculated with a programming model. The effect of changes in pollutant loads on TMAL was discussed. Results showed that the TMAL of nitrogen pollutants in 34 SSRs was 1.49×105 ton/year. The highest TMAL was observed in summer, whereas the lowest in winter. TMAL was also higher in the Bohai Strait and central Bohai Sea and lower in the inner area of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay. In loop approximation calculation, the TMAL obtained was considered satisfactory for water quality criteria as fluctuation of concentration response matrix with pollutant loads was eliminated. Results of numerical experiment further showed that water quality improved faster and were more evident under TMAL input than that when using the EPR method

  13. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  14. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  15. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  16. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  17. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  18. Interactive calculation procedure for supersonic flows. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., 1976. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tassa, Y.; Anderson, B. H.; Reshotko, E.

    1977-01-01

    An interactive procedure was developed for supersonic viscous flows that can be used for either two-dimensional or axisymmetric configurations. The procedure is directed to supersonic internal flows as well as those supersonic external flows that require consideration of mutual interaction between the outer flow and the boundary layer flow. The flow field is divided into two regions: an inner region which is highly viscous and mostly subsonic and an outer region where the flow is supersonic and in which viscous effects are small but not negligible. For the outer region a numerical solution is obtained by applying the method of characteristics to a system of equations which includes viscous and conduction transport terms only normal to the streamlines. The inner region is treated by a system of equations of the boundary layer type that includes higher order effects such as longitudinal and transverse curvature and normal pressure gradients. These equations are coupled and solved simultaneously in the physical coordinates by using an implicit finite difference scheme. This system can also be used to calculate laminar and turbulent boundary layers using a scalar eddy viscosity concept.

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING INGESTION EXPOSURE ESTIMATING INGESTION EXPOSURE, THE INDIRECT METHOD OF EXPOSURE ESTIMATION (IIT-A-7.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken for calculating ingestion exposure using the indirect method of exposure estimation. This SOP uses This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropriate QA/QC procedures by the University ...

  20. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING WEIGHT CALCULATION (IIT-A-9.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken to calculate sampling weights. The sampling weights are needed to obtain weighted statistics of the study data. This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropriate QA/QC procedures by th...

  1. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of selected lipases: a procedure for the proper calculation of their recovered activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, synthesis of carrier-free immobilized biocatalysts by cross-linking of enzyme aggregates has appeared as a promising technique. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) present several interesting advantages over carrier-bound immobilized enzymes, such as highly concentrated enzymatic activity, high stability of the produced superstructure, important production costs savings by the absence of a support, and the fact that no previous purification of the enzyme is needed. However, the published literature evidences that a) much specific non-systematic exploratory work is being done and, b) recovered activity calculations in CLEAs still need to be optimized. In this context, this contribution presents results of an optimized procedure for the calculation of the activity retained by CLEAs, based on the comparison of their specific activity relative to their free enzyme counterparts. The protocol implies determination of precipitable protein content in commercial enzyme preparations through precipitation with ammonium sulphate and a protein co-feeder. The identification of linear ranges of activity versus concentration/amount of protein in the test reaction is also required for proper specific activity determinations. By use of mass balances that involve the protein initially added to the synthesis medium, and the protein remaining in the supernatant and washing solutions (these last derived from activity measurements), the precipitable protein present in CLEAs is obtained, and their specific activity can be calculated. In the current contribution the described protocol was applied to CLEAs of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase, which showed a recovered specific activity of 11.1% relative to native lipase. The approach described is simple and can easily be extended to other CLEAs and also to carrier-bound immobilized enzymes for accurate determination of their retained activity. PMID:23663379

  2. Design procedures for fiber composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1989-01-01

    Step-by-step procedures are described which can be used for the preliminary design of fiber composite box beams subjected to combined loadings. These procedures include a collection of approximate closed-form equations so that all the required calculations can be performed using pocket calculators. Included is an illustrative example of a tapered cantilever box beam subjected to combined loads. The box beam is designed to satisfy strength, displacement, buckling, and frequency requirements.

  3. The composite load spectra project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.; Kurth, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Probabilistic methods and generic load models capable of simulating the load spectra that are induced in space propulsion system components are being developed. Four engine component types (the transfer ducts, the turbine blades, the liquid oxygen posts and the turbopump oxidizer discharge duct) were selected as representative hardware examples. The composite load spectra that simulate the probabilistic loads for these components are typically used as the input loads for a probabilistic structural analysis. The knowledge-based system approach used for the composite load spectra project provides an ideal environment for incremental development. The intelligent database paradigm employed in developing the expert system provides a smooth coupling between the numerical processing and the symbolic (information) processing. Large volumes of engine load information and engineering data are stored in database format and managed by a database management system. Numerical procedures for probabilistic load simulation and database management functions are controlled by rule modules. Rules were hard-wired as decision trees into rule modules to perform process control tasks. There are modules to retrieve load information and models. There are modules to select loads and models to carry out quick load calculations or make an input file for full duty-cycle time dependent load simulation. The composite load spectra load expert system implemented today is capable of performing intelligent rocket engine load spectra simulation. Further development of the expert system will provide tutorial capability for users to learn from it.

  4. Uncertainty in nutrient loads from tile drained landscapes: Effect of sampling frequency, calculation algorithm, and compositing strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of annual nutrient loads are required to evaluate trends in water quality following changes in land use or management and to calibrate and validate water quality models. While much emphasis has been placed on understanding the uncertainty of watershed-scale nutrient load estimates...

  5. Calculated and measured stresses in simple panels subject to intense random acoustic loading including the near noise field of a turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, Leslie W; Hess, Robert W

    1958-01-01

    Flat 2024-t3 aluminum panels measuring 11 inches by 13 inches were tested in the near noise fields of a 4-inch air jet and turbojet engine. The stresses which were developed in the panels are compared with those calculated by generalized harmonic analysis. The calculated and measured stresses were found to be in good agreement. In order to make the stress calculations, supplementary data relating to the transfer characteristics, damping, and static response of flat and curved panels under periodic loading are necessary and were determined experimentally. In addition, an appendix containing detailed data on the near pressure field of the turbojet engine is included.

  6. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 1: Verification of basic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, T.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Badgley, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was verification of basic methods which are to be used in cataloging elastomer dynamic properties (stiffness and damping) in terms of viscoelastic model constants. These constants may then be used to predict dynamic properties for general elastomer shapes and operating conditions, thereby permitting optimum application of elastomers as energy absorption and/or energy storage devices in the control of vibrations in a broad variety of applications. The efforts reported involved: (1) literature search; (2) the design, fabrication and use of a test rig for obtaining elastomer dynamic test data over a wide range of frequencies, amplitudes, and preloads; and (3) the reduction of the test data, by means of a selected three-element elastomer model and specialized curve fitting techniques, to material properties. Material constants thus obtained have been used to calculate stiffness and damping for comparison with measured test data. These comparisons are excellent for a number of test conditions and only fair to poor for others. The results confirm the validity of the basic approach of the overall program and the mechanics of the cataloging procedure, and at the same time suggest areas in which refinements should be made.

  7. Building America Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings, Ithaca, New York; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  8. Comparison of measured and calculated dynamic loads for the Mod-2 2.5 mW wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.; Shipley, S. A.; Miller, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has completed a test program on the Mod-2 wind turbines at Goodnoe Hills, Washington. The objectives were to update fatigue load spectra, discern site and machine differences, measure vortex generator effects, and to evaluate rotational sampling techniques. This paper shows the test setup and loads instrumentation, loads data comparisons and test/analysis correlations. Test data are correlated with DYLOSAT predictions using both the NASA interim turbulence model and rotationally sampled winds as inputs. The latter is demonstrated to have the potential to improve the test/analysis correlations. The paper concludes with an assessment of the importance of vortex generators, site dependence, and machine differences on fatigue loads. The adequacy of prediction techniques used are evaluated and recommendations are made for improvements to the methodology.

  9. Comparison of measured and calculated dynamic loads for the Mod-2 2.5 mW wind turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.; Shipley, S. A.; Miller, R. D.

    1995-05-01

    The Boeing Company, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has completed a test program on the Mod-2 wind turbines at Goodnoe Hills, Washington. The objectives were to update fatigue load spectra, discern site and machine differences, measure vortex generator effects, and to evaluate rotational sampling techniques. This paper shows the test setup and loads instrumentation, loads data comparisons and test/analysis correlations. Test data are correlated with DYLOSAT predictions using both the NASA interim turbulence model and rotationally sampled winds as inputs. The latter is demonstrated to have the potential to improve the test/analysis correlations. The paper concludes with an assessment of the importance of vortex generators, site dependence, and machine differences on fatigue loads. The adequacy of prediction techniques used are evaluated and recommendations are made for improvements to the methodology.

  10. [Have Case Loads of Radical Surgery for Prostate Cancer Been Concentrated in Hospitals with Robotic Equipment ?--Analyses with Questionnaire Survey and Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) Data].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of a questionnaire survey for the hospitals with robots and on the Diagnostic Procedures Combination data provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth for those without such equipment. The concentration of the case loads was principally defined as when hospitals with robots had more predominant proportion of cases than those without them in the comparison between case loads prior to instillation of robots (or in the initial year of the study) and those in the final years. The 11 selected areas included 44 hospitals with robots and 156 without them. Concentration of case loads was found in 5 areas. In 4 areas, installation of robots did not have a specific relation to the distribution pattern s of case loads in hospitals with or without the equipment. The remaining 2 areas tended to have a weak but not definite concentration of case loads. In the areas in which installation did not influence case loads the further analysis revealed that their case loads had already been concentrated in the initial year (2010) of the study. Although the current results were found in a single department of the hospital, robotic installation may result in concentration of prostatectomy case loads for such hospitals in some areas. The current results are intriguing when we consider the future roles of acute care hospitals and beds in our country where the number of aged patients having chronic diseases will increase. In conclusion, installation of robotic equipment may result in concentration

  11. A comparison of the spanwise loading calculated by various methods with experimental loadings obtained on a 45 degree sweptback wing of aspect ratio 8.02 at a Reynolds number of 4.0 x 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Willaim C

    1954-01-01

    This report compares the experimental force and moment data obtained by pressure measurements on a wing of aspect ratio 8.02, 45 degree sweptback of the quarter-chord line, taper ratio of 0.45, and NACA 63sub1a012 airfoil sections with the calculated loadings obtained by the standard methods proposed by Weissinger, Falkner, and Multopp, as well as by several variations of these methods.

  12. From mess to mass: a methodology for calculating storm event pollutant loads with their uncertainties, from continuous raw data time series.

    PubMed

    Métadier, M; Bertrand-Krajewski, J-L

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing implementation of continuous monitoring of both discharge and water quality in sewer systems, large data bases are now available. In order to manage large amounts of data and calculate various variables and indicators of interest it is necessary to apply automated methods for data processing. This paper deals with the processing of short time step turbidity time series to estimate TSS (Total Suspended Solids) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) event loads in sewer systems during storm events and their associated uncertainties. The following steps are described: (i) sensor calibration, (ii) estimation of data uncertainties, (iii) correction of raw data, (iv) data pre-validation tests, (v) final validation, and (vi) calculation of TSS and COD event loads and estimation of their uncertainties. These steps have been implemented in an integrated software tool. Examples of results are given for a set of 33 storm events monitored in a stormwater separate sewer system. PMID:21278456

  13. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, W.N.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  15. A more efficient computational procedure for calculating the critical current of a multi-junction superconducting interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutes, C. L.; Gershenson, M.; Schneider, R. J.

    1985-03-01

    The textbook procedure for the solution of the critical current of an N-junction superconducting interferometer is a 2N-1 dimensional steepest descent problem. A solution by this procedure is complicated by the existence of multiple local minima. The equations are reformulated to reduce the problem to a three-dimensional steepest descent problem. From this reduced equation set, a non-steepest-descent procedure is developed. This technique produces a solution by adjusting a trial critical current value until tangency between a straight line and a special error function is achieved. For a 10-junction test case, an 80-to-1 reduction in computer time was achieved.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Where: Ywm = Weighted mass emissions of each pollutant, i.e., HC, CO, NOX or CO , in grams per vehicle mile. Yct = Mass emissions as calculated from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams... grams per test phase. Ys = Mass emissions as calculated from the “stabilized” phase of the cold...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Where: Ywm = Weighted mass emissions of each pollutant, i.e., HC, CO, NOX or CO , in grams per vehicle mile. Yct = Mass emissions as calculated from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams... grams per test phase. Ys = Mass emissions as calculated from the “stabilized” phase of the cold...

  18. Mechanical effects of surgical procedures on osteochondral grafts elucidated by osmotic loading and real-time ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Osteochondral grafts have become popular for treating small, isolated and full-thickness cartilage lesions. It is recommended that a slightly oversized, rather than an exact-sized, osteochondral plug is transplanted to achieve a tight fit. Consequently, impacting forces are required to insert the osteochondral plug into the recipient site. However, it remains controversial whether these impacting forces affect the biomechanical condition of the grafted articular cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanical effects of osteochondral plug implantation using osmotic loading and real-time ultrasound. Methods A full-thickness cylindrical osteochondral defect (diameter, 3.5 mm; depth, 5 mm) was created in the lateral lower quarter of the patella. Using graft-harvesting instruments, an osteochondral plug (diameter, 3.5 mm as exact-size or 4.5 mm as oversize; depth, 5 mm) was harvested from the lateral upper quarter of the patella and transplanted into the defect. Intact patella was used as a control. The samples were monitored by real-time ultrasound during sequential changes of the bathing solution from 0.15 M to 2 M saline (shrinkage phase) and back to 0.15 M saline (swelling phase). For cartilage sample assessment, three indices were selected, namely the change in amplitude from the cartilage surface (amplitude recovery rate: ARR) and the maximum echo shifts from the cartilage surface and the cartilage-bone interface. Results The ARR is closely related to the cartilage surface integrity, while the echo shifts from the cartilage surface and the cartilage-bone interface are closely related to tissue deformation and NaCl diffusion, respectively. The ARR values of the oversized plugs were significantly lower than those of the control and exact-sized plugs. Regarding the maximum echo shifts from the cartilage surface and the cartilage-bone interface, no significant differences were observed among the three groups. Conclusions These findings

  19. A fuzzy finite element procedure for the calculation of uncertain frequency response functions of damped structures: Part 2—Numerical case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gersem, Hilde; Moens, David; Desmet, Wim; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2005-12-01

    This work introduces a numerical algorithm to calculate frequency response functions of damped finite element models with fuzzy uncertain parameters. Part 1 of this paper focusses on the numerical procedure for the solution of the underlying interval finite element problem, based on the undamped procedure and the principle of Rayleigh damping. Part 2 of this paper illustrates the applicability of the methodology through four case studies. The concepts of the interval and the fuzzy finite element frequency response function analysis are illustrated for different types of uncertainties. The obtained results are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. A user`s guide to LUGSAN II. A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, W.N.

    1998-03-01

    LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.

  1. Demonstrate Scale-up Procedure for Glass Composite Material (GCM) for Incorporation of Iodine Loaded AgZ.

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry J.; Croes, Kenneth James; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Two large size Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste forms containing AgI-MOR were fabricated. One contained methyl iodide-loaded AgI-MOR that was received from Idaho National Laboratory (INL, Test 5, Beds 1 – 3) and the other contained iodine vapor loaded AgIMOR that was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, SHB 2/9/15 ). The composition for each GCM was 20 wt% AgI-MOR and 80 wt% Ferro EG2922 low sintering temperature glass along with enough added silver flake to prevent any I2 loss during the firing process. The silver flake amounts were 1.2 wt% for the GCM with the INL AgI-MOR and 3 wt% for the GCM contained the ORNL AgI-MOR. The GCMs, nominally 100 g, were first uniaxially pressed to 6.35 cm (2.5 inch) diameter disks then cold isostatically pressed, before firing in air to 550°C for 1hr. They were cooled slowly (1°C/min) from the firing temperature to avoid any cracking due to temperature gradients. The final GCMs were ~5 cm in diameter (~2 inches) and non-porous with densities of ~4.2 g/cm³. X-ray diffraction indicated that they consisted of the amorphous glass phase with small amounts of mordenite and AgI. Furthermore, the presence of the AgI was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence. Methodology for the scaled up production of GCMs to 6 inch diameter or larger is also presented.

  2. A balance procedure for calculating the model fuel assemblies reflooding during design basis accident and its verification on PARAMETER test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyuk, S. S.; Ignat'ev, D. N.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Popov, E. B.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.

    2013-05-01

    A balance procedure is proposed for estimating the main parameters characterizing the process of model fuel assemblies reflooding of a VVER reactor made on different scales under the conditions of a design basis accident by subjecting them to bottom reflooding1. The proposed procedure satisfactorily describes the experimental data obtained on PARAMETER test facility in the temperature range up to 1200°C. The times of fuel assemblies quenching by bottom reflooding calculated using the proposed procedure are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data obtained on model fuel assemblies of VVER- and PWR-type reactors and can be used in developing measures aimed at enhancing the safety of nuclear power stations.

  3. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  4. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  5. An analytical study and systematic monitoring procedure developed for the load-out operation of the North Rankin Jacket 'A'

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, N.; Inokoshi, O.; Kitani, T.; Masuda, S.; Zarate, H.

    1983-05-01

    The loadout of the 22,000 tonnes North Rankin Jacket 'A' onto a floating barge was successfully accomplished in April, 1982. During the loadout the barge ballast was continually adjusted to compensate for both jacket weight transfer onto the barge and full tide variation. The preparation for the loadout and the operation itself was characterized by newly developed integrated techniques. The techniques included: the development of a barge, jacket and quayside three-dimensional computer model to check the validity of conventional and simple ballast system software. The model was also used to evaluate the control parameters of the operation in a series of analyses which determine the sensitivity of critical steps of the operation to human or equipment errors: the development and operation of an integrated control system for jacket load transfer that relates jacket position to barge level and ballast pump requirements; the development and operation of a tide-expectation computer programme and associated ballast pump time scheduling software to compensate for differences between actual water level and that determined from standard tide tables, and to minimize the effect of short-term, local tide variations that are not forecast; and the incorporation of fail-safe concepts and measures into the operation.

  6. Effect of Horizontal-Tail Chord on the Calculated Subsonic Span Loads and Stability Derivatives of Isolated Unswept Tail Assemblies in Sideslip and Steady Roll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Katherine W.

    1959-01-01

    Subsonic span loads and the resulting stability derivatives have been calculated using the discrete-horseshoe-vortex method for a systematic series of horizontal tails in combination with a vertical tail of aspect ratio 1.0 in order to provide information on the effect of varying the chord of the horizontal tail for isolated tail assemblies performing sideslip and steady-roll motions. In addition, the effects of horizontal-tail dihedral angle for the sideslip case were obtained. Each tail surface considered had a taper ratio of 0.5 and an unswept quarter-chord line. The investigation covered variations in horizontal-tail chord, horizontal-tail span, and vertical location of the horizontal tail. The span loads and the resulting total stability derivatives as well as the vertical- and horizontal-tail contributions to these tail-assembly derivatives are presented in the figures for the purpose of showing the influence of the geometric variables. The results of this investigation showed trends that were in agreement with the results of previous investigations for variations in horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail. Variations in horizontal-tail chord expressed herein in terms of the root-chord ratio, that is, the ratio of horizontal-tail root chord to vertical-tail root chord, were found to have a pronounced influence on most of the span loads and the resulting stability derivatives. For most of the cases considered, the rate of change of the span load coefficients and the stability derivatives with the root-chord ratio was found to be a maximum for small values of root-chord ratio and to decrease as root-chord ratio increased.

  7. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nevinitsa, V. A. Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-15

    A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing {sup 233}U from {sup 232}Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

  8. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevinitsa, V. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing 233U from 232Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

  9. Influence of the primary emulsification procedure on the characteristics of small protein-loaded PLGA microparticles for antigen delivery.

    PubMed

    Wischke, C; Borchert, H-H

    2006-06-01

    Microparticles prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using a W1/O/W2 double emulsion solvent evaporation method are suitable vehicles for the delivery of proteins to antigen presenting cells, e.g. dendritic cells. In this study, the influence of different techniques for the preparation of the primary W1/O emulsion was investigated with respect to the protein localization within the microparticles, morphological characteristics of these particles, protein burst release and the native state of the released protein. Bovine serum albumin bearing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-BSA) was used as model protein. A static micromixer was applied for the preparation of the W1/O/W2 double emulsion. Employing a rotor-stator homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax) for primary emulsification, microcapsules with a high burst release were produced, because nearly all FITC-BSA was attached to the outside of the particle wall. Using a high pressure homogenizer or an ultrasonic procedure resulted in the formation of microspheres with homogeneous protein distribution and a reduced burst release. PMID:16854818

  10. A two-step load-deflection procedure applicable to extract the Young's modulus and the residual tensile stress of circularly shaped thin-film diaphragms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigelbeck, Roman; Schneider, Michael; Schalko, Johannes; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    We report on a novel two-step load-deflection (LD) formula and technique that enables an accurate extraction of the Young's modulus and the residual tensile stress from LD measurements on circularly shaped thin-film diaphragms. This LD relationship is derived from an adaptation of Timoshenko's plate bending theory, where the in-plane and out-of-plane deflections are approximated by series expansions. Utilizing the minimum total potential energy principle yields an infinite-dimensional system of equations which is solved analytically resulting in a compact closed-form solution. In the appendant measurement procedure, the whole transverse bending characteristic of the diaphragm as a function of the radial coordinate is recorded for different pressure loads and introduced into the novel LD equation in order to determine the elastomechanical parameters of interest. The flexibility of this approach is demonstrated by ascertaining the Young's modulus and the residual tensile stress of two disparate diaphragm materials made of either micromachined silicon or microfiltered buckypapers composed of carbon nanotube compounds.