NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novoselov, V. B.; Shekhter, M. V.
2012-12-01
A refined procedure for estimating the effect the flashing of condensate in a steam turbine's regenerative and delivery-water heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load is presented. The results of calculations carried out according to the proposed procedure as applied to the delivery-water and regenerative heaters of a T-110/120-12.8 turbine are given.
Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator
Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.
2004-10-01
As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.
Loads and calculations of army airplanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stelmachowski, Ing
1921-01-01
By comparing airplanes of known strength that have resisted all the usual and even extreme air loads with those that under like conditions were found to be insufficiently strong, the researchers, aided by scientific investigations, developed standards which are satisfactory for the calculation of airplane structures. Given here are standards applicable to loads on wing trusses, load factors for use in stress analysis, load factors required in sand testing, loads on control surfaces, loads on wing ribs, loads on landing gear, and rigidity of materials.
Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.
Parker, Danny; Fairey, Philip; Hendron, Robert
2011-06-10
This report discusses how TIAX data, supplemented by the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS)public use data set was used to make significant improvements in the prediction metods for estimating energy use of miscellaneous electric loads.
New unifying procedure for PC index calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauning, P.
2012-04-01
The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. Currently, there are now the three separate PC index versions constructed from the different procedures used at the three institutes: the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), and the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space). It is demonstrated in this presentation, that two consistent unifying procedures can be built from the best elements of the three different versions. One procedure uses a set of coefficients aimed at the calculation of final PC index values to be accepted by IAGA. The other procedure uses coefficients aimed at on-line real-time production of preliminary PC index values for Space Weather monitoring applications. For each of the two cases the same procedure is used for the northern (PCN) and the southern (PCS) polar cap indices, and the derived PCN and PCS coefficients are similar.
Space Heating Load Estimation Procedure for CHP Systems sizing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vocale, P.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.
2015-11-01
Due to its environmental and energy benefits, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) represents certainly an important measure to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Since the energy performance of the CHP systems strongly depends on the fraction of the useful cogenerated heat (i.e. the cogenerated heat that is actually used to meet building thermal demand), in building applications of CHP, it is necessary to know the space heating and cooling loads profile to optimise the system efficiency. When the heating load profile is unknown or difficult to calculate with a sufficient accuracy, as may occur for existing buildings, it can be estimated from the cumulated energy uses by adopting the loads estimation procedure (h-LEP). With the aim to evaluate the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat for different operating conditions in terms of buildings characteristics, weather data and system capacity, the h-LEP is here implemented with a single climate variable: the hourly average dry- bulb temperature. The proposed procedure have been validated resorting to the TRNSYS simulation tool. The results, obtained by considering a building for hospital use, reveal that the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat can be estimated with an average accuracy of ± 3%, within the range of operative conditions considered in the present study.
Calculating Dynamics Of Helicopters And Slung Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cicolani, Luigi; Kanning, Gerd
1991-01-01
General equations derived for numerical simulations of motions of multiple-lift, slung-load systems consisting of two or more lifting helicopters and loads slung from them by various combinations of spreader bars, cables, nets, and attaching hardware. Equations readily programmable for efficient computation of motions and lend themselves well to analysis and design of control strategies for stabilization and coordination.
Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations
Burdick, Arlan
2011-06-01
This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.
Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations
Burdick, A.
2011-06-01
This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.
Development of an efficient procedure for calculating the aerodynamic effects of planform variation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, J. E.; Geller, E. W.
1981-01-01
Numerical procedures to compute gradients in aerodynamic loading due to planform shape changes using panel method codes were studied. Two procedures were investigated: one computed the aerodynamic perturbation directly; the other computed the aerodynamic loading on the perturbed planform and on the base planform and then differenced these values to obtain the perturbation in loading. It is indicated that computing the perturbed values directly can not be done satisfactorily without proper aerodynamic representation of the pressure singularity at the leading edge of a thin wing. For the alternative procedure, a technique was developed which saves most of the time-consuming computations from a panel method calculation for the base planform. Using this procedure the perturbed loading can be calculated in about one-tenth the time of that for the base solution.
Improved Program For Calculation Of Heat-Load Multiplier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
D'Valentine, Mark
1995-01-01
PRM1940 computer program computes heat-load multiplier for use in Power Balance Model (PBM) computer program which calculates hundreds of operating parameters of main engine of space shuttle from relatively few measurement data. PRM1940 is stand-alone program which incorporates only those PBM calculations necessary to compute heat-load multiplier. Developed to accelerate and partly automate calculation of heat-load multiplier. Although programs specific to space shuttle application, also of interest to engineers concerned with monitoring of conditions in turbines, chemical-processing plants, and other high-temperature flow machinery.
Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... the Act and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. (b) A manufacturer that is eligible to elect a model year in... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...
Calculation method of load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shoujun; Gao, Lianxin; An, Qi
2011-06-01
This paper presents a new calculation method that can calculate the load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load. On the basis of elastic mechanics, the new method was developed by analyzing each thread tooth, and a new deformation and covariant equation by making a mechanics analysis on each thread tooth was obtained. Compared with the traditional method proposed by the previous references, the new deformation and covariant equation could be used to describe the relation between the previous and the next thread tooth. By applying the new method on the sample of P-110S pipe threaded connection, the obtained results show that the load on thread tooth mainly concentrates on the four or five threads engaged and the middle teeth were not utilized well to bear the loads. The model offers a new way to calculate the loads carried on the thread teeth under tension load.
A simple method of calculating lower-bound limit loads for axisymmetric thin shells
Boyle, J.T.; Hamilton, R.; Shi, J.; Mackenzie, D.
1997-05-01
In this paper, a simple method for calculating lower-bound limit loads for shells is presented, based on Ilyushin`s and Ivanov`s generalized yield criterion, respectively, and using the elastic compensation procedure. Several examples, including torispherical and conical ends, radial nozzles, and a skirted vessel, are examined using this method. The results are compared with previously published results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanger, Eugen
1932-01-01
A method is presented for approximate static calculation, which is based on the customary assumption of rigid ribs, while taking into account the systematic errors in the calculation results due to this arbitrary assumption. The procedure is given in greater detail for semicantilever and cantilever wings with polygonal spar plan form and for wings under direct loading only. The last example illustrates the advantages of the use of influence lines for such wing structures and their practical interpretation.
A procedure for calculation of boundary layer trip protuberances in overexpanded rocket nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmucker, R. H.
1973-01-01
A procedure is described for sizing, scaling, positioning and performance loss calculation of a boundary layer trip protuberance. The theoretical results are compared with some experimental data. The application of boundary layer trips, such as secondary injection, wall angle discontinuities, circumferential grooves, and circumferential trip protuberances for reducing side loads on rocket nozzle walls is discussed.
A new programmable calculator procedure for individualizing phenytoin dosage.
Messori, A; Valenza, T; Zaccara, G; Arnetoli, G; Bartoli, C; Donati-Cori, G; Tendi, E; Zappoli, R
1983-12-01
A programmable calculator procedure allowing nonlinear least-squares fit to pharmacokinetic data conforming to the Michaelis-Menten model is described. Model parameter estimation is performed according to the iterative Gauss-Newton technique as modified by Hartley. This procedure thus employs the same theoretical approach used by most pharmacokinetic computer programs. No programming skill is needed to run the program described. The proposed procedure is discussed in detail and applied to some sets of pharmacokinetic data. PMID:6653404
A Procedure Using Calculators to Express Answers in Fractional Form.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlisle, Earnest
A procedure is described that enables students to perform operations on fractions with a calculator, expressing the answer as a fraction. Patterns using paper-and-pencil procedures for each operation with fractions are presented. A microcomputer software program illustrates how the answer can be found using integer values of the numerators and…
Impeller response calculation due to complex pressure loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wellstein, Carl
1990-01-01
An analysis technique is described to calculate the harmonic response of the first-stage impeller of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump. The excitation is a complex pressure loading at various locations on the impeller blades. The pressure loading was predicted using computational fluid dynamic techniques and was given as a Fourier series at 48 different locations on each of the three impeller blade types. The analysis consisted of mapping the pressures onto a three-dimensional finite element model, then converting these pressure loads to complex nodal force vectors at specified equal time intervals. The resulting vectors were then converted to modal force time histories that were then transformed into the frequency domain where the frequency response was calculated directly. This technique resulted in an improvement to the previously used direct integration technique and in a substantial analysis cost reduction.
Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation
Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.
2014-05-19
The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A; Klein, Bertran
1946-01-01
This report deals with the calculation of the bending moments in and the distortions of fuselage rings upon which known concentrated and distributed loads are acting. In the procedure suggested, the ring is divided into a number of beams each having a constant radius of curvature. The forces and moments caused in the end sections of the beams by individual unit displacements of the end sections are listed in a table designated as the operations table in conformity with Southwell's nomenclature. The operations table and the external loads are equivalent to a set of linear equations. For their solution the following three procedures are presented: 1) Southwell's method of systematic relaxations. This is a step-by-step approximation procedure guided by the physical interpretation of the changes in the values of the unknown. 2) The growing unit procedure in which the individual beams are combined successively into beams of increasing length until finally the entire ring becomes a single beam. In each step of the procedure a set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations is solved. 3) Solution of the entire set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the matrix calculus. In order to demonstrate the manner in which the calculations may be carried out, the following numerical examples are worked out: 1) Curved beam with both its end sections rigidly fixed. The load is a concentrated force. 2) Egg-shape ring with symmetric concentrated loads. 3) Circular ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 4) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. 5) Egg-shape ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 6) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. The results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis. The agreement is found to be good. The amount of work necessary for the solution of ring problems by
Efficient Load Balancing and Data Remapping for Adaptive Grid Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak
1997-01-01
Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured- grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. We present a novel method to dynamically balance the processor workloads with a global view. This paper presents, for the first time, the implementation and integration of all major components within our dynamic load balancing strategy for adaptive grid calculations. Mesh adaption, repartitioning, processor assignment, and remapping are critical components of the framework that must be accomplished rapidly and efficiently so as not to cause a significant overhead to the numerical simulation. Previous results indicated that mesh repartitioning and data remapping are potential bottlenecks for performing large-scale scientific calculations. We resolve these issues and demonstrate that our framework remains viable on a large number of processors.
Calculating Nozzle Side Loads using Acceleration Measurements of Test-Based Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joe
2007-01-01
As part of a NASA/MSFC research program to evaluate the effect of different nozzle contours on the well-known but poorly characterized "side load" phenomena, we attempt to back out the net force on a sub-scale nozzle during cold-flow testing using acceleration measurements. Because modeling the test facility dynamics is problematic, new techniques for creating a "pseudo-model" of the facility and nozzle directly from modal test results are applied. Extensive verification procedures were undertaken, resulting in a loading scale factor necessary for agreement between test and model based frequency response functions. Side loads are then obtained by applying a wide-band random load onto the system model, obtaining nozzle response PSD's, and iterating both the amplitude and frequency of the input until a good comparison of the response with the measured response PSD for a specific time point is obtained. The final calculated loading can be used to compare different nozzle profiles for assessment during rocket engine nozzle development and as a basis for accurate design of the nozzle and engine structure to withstand these loads. The techniques applied within this procedure have extensive applicability to timely and accurate characterization of all test fixtures used for modal test.A viewgraph presentation on a model-test based pseudo-model used to calculate side loads on rocket engine nozzles is included. The topics include: 1) Side Loads in Rocket Nozzles; 2) Present Side Loads Research at NASA/MSFC; 3) Structural Dynamic Model Generation; 4) Pseudo-Model Generation; 5) Implementation; 6) Calibration of Pseudo-Model Response; 7) Pseudo-Model Response Verification; 8) Inverse Force Determination; 9) Results; and 10) Recent Work.
Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-A: Calculation Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Alfred W.
This is the second in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals exclusively with the calculation procedures, including simplified mixing formulas, aeration tank…
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control
Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III
1993-10-27
Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.
A loudness calculation procedure applied to shaped sonic booms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.
1991-01-01
Described here is a procedure that can be used to calculate the loudness of sonic booms. The procedure is applied to a wide range of sonic booms, both classical N-waves and a variety of other shapes of booms. The loudness of N-waves is controlled by overpressure and the associated rise time. The loudness of shaped booms is highly dependent on the characteristics of the initial shock. A comparison of the calculated loudness values indicates that shaped booms may have significantly reduced loudness relative to N-waves having the same peak overpressure. This result implies that a supersonic transport designed to yield minimized sonic booms may be substantially more acceptable than an unconstrained design.
Experimental Verification of Buffet Calculation Procedure Using Unsteady PSP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta
2016-01-01
Typically a limited number of dynamic pressure sensors are employed to determine the unsteady aerodynamic forces on large, slender aerospace structures. The estimated forces are known to be very sensitive to the number of the dynamic pressure sensors and the details of the integration scheme. This report describes a robust calculation procedure, based on frequency-specific correlation lengths, that is found to produce good estimation of fluctuating forces from a few dynamic pressure sensors. The validation test was conducted on a flat panel, placed on the floor of a wind tunnel, and was subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body. The panel was coated with fast response Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP), which allowed time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations on a dense grid of spatial points. The first part of the report describes the detail procedure used to analyze the high-speed, PSP camera images. The procedure includes steps to reduce contamination by electronic shot noise, correction for spatial non-uniformities, and lamp brightness variation, and finally conversion of fluctuating light intensity to fluctuating pressure. The latter involved applying calibration constants from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Excellent comparison in the spectra, coherence and phase, calculated via PSP and dynamic pressure sensors validated the PSP processing steps. The second part of the report describes the buffet validation process, for which the first step was to use pressure histories from all PSP points to determine the "true" force fluctuations. In the next step only a selected number of pixels were chosen as "virtual sensors" and a correlation-length based buffet calculation procedure was applied to determine "modeled" force fluctuations. By progressively decreasing the number of virtual sensors it was observed that the present calculation procedure was able to make a close estimate of the "true
Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control
Aceves, S.M.; Comfort, W.J. III
1994-09-12
This paper presents an analysis of the applicability of alternative systems for electric vehicle (EV) heating and air conditioning (HVAC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. These systems are ranked according to their overall weight The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best, because minimum vehicle weight decreases the energy required for propulsion, and therefore increases the vehicle range. Three systems are considered as the best choices for EV HVAC. These are, vapor compression, ice storage and adsorption systems. These systems are evaluated, including calculations of system weight, system volume, and COP. The paper also includes a calculation on how the battery energy storage capacity affects the overall system weights and the selection of the optimum system. The results indicate that, at the conditions analyzed in this paper, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor compression air conditioners become the system with the minimum weight for battery storage capacities above 230 kJ/kg.
WINDOW 4.0: Documentation of calculation procedures
Finlayson, E.U.; Arasteh, D.K.; Huizenga, C.; Rubin, M.D.; Reilly, M.S.
1993-07-01
WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Building Technologies Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating the thermal and optical properties necessary for heat transfer analyses of fenestration products. This report explains the calculation methods used in WINDOW 4.0 and is meant as a tool for those interested in understanding the procedures contained in WINDOW 4.0. All the calculations are discussed in the International System of units (SI). WINDOW 4.0 is the latest in a series of programs released by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The WINDOW program has its roots in a paper detailing a method for calculating heat transfer through windows [Rubin, 1982]. WINDOW 4.0 replaces the widely used 3.1 version. Although WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision, many of the algorithms used in WINDOW 4.0 build upon those previously documented [Arasteh, 1989b], [Furler, 1991]. This report documents the calculations that are unchanged from WINDOW 3.1, as well as those calculations that are new to WINDOW 4.0. This report uses the organization of the WINDOW 4.0 program. Results displayed on a WINDOW 4.0 screen are discussed in a section describing that screen. In the conclusion the aspects of the calculation method currently slated for revision are discussed. A glossary of variables used throughout the report is found in Section 11.
Not Available
1990-01-01
The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives.
Not Available
1990-01-01
The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives.
A fundamental procedure and calculation formula for evaluating gravel liquefaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong
2011-09-01
Field investigations following the 2008 M s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake identified 118 liquefaction sites, most of which are underlain by gravelly sediment in the Chengdu Plain and adjacent Mianyang area, in the Sichuan Province. Gravel sediment in the Sichuan province is widely distributed; hence it is necessary to develop a method for prediction and evaluation of gravel liquefaction behavior. Based on liquefaction investigation data and in-situ testing, and with reference to existing procedures for sandy soil liquefaction evaluation, a fundamental procedure for gravel liquefaction evaluation using dynamic penetration tests (DPT) is proposed along with a corresponding model and calculation formula. The procedure contains two stages, i.e., pre-determination and re-determination. Pre-determination excludes impossible liquefiable or non-liquefiable soils, and re-determination explores a DPT-based critical N 120 blows calculation model. Pre-determination includes three criteria, i.e., geological age, gravel contents, gravel sediment depths and water tables. The re-determination model consists of five parameters, i.e., DPT reference values, gravel contents, gravel sediment depths, water tables and seismic intensities. A normalization method is used for DPT reference values and an optimization method is used for the gravel sediment depth coefficient and water table coefficient. The gravel liquefaction evaluation method proposed herein is simple and takes most influencing factors on gravel sediment liquefaction into account.
A general, accurate procedure for calculating molecular interaction force.
Yang, Pinghai; Qian, Xiaoping
2009-09-15
The determination of molecular interaction forces, e.g., van der Waals force, between macroscopic bodies is of fundamental importance for understanding sintering, adhesion and fracture processes. In this paper, we develop an accurate, general procedure for van der Waals force calculation. This approach extends a surface formulation that converts a six-dimensional (6D) volume integral into a 4D surface integral for the force calculation. It uses non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces to represent object surfaces. Surface integrals are then done on the parametric domain of the NURBS surfaces. It has combined advantages of NURBS surface representation and surface formulation, including (1) molecular interactions between arbitrary-shaped objects can be represented and evaluated by the NURBS model further common geometries such as spheres, cones, planes can be represented exactly and interaction forces are thus calculated accurately; (2) calculation efficiency is improved by converting the volume integral to the surface integral. This approach is implemented and validated via its comparison with analytical solutions for simple geometries. Calculation of van der Waals force between complex geometries with surface roughness is also demonstrated. A tutorial on the NURBS approach is given in Appendix A. PMID:19596335
Calculation of Rotor Performance and Loads Under Stalled Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeo, Hyeonsoo
2003-01-01
Rotor behavior in stalled conditions is investigated using wind tunnel test data of a l/l0-scale CH-47B/C type rotor, which provides a set of test conditions extending from unstalled to light stall to some deep stall conditions over a wide range of advance ratios. The rotor performance measured in the wind tunnel is similar to the main rotor performance measured during the NASA/Army UH-60A Airloads Program, although the two rotors are quite different. The analysis CAMRAD II has been used to predict the rotor performance and loads. Full-scale airfoil test data are corrected for Reynolds number effects for comparison with the model-scale rotor test. The calculated power coefficient shows good correlation with the measurements below stall with the Reynolds number-corrected airfoil table. Various dynamic stall models are used in the calculations. The Boeing model shows the lift augmentation at low advance ratios and the Leishman-Beddoes model shows better correlation of torsion moment than the other models at mu = 0.2. However, the dynamic stall models, in general, show only a small influence on the rotor power and torsion moment predictions especially at higher advance ratios.
Pahn, T.; Jonkman, J.; Rolges, R.; Robertson, A.
2012-11-01
Physically measuring the dynamic responses of wind turbine support structures enables the calculation of the applied loads using an inverse procedure. In this process, inverse means deriving the inputs/forces from the outputs/responses. This paper presents results of a numerical verification of such an inverse load calculation. For this verification, the comprehensive simulation code FAST is used. FAST accounts for the coupled dynamics of wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity and turbine controls. Simulations are run using a 5-MW onshore wind turbine model with a tubular tower. Both the applied loads due to the instantaneous wind field and the resulting system responses are known from the simulations. Using the system responses as inputs to the inverse calculation, the applied loads are calculated, which in this case are the rotor thrust forces. These forces are compared to the rotor thrust forces known from the FAST simulations. The results of these comparisons are presented to assess the accuracy of the inverse calculation. To study the influences of turbine controls, load cases in normal operation between cut-in and rated wind speed, near rated wind speed and between rated and cut-out wind speed are chosen. The presented study shows that the inverse load calculation is capable of computing very good estimates of the rotor thrust. The accuracy of the inverse calculation does not depend on the control activity of the wind turbine.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crigler, John L
1957-01-01
A method for calculating the aerodynamic loading on a wing in combination with a body is presented. Calculated results are compared with experimentally measured data for two wing-body configurations throughout a range of Mach number up to 1.0. The magnitude and the distribution of spanwise loading of the calculated data are generally in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.
1979-01-01
The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diderrich, G. T.; Hrabak, R. A.
1980-07-01
Preliminary efforts toward the development of simplified procedures for estimating the thermal-loads of buildings are presented. The acquisition implementation, and documentation of the thermal load procedures and associated data files actually used by the five SAND participants are described.
Borodkin, P.G.; Borodkin, G.I.; Khrennikov, N.N.
2011-07-01
The approach of improved uncertainty-accounted conservative evaluation of vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) (reactor-) pressure-vessel (RPV) radiation loading parameters has been proposed. This approach is based on the calculational-experimental procedure, which takes into account C/E ratio, depending on over- or underestimation, and uncertainties of measured and calculated results. An application of elaborated approach to the full-scale ex-vessel neutron dosimetry experiments on Russian VVERs combined with neutron-transport calculations has been demonstrated in the paper. (authors)
Comparison of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in wind turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spera, D. A.
1977-01-01
Seven computer codes for analyzing performance and loads in large, horizontal-axis wind turbines were used to calculate blade bending moment loads for two operational conditions of the 100 kW Mod-O wind turbine. Results are compared with test data on the basis of cyclic loads, peak loads, and harmonic contents. Four of the seven codes include rotor-tower interaction and three are limited to rotor analysis. With a few exceptions, all calculated loads were within 25% of nominal test data.
Comparison of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in wind turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spera, D. A.
1977-01-01
Seven computer codes for analyzing performance and loads in large, horizontal axis wind turbines were used to calculate blade bending moment loads for two operational conditions of the 100 kW Mod-0 wind turbine. Results were compared with test data on the basis of cyclic loads, peak loads, and harmonic contents. Four of the seven codes include rotor-tower interaction and three were limited to rotor analysis. With a few exceptions, all calculated loads were within 25 percent of nominal test data.
Calculation of Hub Loads at Low Airspeeds with Active Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kottapalli, Sesi
2007-01-01
The effect of individual blade control (IBC) on the full-scale, low airspeed, level flight UH-60A oscillatory fixed system 4P hub loads and the rotating system blade bending moments is studied. The effect of a single 3P IBC input has been considered in this analytical study. At the low speed under consideration, it has been found that convergence of the comprehensive analysis is important for obtaining good predictions. Good correlation has been obtained with the measured full-scale wind tunnel data for the shapes of the fixed system 4P hub loads variations with the 3P IBC input phase, and also for the "best" phase of the 3P input (for minimum hub loads). The blade bending moment comparison shows mixed results. The 3P lead lag and the 4P flap bending moment trends with the 3P IBC input phase are reasonably predicted, whereas the 5P lead lag bending moment trend is not predicted well. Finally, the prediction of the baseline (no IBC) bending moments needs further study.
A new procedure for calculating contact stresses in gear teeth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.
1991-01-01
A numerical procedure for evaluating and monitoring contact stresses in meshing gear teeth is discussed. The procedure is intended to extend the range of applicability and to improve the accuracy of gear contact stress analysis. The procedure is based upon fundamental solution from the theory of elasticity. It is an iterative numerical procedure. The method is believed to have distinct advantages over the classical Hertz method, the finite-element method, and over existing approaches with the boundary element method. Unlike many classical contact stress analyses, friction effects and sliding are included. Slipping and sticking in the contact region are studied. Several examples are discussed. The results are in agreement with classical results. Applications are presented for spur gears.
Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.
1995-01-01
Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.
Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading
Nagode, Marko
2014-01-01
The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of the standardized damage parameters are thus surpassed. The damage parameters derived initially for closed and isothermal cycles assuming that the elastoplastic stress–strain response follows the Masing and memory rules can now be used to take the mean stress effect into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. The method includes:•stress and elastoplastic strain history transformation into the corresponding amplitude and mean values;•stress and elastoplastic strain amplitude and mean value transformation into the damage parameter amplitude history;•damage parameter amplitude history transformation into the damage parameter history. PMID:26150939
Computational methods. [Calculation of dynamic loading to offshore platforms
Maeda, H. . Inst. of Industrial Science)
1993-02-01
With regard to the computational methods for hydrodynamic forces, first identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology is discussed. Then general computational methods, the state of the arts and uncertainty on flow problems in offshore technology in which developed, developing and undeveloped problems are categorized and future works follow. Marine hydrodynamics consists of water surface and underwater fluid dynamics. Marine hydrodynamics covers, not only hydro, but also aerodynamics such as wind load or current-wave-wind interaction, hydrodynamics such as cavitation, underwater noise, multi-phase flow such as two-phase flow in pipes or air bubble in water or surface and internal waves, and magneto-hydrodynamics such as propulsion due to super conductivity. Among them, two key words are focused on as the identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology; they are free surface and vortex shedding.
Assessment of Comprehensive Analysis Calculation of Structural Loads on Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne
2004-01-01
Blade flap bending moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speeds: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO-105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations mere made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap bending moment between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2 with the rolled-up wake. The calculated flap bending moments differ significantly from measurements for the UH-60A and BO-105. Better correlation is obtained for the UH-60A by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. Although the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model shows good correlation on the normal force for the BO-105, the same analysis shows poor correlation on the flap bending moment. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally good agreement with the research Puma flight data in both magnitude and phase. However, poor agreement is obtained for the other rotors examined. Although the analysis significantly underpredicts the vibratory normal force on the advancing side for the H-34, the vibratory bending moment correlation is fair to good on both magnitude and phase.
Boundary condition computational procedures for inviscid, supersonic steady flow field calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbett, M. J.
1971-01-01
Results are given of a comparative study of numerical procedures for computing solid wall boundary points in supersonic inviscid flow calculatons. Twenty five different calculation procedures were tested on two sample problems: a simple expansion wave and a simple compression (two-dimensional steady flow). A simple calculation procedure was developed. The merits and shortcomings of the various procedures are discussed, along with complications for three-dimensional and time-dependent flows.
Comparison of Rotor Structural Loads Calculated using Comprehensive Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo
2005-01-01
Blade flap and chord bending and torsion moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speed: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO- 105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations were made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap and chord bending moments between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2. Torsion moment correlation, in general, is fair to good for all the rotors investigated. Better flap bending and torsion moment correlation is obtained for the UH-60A and BO-105 rotors by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally better correlation in magnitude than in phase for the flap bending and torsion moments. However, a significant underprediction of chord bending moment is observed for the research Puma and UH-60A. The poor chord bending moment correlation appears to be caused by the airloads model, not the structural dynamics.
An efficient pressure-velocity procedure for gas-droplet two-phase flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Jiang, Y.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a noniterative numerical technique for computing time-dependent gas-droplet flows. The method is a fully interacting combination of Eulerian fluid and Lagrangian particle calculations. The interaction calculations between the two phases are formulated on a pressure-velocity-coupling procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. This procedure eliminates the global iterations required in the conventional particle-source-in-cell procedure. Turbulent dispersion calculations are treated by a stochastic procedure. Numerical calculations and comparisons with available experimental data as well as efficiency assessments are given for some sprays typical of spray combustion applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yooil
2013-06-01
Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.
Calculation Method for Flight Limit Load of V-band Clamp Separation Shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasa, Takashi; Shi, Qinzhong
A simplified calculation method for estimating a flight limit load of the V-band clamp separation shock was established. With this method, the flight limit load is estimated through addition of an appropriate envelope margin to the results acquired with the simplified analysis method proposed in our previous paper. The envelope margin used in the method was calculated based on the reviews on the differences observed between the results of a pyroshock test and the analysis. Using the derived envelope margin, a calculating formula of the flight limit load, which envelopes the actual pyroshock responses with a certain probability, was developed. Based on the formula, flight limit loads for several actual satellites were estimated and compared to the test results. The comparative results showed that the estimated flight limit loads appropriately envelope the test results, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Acceptance test procedure, 241-SY-101/241-C-106 shot loading system
Ostrom, M.J.
1994-11-01
This Acceptance Test Procedure is for the 241-SY-101/241-C-106 Shot Loading System. The procedure will test the components of the Shot Loading System and its capability of adequately loading shot into the annular space of the Container. The loaded shot will provide shielding as required for transporting and storage of a contaminated pump after removal from the tank. This test serves as verification that the SLS is acceptable for use in the pump removal operations for Tanks 241-SY-101, 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The pump removal operation for these three tanks will be performed by two different organizations with different equipment, but the Shot Loading System will be compatible between the two operations.
Procedure for calculating general aircraft noise based on ISO 3891
Hediger, J.R.
1982-01-01
The standard ISO-3891 specifies the presentation of aircraft noise heard on the ground or of noise exposure by succession of aircraft, without giving any details on different parameters required to their calculation. The following study provides some of these parameters considering acoustic measurements as well as laboratory analysis realized in co-operation with the Swiss Federal Office for Civil Aviation.
Seismic Load Rating Procedure for Welded Steel Frames Oligo-cyclic Fatigue
Ratiu, Mircea D.; Moisidis, Nicolae T.
2004-07-01
A dynamic load rating approach for seismic qualification of cold-formed steel welded frames is presented. Allowable seismic loads are developed from cyclic and monotonic tests of standard cold-formed steel components commonly used for piping and electrical raceway supports. The method permits simplified qualification of all connections of frame components through a single load comparison. Test input consists of rotation/cycles-to-failure data and monotonic moment/rotation data. Cyclic data are statistically evaluated to determine an acceptable maximum seismic rotation for the connection. The allowable seismic load is determined from the corresponding static rotation. Application to seismic qualification procedures is discussed. (authors)
D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Heat Load Calculations for the Solenoid Chimney
Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab
1993-05-26
This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the chimney heat loads. These heat load numbers were reported in the D0 solenoid upgrade design report. The heat loads to the LN2 circuit were done by Andrew Stefanik, RDIMechanical Systems group. They were part of his LN2 shield calculations dated 2/23/93. Pages 1 thru 3 of his calculations that apply to the chimney are attached. The heat loads to the LHe circuit were done originally on 12/16/92 and then revised on 12/23/92 to be more conservative. The raw calculations are attached. I include both the original 12/16 version and the 12/23 revised version to document the amount of conservativeness added.
Comparison of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in wind turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spera, D. A.
1978-01-01
The development of computer codes for calculating dynamic loads in horizontal axis wind turbines was examined, and a brief overview of each code was given. The performance of individual codes was compared against two sets of test data measured on a 100 KW Mod-0 wind turbine. All codes are aeroelastic and include loads which are gravitational, inertial and aerodynamic in origin.
Including Aeroelastic Effects in the Calculation of X-33 Loads and Control Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeiler, Thomas A.
1998-01-01
Up until now, loads analyses of the X-33 RLV have been done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using aerodynamic loads derived from CFD and wind tunnel models of a rigid vehicle. Control forces and moments are determined using a rigid vehicle trajectory analysis and the detailed control load distributions for achieving the desired control forces and moments, again on the rigid vehicle, are determined by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. However, static aeroelastic effects upon the load distributions are not known. The static aeroelastic effects will generally redistribute external loads thereby affecting both the internal structural loads as well as the forces and moments generated by aerodynamic control surfaces. Therefore, predicted structural sizes as well as maneuvering requirements can be altered by consideration of static aeroelastic effects. The objective of the present work is the development of models and solutions for including static aeroelasticity in the calculation of X-33 loads and in the determination of stability and control derivatives.
Calculation of multi-layer plate damper under one-axial load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Yan; Lu, Zhang; Hong-Yuan, Jiang; Alexander, M. Ulanov
2016-02-01
A multi-layer damper with waved plates under one-axial load is considered. A method of theoretical calculation of its energy dissipation coefficient is proposed. An experimental research of own frequencies and vibration transfer ratios for different parameters of damper structure, harmonic vibration load and random load is performed. Results of this research are approximated by functions; it is possible to use these functions for the calculation of the damper too. Project supported by the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (Grant No. B07018).
Calculation of Centrally Loaded Thin-Walled Columns Above the Buckling Limit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reinitzhuber, F.
1945-01-01
When thin-walled columns formed from flanged sheet, such as used in airplane construction, are subjected to axial load, their behavior at failure varies according to the slenderness ratio. On long columns the axis deflects laterally while the cross section form is maintained; buckling results. The respective breaking load in the elastic range is computed by Euler's formula and for the plastic range by the Engesser- Karman formula. Its magnitude is essentially dependent upon the length. On intermediate length columns, especially where open sections are concerned, the cross section is distorted while the cross section form is preserved; twisting failure results. The buckling load in twisting is calculated according to Wagner and Kappus. On short columns the straight walls of low-bending resistance that form the column are deflected at the same time that the cross section form changes - buckling occurs without immediate failure. Then the buckling load of the total section computable from the buckling loads of the section walls is not the ultimate load; quite often, especially on thin-walled sections, it lies considerably higher and is secured by tests. Both loads, the buckling and the ultimate load are only in a small measure dependent upon length. The present report is an attempt to theoretically investigate the behavior of such short, thin-walled columns above the buckling load with the conventional calculating methods.
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...
24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalil, I.; Tabakoff, W.
1979-01-01
A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine rotors is presented. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible stream function vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation, over the rotor blade-to-blade stream channels. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system that suits the most complicated blade geometries. A numerical scheme is used to carry out the necessary integration of the elliptic governing equations. The flow characteristics within the rotor of a radial inflow turbine are investigated over a wide range of operating conditions. The calculated results are compared to existing experimental data. The flow in a radial compressor is analyzed in order to study the behavior of viscous flow in diffusing cascades. The results are compared qualitatively to known experimental trends. The solution obtained provides insight into the flow phenomena in this type of turbomachine. It is concluded that the method of analysis is quite general and gives a good representation of the actual flow behavior within turbomachine passages.
A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.
2006-10-01
A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with
Comparison of Iterative and Non-Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Load Calculation Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, N.
2010-01-01
The accuracy of iterative and non-iterative strain-gage balance load calculation methods was compared using data from the calibration of a force balance. Two iterative and one non-iterative method were investigated. In addition, transformations were applied to balance loads in order to process the calibration data in both direct read and force balance format. NASA's regression model optimization tool BALFIT was used to generate optimized regression models of the calibration data for each of the three load calculation methods. This approach made sure that the selected regression models met strict statistical quality requirements. The comparison of the standard deviation of the load residuals showed that the first iterative method may be applied to data in both the direct read and force balance format. The second iterative method, on the other hand, implicitly assumes that the primary gage sensitivities of all balance gages exist. Therefore, the second iterative method only works if the given balance data is processed in force balance format. The calibration data set was also processed using the non-iterative method. Standard deviations of the load residuals for the three load calculation methods were compared. Overall, the standard deviations show very good agreement. The load prediction accuracies of the three methods appear to be compatible as long as regression models used to analyze the calibration data meet strict statistical quality requirements. Recent improvements of the regression model optimization tool BALFIT are also discussed in the paper.
Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System
Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.
2003-09-01
This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.
Finite difference time domain calculation of transients in antennas with nonlinear loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.; Chamberlin, Kent
1991-01-01
In this paper transient fields for antennas with more general geometries are calculated directly using Finite Difference Time Domain methods. In each FDTD cell which contains a nonlinear load, a nonlinear equation is solved at each time step. As a test case the transient current in a long dipole antenna with a nonlinear load excited by a pulsed plane wave is computed using this approach. The results agree well with both calculated and measured results previously published. The approach given here extends the applicability of the FDTD method to problems involving scattering from targets including nonlinear loads and materials, and to coupling between antennas containing nonlinear loads. It may also be extended to propagation through nonlinear materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, L. R.; Miller, R. D.
1979-01-01
The LOADS computer program L218 which calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: (1) translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; (2) panel aerodynamic forces; (3) net panel forces; and (4) shears, bending moments, and torsions.
The results of near-field thermal and mechanical calculations of thermal loading schemes
Holland, J.F.
1992-12-31
Two waste emplacement schemes,borehole and in-drift are under evaluation as potential repository drift geometries for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Calculations were performed to examinethe systems implications of various thermal loadings on the near- and far-field repository environments. Ms paper reports the results of two-dimensional finite element analyses of the near-field thermal and structural response of the potential repository. Thermal calculations were run to 1000 years and mechanical calculations were run to 75 years. the time when the drifts will be backfilled. Local areal power densities (LAPDs) of 57, 80, and 100 kW/acre were used in the calculations. Both emplacement schemes meet current near-field thermal performance goals for all loadings examined. The mechanical calculations predict no intact rock failure, limited joint slippage around the drifts, and closure of apertures for vertical fractures above and below the drifts.
Comparison of three methods of calculating strain in the mouse ulna in exogenous loading studies.
Norman, Stephanie C; Wagner, David W; Beaupre, Gary S; Castillo, Alesha B
2015-01-01
Axial compression of mouse limbs is commonly used to induce bone formation in a controlled, non-invasive manner. Determination of peak strains caused by loading is central to interpreting results. Load-strain calibration is typically performed using uniaxial strain gauges attached to the diaphyseal, periosteal surface of a small number of sacrificed animals. Strain is measured as the limb is loaded to a range of physiological loads known to be anabolic to bone. The load-strain relationship determined by this subgroup is then extrapolated to a larger group of experimental mice. This method of strain calculation requires the challenging process of strain gauging very small bones which is subject to variability in placement of the strain gauge. We previously developed a method to estimate animal-specific periosteal strain during axial ulnar loading using an image-based computational approach that does not require strain gauges. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between load-induced bone formation rates and periosteal strain at ulnar midshaft using three different methods to estimate strain: (A) Nominal strain values based solely on load-strain calibration; (B) Strains calculated from load-strain calibration, but scaled for differences in mid-shaft cross-sectional geometry among animals; and (C) An alternative image-based computational method for calculating strains based on beam theory and animal-specific bone geometry. Our results show that the alternative method (C) provides comparable correlation between strain and bone formation rates in the mouse ulna relative to the strain gauge-dependent methods (A and B), while avoiding the need to use strain gauges. PMID:25443882
Finite difference time domain calculation of transients in antennas with nonlinear loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.; Chamberlin, Kent
1991-01-01
Determining transient electromagnetic fields in antennas with nonlinear loads is a challenging problem. Typical methods used involve calculating frequency domain parameters at a large number of different frequencies, then applying Fourier transform methods plus nonlinear equation solution techniques. If the antenna is simple enough so that the open circuit time domain voltage can be determined independently of the effects of the nonlinear load on the antennas current, time stepping methods can be applied in a straightforward way. Here, transient fields for antennas with more general geometries are calculated directly using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. In each FDTD cell which contains a nonlinear load, a nonlinear equation is solved at each time step. As a test case, the transient current in a long dipole antenna with a nonlinear load excited by a pulsed plane wave is computed using this approach. The results agree well with both calculated and measured results previously published. The approach given here extends the applicability of the FDTD method to problems involving scattering from targets, including nonlinear loads and materials, and to coupling between antennas containing nonlinear loads. It may also be extended to propagation through nonlinear materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.
1985-01-01
Step by step procedures are described which can be used to design panels made from fiber composite angleplied laminates and subjected to combined in plane loads. The procedures are set up as a multistep sample design. Steps in the sample design procedure range from selection of the laminate configuration to the subsequent analyses required to check design requirements for: (1) displacement, (2) ply stresses, and (3) buckling. The sample design steps are supplemented with appropriate tabular and graphical data which can be used to expedite the design process.
Evaluation criteria and procedure for nuclear power plant temporary loads/temporary conditions
Tang, H.T.; Minichiello, J.C.; Olson, D.E.
1996-12-01
Operating nuclear power plants frequently encounter temporary loads/temporary conditions in plant normal operation and maintenance (O and M). The most obvious examples are installation of temporary shielding and scaffolding, or removal of certain supports, to facilitate plant refueling and maintenance outage activities. Short-term operability calls such as those due to snubber failures or unanticipated transients also create temporary loads/temporary conditions. These temporary situations often generate loads that are outside the original plant design basis. Consequently, separate evaluations are needed to ensure that plant structures, systems and components (SSCs) maintain their integrity and functionality while these temporary loads are active. Also, the temporary structures and components need to be evaluated to ensure their integrity during the temporary duration of use. Three types of approaches are normally adopted either individually or in combination to perform needed evaluations: relax the design allowables, use a more refined analysis model but retain the design basis acceptance criteria, or offset temporary loads by eliminating or reducing part of the design basis loads based on short duration considerations. This paper reviews temporary loading/temporary condition issues and the current industry criteria and procedures proposed in dealing with these issues. Where appropriate, regulatory positions on temporary loads/temporary conditions are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Ronald; Minguet, Pierre J.; OBrien, T. Kevin
1999-01-01
Three simple procedures were developed to determine strain energy release rates, G, in composite skin/stringer specimens for various combinations of unaxial and biaxial (in-plane/out-of-plane) loading conditions. These procedures may be used for parametric design studies in such a way that only a few finite element computations will be necessary for a study of many load combinations. The results were compared with mixed mode strain energy release rates calculated directly from nonlinear two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analyses using the virtual crack closure technique. The first procedure involved solving three unknown parameters needed to determine the energy release rates. Good agreement was obtained when the external loads were used in the expression derived. This superposition technique was only applicable if the structure exhibits a linear load/deflection behavior. Consequently, a second technique was derived which was applicable in the case of nonlinear load/deformation behavior. The technique involved calculating six unknown parameters from a set of six simultaneous linear equations with data from six nonlinear analyses to determine the energy release rates. This procedure was not time efficient, and hence, less appealing. A third procedure was developed to calculate mixed mode energy release rates as a function of delamination lengths. This procedure required only one nonlinear finite element analysis of the specimen with a single delamination length to obtain a reference solution for the energy release rates and the scale factors. The delamination was extended in three separate linear models of the local area in the vicinity of the delamination subjected to unit loads to obtain the distribution of G with delamination lengths. This set of sub-problems was Although additional modeling effort is required to create the sub- models, this local technique is efficient for parametric studies.
A design procedure for the phase-controlled parallel-loaded resonant inverter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Roger J.
1989-01-01
High-frequency-link power conversion and distribution based on a resonant inverter (RI) has been recently proposed. The design of several topologies is reviewed, and a simple approximate design procedure is developed for the phase-controlled parallel-loaded RI. This design procedure seeks to ensure the benefits of resonant conversion and is verified by data from a laboratory 2.5 kVA, 20-kHz converter. A simple phasor analysis is introduced as a useful approximation for design purposes. The load is considered to be a linear impedance (or an ac current sink). The design procedure is verified using a 2.5-kVA 20-kHz RI. Also obtained are predictable worst-case ratings for each component of the resonant tank circuit and the inverter switches. For a given load VA requirement, below-resonance operation is found to result in a significantly lower tank VA requirement. Under transient conditions such as load short-circuit, a reversal of the expected commutation sequence is possible.
Detailed heat load calculations for the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor
Wemple, C.A.
1993-12-01
A very detailed MCNP model of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor has been developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. All reactor components inside the reflector vessel were included, and al components were highly segmented. Specific heat loads (watts per gram) have been calculated for each segment in the model, and system-integrated total powers are compared with the design value for the total reactor fission power. The calculated results agree very well with the design values. Axial profiles of the heat loads are provided for all components of the reactor. Individual segment statistical uncertainties were limited wherever possible, and the heat loads for all important reflector components have a standard deviation below 5%.
Calculation of Dynamic Loads Due to Random Vibration Environments in Rocket Engine Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christensen, Eric R.; Brown, Andrew M.; Frady, Greg P.
2007-01-01
An important part of rocket engine design is the calculation of random dynamic loads resulting from internal engine "self-induced" sources. These loads are random in nature and can greatly influence the weight of many engine components. Several methodologies for calculating random loads are discussed and then compared to test results using a dynamic testbed consisting of a 60K thrust engine. The engine was tested in a free-free condition with known random force inputs from shakers attached to three locations near the main noise sources on the engine. Accelerations and strains were measured at several critical locations on the engines and then compared to the analytical results using two different random response methodologies.
Wall, G.R.; Ingleston, H.H.; Litten, S.
2005-01-01
Total mercury (THg) load in rivers is often calculated from a site-specific "rating-curve" based on the relation between THg concentration and river discharge along with a continuous record of river discharge. However, there is no physical explanation as to why river discharge should consistently predict THg or any other suspended analyte. THg loads calculated by the rating-curve method were compared with those calculated by a "continuous surrogate concentration" (CSC) method in which a relation between THg concentration and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) is constructed; THg loads then can be calculated from the continuous record of SSC and river discharge. The rating-curve and CSC methods, respectively, indicated annual THg loads of 46.4 and 75.1 kg for the Mohawk River, and 52.9 and 33.1 kg for the upper Hudson River. Differences between the results of the two methods are attributed to the inability of the rating-curve method to adequately characterize atypical high flows such as an ice-dam release, or to account for hysteresis, which typically degrades the strength of the relation between stream discharge and concentration of material in suspension. ?? Springer 2005.
A simple method using MAFIA to calculate external Q values of waveguide-loaded cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kageyama, Tatsuya
1989-06-01
A fundamental theory on waveguide-loaded cavities in the book of Microwave Electronics by Slater was applied to numerical calculation with MAFIA of the external Q value of a klystron output cavity. This method is also applicable to accelerating structures with slots for damping out higher modes as proposed for future linear colliders.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1984-01-01
Calculated performance, loads, and stability of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft are compared with wind tunnel and flight measurements, to define the level of the current analytical capability for tilting prop rotor aircraft, and to define the requirements for additional experimental data and further analysis development. The correlation between calculated and measured behavior is generally good, although there are some significant discrepancies. Based on this correlation, the analysis is assessed overall as being adequate for the design, evaluation, and testing of tilting prop rotor aircraft. A general assessment of the state of the art of tilt rotor predictive capability is given. Specific areas are identified where improvements in the capability to calculate performance, loads, and stability are desirable. Requirements for more accurate and detailed data which support the development of improved analytical models are identified as well.
Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings
2015-08-01
Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.
Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems
Huayamave, Victor; Divo, Eduardo; Ceballos, Andres; Barriento, Carolina; Stephen, Barkaszi; Hubert, Seigneur
2014-03-21
The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals
Stops, A.J.F.; Wilcox, R.K.; Jin, Z.
2012-01-01
Background The fluid load support fraction (WF/WT) can be used to define the mechanical contribution of the interstitial fluid (WF) to the total force (WT) in the deformation of cartilage. Traditionally, WF/WT is calculated using complex experimental setups or time-consuming micromechanical poroelastic Finite Element (FE) simulations. Aim To define and validate a fast and efficient technique to predict WF/WT using an analytical approach that can be applied without micromechanical detail or experimental measurement. Methodology Poroelastic FE simulations defined accurate values of WF/WT for a range of loading configurations and were used to validate subsequent predictions. The analytical prediction of WF/WT used elastic contact mechanics to calculate WF, and viscoelastic FE representation to calculate WT. Subsequently, these independent calculations of WF and WT provided values of WF/WT that were compared with the poroelastic FE calculations. Results and discussion The analytical prediction of WF/WT proved effective and suitably accurate (mean difference S<0.05). This technique demonstrated how WF and WT can be determined independently, without a biphasic constitutive model. Here we used viscoelasticity to calculate WT as an example, however, WT could be measured experimentally or predicted computationally. PMID:23026695
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merchant, D. H.
1976-01-01
Methods are presented for calculating design limit loads compatible with probabilistic structural design criteria. The approach is based on the concept that the desired limit load, defined as the largest load occurring in a mission, is a random variable having a specific probability distribution which may be determined from extreme-value theory. The design limit load, defined as a particular of this random limit load, is the value conventionally used in structural design. Methods are presented for determining the limit load probability distributions from both time-domain and frequency-domain dynamic load simulations. Numerical demonstrations of the method are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranin, Y.; Burmistrov, A.; Salikeev, S.; Fomina, M.
2015-08-01
Basic propositions of calculation procedures for oil free scroll compressors characteristics are presented. It is shown that mathematical modelling of working process in a scroll compressor makes it possible to take into account such factors influencing the working process as heat and mass exchange, mechanical interaction in working chambers, leakage through slots, etc. The basic mathematical model may be supplemented by taking into account external heat exchange, elastic deformation of scrolls, inlet and outlet losses, etc. To evaluate the influence of procedure on scroll compressor characteristics calculations accuracy different calculations were carried out. Internal adiabatic efficiency was chosen as a comparative parameter which evaluates the perfection of internal thermodynamic and gas-dynamic compressor processes. Calculated characteristics are compared with experimental values obtained for the compressor pilot sample.
Liesen, R.J.; Strand, R.K.; Pedersen, C.O.
1998-10-01
Two new methods for calculating cooling loads have just been introduced. The first algorithm, called the heat balance (HB) method, is a complete formulation of fundamental heat balance principles. The second is called the radiant time series (RTS) method. While based on the HB method, the RTS method is an approximate procedure that separates some of the processes to better show the influence of individual heat gain components. In the HB method, all of the heat transfer mechanisms participate in three simultaneous heat balances: the balance on the outside face of all the building elements that enclose the space, the balance on the inside face of the building elements, and the balance between the surfaces inside the space and the zone air. The focus of this paper is on the second heat balance. It has been customary to define a radiative/convective split for the heat introduced into a zone from such sources as equipment, lights, people, etc. The radiative part is then distributed over the surfaces within the zone in some prescribed manner, and the convective part is assumed to go immediately into the air. Simplified techniques simply cannot accurately portray the complex interaction of building surfaces, so previously used load calculation procedures were not up to the task of analyzing the effect of internal load radiant/convective split variation. This paper will present an investigation of the influence of the radiative/convective split on cooling loads obtained using the heat balance procedure. It will begin with an overview of the model used for a heat balance procedure and then present an exhaustive case study of the effects of changing the mode split on load calculations for Wedge 1 of the Pentagon building.
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... procedures for correcting ministerial errors. (b) Disclosure. The Secretary will disclose to a party to the proceeding calculations performed, if any, in connection with a preliminary determination under section 703(b) or section 733(b) of the Act, a final determination under section 705(a) or section 735(a) of the...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations. 86.164-00 Section 86.164-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations. 86.164-08 Section 86.164-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...
Interaction of loading pattern and nuclear data uncertainties in reactor core calculations
Klein, M.; Gallner, L.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pautz, A.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W.
2012-07-01
Along with best-estimate calculations for design and safety analysis, understanding uncertainties is important to determine appropriate design margins. In this framework, nuclear data uncertainties and their propagation to full core calculations are a critical issue. To deal with this task, different error propagation techniques, deterministic and stochastic are currently developed to evaluate the uncertainties in the output quantities. Among these is the sampling based uncertainty and sensitivity software XSUSA which is able to quantify the influence of nuclear data covariance on reactor core calculations. In the present work, this software is used to investigate systematically the uncertainties in the power distributions of two PWR core loadings specified in the OECD UAM-Benchmark suite. With help of a statistical sensitivity analysis, the main contributors to the uncertainty are determined. Using this information a method is studied with which loading patterns of reactor cores can be optimized with regard to minimizing power distribution uncertainties. It is shown that this technique is able to halve the calculation uncertainties of a MOX/UOX core configuration. (authors)
On a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach to Buckling Load Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.; Nemeth, Michael P.
2001-01-01
As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a recent test series of 5 composite shells carried out by Waters at NASA Langley Research Center is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called "high fidelity analysis", where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.
Buckling Load Calculations of the Isotropic Shell A-8 Using a High-Fidelity Hierarchical Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbocz, Johann; Starnes, James H.
2002-01-01
As a step towards developing a new design philosophy, one that moves away from the traditional empirical approach used today in design towards a science-based design technology approach, a test series of 7 isotropic shells carried out by Aristocrat and Babcock at Caltech is used. It is shown how the hierarchical approach to buckling load calculations proposed by Arbocz et al can be used to perform an approach often called 'high fidelity analysis', where the uncertainties involved in a design are simulated by refined and accurate numerical methods. The Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde (short, DISDECO) is employed for this hierarchical analysis to provide an accurate prediction of the critical buckling load of the given shell structure. This value is used later as a reference to establish the accuracy of the Level-3 buckling load predictions. As a final step in the hierarchical analysis approach, the critical buckling load and the estimated imperfection sensitivity of the shell are verified by conducting an analysis using a sufficiently refined finite element model with one of the current generation two-dimensional shell analysis codes with the advanced capabilities needed to represent both geometric and material nonlinearities.
Importance of loading and unloading procedures for gecko-inspired controllable adhesives.
Tamelier, John; Chary, Sathya; Turner, Kimberly L
2013-08-27
The importance of loading and unloading procedures has been shown in a variety of different methods for biological dry adhesives, such as the fibers on the feet of the Tokay gecko, but biomimetic dry adhesives have yet to be explored in a similar manner. To date, little work has systematically varied multiple parameters to discern the influence of the testing procedure, and the effect of the approach angle remains uncertain. In this study, a synthetic adhesive is moved in 13 individual approach and retraction angles relative to a flat substrate as well as 9 different shear lengths to discern how loading and unloading procedures influence the preload, adhesion, and shear/friction forces supported. The synthetic adhesive, composed of vertical 10 μm diameter semicircular poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers, is tested against a 4 mm diameter flat glass puck on a home-built microtribometer using both vertical approach and retraction tests and angled approach and retraction tests. The results show that near maximum adhesion and friction can be obtained for most approach and retraction angles, provided that a sufficient shear length is performed. The results also show that the reaction forces during adhesive placement can be significantly reduced by using specific approach angles, resulting for the vertical fibers in a 38-fold increase in the ratio of adhesion force to preload force, μ', when compared to that when using a vertical approach. These results can be of use to those currently researching gecko-inspired adhesives when designing their testing procedures and control algorithms for climbing and perching robots. PMID:23875720
Nuclear heat load calculations for the NBSR cold neutron source using MCNP
Blau, M. ); Rowe, J.M.; Williams, R.E. )
1993-01-01
A liquid-hydrogen (LH2) cold neutron source is being designed for installation in the 20-MW National Bureau of Standards reactor (NBSR) at National Institute of Standards and Technology to replace the D[sub 2]O-ice cold source currently in use. An accurate estimate of the heat deposited in the cold source is needed to ensure that it can be adequately cooled for successful operation. The heat load is caused by the interaction of neutrons and gamma rays with the cold moderator and the walls of the moderator chamber. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP (Version 4.2), was used to model the entire NBSR core and both the existing and the proposed cold sources. The model was used to calculate not only the heat load but also the reactivity and neutron gain of each source.
An evaluation of inside surface heat balance models for cooling load calculations
Liesen, R.J.; Pedersen, C.O.
1997-12-31
The heat balance method is a fundamental procedure that can be used for a specified control volume to describe building physics. With a better understanding of building physics and the cost-effectiveness of computers, these types of procedures are accessible to all practicing engineers. The heat balance method describes the processes using the three fundamental modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. The control volumes naturally divide the building processes into an outside balance, an inside balance, an air balance, and conduction through the building elements. This allows the building heat balance to be solved in a number of fundamental ways. This paper looks at the general formulation of the inside surface heat balance from the conduction through the building elements to the radiant exchange and convection to the air in the zone. Development of many radiant exchange models is shown; these models range from the exact solutions using uniform radiosity networks and exact view factors to mean radiant temperature (MRT) and area-weighted view factors. These radiant exchange models are directly compared to each other for a simple zone with varying aspect ratios. The radiant exchange models are then compared to determine their effect on the cooling load. Finally, other parameters that affect the inside surface heat balance are investigated to determine their sensitivity to the cooling load.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...
Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents.
Greene, J. P.; Gabor, R.; Neubauer, J.
2000-11-29
In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or wobbled beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Press, Harry; Meadows, May T; Hadlock, Ivan
1956-01-01
The available information on the spectrum of atmospheric turbulence is first briefly reviewed. On the basis of these results, methods are developed for the conversion of available gust statistics normally given in terms of counts of gusts or acceleration peaks into a form appropriate for use in spectral calculations. The fundamental quantity for this purpose appears to be the probability distribution of the root-mean-square gust velocity. Estimates of this distribution are derived from data for a number of load histories of transport operations; also, estimates of the variation of this distribution with altitude and weather condition are derived from available data and the method of applying these results to the calculation of airplane gust-response histories in operations is also outlined. (author)
[Calculation of radiation loads in a space station compartment with a secondary shielding].
Kartashov, D A; Tolochek, R V; Shurshakov, V A; Yarmanova, E N
2013-01-01
Doses from space ionizing radiation were estimated using a model of ISS cosmonaut's quarters (CQ) outfitted with secondary shielding ("Protective shutter" (PS) as part of experiment MATRYOSHKA-R). Protective shutter is a "blanket" of water-containing material with mass thickness of - 6 g/cm2 covering the CQ exterior wall. Calculation was performed specifically for locations of experimental dosimetry assemblies. Agreement of calculations and experimental data reaching accuracy - 15% proves model applicability to estimating protective effectiveness of secondary shielding in the present-day and future space vehicles. This shielding may reduce radiation loading onto crewmembers as an equivalent dose by more than 40% within a broad range of orbit altitudes equally during the solar minimum and maximum. PMID:24660246
Calculation procedures for potential and viscous flow solutions for engine inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.; Stockman, N. O.
1973-01-01
The method and basic elements of computer solutions for both potential flow and viscous flow calculations for engine inlets are described. The procedure is applicable to subsonic conventional (CTOL), short-haul (STOL), and vertical takeoff (VTOL) aircraft engine nacelles operating in a compressible viscous flow. The calculated results compare well with measured surface pressure distributions for a number of model inlets. The paper discusses the uses of the program in both the design and analysis of engine inlets, with several examples given for VTOL lift fans, acoustic splitters, and for STOL engine nacelles. Several test support applications are also given.
A note on geometric method-based procedures to calculate the Hurst exponent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trinidad Segovia, J. E.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Sánchez-Granero, M. A.
2012-03-01
Geometric method-based procedures, which we will call GM algorithms hereafter, were introduced in M.A. Sánchez-Granero, J.E. Trinidad Segovia, J. García Pérez, Some comments on Hurst exponent and the long memory processes on capital markets, Phys. A 387 (2008) 5543-5551, to calculate the Hurst exponent of a time series. The authors proved that GM algorithms, based on a geometrical approach, are more accurate than classical algorithms, especially with short length time series. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a mathematical background for the validity of these two algorithms to calculate the Hurst exponent H of random processes with stationary and self-affine increments. In particular, we show that these procedures are valid not only for exploring long memory in classical processes such as (fractional) Brownian motions, but also for estimating the Hurst exponent of (fractional) Lévy stable motions.
A block-corrected subdomain solution procedure for recirculating flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braaten, M. E.; Patankar, S. V.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a robust and efficient subdomain solution procedure for two-dimensional recirculating flows. The solution domain is divided into a number of overlapping subdomains, and a direct fully coupled solution is obtained for each subdomain using a sparse matrix form of LU decomposition. An effective parabolic block correction procedure, which calculates global corrections to the tentative solution by a marching technique similar to that used for boundary layer flows, is used to accelerate the convergence of the basic procedure. The use of effective block correction is found to be essential for the success of the subdomain approach on strongly recirculating flows. In a number of laminar two-dimensional flows, the new block-corrected method performed extremely well, rivaling the best direct methods in execution time, while requiring substantially less computer storage. The new method proved to be from two to ten times faster than conventional iterative methods, while requiring only a moderate increase in storage.
Calculation of conversion factors for effective dose for various interventional radiology procedures
Compagnone, Gaetano; Giampalma, Emanuela; Domenichelli, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Golfieri, Rita
2012-05-15
Purpose: To provide dose-area-product (DAP) to effective dose (E) conversion factors for complete interventional procedures, based on in-the-field clinical measurements of DAP values and using tabulated E/DAP conversion factors for single projections available from the literature. Methods: Nine types of interventional procedures were performed on 84 patients with two angiographic systems. Different calibration curves (with and without patient table attenuation) were calculated for each DAP meter. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were recorded in-the-field for each projection and for all patients, and a conversion factor linking DAP and effective doses was derived for each complete procedure making use of published, Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors for single static projections. Results: Fluoroscopy time and DAP values for the lowest-dose procedure (biliary drainage) were approximately 3-fold and 13-fold lower, respectively, than those for the highest-dose examination (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS). Median E/DAP conversion factors from 0.12 (abdominal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) to 0.25 (Nephrostomy) mSvGy{sup -1} cm{sup -2} were obtained and good correlations between E and DAP were found for all procedures, with R{sup 2} coefficients ranging from 0.80 (abdominal angiography) to 0.99 (biliary stent insertion, Nephrostomy and TIPS). The DAP values obtained in this study showed general consistency with the values provided in the literature and median E values ranged from 4.0 mSv (biliary drainage) to 49.6 mSv (TIPS). Conclusions: Values of E/DAP conversion factors were derived for each procedure from a comprehensive analysis of projection and dosimetric data: they could provide a good evaluation for the stochastic effects. These results can be obtained by means of a close cooperation between different interventional professionals involved in patient care and dose optimization.
Mathematical simulation and calculation of the soil compaction under dynamic loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zolotarevskaya, D. I.
2011-04-01
The deformation and compaction of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils under linear dynamic changes in the compressive stresses and in the course of the soil creeping were studied in field experiments. The rheological properties of these soils occurring in the viscoelastic state were described by a first-order differential equation relating the compressive stresses, the rates of their changes, and the velocities of the relative vertical compressive deformation. Regression equations were derived for the viscoelastic properties of the studied soil as functions of its density, moisture, and linear compaction velocity. Methods were proposed for the calculation of indices of the stress-strain state and the compaction of soils under specified conditions of changes in their compressive stresses with time and in the course of the soil creeping after the initial linear increase in load. Corresponding computer programs were developed. The effect of the main factors due to the linear increase in the compressive loads and in the course of the soil creeping on the rheological properties, the stress-strain state, and the density of soils was quantitatively estimated. The calculation showed that the values of the soil deformation and the density under compressive stresses lower than the ultimate strength were stabilized with time, and the properties of the viscoelastic soil approached elastic ones.
Calculation procedures for the analysis of integral experiments for fusion-reactor design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoro, R. T.; Barnes, J. M.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.; Oblow, E. M.
1981-07-01
The calculational models, nuclear data, and radiation transport codes that are used in the analysis of integral measurements of the transport of approxmately 14 MeV neutrons through laminated slabs of materials typical of those found in fusion reactor shields are described. The two dimensional discrete ordinates calculations to optimize the experimental configuration of reducing the neutron and gamma ray background levels and for obtaining and equivalent, reduced geometry of the calculational model to reduce computer core storage and running times are also presented. The equations and data to determine the energy-angle relations to neutrons produced in the reactions of 250 keV deuterons in a titanium tritide target are given. The procedures used to collapse the 17ln 36gamma VATAMIN C cross section library to a 53n 21 gamma broad group library are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belov, Nikolay; Yugov, Nikolay; Kopanitsa, Dmitry; Kopanitsa, Georgy; Yugov, Alexey; Kaparulin, Sergey; Plyaskin, Andrey; Kalichkina, Anna; Ustinov, Artyom
2016-01-01
When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.
Waste load allocation in rivers under uncertainty: application of social choice procedures.
Mahjouri, Najmeh; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza
2015-02-01
In this paper, a waste load allocation model is developed which can incorporate uncertainties due to randomness as well as vagueness regarding some variables and parameters. A probabilistic water quality index is also presented and used in the waste load allocation model. For any discharger of the system, different wastewater treatment scenarios are defined. All possible combinations of these scenarios make different wastewater treatment alternatives for the system. An optimization model having the objectives of minimizing total treatment cost as well as water quality violation risk is also developed for finding the optimum treatment alternatives. The uncertainty related to the upstream river flow is addressed through considering probability distribution functions with fuzzy parameters. To deal with fuzzy and random inputs, the fuzzy transformation technique and Monte Carlo analysis are respectively used, and for each alternative, fuzzy membership function of the violation risk is obtained. The optimization model only takes into account the economic and environmental objectives and does not specifically consider the stakeholders satisfaction. To consider this and help the decision maker choose a final alternative among non-dominated solutions, three different social choice procedures which focus on stakeholders priorities are employed. The applicability and effectiveness of the methodology are evaluated by applying it to the Zarjub River in Iran facing serious water quality issues. The results indicate that the presented methodology can effectively take account of priorities of various decision makers as well as economic and environmental considerations, while incorporating multiple forms of uncertainties. PMID:25604063
Loading, absorption, and Fokker-Planck calculations for upcoming ICRF experiments on ATF
Shepard, T.D.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Kwon, M.
1989-01-01
ICRF experiments on ATF at the 100-kW level are planned for the current 1989 operating period. These plans include the 2..omega../sub cH/ regime at f/sub RF/ = 28.88 MHz, D(H) at 14.44 MHz, and /sup 4/He(/sup 3/He) and D(/sup 3/He) at 9.63 MHz. ECH target plasmas have n/sub eO/ /approx lt/ 0.15 /times/ 10/sup 20/ m/sup /minus/3/ and B = 0.95 T. The density and temperature profiles obtained are broader than those from 1988, owing to recent field error corrections. The values used for target-plasma parameters in the calculations were taken from initial 1989 ATF data. Loading and absorption calculations have been performed using the 3D RF heating code ORION with a helically symmetric equilibrium, and Fokker-Planck calculations were performed using the steady-state code RFTRANS with two velocity dimensions and one spatial dimension. 6 refs., 3 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moens, David; Vandepitte, Dirk
2005-12-01
This work introduces a numerical algorithm to calculate frequency-response functions (FRFs) of damped finite element (FE) models with fuzzy uncertain parameters. Part one of this paper describes the numerical algorithm for the solution of the underlying interval finite element (IFE) problem. First, the IFE procedure for the calculation of undamped envelope FRFs is discussed. Starting from the undamped procedure, a strategy is developed to analyse damped structures based on the principle of Rayleigh damping. This is achieved by analysing the effect of the proportional damping coefficients on the subsequent steps of the undamped procedure. This finally results in a procedure for the calculation of fuzzy damped FRFs based on an analytical extension of the undamped algorithm. Part one of this paper introduces the numerical procedure. Part two of this paper illustrates the application of the methodology on four numerical case studies.
Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.
2013-08-15
We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson’s GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C_{1} symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N – 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. Finally, in all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm^{–1} from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nalbant, Suleyman S.; McCloskey, John; Steacy, Sandy
2005-07-01
The 2003 Bingol earthquake ( Mw = 6.4) occurred very close to a region along the east Anatolian fault zone which was identified in 2002 as posing a particularly high seismic risk. This damaging earthquake occurred on a conjugate right-lateral blind fault that was inconsistent with the stress-change field calculated for preceding large earthquakes in the region. In this paper, four reasons which might be responsible for this stress discrepancy are identified and investigated individually. Firstly, co-seismic stress changes are considered. The time frame of the previous stress calculations is extended to include the large earthquakes in the 1780s which were not included in the earlier study. A sensitivity analysis is then conducted on the more recent events since 1822 to examine the effect of errors in their location and sizes. The possibility of the occurrence of a small magnitude event close to the 2003 epicentre is considered. We argue that, barring the occurrence of a low-probability, unmodelled local event, the Bingol earthquake was unlikely to have been triggered by co-seismic stress transfer from any known sequence of previous earthquakes. Finally we examine and modify the secular loading model used in the 2002 study and show that loading which is properly constrained by regional GPS data produces a positive stress change on the 2003 rupture. As a result of our examination of the stressing history of the Bingol hypocentre we argue that it is through a combination of historical seismology, guided and constrained by structural geology, directed paleoseismology in which the locations and extent of historical events are confirmed, and stress modelling which has been informed by detailed GPS data, that an integrated seismic hazard program might have the best chance of success.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Alfred W.
This is the third in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals with the calculation procedures associated with a step-feed process. Illustrations and examples are included to…
Comparison of the calculation of HDR RPV-1 blowdown loads for test V32 with the experimental data
Mortensen, G.A.; Santee, G.E. Jr.; Chang, F.H.; Brockett, G.F.; Gross, M.; Belytschko, T.
1984-08-01
Using the three-dimensional STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program, researchers calculated blowdown loads for HDR test V32 on a large-scale reactor vessel. The calculation, which compared well with test results, provides a good example of the predictive capability of the computer program. The program can be applied to nuclear and nonnuclear fluid-structure interaction problems.
Khalifah, Peter
2015-02-01
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θ_{D} of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.
Khalifah, Peter
2015-02-01
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Mark R.; King, Kevin W.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Ford, William; Van Esbroeck, Chris; Brunke, Richard I.; English, Michael C.; Schiff, Sherry L.
2015-11-01
Accurate estimates of annual nutrient loads are required to evaluate trends in water quality following changes in land use or management and to calibrate and validate water quality models. While much emphasis has been placed on understanding the uncertainty of nutrient load estimates in large, naturally drained watersheds, few studies have focused on tile-drained fields and small tile-drained headwater watersheds. The objective of this study was to quantify uncertainty in annual dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) load estimates from four tile-drained fields and two small tile-drained headwater watersheds in Ohio, USA and Ontario, Canada. High temporal resolution datasets of discharge (10-30 min) and nutrient concentration (2 h to 1 d) were collected over a 1-2 year period at each site and used to calculate a reference nutrient load. Monte Carlo simulations were used to subsample the measured data to assess the effects of sample frequency, calculation algorithm, and compositing strategy on the uncertainty of load estimates. Results showed that uncertainty in annual DRP and NO3-N load estimates was influenced by both the sampling interval and the load estimation algorithm. Uncertainty in annual nutrient load estimates increased with increasing sampling interval for all of the load estimation algorithms tested. Continuous discharge measurements and linear interpolation of nutrient concentrations yielded the least amount of uncertainty, but still tended to underestimate the reference load. Compositing strategies generally improved the precision of load estimates compared to discrete grab samples; however, they often reduced the accuracy. Based on the results of this study, we recommended that nutrient concentration be measured every 13-26 h for DRP and every 2.7-17.5 d for NO3-N in tile-drained fields and small tile-drained headwater watersheds to accurately (±10%) estimate annual loads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stroud, W. J.; Agranoff, N.
1976-01-01
An analytical procedure is presented for designing hat stiffened and corrugated panels made of composite material and subjected to longitudinal (in the direction of the stiffeners) compression and shear loadings. The procedure is based on nonlinear mathematical programming techniques and a simplified set of buckling equations. Design requirements considered are buckling, strength, and extensional and shear stiffness. The effects of specified thickness, variation of cross-section dimensions, stiffness requirements, local buckling boundary conditions, and the effect of combined compression and shear loadings are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, R. K.; Padhi, J.; Payero, J. O.
2011-08-01
SummaryWe used twelve load cells (20 kg capacity) in a mini-lysimeter system to measure evapotranspiration simultaneously from twelve plants growing in separate pots in a glasshouse. A data logger combined with a multiplexer was used to connect all load cells with the full-bridge excitation mode to acquire load-cell signal. Each load cell was calibrated using fixed load within the range of 0-0.8 times the full load capacity of load cells. Performance of all load cells was assessed on the basis of signal settling time, excitation compensation, hysteresis and temperature. Final calibration of load cells included statistical consideration of these effects to allow prediction of lysimeter weights and evapotranspiration over short-time intervals for improved accuracy and sustained performance. Analysis of the costs for the mini-lysimeter system indicates that evapotranspiration can be measured economically at a reasonable accuracy and sufficient resolution with robust method of load-cell calibration.
Double-step truncation procedure for large-scale shell-model calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coraggio, L.; Gargano, A.; Itaco, N.
2016-06-01
We present a procedure that is helpful to reduce the computational complexity of large-scale shell-model calculations, by preserving as much as possible the role of the rejected degrees of freedom in an effective approach. Our truncation is driven first by the analysis of the effective single-particle energies of the original large-scale shell-model Hamiltonian, in order to locate the relevant degrees of freedom to describe a class of isotopes or isotones, namely the single-particle orbitals that will constitute a new truncated model space. The second step is to perform a unitary transformation of the original Hamiltonian from its model space into the truncated one. This transformation generates a new shell-model Hamiltonian, defined in a smaller model space, that retains effectively the role of the excluded single-particle orbitals. As an application of this procedure, we have chosen a realistic shell-model Hamiltonian defined in a large model space, set up by seven proton and five neutron single-particle orbitals outside 88Sr. We study the dependence of shell-model results upon different truncations of the original model space for the Zr, Mo, Ru, Pd, Cd, and Sn isotopic chains, showing the reliability of this truncation procedure.
Calculation and Optimization of ITER Upper VS Feeder Under an Electromagnetic Load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xianwei; Xie, Fei; Jin, Huan
2014-11-01
The upper vertical stability (VS) feeder is a part connected to the upper VS coil by a welding joint. The function of the feeder is to transfer current and coolant water to the VS coil. A giant electromagnetic force will be generated during normal operation by the current flowing in the VS coils, interacting with the external background field. The Lorentz force will induce Tresca stress in the feeder. The amplitudes of the magnetic field and Lorentz force along the conductor running direction have been calculated based on Maxwell's equations. To extract the Tresca stress in the feeder, a finite element model was created using the software ANSYS and an electromagnetic load was applied on the model. According to the analytical design, the stresses were classified and evaluated based on ASME. In order to reduce the Tresca stress, some optimization works have been done and the Tresca stress has had a significant reduction in the optimized model. This analytical work figured out the stress distribution in the feeder and checked the feasibility of the prototype design model. The ANSYS analysis results will provide a guidance for later improvement and fabrication.
Jordaan, I.J.; Brown, P.W. ); Maes, M.A.; Hermans, I.P. . Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics)
1993-02-01
Extensive work in recent years has been carried out on the calculation of global ice loads on a probabilistic basis. An analysis method is presented for local ice pressures, which yields values of pressure for specific values of exceedance probability. In developing this method, particular attention has been paid to problems of exposure (length, position and number of impacts), as well as the area of exposure (area within area versus nominal contact area). The solution has been formulated for a series of discrete impacts, e.g., rams by a vessel, or a series of periods of continuous interactions. Data for the MV CANMAR Kigoriak and USCGC Polar Sea were ranked and curves were fitted through the tail of probability plots for three panel sizes. This allowed determination of exceedance probabilities of the design coefficients for pressure as a junction of area. The method developed was then applied to an example for a ship based on the data and expected number of rams per year. Formulas useful in the design of structures in ice are presented.
Nidhi, Malviya; Patro, M Nagaraju; Kusumvalli, Somisetty; Kusumdevi, Vemula
2016-01-01
Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac (Dic) diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion–evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box–Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP) prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF) and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN “S8” were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP loaded with Lig base and Dic diethylamine-SLNs exhibited immediate and complete permeation with tissue accumulation of Lig followed by controlled prolonged release and tissue accumulation of Dic at the site of application. Thus, it could be anticipated from the in vivo studies that the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crowe, D. R.; Henricks, W.
1983-01-01
The combined load statistics are developed by taking the acoustically induced load to be a random population, assumed to be stationary. Each element of this ensemble of acoustically induced loads is assumed to have the same power spectral density (PSD), obtained previously from a random response analysis employing the given acoustic field in the STS cargo bay as a stationary random excitation. The mechanically induced load is treated as either (1) a known deterministic transient, or (2) a nonstationary random variable of known first and second statistical moments which vary with time. A method is then shown for determining the probability that the combined load would, at any time, have a value equal to or less than a certain level. Having obtained a statistical representation of how the acoustic and mechanical loads are expected to combine, an analytical approximation for defining design levels for these loads is presented using the First Passage failure criterion.
The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken to calculate sampling weights. The sampling weights are needed to obtain weighted statistics of the NHEXAS data. This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropriate QA/QC procedures by t...
Pchelintsev, Nikolay A; Millner, Paul A
2008-04-01
We report a simple and rapid procedure that leads to incorporation of mediator and introduction of amine functionality onto the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE). The electrodes were doped with cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) by enhanced adsorption in a process that uses minimal amounts of this redox mediator as compared with CoPc loaded inks. The CoPc-doped SPCE showed a substantially increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and thiocholine as compared to unmodified electrodes. This greatly facilitated their use as transducers for the construction of amperometric biosensors based on enzymes producing oxidizable products such as hydrogen peroxide or thiols. Immobilisation of enzymes including glucose oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase was achieved through their multi-contact electrostatic interaction with polyethyleneimine (PEI) which was electrodeposited on the surface of CoPc-doped electrodes in one step from ethanolic solution. The efficiency of enzyme immobilisation was shown to depend on the molecular weight of the PEI used, reaching a maximum for 25 kDa PEI. The biosensors shown sensitivity to glucose at 130 nA mM(-1) (LOD 0.15 mM) and to acetylcholine at 70 nA mM(-1) (LOD 0.10mM) under +0.6 V. Detection of glucose has been demonstrated at +0.4V with the sensitivity of 60 nA mM(-1) and LOD of 0.33 mM. Possibility of the inhibition analysis of pesticides has been shown for acetylcholinesterase-based sensors. PMID:18358865
A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams.
Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X Ronald; Arjomandy, Bijan; Ciangaru, George; Lii, MingFwu; Amos, Richard; Wu, Richard; Gillin, Michael T
2008-11-01
The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU) = ROF SOBPF. RSF SOBPOCF.OCR.FSF.ISF.CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose (D) to the POI can be obtained from MU = D / (d/MU). The accuracy and
A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams
Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Arjomandy, Bijan; Ciangaru, George; Lii, MingFwu; Amos, Richard; Wu, Richard; Gillin, Michael T.
2008-11-15
The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU)=ROF{center_dot}SOBPF{center_dot}RSF{center_dot}SOBPOCF{center_dot}OCR{center_dot}FSF{center_dot}ISF{center_dot}CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jutte, Christine V.; Ko, William L.; Stephens, Craig A.; Bakalyar, John A.; Richards, W. Lance
2011-01-01
A ground loads test of a full-scale wing (175-ft span) was conducted using a fiber optic strain-sensing system to obtain distributed surface strain data. These data were input into previously developed deformed shape equations to calculate the wing s bending and twist deformation. A photogrammetry system measured actual shape deformation. The wing deflections reached 100 percent of the positive design limit load (equivalent to 3 g) and 97 percent of the negative design limit load (equivalent to -1 g). The calculated wing bending results were in excellent agreement with the actual bending; tip deflections were within +/- 2.7 in. (out of 155-in. max deflection) for 91 percent of the load steps. Experimental testing revealed valuable opportunities for improving the deformed shape equations robustness to real world (not perfect) strain data, which previous analytical testing did not detect. These improvements, which include filtering methods developed in this work, minimize errors due to numerical anomalies discovered in the remaining 9 percent of the load steps. As a result, all load steps attained +/- 2.7 in. accuracy. Wing twist results were very sensitive to errors in bending and require further development. A sensitivity analysis and recommendations for fiber implementation practices, along with, effective filtering methods are included
Not Available
1982-12-01
A series of operability tests of spring-loaded safety valves was performed at Combustion Engineering in Windsor, CT as part of the PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program conducted by EPRI on behalf of PWR Utilities in response to the recommendations of NUREG-0578 and the requirements of the NRC. Experimental data from five of the safety valve tests are compared with RELAP5/MOD1 calculations to evaluate the capability of the code to determine the fluid-induced transient loads on downstream piping. Comparisons between data and calculations are given for transients with discharge of steam, water, and water loop seal followed by steam. RELAP5/MOD1 provides useful engineering estimates of the fluid-induced piping loads for all cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnitzer, Emanuel
1953-01-01
A theoretical method is derived for the determination of the motions and loads during chine-immersed water landings of prismatic bodies. This method makes use of a variation of two-dimensional deflected water mass over the complete range of immersion, modified by a correction for three-dimensional flow. Equations are simplified through omission of the term proportional to the acceleration of the deflected mass for use in calculation of loads on hulls having moderate and heavy beam loading. The effects of water rise at the keel are included in these equations. In order to make a direct comparison of theory with experiment, a modification of the equations was made to include the effect of finite test-carriage mass. A simple method of computation which can be applied without reading the body of this report is presented as an appendix along with the required theoretical plots for determination of loads and motions in chine-immersed landings.
Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A
2015-01-01
The paper presents the results of calculating doses from space ionizing radiation for a modeled orbital station cabin outfitted with an additional shield aimed to reduce radiation loads on cosmonaut. The shield is a layer with the mass thickness of -6 g/cm2 (mean density = 0.62 g/cm3) that covers the outer cabin wall and consists of wet tissues and towels used by cosmonauts for hygienic purposes. A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom imitates human body. Doses were calculated for the standard orbit of the International space station (ISS) with consideration of the longitudinal and transverse phantom orientation relative to the wall with or without the additional shield. Calculation of dose distribution in the human body improves prediction of radiation loads. The additional shield reduces radiation exposure of human critical organs by -20% depending on their depth and body spatial orientation in the ISS compartment. PMID:26554132
A revised load estimation procedure for the Susquehanna, Potomac, Patuxent, and Choptank rivers
Yochum, Steven E.
2000-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey?s Chesapeake Bay River Input Program has updated the nutrient and suspended-sediment load data base for the Susquehanna, Potomac, Patuxent, and Choptank Rivers using a multiple-window, center-estimate regression methodology. The revised method optimizes the seven-parameter regression approach that has been used historically by the program. The revised method estimates load using the fifth or center year of a sliding 9-year window. Each year a new model is run for each site and constituent, the most recent year is added, and the previous 4 years of estimates are updated. The fifth year in the 9-year window is considered the best estimate and is kept in the data base. The last year of estimation shows the most change from the previous year?s estimate and this change approaches a minimum at the fifth year. Differences between loads computed using this revised methodology and the loads populating the historical data base have been noted but the load estimates do not typically change drastically. The data base resulting from the application of this revised methodology is populated by annual and monthly load estimates that are known with greater certainty than in the previous load data base.
Improvements in sparse matrix/vector technique applications for on-line load flow calculation
Ristanovic, P.; Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S.
1989-02-01
Sparsity technique is applied to a wide range of problems in power systems analysis. In this paper the authors propose several analytical and computational improvements in sparsity applications. The new partial matrix refactorization method and ordering algorithm are presented. The proposed method is very efficient when applied to various kinds of programs, such as: on-line load flow, optimal power flow and steady-state security analysis. The proposed methodology is applied in a fast decoupled load flow program which include the treatment of tap violations on under-load tap changing (ULTC) transformers and reactive power generation on PV buses. Effects of proposed improvements are well tested and documented on the three networks: 118 bus IEEE test network and two utility networks with 209 and 519 buses, respectively. Keywords: sparsity technique, load flow analysis, security analysis.
Maksimova, M.P.
1986-03-01
Considerable amounts of chlorine and sodium enter river waters during exploration and operation of oil and gas fields due to lifting highly mineralized formation waters to the surface (the Volga-Ural gas and oil region). Urban and agricultural wastewaters are sources of entry for the components of a salt composition. Magnesium and sulfate ions are considerably inferior to chlorine and sodium with respect to the intensity of involvement in technogenic geochemical flows. Criteria of anthropogenic eutrophication at an early state, methods of separating natural and anthropogenic components of the biogenic runoff (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) of rivers, and methods of their quantitative calculation have been developed. The results of the calculations for all ions are given. The anthropogenic component of the dissolved load successfully increased. Total dissolved load of the Volga reaches 22%.
Elastic modulus calculations from load/displacement curves using spherical and pointed indenters
Riester, L.; Ferber, M.K.; Breder, K.; Bridge, R.J.
1997-08-01
Hard materials with known mechanical properties were probed with spherical and Berkovich indenters using a Nanoindenter{trademark}. A simple analysis of the loading portion of the indentation experiment was found to give reasonable estimates of the elastic modulus for a variety of brittle materials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis
2014-01-01
All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…
Increased Memory Load during Task Completion when Procedures Are Presented on Mobile Screens
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Byrd, Keena S.; Caldwell, Barrett S.
2011-01-01
The primary objective of this research was to compare procedure-based task performance using three common mobile screen sizes: ultra mobile personal computer (7 in./17.8 cm), personal data assistant (3.5 in./8.9 cm), and SmartPhone (2.8 in./7.1 cm). Subjects used these three screen sizes to view and execute a computer maintenance procedure.…
Lens of the eye dose calculation for neuro-interventional procedures and CBCT scans of the head
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Zhenyu; Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay; Jain, Amit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.
2016-03-01
The aim of this work is to develop a method to calculate lens dose for fluoroscopically-guided neuro-interventional procedures and for CBCT scans of the head. EGSnrc Monte Carlo software is used to determine the dose to the lens of the eye for the projection geometry and exposure parameters used in these procedures. This information is provided by a digital CAN bus on the Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system which is saved in a log file by the real-time skin-dose tracking system (DTS) we previously developed. The x-ray beam spectra on this machine were simulated using BEAMnrc. These spectra were compared to those determined by SpekCalc and validated through measured percent-depth-dose (PDD) curves and half-value-layer (HVL) measurements. We simulated CBCT procedures in DOSXYZnrc for a CTDI head phantom and compared the surface dose distribution with that measured with Gafchromic film, and also for an SK150 head phantom and compared the lens dose with that measured with an ionization chamber. Both methods demonstrated good agreement. Organ dose calculated for a simulated neuro-interventional-procedure using DOSXYZnrc with the Zubal CT voxel phantom agreed within 10% with that calculated by PCXMC code for most organs. To calculate the lens dose in a neuro-interventional procedure, we developed a library of normalized lens dose values for different projection angles and kVp's. The total lens dose is then calculated by summing the values over all beam projections and can be included on the DTS report at the end of the procedure.
Spatial adaptation procedures on tetrahedral meshes for unsteady aerodynamic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rausch, Russ D.; Batina, John T.; Yang, Henry T. Y.
1993-01-01
Spatial adaptation procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaptation procedures were developed and implemented within a three-dimensional, unstructured-grid, upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in high gradient regions of the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational cost. A detailed description of the enrichment and coarsening procedures are presented and comparisons with experimental data for an ONERA M6 wing and an exact solution for a shock-tube problem are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady results, obtained using spatial adaptation procedures, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that discontinuities such as shock waves are captured very sharply.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakcheev, A. S.; Skovorodin, D. I.; Burdakov, A. V.; Shoshin, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Postupaev, V. V.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Kasatov, A. A.; Huber, A.; Mertens, Ph; Wirtz, M.; Linsmeier, Ch; Kreter, A.; Löwenhoff, Th; Begrambekov, L.; Grunin, A.; Sadovskiy, Ya
2015-12-01
A mathematical model of surface cracking under pulsed heat load was developed. The model correctly describes a smooth brittle-ductile transition. The elastic deformation is described in a thin-heated-layer approximation. The plastic deformation is described with the Hollomon equation. The time dependence of the deformation and stresses is described for one heating-cooling cycle for a material without initial plastic deformation. The model can be applied to tungsten manufactured according to ITER specifications. The model shows that the stability of stress-relieved tungsten deteriorates when the base temperature increases. This proved to be a result of the close ultimate tensile and yield strengths. For a heat load of arbitrary magnitude a stability criterion was obtained in the form of condition on the relation of the ultimate tensile and yield strengths.
Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.
2006-08-01
In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mingelgrin, U.
1972-01-01
Many properties of gaseous systems such as electromagnetic absorption and emission, sound dispersion and absorption, may be elucidated if the nature of collisions between the particles in the system is understood. A procedure for the calculation of the classical trajectories of two interacting diatomic molecules is described. The dynamics of the collision will be assumed to be that of two rigid rotors moving in a specified potential. The actual outcome of a representative sample of many trajectories at 298K was computed, and the use of these values at any temperature for calculations of various molecular properties will be described. Calculations performed for the O2 microwave spectrum are given to demonstrate the use of the procedure described.
Martin, S E
1982-05-01
An incremental finite element procedure is developed for calculating the in-pile lateral bowing of nuclear fuel rods. The fuel rod is modeled as a viscoelastic beam whose material properties are derived as perturbations of the results of an axisymmetric stress analysis of the fuel rod. The effects which are taken into account in calculating the rod's lateral bowing include: (a) lateral, axial, and rotational motions and forces at the rod supports, (b) transverse gradients of temperature, fast-neutron flux, and fissioning rate, and (c) cladding circumferential wall thickness variation. The procedure developed in this report could be used to form the basis for a computer program to calculate the time-dependent bowing as a function of the fuel rod's operational and environmental history.
A stable procedure to calculate the transient scattering by conducting surfaces of arbitrary shape
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vechinski, Douglas A.; Rao, Sadasiva M.
1992-01-01
In this paper, a solution procedure is presented to obtain the transient scattering by arbitrarily shaped conducting objects directly in the time-domain using the marching-on-in-time method. The late-time oscillations are eliminated by a simple stabilization procedure which involves negligible amount of extra computation. Numerical results for surface current density and far-scattered fields are given for various structures and compared with other methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Dowell, Earl H.; Bliss, Donald B.
1991-01-01
A Lanczos procedure is presently applied to a Navier-Stokes (N-S) solver for eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the small-perturbation analysis of the N-S equations' finite-difference representation for airfoil flows; the matrix used is very large, sparse, real, and nonsymmetric. The Lanczos procedure is shown to furnish complete spectral information for the eigenvalues, as required for transient-stability analysis of N-S solvers.
Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure
Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark
2015-01-01
Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p < 0.00001). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p < 0.001). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. PMID:26240834
Breiner, Joan; Gimeno, Benjamin S; Fenn, Mark
2007-01-01
Edaphic, foliar, and hydrologic forest nutrient status indicators from 15 mixed conifer forest stands in the Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, and San Bernardino National Forest were used to estimate empirical or theoretical critical loads (CL) for nitrogen (N) as a nutrient. Soil acidification response to N deposition was also evaluated. Robust empirical relationships were found relating N deposition to plant N uptake (N in foliage), N fertility (litter C/N ratio), and soil acidification. However, no consistent empirical CL were obtained when the thresholds for parameters indicative of N excess from other types of ecosystems were used. Similarly, the highest theoretical CL for nutrient N calculated using the simple mass balance steady state model (estimates ranging from 1.4-8.8 kg N/ha/year) was approximately two times lower than the empirical observations. Further research is needed to derive the thresholds for indicators associated with the impairment of these mixed conifer forests exposed to chronic N deposition within a Mediterranean climate. Further development or parameterization of models for the calculation of theoretical critical loads suitable for these ecosystems will also be an important aspect of future critical loads research. PMID:17450298
Waste-Mgmt: A computer model for calculation of waste loads, profiles, and emissions
Kotek, T.J.; Avci, H.I.; Koebnick, B.L.
1995-04-01
WASTE-MGMT is a computational model that provides waste loads, profiles, and emissions for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The model was developed to account for the considerable variety of waste types and processing alternatives evaluated by the WM PEIS. The model is table-driven, with three types of fundamental waste management data defining the input: (1) waste inventories and characteristics; (2) treatment, storage and disposal facility characteristics; and (3) alternative definition. The primary output of the model consists of tables of waste loads and contaminant profiles at facilities, as well as contaminant air releases for each treatment and storage facility at each site for each waste stream. The model is implemented in Microsoft{reg_sign} FoxPro{reg_sign} for MS-DOS{reg_sign} version 2.5 and requires a microcomputer with at least a 386 processor and a minimum 6 MBytes of memory and 10 MBytes of disk space for temporary storage.
WASTE{_}MGMT: A computer model for calculation of waste loads, profiles, and emissions
Kotek, T.J.; Avci, H.I.; Koebnick, B.L.
1996-12-01
Waste{_}MGMT is a computational model developed to provide waste loads, profiles, and emissions for the US Department of Energy`s Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WP PEIS). The model was developed to account for the considerable variety of waste types and processing alternatives evaluated for the WM PEIS. The model is table-driven, with three types of fundamental waste management data defining the input: (1) waste inventories and characteristics; (2) treatment, storage, and disposal facility characteristics; and (3) alternative definition. The primary output of the model consists of tables of waste loads and contaminant profiles at facilities, as well as contaminant air releases for each treatment and storage facility at each site for each waste stream. The model is implemented in Microsoft{reg_sign} FoxPro{reg_sign} for MS-DOS{reg_sign} version 2.5 and requires a microcomputer with at least a 386 processor and a minimum 6 Mbytes of memory and 10 Mbytes of disk space for temporary storage.
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-10 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-12 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-14 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-13 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-11 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
Bernard, F.; Borovnicar, I.; Ghirlanda, M.
1996-12-01
The windows based computer program for gasket calculation was presented. C++ computer language was used. On the basis of experimental results and data sets available in the literature and calculated with the help of FSA and PVRC method, the assembly parameters were determined. The result is DONIT TESNITI Diskette, a smart tool to select gaskets on the basis of service conditions and tightness requirements.
Keum, Chang-Gu; Noh, Young-Wook; Baek, Jong-Suep; Lim, Ji-Ho; Hwang, Chan-Ju; Na, Young-Guk; Shin, Sang-Chul; Cho, Cheong-Weon
2011-01-01
Background Nanoparticles fabricated from the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), are the most intensively investigated polymers for drug delivery systems. The objective of this study was to explore fully the development of a PLGA nanoparticle drug delivery system for alternative preparation of a commercial formulation. In our nanoparticle fabrication, our purpose was to compare various preparation parameters. Methods Docetaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by a single emulsion technique and solvent evaporation. The nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology, dynamic light scattering for size and zeta potential, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface chemistry, and high-performance liquid chromatography for in vitro drug release kinetics. To obtain a smaller particle, 0.2% polyvinyl alcohol, 0.03% D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), 2% Poloxamer 188, a five-minute sonication time, 130 W sonication power, evaporation with magnetic stirring, and centrifugation at 8000 rpm were selected. To increase encapsulation efficiency in the nanoparticles, certain factors were varied, ie, 2–5 minutes of sonication time, 70–130 W sonication power, and 5–25 mg drug loading. Results A five-minute sonication time, 130 W sonication power, and a 10 mg drug loading amount were selected. Under these conditions, the nanoparticles reached over 90% encapsulation efficiency. Release kinetics showed that 20.83%, 40.07%, and 51.5% of the docetaxel was released in 28 days from nanoparticles containing Poloxamer 188, TPGS, or polyvinyl alcohol, respectively. TPGS and Poloxamer 188 had slower release kinetics than polyvinyl alcohol. It was predicted that there was residual drug remaining on the surface from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Conclusion Our research shows that the choice of surfactant is important for controlled release of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Flegontova, E. Yu.; Ender, A. Ya.; Ender, I. A.
2016-04-01
A recurrence procedure for a sequential construction of kernels G_{{l_1},{l_2}}^l ( c, c 1, c 2) appearing upon the expansion of a nonlinear collision integral of the Boltzmann equation in spherical harmonics is developed. The starting kernel for this procedure is kernel G 0,0 0 ( c, c 1, c 2) of the collision integral for the distribution function isotropic with respect to the velocities. Using the recurrence procedure, a set of kernels G_{{l_1},{l_2}}^{ + l} ( c, c 1, c 2) for a gas consisting of hard spheres and Maxwellian molecules is constructed. It is shown that the resultant kernels exhibit similarity and symmetry properties and satisfy the relations following from the conservation laws.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackey, A. C.; Schwartz, R. D.
1973-01-01
The prelaunch, lift-off, and midboost conditions that are important to the design of spacecraft are described. Original Apollo design concepts that were deficient in realistic and accurate analysis of spacecraft structural loads in a wind environment also are included. Important improvements in design criteria, mathematical models, wind-monitoring procedures, and loads analyses are discussed. Recommendations for future programs are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran Duc, Chinh
1997-05-01
In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of shallow shell with positive Gauss radius, and boundaries supported on the rectangular plane subject to influence of uniform load and concentrated forces has been considered. In order to solve differential equations (written in the form that assumes deflections as unknowns) of bending shallow shell theory, the author has used the finite difference technique on irregular networks. A detailed algorithm has been formulated that enables to solve the problem by computer. By the above algorithm, the author has obtained numerical results in the form of internal forces and deflections diagrams.
A Finite Element Procedure for Calculating Fluid-Structure Interaction Using MSC/NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chargin, Mladen; Gartmeier, Otto
1990-01-01
This report is intended to serve two purposes. The first is to present a survey of the theoretical background of the dynamic interaction between a non-viscid, compressible fluid and an elastic structure is presented. Section one presents a short survey of the application of the finite element method (FEM) to the area of fluid-structure-interaction (FSI). Section two describes the mathematical foundation of the structure and fluid with special emphasis on the fluid. The main steps in establishing the finite element (FE) equations for the fluid structure coupling are discussed in section three. The second purpose is to demonstrate the application of MSC/NASTRAN to the solution of FSI problems. Some specific topics, such as fluid structure analogy, acoustic absorption, and acoustic contribution analysis are described in section four. Section five deals with the organization of the acoustic procedure flowchart. Section six includes the most important information that a user needs for applying the acoustic procedure to practical FSI problems. Beginning with some rules concerning the FE modeling of the coupled system, the NASTRAN USER DECKs for the different steps are described. The goal of section seven is to demonstrate the use of the acoustic procedure with some examples. This demonstration includes an analytic verification of selected FE results. The analytical description considers only some aspects of FSI and is not intended to be mathematically complete. Finally, section 8 presents an application of the acoustic procedure to vehicle interior acoustic analysis with selected results.
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Namjun
If content analysis is to satisfy the requirement of objectivity, measures and procedures must be reliable. Reliability is usually measured by the proportion of agreement of all categories identically coded by different coders. For such data to be empirically meaningful, a high degree of inter-coder reliability must be demonstrated. Researchers in…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milner, E. J.; Krosel, S. M.
1977-01-01
Techniques are presented for determining the elements of the A, B, C, and D state variable matrices for systems simulated on an EAI Pacer 100 hybrid computer. An automated procedure systematically generates disturbance data necessary to linearize the simulation model and stores these data on a floppy disk. A separate digital program verifies this data, calculates the elements of the system matrices, and prints these matrices appropriately labeled. The partial derivatives forming the elements of the state variable matrices are approximated by finite difference calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.
2012-12-01
Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine
Three-dimensional calculations of fields and loading for loop and folded waveguide ICRF antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, M. D.; Baity, F. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Hoffman, D. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Swain, D. W.; Haste, G. R.
The ANT and ORION codes have been combined and used to study the loading of various antenna geometries with simple three-dimensional (3-D) effects. Both codes use a slab model with periodic Fourier analysis for modeling the toroidal and poloidal directions. The ANT code is used to prescribe current sets in a vacuum region where the field solutions are obtained analytically of each Fourier mode and matching conditions are used at poloidal/toroidal current sheet locations. Multiple current sheets are permitted and various feeder options are available to model the radial antenna currents. Current elements may be oriented at arbitrary angles to the static magnetic field and may be independently phased in time. The fields at the plasma surface are prescribed by an impedance matrix for each Fourier mode. The ORION code solves for the fields in the plasma region using finite difference techniques, a plasma dispersion relation that retains the lowest-order finite gyroradius effects, and all three electric field components. Results are presented for a folded waveguide mock-up and for a loop antenna design under identical plasma conditions.
Three-dimensional calculations of fields and loading for loop and folded waveguide ICRF antennas
Carter, M.D.; Baity, F.W.; Batchelor, D.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Swain, D.W.; Haste, G.R.
1991-01-01
The ANT and ORION codes have been combined and used to study the loading of various antenna geometries with simple three-dimensional (3-D) effects. Both codes use a slab model with periodic Fourier analysis for modeling the toroidal and poloidal directions. The ANT code is used to prescribe current sets in a vacuum region where the field solutions are obtained analytically of each Fourier mode and matching conditions are used at poloidal/toroidal current sheet locations. Multiple current sheets are permitted and various feeder options are available to model the radial antenna currents. Current elements maybe oriented at arbitrary angles to the static magnetic field and may be independently phased in time. The fields at the plasma surface are prescribed by an impedance matrix for each Fourier mode. The ORION code solves for the fields in the plasma region using finite difference techniques, a plasma dispersion relation that retains the lowest-order finite gyroradius effects, and all three electric field components. Results are presented for a folded waveguide mock-up and for a loop antenna design under identical plasma conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleh, D.; Domagalski, J. L.; Johnson, H. M.; Lorenz, D. J.
2009-12-01
Mass loading and trends in concentration were calculated for four pesticides in two watersheds with different land uses in the Central Valley, California, by using two parametric models: (1) the Seasonal Wave model (SeaWave), in which a pulse signal is used to describe the annual cycle of pesticide occurrence in a stream; and, (2) the Sine Wave model (SineWave), in which first-order Fourier series sine and cosine terms are used to simulate seasonal loading patterns. The models were applied to data for water years 1997 through 2005 provided by the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The pesticides considered in this study were carbaryl, diazinon, metolachlor, and molinate. Data were analyzed for two seasons: precipitation season (October through March), and the irrigation season (April through September). Results from the two models show that the ability to capture seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations was affected by pesticide use patterns and the methods by which pesticides are transported to streams. When compared with results from previous studies, both models well estimated seasonal loads and trends in concentrations. It is important to point out that loads estimated by the two models did not differ substantially from each other, with the exceptions of carbaryl and molinate during the precipitation season, where loads were affected by application patterns and precipitation. At the same time, trends in pesticide concentrations over time, as estimated by both models, were nearly identical indicating that either model can be used equally for calculating trends in concentrations. However, in watersheds where pesticides are applied in specific patterns— involving multiple applications of various amounts—the SeaWave model might be a better model to use due to its robust capability to describe seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations. As a case study, trends in pesticide concentrations for streams in the Central Valley were
A NASTRAN DMAP procedure for calculation of base excitation modal participation factors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Case, W. R.
1983-01-01
This paper presents a technique for calculating the modal participation factors for base excitation problems using a DMAP alter to the NASTRAN real eigenvalue analysis Rigid Format. The DMAP program automates the generation of the seismic mass to add to the degrees of freedom representing the shaker input directions and calculates the modal participation factors. These are shown in the paper to be a good measure of the maximum acceleration expected at any point on the structure when the subsequent frequency response analysis is run.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruo, S. Y.
1978-01-01
A computer program was developed to account approximately for the effects of finite wing thickness in transonic potential flow over an oscillation wing of finite span. The program is based on the original sonic box computer program for planar wing which was extended to account for the effect of wing thickness. Computational efficiency and accuracy were improved and swept trailing edges were accounted for. Account for the nonuniform flow caused by finite thickness was made by application of the local linearization concept with appropriate coordinate transformation. A brief description of each computer routine and the applications of cubic spline and spline surface data fitting techniques used in the program are given, and the method of input was shown in detail. Sample calculations as well as a complete listing of the computer program listing are presented.
Wesseling, Mariska; De Groote, Friedl; Bosmans, Lode; Bartels, Ward; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse
2016-11-01
This study assessed the relative importance of introducing an increasing level of medical image-based subject-specific detail in bone and muscle geometry in the musculoskeletal model, on calculated hip contact forces during gait. These forces were compared to introducing minimization of hip contact forces in the optimization criterion. With an increasing level of subject-specific detail, specifically MRI-based geometry and wrapping surfaces representing the hip capsule, hip contact forces decreased and were more comparable to contact forces measured using instrumented prostheses (average difference of 0.69 BW at the first peak compared to 1.04 BW for the generic model). Inclusion of subject-specific wrapping surfaces in the model had a greater effect than altering the cost function definition. PMID:26930478
[Procedure for calculating various parameters of the metabolism of amino acid mixtures].
Fauth, U; Heinrichs, W; Puénte-Gonzales, I; Tzanova, I; Halmágyi, M
1989-12-01
For the evaluation of indirect calorimetry, elements are used, which specify the relation between nitrogen (N) excretion and amount of oxidized amino acids (AS/N) and between nitrogen excretion and oxygen-/carbon dioxide-exchange of the corresponding amounts of amino acids (O2/N, CO2/N). These elements are only valid for the amino acid mixture which was used for their determination, and only under the condition of complete combustion of deaminized amino acid skeletons. We developed a computer program, which is able to simulate complete oxidation, maximal gluconeogenesis, and maximal lipogenesis for a given amino acid mixture of any composition. The parameters AS/N, O2/N and CO2/N were calculated by the program for various parenteral amino acid solutions. Range of error was determined exemplarily for the use of standard parameters. The calculations demonstrate errors up to 50% for the calculation of substrate turnover in indirect calorimetry, depending on composition and actual metabolism of amino acid mixtures. As long as these influencing factors are not known in stress metabolism, we recommend to use those elements, which were calculated for the amino acid solution in use, assuming complete combustion. PMID:2516505
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humphreys, E. A.; Goering, J.
1983-01-01
A computerized procedure was developed to model the response of a laminated composite plate subjected to low velocity impact. The methodology incorporated transient dynamics finite element analysis coupled with composite layer and interlaminar stress predictions. Damage was predicted using a stress based failure criteria and incorporated into the solution as stiffness modifications. The force-displacement relation between the impactor and plate was modelled with a nonlinear contact spring similar to Hertzian contact. Analyses performed predicted ply damage early in the impact event when the displacement fields were characteristic of high frequency flexurable response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Papun; Chakraborti, Debjani
2010-10-01
This paper describes how the genetic algorithms (GAs) can be efficiently used to fuzzy goal programming (FGP) formulation of optimal power flow problems having multiple objectives. In the proposed approach, the different constraints, various relationships of optimal power flow calculations are fuzzily described. In the model formulation of the problem, the membership functions of the defined fuzzy goals are characterized first for measuring the degree of achievement of the aspiration levels of the goals specified in the decision making context. Then, the achievement function for minimizing the regret for under-deviations from the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership goals to the extent possible on the basis of priorities is constructed for optimal power flow problems. In the solution process, the GA method is employed to the FGP formulation of the problem for achievement of the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership functions to the extent possible in the decision making environment. In the GA based solution search process, the conventional Roulette wheel selection scheme, arithmetic crossover and random mutation are taken into consideration to reach a satisfactory decision. The developed method has been tested on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus System. Numerical results show that this method is promising for handling uncertain constraints in practical power systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakhidova, Diana; Kadyrhodjaev, Azam
2010-05-01
Estimation of geological environment is a base for rational utilization of natural resources and country's sustainable development. Natural processes are getting more and more interlaced with anthropogenic processes and as a result becoming man-caused. It was the very reason why the necessity to develop new methodological and technological aspects for estimation of geological environment condition appeared. Modern satellite data and GIS (Geographical Information System) can be used for solving this task. The task of the research was an assessment of a level of disturbed natural cover and the ruts due to motor vehicles, which is geographically reflected on the damages-map of a natural surface by roads. For the investigation of the topsoil damage on the roads of Ustyurt region, the topographic maps of 1:200 000 scale, digital satellite images of Landsat-7 and SAR images have been used. These data provide bigger swat width and temporal resolution, which is needed for the solution of the task. The data, mentioned above are the most easy to access, of good quality and reliable. As an illustrative example, the Aktumsuk block of gas-oil field is considered in the present paper. As a result of our study, a density of road lines has been determined and calculated in GIS using satellite data. It became a basis for developing a map of natural cover disturbed by roads. Three gradations are distinguished: strong, moderate and weakly disturbed. The disturbance level corresponds to certain density of the roads. By the density of the roads here we mean number of roads in the unit area. The area and the place of extention of disturbed natural cover are very dynamic. Annually, the are of different cathegories of degraded soil can increase, and can decrease if rational measures are used and applied. In this connection, it is necessary to create a data base of different cathegories of degraded soil and conduct constant observation on the intensity of the process development, create a
Karton, Amir; O'Reilly, Robert J; Radom, Leo
2012-04-26
Accurate electronic barrier heights are obtained for a set of nine proton-transfer tautomerization reactions, which are either (i) uncatalyzed, (ii) catalyzed by one water molecule, or (iii) catalyzed by two water molecules. The barrier heights for reactions (i) and (ii) are obtained by means of the high-level ab initio W2.2 thermochemical protocol, while those for reaction (iii) are obtained using the W1 protocol. These three sets of benchmark barrier heights allow an assessment of the performance of more approximate theoretical procedures for the calculation of barrier heights of uncatalyzed and water-catalyzed reactions. We evaluate initially the performance of the composite G4 procedure and variants thereof (e.g., G4(MP2) and G4(MP2)-6X), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g., MP2, SCS-MP2, and MP4). We find that the performance of the G4(MP2)-type thermochemical procedures deteriorates with the number of water molecules involved in the catalysis. This behavior is linked to deficiencies in the MP2-based basis-set-correction term in the G4(MP2)-type procedures. This is remedied in the MP4-based G4 procedure, which shows good performance for both the uncatalyzed and the water-catalyzed reactions, with mean absolute deviations (MADs) from the benchmark values lying below the threshold of "chemical accuracy" (arbitrarily defined as 1 kcal mol(-1) ≈ 4.2 kJ mol(-1)). We also examine the performance of a large number of density functional theory (DFT) and double-hybrid DFT (DHDFT) procedures. We find that, with few exceptions (most notably PW6-B95 and B97-2), the performance of the DFT procedures that give good results for the uncatalyzed reactions deteriorates with the number of water molecules involved in the catalysis. The DHDFT procedures, on the other hand, show excellent performance for both the uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions. Specifically, almost all of them afford MADs below the "chemical accuracy" threshold, with ROB2-PLYP and B2K
Carinou, E; Ferrari, P; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Struelens, L
2011-03-01
There are many factors that can influence the extremity and eye lens doses of the medical staff during interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Numerical simulations can play an important role in evaluating extremity and eye lens doses in correlation with many different parameters. In the present study, the first results of the ORAMED (Optimisation of Radiation protection of MEDical staff) simulation campaign are presented. The parameters investigated for their influence on eye lens, hand, wrist and leg doses are: tube voltage, filtration, beam projection, field size and irradiated part of the patient's body. The tube voltage ranged from 60 to 110 kV(p), filtration from 3 to 6 mm Al and from 0 to 0.9 mm Cu. For all projections, the results showed that doses received by the operator decreased with increasing tube voltage and filtration. The magnitude of the influence of the tube voltage and the filtration on the doses depends on the beam projection and the irradiated part of the patient's body. Finally, the influence of the field size is significant in decreasing the doses. PMID:21212075
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.
2011-12-01
Convoluted differential and total cross sections of inelastic ν scattering on 128,130Te isotopes are computed from the original cross sections calculated previously using the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We adopt various spectral distributions for the neutrino energy spectra such as the common two-parameter Fermi-Dirac and power-law distributions appropriate to explore nuclear detector responses to supernova neutrino spectra. We also concentrate on the use of low-energy β-beam neutrinos, originating from boosted β--radioactive 6He ions, to decompose original supernova (anti)neutrino spectra that are subsequently employed to simulate total cross sections of the reactions 130Te(ν˜,ν˜')130Te*. The concrete nuclear regimes selected, 128,130Te, are contents of the multipurpose CUORE and COBRA rare event detectors. Our present investigation may provide useful information about the efficiency of the Te detector medium of the above experiments in their potential use in supernova neutrino searches.
Eça, L.; Hoekstra, M.
2014-04-01
This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: • Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. • Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. • Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. • Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. • Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.
Lu, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Pan, Xu-Dong; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Wang, Long-Fei
2015-01-01
Background The classic non-working (NW) heterotopic heart transplant (HTX) model in rodents had been widely used for researches related to immunology, graft rejection, evaluation of immunosuppressive therapies and organ preservation. But unloaded models are considered not suitable for some researches. Accordingly, We have constructed a volume-loaded (VL) model by a new and simple technique. Methods Thirty male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, group NW with 14 rabbits and group VL with 16 rabbits, which served as donors and recipients. We created a large and nonrestrictive shunt to provide left heart a sufficient preload. The donor superior vena cave and ascending aorta (AO) were anastomosed to the recipient abdominal aorta (AAO) and inferior vena cava (IVC), respectively. Results No animals suffered from paralysis, pneumonia and lethal bleeding. Recipients’ mortality and morbidity were 6.7% (1/15) and 13.3% (2/15), respectively. The cold ischemia time in group VL is slight longer than that in group NW. The maximal aortic velocity (MAV) of donor heart was approximately equivalent to half that of native heart in group VL. Moreover, the similar result was achieved in the parameter of late diastolic mitral inflow velocity between donor heart and native heart in group VL. The echocardiography (ECHO) showed a bidirectional flow in donor SVC of VL model, inflow during diastole and outflow during systole. PET-CT imaging showed the standard uptake value (SUV) of allograft was equal to that of native heart in both groups on the postoperative day 3. Conclusions We have developed a new VL model in rabbits, which imitates a native heart hemodynamically while only requiring a minor additional procedure. Surgical technique is simple compared with currently used HTX models. We also developed a standard operating procedure that significantly improved graft and recipient survival rate. This study may be useful for investigations in transplantation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elverson, C.; Karwan, D. L.
2015-12-01
Timber harvest practices have a long-standing association with changes in water and sediment yields. We quantify the trends in water and sediment yields in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in relation to management practices with linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From 1991 to 2013, an increase in water yield resulted from both clearcutting and thinning treatments, with monthly water yield rate increases of 13-57% and annual water yield increases up to 210 mm (40%) in the clearcut watershed. Following treatment, annual sediment yields increased in the clearcut watershed by 40-131% and the thinned watershed by 33-163%, both relative to the control watershed, with statistically-significant monthly load increases in the year immediately following treatment. Water and sediment yield changes do not follow the same post-treatment patterns. Water yields increased immediately following treatment and, over time, gradually dropped towards pre-harvest levels. Annual sediment yields increased in some years after the harvest, but in some cases the increase was years after treatment. Monthly sediment yields increased in the first year following the clearcut harvest, but elevated monthly loads following the partial cut harvest came years later. Hence, we investigate the changes in sediment yield through an examination of water yield and sediment concentration and in response to events. We test the sensitivity of our results to different methods for computing sediment yields based on total suspended solids concentration and continuous discharge measurements. Flow-weighted sediment yield averaged 24% higher than sediment yield computed from linear-interpolated total suspended solids concentration values. During typical summer and fall conditions, flow-weighting was found to overweight storm measurements and produce large sediment yield estimates. Further work is suggested to test methods of calculating monthly sediment yields with irregularly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Aiquan; Li, Keqiang; Ding, Dongsheng; Li, Yan; Liang, Shengkang; Li, Yanbin; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiulin
2015-12-01
The equal percent removal (EPR) method, in which pollutant reduction ratio was set as the same in all administrative regions, failed to satisfy the requirement for water quality improvement in the Bohai Sea. Such requirement was imposed by the developed Coastal Pollution Total Load Control Management. The total maximum allocated load (TMAL) of nitrogen pollutants in the sea-sink source regions (SSRs) around the Bohai Rim, which is the maximum pollutant load of every outlet under the limitation of water quality criteria, was estimated by optimization-simulation method (OSM) combined with loop approximation calculation. In OSM, water quality is simulated using a water quality model and pollutant load is calculated with a programming model. The effect of changes in pollutant loads on TMAL was discussed. Results showed that the TMAL of nitrogen pollutants in 34 SSRs was 1.49×105 ton/year. The highest TMAL was observed in summer, whereas the lowest in winter. TMAL was also higher in the Bohai Strait and central Bohai Sea and lower in the inner area of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay. In loop approximation calculation, the TMAL obtained was considered satisfactory for water quality criteria as fluctuation of concentration response matrix with pollutant loads was eliminated. Results of numerical experiment further showed that water quality improved faster and were more evident under TMAL input than that when using the EPR method
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tassa, Y.; Anderson, B. H.; Reshotko, E.
1977-01-01
An interactive procedure was developed for supersonic viscous flows that can be used for either two-dimensional or axisymmetric configurations. The procedure is directed to supersonic internal flows as well as those supersonic external flows that require consideration of mutual interaction between the outer flow and the boundary layer flow. The flow field is divided into two regions: an inner region which is highly viscous and mostly subsonic and an outer region where the flow is supersonic and in which viscous effects are small but not negligible. For the outer region a numerical solution is obtained by applying the method of characteristics to a system of equations which includes viscous and conduction transport terms only normal to the streamlines. The inner region is treated by a system of equations of the boundary layer type that includes higher order effects such as longitudinal and transverse curvature and normal pressure gradients. These equations are coupled and solved simultaneously in the physical coordinates by using an implicit finite difference scheme. This system can also be used to calculate laminar and turbulent boundary layers using a scalar eddy viscosity concept.
The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken to calculate sampling weights. The sampling weights are needed to obtain weighted statistics of the study data. This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropriate QA/QC procedures by th...
The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken for calculating ingestion exposure using the indirect method of exposure estimation. This SOP uses This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropriate QA/QC procedures by the University ...
2013-01-01
In the last few years, synthesis of carrier-free immobilized biocatalysts by cross-linking of enzyme aggregates has appeared as a promising technique. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) present several interesting advantages over carrier-bound immobilized enzymes, such as highly concentrated enzymatic activity, high stability of the produced superstructure, important production costs savings by the absence of a support, and the fact that no previous purification of the enzyme is needed. However, the published literature evidences that a) much specific non-systematic exploratory work is being done and, b) recovered activity calculations in CLEAs still need to be optimized. In this context, this contribution presents results of an optimized procedure for the calculation of the activity retained by CLEAs, based on the comparison of their specific activity relative to their free enzyme counterparts. The protocol implies determination of precipitable protein content in commercial enzyme preparations through precipitation with ammonium sulphate and a protein co-feeder. The identification of linear ranges of activity versus concentration/amount of protein in the test reaction is also required for proper specific activity determinations. By use of mass balances that involve the protein initially added to the synthesis medium, and the protein remaining in the supernatant and washing solutions (these last derived from activity measurements), the precipitable protein present in CLEAs is obtained, and their specific activity can be calculated. In the current contribution the described protocol was applied to CLEAs of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase, which showed a recovered specific activity of 11.1% relative to native lipase. The approach described is simple and can easily be extended to other CLEAs and also to carrier-bound immobilized enzymes for accurate determination of their retained activity. PMID:23663379
Design procedures for fiber composite box beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, Cristos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.
1989-01-01
Step-by-step procedures are described which can be used for the preliminary design of fiber composite box beams subjected to combined loadings. These procedures include a collection of approximate closed-form equations so that all the required calculations can be performed using pocket calculators. Included is an illustrative example of a tapered cantilever box beam subjected to combined loads. The box beam is designed to satisfy strength, displacement, buckling, and frequency requirements.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Accurate estimates of annual nutrient loads are required to evaluate trends in water quality following changes in land use or management and to calibrate and validate water quality models. While much emphasis has been placed on understanding the uncertainty of watershed-scale nutrient load estimates...
The composite load spectra project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.; Kurth, R. E.
1990-01-01
Probabilistic methods and generic load models capable of simulating the load spectra that are induced in space propulsion system components are being developed. Four engine component types (the transfer ducts, the turbine blades, the liquid oxygen posts and the turbopump oxidizer discharge duct) were selected as representative hardware examples. The composite load spectra that simulate the probabilistic loads for these components are typically used as the input loads for a probabilistic structural analysis. The knowledge-based system approach used for the composite load spectra project provides an ideal environment for incremental development. The intelligent database paradigm employed in developing the expert system provides a smooth coupling between the numerical processing and the symbolic (information) processing. Large volumes of engine load information and engineering data are stored in database format and managed by a database management system. Numerical procedures for probabilistic load simulation and database management functions are controlled by rule modules. Rules were hard-wired as decision trees into rule modules to perform process control tasks. There are modules to retrieve load information and models. There are modules to select loads and models to carry out quick load calculations or make an input file for full duty-cycle time dependent load simulation. The composite load spectra load expert system implemented today is capable of performing intelligent rocket engine load spectra simulation. Further development of the expert system will provide tutorial capability for users to learn from it.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lassiter, Leslie W; Hess, Robert W
1958-01-01
Flat 2024-t3 aluminum panels measuring 11 inches by 13 inches were tested in the near noise fields of a 4-inch air jet and turbojet engine. The stresses which were developed in the panels are compared with those calculated by generalized harmonic analysis. The calculated and measured stresses were found to be in good agreement. In order to make the stress calculations, supplementary data relating to the transfer characteristics, damping, and static response of flat and curved panels under periodic loading are necessary and were determined experimentally. In addition, an appendix containing detailed data on the near pressure field of the turbojet engine is included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiang, T.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Badgley, R. H.
1972-01-01
The primary aim of this investigation was verification of basic methods which are to be used in cataloging elastomer dynamic properties (stiffness and damping) in terms of viscoelastic model constants. These constants may then be used to predict dynamic properties for general elastomer shapes and operating conditions, thereby permitting optimum application of elastomers as energy absorption and/or energy storage devices in the control of vibrations in a broad variety of applications. The efforts reported involved: (1) literature search; (2) the design, fabrication and use of a test rig for obtaining elastomer dynamic test data over a wide range of frequencies, amplitudes, and preloads; and (3) the reduction of the test data, by means of a selected three-element elastomer model and specialized curve fitting techniques, to material properties. Material constants thus obtained have been used to calculate stiffness and damping for comparison with measured test data. These comparisons are excellent for a number of test conditions and only fair to poor for others. The results confirm the validity of the basic approach of the overall program and the mechanics of the cataloging procedure, and at the same time suggest areas in which refinements should be made.
2015-08-01
Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.
Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru
2016-04-01
We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of a questionnaire survey for the hospitals with robots and on the Diagnostic Procedures Combination data provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth for those without such equipment. The concentration of the case loads was principally defined as when hospitals with robots had more predominant proportion of cases than those without them in the comparison between case loads prior to instillation of robots (or in the initial year of the study) and those in the final years. The 11 selected areas included 44 hospitals with robots and 156 without them. Concentration of case loads was found in 5 areas. In 4 areas, installation of robots did not have a specific relation to the distribution pattern s of case loads in hospitals with or without the equipment. The remaining 2 areas tended to have a weak but not definite concentration of case loads. In the areas in which installation did not influence case loads the further analysis revealed that their case loads had already been concentrated in the initial year (2010) of the study. Although the current results were found in a single department of the hospital, robotic installation may result in concentration of prostatectomy case loads for such hospitals in some areas. The current results are intriguing when we consider the future roles of acute care hospitals and beds in our country where the number of aged patients having chronic diseases will increase. In conclusion, installation of robotic equipment may result in concentration
Comparison of measured and calculated dynamic loads for the Mod-2 2.5 mW wind turbine system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmerman, D. K.; Shipley, S. A.; Miller, R. D.
1995-05-01
The Boeing Company, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has completed a test program on the Mod-2 wind turbines at Goodnoe Hills, Washington. The objectives were to update fatigue load spectra, discern site and machine differences, measure vortex generator effects, and to evaluate rotational sampling techniques. This paper shows the test setup and loads instrumentation, loads data comparisons and test/analysis correlations. Test data are correlated with DYLOSAT predictions using both the NASA interim turbulence model and rotationally sampled winds as inputs. The latter is demonstrated to have the potential to improve the test/analysis correlations. The paper concludes with an assessment of the importance of vortex generators, site dependence, and machine differences on fatigue loads. The adequacy of prediction techniques used are evaluated and recommendations are made for improvements to the methodology.
Comparison of measured and calculated dynamic loads for the Mod-2 2.5 mW wind turbine system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zimmerman, D. K.; Shipley, S. A.; Miller, R. D.
1995-01-01
The Boeing Company, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has completed a test program on the Mod-2 wind turbines at Goodnoe Hills, Washington. The objectives were to update fatigue load spectra, discern site and machine differences, measure vortex generator effects, and to evaluate rotational sampling techniques. This paper shows the test setup and loads instrumentation, loads data comparisons and test/analysis correlations. Test data are correlated with DYLOSAT predictions using both the NASA interim turbulence model and rotationally sampled winds as inputs. The latter is demonstrated to have the potential to improve the test/analysis correlations. The paper concludes with an assessment of the importance of vortex generators, site dependence, and machine differences on fatigue loads. The adequacy of prediction techniques used are evaluated and recommendations are made for improvements to the methodology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, Willaim C
1954-01-01
This report compares the experimental force and moment data obtained by pressure measurements on a wing of aspect ratio 8.02, 45 degree sweptback of the quarter-chord line, taper ratio of 0.45, and NACA 63sub1a012 airfoil sections with the calculated loadings obtained by the standard methods proposed by Weissinger, Falkner, and Multopp, as well as by several variations of these methods.
Métadier, M; Bertrand-Krajewski, J-L
2011-01-01
With the increasing implementation of continuous monitoring of both discharge and water quality in sewer systems, large data bases are now available. In order to manage large amounts of data and calculate various variables and indicators of interest it is necessary to apply automated methods for data processing. This paper deals with the processing of short time step turbidity time series to estimate TSS (Total Suspended Solids) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) event loads in sewer systems during storm events and their associated uncertainties. The following steps are described: (i) sensor calibration, (ii) estimation of data uncertainties, (iii) correction of raw data, (iv) data pre-validation tests, (v) final validation, and (vi) calculation of TSS and COD event loads and estimation of their uncertainties. These steps have been implemented in an integrated software tool. Examples of results are given for a set of 33 storm events monitored in a stormwater separate sewer system. PMID:21278456
Dunn, W.N.
1994-07-01
LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Platt, Robert C
1936-01-01
This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lutes, C. L.; Gershenson, M.; Schneider, R. J.
1985-03-01
The textbook procedure for the solution of the critical current of an N-junction superconducting interferometer is a 2N-1 dimensional steepest descent problem. A solution by this procedure is complicated by the existence of multiple local minima. The equations are reformulated to reduce the problem to a three-dimensional steepest descent problem. From this reduced equation set, a non-steepest-descent procedure is developed. This technique produces a solution by adjusting a trial critical current value until tangency between a straight line and a special error function is achieved. For a 10-junction test case, an 80-to-1 reduction in computer time was achieved.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
.... Where: Ywm = Weighted mass emissions of each pollutant, i.e., HC, CO, NOX or CO , in grams per vehicle mile. Yct = Mass emissions as calculated from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams... grams per test phase. Ys = Mass emissions as calculated from the “stabilized” phase of the cold...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
.... Where: Ywm = Weighted mass emissions of each pollutant, i.e., HC, CO, NOX or CO , in grams per vehicle mile. Yct = Mass emissions as calculated from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams... grams per test phase. Ys = Mass emissions as calculated from the “stabilized” phase of the cold...
2009-01-01
Introduction Osteochondral grafts have become popular for treating small, isolated and full-thickness cartilage lesions. It is recommended that a slightly oversized, rather than an exact-sized, osteochondral plug is transplanted to achieve a tight fit. Consequently, impacting forces are required to insert the osteochondral plug into the recipient site. However, it remains controversial whether these impacting forces affect the biomechanical condition of the grafted articular cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanical effects of osteochondral plug implantation using osmotic loading and real-time ultrasound. Methods A full-thickness cylindrical osteochondral defect (diameter, 3.5 mm; depth, 5 mm) was created in the lateral lower quarter of the patella. Using graft-harvesting instruments, an osteochondral plug (diameter, 3.5 mm as exact-size or 4.5 mm as oversize; depth, 5 mm) was harvested from the lateral upper quarter of the patella and transplanted into the defect. Intact patella was used as a control. The samples were monitored by real-time ultrasound during sequential changes of the bathing solution from 0.15 M to 2 M saline (shrinkage phase) and back to 0.15 M saline (swelling phase). For cartilage sample assessment, three indices were selected, namely the change in amplitude from the cartilage surface (amplitude recovery rate: ARR) and the maximum echo shifts from the cartilage surface and the cartilage-bone interface. Results The ARR is closely related to the cartilage surface integrity, while the echo shifts from the cartilage surface and the cartilage-bone interface are closely related to tissue deformation and NaCl diffusion, respectively. The ARR values of the oversized plugs were significantly lower than those of the control and exact-sized plugs. Regarding the maximum echo shifts from the cartilage surface and the cartilage-bone interface, no significant differences were observed among the three groups. Conclusions These findings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Gersem, Hilde; Moens, David; Desmet, Wim; Vandepitte, Dirk
2005-12-01
This work introduces a numerical algorithm to calculate frequency response functions of damped finite element models with fuzzy uncertain parameters. Part 1 of this paper focusses on the numerical procedure for the solution of the underlying interval finite element problem, based on the undamped procedure and the principle of Rayleigh damping. Part 2 of this paper illustrates the applicability of the methodology through four case studies. The concepts of the interval and the fuzzy finite element frequency response function analysis are illustrated for different types of uncertainties. The obtained results are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations.
Dunn, W.N.
1998-03-01
LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.
Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry J.; Croes, Kenneth James; Rodriguez, Mark A.
2015-07-01
Two large size Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste forms containing AgI-MOR were fabricated. One contained methyl iodide-loaded AgI-MOR that was received from Idaho National Laboratory (INL, Test 5, Beds 1 – 3) and the other contained iodine vapor loaded AgIMOR that was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, SHB 2/9/15 ). The composition for each GCM was 20 wt% AgI-MOR and 80 wt% Ferro EG2922 low sintering temperature glass along with enough added silver flake to prevent any I2 loss during the firing process. The silver flake amounts were 1.2 wt% for the GCM with the INL AgI-MOR and 3 wt% for the GCM contained the ORNL AgI-MOR. The GCMs, nominally 100 g, were first uniaxially pressed to 6.35 cm (2.5 inch) diameter disks then cold isostatically pressed, before firing in air to 550°C for 1hr. They were cooled slowly (1°C/min) from the firing temperature to avoid any cracking due to temperature gradients. The final GCMs were ~5 cm in diameter (~2 inches) and non-porous with densities of ~4.2 g/cm³. X-ray diffraction indicated that they consisted of the amorphous glass phase with small amounts of mordenite and AgI. Furthermore, the presence of the AgI was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence. Methodology for the scaled up production of GCMs to 6 inch diameter or larger is also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazyuk, S. S.; Ignat'ev, D. N.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Popov, E. B.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.
2013-05-01
A balance procedure is proposed for estimating the main parameters characterizing the process of model fuel assemblies reflooding of a VVER reactor made on different scales under the conditions of a design basis accident by subjecting them to bottom reflooding1. The proposed procedure satisfactorily describes the experimental data obtained on PARAMETER test facility in the temperature range up to 1200°C. The times of fuel assemblies quenching by bottom reflooding calculated using the proposed procedure are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data obtained on model fuel assemblies of VVER- and PWR-type reactors and can be used in developing measures aimed at enhancing the safety of nuclear power stations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.
1983-01-01
A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.
Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.
1983-05-01
A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.
Ferguson, N.; Inokoshi, O.; Kitani, T.; Masuda, S.; Zarate, H.
1983-05-01
The loadout of the 22,000 tonnes North Rankin Jacket 'A' onto a floating barge was successfully accomplished in April, 1982. During the loadout the barge ballast was continually adjusted to compensate for both jacket weight transfer onto the barge and full tide variation. The preparation for the loadout and the operation itself was characterized by newly developed integrated techniques. The techniques included: the development of a barge, jacket and quayside three-dimensional computer model to check the validity of conventional and simple ballast system software. The model was also used to evaluate the control parameters of the operation in a series of analyses which determine the sensitivity of critical steps of the operation to human or equipment errors: the development and operation of an integrated control system for jacket load transfer that relates jacket position to barge level and ballast pump requirements; the development and operation of a tide-expectation computer programme and associated ballast pump time scheduling software to compensate for differences between actual water level and that determined from standard tide tables, and to minimize the effect of short-term, local tide variations that are not forecast; and the incorporation of fail-safe concepts and measures into the operation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Booth, Katherine W.
1959-01-01
Subsonic span loads and the resulting stability derivatives have been calculated using the discrete-horseshoe-vortex method for a systematic series of horizontal tails in combination with a vertical tail of aspect ratio 1.0 in order to provide information on the effect of varying the chord of the horizontal tail for isolated tail assemblies performing sideslip and steady-roll motions. In addition, the effects of horizontal-tail dihedral angle for the sideslip case were obtained. Each tail surface considered had a taper ratio of 0.5 and an unswept quarter-chord line. The investigation covered variations in horizontal-tail chord, horizontal-tail span, and vertical location of the horizontal tail. The span loads and the resulting total stability derivatives as well as the vertical- and horizontal-tail contributions to these tail-assembly derivatives are presented in the figures for the purpose of showing the influence of the geometric variables. The results of this investigation showed trends that were in agreement with the results of previous investigations for variations in horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail. Variations in horizontal-tail chord expressed herein in terms of the root-chord ratio, that is, the ratio of horizontal-tail root chord to vertical-tail root chord, were found to have a pronounced influence on most of the span loads and the resulting stability derivatives. For most of the cases considered, the rate of change of the span load coefficients and the stability derivatives with the root-chord ratio was found to be a maximum for small values of root-chord ratio and to decrease as root-chord ratio increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nevinitsa, V. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.
2015-12-01
A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing 233U from 232Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.
Nevinitsa, V. A. Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.
2015-12-15
A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing {sup 233}U from {sup 232}Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.
Wischke, C; Borchert, H-H
2006-06-01
Microparticles prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using a W1/O/W2 double emulsion solvent evaporation method are suitable vehicles for the delivery of proteins to antigen presenting cells, e.g. dendritic cells. In this study, the influence of different techniques for the preparation of the primary W1/O emulsion was investigated with respect to the protein localization within the microparticles, morphological characteristics of these particles, protein burst release and the native state of the released protein. Bovine serum albumin bearing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-BSA) was used as model protein. A static micromixer was applied for the preparation of the W1/O/W2 double emulsion. Employing a rotor-stator homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax) for primary emulsification, microcapsules with a high burst release were produced, because nearly all FITC-BSA was attached to the outside of the particle wall. Using a high pressure homogenizer or an ultrasonic procedure resulted in the formation of microspheres with homogeneous protein distribution and a reduced burst release. PMID:16854818
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beigelbeck, Roman; Schneider, Michael; Schalko, Johannes; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich
2014-09-01
We report on a novel two-step load-deflection (LD) formula and technique that enables an accurate extraction of the Young's modulus and the residual tensile stress from LD measurements on circularly shaped thin-film diaphragms. This LD relationship is derived from an adaptation of Timoshenko's plate bending theory, where the in-plane and out-of-plane deflections are approximated by series expansions. Utilizing the minimum total potential energy principle yields an infinite-dimensional system of equations which is solved analytically resulting in a compact closed-form solution. In the appendant measurement procedure, the whole transverse bending characteristic of the diaphragm as a function of the radial coordinate is recorded for different pressure loads and introduced into the novel LD equation in order to determine the elastomechanical parameters of interest. The flexibility of this approach is demonstrated by ascertaining the Young's modulus and the residual tensile stress of two disparate diaphragm materials made of either micromachined silicon or microfiltered buckypapers composed of carbon nanotube compounds.
Vasiltsova, Tatiana; Heintz, Andreas
2007-12-21
A recently developed statistical mechanical model for calculating Kirkwood correlation factors gK in self associating liquids and liquid mixtures has been applied for the simultaneous description of gK, the molar enthalpy of mixing HEM and the infrared absorption of monomer alcoholic species as function of the composition in alkanol + hexane and alkanol + pentane mixtures (alkanol: butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol, sec-butanol, tert-butanol). The majority of parameters involved into the theory are obtained by independent quantum mechanical ab initio calculations of molecular clusters consisting of up to four alcohol molecules. As a consequence only two parameters have to be adjusted freely to each binary system, a third parameter responsible for the non specific intermolecular dispersion interaction has been adjusted within a limited range of possible values given by physical arguments. Excellent agreement between theory and experimental data of gK, HEM and IR absorbance is obtained covering the whole range of concentration including the temperature dependence of these properties without adjusting further parameters. The Kirkwood correlation factor gK turns out to be a sensitive response to peculiarities of the molecular structure of hydrogen bonded systems in the condensed liquid state. The successful application of the theoretical model opens a new way of a deeper and more reliable understanding of such liquid structures. PMID:18046469
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pougatchev, Valeri
2014-12-01
This paper describes a quantitative measurement approach within an effective and transparent operational/strategic planning framework at all levels of organization, including individuals by linking objectives, initiatives and measures to one holistic organization's strategy. The author has introduced an original parameter V-index that numerically represents the level of accomplishment of strategic/operational plans of the entire organization, its different units, and individual members of staff. The V-index provides a transparency of viewing and effective control of plans of the organization at all levels, with hierarchical and non-hierarchical structures. This parameter facilitates process of year-by-year strategic analysis of the success of the organization and its units by managers. For calculating of actual value of the V-index the author has successfully introduced a recurrent computing algorithm for horizontal/vertical alignment processes of the hierarchical strategic and operational planning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1992-12-01
ESDU 92035 provides details of a FORTRAN program that implements the calculation method of ESDU 83004. It allows performance analysis of an existing design, or the design of a bearing dimensions, subject to any space constraint, are recommended. The predicted performance includes the lubricant film thickness under load, its temperature and flow rate, the power loss, and the bearing temperature. Recommendations are also made on surface finish. Warning messages are output in the following cases, for each of which possible remedial actions are suggested: drain or pad temperature too high, churning losses too great, film thickness too small, pad number too high, ratio or inner to outer pad radius too large, flow rate too great, lubricant or pad temperature outside usable range. A lubricant database is provided that may be extended or edited. The program applies to Newtonian lubricants in laminar flow. Worked examples illustrate the use of the program.
Cook, Troy A.
2013-01-01
Estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) are a key component in determining productivity of wells in continuous-type oil and gas reservoirs. EURs form the foundation of a well-performance-based assessment methodology initially developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; Schmoker, 1999). This methodology was formally reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation (Curtis and others, 2001). The EUR estimation methodology described in this paper was used in the 2013 USGS assessment of continuous oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and incorporates uncertainties that would not normally be included in a basic decline-curve calculation. These uncertainties relate to (1) the mean time before failure of the entire well-production system (excluding economics), (2) the uncertainty of when (and if) a stable hyperbolic-decline profile is revealed in the production data, (3) the particular formation involved, (4) relations between initial production rates and a stable hyperbolic-decline profile, and (5) the final behavior of the decline extrapolation as production becomes more dependent on matrix storage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael
2014-05-01
The North Alpine Foreland Basin is situated in the northern front of the European Alps and extends over parts of France, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. It formed as a wedge shaped depression since the Tertiary in consequence of the Euro - Adriatic continental collision and the Alpine orogeny. The basin is filled with clastic sediments, the Molasse, originating from erosional processes of the Alps and underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions and a Paleozoic crystalline crust. For our study we have focused on the German part of the basin. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state and the load distribution of this region we have constructed a 3D structural model of the basin and the Alpine area using available depth and thickness maps, regional scale 3D structural models as well as seismic and well data for the sedimentary part. The crust (from the top Paleozoic down to the Moho (Grad et al. 2008)) has been considered as two-parted with a lighter upper crust and a denser lower crust; the partition has been calculated following the approach of isostatic equilibrium of Pratt (1855). By implementing a seismic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere-Boundary (LAB) (Tesauro 2009) the crustal scale model has been extended to the lithospheric-scale. The layer geometry and the assigned bulk densities of this starting model have been constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling (BGI, 2012). Afterwards the 3D load distribution has been calculated using a 3D finite element method. Our results show that the North Alpine Foreland Basin is not isostatically balanced and that the configuration of the crystalline crust strongly controls the gravity field in this area. Furthermore, our results show that the basin area is influenced by varying lateral load differences down to a depth of more than 150 km what allows a first order statement of the required compensating horizontal stress needed to prevent gravitational collapse of the system. BGI (2012). The International
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochemasov, G.
2007-08-01
-concave dichotomous shape. After asteroids the warping wave is too long to be detected in a body. So, one has to look for a shorter waves. Saturn's atmosphere rotates too rapidly (or orbits the center of the Saturnian system in ~ 10 h.) and corresponding grains (πR/3448) are too small and difficult (or impossible at present) to see. However, a wave modulation helps us. Multiplying and dividing the higher frequency (1/10 hours) by the lower one (1/30 y.) one gets side frequencies and corresponding them granule sizes. They are [1/3448 : 7.5] πR and [1/3448 x 7.5]πR or 7 and 410 km across. So, detected are calculated granules 410 km across, in the real field they are on average 450 and 580 km in diameter. Somewhat larger grains in the north are attributed to the Saturnian dichotomy: squeezed south and expanded north. The overall expansion of the northern hemisphere makes structural features to manifest themselves (hexagon) and granules to enlarge. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Calculating size of the Saturn's "leopard skin" spots // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, 2007, Abstr. #1040, CD-ROM. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37.[3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr.1999. V.1, ´z3, p.700 ;
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochemasov, G.
2007-08-01
-concave dichotomous shape. After asteroids the warping wave is too long to be detected in a body. So, one has to look for a shorter waves. Saturn's atmosphere rotates too rapidly (or orbits the center of the Saturnian system in π10 h.) and corresponding grains (πR/3448) are too small and difficult (or impossible at present) to see. However, a wave modulation helps us. Multiplying and dividing the higher frequency (1/10 hours) by the lower one (1/30 y.) one gets side frequencies and corresponding them granule sizes. They are [1/3448 : 7.5] πR and [1/3448 x 7.5]πR or 7 and 410 km across. So, detected are calculated granules 410 km across, in the real field they are on average 450 and 580 km in diameter. Somewhat larger grains in the north are attributed to the Saturnian dichotomy: squeezed south and expanded north. The overall expansion of the northern hemisphere makes structural features to manifest themselves (hexagon) and granules to enlarge. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Calculating size of the Saturn's "leopard skin" spots // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, 2007, Abstr. #1040, CD-ROM. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37.[3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr.1999. V.1, ´z3, p.700 ;
Sienicki, J.J.
1997-06-01
A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. PACER has been developed for FORTRAN 77 and earlier versions of FORTRAN. The code has been successfully compiled and executed on SUN SPARC and Hewlett-Packard HP-735 workstations provided that appropriate compiler options are specified. The code incorporates both capabilities built around a hardwired default generic VVER-440 Model V230 design as well as fairly general user-defined input. However, array dimensions are hardwired and must be changed by modifying the source code if the number of compartments/cells differs from the default number of nine. Detailed input instructions are provided as well as a description of outputs. Input files and selected output are presented for two sample problems run on both HP-735 and SUN SPARC workstations.
Heyman, Gene M.; Grisanzio, Katherine A.; Liang, Victor
2016-01-01
We tested whether principles that describe the allocation of overt behavior, as in choice experiments, also describe the allocation of cognition, as in attention experiments. Our procedure is a cognitive version of the “two-armed bandit choice procedure.” The two-armed bandit procedure has been of interest to psychologistsand economists because it tends to support patterns of responding that are suboptimal. Each of two alternatives provides rewards according to fixed probabilities. The optimal solution is to choose the alternative with the higher probability of reward on each trial. However, subjects often allocate responses so that the probability of a response approximates its probability of reward. Although it is this result which has attracted most interest, probability matching is not always observed. As a function of monetary incentives, practice, and individual differences, subjects tend to deviate from probability matching toward exclusive preference, as predicted by maximizing. In our version of the two-armed bandit procedure, the monitor briefly displayed two, small adjacent stimuli that predicted correct responses according to fixed probabilities, as in a two-armed bandit procedure. We show that in this setting, a simple linear equation describes the relationship between attention and correct responses, and that the equation’s solution is the allocation of attention between the two stimuli. The calculations showed that attention allocation varied as a function of the degree to which the stimuli predicted correct responses. Linear regression revealed a strong correlation (r = 0.99) between the predictiveness of a stimulus and the probability of attending to it. Nevertheless there were deviations from probability matching, and although small, they were systematic and statistically significant. As in choice studies, attention allocation deviated toward maximizing as a function of practice, feedback, and incentives. Our approach also predicts the
Esquivel, C; Patton, L; Nelson, K; Lin, B
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of the tandem loading in the treatment of cervical cancer for HDR brachytherapy procedures. Methods: Ten patients were evaluated, each of whom received 5 fractions of treatment. Tandem and ovoid sets were inserted into the uterine cavity based on institutional protocols and procedures. Following insertion and stabilization, CT image sets of 1.5mm slice thickness were acquired and sent to the Oncentra V4.3 Treatment Planning System. Critical structures such as the CTV, bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and bowel were contoured and a fractional dose of 5.5Gy was prescribed to Point A for each patient. Six different treatment plans were created for each fraction using varying tandem weightings; from 0.5 to 1.4 times that of the ovoids. Surface dose evaluation of various ovoid diameters, 2.0-3.5cm, at the vaginal fornices was also investigated. Results: Critical structures were evaluated based on varying dose and volume constraints, in particular the 2.0 cc volume recommendation cited by the gynecological GEC-ESTRO working group. Based on dose volume histogram evaluation, a reduction of dose to the critical structures was most often discovered when the tandem weighting was increased. CTV coverage showed little change as the tandem weighting was varied. Ovoid surface dose decreased by 50-65% as the tandem weighting increased. Conclusion: The advantage of 3D planning with HDR brachytherapy is the dose optimization for each individual treatment plan. This investigation shows that by utilizing large tandem weightings, 1.4 times greater than the ovoid, one can still achieve adequate coverage of the CTV and relatively low doses to the critical structures. In some cases, one would still have to optimize further per individual case. In addition, the ovoid surface dose was greatly decreased when large tandem weighting was utilized; especially for small ovoid diameters.
Characterizing the uncertainty in holddown post load measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, J. A.; Townsend, J. S.
1993-01-01
In order to understand unexpectedly erratic load measurements in the launch-pad supports for the space shuttle, the sensitivities of the load cells in the supports were analyzed using simple probabilistic techniques. NASA engineers use the loads in the shuttle's supports to calculate critical stresses in the shuttle vehicle just before lift-off. The support loads are measured with 'load cells' which are actually structural components of the mobile launch platform which have been instrumented with strain gauges. Although these load cells adequately measure vertical loads, the horizontal load measurements have been erratic. The load measurements were simulated in this study using Monte Carlo simulation procedures. The simulation studies showed that the support loads are sensitive to small deviations in strain and calibration. In their current configuration, the load cells will not measure loads with sufficient accuracy to reliably calculate stresses in the shuttle vehicle. A simplified model of the holddown post (HDP) load measurement system was used to study the effect on load measurement accuracy for several factors, including load point deviations, gauge heights, and HDP geometry.
Rana, V K; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R
2014-06-01
Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different
PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING CESSATION LAG
Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is implemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a considerable period of time. The t...
Damilakis, J; Stratakis, J; Solomou, G
2014-06-01
Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50–120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5–9.0 mm Al). Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester). Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.
2009-03-01
This paper presents a new method for modelling floating-slab tracks with discontinuous slabs in underground railway tunnels. The track is subjected to a harmonic load moving with a constant velocity. The model consists of two sub-models. The first is an infinite track with periodic double-beam unit formulated as a periodic infinite structure. The second is modelled with a new version of the Pipe-in-Pipe (PiP) model that accounts for a tunnel wall embedded in a half-space. The two sub-models are coupled by writing the force transmitted from the track to the tunnel as a continuous function using Fourier series representation and satisfying the compatibility condition. The displacements at the free surface are calculated for a track with discontinuous slab and compared with those of a track with continuous slab. The results show that the far-field vibration can be significantly increased due to resonance frequencies of slabs for tracks with discontinuous slabs.
Gardner, Ron
2012-04-01
This paper proposes a novel use of the reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) to calculate workplace emergency action levels (WEALs) for accidental releases of hydrocarbon mixtures. WEALs are defined here as the concentration in air that area monitors should alarm at to provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to allow at least enough time to don respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and escape. The rationale for the approach is analysed, and ways of defining suitable substance group guidance values (GVs) for input into the RCP are considered and compared. WEAL GVs could be based on: 3× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 3× rule), the 5× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 5× rule for calculating ceiling values), emergency exposure limits, or immediately dangerous to life or health values (IDLHs). Of these, the method of choice is to base WEAL GVs on health-based IDLH values, which were developed for emergency situations in the workplace. However, IDLHs have only been set for 11 hydrocarbons, so the choice of GVs is also informed by comparison with possible GVs based on the other approaches. Using the proposed GVs, WEALs were calculated for various hydrocarbon mixtures, and the way they vary with the composition of the mixture was examined. Also, the level of health protection given by the current practice of setting emergency area alarms in the oil and gas industry at 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) was tested by comparing this with the WEAL. In the event of an accidental release, this comparison suggests that, provided that aromatics constitute <50% of the mixture, an alarm set at 10% LEL should provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to at allow at least enough time to don RPE and escape. In the absence of better information or specific acute toxicity concerns (such as the presence of hydrogen sulphide), it is proposed that the WEALs be used as a guide for assessing the adequacy of area alarm levels in respect of warning
Shope, Christopher L.; Angeroth, Cory E.
2015-01-01
Effective management of surface waters requires a robust understanding of spatiotemporal constituent loadings from upstream sources and the uncertainty associated with these estimates. We compared the total dissolved solids loading into the Great Salt Lake (GSL) for water year 2013 with estimates of previously sampled periods in the early 1960s.We also provide updated results on GSL loading, quantitatively bounded by sampling uncertainties, which are useful for current and future management efforts. Our statistical loading results were more accurate than those from simple regression models. Our results indicate that TDS loading to the GSL in water year 2013 was 14.6 million metric tons with uncertainty ranging from 2.8 to 46.3 million metric tons, which varies greatly from previous regression estimates for water year 1964 of 2.7 million metric tons. Results also indicate that locations with increased sampling frequency are correlated with decreasing confidence intervals. Because time is incorporated into the LOADEST models, discrepancies are largely expected to be a function of temporally lagged salt storage delivery to the GSL associated with terrestrial and in-stream processes. By incorporating temporally variable estimates and statistically derived uncertainty of these estimates,we have provided quantifiable variability in the annual estimates of dissolved solids loading into the GSL. Further, our results support the need for increased monitoring of dissolved solids loading into saline lakes like the GSL by demonstrating the uncertainty associated with different levels of sampling frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Seok-Myeong; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Jang-Young; Ko, Kyoung-Jin
2009-04-01
This paper presents an analytical procedure for the calculation of the eddy current losses of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The dc and ac loading effects on the eddy current is examined through the suggested analytical procedure that considers the radial and tangential flux density waveform through a phase current harmonic analysis. The corresponding test results are also presented to quantify and compare those loading effects on the eddy current. The results verified the suggested analytical procedures and show that the rotor eddy current losses for PMSG with the dc loads turned out to be more significant than those with the ac loads.
Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies
Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.
1980-11-01
This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.
Zhang, Ruibin; Gao, Hailong; Zhu, Wenting; Hu, Wei; Ye, Rui
2015-08-01
The deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern in recent years. The primary pollution sources of Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers. Effective environmental water management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake and to promote sustainable development in the region. In this study, the QUAL2K model is used in conjunction with the trial and error approach to assess permissible load capacities for the Wujin River (a major tributary of Taihu Lake) in terms of COD, NH3-N, TN, and TP. Results show that permissible annual loads for these pollutants are 5216.31, 491.71, 948.53, and 104.38 t, respectively. This suggests that COD, NH3-N, TN, and TP loads in the Wujin River catchment need to be reduced by 13.35, 27.26, 47.75, and 37.08 %, respectively, to satisfy national water quality objectives. Total amount control measures are proposed to control and reduce pollution loads of the Wujin River catchment. The method applied in this study should provide a sound basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:25822841
Composite load spectra for select space propulsion structural components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newell, J. F.; Ho, H. W.; Kurth, R. E.
1991-01-01
The work performed to develop composite load spectra (CLS) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) using probabilistic methods. The three methods were implemented to be the engine system influence model. RASCAL was chosen to be the principal method as most component load models were implemented with the method. Validation of RASCAL was performed. High accuracy comparable to the Monte Carlo method can be obtained if a large enough bin size is used. Generic probabilistic models were developed and implemented for load calculations using the probabilistic methods discussed above. Each engine mission, either a real fighter or a test, has three mission phases: the engine start transient phase, the steady state phase, and the engine cut off transient phase. Power level and engine operating inlet conditions change during a mission. The load calculation module provides the steady-state and quasi-steady state calculation procedures with duty-cycle-data option. The quasi-steady state procedure is for engine transient phase calculations. In addition, a few generic probabilistic load models were also developed for specific conditions. These include the fixed transient spike model, the poison arrival transient spike model, and the rare event model. These generic probabilistic load models provide sufficient latitude for simulating loads with specific conditions. For SSME components, turbine blades, transfer ducts, LOX post, and the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) discharge duct were selected for application of the CLS program. They include static pressure loads and dynamic pressure loads for all four components, centrifugal force for the turbine blade, temperatures of thermal loads for all four components, and structural vibration loads for the ducts and LOX posts.
Vehicle track loading simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chalupa, Milan; Severa, Libor; Vlach, Radek
2011-12-01
The paper describes possible design of the vehicle track computational model and basic testing procedure of the track dynamic loading simulation. The proposed approach leads to an improvement of track vehicle course stability. The computational model is built for MSC. ADAMS, AVT computational simulating system. Model, which is intended for MSC computational system, is built from two basic parts. The first one is represented by geometrical part, while the second one by contact computational part of the model. The aim of the simulating calculation consist in determination of change influence of specific vehicle track constructive parameters on changes of examined qualities of the vehicle track link and changes of track vehicle course stability. The work quantifies the influence of changes of track preloading values on the demanded torque changes of driving sprocket. Further research possibilities and potential are also presented.
The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures undertaken for calculating ingestion exposure from Day 4 composite measurements from duplicate diet using the direct method of exposure estimation. This SOP uses data that have been properly coded and certified with appropria...
Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George
2015-04-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent 'raised' and 'lowered' postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen-pelvis, and chest-abdomen-pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97-32.12% larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from -15.01 to -11.33% whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24% with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube current necessary to
Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent ‘raised’ and ‘lowered’ postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen–pelvis, and chest–abdomen–pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97–32.12 % larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from −15.01 to −11.33 % whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24 % with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube
Consideration of sample size for estimating contaminant load reductions using load duration curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Karthikeyan, R.
2009-06-01
SummaryIn Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) programs, load duration curves are often used to estimate reduction of contaminant loads in a watershed. A popular method for calculating these load reductions involves estimation of the 90th percentiles of monitored contaminant concentrations during different hydrologic conditions. However, water quality monitoring is expensive and can pose major limitations in collecting enough data. Availability of scarce water quality data can, therefore, deteriorate the precision in the estimates of the 90th percentiles, which, in turn, affects the accuracy of estimated load reductions. This paper proposes an adaptive sampling strategy that the data collection agencies can use for not only optimizing their collection of new samples across different hydrologic conditions, but also ensuring that newly collected samples provide opportunity for best possible improvements in the precision of the estimated 90th percentile with minimum sampling costs. The sampling strategy was used to propose sampling plans for Escherichia coli monitoring in an actual stream and different sampling procedures of the strategy were tested for hypothetical stream data. Results showed that improvement in precision using the proposed distributed sampling procedure is much better and faster than that attained via the lumped sampling procedure, for the same sampling cost. Hence, it is recommended that when agencies have a fixed sampling budget, they should collect samples in consecutive monitoring cycles as proposed by the distributed sampling procedure, rather than investing all their resources in only one monitoring cycle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Barszcz, Tomasz; Urbanek, Jacek
2014-05-01
Condition monitoring of bearings used in Wind Turbines (WT) is an important issue. In general, bearings diagnostics is a well recognized field of research; however, it is not the case for machines operating under non-stationary load. In the case of varying load/speed, vibration signal generated by rolling element bearings is affected by operation factors, and makes the diagnosis relatively difficult. These difficulties come from the variation of vibration-based diagnostic features caused mostly by load/speed variation (operation factors), low energy of sought-after features, and low signal-to-noise levels. Analysis of the signal from the main bearing is even more difficult due to a very low rotational speed of the main shaft. In the paper, a novel diagnostic approach is proposed for bearings used in wind turbines. As an input data we use parameters obtained from commercial diagnostic system (peak-to-peak and root mean square (RMS) of vibration acceleration, and generator power that is related to the operating conditions). The received data cover the period of several months.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Tao; Stern, Frederick
2015-11-01
Eça and Hoekstra [1] proposed a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of CFD calculations based on the least squares root (LSR) method. We believe that the LSR method has potential value for providing an extended Richardson-extrapolation solution verification procedure for mixed monotonic and oscillatory or only oscillatory convergent solutions (based on the usual systematic grid-triplet convergence condition R). Current Richardson-extrapolation solution verification procedures [2-7] are restricted to monotonic convergent solutions 0 < R < 1. Procedures for oscillatory convergence simply either use uncertainty estimate based on average maximum minus minimum solutions [8,9] or arbitrarily large factors of safety (FS) [2]. However, in our opinion several issues preclude the usefulness of the presented LSR method: five criticisms follow. The solution verification literature needs technical discussion in order to put the LSR method in context. The LSR method has many options making it very difficult to follow. Fig. 1 provides a block diagram, which summarizes the LSR procedure and options, including some of which we are in disagreement. Compared to the grid-triplet and three-step procedure followed by most solution verification methods (convergence condition followed by error and uncertainty estimates), the LSR method follows a four-grid (minimum) and four-step procedure (error estimate, data range parameter Δϕ, FS, and uncertainty estimate).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Ryoji; Maekawa, Kazuo; Shimomura, Kimihiko; Sasaki, Takashi; Kowada, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Toru
A new Autonomous Stabilizing Controller (ASC) has been developed, which is based on the concept of using only locall information measured at the substation where ASC is installed. ASC prevents the power system from wide-area blackout by shedding generators optimally when a serious fault occurs in 154kV-or-below-voltage power system and is cleared by backup relay. ASC consists of three functions, a function of detecting faults and judging of starting stability calculations (The first function), a function of calculating power system stability (The second function), and a function of selecting optimal generators to be shed (The third function). The first function composes a signal for starting stability calculations when a fault cleared by backup relay is detected. According to the starting signal composed by the first function, the second function executes stability calculations based on equal area criterion. If the result of stability calculations is instable, the third function selects a generator to be shed by considering not only the stabilizing effect but also the quickly restoration after shedding. This paper presents total algorithms applied in ASC.
Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas; Ziegler, Andrew C.
2009-01-01
In-stream continuous turbidity and streamflow data, calibrated with measured suspended-sediment concentration data, can be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentration and load at a stream site. Development of a simple linear (ordinary least squares) regression model for computing suspended-sediment concentrations from instantaneous turbidity data is the first step in the computation process. If the model standard percentage error (MSPE) of the simple linear regression model meets a minimum criterion, this model should be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentrations. Otherwise, a multiple linear regression model using paired instantaneous turbidity and streamflow data is developed and compared to the simple regression model. If the inclusion of the streamflow variable proves to be statistically significant and the uncertainty associated with the multiple regression model results in an improvement over that for the simple linear model, the turbidity-streamflow multiple linear regression model should be used to compute a suspended-sediment concentration time series. The computed concentration time series is subsequently used with its paired streamflow time series to compute suspended-sediment loads by standard U.S. Geological Survey techniques. Once an acceptable regression model is developed, it can be used to compute suspended-sediment concentration beyond the period of record used in model development with proper ongoing collection and analysis of calibration samples. Regression models to compute suspended-sediment concentrations are generally site specific and should never be considered static, but they represent a set period in a continually dynamic system in which additional data will help verify any change in sediment load, type, and source.
We use USEPA’s Estuary Nitrogen Model (ENM) to calculate annual average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in ten estuaries or sub-estuaries along the Atlantic coast from New Hampshire to Florida. These include a variety of systems, ranging from strongly-flushed bays to weakly...
Hayashi, Atsuko; Emanovsky, Paul D; Pietrusewsky, Michael; Holland, Thomas D
2016-03-01
Estimating stature from skeletonized remains is one of the essential parameters in the development of a biological profile. A new procedure for determining skeletal height (SKH) incorporating the vertical space height (VSH) from the anterior margin of the sacral promontory to the superior margins of the acetabulae for use in the anatomical method of stature estimation is introduced. Regression equations for stature estimation were generated from measurements of 38 American males of European ancestry from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. The modification to the procedure results in a SKH that is highly correlated with stature (r = 0.925-0.948). Stature estimates have low standard errors of the estimate ranging from 21.79 to 25.95 mm, biases from to 0.50 to 0.94 mm, and accuracy rates from 17.71 mm to 19.45 mm. The procedure for determining the VSH, which replaces "S1 height" in traditional anatomical method models, is a key improvement to the method. PMID:27404615
Vasquez, V R; Curren, J; Lau, S-L; Stenstrom, M K; Suffet, I H
2011-09-01
Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. PMID:21764423
Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Loading Tool (MDMLT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brewer, Lenox Allen; Hale, Elizabeth; Martella, Robert; Gyorfi, Ryan
2012-01-01
The purpose of the MDMLT is to improve the reliability and speed of loading multiplexers/demultiplexers (MDMs) in the Software Development and Integration Laboratory (SDIL) by automating the configuration management (CM) of the loads in the MDMs, automating the loading procedure, and providing the capability to load multiple or all MDMs concurrently. This loading may be accomplished in parallel, or single MDMs (remote). The MDMLT is a Web-based tool that is capable of loading the entire International Space Station (ISS) MDM configuration in parallel. It is able to load Flight Equivalent Units (FEUs), enhanced, standard, and prototype MDMs as well as both EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) and SSMMU (Solid State Mass Memory Unit) (MASS Memory). This software has extensive configuration management to track loading history, and the performance improvement means of loading the entire ISS MDM configuration of 49 MDMs in approximately 30 minutes, as opposed to 36 hours, which is what it took previously utilizing the flight method of S-Band uplink. The laptop version recently added to the MDMLT suite allows remote lab loading with the CM of information entered into a common database when it is reconnected to the network. This allows the program to reconfigure the test rigs quickly between shifts, allowing the lab to support a variety of onboard configurations during a single day, based on upcoming or current missions. The MDMLT Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) supports a Web-based command and control interface to the user. An interface to the SDIL File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server is supported to import Integrated Flight Loads (IFLs) and Internal Product Release Notes (IPRNs) into the database. An interface to the Monitor and Control System (MCS) is supported to control the power state, and to enable or disable the debug port of the MDMs to be loaded. Two direct interfaces to the MDM are supported: a serial interface (debug port) to
Sharada, Shaama Mallikarjun; Bell, Alexis T. E-mail: bell@cchem.berkeley.edu; Head-Gordon, Martin E-mail: bell@cchem.berkeley.edu
2014-04-28
The cost of calculating nuclear hessians, either analytically or by finite difference methods, during the course of quantum chemical analyses can be prohibitive for systems containing hundreds of atoms. In many applications, though, only a few eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and not the full hessian, are required. For instance, the lowest one or two eigenvalues of the full hessian are sufficient to characterize a stationary point as a minimum or a transition state (TS), respectively. We describe here a method that can eliminate the need for hessian calculations for both the characterization of stationary points as well as searches for saddle points. A finite differences implementation of the Davidson method that uses only first derivatives of the energy to calculate the lowest eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the hessian is discussed. This method can be implemented in conjunction with geometry optimization methods such as partitioned-rational function optimization (P-RFO) to characterize stationary points on the potential energy surface. With equal ease, it can be combined with interpolation methods that determine TS guess structures, such as the freezing string method, to generate approximate hessian matrices in lieu of full hessians as input to P-RFO for TS optimization. This approach is shown to achieve significant cost savings relative to exact hessian calculation when applied to both stationary point characterization as well as TS optimization. The basic reason is that the present approach scales one power of system size lower since the rate of convergence is approximately independent of the size of the system. Therefore, the finite-difference Davidson method is a viable alternative to full hessian calculation for stationary point characterization and TS search particularly when analytical hessians are not available or require substantial computational effort.
Calculation of multiphoton ionization processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, T. N.; Poe, R. T.
1976-01-01
We propose an accurate and efficient procedure in the calculation of multiphoton ionization processes. In addition to the calculational advantage, this procedure also enables us to study the relative contributions of the resonant and nonresonant intermediate states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.
2012-10-01
Accurate isomerization energies are obtained for a set of 45 C8H8 isomers by means of the high-level, ab initio W1-F12 thermochemical protocol. The 45 isomers involve a range of hydrocarbon functional groups, including (linear and cyclic) polyacetylene, polyyne, and cumulene moieties, as well as aromatic, anti-aromatic, and highly-strained rings. Performance of a variety of DFT functionals for the isomerization energies is evaluated. This proves to be a challenging test: only six of the 56 tested functionals attain root mean square deviations (RMSDs) below 3 kcal mol-1 (the performance of MP2), namely: 2.9 (B972-D), 2.8 (PW6B95), 2.7 (B3PW91-D), 2.2 (PWPB95-D3), 2.1 (ωB97X-D), and 1.2 (DSD-PBEP86) kcal mol-1. Isomers involving highly-strained fused rings or long cumulenic chains provide a 'torture test' for most functionals. Finally, we evaluate the performance of composite procedures (e.g. G4, G4(MP2), CBS-QB3, and CBS-APNO), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g. MP2, SCS-MP2, MP4, CCSD, and SCS-CCSD). Both connected triples and post-MP4 singles and doubles are important for accurate results. SCS-MP2 actually outperforms MP4(SDQ) for this problem, while SCS-MP3 yields similar performance as CCSD and slightly bests MP4. All the tested empirical composite procedures show excellent performance with RMSDs below 1 kcal mol-1.
Programmable calculator stress analysis
Van Gulick, L.A.
1983-01-01
Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, D. H.; Safronski, S. G.
1972-01-01
Computer program to generate time history of load factor and pressure on conical body of revolution during impact with water is discussed. Program calculates depth of penetration, velocity, force, load factor, maximum pressure at water line, and average pressure. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 Level H for IBM 360/85/195 Release 20.1 computer.
Spletzer, Barry L.
2001-01-01
A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.
Spletzer, B.L.
1998-12-15
A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.
Spletzer, Barry L.
1998-01-01
A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weatherill, Warren H.; Ehlers, F. Edward
1989-01-01
A finite difference method for solving the unsteady transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings is investigated. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The differential equation for the unsteady potential is linear with spatially varying coefficients and with the time variable eliminated by assuming harmonic motion. Difference equations are derived for harmonic transonic flow to include a coordinate transformation for swept and tapered planforms. A pilot program is developed for three-dimensional planar lifting surface configurations (including thickness) for the CRAY-XMP at Boeing Commercial Airplanes and for the CYBER VPS-32 at the NASA Langley Research Center. An investigation is made of the effect of the location of the outer boundaries on accuracy for very small reduced frequencies. Finally, the pilot program is applied to the flutter analysis of a rectangular wing.
Maximum von Mises Stress in the Loading Environment of Mass Acceleration Curve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaser, Robert J.; Chen, Long Y.
2006-01-01
Method for calculating stress due to acceleration loading: 1) Part has been designed by FEA and hand calculation in one critical loading direction judged by the analyst; 2) Maximum stress can be due to loading in another direction; 3) Analysis procedure to be presented determines: a) The maximum Mises stress at any point; and b) The direction of maximum loading associated with the "stress". Concept of Mass Acceleration Curves (MAC): 1) Developed by JPL to perform preliminary structural sizing (i.e. Mariners, Voyager, Galileo, Pathfinder, MER,...MSL); 2) Acceleration of physical masses are bounded by a curve; 3) G-levels of vibro-acoustic and transient environments; 4) Convergent process before the couple loads cycle; and 5) Semi-empirical method to effectively bound the loads, not a simulation of the actual response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolas, Jacques; Delva, Julien; Cobut, Pierre; Romain, Anne-Claude
A specific formula to calculate separation distance from piggeries and poultry facilities to sensitive receptor is developed for Walloon Region, in Belgium. The paper briefly presents the main principles of the formula and discusses more deeply the compatibility of the distance approach with odour units, odour rate and percentiles usually applied to assess the odour annoyance zones. A method of validation is presented and tested to adjust the different parameters of the formula to Belgian field reality. A total of 43 farms of which 21 piggeries and 22 poultry facilities are visited and, for each case, the distance calculated by the formula is compared to the one deduced from odour annoyance criterion (10 ou m -3 at 98th percentile). Validation work results in discussing the sensibility of different factors of the formula and especially in adjusting a fitting factor to match the absolute distances to real field annoyance impression. Conclusions show that both approaches - separation distance formula and percentile evaluation - are coherent. The validation method allows parameter adjustment but should need further refinements to examine separately piggeries and poultry facilities.
Pyroshock prediction procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piersol, Allan G.
2002-05-01
Given sufficient effort, pyroshock loads can be predicted by direct analytical procedures using Hydrocodes that analytically model the details of the pyrotechnic explosion and its interaction with adjacent structures, including nonlinear effects. However, it is more common to predict pyroshock environments using empirical procedures based upon extensive studies of past pyroshock data. Various empirical pyroshock prediction procedures are discussed, including those developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.
Axially Loaded Behavior of Driven PC Piles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Shih-Tsung
2010-05-01
To obtain a fair load-settlement curve of a driven pile, and to evaluate the ultimate pile capacity more accurately, a numerical model was created to simulate the ground movements during a pile being driven. After the procedure, the axially loaded behaviors of the piles in silty sand were analyzed. The numerical results are compared with those results by full scale pile load tests. It was found, although the loads added on the tested piles are different from those by the numerical analyses which applied displacement increments on piles, the load-settlement behaviors of piles calculated from the numerical model were close to those measured from field tests before the piles stressed to peak. Total load, shaft friction, and point bearing do not reach peak values at the same pile settlement; furthermore, the point bearing slowly increases all the while, with no peak. However, the point bearing only contributes 10˜20% of ultimate pile capacity. No matter which relative density of silty sand, pile diameter, and pile length increased, ultimate pile capacity increased as well.
Procedures for shape optimization of gas turbine disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheu, Tsu-Chien
1989-01-01
Two procedures, the feasible direction method and sequential linear programming, for shape optimization of gas turbine disks are presented. The objective of these procedures is to obtain optimal designs of turbine disks with geometric and stress constraints. The coordinates of the selected points on the disk contours are used as the design variables. Structural weight, stress and their derivatives with respect to the design variables are calculated by an efficient finite element method for design senitivity analysis. Numerical examples of the optimal designs of a disk subjected to thermo-mechanical loadings are presented to illustrate and compare the effectiveness of these two procedures.
Guidelines for transmission line structural loading
Not Available
1984-01-01
This guide provides methods for the selection of design loads and load factors. This is accomplished by the presentation of a Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) procedure. The basic formula for wind force is discussed. This include basic wind speed, terrain and height coefficients, gust response factors, and pressure coefficients. Information is also provided on ice loads, tornadoes, hurricanes, longitudinal loads, construction, and maintenance loads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhode, Richard V.; Stokke, Allen R.; Rogin, Leo
1947-01-01
Several dive paths were calculated for a C54 airplane starting from level flight at an altitude of 4000 feet and from an initial indicated airspeed of 200 miles per hour. The results show that, within the limits of the possible paths permitted by the evidence of the crash at Bainbridge, the speed of impact would be about 370 miles per hour and the time to crash would be between 12 1/2 and 15 1/2 seconds. Tail load calculations indicate that, with moderate negative acceleration of the airplane, the tail would fail near the end of the dive in a manner consistent in several important respects with the evidence. A number of tests were made of the elevator tab control system to determine whether the tab would move by an amount sufficient to have caused the observed dive if the stored energy in the tab control cable were suddenly released. The results of these tests indicated that the probable tab movement is such as to be capable of causing a dive similar to the one observed at Bainbridge.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The suspended load of rivers and streams consists of the sediments that are kept in the water column by the upward components of the flow velocity. Suspended load may be divided into cohesive and non-cohesive loads which are primarily discriminated by sediment particle size. Non-cohesive sediment ...
ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING
This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...
A multi-purpose method for analysis of spur gear tooth loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kasuba, R.; Evans, J. W.; August, R.; Frater, J. L.
1981-01-01
A large digitized approach was developed for the static and dynamic load analysis of spur gearing. An iterative procedure was used to calculate directly the "variable-variable" gear mesh stiffness as a function of transmitted load, gear tooth profile errors, gear tooth deflections and gear hub torsional deformation, and position of contacting profile points. The developed approach can be used to analyze the loads, Hertz stresses, and PV for the normal and high contrast ratio gearing, presently the modeling is limited to the condition that for a given gear all teeth have identical spacing and profiles (with or without surface imperfections). Certain types of simulated sinusoidal profile errors and pitting can cause interruptions of the gear mesh stiffness function and, thus, increase the dynamic loads in spur gearing. In addition, a finite element stress and mesh subprogram was developed for future introduction into the main program for calculating the gear tooth bending stresses under dynamic loads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogallo, Vernon L; Yaggy, Paul F; Mccloud, John L , III
1956-01-01
A simplified procedure is shown for calculating the once-per-revolution oscillating aerodynamic thrust loads on propellers of tractor airplanes at zero yaw. The only flow field information required for the application of the procedure is a knowledge of the upflow angles at the horizontal center line of the propeller disk. Methods are presented whereby these angles may be computed without recourse to experimental survey of the flow field. The loads computed by the simplified procedure are compared with those computed by a more rigorous method and the procedure is applied to several airplane configurations which are believed typical of current designs. The results are generally satisfactory.
The CIPW Normative Calculation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bickel, Charles
1979-01-01
The author has rewritten rules for CIPW norm calculation and has written FORTRAN IV programs to assist the student in this procedure. Includes a set of problems utilizing the CIPW norm to illustrate principles of chemical petrology. (MA)
Airborne antenna pattern calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knerr, T. J.; Schaffner, P. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Gilreath, M. C.
1980-01-01
A procedure for numerically calculating radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas using the Volumetric Pattern Analysis Program is presented. Special attention is given to aircraft modeling. An actual case study involving a large commercial aircraft is included to illustrate the analysis procedure.
Analyzing Static Loading of Complex Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallear, D. C.
1986-01-01
Critical loading conditions determined from analysis of each structural element. Automated Thrust Structures Loads and Stresses (ATLAS) system is series of programs developed to analyze elements of complex structure under static-loading conditions. ATLAS calculates internal loads, beam-bending loads, column- and web-buckling loads, beam and panel stresses, and beam-corner stresses. Programs written in FORTRAN IV and Assembler for batch execution.
[Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].
Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu
2016-01-01
The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets. PMID:27396144
Calculating interior daylight illumination with a programmable hand calculator
Bryan, H.J.; Clear, R.D.
1981-07-01
A procedure is described for calculating interior daylight illumination using an inexpensive programmable hand calculator. The proposed procedure calculates illumination at any point within a room utilizing sky luminance distribution functions that are consistent with the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Overcast and Clear Sky functions. This procedure separates the light reaching the point being considered into three components, these being (a) light directly from the sky, (b) light after being reflected from external, and (c) internal surfaces. Finally, two examples are presented in order to demonstrate the proposed procedure and indicate the speed with which the calculations may be performed.
Wide range load controllable MCFC cycle with pressure swing operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao
Partial load efficiencies of a natural gas fuelled MCFC/GT system are calculated; the efficiencies of four systems are compared. A constant pressure air compressor is applied in system cases 1 and 2, whereas a pressure swing air compressor is provided in system cases 3 and 4. A gas cooler is integrated in the cathode gas recycling line of cases 2-4, and an anode recycling with sub-reformer is provided in case 4. The cathode pressure loss in the MCFC stack is kept below 3 kPa during the calculation procedure to avoid a leakage of cathode gas. The range of the power load is limited to 50-100% in the constant operating pressure system (cases 1 and 2), mainly because of the limited cathode gas pressure loss of 3 kPa. The range of the power load is enlarged to 20-100% in cases 3 and 4 by combining the pressure swing operation with gas cooling in the cathode recycling line. In system cases 3 and 4, the efficiency at the lowest load operation (approx. 20-30% load) remains over 35% HHV-CH 4, whereas the maximum efficiency is calculated to be 53% HHV-CH 4 in middle load operation; the efficiency of case 4 at 100% load is estimated to be 50% HHV-CH 4. The combination of the pressure swing operation and gas cooling in the cathode recycling line offers a high efficiency of the MCFC system in a wide range of loads.
Structural dynamics payload loads estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engels, R. C.
1982-01-01
Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall...
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall...
The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks
Marusich, R.M., Westinghouse Hanford
1996-09-06
This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.
The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks
Marusich, R.M.
1996-09-27
This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.
Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.
2011-01-01
A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.
Waste Package Lifting Calculation
H. Marr
2000-05-11
The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.
Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A
2012-01-01
The article presents a new procedure of calculating the shielding functions for irregular objects formed from a set of nonintersecting (adjacent) triangles covering completely the surface of each object. Calculated and experimentally derived distributions of space ionizing radiation doses in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom (experiment MATRYOSHKA-R) inside the International space station were in good agreement in the mass of phantom depths with allowance for measurement error (-10%). The procedure can be applied in modeling radiation loads on cosmonauts, calculating effectiveness of secondary protection in spacecraft, and design review of radiation protection for future space exploration missions. PMID:23457971
A method for variable pressure load estimation in spur and helical gear pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battarra, M.; Mucchi, E.
2016-08-01
A systematic procedure is proposed to determine variable excitation loads coming from pressure evolution inside tooth spaces in external gear pumps. Pressure force and torque are estimated with respect to the angular position of the gears, taking into account the phenomena that occur during the meshing course. In particular, the paper proposes a general methodology aiming at determining pressure force and torque components along the three coordinate axes and suitable to be applied on both spur and helical gear configuration. Firstly, the method to calculate pressure loads acting on a single tooth space during a complete revolution is given, then the total pressure force and torque loading each gear is obtained. Particular attention is addressed on the description of the helical gear scenario. As an example, the method is applied to a tandem gear pump, characterized by the presence of two stages, one with spur gears and one with helical gears. An experimentally assessed model to calculate the pressure ripple inside the tandem pump is described and the proposed procedure for pressure load estimation is applied. Eventually, the pressure loads estimated with the present procedure are compared with other estimation methods already described in the literature. The comparison shows that the present methodology is able to describe a wider range of phenomena involved in the meshing evolution and to determine all the pressure force and torque components applied to helical gears. The method gives suitable results to study the balancing and the dynamic behavior of gear pumps.
Ohlinger, L.A.
1958-10-01
A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giles, G. L.
1980-01-01
A substructure procedure to include the flexibility of the tile in the stress analysis of the shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is described. In this procedure, the TPS is divided into substructures of (1) the tile which is modeled by linear finite elements and (2) the SIP which is modeled as a nonlinear continuum. This procedure was applied for loading cases of uniform pressure, uniform moment, and an aerodynamic shock on various tile thicknesses. The ratios of through-the-thickness stresses in the SIP which were calculated using a flexible tile compared to using a rigid tile were found to be less than 1.05 for the cases considered.
Neyrinck, Marleen M; Vrielink, Hans
2015-02-01
It's important to work smoothly with your apheresis equipment when you are an apheresis nurse. Attention should be paid to your donor/patient and the product you're collecting. It gives additional value to your work when you are able to calculate the efficiency of your procedures. You must be capable to obtain an optimal product without putting your donor/patient at risk. Not only the total blood volume (TBV) of the donor/patient plays an important role, but also specific blood values influence the apheresis procedure. Therefore, not all donors/patients should be addressed in the same way. Calculation of TBV, extracorporeal volume, and total plasma volume is needed. Many issues determine your procedure time. By knowing the collection efficiency (CE) of your apheresis machine, you can calculate the number of blood volumes to be processed to obtain specific results. You can calculate whether you need one procedure to obtain specific results or more. It's not always needed to process 3× the TBV. In this way, it can be avoided that the donor/patient is needless long connected to the apheresis device. By calculating the CE of each device, you can also compare the various devices for quality control reasons, but also nurses/operators. PMID:25041907
Loading-unloading response of circular GLARE fiber-metal laminates under lateral indentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsamasphyros, George J.; Bikakis, George S.
2015-01-01
GLARE is a Fiber-Metal laminated material used in aerospace structures which are frequently subjected to various impact damages. Hence, the response of GLARE plates subjected to lateral indentation is very important. In this paper, analytical expressions are derived and a non-linear finite element modeling procedure is proposed in order to predict the static load-indentation curves of circular GLARE plates during loading and unloading by a hemispherical indentor. We have recently published analytical formulas and a finite element procedure for the static indentation of circular GLARE plates which are now used during the loading stage. Here, considering that aluminum layers are in a state of membrane yield and employing energy balance during unloading, the unloading path is determined. Using this unloading path, an algebraic equation is derived for calculating the permanent dent depth of the GLARE plate after the indentor's withdrawal. Furthermore, our finite element procedure is modified in order to simulate the unloading stage as well. The derived formulas and the proposed finite element modeling procedure are applied successfully to GLARE 2-2/1-0.3 and to GLARE 3-3/2-0.4 circular plates. The analytical results are compared with corresponding FEM results and a good agreement is found. The analytically calculated permanent dent depth is within 6 % for the GLARE 2 plate, and within 7 % for the GLARE 3 plate, of the corresponding numerically calculated result. No other solution of this problem is known to the authors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Csernus, Marilyn
Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…
Plug Loads Conservation Measures
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2010-12-31
This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less
Plug Loads Conservation Measures
Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean
2010-12-31
This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.
Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A
2010-12-01
Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016
Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.
1958-06-24
>Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)
Design Calculations for Thermoelectric Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeldin, B.
1983-01-01
Nine simplified analytic models based on average properties accurately predict heat rates for silicon/germanium thermoelectric generators. Solutions from simplified models were compared with those obtained using sophisticated numerical analysis. Maximum errors in calculated heat rate range from about 4 percent to about 0.2 percent. Models also used to calculate power delivered to load and thermodynamic efficiency.
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...
A simple approach for determining detonation velocity of high explosive at any loading density.
Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein
2005-05-20
A simple empirical relationship is introduced between detonation velocity at any loading density and chemical composition of high explosive as well as its gas phase heat of formation, which is calculated by group additivity rules. The present work may be applied to any explosive that contains the elements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen with no difficulties. The new correlation can easily be applied for determining detonation velocity of explosives with loading densities less than 1g/cm3 as well as greater than 1g/cm3. Calculated detonation velocities by this procedure for both pure and explosive formulations show good agreement with respect to measured detonation velocity over a wide range of loading density. PMID:15885403
Fracture mechanics analysis for various fiber/matrix interface loadings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naik, R. A.; Crews, J. H., Jr.
1991-01-01
Fiber/matrix (F/M) cracking was analyzed to provide better understanding and guidance in developing F/M interface fracture toughness tests. Two configurations, corresponding to F/M cracking at a broken fiber and at the free edge, were investigated. The effects of mechanical loading, thermal cooldown, and friction were investigated. Each configuration was analyzed for two loadings: longitudinal and normal to the fiber. A nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to model friction and slip at the F/M interface. A new procedure for fitting a square-root singularity to calculated stresses was developed to determine stress intensity factors (K sub I and K sub II) for a bimaterial interface crack. For the case of F/M cracking at a broken fiber with longitudinal loading, crack tip conditions were strongly influenced by interface friction. As a result, an F/M interface toughness test based on this case was not recommended because nonlinear data analysis methods would be required. For the free edge crack configuration, both mechanical and thermal loading caused crack opening, thereby avoiding frictional effects. A F/M interface toughness test based on this configuration would provide data for K(sub I)/K(sub II) ratios of about 0.7 and 1.6 for fiber and radial normal loading, respectively. However, thermal effects must be accounted for in the data analysis.
Fracture mechanics analysis for various fiber/matrix interface loadings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naik, Rajiv A.; Crews, John H., Jr.
1992-01-01
Fiber/matrix (F/M) cracking was analyzed to provide better understanding and guidance in developing F/M interface fracture toughness tests. Two configurations, corresponding to F/M cracking at a broken fiber and at the free edge, were investigated. The effects of mechanical loading, thermal cooldown, and friction were investigated. Each configuration was analyzed for two loadings: longitudinal and normal to the fiber. A nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to model friction and slip at the F/M interface. A new procedure for fitting a square-root singularity to calculated stresses was developed to determine stress intensity factors (K sub I and K sub II) for a bimaterial interface crack. For the case of F/M cracking at a broken fiber with longitudinal loading, crack tip conditions were strongly influenced by interface friction. As a result, an F/M interface toughness test based on this case was not recommended because nonlinear data analysis methods would be required. For the free edge crack configuration, both mechanical and thermal loading caused crack opening, theory avoiding fractional effects. A F/M interface toughness test based on this configuration would provide data for K(sub I/K(sub II) ratios of about 0.7 and 1.6 for fiber and radial normal loading, respectively. However, thermal effects must be accounted for in the data analysis.
Fracture mechanics analysis for various fiber/matrix interface loadings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naik, R. A.; Crews, J. H., Jr.
1991-01-01
Fiber/matrix (F/M) cracking was analyzed to provide better understanding and guidance in developing F/M interface fracture toughness tests. Two configurations, corresponding to F/M cracking at a broken fiber and at the free edge, were investigated. The effects of mechanical loading, thermal cooldown, and friction were investigated. Each configuration was analyzed for two loadings: longitudinal and normal to the fiber. A nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to model friction and slip at the F/M interface. A new procedure for fitting a square-root singularity to calculated stresses was developed to determine stress intensity factors (K sub I and K sub II) for a bimaterial interface crack. For the case of F/M cracking at a broken fiber with longitudinal loading, crack tip conditions were strongly influenced by interface friction. As a result, an F/M interface toughness test based on this case was not recommended because nonlinear data analysis methods would be required. For the free edge crack configuration, both mechanical and thermal loading caused crack opening, thereby avoiding frictional effects. An F/M interface toughness test based on this configuration would provide data for K(sub I)/K(sub II) ratios of about 0.7 and 1.6 for fiber and radial normal loading, respectively. However, thermal effects must be accounted for in the data analysis.
Fracture Behaviour of Glass Columns Experimental Study of Axial Loaded Glass Columns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakab, A.; Nehme, K.; Nehme, S. G.
2016-04-01
Nowadays supporting structures can be transparent due to the development of glass strengthening procedures. The building glass as a versatile building material enables the efforts of the architects due to its transparency. This paper focuses on glass columns in the topic of load-bearing glasses and also on the design and load bearing capacity of fins and stability issues. Laboratory experiments were carried out at the BME, Department of Building Materials and Engineering Geology on the fracture behaviour of centrally compressed glass columns. More than 120 specimens where loaded until fracture. The load and deformations were measured. Based on the experimental results the critical force was determined and with force-deflection diagrams were illustrated the fracture and stability processes. Authors are going to compare the results of the laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations.
Umbilical cable recovery load analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao
2013-06-01
Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.
Flaw assessment procedure for high temperature reactor components
Ainsworth, R.A. . Berkeley Nuclear Labs.); Ruggles, M.B. ); Takahashi, Y. . Komae Research Lab.)
1990-01-01
An interim high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the USA, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the UK. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack growth laws may be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. Some of these limitations are to be addressed in an extension of the current collaborative program. 20 refs.
46 CFR 154.429 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculations. 154.429 Section 154.429 Shipping COAST... § 154.429 Calculations. The tank design load calculations for a membrane tank must include the following... motion and acceleration under the worst weather conditions. Calculations from a similar vessel may...
Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ricci, Mario
2010-01-01
A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access) This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.
CAI on a Programmable Calculator
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlaphoff, Carl W.
1975-01-01
This article describes a procedure for presenting routine practice problems on a programable calculator with attached teletype. The program uses a random number generator to write problems, gives feedback and assigns grades according to the procedures outlined (and flow-charted) by the author. (SD)
Does surgical approach or prosthesis type affect hip joint loading one year after surgery?
Wesseling, Mariska; Meyer, Christophe; Corten, Kristoff; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse
2016-02-01
Several approaches may be used for hip replacement surgery either in combination with conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) or resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA). This study investigates the differences in hip loading during gait one year or more after surgery in three cohorts presenting different surgical procedures, more specific RHA placed using the direct lateral (RHA-DLA, n=8) and posterolateral (RHA-PLA, n=14) approach as well as THA placed using the direct anterior (THA-DAA, n=12) approach. For the DAA and control subjects, hip loading was also evaluated during stair ascent and descent to evaluate whether these motions can better discriminate between patients and controls compared to gait. Musculoskeletal modelling in OpenSim was used to calculate in vivo joint loading. Results showed that for all operated patients, regardless the surgical procedure, hip loading was decreased compared to control subjects, while no differences were found between patient groups. This indicates that THA via DAA results in similar hip loading as a RHA via DLA or PLA. Stair climbing did not result in more distinct differences in hip contact force magnitude between patients and controls, although differences in orientation were more distinct. However, patients after hip surgery did adjust their motion pattern to decrease the magnitude of loading on the hip joint compared to control subjects. PMID:27004636
Calculation of the Aerodynamic Behavior of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) in the DNW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne
2001-01-01
Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 1/4-scale V- 22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance and airloads for helicopter mode operation, as well as calculated induced and profile power. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.
Ramponi, Denise R
2016-01-01
Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994
Confidence Calculation with AMV+
Fossum, A.F.
1999-02-19
The iterative advanced mean value algorithm (AMV+), introduced nearly ten years ago, is now widely used as a cost-effective probabilistic structural analysis tool when the use of sampling methods is cost prohibitive (Wu et al., 1990). The need to establish confidence bounds on calculated probabilities arises because of the presence of uncertainties in measured means and variances of input random variables. In this paper an algorithm is proposed that makes use of the AMV+ procedure and analytically derived probability sensitivities to determine confidence bounds on calculated probabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarov, A. N.
2014-10-01
The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.
40 CFR 98.165 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.165 Procedures for...., hydrogen production, electrical load, and operating hours). You must document and keep records of...
40 CFR 98.165 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.165 Procedures for...., hydrogen production, electrical load, and operating hours). You must document and keep records of...
40 CFR 98.165 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.165 Procedures for...., hydrogen production, electrical load, and operating hours). You must document and keep records of...
40 CFR 98.165 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.165 Procedures for...., hydrogen production, electrical load, and operating hours). You must document and keep records of...
Expert system development for probabilistic load simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, H.; Newell, J. F.
1991-01-01
A knowledge based system LDEXPT using the intelligent data base paradigm was developed for the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) project to simulate the probabilistic loads of a space propulsion system. The knowledge base approach provides a systematic framework of organizing the load information and facilitates the coupling of the numerical processing and symbolic (information) processing. It provides an incremental development environment for building generic probabilistic load models and book keeping the associated load information. A large volume of load data is stored in the data base and can be retrieved and updated by a built-in data base management system. The data base system standardizes the data storage and retrieval procedures. It helps maintain data integrity and avoid data redundancy. The intelligent data base paradigm provides ways to build expert system rules for shallow and deep reasoning and thus provides expert knowledge to help users to obtain the required probabilistic load spectra.
Analysis concepts for large telescope structures under earthquake load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Franz
1997-03-01
The very large telescope (VLT) of ESO will be placed on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama desert in northern Chile. This site provides excellent conditions for astronomical observations. However, it is likely that important seismic activities occur. The telescope structure and its components have to resist the largest earthquakes expected during their lifetime. Therefore, design specifications and structural analyses have to take into account loads caused by such earthquakes. The present contribution shows some concepts and techniques in the assessment of earthquake resistant telescope design by the finite element method (FEM). After establishing the general design criteria and the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the site location, the seismic action can be defined. A description of various representations of the seismic action and the procedure to define the commonly used response spectrum are presented in more detail. A brief description of the response spectrum analysis method and of the result evaluation procedure follows. Additionally, some calculation concepts for parts of the entire telescope structure under seismic loads are provided. Finally, a response spectrum analysis of the entire VLT structure performed at ESO is presented to show a practical application of the analysis method and evaluation procedure mentioned above.
Patel, Aalpen A; Glaiberman, Craig; Gould, Derek A
2007-06-01
In the past few decades, medicine has started to look at the potential use of simulators in medical education. Procedural medicine lends itself well to the use of simulators. Efforts are under way to establish national agendas to change the way medical education is approached and thereby improve patient safety. Universities, credentialing organizations, and hospitals are investing large sums of money to build and use simulation centers for undergraduate and graduate medical education. PMID:17574195
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deyoung, John
1952-01-01
A simplified lifting-surface theory is applied to the problem of evaluating span loading due to flap deflection for arbitrary wing plan forms. With the resulting procedure, the effects of flap deflection on the span loading and associated aerodynamic characteristics can be easily computed for any wing which is symmetrical about the root chord and which has a straight quarter-chord line over the wing semispan. The effects of compressibility and spanwise variation of section lift-curve slope are taken into account by the procedure. The method presented can also be used to calculate the downwash in the vertical center of the wake of a wing which has arbitrary spanwise loading.
Loading operations for spacecraft propulsion subsystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Purohit, G. P.; Nordeng, H. O.; Ellison, J. R.
1992-07-01
This paper provides a broad overview of loading operations for pressurized blowdown monopropellant and pressure regulated integral bipropellant propulsion subsystems used in geosynchronous communication satellites. Propellant chemical composition, cleanliness, processing, and handling requirements are addressed. Ground servicing equipment (GSE) and propellant transfer procedures for the various loading configurations are discussed. Effects of helium solubility and helium saturation levels in both GSE carts and propellant tanks are examined. Predicted equilibrium pressures for actual postload tank pressures are compared against extensive loading data on Hughes bipropellant spacecraft. Helium tank pressurization and manifold pressurization practices are described. Propellant loading facility requirements and safety requirements are discussed.
Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Niknam, Khodabakhsh; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Niknam, Ebrahim; Ghaedi, Hamed; Soylak, Mustafa
2008-10-01
A new and efficient solid phase extraction method is described for the preconcentration of trace heavy metal ions. The method is based on the adsorption of Fe(3+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) on 2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d] imidazole (PHBI) loaded on Triton X-100-coated polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The influences of the analytical parameters including pH and sample volume were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of analytes under study. The adsorbed analytes were desorbed by using 5 mL of 4 mol L(-1) nitric acid. The preconcentration factor is 90. The detection limits (3 sigma) were in the range of 0.95-1 microg L(-1). The sorbent exhibited excellent stability and its sorption capacity under optimum conditions has been found to be more than 2.7 mg of ions per gram of sorbent. The recoveries of analytes were generally higher than 95%. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) were generally lower than 4%. The method has been successfully applied to some real samples. PMID:18314265
Numerical Loading of a Maxwellian Probability Distribution Function
J. L. V. Lewandowski
2003-03-24
A renormalization procedure for the numerical loading of a Maxwellian probability distribution function (PDF) is formulated. The procedure, which involves the solution of three coupled nonlinear equations, yields a numerically loaded PDF with improved properties for higher velocity moments. This method is particularly useful for low-noise particle-in-cell simulations with electron dynamics.
Akimoto, Saori; Ohdaira, Takeshi; Nakamura, Seiji; Yamazaki, Tokihisa; Yano, Shinichiro; Higashihara, Nobuhiko
2015-05-01
We know that experienced endoscopic surgeons, despite having extensive training, may make a rare but fatal mistake. Prof. Takeshi Ohdaira developed a device visualizing brain action potential to reflect the latent psychological instability of the surgeon. The Ohdaira system consists of three components: a real-time brain action potential measurement unit, a simulated abdominal cavity, and an intra-abdominal monitor. We conducted two psychological stress tests by using an artificial laparoscopic simulator and an animal model. There were five male subjects aged between 41 to 61 years. The psychological instability scores were considered to reflect, to some extent, the number of years of experience of the surgeon in medical care. However, very high inter-individual variability was noted. Furthermore, we discovered the following: 1) bleeding during simulated laparoscopic surgery--an episode generally considered to be psychological stress for the surgeon--did not form the greatest psychological stress; 2) the greatest psychological stress was elicited at the moment when the surgeon became faced with a setting in which his anatomical knowledge was lacking or a setting in which he presumed imminent bleeding; and 3) the excessively activated action potential of the brain possibly leads to a procedural error during surgery. A modified brain action potential measurement unit can reveal the latent psychological instability of surgeons that possibly leads to errors in surgical procedures. PMID:26054987
NORMAL LOAD BEARING BY SITE SPECIFIC CANISTER
NA
2005-03-23
The overall purpose of this calculation is to perform a preliminary analysis of the Site Specific Canister/Basket, subject to static gravity loads that include the self weight of the Canister Shell, the Basket, the Spent Nuclear Fuel, the Shield Plug and the related hardware, so that the loads are approximately known for sizing purposes. Based on these loads the stress levels in various components of the Site Specific Canister/Basket are evaluated.
Loads calibrations of strain gage bridges on the DAST project Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckstrom, C. V.
1980-01-01
The details of and results from the procedure used to calibrate strain gage bridges for measurement of wing structural loads for the DAST project ARW-1 wing are presented. Results are in the form of loads equations and comparison of computed loads vs. actual loads for two simulated flight loading conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sprowls, D. O.; Bucci, R. J.; Ponchel, B. M.; Brazill, R. L.; Bretz, P. E.
1984-01-01
A technique is demonstrated for accelerated stress corrosion testing of high strength aluminum alloys. The method offers better precision and shorter exposure times than traditional pass fail procedures. The approach uses data from tension tests performed on replicate groups of smooth specimens after various lengths of exposure to static stress. The breaking strength measures degradation in the test specimen load carrying ability due to the environmental attack. Analysis of breaking load data by extreme value statistics enables the calculation of survival probabilities and a statistically defined threshold stress applicable to the specific test conditions. A fracture mechanics model is given which quantifies depth of attack in the stress corroded specimen by an effective flaw size calculated from the breaking stress and the material strength and fracture toughness properties. Comparisons are made with experimental results from three tempers of 7075 alloy plate tested by the breaking load method and by traditional tests of statistically loaded smooth tension bars and conventional precracked specimens.
10 CFR 205.373 - Application procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application procedures. 205.373 Section 205.373 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports... peak load and energy requirements for each of the past 30 days and projections for each day of...
10 CFR 205.373 - Application procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application procedures. 205.373 Section 205.373 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports... peak load and energy requirements for each of the past 30 days and projections for each day of...
10 CFR 205.373 - Application procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application procedures. 205.373 Section 205.373 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports... peak load and energy requirements for each of the past 30 days and projections for each day of...
SSME-HAS dynamic load simulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The space shuttle main engine propellant valve actuators (SSME) were designed to simulate the loads reflected into the SSME by the chamber coolant valve, the fuel preburner, and the oxidizer. The design, and functional description are included along with a list of the drawings. The load fixture control transform, friction torque, and flow calculations are reported.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2000-05-22
This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulatemore » the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.« less
Hunter, Charles H.
2000-05-22
This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulate the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.
Sub-wavelength waveguide loaded by a complementary electric metamaterial for vacuum electron devices
Duan, Zhaoyun; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A. Temkin, Richard J.
2014-10-15
We report the electromagnetic properties of a waveguide loaded by complementary electric split ring resonators (CeSRRs) and the application of the waveguide in vacuum electronics. The S-parameters of the CeSRRs in free space are calculated using the HFSS code and are used to retrieve the effective permittivity and permeability in an effective medium theory. The dispersion relation of a waveguide loaded with the CeSRRs is calculated by two approaches: by direct calculation with HFSS and by calculation with the effective medium theory; the results are in good agreement. An improved agreement is obtained using a fitting procedure for the permittivity tensor in the effective medium theory. The gain of a backward wave mode of the CeSRR-loaded waveguide interacting with an electron beam is calculated by two methods: by using the HFSS model and traveling wave tube theory; and by using a dispersion relation derived in the effective medium model. Results of the two methods are in very good agreement. The proposed all-metal structure may be useful in miniaturized vacuum electron devices.
40 CFR 1066.315 - Dynamometer road-load setting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dynamometer road-load setting. 1066... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Coastdown § 1066.315 Dynamometer road-load setting. Determine dynamometer road-load settings for chassis testing by following SAE J2264 (incorporated by reference in §...
46 CFR 2.85-1 - Assignment of load lines.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment of load lines. 2.85-1 Section 2.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Load Lines § 2.85-1 Assignment of load lines. Most U.S. vessels, and foreign vessels in U.S. waters...
46 CFR 2.85-1 - Assignment of load lines.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignment of load lines. 2.85-1 Section 2.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Load Lines § 2.85-1 Assignment of load lines. Most U.S. vessels, and foreign vessels in U.S. waters...
Distribution of dynamic loads for multiple cooperating robot manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Ian D.; Marcus, Steven I.; Freeman, Robert A.
1989-01-01
For the situation of multiple cooperating manipulators handling a single object, a formulation is presented which allows load distribution of the combined system to be made while taking manipulator dynamics into account. First, object dynamics are used to transform the motion task. An integrated procedure for modeling arm dynamics are used to transform the motion task. An integrated procedure for modeling arm dynamics is detailed. Then, a method is introduced which transforms the object load to the joint level. At this level, various methods of load distribution that allow subtask performance are proposed. These methods allow desired object motion while selecting loads desirable to alleviate manipulator dynamic loads.
Perez, Richard
2005-05-03
A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.
Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.
1990-01-01
Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.
Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.
1989-01-01
Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
Technique and applications of device driver dynamic loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.
1993-01-01
This paper discusses the techniques and feasibility of dynamically loading device drivers for the real-time operating system of the Space Station Freedom Data Management System. The rationale and advantages of device driver dynamic loading are discussed and the procedures are analyzed. A prototype program is implemented to demonstrate the feasibility and to simplify the procedure of device driver dynamic loading for the Space Station Freedom Program.
Lee, Michael T.; Asquith, William H.; Oden, Timothy D.
2012-01-01
from .582–.922 (dimensionless). The residual standard errors ranged from .073–.447 (base-10 logarithm). Adjusted R-squared values for the East Fork San Jacinto River models ranged from .253–.853 (dimensionless). The residual standard errors ranged from .076–.388 (base-10 logarithm). In conjunction with estimated concentrations, constituent loads can be estimated by multiplying the estimated concentration by the corresponding streamflow and by applying the appropriate conversion factor. The regression models presented in this report are site specific, that is, they are specific to the Spring Creek and East Fork San Jacinto River streamflow-gaging stations; however, the general methods that were developed and documented could be applied to most perennial streams for the purpose of estimating real-time water quality data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.
1986-01-01
Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.
Material behavior under complex loading
Breuer, H.J.; Raule, G.; Rodig, M.
1984-09-01
Studies of material behavior under complex loading form a bridge between standard material testing methods and the stress analysis calculations for reactor components at high temperatures. The aim of these studies is to determine the influence of typical load change sequences on material properties, to derive the equations required for stress analyses, to carry out tests under multiaxial conditions, and to investigate the structural deformation mechanisms of creep buckling and ratcheting. The present state of the investigations within the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials program is described, with emphasis on the experimental apparatus, the scope of the program, and the initial results obtained.
Planetary gear profile modification design based on load sharing modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández Del Rincón, Alfonso; De-Juan, Ana Magdalena; Garcia, Pablo; Diez, Alberto; Viadero, Fernando
2015-07-01
In order to satisfy the increasing demand on high performance planetary transmissions, an important line of research is focused on the understanding of some of the underlying phenomena involved in this mechanical system. Through the development of models capable of reproduce the system behavior, research in this area contributes to improve gear transmission insight, helping developing better maintenance practices and more efficient design processes. A planetary gear model used for the design of profile modifications ratio based on the levelling of the load sharing ratio is presented. The gear profile geometry definition, following a vectorial approach that mimics the real cutting process of gears, is thoroughly described. Teeth undercutting and hypotrochoid definition are implicitly considered, and a procedure for the incorporation of a rounding arc at the tooth tip in order to deal with corner contacts is described. A procedure for the modeling of profile deviations is presented, which can be used for the introduction of both manufacturing errors and designed profile modifications. An easy and flexible implementation of the profile deviation within the planetary model is accomplished based on the geometric overlapping. The contact force calculation and dynamic implementation used in the model are also introduced, and parameters from a real transmission for agricultural applications are presented for the application example. A set of reliefs is designed based on the levelling of the load sharing ratio for the example transmission, and finally some other important dynamic factors of the transmission are analyzed to assess the changes in the dynamic behavior with respect to the non-modified case. Thus, the main innovative aspect of the proposed planetary transmission model is the capacity of providing a simulated load sharing ratio which serves as design variable for the calculation of the tooth profile modifications.
Flaw assessment guide for high-temperature reactor components subject to creep-fatigue loading
Ainsworth, R.A. . Berkeley Nuclear Labs.); Ruggles, M.B. ); Takahashi, Y. . Komae Research Lab.)
1990-10-01
A high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This procedure is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack-growth laws can be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. 25 refs., 1 fig.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finchenko, V. S.; Ustinov, S. N.; Ivankov, A. A.
2015-12-01
The article briefly describes a design of the Versatile Space Tug (VST) Fregat, analyses the processes occurring during its descent in the Earth's atmosphere after performing its primary function, a thermal destruction scenario of the VST Fregat is developed, a procedure and results of the calculation of heat loads, impacting the VST, and the remaining mass of its structural components reaching the Earth's surface, are presented.
Maximizing TDRS Command Load Lifetime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Aaron J.
2002-01-01
The GNC software onboard ISS utilizes TORS command loads, and a simplistic model of TORS orbital motion to generate onboard TORS state vectors. Each TORS command load contains five "invariant" orbital elements which serve as inputs to the onboard propagation algorithm. These elements include semi-major axis, inclination, time of last ascending node crossing, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Running parallel to the onboard software is the TORS Command Builder Tool application, located in the JSC Mission Control Center. The TORS Command Builder Tool is responsible for building the TORS command loads using a ground TORS state vector, mirroring the onboard propagation algorithm, and assessing the fidelity of current TORS command loads onboard ISS. The tool works by extracting a ground state vector at a given time from a current TORS ephemeris, and then calculating the corresponding "onboard" TORS state vector at the same time using the current onboard TORS command load. The tool then performs a comparison between these two vectors and displays the relative differences in the command builder tool GUI. If the RSS position difference between these two vectors exceeds the tolerable lim its, a new command load is built using the ground state vector and uplinked to ISS. A command load's lifetime is therefore defined as the time from when a command load is built to the time the RSS position difference exceeds the tolerable limit. From the outset of TORS command load operations (STS-98), command load lifetime was limited to approximately one week due to the simplicity of both the onboard propagation algorithm, and the algorithm used by the command builder tool to generate the invariant orbital elements. It was soon desired to extend command load lifetime in order to minimize potential risk due to frequent ISS commanding. Initial studies indicated that command load lifetime was most sensitive to changes in mean motion. Finding a suitable value for mean motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waugh, Rachael C.; Dulieu-Barton, Janice M.; Quinn, S.
2015-03-01
Thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) is an established active thermographic approach which uses the thermoelastic effect to correlate the temperature change that occurs as a material is subjected to elastic cyclic loading to the sum of the principal stresses on the surface of the component. Digital image correlation (DIC) tracks features on the surface of a material to establish a displacement field of a component subjected to load, which can then be used to calculate the strain field. The application of both DIC and TSA on a composite plate representative of aircraft secondary structure subject to resonant frequency loading using a portable loading device, i.e. `remote loading' is described. Laboratory based loading for TSA and DIC is typically imparted using a test machine, however in the current work a vibration loading system is used which is able to excite the component of interest at resonant frequency which enables TSA and DIC to be carried out. The accuracy of the measurements made under remote loading of both of the optical techniques applied is discussed. The data are compared to extract complimentary information from the two techniques. This work forms a step towards a combined strain based non-destructive evaluation procedure able to identify and quantify the effect of defects more fully, particularly when examining component performance in service applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragni, D.; Ashok, A.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.
2009-07-01
The present investigation assesses a procedure to extract the aerodynamic loads and pressure distribution on an airfoil in the transonic flow regime from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The wind tunnel model is a two-dimensional NACA-0012 airfoil, and the PIV velocity data are used to evaluate pressure fields, whereas lift and drag coefficients are inferred from the evaluation of momentum contour and wake integrals. The PIV-based results are compared to those derived from conventional loads determination procedures involving surface pressure transducers and a wake rake. The method applied in this investigation is an extension to the compressible flow regime of that considered by van Oudheusden et al (2006 Non-intrusive load characterization of an airfoil using PIV Exp. Fluids 40 988-92) at low speed conditions. The application of a high-speed imaging system allows the acquisition in relatively short time of a sufficient ensemble size to compute converged velocity statistics, further translated in turbulent fluctuations included in the pressure and loads calculation, notwithstanding their verified negligible influence in the computation. Measurements are performed at varying spatial resolution to optimize the loads determination in the wake region and around the airfoil, further allowing us to assess the influence of spatial resolution in the proposed procedure. Specific interest is given to the comparisons between the PIV-based method and the conventional procedures for determining the pressure coefficient on the surface, the drag and lift coefficients at different angles of attack. Results are presented for the experiments at a free-stream Mach number M = 0.6, with the angle of attack ranging from 0° to 8°.
46 CFR 170.090 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... for the weight of all loads carried aboard the vessel. (b) If it is necessary to compute and plot any of the following curves as part of the calculations required in this subchapter, these plots...
46 CFR 170.090 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... for the weight of all loads carried aboard the vessel. (b) If it is necessary to compute and plot any of the following curves as part of the calculations required in this subchapter, these plots...
24 CFR 3280.402 - Test procedures for roof trusses.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... read and recorded to the nearest 1/32-inch. Dead load must be applied to the top and bottom chord, and... truss design evaluated by this procedure. (i) Dead load. Measure and record initial elevation of the truss or trusses in the test position at no load. Apply to the top and bottom chords of the truss...
Calculating Buckling And Vibrations Of Lattice Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, M. S.; Durling, B. J.; Herstrom, C. L.; Williams, F. W.; Banerjee, J. R.; Kennedy, D.; Warnaar, D. B.
1989-01-01
BUNVIS-RG computer program designed to calculate vibration frequencies or buckling loads of prestressed lattice structures used in outer space. For buckling and vibration problems, BUNVIS-RG calculates deadload axial forces caused in members by any combination of externally-applied static point forces and moments at nodes, axial preload or prestrain in members, and such acceleration loads as those due to gravity. BUNVIS-RG is FORTRAN 77 computer program implemented on CDC CYBER and VAX computer.
Stiffness characteristics of airfoils under pulse loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Kevin Eugene
The turbomachinery industry continually struggles with the adverse effects of contact rubs between airfoils and casings. The key parameter controlling the severity of a given rub event is the contact load produced when the airfoil tips incur into the casing. These highly non-linear and transient forces are difficult to calculate and their effects on the static and rotating components are not well understood. To help provide this insight, experimental and analytical capabilities have been established and exercised through an alliance between GE Aviation and The Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory. One of the early findings of the program is the influence of blade flexibility on the physics of rub events. The core focus of the work presented in this dissertation is to quantify the influence of airfoil flexibility through a novel modeling approach that is based on the relationship between applied force duration and maximum tip deflection. This relationship is initially established using a series of forward, non-linear and transient analyses in which simulated impulse rub loads are applied. This procedure, although effective, is highly inefficient and costly to conduct by requiring numerous explicit simulations. To alleviate this issue, a simplified model, named the pulse magnification model, is developed that only requires a modal analysis and a static analyses to fully describe how the airfoil stiffness changes with respect to load duration. Results from the pulse magnification model are compared to results from the full transient simulation method and to experimental results, providing sound verification for the use of the modeling approach. Furthermore, a unique and highly efficient method to model airfoil geometries was developed and is outlined in this dissertation. This method produces quality Finite Element airfoil definitions directly from a fully parameterized mathematical model. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by comparing modal
Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading
Kriikku, E.
2000-02-17
The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.
On-line identification of operational loads using exogenous inputs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanlanduit, S.; Guillaume, P.; Cauberghe, B.; Parloo, E.; De Sitter, G.; Verboven, P.
2005-07-01
When the FRF matrix describing the dynamical behavior of a structure is available, the operational loads can be determined by multiplying the pseudo-inverse of the FRF matrix by the operational responses (displacements, velocities or accelerations). In practice, however, the boundary conditions of the structure in operation deviate from the ones in laboratory conditions (due to e.g. aerodynamic loads, fuel consumption, temperature changes). This means that measurements during operation should be taken in order to obtain the correct FRF matrix. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to measure all operational loads acting on the structure (which is needed to calculate the FRFs). In this paper, a method is proposed that enables the on-line determination of operational forces. As input the method uses dynamical response measurements and the measurement of a known force (due to an exogenous excitation input) at one particular location (where it is possible to put an excitation device and a force sensor). A periodic signal is taken as the exogenous excitation. It is assumed that apart from the known force there is also an unknown force (at an unknown location) that is acting on the structure. As a first step in the procedure, the measured responses and the known (i.e. measured) force are compensated in order to eliminate the contribution due to the unknown force. From these compensated measurements the complete FRF matrix is calculated. Then, the forces are calculated from the original (uncompensated) responses and the inverted complete FRF matrix. The method is validated both on a simulation and measurements of a steel beam with an applied unknown impact excitation.
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy... ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a) Calculation of Domestic Utilities' Annual Assessment Ratio to the Fund. Domestic utilities shall be...
46 CFR 154.408 - Cargo tank external pressure load.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank external pressure load. 154.408 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.408 Cargo tank external pressure load. For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(2) and (b), the external pressure load must be the difference between...
46 CFR 154.408 - Cargo tank external pressure load.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank external pressure load. 154.408 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.408 Cargo tank external pressure load. For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(2) and (b), the external pressure load must be the difference between...
46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. 154.409 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be determined from the long...
46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. 154.409 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be determined from the long...
46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. 154.409 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be determined from the long...
46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. 154.409 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be determined from the long...
Giambini, Hugo; Fang, Zhong; Zeng, Heng; Camp, Jon J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun
2016-08-01
The spine is the most common site for secondary bone metastases, and clinical management for fractures is based on size and geometry of the defect. About 75% of the bone needs to be damaged before lesions are detectable, so clinical tools should measure changes in both geometry and material properties. We have developed an automated, user-friendly, Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) image-based analysis method that builds on a platform designed for clinical practice providing failure characteristics of vertebrae. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate SCA predictions with experimental failure load outcomes; (2) evaluate the planning capabilities for prophylactic vertebroplasty procedures; and (3) investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) protocols on predicted failure loads. Twenty-one vertebrae were randomly divided into two groups: (1) simulated defect without treatment (negative control) [n = 9] and (2) with treatment [n = 12]. Defects were created and a polymeric biomaterial was injected into the vertebrae in the treated-defect group. Spines were scanned, reconstructed with two algorithms, and analyzed for fracture loads. To virtually plan for prophylactic intervention, vertebrae with empty lesions were simulated to be augmented with either poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or a novel bone replacement copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-CL)]. Axial rigidities were calculated from the CT images. Failure loads, determined from the cross section with the lowest axial rigidity, were compared with experimental values. Predicted loads correlated well with experimental outcomes (R(2) = 0.73, p < 0.0001). Predictions from negative control specimens highly correlated with measured values (R(2) = 0.90, p < 0.0001). Although a similar correlation was obtained using both algorithms, the smooth reconstruction (B30) tended to underestimate predicted failure loads by ∼50% compared with the ∼10% underestimate
... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...
High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load
Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC
2006-02-22
A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.
Generating Fatigue Crack Growth Thresholds with Constant Amplitude Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Newman, James C., J.; Forman, Royce G.
2002-01-01
The fatigue crack growth threshold, defining crack growth as either very slow or nonexistent, has been traditionally determined with standardized load reduction methodologies. Some experimental procedures tend to induce load history effects that result in remote crack closure from plasticity. This history can affect the crack driving force, i.e. during the unloading process the crack will close first at some point along the wake, reducing the effective load at the crack tip. One way to reduce the effects of load history is to propagate a crack under constant amplitude loading. As a crack propagates under constant amplitude loading, the stress intensity factor, K, will increase, as will the crack growth rate, da/dN. A fatigue crack growth threshold test procedure is developed and experimentally validated that does not produce load history effects and can be conducted at a specified stress ratio, R.
Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.
1979-01-01
Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.
Design procedure for flexibility factors of 90-Deg curved pipe having various tangent lengths
Nordham, D.J. . Carderock Division); Kaldor, L.M.
1993-08-01
A simple design procedure, based on 175 finite element analyses, was derived to predict the flexibility factor due to an in-plane or out-of-plane moment for a 90-deg curved pipe with end constraints composed of tangents of any length terminated by rigid flanges and no internal pressure loads. The results of this design procedure were then compared to flexibility factors obtained from additional finite element analyses and experimental work. Flexibility factors calculated using the design equations in the Power Piping Code (ANSI/ASME B31.1-1986) were also compared to all finite element and experimental work. It was found that this design procedure more accurately predicts the flexibility factors than the Power Piping Code.
Nordham, D.J. . Carderock Division); Kaldor, L.M.
1993-08-01
A simple design procedure, based on 114 finite element analyses, was derived to predict the stress intensification factor for 90-deg curved pipe with end constraints composed of tangents of any length terminated by rigid flanges and no internal pressure loads. The results of this design procedure were then compared to stress intensification factors obtained from additional finite element analyses and experimental work. Stress intensification factors calculated using the design equations in the Power Piping Code (ANSI/ASME B31.1-1986) were also compared to all the finite element and experimental work. It was found that this design procedure more accurately predicts the stress intensification factors than the Power Piping Code.
Transfection of Mammalian Cells with Plasmid DNA by Scrape Loading and Sonication Loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fechheimer, Marcus; Boylan, John F.; Parker, Sandra; Sisken, Jesse E.; Patel, Gordhan L.; Zimmer, Stephen G.
1987-12-01
Scrape loading and sonication loading are two recently described methods of introducing macromolecules into living cells. We have tested the efficacy of these methods for transfection of mammalian cells with exogenous DNA, using selection systems based either on resistance to the drug G418 (Geneticin) or on acquisition of the ability to utilize the salvage pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis. These loading methods can be employed to generate cell lines that express the gene product of the transfected DNA molecules both transiently and stably. Optimal transfection is observed when the DNA is added to cells in physiological saline lacking divalent cations and containing K+ in place of Na+. DNA molecules 7.1 to 30 kilobases long have been introduced by the scrape loading procedure. In addition, the scrape loading procedure has been employed for cotransfection and subsequent expression of nonselectable genes encoded on DNA molecules added in a mixture with DNA molecules whose expression is selected. Cell lines expressing oncogenes or proteins that are important for regulation of cell growth and division have been obtained by this procedure. The scrape loading procedure is also useful for studies of the cellular changes that occur upon expression of an exogenous gene. As many as 80% of cells scrape loaded with the plasmid pC6, which encodes the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, contained this protein in the nucleus between 1 and 5 days after transfection. Thus, scrape loading and sonication loading are simple, economical, and reproducible methods for introduction of DNA molecules into adherent and nonadherent cells, and these methods may be useful in the future for experimentation at both fundamental and applied levels.
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... operating manual referred to in section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (3) Determine the preweight of... used to efficiently deagglomerate the bulk test dust and transform it into an aerosol cloud. Other dust... dust cloud. (i) Generate a dust cloud composed of Arizona test dust. (ii) Introduce the dust cloud...
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... operating manual referred to in section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (3) Determine the preweight of... used to efficiently deagglomerate the bulk test dust and transform it into an aerosol cloud. Other dust... dust cloud. (i) Generate a dust cloud composed of Arizona test dust. (ii) Introduce the dust cloud...
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... operating manual referred to in section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (3) Determine the preweight of... used to efficiently deagglomerate the bulk test dust and transform it into an aerosol cloud. Other dust... dust cloud. (i) Generate a dust cloud composed of Arizona test dust. (ii) Introduce the dust cloud...
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... operating manual referred to in section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (3) Determine the preweight of... used to efficiently deagglomerate the bulk test dust and transform it into an aerosol cloud. Other dust... dust cloud. (i) Generate a dust cloud composed of Arizona test dust. (ii) Introduce the dust cloud...
40 CFR 53.65 - Test procedure: Loading test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... operating manual referred to in section 7.4.18 of 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. (3) Determine the preweight of... used to efficiently deagglomerate the bulk test dust and transform it into an aerosol cloud. Other dust... dust cloud. (i) Generate a dust cloud composed of Arizona test dust. (ii) Introduce the dust cloud...
Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loewenthal, S. H.
1978-01-01
A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.
Methodology for calculating combustible gas concentration in radwaste containers: Final report
Deltete, C.P.
1987-03-01
In September 1984, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued I and E Notice No. 84-72 dealing with the generation of hydrogen (H/sub 2/) and other combustible gases in radioactive waste containers. As an alternative to the tests and/or measurements required by the Notice, a calculational procedure was developed to predict the concentration of H/sub 2/ present inside a waste container after a specified storage duration. The calculational methodology determines the total dose absorbed by the waste as a function of curie loading, waste density, and container geometry, and then calculates H/sub 2/ generation as a function of absorbed dose and a predetermined gas generation constant. To ''benchmark'' the theoretical predictions against actual gas measurements from representative waste packages, liners containing dewatered resin waste that originated during cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) were used for comparison. On average, the predicted H/sub 2/ gas concentrations using the calculational model were within 20% of the H/sub 2/ concentrations measured when the liners were vented prior to shipment. The entire calculational procedure has been implemented on a desk top computer ''electronic spreadsheet,'' designed to be a simple, easy-to-implement tool to calculate H/sub 2/ generation in waste containers with minimal input by the user. Accompanying this report diskette containing the spreadsheet translated into several computer languages for use with various systems. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.
2004-01-01
An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.
Prediction of contact path and load sharing in spiral bevel gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bibel, George D.; Tiku, Karuna; Kumar, Ashok
1994-01-01
A procedure is presented to perform a contact analysis of spiral bevel gears in order to predict the contact path and the load sharing as the gears roll through mesh. The approach utilizes recent advances in automated contact methods for nonlinear finite element analysis. A sector of the pinion and gear is modeled consisting of three pinion teeth and four gear teeth in mesh. Calculation of the contact force and stresses through the gear meshing cycle are demonstrated. Summary of the results are presented using three dimensional plots and tables. Issues relating to solution convergence and requirements for running large finite element analysis on a supercomputer are discussed.
Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen
1999-01-01
A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast
Immediate loading of implants in the edentulous maxilla.
Bergkvist, Göran
2008-01-01
The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate different therapeutic strategies in treatment of the edentulous maxilla with dental implants and their importance for treatment outcome. The introduction of one-stage surgery, in place of two-stage surgery, was a paradigm shift in the area of implant treatment since submerged implant healing underneath the mucosa was considered a prerequisite for healing in the original concept. The advantages of a one-stage method are that a second surgery is unnecessary, costs are lower, and patients complain less about the surgical procedures. The development of implant treatment, regardless of whether it is performed in the mandible or the maxilla, strives to shorten the period from implant placement to implant loading. For the edentulous patient--due to esthetic, economical, or psychological reasons--shortening this time and thus avoiding a long period of wearing a transitional removable prosthesis is advantageous. Use of conventional one-stage surgery makes possible and is a prerequisite for immediate loading of implants. Successful treatment outcome has been demonstrated for immediate loading of implants in the mandible, but documentation of the method in the maxilla is still sparse. Two prospective clinical studies compared (i) one- and two-stage surgery and (ii) immediate and conventional loading in patients consecutively treated in the edentulous maxilla with implant-supported fixed prostheses. The first study found that the cumulative survival rate (CSR) after one-stage surgery performed according to a conventional protocol was consistent with two-stage protocol CSRs reported in previous studies. The second study evaluated an immediate loading protocol that provided patients with interim fixed prostheses within 24 hours after implant placement. A comparison of the studies found no significant difference in CSRs. But it was found that when a conventional protocol was used, transitional removable prostheses could traumatize
Installation of TVC Actuators in a Two Axis Inertial Load Simulator Test Stand
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dziubanek, Adam
2013-01-01
This paper is about the installation of Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) actuators in the new Two Axis Inertial Load Simulator (ILS) at MSFC. The new test stand will support the core stage of the Space Launch System (SLS). Because of the unique geometry of the new test stand standard actuator installation procedures will not work. I have been asked to develop a design on how to install the actuators into the new test stand. After speaking with the engineers and technicians I have created a possible design solution. Using Pro Engineer design software and running my own stress calculations I have proven my design is feasible. I have learned how to calculate the stresses my design will see from this task. From the calculations I have learned I have over built the apparatus. I have also expanded my knowledge of Pro Engineer and was able to create a model of my idea.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kenny, John
1995-01-01
Discusses the snow -load capacity of school roofs and how understanding this data aids in planning preventive measures and easing fear of roof collapse. Describes how to determine snow-load capacity, and explains the load-bearing behavior of flat versus sloped roofs. Collapse prevention measures are highlighted. (GR)
ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING
This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...
Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei
2010-04-01
Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.
A NASTRAN DMAP alter for linear buckling analysis under dynamic loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aiello, Robert A.; Grady, Joseph E.
1989-01-01
A modification to the NASTRAN solution sequence for transient analysis with direct time integration (COSMIC NASTRAN rigid format 9) was developed and incorporated into a DMAP alter. This DMAP alter calculates the buckling stability of a dynamically loaded structure, and is used to predict the onset of structural buckling under stress-wave loading conditions. The modified solution sequence incorporates the linear buckling analysis capability (rigid format 5) of NASTRAN into the existing Transient solution rigid format in such a way as to provide a time dependent eigensolution which is used to assess the buckling stability of the structure as it responds to the impulsive load. As a demonstration of the validity of this modified solution procedure, the dynamic buckling of a prismatic bar subjected to an impulsive longitudinal compression is analyzed and compared to the known theoretical solution. In addition, a dynamic buckling analysis is performed for the analytically less tractable problem of the localized dynamic buckling of an initially flawed composite laminate under transverse impact loading. The addition of this DMAP alter to the transient solution sequence in NASTRAN facilitates the computational prediction of both the time at which the onset of dynamic buckling occurs in an impulsively loaded structure, and the dynamic buckling mode shapes of that structure.
Heat Load Estimator for Smoothing Pulsed Heat Loads on Supercritical Helium Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoa, C.; Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Michel, F.
Superconducting magnets for fusion are subjected to large variations of heat loads due to cycling operation of tokamaks. The cryogenic system shall operate smoothly to extract the pulsed heat loads by circulating supercritical helium into the coils and structures. However the value of the total heat loads and its temporal variation are not known before the plasma scenario starts. A real-time heat load estimator is of interest for the process control of the cryogenic system in order to anticipate the arrival of pulsed heat loads to the refrigerator and finally to optimize the operation of the cryogenic system. The large variation of the thermal loads affects the physical parameters of the supercritical helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) so those signals can be used for calculating instantaneously the loads deposited into the loop. The methodology and algorithm are addressed in the article for estimating the heat load deposition before it reaches the refrigerator. The CEA patented process control has been implemented in a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and has been successfully validated on the HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. This heat load estimator is complementary to pulsed load smoothing strategies providing an estimation of the optimized refrigeration power. It can also effectively improve the process control during the transient between different operating modes by adjusting the refrigeration power to the need. This way, the heat load estimator participates to the safe operation of the cryogenic system.
Exploring Hill Ciphers with Graphing Calculators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
St. John, Dennis
1998-01-01
Explains how to code and decode messages using Hill ciphers which combine matrix multiplication and modular arithmetic. Discusses how a graphing calculator can facilitate the matrix and modular arithmetic used in the coding and decoding procedures. (ASK)
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... under 49 U.S.C. 32904 and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is... established by EPA set forth in 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as...-cycle technology requires an application request made to EPA in accordance with 40 CFR Part...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... the Act and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. (b) A manufacturer that is eligible to elect a model year in... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY... automobiles that are manufactured by a manufacturer in a model year shall be determined in accordance...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... the Act and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. (b) A manufacturer that is eligible to elect a model year in... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY... automobiles that are manufactured by a manufacturer in a model year shall be determined in accordance...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... under 49 U.S.C. 32904 and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is... established by EPA set forth in 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as...-cycle technology requires an application request made to EPA in accordance with 40 CFR Part...
49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Section 1141.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... quarter in which an unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate in complaint proceedings shall be updated... complaint proceedings, the reparations period shall begin on the date the unlawful charge is paid....
49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... Section 1141.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... quarter in which an unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate in complaint proceedings shall be updated... complaint proceedings, the reparations period shall begin on the date the unlawful charge is paid....
49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... be divided into test groups or subconfigurations according to EPA in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, and 40 CFR 1037.104. (3) Test and measure the CO2 emissions test results for the selected vehicles and determine the CO2 emissions test group result, in grams per mile in accordance with 40 CFR part 86,...
49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... be divided into test groups or subconfigurations according to EPA in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, and 40 CFR 1037.104. (3) Test and measure the CO2 emissions test results for the selected vehicles and determine the CO2 emissions test group result, in grams per mile in accordance with 40 CFR part 86,...
49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... be divided into test groups or subconfigurations according to EPA in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, and 40 CFR 1037.104. (3) Test and measure the CO2 emissions test results for the selected vehicles and determine the CO2 emissions test group result, in grams per mile in accordance with 40 CFR part 86,...
49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... fleet should be divided into test groups or subconfigurations according to EPA in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, and 40 CFR 1037.104. (3) Test and measure the CO2 emissions test results for the selected vehicles and determine the CO2 emissions test group result, in grams per mile in accordance with 40...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is eligible to increase the... 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as for fuel consumption... made to EPA in accordance with 40 CFR Part 86.1869-12 and an approval granted by EPA made...
49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
.... Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as follows: (1... Street Journal in effect on the date the statement is filed accounting for all amounts received under the... by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest...
An elliptic calculation procedure for 3-D viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, J. G.
1985-05-01
The computation of 3-D internal transonic flows by means of a 3-D Euler Code is discussed. A multidomain approach for time hyperbolic system is presented. This technique, based on the decomposition of the computational domain into several subdomains which may overlap one another, makes it possible to simplify some mesh generation problems and to fit discontinuities such as shocks and slip surfaces. A description of the 3-D Euler Code is given. The space discretization method and the treatment of boundary conditions are emphasized. Various applications of this code in turbomachinery are discussed.
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is eligible to increase the... 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as for fuel consumption... made to EPA in accordance with 40 CFR 86.1869-12 and an approval granted by EPA made in...
40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this paragraph for all official EPA tests. For...
G&T adds versatile load management system
Nickel, J.R.; Baker, E.D.; Holt, J.W.; Chan, M.L.
1995-04-01
Wolverine`s load management system was designed in response to the need to reduce peak demand. The Energy Management System (EMS) prepares short term (seven day) load forecasts, based on a daily peak demand forecst, augmented by a similar day profile based on weather conditions. The software combines the similar day profile with the daily peak demand forecast to yield an hourly load forecast for an entire week. The software uses the accepted load forecast case in many application functions, including interchange scheduling, unit commitment, and transaction evaluation. In real time, the computer updates the accepted forecast hourly, based in actual changes in the weather and load. The load management program executes hourly. The program uses impact curves to calculate a load management strategy that reduces the load forecast below a desired load threshold.
Strength of concrete structures under dynamic loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumpyak, O. G.; Galyautdinov, Z. R.; Kokorin, D. N.
2016-01-01
The use of elastic supports is one the efficient methods of decreasing the dynamic loading. The paper describes the influence of elastic supports on the stress-strain state of steel concrete structures exposed to one-time dynamic loading resulting in failure. Oblique bending beams on elastic supports and their elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic consolidation behavior are considered in this paper. For numerical calculations the developed computer program is used based on the finite element method. Research findings prove high efficiency of elastic supports under dynamic loading conditions. The most effective behavior of elastic supports is demonstrated at the elastoplastic stage. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental results.
David Chassin, Pavel Etingov
2013-04-30
The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-04-30
The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ihara, Tomohiko; Handa, Takashi; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Ishitani, Hisashi
In this paper, we proposed a procedure for calculation of room temperature in multi-room building using the backward-difference method. Based on this procedure and using our simulation program, we evaluated CO2 reduction by installating high light-reflective and high heat-emissive paint in buildings. Heat balance equations on each heat point in each room or wall in the building were deduced from one-dimensional heat-conduction equation and converted to the matrix equation. We improved matrix computing and developed a different procedure from conventional methods. Because this procedure is simple, we consider that this is applicable to estimation of most building’s technologies. As its application, the effects of high light-reflective and high heat-emissive paint was evaluated. Although the paint increases heating load, it can reduce cooling load. We thus conclude that the paint is effective for CO2 reduction.
Development of a simplified procedure for cyclic structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.
1984-01-01
Development was extended of a simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYMP) for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects can be calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress, or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials, and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite-element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite-element analysis.
Laboratory Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pathogen Reduction Procedures for Bacteria
Müller, Thomas H.; Montag, Thomas; Seltsam, Axel W.
2011-01-01
Summary Bacterial contamination remains a leading factor for transfusion-associated serious morbidity and mortality. Pathogen reduction procedures offer a pro-active approach to prevent bacterial contamination of cellular blood components and especially of platelet concentrates. In the past, the laboratory evaluation of the effectiveness of the pathogen reduction procedures to minimise the bacterial load of blood components has been primarily based on log reduction assays similar to the assessment of antiviral activities. Bacteria strains with the ability to multiply in the blood components are seeded in highest possible cell numbers, the pathogen reduction procedure is applied, and the post-treatment number of bacteria is measured. The effectiveness of the procedure is characterised by calculating the log reduction of the post- to pre-treatment bacteria titres. More recently, protocols have been developed for experiments starting with a low bacteria load and monitoring the sterility of the blood component during the entire storage period of the blood component. Results for 3 different pathogen reduction technologies in these experimental models are compared and critical determinants for the results are addressed. The heterogeneity of results observed for different strains suggests that the introduction of international transfusion-relevant bacterial reference strains may facilitate the validity of findings in pathogen reduction experiments. PMID:22016694
Round Heat-treated Chromium-molybdenum-steel Tubing Under Combined Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osgood, William R
1943-01-01
The results of tests of round heat-treated chromium-molybdenum-steel tubing are presented. Tests were made on tubing under axial load, bending load, torsional load, combined bending and axial load, combined bending and torsional load, and combined axial, bending, and torsional load. Tensile and compressive tests were made to determine the properties of the material. Formulas are given for the evaluation of the maximum strength of this steel tubing under individual or combined loads. The solution of an example is included to show the procedure to be followed in designing a tubular cantilever member to carry combined loads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obrien, Maureen E.
1990-01-01
Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.85 Procedures. (a) Vapor tightness. For the purposes of demonstrating... be used: (1) The pressure test procedures specified in Method 27 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; and... of halogen atoms contained in organic compounds shall be calculated as specified in paragraphs...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.85 Procedures. (a) Vapor tightness. For the purposes of demonstrating... be used: (1) The pressure test procedures specified in Method 27 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; and... of halogen atoms contained in organic compounds shall be calculated as specified in paragraphs...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi
2014-11-01
Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi
2014-09-01
Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.
Perez, Richard
2003-04-01
A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.
Canister Transfer Facility Criticality Calculations
J.E. Monroe-Rammsy
2000-10-13
The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the criticality risk in the surface facility for design basis events (DBE) involving Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) standardized canisters (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 2000a). Since some of the canisters will be stored in the surface facility before they are loaded in the waste package (WP), this calculation supports the demonstration of concept viability related to the Surface Facility environment. The scope of this calculation is limited to the consideration of three DOE SNF fuels, specifically Enrico Fermi SNF, Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA) SNF, and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF.
Truck loading positions for maximum live load girder moment in skewed integral bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yalcin, O. Fatih
2015-12-01
In this study, the effect of the longitudinal and transverse truck positions on the distribution of live load moment among the girders of skewed integral abutment bridges (SIBs) is investigated. For this purpose, three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of several single-span SIBs are built and analyzed. In the analyses, bridges with various skew angles under all possible single and double truck loading positions both in longitudinal and transverse directions are considered. An automated analysis procedure managed by a visual basic program is developed to obtain the structural models and apply the wheel loads of trucks. The finite element analyses (FEA) results are then used to find the most critical loading cases of single truck and adjacent two trucks for the live load moment in the girders of SIBs. The results revealed that, the trucks should be placed nearby the midline of the bridge deck in a diagonal manner.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1976-01-01
Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mowery, D. K.; Winder, S. W.
1972-01-01
The prediction of flight loads and their potential reduction, using various control logics for the space shuttle vehicles, is very complex. Some factors, not found on previous launch vehicles, that increase the complexity are large lifting surfaces, unsymmetrical structure, unsymmetrical aerodynamics, trajectory control system coupling, and large aeroelastic effects. Discussed are these load producing factors and load reducing techniques. Identification of potential technology areas is included.
PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING DRY WEATHER POLLUTANT DEPOSITION IN SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
A set of generalized procedures for estimating pollutant loadings associated with dry weather sewage solids deposition in combined sewer systems has been prepared to provide planners, engineers and municipal managers with technical information so that they can make intelligent in...
Load regulating expansion fixture
Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.
1998-01-01
A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.
Load regulating expansion fixture
Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.
1998-12-15
A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.
Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.
1999-05-04
A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.
On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...
Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator
... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...
47 CFR 65.306 - Calculation accuracy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation accuracy. 65.306 Section 65.306 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.306 Calculation...
40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...
40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...
40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...
40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...
47 CFR 65.306 - Calculation accuracy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation accuracy. 65.306 Section 65.306 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.306 Calculation...
40 CFR 86.884-14 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations. 86.884-14 Section 86.884-14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-14 Calculations. (a) If...
The stress distribution in pin-loaded orthotropic plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klang, E. C.; Hyer, M. W.
1985-01-01
The performance of mechanically fastened composite joints was studied. Specially, a single-bolt connector was modeled as a pin-loaded, infinite plate. The model that was developed used two dimensional, complex variable, elasticity techniques combined with a boundary collocation procedure to produce solutions for the problem. Through iteration, the boundary conditions were satisfied and the stresses in the plate were calculated. Several graphite epoxy laminates were studied. In addition, parameters such as the pin modulus, coefficient of friction, and pin-plate clearance were varied. Conclusions drawn from this study indicate: (1) the material properties (i.e., laminate configuration) of the plate alter the stress state and, for highly orthotropic materials, the contact stress deviates greatly from the cosinusoidal distribution often assumed; (2) friction plays a major role in the distribution of stresses in the plate; (3) reversing the load direction also greatly effects the stress distribution in the plate; (4) clearance (or interference) fits change the contact angle and thus the location of the peak hoop stress; and (5) a rigid pin appears to be a good assumption for typical material systems.
Closure and Sealing Design Calculation
T. Lahnalampi; J. Case
2005-08-26
The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not
Practical applications of the R6 leak-before-break procedure
Bouchard, P.J.
1997-04-01
A forthcoming revision to the R6 Leak-before-Break Assessment Procedure is briefly described. Practical application of the LbB concepts to safety-critical nuclear plant is illustrated by examples covering both low temperature and high temperature (>450{degrees}C) operating regimes. The examples highlight a number of issues which can make the development of a satisfactory LbB case problematic: for example, coping with highly loaded components, methodology assumptions and the definition of margins, the effect of crack closure owing to weld residual stresses, complex thermal stress fields or primary bending fields, the treatment of locally high stresses at crack intersections with free surfaces, the choice of local limit load solution when predicting ligament breakthrough, and the scope of calculations required to support even a simplified LbB case for high temperature steam pipe-work systems.
A universal procedure for evaluation and application of surge-protective devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
The source, nature, and frequency of occurrence of transients must be identified and a representative standard test wave chosen for proof testing. The performance of candidate suppressor devices then can be evaluated against the withstand goals set for the equipment. The various suppressors divide into two classes of generic behavior. The key to a universal procedure for evaluating both classes lies in representing transients as quasi-current sources of defined current impulse duration. The available surge current is established by the Thevenin equivalent transient voltage and source impedance. A load line drawn on the V-I characteristic graph of the suppressor quickly determines the clamping voltage and peak current. These values then can be compared to the requirement. The deposited energy and average power dissipation for multiple transients also can be calculated. The method is illustrated with a design example for motor vehicle alternator load dump suppression.
Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban
2016-05-01
Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.
40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust... temperatures. Light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks must calculate and report the weighted mass of...
A novel concept for a combined-load test apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Carl J.; Mcwithey, Robert R.
1991-01-01
An original concept for a combined-load test machine is presented in the paper. The concept employs a circular test specimen which may be rotated with respect to the biaxially applied loads. The ability to rotate the specimen and to vary the applied loads allows for limitless combinations of in-plane normal and shear loads. The loads generated in the test section reference frame are calculated from simple Mohr's circle relationships. In this paper, the concept is evaluated for isotropic, orthotropic, and discretely stiffened panels using elasticity and finite element methods. Strengths and weaknesses of the test machine concept are also discussed and evaluated.
The performance of demand meters under varying load conditions
Arseneau, R. . Inst. for National Measurement Standards)
1993-10-01
The influence of load variations on the performance of four different types of demand meters was studied using a computer controlled test system capable of reproducing load profile data recorded in the field. Results of the tested meters are compared with computer calculated demand values based on readings of a fast responding reference multimeter. Differences in readings in the range of [minus]9.3% to +5.3% were observed during the tests of the four demand meters. For the load profiles considered, demand calculations based on cone minute sub-intervals resulted in values closer to the true peak demand than calculations with five minute sub-intervals.
Reactor calculation benchmark PCA blind test results
Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.
1980-01-01
Further improvement in calculational procedures or a combination of calculations and measurements is necessary to attain 10 to 15% (1 sigma) accuracy for neutron exposure parameters (flux greater than 0.1 MeV, flux greater than 1.0 MeV, and dpa). The calculational modeling of power reactors should be benchmarked in an actual LWR plant to provide final uncertainty estimates for end-of-life predictions and limitations for plant operations. 26 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.
1977-01-01
Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Donald J.
2010-01-01
A test fixture has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center that has the capability of applying compression load and shear load simultaneously to a test specimen. The test specimen size is 24-inches by 28-inches. This report describes the test specimen design, test specimen preparation, fixture assembly in the test machine, and a test operation plan.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. H.
1984-01-01
The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huston, Steven W.
1992-01-01
Electronic load-bank circuit provides pulsed or continuous low-resistance load to imitate effect of short circuit on Ni/H2 or other electrochemical power cells. Includes safety/warning feature and taps for measurement of cell-output voltage and current.
I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...
Remington, Anna M.; Swettenham, John G.; Lavie, Nilli
2012-01-01
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity. PMID:22428792
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Wu, Li
2016-07-01
The propagation and attenuation properties of waves in ordered and disordered periodic composite Timoshenko beams, which consider the effects of axial static load and structural damping, resting on elastic foundations are studied when the system is subjected to moving loads of constant amplitude with a constant velocity. The transfer matrix methodology is adopted to formulate the model in a reference coordinate system moving with the load. The localization factor is calculated to determine the wave velocity pass bands and stop bands. The interactions between the static axial load and moving load, structural damping and disorder on the bands are analyzed.
A NASTRAN DMAP alter for linear buckling analysis under dynamic loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aiello, Robert A.; Grady, Joseph E.
1988-01-01
A unique modification to the NASTRAN solution sequence for transient analysis with direct time integration (COSMIC NASTRAN rigid format 9) was developed and incorporated into a DMAP alter. This DMAP alter calculates the buckling stability of a dynamically loaded structure, and is used to predict the onset of structural buckling under stress wave loading conditions. The modified solution sequence incorporates the linear buckling analysis capability (rigid format 5) of NASTRAN into the existing Transient solution rigid format in such a way as to provide a time dependent eigensolution which is used to assess the buckling stability of the structure as it responds to the impulsive load. As a demonstration of the validity of this modified solution procedure, the dynamic buckling of a prismatic bar subjected to an impulsive longitudinal compression is analyzed and compared to the known theoretical solution. In addition, a dynamic buckling analysis is performed for the analytically less tractable problem of the localized dynamic buckling of an initially flawed composite laminate under transverse impact loading. The addition of this DMAP alter to the transient solution sequence in NASTRAN facilitates the prediction of both time and mode of buckling.
Investigation of Anomalous Behavior in Metallic-Based Materials Under Compressive Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gil, Christopher M.; Lissenden, Cliff J.; Lerch, Bradley A.
1998-01-01
An anomalous material response has been observed under the action of applied compressive loads in fibrous SiC/Ti (both Ti-6242 and Ti-15-3 alloys) and the monolithic nickel-base alloy IN-718 in the aged condition. The observed behavior is an increase, rather than a decrease, in the instantaneous Young's modulus with increasing load. This increase is small, but can be significant in yield surface determination tests, where an equivalent offset strain on the order of 10 micron(1 x 10(exp -6) m/m) is being used. Stiffening has been quantified by calculating offset strains from the linear elastic loading line. The offset strains associated with stiffening during compressive loading are positive and of the same order as the target offset strains in yield surface determination tests. At this time we do not have a reasonable explanation for this response nor can we identify a deformation mechanism that might cause it. On the other hand, we are not convinced that it is an artifact of the experimental procedure because a number of issues have been identified and seemingly ruled out. In fact, stiffening appears to be temperature dependent, since it decreases as the temperature increases.
Analysis and Insights About FE-Calculations of the EC-Forever-Experiments
Willschuetz, H.G.; Altstadt, E.; Weiss, F.P.; Sehgal, B.R.
2002-07-01
To get an improved understanding and knowledge of the melt pool convection and the vessel creep and possible failure processes and modes occurring during the late phase of a core melt down accident the FOREVER-experiments are currently underway at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety of the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm. These experiments are simulating the behaviour of the lower head of the RPV under the thermal loads of a convecting melt pool with decay heating, and under the pressure loads that the vessel experiences in a depressurization scenario. Due to the multi axial creep deformation of the vessel with a non-uniform temperature field these experiments are on the one hand an excellent source of data to validate numerical creep models which are developed on the basis of uniaxial creep tests. On the other hand the results of pre-test calculations can be used to optimize the experimental procedure and by supporting decision making during the experiment. For that, a Finite Element model is developed based on a multi-purpose code. After post-test calculations for the FOREVER-C2 experiment, pre-test calculations for the forthcoming experiments are performed. Additionally metallographic post test investigations of the experiments are conducted to improve the numerical damage model and to adjust the correlation between the metallographic observations and the calculated damage. Taking into account both - experimental and numerical results - gives a good opportunity to improve the simulation and understanding of real accident scenarios. After analysing the calculations, it seems to be advantageous to introduce a vessel support which can unburden the vessel from a part of the mechanical load and, therefore, avoid the vessel failure or at least prolong the time to failure. This can be a possible accident mitigation strategy. Additionally, it is possible to install an absolutely passive automatic control device to initiate the flooding of the reactor pit to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeiler, Thomas A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.
1989-01-01
A theoretical basis and example calculations are given that demonstrate the relationship between the Matched Filter Theory approach to the calculation of time-correlated gust loads and Phased Design Load Analysis in common use in the aerospace industry. The relationship depends upon the duality between Matched Filter Theory and Random Process Theory and upon the fact that Random Process Theory is used in Phased Design Loads Analysis in determining an equiprobable loads design ellipse. Extensive background information describing the relevant points of Phased Design Loads Analysis, calculating time-correlated gust loads with Matched Filter Theory, and the duality between Matched Filter Theory and Random Process Theory is given. It is then shown that the time histories of two time-correlated gust load responses, determined using the Matched Filter Theory approach, can be plotted as parametric functions of time and that the resulting plot, when superposed upon the design ellipse corresponding to the two loads, is tangent to the ellipse. The question is raised of whether or not it is possible for a parametric load plot to extend outside the associated design ellipse. If it is possible, then the use of the equiprobable loads design ellipse will not be a conservative design practice in some circumstances.
Lumbar spinal loads vary with body height and weight.
Han, Kap-Soo; Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Taylor, William R
2013-07-01
Knowledge about spinal loading is required for designing and preclinical testing of spinal implants. It is assumed that loading of the spine depends upon body weight and height, as well as on the spine level, but a direct measurement of the loading conditions throughout the spine is not yet possible. Here, computer models can allow an estimation of the forces and moments acting in the spine. The objective of the present study was to calculate spinal loads for different postures and activities at several levels of the thoracolumbar spine for various combinations of body height and weight. A validated musculoskeletal model, together with commercially available software (AnyBody Technology), were used to calculate the segmental loads acting on the centre of the upper endplate of the vertebrae T12 to L5. The body height was varied between 150 and 200 cm and the weight between 50 and 120 kg. The loads were determined for five standard static postures and three lifting tasks. The resultant forces and moments increased approximately linearly with increasing body weight. The body height had a nearly linear effect on the spinal loads, but in almost all loading cases, the effect on spinal loads was stronger for variation of body weight than of body height. Spinal loads generally increased from cranial to caudal. The presented data now allow the estimation of the spinal load during activities of daily living on a subject specific basis, if body height and weight are known. PMID:23040051
Soewono, C. N.; Takaki, N.
2012-07-01
In this work genetic algorithm was proposed to solve fuel loading pattern optimization problem in thorium fueled heavy water reactor. The objective function of optimization was to maximize the conversion ratio and minimize power peaking factor. Those objectives were simultaneously optimized using non-dominated Pareto-based population ranking optimal method. Members of non-dominated population were assigned selection probabilities based on their rankings in a manner similar to Baker's single criterion ranking selection procedure. A selected non-dominated member was bred through simple mutation or one-point crossover process to produce a new member. The genetic algorithm program was developed in FORTRAN 90 while neutronic calculation and analysis was done by COREBN code, a module of core burn-up calculation for SRAC. (authors)