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Sample records for loadingson monolithic structures

  1. Structure for monolithic optical circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanchuk, Vincent L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method for making monolithic optical circuits, with related optical devices as required or desired, on a supporting surface (10) consists of coating the supporting surface with reflecting metal or cladding resin, spreading a layer of liquid radiation sensitive plastic (12) on the surface, exposing the liquid plastic with a mask (14) to cure it in a desired pattern of light conductors (16, 18, 20), washing away the unexposed liquid plastic, and coating the conductors thus formed with reflective metal or cladding resin. The index of refraction for the cladding (22) is selected to be lower than for the conductors so that light in the conductors will be reflected by the interface with the cladding. For multiple level conductors, as where one conductor must cross over another, the process may be repeated to fabricate a bridge with columns (24, 26) of conductors to the next level, and conductor (28) between the columns. For more efficient transfer of energy over the bridge, faces at 45.degree. may be formed to reflect light up and across the bridge.

  2. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  3. Residual Strength Analyses of Monolithic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott (Technical Monitor); Ambur, Damodar R. (Technical Monitor); Seshadri, B. R.; Tiwari, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Finite-element fracture simulation methodology predicts the residual strength of damaged aircraft structures. The methodology uses the critical crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion to characterize the fracture behavior of the material. The CTOA fracture criterion assumes that stable crack growth occurs when the crack-tip angle reaches a constant critical value. The use of the CTOA criterion requires an elastic- plastic, finite-element analysis. The critical CTOA value is determined by simulating fracture behavior in laboratory specimens, such as a compact specimen, to obtain the angle that best fits the observed test behavior. The critical CTOA value appears to be independent of loading, crack length, and in-plane dimensions. However, it is a function of material thickness and local crack-front constraint. Modeling the local constraint requires either a three-dimensional analysis or a two-dimensional analysis with an approximation to account for the constraint effects. In recent times as the aircraft industry is leaning towards monolithic structures with the intention of reducing part count and manufacturing cost, there has been a consistent effort at NASA Langley to extend critical CTOA based numerical methodology in the analysis of integrally-stiffened panels.In this regard, a series of fracture tests were conducted on both flat and curved aluminum alloy integrally-stiffened panels. These flat panels were subjected to uniaxial tension and during the test, applied load-crack extension, out-of-plane displacements and local deformations around the crack tip region were measured. Compact and middle-crack tension specimens were tested to determine the critical angle (wc) using three-dimensional code (ZIP3D) and the plane-strain core height (hJ using two-dimensional code (STAGS). These values were then used in the STAGS analysis to predict the fracture behavior of the integrally-stiffened panels. The analyses modeled stable tearing, buckling, and crack

  4. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Ceramic Monolith-Structured Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Wei

    2009-04-19

    This paper reports recent research results about impact of different catalyst bed configurations on FT reaction product distribution. A CoRe/γ-alumina catalyst is prepared in bulk particle form and tested in the packed bed reactor at a size of 60 to 100 mesh. The same catalyst is ball milled and coated on a ceramic monolith support structure of channel size about 1mm. The monolith catalyst module is tested in two different ways, as a whole piece and as well-defined channels. Steady-state reaction conversion is measured at various temperatures under constant H2/CO feed ratio of 2 and reactor pressure of 25 bar. Detailed product analysis is performed. Significant formation of wax is evident with the packed particle bed and with the monolith catalyst that is improperly packed. By contrast, the wax formation is not detected in the liquid product by confining the reactions inside the monolith channel. This study presents an important finding about the structured catalyst/reactor system that the product distribution highly depends on the way how the structured reactor is set up. Even if the same catalyst and same reaction conditions (T, P, H2/oil ratio) are used, hydrodynamics (or flow conditions) inside a structured channel can have a significant impact on the product distribution.

  5. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields.

  6. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields. PMID:24093494

  7. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields. PMID:24093494

  8. Method of making and structure for monolithic optical circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanchuk, Vincent L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for making monolithic optical circuits, with related optical devices as required or desired, on a supporting surface (10) consists of coating the supporting surface with reflecting metal or cladding resin, spreading a layer of liquid radiation senstivie plastic (12) on the surface, exposing the liquid plastic with a mask (14) to cure it in a desired pattern of light conductors (16, 18, 20), washing away the unexposed liquid plastic, and coating the conductors thus formed with reflective metal or cladding resin. The index of refraction for the cladding (22) is selected to be lower than for the conductors so that light in the conductors will be reflected by the interface with the cladding. For multiple level conductors, as where one conductor must cross over another, the process may be repeated to fabricate a bridge with columns (24, 26) of conductors to the next level, and conductor (28) between the columns. For more efficient transfer of energy over the bridge, faces at 45.degree. may be formed to reflect light up and across the bridge.

  9. Monolithic integration of waveguide structures with surface-micromachined polysilicon actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.

    1996-03-01

    The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms show significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. Monolithically integrating the manufacturing process for waveguide structures with the processing of polysilicon actuators allows actuated waveguides to take advantage of the economy of silicon manufacturing. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for the waveguide design along with design, fabrication, and testing details for the polysilicon actuators are presented.

  10. Tailoring the macroporous structure of monolithic silica-based capillary columns with potential for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Laschober, Stefan; Sulyok, Michael; Rosenberg, Erwin

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at the optimisation of the synthesis of methyl-silsesquioxane monolithic capillary columns using a sol-gel based protocol. The influence of reaction conditions such as temperature, reaction mixture composition and catalyst concentration has been examined. The morphology of the products was studied by scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption. Monolithic capillary columns were obtained with a skeleton-like structure with open pores. Pore diameters vary from 0.8 to 15 microm, diameters of the xerogel network vary from 0.4 to 12 microm, respectively. Specific surface areas up to 334 m2/g have been observed, however, many materials did not possess areas above few m2/g which represents the limit of detection of the nitrogen porosimetry measurements. Excellent adhesion to the capillary wall was observed in all cases, and drying was possible at ambient conditions without the formation of cracks. PMID:17241639

  11. The 3D pore structure and fluid dynamics simulation of macroporous monoliths: High permeability due to alternating channel width.

    PubMed

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Steppert, Petra; Sekot, Gerhard; Zankel, Armin; Reingruber, Herbert; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Jungbauer, Alois

    2015-12-18

    Polymethacrylate-based monoliths have excellent flow properties. Flow in the wide channel interconnected with narrow channels is theoretically assumed to account for favorable permeability. Monoliths were cut into 898 slices in 50nm distances and visualized by serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM). A 3D structure was reconstructed and used for the calculation of flow profiles within the monolith and for calculation of pressure drop and permeability by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The calculated and measured permeabilities showed good agreement. Small channels clearly flowed into wide and wide into small channels in a repetitive manner which supported the hypothesis describing the favorable flow properties of these materials. This alternating property is also reflected in the streamline velocity which fluctuated. These findings were corroborated by artificial monoliths which were composed of regular (interconnected) cells where narrow cells followed wide cells. In the real monolith and the artificial monoliths with interconnected flow channels similar velocity fluctuations could be observed. A two phase flow simulation showed a lateral velocity component, which may contribute to the transport of molecules to the monolith wall. Our study showed that the interconnection of small and wide pores is responsible for the excellent pressure flow properties. This study is also a guide for further design of continuous porous materials to achieve good flow properties. PMID:26615711

  12. Encapsulated and monolithic resonant structures for laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pung, Aaron Joseph

    Typically, the composition of a laser system includes a gain medium, a pump illumination source, and an external feedback cavity. This cavity consists of a highly reflective mirror and an outcoupler component. The geometry of the outcoupler can be engineered to tailor the reflected or transmitted beam's spatial and spectral distribution. Functionally, the transmitted beam profile is dependent on the laser application. Broadband reflection profiles can be obtained by utilizing a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). A DBR device consists of multiple layers of alternating materials. Constructive interference of the reflected light off each interface between different materials produces the spectrally broadband response. The spectral response is a function of the fabrication and material parameters of the DBR. In contrast, guided-mode resonance filters (GMRF) exploit phase matching between evanescent- and guided-waves to provide a strong reflection. Based on the materials in the structure, the spectral response can demonstrate broadband or narrowband reflectivity. The operation wavelength of a GMRF is dependent on the structural parameters of the device as well as the angle of incidence. However, conventional designs of resonant optics leave critical aspects of the structure exposed to the surrounding environment. Additional damage or contamination to the waveguide or grating layer will significantly alter the device's spectral response. This dissertation introduces two GMRF geometries aimed at device integration, development of similar-material resonant devices, and full-device protection from outside influence. Unlike distributed Bragg reflectors, these geometries do not rely heavily on strict material and deposition requirements. Instead, they take advantage of the deposition processes to minimize coating deposition, achieve high reflectivity and demonstrate control over polarization dependence. Given their versatility in design and ability to withstand high power

  13. Method for making a monolithic integrated high-T.sub.c superconductor-semiconductor structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Michael J. (Inventor); de la Houssaye, Paul R. (Inventor); Garcia, Graham A. (Inventor); Russell, Stephen D. (Inventor); Clayton, Stanley R. (Inventor); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for the fabrication of active semiconductor and high-temperature perconducting devices on the same substrate to form a monolithically integrated semiconductor-superconductor (MISS) structure is disclosed. A common insulating substrate, preferably sapphire or yttria-stabilized zirconia, is used for deposition of semiconductor and high-temperature superconductor substructures. Both substructures are capable of operation at a common temperature of at least 77 K. The separate semiconductor and superconductive regions may be electrically interconnected by normal metals, refractory metal silicides, or superconductors. Circuits and devices formed in the resulting MISS structures display operating characteristics which are equivalent to those of circuits and devices prepared on separate substrates.

  14. Monolithic integrated high-T.sub.c superconductor-semiconductor structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Michael J. (Inventor); de la Houssaye, Paul R. (Inventor); Garcia, Graham A. (Inventor); Russell, Stephen D. (Inventor); Clayton, Stanley R. (Inventor); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for the fabrication of active semiconductor and high-temperature superconducting device of the same substrate to form a monolithically integrated semiconductor-superconductor (MISS) structure is disclosed. A common insulating substrate, preferably sapphire or yttria-stabilized zirconia, is used for deposition of semiconductor and high-temperature superconductor substructures. Both substructures are capable of operation at a common temperature of at least 77 K. The separate semiconductor and superconductive regions may be electrically interconnected by normal metals, refractory metal silicides, or superconductors. Circuits and devices formed in the resulting MISS structures display operating characteristics which are equivalent to those of circuits and devices prepared on separate substrates.

  15. Resonance magnetoelectric effect without a bias field in a piezoelectric langatate-hysteretic ferromagnet monolithic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdin, D. A.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Chashin, D. V.; Ekonomov, N. A.

    2014-09-01

    The frequency, field, temperature, and amplitude characteristics of the direct magnetoelectric effect are studied in a planar monolithic structure consisting of a piezoelectric langatate crystal and a layer of electrolytic nickel. A relation between the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the structure is demonstrated, which explains the effects observed in structures with hysteretic layers. At the planar acoustic resonance frequency of the structure (about 70 kHz), the effect amounting to 23 V/(Oe cm) in the absence of a bias field is discovered. In the temperature interval 150-400 K, the amount of the effect changes nearly twofold, the resonance frequency changes by about 1%, and the Q factor on cooling rises to about 8 × 103. The field sensitivity of the structure is on the order of 1 V/Oe, which makes it possible to detect magnetic fields with an amplitude down to ˜10-6 Oe.

  16. Color tunable monolithic InGaN/GaN LED having a multi-junction structure.

    PubMed

    Kong, Duk-Jo; Kang, Chang-Mo; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Kim, James; Lee, Dong-Seon

    2016-03-21

    In this study, we have fabricated a blue-green color-tunable monolithic InGaN/GaN LED having a multi-junction structure with three terminals. The device has an n-p-n structure consisting of a green and a blue active region, i.e., an n-GaN / blue-MQW / p-GaN / green-MQW / n-GaN / Al2O3 structure with three terminals for independently controlling the two active regions. To realize this LED structure, a typical LED consisting of layers of n-GaN, blue MQW, and p-GaN is regrown on a conventional green LED by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. We explain detailed mechanisms of three operation modes which are the green, blue, and cyan mode. Moreover, we discuss optical properties of the device. PMID:27136884

  17. A Monolithic Algorithm for High Reynolds Number Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberknecht, Erika; Sheldon, Jason; Pitt, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Simulations of fluid-structure interaction problems with high Reynolds number flows are typically approached with partitioned algorithms that leverage the robustness of traditional finite volume method based CFD techniques for flows of this nature. However, such partitioned algorithms are subject to many sub-iterations per simulation time-step, which substantially increases the computational cost when a tightly coupled solution is desired. To address this issue, we present a finite element method based monolithic algorithm for fluid-structure interaction problems with high Reynolds number flow. The use of a monolithic algorithm will potentially reduce the computational cost during each time-step, but requires that all of the governing equations be simultaneously cast in a single Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) frame of reference and subjected to the same discretization strategy. The formulation for the fluid solution is stabilized by implementing a Streamline Upwind Galerkin (SUPG) method, and a projection method for equal order interpolation of all of the solution unknowns; numerical and programming details are discussed. Preliminary convergence studies and numerical investigations are presented, to demonstrate the algorithm's robustness and performance. The authors acknowledge support for this project from the Applied Research Laboratory Eric Walker Graduate Fellowship Program.

  18. Processing and characterization of monolithic carbon structures based on wood fiberboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kercher, Andrew Keith

    The structure and properties of monolithic carbonized medium-density fiberboards were studied to expand the capabilities of carbonized wood processing. Medium-density fiberboard (MDF) has a more uniform structure than wood, which was investigated in earlier studies for monolithic carbon structures. The uniform structure of medium density fiberboard (MDF) allowed for a reduction in thermal processing time from 4.5 days for wood carbonization to 1 day for MDF carbonization. Key physical properties of carbonized MDF (c-MDF) were determined for potential applications, such as battery electrodes, fuel cell separators and activated carbon filters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the growth of large turbostratic crystallites and large graphene sheets during the carbonization process. A novel x-ray diffraction method using monolithic pieces of c-MDF was used to correlate the dimensional changes occurring during the carbonization process with the growth of large turbostratic crystallites. The insights gained from the XRD investigation of c-MDF were used to develop a quasipercolation model, which describes the microstructural evolution of hard carbons. This quasipercolation model explained the observed changes in bulk density, dimension, helium density and electrical conductivity of c-MDF. The model also explained how nanopores form in activated carbon materials. The mechanical and electrical properties of carbonized MDF were measured using ASTM 4-point bending and 4-point electrical conductivity techniques. The elastic modulus was shown to vary from 1.5 to 4.5 GPa for the carbonization temperature range of 600°C to 1000°C. The electrical resistivity varied by seven orders of magnitude from 600°C to 1400°C. An open foam model was used to approximate the mechanical and electrical properties of the hard carbon material in the porous c-MDF. Large structural activated carbons were made by physical activation of c-MDF in carbon dioxide. A low activation

  19. Morphological Analysis of Physically Reconstructed Silica Monoliths with Submicrometer Macropores: Effect of Decreasing Domain Size on Structural Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Daniela; Kübel, Christian; Loeh, Marc O; Smarsly, Bernd M; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    Silica monoliths are increasingly used as fixed-bed supports in separation and catalysis because their bimodal pore space architecture combines excellent mass transport properties with a large surface area. To optimize their performance, a quantitative relationship between morphology and transport characteristics has to be established, and synthesis conditions that lead to a desired morphology optimized for a targeted application must be identified. However, the effects of specific synthesis parameters on the structural properties of silica monoliths are still poorly understood. An important question is how far the macropore and domain size can be reduced without compromising the structural homogeneity. We address this question with quantitative morphological data derived for a set of eight macroporous-mesoporous silica monoliths with an average macropore size (d(macro)) of between 3.7 and 0.1 μm, prepared following an established route involving the sol-gel transition and phase separation. The macropore space of the silica monolith samples is reconstructed using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy followed by a quantitative assessment of geometrical and topological properties based on chord length distributions (CLDs) and branch-node analysis of the pore network, respectively. We observe a significant increase in structural heterogeneity, indicated by a decrease in the parameter k derived from fitting a k-gamma function to the CLDs, when d(macro) reaches the submicrometer range. The compromised structural homogeneity of silica monoliths with submicrometer macropores could possibly originate from early structural freezing during the competitive processes of sol-gel transition and phase separation. It is therefore questionable if the common approach of reducing the morphological features of silica monoliths into the submicrometer regime by changing the point of sol-gel transition can be successful. Alternative strategies and a better understanding of the

  20. Monolithic ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A development history and current development status evaluation are presented for SiC and Si3N4 monolithic ceramics. In the absence of widely sought improvements in these materials' toughness, and associated reliability in structural applications, uses will remain restricted to components in noncritical, nonman-rated aerospace applications such as cruise missile and drone gas turbine engine components. In such high temperature engine-section components, projected costs lie below those associated with superalloy-based short-life/expendable engines. Advancements are required in processing technology for the sake of fewer and smaller microstructural flaws.

  1. Synthesis and electronic structure of low-density monoliths of nanoporous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Kucheyev, S O; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y M; van Buuren, T; Satcher, J H

    2004-08-13

    Monolithic nanocrystalline anatase titania aerogels are synthesized by the epoxide sol-gel method followed by thermal annealing at 550 C. These aerogels are formed by {approx}10-20 nm size anatase nanoparticles which are randomly oriented and interconnected into an open-cell solid network. Aerogel monoliths have an apparent density of {approx}6% and a surface area of {approx} 100 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy reveal good crystallinity of the anatase nanoparticles forming the aerogel skeleton.

  2. Monolithic structure of integrated coaxial microhollow dielectric barrier discharges: Characterization for environmental and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Motomura, Hideki

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of microhollow dielectric barrier discharge devices in a thin monolithic planar structure with many holes were analyzed regarding the production of OH radicals, using optical emission and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy techniques. Spatial distributions of OH radical density depended on the diameter of electrode holes from 0.6 to 1.5 mm and the discharge operating gas species. Apparent emission intensity from OH radicals and the LIF signals were very high in He and Ar gases but quite low in N2. However, taking into account the LIF quenching rate in each gas, the existing densities of OH radicals in all tested gases were not greatly different from each other. The absolute density of OH radicals estimated by a comparison of the LIF intensity with our measured result on a conventional He plasma jet referring to reported densities in similar situations was on the order of 1014 cm‑3.

  3. Monolithic carbon structures including suspended single nanowires and nanomeshes as a sensor platform

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the development of nanomaterial-based nanodevices, it became inevitable to develop cost-effective and simple nanofabrication technologies enabling the formation of nanomaterial assembly in a controllable manner. Herein, we present suspended monolithic carbon single nanowires and nanomeshes bridging two bulk carbon posts, fabricated in a designed manner using two successive UV exposure steps and a single pyrolysis step. The pyrolysis step is accompanied with a significant volume reduction, resulting in the shrinkage of micro-sized photoresist structures into nanoscale carbon structures. Even with the significant elongation of the suspended carbon nanowire induced by the volume reduction of the bulk carbon posts, the resultant tensional stress along the nanowire is not significant but grows along the wire thickness; this tensional stress gradient and the bent supports of the bridge-like carbon nanowire enhance structural robustness and alleviate the stiction problem that suspended nanostructures frequently experience. The feasibility of the suspended carbon nanostructures as a sensor platform was demonstrated by testing its electrochemical behavior, conductivity-temperature relationship, and hydrogen gas sensing capability. PMID:24256942

  4. Mode-selective coupling structures for monolithic integrated waveguide-detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Tom M.; Houtsma, V. E.; Lambeck, Paul V.; Klunder, Dion J.; Popma, Th. J. A.; Holleman, J.

    1999-03-01

    Microsystems are presented in which a SiON based optical waveguiding system is monolithically integrated with photodiodes, which are implemented in the Si substrate. Coupling structures of various type enable to transfer whether (part of) the power of one selected mode or the power of all modi propagating through the waveguide, to the photodiode. Here we focus on coupling structures for use in integrated optical absorption sensor systems, where information can be obtained from both the TE0 and TM0 mode, propagating simultaneously through the waveguide system. The coupling into the photodiodes is achieved by thinning down the thickness of the core layer in the region above the photodiode, which results in a mode specific modewidth expansion of the propagating modi. It will be shown that in asymmetrical layer systems, within a certain interaction length all TM0 power can be absorbed by the Si detector, while the TE0 mode shows only a negligible attenuation. The selectivity of the coupling can be strongly enhanced by implementing an additional substrate layer, having a refractive index in between that of the TE0 and TM0 mode. Both theoretical and experimental results will be presented.

  5. Preparation of porous poly(L-lactic acid) honeycomb monolith structure by phase separation and unidirectional freezing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Woong; Taki, Kentaro; Nagamine, Shinsuke; Ohshima, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    A honeycomb monolith structure with micro/nanoscale porous walls was successfully fabricated in poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) by integrating polymer-solvent and polymer-polymer phase separations induced during a pseudosteady-state unidirectional freezing process. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and PLLA were dissolved in 1,4-dioxane to prepare a single phase polymer solution. The direction of freezing created a honeycomb monolith structure of PLLA/PEG polymers. Crystallization of the solvent reduced the solvent concentration and induced liquid-liquid phase separation during the unidirectional freezing. A sea-and-island morphology, where PEG domains were dispersed in the PLLA matrix, was developed, and pores were created in the channel walls of the honeycomb monolith structure by leaching out the PEG domain. The effects of the PEG molecular weight and the PLLA/PEG weight ratio on the aligned honeycomb structure and the pores in the channel walls were investigated. A ternary phase diagram for PLLA, PEG, and 1,4-dioxane was created from cloud point temperature measurements. Based on this phase diagram, hypotheses for the mechanism of the cellular-dendritic transition and the formation mechanism of the pores in the channel walls are proposed. PMID:19290649

  6. Monolithic Domes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the energy savings, low cost, and near-absolute protection from tornadoes provided by monolithic domes is starting to appeal to school districts for athletic and other facilities, including the Italy (Texas) Independent School District. Provides an overview of monolithic dome construction. (EV)

  7. A penalty-projection algorithm for a monolithic fluid-structure interaction solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we propose a new iterative penalty-projection algorithm for a monolithic fluid-structure interaction solver. Projection methods, that split the computation of the velocity from the pressure, are very popular in fluid dynamics since the boundary errors generated by the projection method are localized mainly near the boundary layers where the incorrect pressure boundary conditions are imposed. However, when solid regions are taken into account, the pressure projected field cannot satisfy fully coupled boundary constraints imposed on external solid surfaces such as stress-free conditions, and, due to the rigidity of the medium, the boundary errors propagate deeply in the interior. In order to reduce the projection errors we propose a one-step penalty-projection method in the fluid domain and an iterative penalty-projection method in the solid region. This technique decouples the pressure-velocity degrees of freedom and, as a consequence, the computational cost. In order to verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method we compare the results between this splitting velocity-pressure algorithm and the coupled one. These numerical results show stability and robustness of the proposed algorithm with a strong reduction of the computational effort.

  8. Monolithical integration of polymer-based microfluidic structures on application-specific integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemnitz, Steffen; Schafer, Heiko; Schumacher, Stephanie; Koziy, Volodymyr; Fischer, Alexander; Meixner, Alfred J.; Ehrhardt, Dietmar; Bohm, Markus

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, a concept for a monolithically integrated chemical lab on microchip is presented. It contains an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit), an interface to the polymer based microfluidic layer and a Pyrex glass cap. The top metal layer of the ASIC is etched off and replaced by a double layer metallization, more suitable to microfluidic and electrophoresis systems. The metallization consists of an approximately 50 nm gold layer and a 10 nm chromium layer, acting as adhesion promoter. A necessary prerequisite is a planarized ASIC topography. SU-8 is used to serve as microfluidic structure because of its excellent aspect ratio. This polymer layer contains reservoirs, channels, mixers and electrokinetic micro pumps. The typical channel cross section is 10μm"10μm. First experimental results on a microfluidic pump, consisting of pairs of interdigitated electrodes on the bottom of the channel and without any moving parts show a flow of up to 50μm per second for low AC-voltages in the range of 5 V for aqueous fluids. The microfluidic system is irreversibly sealed with a 150μm thick Pyrex glass plate bonded to the SU-8-layer, supported by oxygen plasma. Due to capillary forces and surfaces properties of the walls the system is self-priming. The technologies for the fabrication of the microfluidic system and the preparation of the interface between the lab layer and the ASIC are presented.

  9. Quasi-Monolithic Structures for Spaceflight Using Hydroxide-Catalysis Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Alix; Thorpe, J. Ira; Miner, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Future space-based missions will take measurements of the universe with unprecedented results. To do this, these missions will require materials and bonding techniques with ever-increasing stability in order to make their measurements. As an example, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will detect and observe gravitational waves in the 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz frequency range with strain sensitivities on the order of 10(exp -21) at its most sensitive frequency. To make these measurements, critical components such as the optical bench or telescope support structure, will need to have path-length stabilities of better than 1 pm/(square root)Hz. The baseline construction method for the LISA optical bench is to affix fused silica optical components to a Zerodur baseplate using hydroxide-catalysis bonding (HCB). HCB is a recently developed technique that allows the bonding of glasses, some metals, and silicon carbide with significant strength and stability with a bond thickness of less than a few micrometers. In addition, a wide range of surface profiles can be bonded using only a small amount of hydroxide solution. These characteristics make HCB ideal for adhering optical components in complex optical systems. In addition to being used to construct the LISA optical bench, the HCB technique shows great promise for constructing other structures such as hollow retroreflectors to be used for lunar laser ranging, or a visible nulling coronograph to be used for exo-planet detection. Here we present construction techniques that could be used to make an optical bench, hollow retroreflector, nulling coronograph, or other quasi-monolithic structures using HCB. In addition, we present dimensional stability results of an optical bench that was made using HCB, as well as HCB strength measurements.

  10. A preliminary investigation of the growth of an aneurysm with a multiscale monolithic Fluid-Structure interaction solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.; Pozzetti, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the potentialities of multi-scale engineering techniques to approach complex problems related to biomedical and biological fields. In particular we study the interaction between blood and blood vessel focusing on the presence of an aneurysm. The study of each component of the cardiovascular system is very difficult due to the fact that the movement of the fluid and solid is determined by the rest of system through dynamical boundary conditions. The use of multi-scale techniques allows us to investigate the effect of the whole loop on the aneurysm dynamic. A three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model for the aneurysm is developed and coupled to a mono-dimensional one for the remaining part of the cardiovascular system, where a point zero-dimensional model for the heart is provided. In this manner it is possible to achieve rigorous and quantitative investigations of the cardiovascular disease without loosing the system dynamic. In order to study this biomedical problem we use a monolithic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model where the fluid and solid equations are solved together. The use of a monolithic solver allows us to handle the convergence issues caused by large deformations. By using this monolithic approach different solid and fluid regions are treated as a single continuum and the interface conditions are automatically taken into account. In this way the iterative process characteristic of the commonly used segregated approach, it is not needed any more.

  11. Structural Behavior of Monolithic Fuel Plates During Hot Isostatic Pressing and Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel G. Medvedev; Hakan Ozaltun

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents results of the stress analysis in the monolithic fuel plates during thermal transients performed using COMSOL finite element analysis software. Large difference in the thermal expansion between the U-Mo foil and Al cladding is the main load origin during heating and cooling of the fuel plates. In addition, the mechanical behavior of the plate is affected by the difference in yield points between the foil and the cladding. This is manifested by the plastic deformation and permanent strains in the cladding, and elastic deformation of the foil. The results show existence of the critical temperature points at which the stresses change from compressive to tensile. The paper highlights principal differences in mechanical behavior between monolithic and dispersion fuel plates, underlines the need for mechanical property data, especially for the U-Mo alloys, and discusses the methodology for mechanical analysis of the monolithic plates.

  12. Simulation Based Optimization of Complex Monolithic Composite Structures Using Cellular Core Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, Curtis W.

    Cellular core tooling is a new technology which has the capability to manufacture complex integrated monolithic composite structures. This novel tooling method utilizes thermoplastic cellular cores as inner tooling. The semi-rigid nature of the cellular cores makes them convenient for lay-up, and under autoclave temperature and pressure they soften and expand providing uniform compaction on all surfaces including internal features such as ribs and spar tubes. This process has the capability of developing fully optimized aerospace structures by reducing or eliminating assembly using fasteners or bonded joints. The technology is studied in the context of evaluating its capabilities, advantages, and limitations in developing high quality structures. The complex nature of these parts has led to development of a model using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus and the plug-in COMPRO Common Component Architecture (CCA) provided by Convergent Manufacturing Technologies. This model utilizes a "virtual autoclave" technique to simulate temperature profiles, resin flow paths, and ultimately deformation from residual stress. A model has been developed simulating the temperature profile during curing of composite parts made with the cellular core technology. While modeling of composites has been performed in the past, this project will look to take this existing knowledge and apply it to this new manufacturing method capable of building more complex parts and develop a model designed specifically for building large, complex components with a high degree of accuracy. The model development has been carried out in conjunction with experimental validation. A double box beam structure was chosen for analysis to determine the effects of the technology on internal ribs and joints. Double box beams were manufactured and sectioned into T-joints for characterization. Mechanical behavior of T-joints was performed using the T-joint pull-off test and compared to traditional

  13. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  14. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  15. Spectroscopic Characterization of Structural Changes in Membrane Scaffold Proteins Entrapped within Mesoporous Silica Gel Monoliths.

    PubMed

    Zeno, Wade F; Hilt, Silvia; Risbud, Subhash H; Voss, John C; Longo, Marjorie L

    2015-04-29

    The changes in the orientation and conformation of three different membrane scaffold proteins (MSPs) upon entrapment in sol-gel-derived mesoporous silica monoliths were investigated. MSPs were examined in either a lipid-free or a lipid-bound conformation, where the proteins were associated with lipids to form nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs). NLPs are water-soluble, disk-shaped patches of a lipid bilayer that have amphiphilic MSPs shielding the hydrophobic lipid tails. The NLPs in this work had an average thickness of 5 nm and diameters of 9.2, 9.7, and 14.8 nm. We have previously demonstrated that NLPs are more suitable lipid-based structures for silica gel entrapment than liposomes because of their size compatibility with the mesoporous network (2-50 nm) and minimally altered structure after encapsulation. Here we further elaborate on that work by using a variety of spectroscopic techniques to elucidate whether or not different MSPs maintain their protein-lipid interactions after encapsulation. Fluorescence spectroscopy and quenching of the tryptophan residues with acrylamide, 5-DOXYL-stearic acid, and 16-DOXYL-stearic acid were used to determine the MSP orientation. We also utilized fluorescence anisotropy of tryptophans to measure the relative size of the NLPs and MSP aggregates after entrapment. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to examine the secondary structure of the MSPs. Our results showed that, after entrapment, all of the lipid-bound MSPs maintained orientations that were minimally changed and indicative of association with lipids in NLPs. The tryptophan residues appeared to remain buried within the hydrophobic core of the lipid tails in the NLPs and appropriately spaced from the bilayer center. Also, after entrapment, lipid-bound MSPs maintained a high degree of α-helical content, a secondary structure associated with protein-lipid interactions. These findings demonstrate that NLPs are capable of serving as viable hosts for functional

  16. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yiyu; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul Michael; Ou, Haiyan

    2011-03-14

    We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the monolithic white LED have been demonstrated. The CRI of the monolithic white LED could be improved from 92.68 to around 94 by applying a cylinder structure, and the CCT could be modified in a very large range with appropriate design of the cylinder structure. PMID:21445218

  17. Analysis and reduction of leakage current of 2 kV monolithic isolator with wide trench spiral isolation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the origin of the leakage current of a highly area-efficient silicon-on-insulator (SOI) monolithic isolator using a spiral trench isolation structure is clarified by experimental and simulation analyses and its reduction method is proposed. It was found that parasitic MOSFET inversion and accumulation channels formed at the SOI and buried oxide (BOX) interface are the origins of leakage current. To reduce the leakage current, adequate SOI spiral length and width and BOX layer thickness are proposed for various voltage usages and show the possibility of 4 kV voltage tolerance and 500 MΩ isolation resistivity.

  18. Monolithic III–V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Liu, Ke; Sorger, Volker J.; Sadana, Devendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic integration of III–V semiconductor lasers with Si circuits can reduce cost and enhance performance for optical interconnects dramatically. We propose and investigate plasmonic III–V nanolasers as monolithically integrated light source on Si chips due to many advantages. First, these III–V plasmonic light sources can be directly grown on Si substrates free of crystallographic defects due to the submicron cavity footprint (250 nm × 250 nm) being smaller than the average defect free region size of the heteroepitaxial III–V material on Si. Secondly, the small lateral and vertical dimensions facilitate process co-integration with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) in the front end of the line. Thirdly, combining with monolithically integrated CMOS circuits with low device capacitance and parasitic capacitance, the nano-cavity optoelectronic devices consume orders of magnitude less power than the conventional lasers and reduce the energy consumption. Fourthly, the modulation bandwidth of the plasmonic light-sources is enhanced to significantly higher than conventional lasers due to enhanced photon state density and transition rate. In addition, we show that these device performance are very robust after taking into account the surface recombination and variations in device fabrication processes. PMID:26369698

  19. Development of GaAs/Si and GaAs/Si monolithic structures for future space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Vernon, S. M.; Wolfson, R. G.; Tobin, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    The results of heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs and GaAlAs directly on Si are presented, and applications to new cell structures are suggested. The novel feature is the elimination of a Ge lattice transition region. This feature not only reduces the cost of substrate preparation, but also makes possible the fabrication of high efficiency monolithic cascade structures. All films to be discussed were grown by organometallic chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. This process yielded reproducible, large-area films of GaAs, grown directly on Si, that are tightly adherent and smooth, and are characterized by a defect density of 5 x 10(6) power/sq cm. Preliminary studies indicate that GaAlAs can also be grown in this way. A number of promising applications are suggested. Certainly these substrates are ideal for low-weight GaAs space solar ells. For very high efficiency, the absence of Ge makes the technology attractive for GaAlAs/Si monolithic cascades, in which the Si substrates would first be provided with a suitable p/n junction. An evaluation of a three bandgap cascade consisting of appropriately designed GaAlAs/GaAs/Si layers is also presented.

  20. Effects of indirect bandgap top cells in a monolithic cascade cell structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of having a slightly indirect top cell in a three junction cascade monolithic stack is calculated. The minority carrier continuity equations are utilized to calculate individual junction performance. Absorption coefficient curves for general III-V compounds are calculated for a variety of direct and indirect gap materials. The results indicate that for a small excursion into the indirect region, (about 0.1 eV), the loss of efficiency is acceptably small (less than 2.5 percent) and considerably less than attempting to make the top junction a smaller direct bandgap.

  1. Scalable parallel methods for monolithic coupling in fluid-structure interaction with application to blood flow modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Andrew T. Cai Xiaochuan

    2010-02-01

    We introduce and study numerically a scalable parallel finite element solver for the simulation of blood flow in compliant arteries. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the fluid and coupled to an incompressible linear elastic model for the blood vessel walls. Our method features an unstructured dynamic mesh capable of modeling complicated geometries, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework that allows for large displacements of the moving fluid domain, monolithic coupling between the fluid and structure equations, and fully implicit time discretization. Simulations based on blood vessel geometries derived from patient-specific clinical data are performed on large supercomputers using scalable Newton-Krylov algorithms preconditioned with an overlapping restricted additive Schwarz method that preconditions the entire fluid-structure system together. The algorithm is shown to be robust and scalable for a variety of physical parameters, scaling to hundreds of processors and millions of unknowns.

  2. Triaxial tunable mechanical monolithic sensors for large band low frequency monitoring and characterization of sites and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, F.; Giordano, G.; Acernese, F.; Romano, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of the monolithic UNISA Folded Pendulum, optimized as inertial sensor (seismometer) for low frequency applications for characterization of sites (including underground sites) and structures (e.g. buildings, bridges, historical monuments), but, in general, for applications requiring large band low-frequency performances coupled with high sensitivities. The main characteristics of this class of sensors are high sensitivity, large measurement band, compactness, lightness, scalability, tunability of the resonance frequency, low thermal noise and very good immunity to environmental noises. The horizontal and vertical versions of folded pendulum allow an effective state-of-the-art mechanical implementation of triaxial sensors, configurable both as seismometer and/or as accelerometer.

  3. Optimization of the porous structure and polarity of polymethacrylate-based monolithic capillary columns for the LC-MS separation of enzymatic digests

    PubMed Central

    Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Geiser, Laurent; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The porous structure as well as the polarity of methacrylate ester based monolithic stationary phases have been optimized to achieve the separation of various peptide mixtures originating from enzymatic digests. The porous structure, determined by the size of both pores and microglobules, was varied through changes in the composition of porogenic solvents in the polymerization mixture, while the polarity was controlled through the incorporation of butyl, lauryl, or octadecyl methacrylate in the polymer backbone. Both the morphology and the chemistry of the monoliths had a significant effect on the retention and efficiency of the capillary columns. The best resolution of peptidic fragments obtained by digestion of cytochrome c with trypsin in solution was obtained in gradient LC-MS mode using a monolithic capillary column of poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) featuring small pores and small microglobules. Raising the temperature to 60°C enabled separations to be carried out at higher flow rates. Separations carried out at 60°C with a steeper gradient proceeded without loss of performance in half the time required for a comparable separation at room temperature. Our preparation technique affords monolithic columns with excellent column-to-column and run-to-run repeatability of retention times and pressure drops. PMID:17893847

  4. Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Benedikt; Reininger, Peter; Ristanić, Daniela; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand of rapid sensing and diagnosis in remote areas requires the development of compact and cost-effective mid-infrared sensing devices. So far, all miniaturization concepts have been demonstrated with discrete optical components. Here we present a monolithically integrated sensor based on mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy. A bi-functional quantum cascade laser/detector is used, where, by changing the applied bias, the device switches between laser and detector operation. The interaction with chemicals in a liquid is resolved via a dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide. The thin dielectric layer enhances the confinement and enables efficient end-fire coupling from and to the laser and detector. The unamplified detector signal shows a slope of 1.8–7 μV per p.p.m., which demonstrates the capability to reach p.p.m. accuracy over a wide range of concentrations (0–60%). Without any hybrid integration or subwavelength patterning, our approach allows a straightforward and cost-saving fabrication. PMID:24905443

  5. Effect of polyethylene glycol on pore structure and separation efficiency of silica-based monolithic capillary columns.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takeshi; Desmet, Gert; Baron, Gino V; Minakuchi, Hiroyoshi; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2016-04-15

    Monolithic silica materials (first unclad monolith rods, then monolithic capillary columns) were prepared using various amounts of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with different molecular weight (MW). The monolith rods were used to examine the mesoporosity by argon physisorption technique, and the macroporosity by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Subsequently, silica-based monolithic capillary columns with an inner diameter of 100 μm were produced using the same preparation conditions as used for the rods. The results obtained with the monolith rods showed the following important findings: (1) it is feasible to fabricate monolithic silica rods possessing macropore size of 0.5-1.4 μm by tuning the amount of PEGs (independently of the MW), whereas the macropore volume and the mesoporosity remain similar. (2) the smallest macropore size (0.5 μm) rod prepared with PEG having a MW=20,000g/mol provided a narrower macropore size distribution than with PEG with MW=10,000g/mol. The monolithic capillary columns produced with the different PEG type showed similar retention factors for hexylbenzene (k=2.3-2.4) and similar t0-based column permeability (Kv0=2.3-2.4×10(-14)m(2)) in 20:80% (v/v) water:methanol, as expected from the results obtained with the monolith rods. The column prepared with PEG of MW=20,000g/mol gave a plate height of H=4.0 μm for hexylbenzene at an optimal linear velocity of u0=2.6mm/s in 20:80% (v/v) water containing 0.1% formic acid:acetonitrile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest plate height ever recorded for a monolithic column. Comparing the kinetic performance at 30MPa shows that the best monolithic silica column obtained in the present study performs better than the second-generation monolithic silica columns developed up till now in the practically most relevant range of plate numbers (N≤40,000). In this range, the performance is now similar to that of 2.7 μm core-shell particle columns. PMID:26976349

  6. Taking a Large Monolith to Use for Teaching Soil Morphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, B. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a technique for taking a large monolith for the purpose of teaching soil structure. Materials and procedures are detailed. A survey of 93 students indicated that the larger monolith was preferred over the commonly used narrow ones. (CW)

  7. Photoluminescence studies of a perceived white light emission from a monolithic InGaN/GaN quantum well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Sedrine, N.; Esteves, T. C.; Rodrigues, J.; Rino, L.; Correia, M. R.; Sequeira, M. C.; Neves, A. J.; Alves, E.; Bockowski, M.; Edwards, P. R.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Lorenz, K.; Monteiro, T.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate by photoluminescence studies white light emission from a monolithic InGaN/GaN single quantum well structure grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. As-grown and thermally annealed samples at high temperature (1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C) and high pressure (1.1 GPa) were analysed by spectroscopic techniques, and the annealing effect on the photoluminescence is deeply explored. Under laser excitation of 3.8 eV at room temperature, the as-grown structure exhibits two main emission bands: a yellow band peaked at 2.14 eV and a blue band peaked at 2.8 eV resulting in white light perception. Interestingly, the stability of the white light is preserved after annealing at the lowest temperature (1000 °C), but suppressed for higher temperatures due to a deterioration of the blue quantum well emission. Moreover, the control of the yellow/blue bands intensity ratio, responsible for the white colour coordinate temperatures, could be achieved after annealing at 1000 °C. The room temperature white emission is studied as a function of incident power density, and the correlated colour temperature values are found to be in the warm white range: 3260-4000 K.

  8. Photoluminescence studies of a perceived white light emission from a monolithic InGaN/GaN quantum well structure

    PubMed Central

    Ben Sedrine, N.; Esteves, T. C.; Rodrigues, J.; Rino, L.; Correia, M. R.; Sequeira, M. C.; Neves, A. J.; Alves, E.; Bockowski, M.; Edwards, P. R.; O’Donnell, K. P.; Lorenz, K.; Monteiro, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate by photoluminescence studies white light emission from a monolithic InGaN/GaN single quantum well structure grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. As-grown and thermally annealed samples at high temperature (1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C) and high pressure (1.1 GPa) were analysed by spectroscopic techniques, and the annealing effect on the photoluminescence is deeply explored. Under laser excitation of 3.8 eV at room temperature, the as-grown structure exhibits two main emission bands: a yellow band peaked at 2.14 eV and a blue band peaked at 2.8 eV resulting in white light perception. Interestingly, the stability of the white light is preserved after annealing at the lowest temperature (1000 °C), but suppressed for higher temperatures due to a deterioration of the blue quantum well emission. Moreover, the control of the yellow/blue bands intensity ratio, responsible for the white colour coordinate temperatures, could be achieved after annealing at 1000 °C. The room temperature white emission is studied as a function of incident power density, and the correlated colour temperature values are found to be in the warm white range: 3260–4000 K. PMID:26336921

  9. Photoluminescence studies of a perceived white light emission from a monolithic InGaN/GaN quantum well structure.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sedrine, N; Esteves, T C; Rodrigues, J; Rino, L; Correia, M R; Sequeira, M C; Neves, A J; Alves, E; Bockowski, M; Edwards, P R; O'Donnell, K P; Lorenz, K; Monteiro, T

    2015-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate by photoluminescence studies white light emission from a monolithic InGaN/GaN single quantum well structure grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. As-grown and thermally annealed samples at high temperature (1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C) and high pressure (1.1 GPa) were analysed by spectroscopic techniques, and the annealing effect on the photoluminescence is deeply explored. Under laser excitation of 3.8 eV at room temperature, the as-grown structure exhibits two main emission bands: a yellow band peaked at 2.14 eV and a blue band peaked at 2.8 eV resulting in white light perception. Interestingly, the stability of the white light is preserved after annealing at the lowest temperature (1000 °C), but suppressed for higher temperatures due to a deterioration of the blue quantum well emission. Moreover, the control of the yellow/blue bands intensity ratio, responsible for the white colour coordinate temperatures, could be achieved after annealing at 1000 °C. The room temperature white emission is studied as a function of incident power density, and the correlated colour temperature values are found to be in the warm white range: 3260-4000 K. PMID:26336921

  10. Characterization of polyacrylamide based monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Plieva, Fatima M; Andersson, Jonatan; Galaev, Igor Yu; Mattiasson, Bo

    2004-07-01

    Supermacroporous monolithic polyacrylamide (pAAm)-based columns have been prepared by radical cryo-copolymerization (copolymerization in the moderately frozen system) of acrylamide with functional co-monomer, allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), and cross-linker N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAAm) directly in glass columns (ID 10 mm). The monolithic columns have uniform supermacroporous sponge-like structure with interconnected supermacropores of pore size 5-100 microm. The monoliths can be dried and stored in the dry state. High mechanical stability of the monoliths allowed sterilization by autoclaving. Column-to-column reproducibility of pAAm-monoliths was demonstrated on 5 monolithic columns from different batches prepared under the same cryostructuration conditions. PMID:15354560

  11. A 3D monolithic CNT block structure as a reductant, support and scavenger for nanoscopic gold, platinum and zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Hoffmann, Rudolf C.; Schneider, Jörg J.

    2010-04-01

    ZnO (8-10 nm), gold (10-50 nm), and platinum (2-5 nm) nanoparticles were deposited on monoliths of regularly arranged three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanotubes of 40 nm diameter and length up to 30 μm. The single-source precursor complex di-aqua-bis[2-(methoxyimino)propanato]2Zn(ii) in dimethylformamide was used for the deposition of nanoparticulate ZnO on an ordered 3D CNT scaffold by solution-phase deposition at temperatures as low as 150 °C. Au and Pt nanoparticles were deposited by the spontaneous reduction of aqueous solutions of HAuCl4 and K2PtCl4 on the surface of the macroscopic 3D CNT scaffolds. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate the crystalline nature and nanosize structure of the deposited ZnO, Au and Pt nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations revealed a dense and homogeneous decoration of the individual CNTs throughout the 3D CNT scaffold structure. Thus the nanovoids of the carbon scaffold structure are therefore completely accessible leading to a homogenous particle deposition on the complete CNT outer surface. The kinetics of the spontaneous reduction of gold(iii) and platinum(ii) ions on the CNTs of the scaffold was followed by UV-vis spectroscopy and indicate (i) first-order reaction kinetics with respect to Au3+ and Pt2+ concentration and (ii) that the rate of reduction of Au3+ is one order of magnitude slower than that of Pt2+.

  12. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    DOEpatents

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2006-06-20

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  13. Analysis and characterizations of planar transmission structures and components for superconducting and monolithic integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itoh, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    The analysis and modeling of superconducting planar transmission lines were performed. Theoretically, the highest possible Q values of superconducting microstrip line was calculated and, as a result, it provided the Q value that the experiment can aim for. As an effort to search for a proper superconducting transmission line structure, the superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide were compared in terms of loss characteristics and their design aspects. Also, the research was expanded to a superconducting coplanar waveguide family in the microwave packaging environment. Theoretically, it was pointed out that the substrate loss is critical in the superconducting transmission line structures.

  14. Analysis and characterizations of planar transmission structures and components for superconducting and monolithic integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itoh, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    The research effort was continued to design and characterize superconducting transmission line structures. The research during this period was concentrated on the implementation of a superconductor into coplanar waveguide structures. First, the superconducting coplanar waveguide was examined, and compared with a superconducting microstrip line in terms of loss characteristics and their design aspects. Then, the research was carried on the design and characterization of the coplanar waveguide family in the packaging environment. The transition between the coaxial line to the conductor backed coplanar waveguide was also designed for the measurement of the superconducting conductor backed coplanar waveguide.

  15. A Parallel Monolithic Approach for Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Cerebral Aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Eken, Ali

    2014-11-01

    A parallel fully-coupled approach has been developed for the fluid-structure interaction problem in a cerebral artery with aneurysm. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation based on the side-centered unstructured finite volume method is employed for the governing incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the classical Galerkin finite element formulation is used to discretize the constitutive law for the Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material in a Lagrangian frame for the solid domain. The time integration method for the structure domain is based on the energy conserving mid-point method while the second-order backward difference is used within the fluid domain. The resulting large-scale algebraic linear equations are solved using a one-level restricted additive Schwarz preconditioner with a block-incomplete factorization within each partitioned sub-domains. The parallel implementation of the present fully coupled unstructured fluid-structure solver is based on the PETSc library. The proposed numerical algorithm is initially validated for several classical benchmark problems and then applied to a more complicated problem involving unsteady pulsatile blood flow in a cerebral artery with aneurysm as a realistic fluid-structure interaction problem encountered in biomechanics. The authors acknowledge financial support from Turkish National Scientific and Technical Research Council through Project Number 112M107.

  16. A space imaging concept based on a 4m structured spun-cast borosilicate monolithic primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, S. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Bauman, S.; Cuerden, B.; Granger, Z.; Olbert, B. H.

    2010-07-01

    Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) tasked The University of Arizona Steward Observatory (UASO) to conduct an engineering study to examine the feasibility of creating a 4m space telescope based on mature borosilicate technology developed at the UASO for ground-based telescopes. UASO has completed this study and concluded that existing launch vehicles can deliver a 4m monolithic telescope system to a 500 km circular orbit and provide reliable imagery at NIIRS 7-8. An analysis of such an imager based on a lightweight, high-performance, structured 4m primary mirror cast from borosilicate glass is described. The relatively high CTE of this glass is used to advantage by maintaining mirror shape quality with a thermal figuring method. Placed in a 290 K thermal shroud (similar to the Hubble Space Telescope), the orbit averaged figure surface error is 6nm rms when earth-looking. Space-looking optical performance shows that a similar thermal conditioning scheme combined with a 270 K shroud achieves primary mirror distortion of 10 nm rms surface. Analysis shows that a 3-point bipod mount will provide launch survivability with ample margin. The primary mirror naturally maintains its shape at 1g allowing excellent end-to-end pre-launch testing with e.g. the LOTIS 6.5m Collimator. The telescope includes simple systems to measure and correct mirror shape and alignment errors incorporating technologies already proven on the LOTIS Collimator. We have sketched a notional earth-looking 4m telescope concept combined with a wide field TMA concept into a DELTA IV or ATLAS 552 EELV fairing. We have combined an initial analysis of launch and space performance of a special light-weighted honeycomb borosilicate mirror (areal density 95 kg/m2) with public domain information on the existing launch vehicles.

  17. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  18. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  19. A monolithic lead sulfide-silicon MOS integrated-circuit structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M. D.; Barrett, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is developed for directly integrating infrared photoconductive PbS detector material with MOS transistors. A layer of chromium, instead of aluminum, is deposited followed by a gold deposition in order to ensure device survival during the chemical deposition of the PbS. Among other devices, a structure was fabricated and evaluated in which the PbS was directly coupled to the gate of a PMOS. The external bias, load, and source resistors were connected and the circuit was operated as a source-follower amplifier. Radiometric evaluations were performed on a variety of different MOSFETs of different geometry. In addition, various detector elements were simultaneously fabricated to demonstrate small element capability, and it was shown that elements of 25 x 25 microns could easily be fabricated. Results of room temperature evaluations using a filtered 700 K black body source yielded a detectivity at peak wavelength of 10 to the 11th cm (root Hz)/W at 100 Hz chopping frequency.

  20. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  1. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  2. Scaling up the Single Transducer Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Method for Accurate Characterization of Microstructural Gradients in Monolithic and Composite Tubular Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Carney, Dorothy V.; Baaklini, George Y.; Bodis, James R.; Rauser, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity/time-of-flight imaging that uses back surface reflections to gauge volumetric material quality is highly suited for quantitative characterization of microstructural gradients including those due to pore fraction, density, fiber fraction, and chemical composition variations. However, a weakness of conventional pulse-echo ultrasonic velocity/time-of-flight imaging is that the image shows the effects of thickness as well as microstructural variations unless the part is uniformly thick. This limits this imaging method's usefulness in practical applications. Prior studies have described a pulse-echo time-of-flight-based ultrasonic imaging method that requires using a single transducer in combination with a reflector plate placed behind samples that eliminates the effect of thickness variation in the image. In those studies, this method was successful at isolating ultrasonic variations due to material microstructure in plate-like samples of silicon nitride, metal matrix composite, and polymer matrix composite. In this study, the method is engineered for inspection of more complex-shaped structures-those having (hollow) tubular/curved geometry. The experimental inspection technique and results are described as applied to (1) monolithic mullite ceramic and polymer matrix composite 'proof-of-concept' tubular structures that contain machined patches of various depths and (2) as-manufactured monolithic silicon nitride ceramic and silicon carbide/silicon carbide composite tubular structures that might be used in 'real world' applications.

  3. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  4. Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Nanowires on 3D Structured Silicon-on-Insulator as a New Platform for Full Optical Links.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunseok; Farrell, Alan C; Senanayake, Pradeep; Lee, Wook-Jae; Huffaker, Diana L

    2016-03-01

    Monolithically integrated III-V semiconductors on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform can be used as a building block for energy-efficient on-chip optical links. Epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors on silicon, however, has been challenged by the large mismatches in lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between epitaxial layers and silicon substrates. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the monolithic integration of InGaAs nanowires on the SOI platform and its feasibility for photonics and optoelectronic applications. InGaAs nanowires are grown not only on a planar SOI layer but also on a 3D structured SOI layer by catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The precise positioning of nanowires on 3D structures, including waveguides and gratings, reveals the versatility and practicality of the proposed platform. Photoluminescence measurements exhibit that the composition of ternary InGaAs nanowires grown on the SOI layer has wide tunability covering all telecommunication wavelengths from 1.2 to 1.8 μm. We also show that the emission from an optically pumped single nanowire is effectively coupled and transmitted through an SOI waveguide, explicitly showing that this work lays the foundation for a new platform toward energy-efficient optical links. PMID:26901448

  5. Monolithic Active-Pixel Infrared Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Krabach, Timothy N.; Staller, Craig O.

    1995-01-01

    Monolithic arrays of active-pixel junction field-effect (JFET) devices made from InGaAs proposed for use as imaging sensors sensitive to light in visible and short-wavelength infrared parts of electromagnetic spectrum. Each pixel of such array comprises photodetector monolithically integrated with JFET output-amplifier circuit of source-follower type - structure similar to charge-coupled device (CCD). Sizes of instruments reduced because large cooling systems not needed.

  6. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    DOEpatents

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  7. Monolithic integration of enhancement-mode vertical driving transistorson a standard InGaN/GaN light emitting diode structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xing; Liu, Chao; Jiang, Huaxing; Zou, Xinbo; Zhang, Anping; Lau, Kei May

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, monolithic integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (VMOSFET) drivers have been proposed and demonstrated. The VMOSFET was achieved by simply regrowing a p- and n-GaN bilayer on top of a standard LED structure. After fabrication, the VMOSFET is connected with the LED through the conductive n-GaN layer, with no need of extra metal interconnections. The junction-based VMOSFET is inherently an enhancement-mode (E-mode) device with a threshold voltage of 1.6 V. By controlling the gate bias of the VMOSFET, the light intensity emitted from the integrated VMOSFET-LED device could be well modulated, which shows great potential for various applications, including solid-state lighting, micro-displays, and visible light communications.

  8. Fabrication of Si/SiO2/GaN structure by surface-activated bonding for monolithic integration of optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, Kazuaki; Yamane, Keisuke; Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Okada, Hiroshi; Wakahara, Akihiro

    2016-05-01

    A Si/SiO2/GaN-light-emitting-diode (LED) wafer is proposed as a new structure for the monolithic integration of both Si circuits and GaN-based optical devices. Surface-activated bonding was performed to transfer a Si layer from a silicon-on-insulator substrate to a SiO2/GaN-LED substrate. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that a defect-free Si layer was formed on the SiO2/GaN-LED substrate without interfacial voids. The crystalline quality of the Si layer, which is characterized by an X-ray rocking curve, was markedly improved by flattening the SiO2/GaN-LED substrate before bonding. Finally, a micro-LED array was successfully fabricated on the Si/SiO2/GaN-LED wafer without the delamination of the Si layer.

  9. Mechanically stable, hierarchically porous Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1) monoliths via direct conversion of copper(II) hydroxide-based monoliths.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Nirmalya; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Reboul, Julien; Sumida, Kenji; Zhu, Yang; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of highly crystalline macro-meso-microporous monolithic Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1; btc(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) is demonstrated by direct conversion of Cu(OH)2-based monoliths while preserving the characteristic macroporous structure. The high mechanical strength of the monoliths is promising for possible applications to continuous flow reactors. PMID:25572361

  10. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    DOEpatents

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2004-05-25

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered in an inert gas or nitrogen gas at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  11. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics. PMID:25777338

  12. A monolithic collapse origin for the thin and thick disc structure of the S0 galaxy ESO 243-49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, S.; Salo, H.; Peletier, R. F.; Mentz, J.

    2016-09-01

    ESO 243-49 is a high-mass (circular velocity vc ≈ 200 km s-1), edge-on S0 galaxy in the Abell 2877 cluster at a distance of ~95 Mpc. To elucidate the origin of the thick disc of this S0 galaxy, we use Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) science verification data to study its kinematics and stellar populations. The thick disc emits ~80% of the light at heights in excess of 3.5 arcsec (1.6 kpc). The rotation velocities of its stars lag by 30-40 km s-1 compared to those in the thin disc, which is compatible with the asymmetric drift. The thick disc is found to be more metal-poor than the thin disc, but both discs have old ages. We suggest an internal origin for the thick disc stars in high-mass galaxies. We propose that the thick disc formed either a) first in a turbulent phase with a high star formation rate and that a thin disc formed shortly afterwards, or b) because of the dynamical heating of a thin pre-existing component. Either way, the star formation in ESO 243-49 was quenched just a few Gyr after the galaxy was born and the formation of a thin and a thick disc must have occurred before the galaxy stopped forming stars. The formation of the discs was so fast that it could be described as a monolithic collapse where several generations of stars formed in rapid succession. Based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope under programme 60.A-9328(A).

  13. Development of a monolithic ferrite memory array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, C. H., Jr.; Bhiwandker, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the development and testing of ferrite monolithic memory arrays are presented. This development required the synthesis of ferrite materials having special magnetic and physical characteristics and the development of special processes; (1) for making flexible sheets (laminae) of the ferrite composition, (2) for embedding conductors in ferrite, and (3) bonding ferrite laminae together to form a monolithic structure. Major problems encountered in each of these areas and their solutions are discussed. Twenty-two full-size arrays were fabricated and fired during the development of these processes. The majority of these arrays were tested for their memory characteristics as well as for their physical characteristics and the results are presented. The arrays produced during this program meet the essential goals and demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating monolithic ferrite memory arrays by the processes developed.

  14. Quasi-monolithic tunable optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbore, Mark (Inventor); Tapos, Francisc (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An optical resonator has a piezoelectric element attached to a quasi-monolithic structure. The quasi-monolithic structure defines an optical path. Mirrors attached to the structure deflect light along the optical path. The piezoelectric element controllably strains the quasi-monolithic structure to change a length of the optical path by about 1 micron. A first feedback loop coupled to the piezoelectric element provides fine control over the cavity length. The resonator may include a thermally actuated spacer attached to the cavity and a mirror attached to the spacer. The thermally actuated spacer adjusts the cavity length by up to about 20 microns. A second feedback loop coupled to the sensor and heater provides a coarse control over the cavity length. An alternative embodiment provides a quasi-monolithic optical parametric oscillator (OPO). This embodiment includes a non-linear optical element within the resonator cavity along the optical path. Such an OPO configuration is broadly tunable and capable of mode-hop free operation for periods of 24 hours or more.

  15. Embedded-monolith armor

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  16. Biomimetic superelastic graphene-based cellular monoliths.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ling; Liu, Jeffery Z; Chang, Shery L Y; Wu, Yanzhe; Li, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Many applications proposed for graphene require multiple sheets be assembled into a monolithic structure. The ability to maintain structural integrity upon large deformation is essential to ensure a macroscopic material which functions reliably. However, it has remained a great challenge to achieve high elasticity in three-dimensional graphene networks. Here we report that the marriage of graphene chemistry with ice physics can lead to the formation of ultralight and superelastic graphene-based cellular monoliths. Mimicking the hierarchical structure of natural cork, the resulting materials can sustain their structural integrity under a load of >50,000 times their own weight and can rapidly recover from >80% compression. The unique biomimetic hierarchical structure also provides this new class of elastomers with exceptionally high energy absorption capability and good electrical conductivity. The successful synthesis of such fascinating materials paves the way to explore the application of graphene in a self-supporting, structurally adaptive and 3D macroscopic form. PMID:23212370

  17. Monolithic Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Walters, Wayne; Gustafsen, Jerry; Bendett, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) receives single digitally modulated input light signal via optical fiber and converts it into 16-channel electrical output signal. Potentially useful in any system in which digital data must be transmitted serially at high rates, then decoded into and used in parallel format at destination. Applications include transmission and decoding of control signals to phase shifters in phased-array antennas and also communication of data between computers and peripheral equipment in local-area networks.

  18. Monolith electroplating process

    DOEpatents

    Agarrwal, Rajev R.

    2001-01-01

    An electroplating process for preparing a monolith metal layer over a polycrystalline base metal and the plated monolith product. A monolith layer has a variable thickness of one crystal. The process is typically carried in molten salts electrolytes, such as the halide salts under an inert atmosphere at an elevated temperature, and over deposition time periods and film thickness sufficient to sinter and recrystallize completely the nucleating metal particles into one single crystal or crystals having very large grains. In the process, a close-packed film of submicron particle (20) is formed on a suitable substrate at an elevated temperature. The temperature has the significance of annealing particles as they are formed, and substrates on which the particles can populate are desirable. As the packed bed thickens, the submicron particles develop necks (21) and as they merge into each other shrinkage (22) occurs. Then as micropores also close (23) by surface tension, metal density is reached and the film consists of unstable metal grain (24) that at high enough temperature recrystallize (25) and recrystallized grains grow into an annealed single crystal over the electroplating time span. While cadmium was used in the experimental work, other soft metals may be used.

  19. Monolithic catalytic igniters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Ferla, R.; Tuffias, R. H.; Jang, Q.

    1993-01-01

    Catalytic igniters offer the potential for excellent reliability and simplicity for use with the diergolic bipropellant oxygen/hydrogen as well as with the monopropellant hydrazine. State-of-the-art catalyst beds - noble metal/granular pellet carriers - currently used in hydrazine engines are limited by carrier stability, which limits the hot-fire temperature, and by poor thermal response due to the large thermal mass. Moreover, questions remain with regard to longevity and reliability of these catalysts. In this work, Ultramet investigated the feasibility of fabricating monolithic catalyst beds that overcome the limitations of current catalytic igniters via a combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) iridium coatings and chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) refractory ceramic foams. It was found that under all flow conditions and O2:H2 mass ratios tested, a high surface area monolithic bed outperformed a Shell 405 bed. Additionally, it was found that monolithic catalytic igniters, specifically porous ceramic foams fabricated by CVD/CVI processing, can be fabricated whose catalytic performance is better than Shell 405 and with significantly lower flow restriction, from materials that can operate at 2000 C or higher.

  20. Facile fabrication of mesoporous poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend monoliths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guowei; Xin, Yuanrong; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH)/chitosan blend monoliths were fabricated by thermally-induced phase separation method. Chitosan was successfully incorporated into the polymeric monolith by selecting EVOH as the main component of the monolith. SEM images exhibit that the chitosan was located on the inner surface of the monolith. Fourier-transform infrared analysis and elemental analysis indicate the successful blend of EVOH and chitosan. BET results show that the blend monoliths had high specific surface area and uniform mesopore structure. Good adsorption ability toward various heavy metal ions was found in the blend monoliths due to the large chelation capacity of chitosan. The blend monoliths have potential application for waste water purification or bio-related applications. PMID:26256358

  1. Porous graphene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose monoliths, with high metal ion adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Liu, Yue; Wang, Xinrui; Sun, Zhiming; Ma, Junkui; Wu, Tao; Xing, Fubao; Gao, Jianping

    2014-01-30

    Orderly porous graphene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose (GO/CMC) monoliths were prepared by a unidirectional freeze-drying method. The porous monoliths were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Their properties including compressive strength and moisture adsorption were measured. The incorporation of GO changed the porous structure of the GO/CMC monoliths and significantly increased their compressive strength. The porous GO/CMC monoliths exhibited a strong ability to adsorb metal ions, and the Ni(2+) ions adsorbed on GO/CMC monolith were reduced by NaBH4 to obtain Ni GO/CMC monolith which could be used as catalyst in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Since CMC is biodegradable and non-toxic, the porous GO/CMC monoliths are potential environmental adsorbents. PMID:24299788

  2. Development of oxide fibrous monolith systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K. C.

    1999-03-02

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics generally have a cellular structure that consists of a strong cell surrounded by a weaker boundary phase [1-5]. Fibrous monoliths (FMs) are produced from powders by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques, such as extrusion [1,2]. When properly engineered, they exhibit fail gracefully [3-5]. Several compositions of ceramics and cermets have been processed successfully in fibrous monolithic form [4]. The most thoroughly investigated fibrous monolith consists of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells and a BN cell-boundary phase [3-5]. Through appropriate selection of initial powders and extrusion and hot-pressing parameters, very tough final products have been produced. The resultant high toughness is due primarily to delamination during fracture along textured platelike BN grains. The primary objectives of our program are to develop: (1) Oxide-based FMs, including new systems with improved properties; (2) FMs that can be pressureless sintered rather than hot-pressed; (3) Techniques for continuous extrusion of FM filaments, including solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for net-shape fabrication of FMs; (4) Predictive micromechanical models for FM design and performance; and (5) Ties with industrial producers and users of FMs.

  3. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  4. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  5. Flow-through immunosensors using antibody-immobilized polymer monoliths

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jikun; Chen, Chien-Fu; Chang, Chih-Wei; DeVoe, Don L.

    2010-01-01

    High-sensitivity and rapid flow-through immunosensors based on photopolymerized surface-reactive polymer monoliths are investigated. The porous monoliths were synthesized within silica capillaries from glycidyl methacrylate and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate precursors, providing a tortuous pore structure with high surface area for the immobilization of antibodies or other biosensing ligands. The unique morphology of the monolith ensures efficient mass transport and interactions between solvated analyte molecules and covalently immobilize antibodies anchored to the monolith surface, resulting in rapid immunorecognition. The efficacy of this approach is demonstrated through a direct immunoassay model using anti-IgG as a monolith-bound capture antibody and fluorescein-labeled IgG as an antigen. In situ antigen measurements exhibited a linear response over a concentration range between 0.1 - 50 ng/mL with 5 min assay times, while controllable injection of 1 μL volumes of antigen through the monolith elements yielded a mass detection limit of 100 pg (~700 amol). These results suggest that porous monolith supports represent a flexible and promising material for the fabrication of rapid and sensitive immunosensors suitable for integration into capillary or microfluidic devices. PMID:20598520

  6. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOEpatents

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  7. Hierarchical Porous Polystyrene Monoliths from PolyHIPE.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinjia; Tan, Liangxiao; Xia, Lingling; Wood, Colin D; Tan, Bien

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical porous polystyrene monoliths (HCP-PolyHIPE) are obtained by hypercrosslinking poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monoliths prepared by polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (PolyHIPEs). The hypercrosslinking is achieved using an approach known as knitting which employs formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (FDA) as an external crosslinker. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms that the macroporous structure in the original monolith is retained during the knitting process. By increasing the amount of divinylbenzene (DVB) in PolyHIPE, the BET surface area and pore volume of the HCP-PolyHIPE decrease, while the micropore size increases. BET surface areas of 196-595 m(2) g(-1) are obtained. The presence of micropores, mesopores, and macropores is confirmed from the pore size distribution. With a hierarchical porous structure, the monoliths reveal comparable gas sorption properties and potential applications in oil spill clean-up. PMID:26178423

  8. Finite element analysis of monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saigal, A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Majumdar, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the stress and fracture behavior of a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) currently under joint development by Allied Signal Corporation and Argonne National Laboratory. The MSOFC is an all-ceramic fuel cell capable of high power density and tolerant of a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, making it potentially attractive for stationary utility and mobile transportation systems. The monolithic design eliminates inactive structural supports, increases active surface area, and lowers voltage losses caused by internal resistance.

  9. Finite element analysis of monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saigal, A.; Majumdar, S.

    1992-04-01

    This paper investigates the stress and fracture behavior of a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) currently under joint development by Allied Signal Corporation and Argonne National Laboratory. The MSOFC is an all-ceramic fuel cell capable of high power density and tolerant of a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, making it potentially attractive for stationary utility and mobile transportation systems. The monolithic design eliminates inactive structural supports, increases active surface area, and lowers voltage losses caused by internal resistance.

  10. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-06-21

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

  11. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  12. Monolithic microfluidic concentrators and mixers

    DOEpatents

    Frechet, Jean M.; Svec, Frantisek; Yu, Cong; Rohr, Thomas

    2005-05-03

    Microfluidic devices comprising porous monolithic polymer for concentration, extraction or mixing of fluids. A method for in situ preparation of monolithic polymers by in situ initiated polymerization of polymer precursors within microchannels of a microfluidic device and their use for solid phase extraction (SPE), preconcentration, concentration and mixing.

  13. Advances in monoliths and related porous materials for microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Knob, Radim; Sahore, Vishal; Sonker, Mukul; Woolley, Adam T

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the use of monolithic porous polymers has seen significant growth. These materials present a highly useful support for various analytical and biochemical applications. Since their introduction, various approaches have been introduced to produce monoliths in a broad range of materials. Simple preparation has enabled their easy implementation in microchannels, extending the range of applications where microfluidics can be successfully utilized. This review summarizes progress regarding monoliths and related porous materials in the field of microfluidics between 2010 and 2015. Recent developments in monolith preparation, solid-phase extraction, separations, and catalysis are critically discussed. Finally, a brief overview of the use of these porous materials for analysis of subcellular and larger structures is given. PMID:27190564

  14. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOEpatents

    Hickerson, Jr., James P.; Zanner, Frank J.; Baldwin, Michael D.; Maguire, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  15. Monolithic THz Frequency Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, N. R.; Narayanan, G.; Grosslein, R. M.; Martin, S.; Mehdi, I.; Smith, P.; Coulomb, M.; DeMartinez, G.

    2001-01-01

    Frequency multipliers are required as local oscillator sources for frequencies up to 2.7 THz for FIRST and airborne applications. Multipliers at these frequencies have not previously been demonstrated, and the object of this work was to show whether such circuits are really practical. A practical circuit is one which not only performs as well as is required, but also can be replicated in a time that is feasible. As the frequency of circuits is increased, the difficulties in fabrication and assembly increase rapidly. Building all of the circuit on GaAs as a monolithic circuit is highly desirable to minimize the complexity of assembly, but at the highest frequencies, even a complete monolithic circuit is extremely small, and presents serious handling difficulty. This is compounded by the requirement for a very thin substrate. Assembly can become very difficult because of handling problems and critical placement. It is very desirable to make the chip big enough to that it can be seen without magnification, and strong enough that it may be picked up with tweezers. Machined blocks to house the chips present an additional challenge. Blocks with complex features are very expensive, and these also imply very critical assembly of the parts. It would be much better if the features in the block were as simple as possible and non-critical to the function of the chip. In particular, grounding and other electrical interfaces should be done in a manner that is highly reproducible.

  16. Comparison of soil-monolith extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, R.; Rupp, H.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    In the international literature the term „lysimeter" is used for different objectives, e.g. suction cups, fluxmeters, etc. According to our understanding it belongs to the direct methods to measure water and solute fluxes in soil. Depending on the scientific task the shape and dimensions of the lysimeter as well as the type of filling (disturbed or undisturbed) and the specific instrumentation can be different. In any case where water dynamics or solute transport in natural soil is considered, lysimeters should be filled with 'undisturbed' monoliths which are large enough to contain the small scale heterogeneity of a site since flow and transport is highly sensitive to soil structure. Furthermore, lysimeters with vegetation should represent the natural crop inventory and the maximum root penetration depth should be taken into account. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview about different methods for obtaining undisturbed soil monoliths, in particular about i) techniques for the vertical and ii) for the horizontal extraction and iii) to evaluate the most frequently used procedures based on X-ray tomography images. Minimal disturbance of the soil monolith during extraction and subsequence filling of the lysimeter vessel is of critical importance for establishing flow and transport conditions corresponding approximately to natural field conditions. In the past, several methods were used to extract and fill lysimeter vessels vertically - including hand digging, employing sets of trihedral scaffold with lifting blocks and ballast, or using heavy duty excavators, which could shear and cut large blocks of soil. More recently, technologies have been developed to extract cylindrical soil monoliths by using ramming equipment or screw presses. One of the great disadvantages of the mentioned methods is the compaction or settling of soil that occurs during the "hammering" or "pressing". For this reason a new technology was developed, which cuts the outline of

  17. Monolithic microchannel heatsink

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Beach, R.J.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1996-08-20

    A silicon wafer has slots sawn in it that allow diode laser bars to be mounted in contact with the silicon. Microchannels are etched into the back of the wafer to provide cooling of the diode bars. To facilitate getting the channels close to the diode bars, the channels are rotated from an angle perpendicular to the diode bars which allows increased penetration between the mounted diode bars. This invention enables the fabrication of monolithic silicon microchannel heatsinks for laser diodes. The heatsinks have low thermal resistance because of the close proximity of the microchannels to the laser diode being cooled. This allows high average power operation of two-dimensional laser diode arrays that have a high density of laser diode bars and therefore high optical power density. 9 figs.

  18. Monolithic microchannel heatsink

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Beach, Raymond J.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1996-01-01

    A silicon wafer has slots sawn in it that allow diode laser bars to be mounted in contact with the silicon. Microchannels are etched into the back of the wafer to provide cooling of the diode bars. To facilitate getting the channels close to the diode bars, the channels are rotated from an angle perpendicular to the diode bars which allows increased penetration between the mounted diode bars. This invention enables the fabrication of monolithic silicon microchannel heatsinks for laser diodes. The heatsinks have low thermal resistance because of the close proximity of the microchannels to the laser diode being cooled. This allows high average power operation of two-dimensional laser diode arrays that have a high density of laser diode bars and therefore high optical power density.

  19. Monolithically compatible impedance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Ericson, Milton Nance; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic sensor includes a reference channel and at least one sensing channel. Each sensing channel has an oscillator and a counter driven by the oscillator. The reference channel and the at least one sensing channel being formed integrally with a substrate and intimately nested with one another on the substrate. Thus, the oscillator and the counter have matched component values and temperature coefficients. A frequency determining component of the sensing oscillator is formed integrally with the substrate and has an impedance parameter which varies with an environmental parameter to be measured by the sensor. A gating control is responsive to an output signal generated by the reference channel, for terminating counting in the at least one sensing channel at an output count, whereby the output count is indicative of the environmental parameter, and successive ones of the output counts are indicative of changes in the environmental parameter.

  20. SOI monolithic pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, T.; Ahmed, M. I.; Arai, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Ikemoto, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tauchi, K.

    2014-05-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detector using fully-depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel process technology. The SOI substrate is high resistivity silicon with p-n junctions and another layer is a low resistivity silicon for SOI-CMOS circuitry. Tungsten vias are used for the connection between two silicons. Since flip-chip bump bonding process is not used, high sensor gain in a small pixel area can be obtained. In 2010 and 2011, high-resolution integration-type SOI pixel sensors, DIPIX and INTPIX5, have been developed. The characterizations by evaluating pixel-to-pixel crosstalk, quantum efficiency (QE), dark noise, and energy resolution were done. A phase-contrast imaging was demonstrated using the INTPIX5 pixel sensor for an X-ray application. The current issues and future prospect are also discussed.

  1. Monolithic freeform element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    For 10 years there has been the asphere as one of the new products to be accepted by the market. All parts of the chain design, production and measurement needed to learn how to treat the asphere and what it is helpful for. The aspheric optical element now is established and accepted as an equal optical element between other as a fast growing part of all the optical elements. Now we are focusing onto the next new element with a lot of potential, the optical freeform surface. Manufacturing results will be shown for fully tolerance optic including manufacturing, setup and optics configurations including measurement setup. The element itself is a monolith consisting of several optical surfaces that have to be aligned properly to each other. The freeform surface is measured for surface form tolerance (irregularity, slope, Zernike, PV).

  2. Characterization of methacrylate chromatographic monoliths bearing affinity ligands.

    PubMed

    Černigoj, Urh; Vidic, Urška; Nemec, Blaž; Gašperšič, Jernej; Vidič, Jana; Lendero Krajnc, Nika; Štrancar, Aleš; Podgornik, Aleš

    2016-09-16

    We investigated effect of immobilization procedure and monolith structure on chromatographic performance of methacrylate monoliths bearing affinity ligands. Monoliths of different pore size and various affinity ligands were prepared and characterized using physical and chromatographic methods. When testing protein A monoliths with different protein A ligand densities, a significant nonlinear effect of ligand density on dynamic binding capacity (DBC) for IgG was obtained and accurately described by Langmuir isotherm curve enabling estimation of protein A utilization as a function of ligand density. Maximal IgG binding capacity was found to be at least 12mg/mL exceeding theoretical monolayer adsorption value of 7.8mg/mL assuming hexagonal packing and IgG hydrodynamic diameter of 11nm. Observed discrepancy was explained by shrinkage of IgG during adsorption on protein A experimentally determined through calculated adsorbed IgG layer thickness of 5.4nm from pressure drop data. For monoliths with different pore size maximal immobilized densities of protein A as well as IgG dynamic capacity linearly correlates with monolith surface area indicating constant ligand utilization. Finally, IgGs toward different plasma proteins were immobilized via the hydrazide coupling chemistry to provide oriented immobilization. DBC was found to be flow independent and was increasing with the size of bound protein. Despite DBC was lower than IgG capacity to immobilized protein A, ligand utilization was higher. PMID:27554023

  3. Fabrication and characterization of aligned macroporous monolith for high-performance protein chromatography.

    PubMed

    Du, Kaifeng; Zhang, Qi; Dan, Shunmin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yongkui; Chai, Dezhi

    2016-04-22

    In the present study, a freeze casting method combined with particle accumulation was applied to fabricate the aligned macroporous monolith for high-performance protein chromatography. For the preparation, the reactive colloids were first prepared by using glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as monomers. Subsequently, these colloids accumulated regularly and polymerized into the aligned macroporous monolith. The aligned porous structure of the monolith was characterized by SEM, mercury intrusion, and flow hydrodynamics. The results revealed that the generated monolith was possessed of aligned macropores in size of about 10 μm and high column permeability. Finally, after being modified with sulfonated groups, the monolith was evaluated for its chromatographic performance. It demonstrated that the aligned macropores endowed the monolith with excellent adsorption capacity and high column efficiency. PMID:27016114

  4. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. A comparative study on improvements due to heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Monolithic catalysts with higher available active surface areas and better thermal conductivity than conventional pellets beds, making possible the steam reforming of fuels heavier than naphtha, were examined. Performance comparisons were made between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts using n-hexane as the fuel. Metal-supported monoliths were examined. These offer higher structural stability and higher thermal conductivity than ceramic supports. Data from two metal monoliths of different nickel catalyst loadings were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions. Improved heat transfer and better conversion efficiencies were obtained with the monolith having higher catalyst loading. Surface-gas interaction was observed throughout the length of the monoliths.

  5. Monolithic microcircuit techniques and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussions of the techniques used to make dielectric and metal thin film depositions for monolithic circuits are presented. Silicon nitride deposition and the properties of silicon nitride films are discussed. Deposition of dichlorosilane and thermally grown silicon dioxide are reported. The deposition and thermal densification of borosilicate, aluminosilicate, and phosphosilicate glasses are discussed. Metallization for monolithic circuits and the characteristics of thin films are also included.

  6. Optoelectronic devices toward monolithic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergia, V.

    1992-12-01

    Starting from the present state of tl art of discrete devices up to the on going realization of monolithic semicorxtuctor integrated prototypes an overview ofoptoelectronic devices for telecom applications is given inchiding a short classification of the different kind of integrated devices. On the future perspective of IBCN distribution network some economica of hybrid and monolithic forms of integration are attempted. lnaflyashoitpresentationoftheactivitiesperformedintbefieldofmonolithic integration by EEC ESPR1T and RACE projects is reported. 1.

  7. Monolithic microextraction tips by emulsion photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shih-Shin; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2009-03-20

    Monoliths formed by photopolymerization are excellent means for fabricating functional elements in miniaturized microdevices such as microextraction tips which are becoming important for sample preparation. Various silica-based and polymer-based materials have been used to fabricate monoliths with through pores of several nm to 4 microm. However, the back pressure created by such methods is still considered to be high for microtips that use suction forces to deliver the liquid. In this study, we demonstrated that emulsion techniques such as oil-in-water can be used to form monoliths with large through pores (>20 microm), and with rigid structures on small (10 microL) and large (200 microL) pipette tips by photopolymerization. We further showed that, with minor modifications, various functionalized particles (5-20 microm) can be added to form stable emulsions and successfully encapsulated into the monoliths for qualitative and quantitative solid-phase microextractions for a diverse application. Due to high permeability and large surface area, quick equilibration can be achieved by pipetting to yield high recovery rates. Using tryptic digests of ovalbumin as the standard, we obtained a recovery yield of 90-109% (RSD: 10-16%) with a loading capacity of 3 mug for desalting tips immobilized with C18 beads. Using tryptic digests of beta-casein and alpha-casein as standards, we showed that phosphopeptides were substantially enriched by tips immobilized with immobilized metal affinity chromatography or TiO(2) materials. Using estrogenic compounds as standards, we obtained a recovery yield of 95-108% (RSD: 10-12%) and linear calibration curves ranging from 5 to 100 ng (R(2)>0.99) for Waters Oasis HLB tips immobilized with hydrophilic beads. PMID:19203757

  8. Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) monolith formation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2007-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or 'mineralized' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydro-ceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2 g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydro-ceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form. (authors)

  9. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  10. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  11. Comparison of perfusion media and monoliths for protein and virus-like particle chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yige; Abraham, Dicky; Carta, Giorgio

    2016-05-20

    Structural and performance characteristics of perfusion chromatography media (POROS HS 20 and 50) and those of a polymethacrylate monolith (CIM SO3-1 tube monolith column) are compared for protein and virus-like particle chromatography using 1mL columns. Axial flow columns are used for POROS while the monolith has a radial flow configuration, which provides comparable operating pressures. The POROS beads contain a bimodal distribution of pore sizes, some as large as 0.5μm, which allow a small fraction of the mobile phase to flow within the particles, while the monolith contains 1-2μm flow channels. For proteins (lysozyme and IgG), the dynamic binding capacity of the POROS columns is more than twice that of the monolith at longer residence times. While the DBC of the POROS HS 50 column decreases at shorter residence times, the DBC of the POROS HS 20 column for IgG remains nearly twice that of the monolith at residence times at least as low as 0.2min as a result of intraparticle convection. Protein recoveries are comparable for all three columns. For VLPs, however, the eluted peaks are broader and recovery is lower for the monolith than for the POROS columns and is dependent on the direction of flow in the monolith, which is attributed to denser layer observed by SEM at the inlet surface of the monolith that appears to trap VLPs when loading in the normal flow direction. PMID:27106397

  12. New Graphene Form of Nanoporous Monolith for Excellent Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hui; Lin, Tianquan; Xu, Feng; Tang, Yufeng; Liu, Zhanqiang; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-13

    Extraordinary tubular graphene cellular material of a tetrahedrally connected covalent structure was very recently discovered as a new supermaterial with ultralight, ultrastiff, superelastic, and excellent conductive characteristics, but no high specific surface area will keep it from any next-generation energy storage applications. Herein, we prepare another new graphene monolith of mesoporous graphene-filled tubes instead of hollow tubes in the reported cellular structure. This graphene nanoporous monolith is also composed of covalently bonded carbon network possessing high specific surface area of ∼1590 m(2) g(-1) and electrical conductivity of ∼32 S cm(-1), superior to graphene aerogels and porous graphene forms self-assembled by graphene oxide. This 3D graphene monolith can support over 10 000 times its own weight, significantly superior to CNT and graphene cellular materials with a similar density. Furthermore, pseudocapacitance-active functional groups are introduced into the new nanoporous graphene monolith as an electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. Surprisingly, the electrode of 3D mesoporous graphene has a specific capacitance of 303 F g(-1) and maintains over 98% retention after 10 000 cycles, belonging to the list for the best carbon-based active materials. The macroscopic mesoporous graphene monolith suggests the great potential as an electrode for supercapacitors in energy storage areas. PMID:26641709

  13. Allyl-silica Hybrid Monoliths For Chromatographic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenjuan

    Column technology continues to be the most investigated topics in the separation world, since the column is the place where the chromatographic separation happens, making it the heart of the separation system. Allyl-silica hybrid monolithic material has been exploited as support material and potential stationary phases for liquid chromatography; the stationary phase anchored to the silica surface by Si-C bond, which is more pH stable than traditional stationary phase. First, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the sol in the synthesis of allyl-silica hybrid monoliths. Allyl-trimethoxysilane (allyl-TrMOS), dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) have been served as co-precursors in the sol-gel synthesis of organo-silica hybrid monolithic columns for liquid chromatography (LC). 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 1H NMR spectroscopy were employed to monitor reaction profiles for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and initial condensation reactions of the individual precursor and the hybrid system. 29Si-NMR has also been used to identify different silane species formed during the reactions. The overall hydrolysis rate has been found to follow the trend DMDMOS > allyl-TrMOS > TMOS, if each precursor is reacted individually (homo-polymerization). Precursors show different hydrolysis rate when reacted together in the hybrid system than they are reacted individually. Cross-condensation products of TMOS and DMDMOS (QD) arise about 10 minutes of initiation of the reaction. The allyl-silica monolithic columns for capillary liquid chromatography can only be prepared in capillaries with 50 im internal diameter with acceptable performance. One of the most prominent problems related to the synthesis of silica monolithic structures is the volume shrinkage. The synthesis of allylfunctionalized silica hybrid monolithic structures has been studied in an attempt to reduce the volume shrinkage during aging, drying and heat treatment

  14. Recent Progress in Monolithic Silica Columns for High-Speed and High-Selectivity Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Tohru; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Monolithic silica columns have greater (through-pore size)/(skeleton size) ratios than particulate columns and fixed support structures in a column for chemical modification, resulting in high-efficiency columns and stationary phases. This review looks at how the size range of monolithic silica columns has been expanded, how high-efficiency monolithic silica columns have been realized, and how various methods of silica surface functionalization, leading to selective stationary phases, have been developed on monolithic silica supports, and provides information on the current status of these columns. Also discussed are the practical aspects of monolithic silica columns, including how their versatility can be improved by the preparation of small-sized structural features (sub-micron) and columns (1 mm ID or smaller) and by optimizing reaction conditions for in situ chemical modification with various restrictions, with an emphasis on recent research results for both topics.

  15. Recent Progress in Monolithic Silica Columns for High-Speed and High-Selectivity Separations.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Tohru; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-06-12

    Monolithic silica columns have greater (through-pore size)/(skeleton size) ratios than particulate columns and fixed support structures in a column for chemical modification, resulting in high-efficiency columns and stationary phases. This review looks at how the size range of monolithic silica columns has been expanded, how high-efficiency monolithic silica columns have been realized, and how various methods of silica surface functionalization, leading to selective stationary phases, have been developed on monolithic silica supports, and provides information on the current status of these columns. Also discussed are the practical aspects of monolithic silica columns, including how their versatility can be improved by the preparation of small-sized structural features (sub-micron) and columns (1 mm ID or smaller) and by optimizing reaction conditions for in situ chemical modification with various restrictions, with an emphasis on recent research results for both topics. PMID:27306311

  16. Polymer-based monolithic columns in capillary format tailored by using controlled in situ polymerization.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Nobuo; Kubo, Takuya; Hosoya, Ken

    2009-02-01

    This review introduces to the readers our new perspectives of polymer-based monolithic column with a high performance for small solutes such as drug candidates, illustrating the fabrication of LC columns in capillary. First, we briefly reviewed the status quo of polymer-based monolithic columns, comparing with silica monoliths. The miniaturization of LC system with higher throughput (shorter analytical time) was stressed conceptually, along with a fine permeable bicontinuous monolithic structure with submicron domain size (skeletal thickness + pore size) for higher performance. Second, from these perspectives, our column preparation was described, while our specially designed porogenic solvents were introduced as a controller of the monolithic morphology via reaction-induced phase separation. Specifically, monolithic columns were exemplified in two polymer formats, that is, one monolith prepared by free radical polymerization of glycerin 1,3-dimethacrylate, GDMA, and the other prepared by stepwise polymerization of newly introduced multifunctional epoxy and diamino monomers. Both monolithic columns in capillary format demonstrated a fine bicontinuous structure, affording a good compatibility of the efficiency (H) and permeability (D). Especially, the epoxy-based column showed an excellent separation impedance, E (=H(2)/D). Our micro-HPLC data were discussed along with a prototyped wired chip device. PMID:19142909

  17. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  18. Monolithic HTS microwave phase shifter and other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Charles M.; Kobayashi, June H.; Guillory, Emery B.; Pettiette-Hall, Claire; Burch, John F.

    1992-08-01

    We describe a monolithic high-temperature superconductor (HTS) phase shifter based on the distributed Josephson inductance (DJI) design integrated monolithically into a 10-GHz microstrip line. This microwave circuit incorporates greater than 1000 HTS RF SQUIDS. Recent data demonstrate the performance of this broadband HTS circuit. We observed phase shifts greater than 150 deg in resonant structures, and 20 deg in broadband circuits. The nonlinear inductance of the superconducting transmission line can be used for other novel applications, including parametric amplification. A comparison of the DJI circuit to a series array of Josephson elements (used for pulse sharpening) will contrast these two new and exciting nonlinear transmission line circuits.

  19. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  20. Assessing the performance of curtain flow first generation silica monoliths.

    PubMed

    Soliven, Arianne; Foley, Dominic; Pereira, Luisa; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew; Cabrera, Karin; Ritchie, Harald; Edge, Tony

    2014-07-18

    Analytical scale active flow technology first generation silica monolithic columns kitted out in curtain flow mode of operation were studied for the first time. A series of tests were undertaken assessing the column efficiency, peak asymmetry and detection sensitivity. Two curtain flow columns were tested, one with a fixed outlet ratio of 10% through the central exit port, the other with 30%. Tests were carried out using a wide range in inlet flow segmentation ratios. The performance of the curtain flow columns were compared to a conventional monolithic column. The gain in theoretical plates achieved in the curtain flow mode of operation was as much as 130%, with almost Gaussian bands being obtained. Detection sensitivity increased by as much as 250% under optimal detection conditions. The permeability advantage of the monolithic structure together with the active flow technology makes it a priceless tool for high throughput, sensitive, low detection volume analyses. PMID:24906299

  1. Fabrication of porous zeolite/chitosan monoliths and their applications for drug release and metal ions adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Yan, Weiwei; Sun, Zhiming; Pan, Cheng; Mi, Xue; Zhao, Gang; Gao, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    Ordered porous zeolite/chitosan (Zel/Chi) monoliths were prepared by a unidirectional freeze-drying method, and their properties and structures were characterized by various instrumental methods. The metal ion adsorption and the drug release performance of the porous Zel/Chi monoliths were also studied. The release rate of cefalexin from drug-loaded Zel/Chi monoliths depended on the composition and porous structure of the monoliths. The metal ion adsorption capacity of the Zel/Chi monoliths was related to the concentration of the metal ions, the adsorption time and the Zel/Chi ratio. An experimentally maximum adsorption of 89 mg/g was achieved for Cu(2+) ions. The Zel/Chi monoliths with adsorbed Cu(2+) ions effectively catalyzed the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and had good recyclability. They were easily recovered by simply removing them from the reaction system and rinsing them with water. PMID:25498685

  2. Femtosecond carrier dynamics and modelocking in monolithic CPM lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Brorson, S.D.; Moerk, J.; Moeller-Larsen, A.; Nielsen, J.M.; Bischoff, S.

    1996-10-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe measurements of the dynamics in both forward- and reverse-biased semiconductor optical waveguides are presented. Slow (nanosecond) as well as ultrafast (femtosecond) dynamics are observed in both kinds of structures. These measurements imply that the slow saturable absorber theory of modelocking in monolithic CPM devices is incomplete.

  3. Less common applications of monoliths: IV. Recent developments in immobilized enzyme reactors for proteomics and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Krenkova, Jana; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    Use of monolithic supports for enzyme immobilization rapidly expanded since we published the previous part in this series concerned with this topic almost three years ago. Many groups worldwide realized the benefits of applying monolith as a support and used a variety of techniques to immobilize many different enzymes. Although some of these new developments are a refinement of the methods developed previously, some notable new approaches have also been reported. This review summarizes the literature published since 2006 and demonstrates the broad variability of reactive monolith prepared from silica as well as from organic polymers in shapes of disks, columns, and capillaries. All these monoliths were prepared using direct formation from reactive precursors or activation of preformed inactive structures. Interestingly, most of the applications of monolithic enzyme reactors targets proteolytic digestion of proteins for proteomic analysis. PMID:19194973

  4. In situ Fabrication of Monolithic Copper Azide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Wu, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication and characterization of monolithic copper azide were performed. The monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) with interconnected pores and nanoparticles was prepared by decomposition and sintering of the ultrafine copper oxalate. The preferable monolithic NPC can be obtained through decomposition and sintering at 400°C for 30 min. Then, the available monolithic NPC was in situ reacted with the gaseous HN3 for 24 h and the monolithic NPC was transformed into monolithic copper azide. Additionally, the copper particles prepared by electrodeposition were also reacted with the gaseous HN3 under uniform conditions as a comparison. The fabricated monolithic copper azide was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  5. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  6. Transparent monolithic metal ion containing nanophase aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Risen, W. M., Jr.; Hu, X.; Ji, S.; Littrell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of monolithic and transparent transition metal containing aerogels has been achieved through cooperative interactions of high molecular weight functionalized carbohydrates and silica precursors, which strongly influence the kinetics of gelation. After initial gelation, subsequent modification of the ligating character of the system, coordination of the group VIII metal ions, and supercritical extraction afford the aerogels. The structures at the nanophase level have been probed by photon and electron transmission and neutron scattering techniques to help elucidate the basis for structural integrity together with the small entity sizes that permit transparency in the visible range. They also help with understanding the chemical reactivities of the metal-containing sites in these very high surface area materials. These results are discussed in connection with new reaction studies.

  7. Monolithically Peltier-cooled laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hava, S.; Hunsperger, R.G.; Sequeira, H.B.

    1984-04-01

    A new method of cooling a GaAs/GaAlAs laser in an optical integrated circuit or on a discrete chip, by adding an integral thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling and heat spreading device to the laser, is presented. This cooling both reduces and stabilizes the laser junction temperature to minimize such deleterious effects as wavelength drift due to heating. A unified description of the electrical and thermal properties of a monolithic semiconductor mesa structure is given. Here it is shown that an improvement in thermal characteristics is obtained by depositing a relatively thick metallic layer, and by using this layer as a part of an active Peltier structure. Experimental results reveal a 14-percent increase in emitted power (external quantum efficiency) due to passive heat spreading and a further 8-percent if its Peltier cooler is operated. Fabrication techniques used to obtain devices exhibiting the above performance characteristics are given. 21 references.

  8. Monolithic-integrated microlaser encoder.

    PubMed

    Sawada, R; Higurashi, E; Ito, T; Ohguchi, O; Tsubamoto, M

    1999-11-20

    We have developed an extremely small integrated microencoder whose sides are less than 1 mm long. It is 1/100 the size of conventional encoders. This microencoder consists of a laser diode, monolithic photodiodes, and fluorinated polyimide waveguides with total internal reflection mirrors. The instrument can measure the relative displacement between a grating scale and the encoder with a resolution of the order of 0.01 microm; it can also determine the direction in which the scale is moving. By using the two beams that were emitted from the two etched mirrors of the laser diode, by monolithic integration of the waveguide and photodiodes, and by fabrication of a step at the edge of the waveguide, we were able to eliminate conventional bulky optical components such as the beam splitter, the quarter-wavelength plate, bulky mirrors, and bulky photodetectors. PMID:18324228

  9. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  10. Monolithic pattern-sensitive detector

    DOEpatents

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2000-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet light (EUV) is detected using a precisely defined reference pattern formed over a shallow junction photodiode. The reference pattern is formed in an EUV absorber preferably comprising nickel or other material having EUV- and other spectral region attenuating characteristics. An EUV-transmissive energy filter is disposed between a passivation oxide layer of the photodiode and the EUV transmissive energy filter. The device is monolithically formed to provide robustness and compactness.

  11. Counterflow isotachophoresis in a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingwen; Cong, Yongzheng; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2014-09-01

    This study describes stationary counterflow isotachophoresis (ITP) in a poly(acrylamide-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide) monolithic column as a means for improving ITP processing capacity and reducing dispersion. The flow profile in the monolith was predicted using COMSOL's Brinkman Equation application mode, which revealed that the flow profile was mainly determined by monolith permeability. As monolith permeability decreases, the flow profile changes from a parabolic shape to a plug shape. An experimental monolithic column was prepared in a fused-silica capillary using an ultraviolet-initiated polymerization method. A monolithic column made from 8% (wt.) monomer was chosen for the stationary counterflow ITP experiments. Counterflow ITP in the monolithic column showed undistorted analyte zones with significantly reduced dispersion compared to the severe dispersion observed in an open capillary. Particularly, for r-phycoerythrin focused by counterflow ITP, its zone width in the monolithic column was only one-third that observed in an open capillary. These experiments demonstrate that stationary counterflow ITP in monoliths can be a robust and practical electrofocusing method. PMID:24935025

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hierarchically porous metal, metal oxide, and carbon monoliths with highly ordered nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grano, Amy Janine

    Hierarchically porous materials are of great interest in such applications as catalysis, separations, fuel cells, and advanced batteries. One such way of producing these materials is through the process of nanocasting, in which a sacrificial template is replicated and then removed to form a monolithic replica. This replica consists of mesopores, which can be ordered or disordered, and bicontinuous macropores, which allow flow throughout the length of the monolith. Hierarchically porous metal oxide and carbon monoliths with an ordered mesopores system are synthesized for the first time via nanocasting. These replicas were used as supports for the deposition of silver particles and the catalytic efficiency was evaluated. The ordered silica template used in producing these monoliths was also used for an in-situ TEM study involving metal nanocasting, and an observation of the destruction of the silica template during nanocasting made. Two new methods of removing the silica template were developed and applied to the synthesis of copper, nickel oxide, and zinc oxide monoliths. Finally, hollow fiber membrane monoliths were examined via x-ray tomography in an attempt to establish the presence of this structure throughout the monolith.

  13. Clickable Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Monolith for Highly Efficient Capillary Chromatographic Separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ci; Liang, Yu; Yang, Kaiguang; Min, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-02-01

    A novel clickable periodic mesoporous organosilica monolith with the surface area up to 1707 m(2) g(-1) was in situ synthesized in the capillary by the one-step condensation of the organobridged-bonded alkoxysilane precursor bis(triethoxysilyl)ethylene. With Si-C bonds in the skeleton, the monolith possesses excellent chemical and mechanical stability. With vinyl groups highly loaded and homogeneously distributed throughout the structure, the monolith can be readily functionalized with functional groups by effective thiol-ene "click" chemistry reaction. Herein, with "click" modification of C18, the obtained monolith was successfully applied for capillary liquid chromatographic separation of small molecules and proteins. The column efficiency could reach 148,000 N/m, higher than most reported hybrid monoliths. Moreover, intact proteins could be separated well with good reproducibility, even after the monolithic column was exposed by basic mobile phase (pH 10.0) overnight, demonstrating the great promising of such monolith for capillary chromatographic separation. PMID:26751092

  14. A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.

  15. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  16. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  17. Monolithic short wave infrared (SWIR) detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A monolithic self-scanned linear detector array was developed for remote sensing in the 1.1- 2.4-micron spectral region. A high-density IRCCD test chip was fabricated to verify new design approaches required for the detector array. The driving factors in the Schottky barrier IRCCD (Pdsub2Si) process development are the attainment of detector yield, uniformity, adequate quantum efficiency, and lowest possible dark current consistent with radiometric accuracy. A dual-band module was designed that consists of two linear detector arrays. The sensor architecture places the floating diffusion output structure in the middle of the chip, away from the butt edges. A focal plane package was conceptualized and includes a polycrystalline silicon substrate carrying a two-layer, thick-film interconnecting conductor pattern and five epoxy-mounted modules. A polycrystalline silicon cover encloses the modules and bond wires, and serves as a radiation and EMI shield, thermal conductor, and contamination seal.

  18. Titanium-scaffolded organic-monolithic stationary phases for ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Rudy J; Vaast, Axel; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2014-09-12

    Organic-polymer monoliths with overall dimensions larger than one millimetre are prone to rupture - either within the monolith itself or between the monoliths and the containing wall - due to the inevitable shrinkage accompanying the formation of a cross-linked polymeric network. This problem has been addressed by creating titanium-scaffolded poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (S-co-DVB) monoliths. Titanium-scaffolded monoliths were successfully used in liquid chromatography at very high pressures (up to 80MPa) and using gradients spanning the full range of water-acetonitrile compositions (0 to 100%). The kinetic-performance of (50-mm long) titanium-scaffolded monoliths was compared to that of similar monolith created in 1-mm i.d. glass-lined tubing at pressures up to 50MPa. The peak capacities obtained with the titanium-scaffolded column was about 30% lower. An increased Eddy-diffusion, due to the pillar-structure, and a decreased permeability are thought to be the main reasons for this reduced kinetic-performance. No decrease in performance was observed when the titanium-scaffolded columns were operated at pressures of 80MPa for up to 12h. The column-to-column repeatability (n=5) was acceptable in terms of observed peak widths at half heights (RSD ca. 10%) The run-to-run repeatability (n=135) in terms of retention times and peak widths at half height were found to be good. Titanium-scaffolded columns coupled in series up to a combined length of (200mm) were used for the analyses of a complex Escherichia coli protein sample. Our experiments demonstrate that columns based on titanium-scaffolded organic-polymer monolith can be operated under strenuous conditions without loss in performance. The titanium-scaffolded approach makes it feasible to create organic-polymer monoliths in wide-bore columns with accurate temperature control. PMID:25086753

  19. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  20. Monolithic 20-GHz Transmitting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, T.; Kaelin, G.; Gupta, A.

    1986-01-01

    20-GHz monolithic microwave/millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) with amplification and phase-shift (time-delay) capabilities developed. Use of MMIC module technology promises to make feasible development of weight- and cost-effective phased-array antenna systems, identified as major factor in achieving minimum cost and efficient use of frequency and orbital resources of future generations of communication satellite systems. Use of MMIC transmitting modules provides for relatively simple method for phase-shift control of many separate radio-frequency (RF) signals required for phased-array antenna systems.

  1. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  2. Improved monolithic tandem solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1991-04-23

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surf ace of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  3. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  4. Stretchable Superhydrophobicity from Monolithic, Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Kyu; Jung, Woo-Bin; Nagel, Sidney R; Odom, Teri W

    2016-06-01

    We report the design of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical wrinkle substrates that can maintain their superhydrophobicity even after being repeatedly stretched. Monolithic poly(dimethysiloxane) with multiscale features showed wetting properties characteristic of static superhydrophobicity with water contact angles (>160°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (<5°). To examine how superhydrophobicity was maintained as the substrate was stretched, we investigated the dynamic wetting behavior of bouncing and splashing upon droplet impact with the surface. On hierarchical wrinkles consisting of three different length scales, superhydrophobic bouncing was observed. The substrate remained superhydrophobic up to 100% stretching with no structural defects after 1000 cycles of stretching and releasing. Stretchable superhydrophobicity was possible because of the monolithic nature of the hierarchical wrinkles as well as partial preservation of nanoscale structures under stretching. PMID:27144774

  5. A versatile and flexible low-temperature full-wafer bonding process of monolithic 3D microfluidic structures in SU-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigert, J.; Brett, O.; Müller, C.; Strasser, M.; Wangler, N.; Reinecke, H.; Daub, M.; Zengerle, R.

    2008-09-01

    We present a versatile fabrication process for the precise fabrication of embedded three-dimensional microfluidic structures in SU-8 photoresist. The full-wafer bond process based on a polyester (PET) handling layer enhances the previous low-temperature bonding technology. We achieved an extremely high bond strength of 45 MPa while requiring only small anchoring structures. Small channel structures with an aspect ratio >2 as well as wide membranes with an aspect ratio <0.02 were successfully bonded to realize precisely defined channel structures. Furthermore, the developed process features high yields (>80%) and enables the integration of microelectronics. The flexibility of the fabrication process is presented in two contrary applications. A completely freestanding and transparent SU-8 foil with a thickness of 225 µm featuring embedded 3D microchannels was fabricated. Also, high quality ink-jet dispensers were successfully fabricated whereas the dispenser quality mainly depends on the channel quality.

  6. SpaciMS: spatial and temporal operando resolution of reactions within catalytic monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Sa, Jacinto; Fernandes, Daniel; Aiouache, Farid; Goguet, Alexandre; Hardacdre, Christopher; Lundie, David; Naeem, Wasif; Partridge Jr, William P; Stere, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic catalysts are widely used as structured catalysts, especially in the abatement of pollutants. Probing what happens inside these monoliths during operation is, therefore, vital for modelling and prediction of the catalyst behavior. SpaciMS is a spatially resolved capillary-inlet mass spectroscopy system allowing for the generation of spatially resolved maps of the reactions within monoliths. In this study SpaciMS results combined with 3D CFD modelling demonstrate that SpaciMS is a highly sensitive and minimally invasive technique that can provide reaction maps as well as catalytic temporal behavior. Herein we illustrate this by examining kinetic oscillations during a CO oxidation reaction over a Pt/Rh on alumina catalyst supported on a cordierite monolith. These oscillations were only observed within the monolith by SpaciMS between 30 and 90% CO conversion. Equivalent experiments performed in a plug-flow reactor using this catalyst in a crushed form over a similar range of reaction conditions did not display any oscillations demonstrating the importance of intra monolith analysis. This work demonstrates that the SpaciMS offers an accurate and comprehensive picture of structured catalysts under operation.

  7. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  8. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Anson V.; Sommer, Gregory j.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  9. Facile preparation of organic-silica hybrid monolith for capillary hydrophilic liquid chromatography based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Luan; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zheng; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-04-01

    In this work, a one-step approach to facile preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths was successfully developed. After vinyl-end organic monomers and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were mixed with hydrolyzed tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), the homogeneous mixture was introduced into a fused-silica capillary for simultaneous polycondensation and "thiol-ene" click reaction to form the organic-silica hybrid monoliths. By employing this strategy, two types of organic-silica hybrid monoliths with positively charged quaternary ammonium and amide groups were prepared, respectively. The functional groups were successfully introduced onto the monoliths during the sol-gel process with "thiol-ene" click reaction, which was demonstrated by ζ-potential assessment, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The porous structure of the prepared monolithic columns was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. These results indicate the prepared organic-silica hybrid monoliths possess homogeneous column bed, large specific surface area, good mechanical stability, and excellent permeability. The prepared monolithic columns were then applied for anion-exchange/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Different types of analytes, including benzoic acids, inorganic ions, nucleosides, and nucleotides, were well separated with high column efficiency around 80,000-130,000 plates/m. Taken together, we present a facile and universal strategy to prepare organic-silica hybrid monoliths with a variety of organic monomers using one-step approach. PMID:23434082

  10. Monolithic HTS microwave phase shifter and other devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.M.; Kobayashi, J.H.; Guillory, E.B.; Pettiette-Hall, C.; Burch, J.F. )

    1992-08-01

    We describe a monolithic high-temperature superconductor (HTS) phase shifter based on the distributed Josephson inductance (DJI) design integrated monolithically into a 10-GHz microstrip line. This microwave circuit incorporates >1000 HTS rf SQUIDS. Recent data demonstrate the performance of this broadband HTS circuit. We observed phase shifts greater than 150[degrees] in resonant structures, and 20[degrees] in broadband circuits. The nonlinear inductance of the superconducting transmission line can be used for other novel applications, including parametric amplification. A comparison of the DJI circuit to a series array of Josephson elements (used for pulse sharpening) will contrast these two new and exciting nonlinear transmission line circuits. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. A unified monolithic approach for multi-fluid flows and fluid-structure interaction using the Particle Finite Element Method with fixed mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a strategy to solve multi-fluid and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems using Lagrangian particles combined with a fixed finite element (FE) mesh. Our approach is an extension of the fluid-only PFEM-2 (Idelsohn et al., Eng Comput 30(2):2-2, 2013; Idelsohn et al., J Numer Methods Fluids, 2014) which uses explicit integration over the streamlines to improve accuracy. As a result, the convective term does not appear in the set of equations solved on the fixed mesh. Enrichments in the pressure field are used to improve the description of the interface between phases.

  12. Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube-based 3D Monoliths.

    PubMed

    Du, Ran; Zhao, Qiuchen; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most promising carbon allotropes with incredible diverse physicochemical properties, thereby enjoying continuous worldwide attention since their discovery about two decades ago. From the point of view of practical applications, assembling individual CNTs into macroscopic functional and high-performance materials is of paramount importance. For example, multiscaled CNT-based assemblies including 1D fibers, 2D films, and 3D monoliths have been developed. Among all of these, monolithic 3D CNT architectures with porous structures have attracted increasing interest in the last few years. In this form, theoretically all individual CNTs are well connected and fully expose their surfaces. These 3D architectures have huge specific surface areas, hierarchical pores, and interconnected conductive networks, resulting in enhanced mass/electron transport and countless accessible active sites for diverse applications (e.g. catalysis, capacitors, and sorption). More importantly, the monolithic form of 3D CNT assemblies can impart additional application potentials to materials, such as free-standing electrodes, sensors, and recyclable sorbents. However, scaling the properties of individual CNTs to 3D assemblies, improving use of the diverse, structure-dependent properties of CNTs, and increasing the performance-to-cost ratio are great unsolved challenges for their real commercialization. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction of this young and energetic field, i.e., CNT-based 3D monoliths, with a focus on the preparation principles, current synthetic methods, and typical applications. Opportunities and challenges in this field are also presented. PMID:25740457

  13. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  14. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed. PMID:24526085

  15. Selective sample pretreatment by molecularly imprinted polymer monolith for the analysis of fluoroquinolones from milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Ming; Gong, Rui; Zhao, Xing; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2010-04-01

    Water-compatible pefloxacin-imprinted monoliths synthesized in a water-containing system were used for the selective extraction of fluoroquinolones (FQs). The MIP monolith was synthesized by using methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, di(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and methanol-water (10:3, v/v) as the porogenic solvent. The ability of the derivated MIP for selective recognition of FQs (ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin) and quinolones (flumequine, and oxolinic acid) was evaluated. The derivated monolith showed high selectivity and was able to distinguish between FQs and quinolones. A simple rapid and sensitive method using polymer monolith microextraction (PMME) based on the MIP monolith combined with HPLC with fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of four FQs from milk samples. Owing to the unique porous structure and flow-through channels in the network skeleton of the MIP monolith, phosphate buffer diluted milk samples were directly supplied to PMME; allowing non-specific bound proteins and other biological matrix to be washed out, and FQs to be selectively enriched. The limit of detection of the method was 0.4-1.6ng/mL and recovery was 92.4-98.2% with relative standard deviations less than 5.9%. PMID:20189184

  16. Tailoring the morphology of methacrylate ester-based monoliths for optimum efficiency in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Herrero-Martinez, José Manuel; Rozing, Gerard P; Schoenmakers, Peter J; Kok, Wim Th

    2005-11-15

    Methacrylate ester-based monolithic stationary phases were prepared in situ in fused-silica capillaries and simultaneously in vials. The influence of the composition of the polymerization mixture on the morphology was studied with mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption measurements. A high-density porous polymeric material with a unimodal pore-size distribution was prepared with 40 wt % monomers and 60 wt % solvent in the mixture. A low-density material, prepared with a 20:80 ratio of monomers versus pore-forming solvent, showed a bimodal pore-size distribution and a much finer structure than the high-density monolith. The characteristic pore size could be controlled by changing the ratio of pore-forming solvents. With increasing solvent polarity, both the pore size and the dimension of the globules increased. The best efficiency in the CEC mode was obtained with an average pore size of 600 nm. Low-density monoliths exhibited lower A- and C-terms than high-density monoliths. With the optimal monolithic material, a minimum plate height of 5 mum could be obtained. The low-density monolith also performed better in the HPLC mode, giving a minimum plate height of 15 mum and a much higher flow permeability than that of the high-density material. PMID:16285684

  17. Activated carbon monoliths for methane storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chada, Nagaraju; Romanos, Jimmy; Hilton, Ramsey; Suppes, Galen; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The use of adsorbent storage media for natural gas (methane) vehicles allows for the use of non-cylindrical tanks due to the decreased pressure at which the natural gas is stored. The use of carbon powder as a storage material allows for a high mass of methane stored for mass of sample, but at the cost of the tank volume. Densified carbon monoliths, however, allow for the mass of methane for volume of tank to be optimized. In this work, different activated carbon monoliths have been produced using a polymeric binder, with various synthesis parameters. The methane storage was studied using a home-built, dosing-type instrument. A monolith with optimal parameters has been fabricated. The gravimetric excess adsorption for the optimized monolith was found to be 161 g methane for kg carbon.

  18. Monolithically integrated distributed bragg reflector laser

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, K.

    1984-08-07

    In a heterostructure distributed Bragg reflector laser, at least one multilayer waveguide substantially comprised of a silicon dielectric compound is monolithically integrated with an active semiconductor heterostructure medium. Bragg reflectors are properly disposed within the waveguide.

  19. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daojing; Yang, Peidong; Kim, Woong; Fan, Rong

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  20. Monolithic ceramic capacitors for high reliability applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornley, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    Monolithic multi-layer ceramic dielectric capacitors are widely used in high reliability applications in spacecraft, launch vehicles, and military equipment. Their relatively low cost, wide range of values, and package styles are attractive features that result in high usage in electronic circuitry in these applications. Design and construction of monolithic ceramic dielectric capacitors, defects that can lead to failure, and methods for defect detection that are being incorporated in military specifications are discussed.

  1. Formation of bimodal porous silica-titania monoliths by sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzimuradov, O. N.

    2011-10-01

    Silica-titania monoliths with micrometer-scale macroporous and nanometer-scale mesoporous structure and high titania contents are prepared by sol-gel process and phase separation. Titanium alkoxide precursor was not effective in the preparation of high titania content composites because of strong decrease in phase separation tendency. Bimodal porous gels with high titania content were obtained by using inorganic salt precursors such as titanium sulfate and titanium chloride. Various characterization techniques, including SEM, XRD, Hg porosimetry and N2 adsorption have been carried out to investigate the formation process and physical-chemical properties of silica-titania monoliths. The characterization results show that the silica-titania monoliths possess a bimodal porous structure with well-dispersed titania inside silica network. The addition of titania in silica improves the thermal stability of both macroporous and mesoporous structures.

  2. Monolithic Gyroidal Mesoporous Mixed Titanium–Niobium Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium–niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  3. Facile synthesis of gradient mesoporous carbon monolith based on polymerization-induced phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Yufeng; Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Ou, Hui; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a gradient mesoporous carbon (GMC) monolith derived from the mixtures of phenolic resin (PF) and ethylene glycol (EG) was prepared by a facile route based on polymerization-induced phase separation under temperature gradient (TG). A graded biphasic structure of PF-rich and EG-rich phases was first formed in preform under a TG, and then the preform was pyrolyzed to obtain the GMC monolith. The TG is mainly induced by the thermal resistance of the preferential phase separation layer at high temperature region. The pore structure of the monolith changes gradually along the TG direction. When the TG varies from 58°C to 29°C, the pore size, apparent porosity and specific surface area of the monolith range respectively from 18 nm to 83 nm, from 32% to 39% and from 140.5 m2/g to 515.3 m2/g. The gradient porous structure of the monolith is inherited from that of the preform, which depends on phase separation under TG in the resin mixtures. The pyrolysis mainly brings about the contraction of the pore size and wall thickness as well as the transformation of polymerized PF into glassy carbon.

  4. Monolithic laser diode structure for microwave generation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.; Weller, J.F.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes an apparatus. It comprises: a semiconductor substrate; a semiconductor master laser and first and second semiconductor slave lasers fabricated adjacent to each other on the semiconductor substrate. The master laser generating an optical output at a frequency f{sub 0} and sidebands at multiples of {Delta}f, the first and second slave lasers being tuned to approximately coincide with first and second preselected sidebands of the master laser; and means for respectively injection-locking the first and second slave lasers to the first and second preselected sidebands.

  5. Monolithic ceramic analysis using the SCARE program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manderscheid, Jane M.

    1988-01-01

    The Structural Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation (SCARE) computer program calculates the fast fracture reliability of monolithic ceramic components. The code is a post-processor to the MSC/NASTRAN general purpose finite element program. The SCARE program automatically accepts the MSC/NASTRAN output necessary to compute reliability. This includes element stresses, temperatures, volumes, and areas. The SCARE program computes two-parameter Weibull strength distributions from input fracture data for both volume and surface flaws. The distributions can then be used to calculate the reliability of geometrically complex components subjected to multiaxial stress states. Several fracture criteria and flaw types are available for selection by the user, including out-of-plane crack extension theories. The theoretical basis for the reliability calculations was proposed by Batdorf. These models combine linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) with Weibull statistics to provide a mechanistic failure criterion. Other fracture theories included in SCARE are the normal stress averaging technique and the principle of independent action. The objective of this presentation is to summarize these theories, including their limitations and advantages, and to provide a general description of the SCARE program, along with example problems.

  6. Monolithic integrated-optic TDLAS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Scherer, David R.; Wainner, Richard T.; Allen, Mark G.; Shankar, Raji; Loncar, Marko

    2012-06-01

    We are developing prototype chip-scale low-power integrated-optic gas-phase chemical sensors based on infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). TDLAS is able to sense many gas phase chemicals with high sensitivity and selectivity. Using semiconductor fabrication and assembly techniques, the low-cost integrated optic TDLAS technology will permit mass production of sensors that have wide ranging industrial, medical, environmental, and consumer applications. Novel gas sensing elements using low-loss resonant photonic crystal cavities or waveguides will permit monolithic integration of a laser source, sampling elements, and detector on a semiconductor materials system substrate. Practical challenges to fabricating these devices include: a) selecting and designing the high-Q micro-resonator sensing element appropriate for the selected analyte; and b) device thermal management, especially stabilizing laser temperature with the precision needed for sensitive spectroscopic detection. In this paper, we analyze the expected sensitivity of micro-resonator-based structures for chemical sensing, and demonstrate a novel approach for exploiting laser waste heat to stabilize the laser temperature.

  7. New monolithic chromatographic supports for macromolecules immobilization: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Calleri, E; Ambrosini, S; Temporini, C; Massolini, G

    2012-10-01

    This mini-review reports on some recent advances in the field of immobilized protein employing both silica and polymer-based monoliths as supports, and their application in affinity chromatography and immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) developments. The major emphasis is put on some interesting challenges and opportunities related to the development of new monolithic affinity supports based on biofriendly sol-gel inorganic monoliths with entrapped proteins and on organic monolithic supports with improved hydrophilicity for IMERs development in proteomic studies. The ease of preparation of monoliths and the multitude of functionalization techniques, make monoliths interesting for an increasing number of biochemical and medical applications. PMID:22386208

  8. Peptide immobilized monolith containing tentacle-type functionalized polymer chains for high-capacity binding of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Du, Kaifeng

    2014-12-29

    A peptide immobilized tentacle-type monolith is developed here for high-performance IgG purification. In this work, the glucose-anchored GMA molecules serve as monomers to be grafted into the tentacle-type chains on highly porous monolith by a series of chemical reactions. While maintaining high column permeability, the tentacle grafting endows the monolith with lots of reactive handles to anchor more peptides. With that, the grafted monolith shows high peptide density of about 155μmolmL(-1), up to approximately 4.7 times higher over the ungrafted one (33μmolmL(-1)). As a result, the static adsorbing capacity and dynamic adsorption capacity at 50% breakthrough point reach 101.8 and 83.3mgmL(-1) for IgG adsorption, respectively. Regeneration, recycle and reuse of grafted monolith are highly successful for 25 runs without obvious capacity loss. By taking these advantages of high capacity and excellent structure stability, the affinity grafted monolith is evaluated by using cleared human blood supernatant. And the result shows the peptide immobilized tentacle type monolith displays excellent specificity and high effectiveness for IgG purification. PMID:25476688

  9. Use of photopatterned porous polymer monoliths as passive micromixers to enhance mixing efficiency of on-chip labeling reactions

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Dieudonne A.; Schwei, Thomas R.; Dinio, Theresa S.; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    In order to increase the extent of reaction for on-chip fluorescent labeling of proteins, a passive mixer has been prepared by using UV light to photopattern a periodic arrangement of porous polymer monolith structures directly within the channel of a plastic microfluidic chip. By optimizing the composition of the polymerization solution and irradiation time we demonstrated the ability to photopattern monoliths in regularly repeating 100 μm segments at the tee-junction of the disposable device. To evaluate the efficiency of this dual functional mixer-reactor, fluorescamine and lysine were introduced in separate channels upstream of the tee-junction and the intensity of laser-induced fluorescence resulting from the fluorogenic labeling reaction was monitored. The fluorescence level after passing the photopatterned periodic monolith configuration was better than both an equivalent 1 cm long continuous monolithic segment and an open channel. These results indicate that the periodic arrangement of monoliths, with regularly spaced open areas between 100 μm plugs, is responsible for enhancing the mixing performance and overall rate of chemical reaction carried out in the system. In addition to facilitating preparation of a dual functional mixer-reactor, the ability to accurately photopattern monoliths in a channel is an enabling technology for seamlessly integrating multiple monoliths into a single microdevice. PMID:19294297

  10. Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myles, K. M.; Mcpheeters, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is an oxide-ceramic structure in which appropriate electronic and ionic conductors are fabricated in a honeycomb shape similar to a block of corrugated paperboard. These electronic and ionic conductors are arranged to provide short conduction paths to minimize resistive losses. The power density achievable with the MSOFC is expected to be about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L, at fuel efficienceis over 50 percent, because of small cell size and low resistive losses in the materials. The MSOFC operates in the range of 700 to 1000 C, at which temperatures rapid reform of hydrocarbon fuels is expected within the nickel-YSZ fuel channels. Tape casting and hot roll calendering are used to fabricate the MSOFC structure. The performance of the MSOFC has improved significantly during the course of development. The limitation of this system, based on materials resistance alone without interfacial resistances, is 0.093 ohm-sq cm area-specific resistance (ASR). The current typical performance of MSOFC single cells is characterized by ASRs of about 0.4 to 0.5 ohm-sq cm. With further development the ASR is expected to be reduced below 0.2 ohm-sq cm, which will result in power levels greater than 1.4 W/sq cm. The feasibility of the MSOFC concept was proven, and the performance was dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials were minimized. As a result of good matching of these properties, the MSOFC structure was successfully fabricated with few defects, and the system shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source.

  11. Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, K. M.; McPheeters, C. C.

    1989-12-01

    The Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is an oxide-ceramic structure in which appropriate electronic and ionic conductors are fabricated in a honeycomb shape similar to a block of corrugated paperboard. These electronic and ionic conductors are arranged to provide short conduction paths to minimize resistive losses. The power density achievable with the MSOFC is expected to be about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L, at fuel efficienceis over 50 percent, because of small cell size and low resistive losses in the materials. The MSOFC operates in the range of 700 to 1000 C, at which temperatures rapid reform of hydrocarbon fuels is expected within the nickel-YSZ fuel channels. Tape casting and hot roll calendering are used to fabricate the MSOFC structure. The performance of the MSOFC has improved significantly during the course of development. The limitation of this system, based on materials resistance alone without interfacial resistances, is 0.093 ohm-sq cm area-specific resistance (ASR). The current typical performance of MSOFC single cells is characterized by ASRs of about 0.4 to 0.5 ohm-sq cm. With further development the ASR is expected to be reduced below 0.2 ohm-sq cm, which will result in power levels greater than 1.4 W/sq cm. The feasibility of the MSOFC concept was proven, and the performance was dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials were minimized. As a result of good matching of these properties, the MSOFC structure was successfully fabricated with few defects, and the system shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source.

  12. Feasibility evaluation of the monolithic braided ablative nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Director, Mark N.; McPherson, Douglass J., Sr.

    1992-02-01

    The feasibility of the monolithic braided ablative nozzle was evaluated as part of an independent research and development (IR&D) program complementary to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) Low-Cost, High-Reliability Case, Insulation and Nozzle for Large Solid Rocket Motors (LOCCIN) Program. The monolithic braided ablative nozzle is a new concept that utilizes a continuous, ablative, monolithic flame surface that extends from the nozzle entrance, through the throat, to the exit plane. The flame surface is fabricated using a Through-the-Thickness braided carbon-fiber preform, which is impregnated with a phenolic or phenolic-like resin. During operation, the braided-carbon fiber/resin material ablates, leaving the structural backside at temperatures which are sufficiently low to preclude the need for any additional insulative materials. The monolithic braided nozzle derives its potential for low life cycle cost through the use of automated processing, one-component fabrication, low material scrap, low process scrap, inexpensive raw materials, and simplified case attachment. It also has the potential for high reliability because its construction prevents delamination, has no nozzle bondlines or leak paths along the flame surface, is amenable to simplified analysis, and is readily inspectable. In addition, the braided construction has inherent toughness and is damage-tolerant. Two static-firing tests were conducted using subscale, 1.8 - 2.0-inch throat diameter, hardware. Tests were approximately 15 seconds in duration, using a conventional 18 percent aluminum/ammonium perchlorate propellant. The first of these tests evaluated the braided ablative as an integral backside insulator and exit cone; the second test evaluated the monolithic braided ablative as an integral entrance/throat/exit cone nozzle. Both tests met their objectives. Radial ablation rates at the throat were as predicted, approximately 0.017 in

  13. Assessment of the Grouted IXC Monolith in Support of K East Basin Hazard Categorization

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Steven M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Alzheimer, James M.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2007-10-12

    Addendum to original report updating the structural analysis of the I-beam accident to reflect a smaller I-beam than originally assumed (addendum is 2 pages). The K East Basin currently contains six ion exchange columns (IXCs) that were removed from service over 10 years ago. Fluor Hanford plans to immobilize the six ion exchange columns (IXCs) in place in a concrete monolith. PNNL performed a structural assessment of the concrete monolith to determine its capability to absorb the forces imposed by postulated accidents and protect the IXCs from damage and thus prevent a release of radioactive material. From this assessment, design specifications for the concrete monolith were identified that would prevent a release of radioactive material for any of the postulated hazardous conditions.

  14. Nanoklystron: A Monolithic Tube Approach to THz Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Fung, Andy; Manohara, Harish; Xu, Jimmy; Chang, Baohe

    2001-01-01

    The authors propose a new approach to THz power generation: the nanoklystron. Utilizing silicon micromachining techniques, the design and fabrication concept of a monolithic THz vacuum-tube reflex-klystron source is described. The nanoklystron employs a separately fabricated cathode structure composed of densely packed carbon nanotube field emitters and an add-in repeller. The nanotube cathode is expected to increase the current density, extend the cathode life and decrease the required oscillation voltage to values below 100 V. The excitation cavity is based on ridged-waveguide and differs from the conventional cylindrical re-entrant structures found in lower frequency klystrons. A quasi-static field analysis of the cavity and output coupling structure show excellent control of the quality factor and desired field distribution. Output power is expected to occur through an iris coupled matched rectangular waveguide and integrated pyramidal feed horn. The entire circuit is designed so as to be formed monolithically from two thermocompression bonded silicon wafers processed using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) techniques. To expedite prototyping, a 600 GHz mechanically machined structure has been designed and is in fabrication. A complete numeric analysis of the nanoklystron circuit, including the electron beam dynamics has just gotten underway. Separate evaluation of the nanotube cathodes is also ongoing. The authors will describe the progress to date as well as plans for the immediate implementation and testing of nanoklystron prototypes at 640 and 1250 GHz.

  15. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  16. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W.; Bouet, N.; Zhou, J.; Yan, H.; Huang, X.; Chu, Y. S.

    2016-06-01

    We have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  17. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J. )

    1993-05-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  18. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J.

    1992-08-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  19. A 30 GHz monolithic receive module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondal, J.; Contolatis, T.; Geddes, J.; Bauhahn, P.; Sokolov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The technical achievements and deliveries made during the duration of the program to develop a 30 GHz monolithic receive module for communication feed array applications and to deliver submodules and 30 GHz monolithic receive modules for experimental evaluation are discussed. Key requirements include an overall receive module noise figure of 5 dB, a 30 dB RF-to-RF gain with six levels of intermediate gain control, a five bit phase shifter, and a maximum power consumption of 250 mW. In addition, the monolithic receive module design addresses a cost goal of less than one thousand dollars (1980 dollars) per module in unit buys of 5,000 or more, and a mechanical configuration that is applicable to a spaceborne phase array system. An additional task for the development and delivery of 32 GHz phase shifter integrated circuit (IC) for deep space communication is also described.

  20. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  1. Designing Catalytic Monoliths For Closed-Cycle CO2 Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Keith; Herz, Richard K.; Goldblum, Seth; Noskowski, ED

    1992-01-01

    LASCAT (Design of Catalytic Monoliths for Closed-Cycle Carbon Dioxide Lasers) computer program aids in design of catalyst in monolith by simulating effects of design decisions on performance of laser. Provides opportunity for designer to explore tradeoffs among activity and dimensions of catalyst, dimensions of monolith, pressure drop caused by flow of gas through monolith, conversion of oxygen, and other variables. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  2. The 30-GHz monolithic receive module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauhahn, P.; Geddes, J.; Sokolov, V.; Contolatis, T.

    1988-01-01

    The fourth year progress is described on a program to develop a 27.5 to 30 GHz GaAs monolithic receive module for spaceborne-communication antenna feed array applications, and to deliver submodules for experimental evaluation. Program goals include an overall receive module noise figure of 5 dB, a 30 dB RF to IF gain with six levels of intermediate gain control, a five bit phase shifter, and a maximum power consumption of 250 mW. Submicron gate length single and dual gate FETs are described and applied in the development of monolithic gain control amplifiers and low noise amplifiers. A two-stage monolithic gain control amplifier based on ion implanted dual gate MESFETs was designed and fabricated. The gain control amplifier has a gain of 12 dB at 29 GHz with a gain control range of over 13 dB. A two-stage monolithic low noise amplifier based on ion implanted MESFETs which provides 7 dB gain with 6.2 dB noise figure at 29 GHz was also developed. An interconnected receive module containing LNA, gain control, and phase shifter submodules was built using the LNA and gain control ICs as well as a monolithic phase shifter developed previously under this program. The design, fabrication, and evaluation of this interconnected receiver is presented. Progress in the development of an RF/IF submodule containing a unique ion implanted diode mixer diode and a broadband balanced mixer monolithic IC with on-chip IF amplifier and the initial design of circuits for the RF portion of a two submodule receiver are also discussed.

  3. One-pot preparation of a novel monolith for high performance liquid chromatography applications.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaoyan; Shen, Shigang; Shi, Tiesheng

    2015-12-15

    Various novel porous organic-based monoliths with the mode of hydrophobicity were synthesized by in situ free-radical crosslinking copolymerization and optimized for the separations of small molecules and high-performance reversed-phase chromatography (RP-chromatography). These monoliths contained co-polymers based on glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA)/tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) or EDMA/TPGDA. A mixture of cetanol, methanol and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as the porogen, with the ratio of these solvents being varied along with the polymerization temperature to generate a library of monoliths. The conditions were optimized and the resulting poly (GMA-co-TPGDA-co-EDMA) monolith was investigated by infrared spectrometer (IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. The column performance was assessed by the separation of a series of neutral solutes of benzene derivatives. The result demonstrated that the prepared monolith exhibited an RP-chromatographic behavior and relatively homogeneous structure, good permeability and separation performance. Moreover, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the retention factor values for benzene derivatives were less than 1.5% (n=7, column-to-column). The approach used in this study was extended to the separation of anilines. PMID:26590881

  4. Polymethacrylate monolithic columns for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography prepared using a secondary surface polymerization.

    PubMed

    Currivan, Sinéad; Macak, Jan M; Jandera, Pavel

    2015-07-10

    Zwitterionic methacrylate based polymeric monolithic columns were prepared in two-step polymerizations, with reduced polymerization times. Characteristic properties such as hydrodynamic permeability, porosity, retention factors, and pore size distribution charts were used for column evaluation. A scaffold column was fabricated by polymerization of poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) and was used without further modification as a support for a poly(N,N-dimethyl-N-methacryloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium betaine-co-bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate) second monolith layer with zwitterionic functionality, for HILIC separations. An additional internal structure was formed by the second monolithic layer. The fabrication procedure was reproducible with RSD<5%. Field emission scanning electron microscopy has also been used to investigate column pore morphology, using a novel technique where the polymeric material is imaged directly, without coverage with a conducting film or particles. The new polar monolithic columns were used for HILIC separations of phenolic acids, flavones, nucleosides, and bases of nucleic acids, with similar efficiencies but different selectivities for zwitterionic methacrylate monolithic columns recently prepared by single step polymerization. PMID:26022313

  5. Characterization of polymer monoliths containing embedded nanoparticles by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM).

    PubMed

    Arrua, R Dario; Hitchcock, Adam P; Hon, Wei Boon; West, Marcia; Hilder, Emily F

    2014-03-18

    The structural and chemical homogeneity of monolithic columns is a key parameter for high efficiency stationary phases in liquid chromatography. Improved characterization techniques are needed to better understand the polymer morphology and its optimization. Here the analysis of polymer monoliths by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is presented for the first time. Poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) [poly(BuMA-co-EDMA)] monoliths containing encapsulated divinylbenzene (DVB) nanoparticles were characterized by STXM, which gives a comprehensive, quantitative chemical analysis of the monolith at a spatial resolution of 30 nm. The results are compared with other methods commonly used for the characterization of polymer monoliths [scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mercury porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption]. The technique permitted chemical identification and mapping of the nanoparticles within the polymeric scaffold. Residual surfactant, which was used during the manufacture of the nanoparticles, was also detected. We show that STXM can give more in-depth chemical information for these types of materials and therefore lead to a better understanding of the link between polymer morphology and chromatographic performance. PMID:24552424

  6. Polymer network/carbon layer on monolith support and monolith catalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Nordquist, Andrew Francis; Wilhelm, Frederick Carl; Waller, Francis Joseph; Machado, Reinaldo Mario

    2003-08-26

    The present invention relates to an improved monolith catalytic reactor and a monolith support. The improvement in the support resides in a polymer network/carbon coating applied to the surface of a porous substrate and a catalytic metal, preferably a transition metal catalyst applied to the surface of the polymer network/carbon coating. The monolith support has from 100 to 800 cells per square inch and a polymer network/carbon coating with surface area of from 0.1 to 15 m.sup.2 /gram as measured by adsorption of N.sub.2 or Kr using the BET method.

  7. UPDATE ON MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue; G. A. Moore; N. P. Hallinan; B. H. Park; D. E. Burkes

    2006-10-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Progress at INL has led to fabrication of hot isostatic pressed uranium-molybdenum bearing monolithic fuel plates. These miniplates are part of the RERTR-8 miniplate irradiation test. Further progress has also been made on friction stir weld processing which has been used to fabricate full size fuel plates which will be irradiated in the ATR and OSIRIS reactors.

  8. Monolithic and integrated phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaubert, Daniel H.; Pozar, David M.

    Some of the problems relevant to the design of monolithic and integrated arrays are examined. In particular, attention is given to electrical and mechanical design considerations, restrictions they impose on the choice of elements and architecture of integrated arrays, and elements that can alleviate one or more of these restrictions. Monolithic array designs are compared with some multiple-layer and two-sided designs using such criteria as scan range, bandwidth, substrate size and configuration, polarization, and feed line radiation. Broadside radiating elements, such as microstrip dipoles and patches, as well as end-fire radiating slots are considered.

  9. The Influence of Surface Topography and Surface Chemistry on the Anti-Adhesive Performance of Nanoporous Monoliths.

    PubMed

    Eichler-Volf, Anna; Xue, Longjian; Dornberg, Gregor; Chen, He; Kovalev, Alexander; Enke, Dirk; Wang, Yong; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Steinhart, Martin

    2016-08-31

    We designed spongy monoliths allowing liquid delivery to their surfaces through continuous nanopore systems (mean pore diameter ∼40 nm). These nanoporous monoliths were flat or patterned with microspherical structures a few tens of microns in diameter, and their surfaces consisted of aprotic polymer or of TiO2 coatings. Liquid may reduce adhesion forces FAd; possible reasons include screening of solid-solid interactions and poroelastic effects. Softening-induced deformation of flat polymeric monoliths upon contact formation in the presence of liquids enhanced the work of separation WSe. On flat TiO2-coated monoliths, WSe was smaller under wet conditions than under dry conditions, possibly because of liquid-induced screening of solid-solid interactions. Under dry conditions, WSe is larger on flat TiO2-coated monoliths than on flat monoliths with a polymeric surface. However, under wet conditions, liquid-induced softening results in larger WSe on flat monoliths with a polymeric surface than on flat monoliths with an oxidic surface. Monolithic microsphere arrays show antiadhesive properties; FAd and WSe are reduced by at least 1 order of magnitude as compared to flat nanoporous counterparts. On nanoporous monolithic microsphere arrays, capillarity (WSe is larger under wet than under dry conditions) and solid-solid interactions (WSe is larger on oxide than on polymer) dominate contact mechanics. Thus, the microsphere topography reduces the impact of softening-induced surface deformation and screening of solid-solid interactions associated with liquid supply. Overall, simple modifications of surface topography and chemistry combined with delivery of liquid to the contact interface allow adjusting WSe and FAd over at least 1 order of magnitude. Adhesion management with spongy monoliths exploiting deployment (or drainage) of interfacial liquids as well as induction or prevention of liquid-induced softening of the monoliths may pave the way for the design of artificial

  10. Monolithic Parallel Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cell with Transparent Carbon Nanotube Interlayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, S.; Mielczarek, K.; Ovalle-Robles, R.; Wang, B.; Hsu, D.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic photovoltaic cell with a monolithic tandem structure in parallel connection. Transparent multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets are used as an interlayer anode electrode for this parallel tandem. The characteristics of front and back cells are measured independently. The short circuit current density of the parallel tandem cell is larger than the currents of each individual cell. The wavelength dependence of photocurrent for the parallel tandem cell shows the superposition spectrum of the two spectral sensitivities of the front and back cells. The monolithic three-electrode photovoltaic cell indeed operates as a parallel tandem with improved efficiency.

  11. Characterization of supermacroporous monolithic polyacrylamide based matrices designed for chromatography of bioparticles.

    PubMed

    Plieva, Fatima M; Savina, Irina N; Deraz, Sahar; Andersson, Jonatan; Galaev, Igor Yu; Mattiasson, Bo

    2004-07-25

    Supermacroporous monolithic acrylamide (AAm)-based cryogels were prepared by radical cryo-polymerizaton (polymerization in the moderately frozen system) of AAm with functional monomers and cross-linker N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAAm). Electron microscopy studies revealed supermacroporous structure of the developed cryogels with pore size of 5-100 microm. Cryogel porosity depended on cryo-polymerization conditions. More than 90% of the monolithic bed volume is the interconnected supermacropores filled with water and less than 10% of the monolithic volume is pore walls. The total protein binding capacity (lysozyme in the case of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) column and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the case of anion-exchange (AE) column) was independent of the flow rates till 600 cm/h. Chromatographic behavior of E. coli cells when a cell suspension was applied to ion-exchange cryogel columns depended on both the density of functional ligand and the porosity of the cryogel. PMID:15177170

  12. Review of recent advances in the preparation of organic polymer monoliths for liquid chromatography of large molecules.

    PubMed

    Arrua, R Dario; Talebi, Mohammad; Causon, Tim J; Hilder, Emily F

    2012-08-13

    In recent years the use of monolithic polymers in separation science has greatly increased due to the advantages these materials present over particle-based stationary phases, such as their relative ease of preparation and good permeability. For these reasons, these materials present high potential as stationary phases for the separation and purification of large molecules such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids and cells. An example of this is the wide range of commercial available polymer-based monolithic columns now present in the market. This review summarizes recent developments in the synthesis of monolithic polymers for separation science, such as the incorporation of nanostructures in the polymeric scaffold as well as the preparation of hybrid structures. The different methods used in the surface functionalization of monolithic columns are also reviewed. Finally, we critically discuss the recent applications of this column technology in the separation of large molecules under different chromatographic mode. PMID:22790694

  13. Influence of porogen nature on the kinetic and potential efficiencies of divinylbenzene-based monolithic sorbents in gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. A.; Shiryaeva, V. E.; Popova, T. P.; Kanat'eva, A. Yu.; Kurganov, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that using Poppe curves for characterization of monolithic sorbents makes it possible to optimize conditions for both the synthesis of monoliths intended for high-speed analysis and achievement of the best separation efficiency. The influence of the nature of a porogen on the kinetic efficiency of monolithic sorbents in high-pressure gas chromatography has been considered. It has been found that the nature of the porogen alcohol determines to a considerable extent the structure of the monolith and its kinetic efficiency. The sorbents prepared with the use of octanol-1 and dodecanol-1 have shown the best kinetic characteristics; however, minimal HETP values have been observed for the columns prepared using hexanol-1 as a porogen.

  14. An 8 Meter Monolithic UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The planned Ares V launch vehicle with its 10 meter fairing and at least 55,600 kg capacity to Earth Sun L2 enables entirely new classes of space telescopes. A consortium from NASA, Space Telescope Science Institute, and aerospace industry are studying an 8-meter monolithic primary mirror UV/optical/NIR space telescope to enable new astrophysical research that is not feasible with existing or near-term missions, either space or ground. This paper briefly reviews the science case for such a mission and presents the results of an on-going technical feasibility study, including: optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; launch vehicle performance and trajectory; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; operations & servicing; mass budget and cost.

  15. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  16. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  17. Optical coupling to monolithic integrated photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palen, Edward

    2007-02-01

    Methods of coupling optical fiber and light sources to monolithic integrated photonic circuits are needed to expand future photonics communications markets. Requirements are low cost, high coupling efficiencies, and scalability to high volume production rates. Key features of the different optical coupling options will be discussed along with implementation examples. Requirements for low cost optical coupling and high volume production scalability will be shared.

  18. Monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian

    2010-04-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are a mature sensing technology that has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be use for a variety of measurements including strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-TransceiverTM) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables the monolithic integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  19. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  20. Monolithic active pixel matrix with binary counters (MAMBO III) ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  1. Monoliths: special issue in a new package.

    PubMed

    Svec, Frantisek

    2013-08-01

    Regular special issues concerning monoliths have always been a stronghold of the Journal of Separation Science. Typically, we issued a call for papers, collected and processed the submitted manuscripts, and all of them were then printed in a single issue of the journal. This approach worked to a certain limit quite acceptably but there was always a longer waiting time between the early submissions and publication. This is why we decided to do it this year differently. I claimed in my 2013 New Years Editorial: "We are living in the electronic era! Why not to make an advantage of that?" And we do. As a result, all manuscript submitted for publication in the special issue Monoliths have already been published in regular issues as soon as they were accepted. The first page of these papers includes a footnote: "This paper is included in the virtual special issue Monoliths available at the Journal of Separation Science website." All papers published with this footnote were collected in a virtual special issue accessible through the internet. This concept ruled out possible delays in publication of contributions submitted early. Since we did not have any real "special issue", there was no need for any hard deadline for submission. We just collected manuscripts submitted for the special issue Monoliths published from January to July 2013 and included them in the virtual special issue. This new approach worked very well and we published 22 excellent papers that are included in the issue available now at this website: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1615-9314/homepage/virtual_special_issue__monoliths.htm. PMID:23939823

  2. Poly(ethylenimine)-Functionalized Monolithic Alumina Honeycomb Adsorbents for CO2 Capture from Air.

    PubMed

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Yoo, Chun-Jae; Tan, Shuai; Rashidi, Fereshteh; Jones, Christopher W

    2016-07-21

    The development of practical and effective gas-solid contactors is an important area in the development of CO2 capture technologies. Target CO2 capture applications, such as postcombustion carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from power plant flue gases or CO2 extraction directly from ambient air (DAC), require high flow rates of gas to be processed at low cost. Extruded monolithic honeycomb structures, such as those employed in the catalytic converters of automobiles, have excellent potential as structured contactors for CO2 adsorption applications because of the low pressure drop imposed on fluid moving through the straight channels of such structures. Here, we report the impregnation of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), an effective aminopolymer reported commonly for CO2 separation, into extruded monolithic alumina to form structured CO2 sorbents. These structured sorbents are first prepared on a small scale, characterized thoroughly, and compared with powder sorbents with a similar composition. Despite consistent differences observed in the filling of mesopores with PEI between the monolithic and powder sorbents, their performance in CO2 adsorption is similar across a range of PEI contents. A larger monolithic cylinder (1 inch diameter, 4 inch length) is evaluated under conditions closer to those that might be used in large-scale applications and shows a similar performance to the smaller monoliths and powders tested initially. This larger structure is evaluated over five cycles of CO2 adsorption and steam desorption and demonstrates a volumetric capacity of 350 molCO2  m-3monolith and an equilibration time of 350 min under a 0.4 m s(-1) linear flow velocity through the monolith channels using 400 ppm CO2 in N2 as the adsorption gas at 30 °C. This volumetric capacity surpasses that of a similar technology considered previously, which suggested that CO2 could be removed from air at an operating cost as low as $100 per ton. PMID:27304708

  3. Monolithic integration of a MOSFET with a MEMS device

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Reid; Draper, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An integrated microelectromechanical system comprises at least one MOSFET interconnected to at least one MEMS device on a common substrate. A method for integrating the MOSFET with the MEMS device comprises fabricating the MOSFET and MEMS device monolithically on the common substrate. Conveniently, the gate insulator, gate electrode, and electrical contacts for the gate, source, and drain can be formed simultaneously with the MEMS device structure, thereby eliminating many process steps and materials. In particular, the gate electrode and electrical contacts of the MOSFET and the structural layers of the MEMS device can be doped polysilicon. Dopant diffusion from the electrical contacts is used to form the source and drain regions of the MOSFET. The thermal diffusion step for forming the source and drain of the MOSFET can comprise one or more of the thermal anneal steps to relieve stress in the structural layers of the MEMS device.

  4. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    with these service conditions by developing a multiaxial viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (such as creep and stress relaxation) in monolithic structural ceramics. Using continuum principles of engineering mechanics, we derived the complete viscoplastic theory from a scalar dissipative potential function.

  5. Polyurea-Based Aerogel Monoliths and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Je Kyun

    2012-01-01

    aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection for government and commercial applications. The rubbery polyureabased aerogel exhibits little dustiness, good flexibility and toughness, and durability typical of the parent polyurea polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with aerogels. The thermal conductivity values of polyurea-based aerogels at lower temperature under vacuum pressures are very low and better than that of silica aerogels. Flexible, rubbery polyurea-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogels, including polyisocyanurate aerogels, which are generally prepared with the one similar component to polyurethane rubber aerogels. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structures, the polyurea rubber-based aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. The aerogel materials also demonstrate good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven to be one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible, silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain application environments. Although the cross - linked organic aerogels, such as resorcinol- formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels, show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient radiation shielding materials due

  6. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Binder, Andrew; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 μgL⁻¹). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N’-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. The preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  7. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard T.; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana; Binder, Andrew J.; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 gL-1). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N -methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawatermore » containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. Furthermore, the preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.« less

  8. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard T.; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana; Binder, Andrew J.; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 gL-1). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N -methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. Furthermore, the preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  9. Monolithically Integrated High-β Nanowire Lasers on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B; Janker, L; Loitsch, B; Treu, J; Kostenbader, T; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Morkötter, S; Kaniber, M; Abstreiter, G; Gies, C; Koblmüller, G; Finley, J J

    2016-01-13

    Reliable technologies for the monolithic integration of lasers onto silicon represent the holy grail for chip-level optical interconnects. In this context, nanowires (NWs) fabricated using III-V semiconductors are of strong interest since they can be grown site-selectively on silicon using conventional epitaxial approaches. Their unique one-dimensional structure and high refractive index naturally facilitate low loss optical waveguiding and optical recirculation in the active NW-core region. However, lasing from NWs on silicon has not been achieved to date, due to the poor modal reflectivity at the NW-silicon interface. We demonstrate how, by inserting a tailored dielectric interlayer at the NW-Si interface, low-threshold single mode lasing can be achieved in vertical-cavity GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NW lasers on silicon as measured at low temperature. By exploring the output characteristics along a detection direction parallel to the NW-axis, we measure very high spontaneous emission factors comparable to nanocavity lasers (β = 0.2) and achieve ultralow threshold pump energies ≤11 pJ/pulse. Analysis of the input-output characteristics of the NW lasers and the power dependence of the lasing emission line width demonstrate the potential for high pulsation rates ≥250 GHz. Such highly efficient nanolasers grown monolithically on silicon are highly promising for the realization of chip-level optical interconnects. PMID:26618638

  10. Monolithic Cylindrical Fused Silica Resonators with High Q Factors.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yao; Wang, Dongya; Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Suyong; Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Luo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The cylindrical resonator gyroscope (CRG) is a typical Coriolis vibratory gyroscope whose performance is determined by the Q factor and frequency mismatch of the cylindrical resonator. Enhancing the Q factor is crucial for improving the rate sensitivity and noise performance of the CRG. In this paper, for the first time, a monolithic cylindrical fused silica resonator with a Q factor approaching 8 × 10⁵ (ring-down time over 1 min) is reported. The resonator is made of fused silica with low internal friction and high isotropy, with a diameter of 25 mm and a center frequency of 3974.35 Hz. The structure of the resonator is first briefly introduced, and then the experimental non-contact characterization method is presented. In addition, the post-fabrication experimental procedure of Q factor improvement, including chemical and thermal treatment, is demonstrated. The Q factor improvement by both treatments is compared and the primary loss mechanism is analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, the work presented in this paper represents the highest reported Q factor for a cylindrical resonator. The proposed monolithic cylindrical fused silica resonator may enable high performance inertial sensing with standard manufacturing process and simple post-fabrication treatment. PMID:27483263

  11. Effect of the presence of an ordered micro-pillar array on the formation of silica monoliths.

    PubMed

    Detobel, Frederik; Eghbali, Hamed; De Bruyne, Selm; Terryn, Herman; Gardeniers, Han; Desmet, Gert

    2009-10-30

    We report on the synthesis of siloxane-based monoliths in the presence of a two-dimensional, perfectly ordered array of micro-pillars. Both methyltrimethoxysilane- and tetramethoxysilane-based monoliths were considered. The obtained structures were analyzed using scanning-electron microscopy and can be explained from the general theory of surface-directed phase separation in confined spaces. The formed structures are to a large extent nearly exclusively determined by the ratio between the bulk domain size of the monolith on the one hand and the distance between the micro-pillars on the other hand. When this ratio is small, the presence of the pillars has nearly no effect on the morphology of the produced monoliths. However, when the ratio approaches unity and ascends above it, some new types of monolith morphologies are induced, two of which appear to have interesting properties for use as novel chromatographic supports. One of these structures (obtained when the domain size/inter-pillar distance ratio is around unity) is a 3D network of linear interconnections between the pillars, organized such that all skeleton branches are oriented perpendicular to the micro-pillar surface. A second interesting structure is obtained at even higher values of the domain size/inter-pillar distance ratio. In this case, each individual micro-pillar is uniformly coated with a mesoporous shell. PMID:19321168

  12. Development of large-area monolithically integrated silicon-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. A.; Cotter, J. E.; Ingram, A. E.; Ruffins, T. R.; Shreve, K. P.; Hall, R. B.; Barnett, A. M.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes work to develop Silicon-Film (trademark) Product 3 into a low-cost, stable solar cell for large-scale terrestrial power applications. The Product 3 structure is a thin (less than 100 micron) polycrystalline layer of silicon on a durable, insulating, ceramic substrate. The insulating substrate allows the silicon layer to be isolated and metallized to form a monolithically interconnected array of solar cells. High efficiency is achievable with the use of light trapping and a passivated back surface. The long-term goal for the product is a 1200 sq cm, 18%-efficient, monolithic array. The short-term objectives are to improve material quality and to fabricate 100 sq cm monolithically interconnected solar cell arrays. Low minority-carrier diffusion length in the silicon film and series resistance in the interconnected device structure are presently limiting device performance. Material quality is continually improving through reduced impurity contamination. Metallization schemes, such as a solder-dipped interconnection process, have been developed that will allow low-cost production processing and minimize R(sub s) effects. Test data for a nine-cell device (16 sq cm) indicated a V(sub oc) of 3.72 V. These first-reported monolithically interconnected multicrystalline silicon-on-ceramic devices show low shunt conductance (less than 0.1 mA/sq cm) due to limited conduction through the ceramic and no process-related metallization shunts.

  13. Monolithic Optical-To-Electronic Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunath, Richard; Mactaggert, Ross

    1994-01-01

    Monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit converts multiplexed digital optical signals into electrical signals, separates, and distributes them to intended destinations. Developed to deliver phase and amplitude commands to monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) at elements of millimeter-wave phased-array antenna from single optical fiber driven by external array controller. Also used in distribution of high-data-rate optical communications in local-area networks (LAN's). Notable features include options for optical or electrical clock inputs; outputs for raw data, addresses, and instructions for diagnosis; and optical-signal-detection circuit used to reduce power consumption by 80 percent between data-transmission times. Chip fabricated by processes available at many major semiconductor foundries. Distribution of digital signals in aircraft, automobiles, and ships potential application.

  14. Solgel-derived photosensitive germanosilicate glass monoliths.

    PubMed

    Heaney, A D; Erdogan, T

    2000-12-15

    We demonstrate volume gratings written in solgel-derived, Ge-doped silica monoliths. Glass was fabricated both with and without germanium oxygen deficient center (GODC) defects. The UV absorption and UV-induced index changes of these glasses, with and without hydrogen loading, are reported. The presence of GODC defects greatly enhances the photosensitivity of Ge-doped silica with and without the presence of hydrogen. PMID:18066337

  15. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Michael W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Hair, Lucy M.

    1995-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  16. Update On Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R Clark; J. M. Wight; G. C. Knighton; G. A. Moore; J. F. Jue

    2005-11-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Advancements have been made in the production of U-Mo foil including full sized foils. Progress has also been made in the friction stir welding and transient liquid phase bonding fabrication processes resulting in better bonding, more stable processes and the ability to fabricate larger fuel plates.

  17. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado, P.R.

    1999-09-28

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  18. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  19. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  20. InP monolithically integrated coherent transmitter.

    PubMed

    Andriolli, N; Fresi, F; Bontempi, F; Malacarne, A; Meloni, G; Klamkin, J; Poti, L; Contestabile, G

    2015-04-20

    A novel InP monolithically integrated coherent transmitter has been designed, fabricated and tested. The photonic integrated circuit consists of a distributed Bragg reflector laser and a modified nested Mach-Zehnder modulator having tunable input power splitters. Back-to-back coherent transmission for PDM-QPSK signals is reported up to 10 Gbaud (40 Gb/s) using the integrated laser and up to 32Gbaud (128 Gb/s) using an external low phase noise laser. PMID:25969111

  1. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myles, K. M.; Mcpheeters, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) concept has been proven, and the performance has been dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials have been minimized, thus allowing successful fabrication of the MSOFC with few defects. The MSOFC shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source for many applications from stationary power, to automobile propulsion, to space pulsed power.

  2. Monolithic 3D CMOS Using Layered Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Sachid, Angada B; Tosun, Mahmut; Desai, Sujay B; Hsu, Ching-Yi; Lien, Der-Hsien; Madhvapathy, Surabhi R; Chen, Yu-Ze; Hettick, Mark; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Zeng, Yuping; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Edward Yi; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Javey, Ali; Hu, Chenming

    2016-04-01

    Monolithic 3D integrated circuits using transition metal dichalcogenide materials and low-temperature processing are reported. A variety of digital and analog circuits are implemented on two sequentially integrated layers of devices. Inverter circuit operation at an ultralow supply voltage of 150 mV is achieved, paving the way to high-density, ultralow-voltage, and ultralow-power applications. PMID:26833783

  3. Nanoporous Carbon Monoliths with Tunable Thermal Insulation and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Fenghua; Luo, Zhenhua; Li, Hao; Zhao, Tong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, nanoscale porous carbon monoliths, with excellent compressive strength and thermal insulation, were obtained with a simple method of carbonizing cured phenol-formaldehyde resin/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Apparent density, pore size and morphology of the carbon monoliths were tailored by changing the composition, curing process and carbonization temperature. The continuous nanopores played a key role in enhancing mechanical and thermal performance of the carbon materials. When PMMA concentration was 25%, apparent density and thermal conductivity of the nanoporous carbonaceous monoliths were obtained as low as 1.07 g · cm⁻³ and 0.42 W/(m · K), decreasing by 29.4% and 35.4% than that of carbonaceous monoliths obtained from pure PF; while compressive strength of the nanoporous carbonaceous monoliths was as high as 34 MPa, which was improved over five times than that of pure PF carbon monoliths. PMID:27398592

  4. [Preparation of honeycombed monolithic zeolite and hydrophobic modification with SiCl4].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Qin; Li, Kai; Wei, Bing; Luan, Zhi-Qiang

    2011-12-01

    A kind of hydrophobic zeolitic monolith were prepared by mixing HY/ZSM-5, additives and water, followed by processes of extrusion and drying, and then hydrophobic modification with SiCl4. The structures and properties of the adsorbent were examined by nitrogen adsorption and desorption measurement, XRD, and benzene adsorption experiment. The results show that those adsorbents possess hierarchical pore structures and excellent hydrophobicity. PMID:22468534

  5. Strength and toughness of monolithic and composite silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    1990-01-01

    The strength and toughness of two composite and two monolithic silicon nitrides were measured from 25 to 1400 C. The monolithic and composite materials were made from similar starting powders. Both of the composite materials contained 30 vol percent silicon carbide whiskers. All measurements were made by four point flexure in surrounding air and humidity. The composite and monolithic materials exhibited similar fast fracture properties as a function of temperature.

  6. Less common applications of monoliths III. Gas chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Svec, Frantisek; Kurganov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Porous polymer monoliths emerged about two decades ago. Despite this short time, they are finding applications in a variety of fields. In addition to the most common and certainly best known use of this new category of porous media as stationary phases in liquid chromatography, monolithic materials also found their applications in other areas. This review article focuses on monoliths in capillaries designed for separations in gas chromatography. PMID:17645884

  7. Large-volume methacrylate monolith for plasmid purification. Process engineering approach to synthesis and application.

    PubMed

    Danquah, Michael K; Forde, Gareth M

    2008-04-25

    The extent of exothermicity associated with the construction of large-volume methacrylate monolithic columns has somewhat obstructed the realisation of large-scale rapid biomolecule purification especially for plasmid-based products which have proven to herald future trends in biotechnology. A novel synthesis technique via a heat expulsion mechanism was employed to prepare a 40 mL methacrylate monolith with a homogeneous radial pore structure along its thickness. Radial temperature gradient was recorded to be only 1.8 degrees C. Maximum radial temperature recorded at the centre of the monolith was 62.3 degrees C, which was only 2.3 degrees C higher than the actual polymerisation temperature. Pore characterisation of the monolithic polymer showed unimodal pore size distributions at different radial positions with an identical modal pore size of 400 nm. Chromatographic characterisation of the polymer after functionalisation with amino groups displayed a persistent dynamic binding capacity of 15.5 mg of plasmid DNA/mL. The maximum pressure drop recorded was only 0.12 MPa at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The polymer demonstrated rapid separation ability by fractionating Escherichia coli DH5alpha-pUC19 clarified lysate in only 3 min after loading. The plasmid sample collected after the fast purification process was tested to be a homogeneous supercoiled plasmid with DNA electrophoresis and restriction analysis. PMID:18329651

  8. Preparation of an aptamer based organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with gold nanoparticles as an intermediary for the enrichment of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Cheng; Zhu, Qing-Yun; Zhao, Ling-Yu; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of an aptamer based organic-inorganic hybrid affinity monolithic column was developed successfully using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as an intermediary for a sandwich structure to realize the functional modification of the surface of the monolithic matrix. This monolithic matrix was facilely pre-synthesized via one-step co-condensation. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of GNPs and the large specific surface area of the hybrid matrix, the average coverage density of aptamers on the hybrid monolith reached 342 pmol μL(-1). With the combination of an aptamer based hybrid affinity monolithic column and enzymatic chromogenic assay, the quantitation and detection limits of thrombin were as low as 5 nM and 2 nM, respectively. These results indicated that the GNPs attached monolith provided a novel technique to immobilize aptamers on an organic-inorganic hybrid monolith and it could be used to achieve highly selective recognition and determination of trace proteins. PMID:27307035

  9. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Robert L.

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  10. Fracture mechanics concepts in reliability analysis of monolithic ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manderscheid, Jane M.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Basic design concepts for high-performance, monolithic ceramic structural components are addressed. The design of brittle ceramics differs from that of ductile metals because of the inability of ceramic materials to redistribute high local stresses caused by inherent flaws. Random flaw size and orientation requires that a probabilistic analysis be performed in order to determine component reliability. The current trend in probabilistic analysis is to combine linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts with the two parameter Weibull distribution function to predict component reliability under multiaxial stress states. Nondestructive evaluation supports this analytical effort by supplying data during verification testing. It can also help to determine statistical parameters which describe the material strength variation, in particular the material threshold strength (the third Weibull parameter), which in the past was often taken as zero for simplicity.

  11. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David; Wehrer, Rebecca; Palmisiano, Marc; Wanlass, Mark; Murray, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIM) are under development for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion applications. MIM devices are typified by series-interconnected photovoltaic cells on a common, semi-insulating substrate and generally include rear-surface infrared (IR) reflectors. The MIM architecture is being implemented in InGaAsSb materials without semi-insulating substrates through the development of alternative isolation methodologies. Motivations for developing the MIM structure include: reduced resistive losses, higher output power density than for systems utilizing front surface spectral control, improved thermal coupling and ultimately higher system efficiency. Numerous design and material changes have been investigated since the introduction of the MIM concept in 1994. These developments as well as the current design strategies are addressed.

  12. Two-dimensional optical scanner with monolithically integrated glass microlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sunghyun; Jin, Joo-Young; Ha, Joon-Geun; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2014-05-01

    A miniaturized two-dimensional forward optical scanner with a monolithically integrated glass microlens was developed for microendoscopic imaging applications. The fabricated device measures 2.26 × 1.97 × 0.62 mm3 in size and a through-silicon microlens with a diameter of 400 µm and numerical aperture of 0.37 has been successfully integrated within the silicon layer. An XY stage structure with lens shuttle and comb actuators was designed, and proprietary glass isolation blocks were utilized in mechanical and electric isolation of X- and Y-axis actuators. Resonant frequencies of the stage in X and Y directions were 3.238 and 2.198 kHz and quality factors were 168 and 69.1, respectively, at atmospheric pressure. Optical scanning test has been performed and scan angles of ±4.7° and ±4.9° were achieved for X and Y directions, respectively.

  13. Advanced materials development for multi-junction monolithic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, L.R.; Reno, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    We report results in three areas of research relevant to the fabrication of monolithic multi-junction photovoltaic devices. (1) The use of compliant intervening layers grown between highly mismatched materials, GaAs and GaP (same lattice constant as Si), is shown to increase the structural quality of the GaAs overgrowth. (2) The use of digital alloys applied to the MBE growth of GaAs{sub x}Sb{sub l-x} (a candidate material for a two junction solar cell) provides increased control of the alloy composition without degrading the optical properties. (3) A nitrogen plasma discharge is shown to be an excellent p-type doping source for CdTe and ZnTe, both of which are candidate materials for a two junction solar cell.

  14. Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shinichi; Zaher Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Oda, Katsuya; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a group-IV indirect band gap semiconductor, and therefore bulk Ge cannot emit light efficiently. However, the direct band gap energy is close to the indirect one, and significant engineering efforts are being made to convert Ge into an efficient gain material monolithically integrated on a Si chip. In this article, we will review the engineering challenges of developing Ge light sources fabricated using nano-fabrication technologies compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes. In particular, we review recent progress in applying high-tensile strain to Ge to reduce the direct band gap. Another important technique is doping Ge with donor impurities to fill the indirect band gap valleys in the conduction band. Realization of carrier confinement structures and suitable optical cavities will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss possible applications of Ge light sources in potential photonics-electronics convergent systems.

  15. Design of a Broadband Millimeter-Wave Monolithic IQ Mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Leijun; Wang, Zhigong; Li, Qin

    2010-05-01

    A 26˜40 GHz millimeter-wave monolithic passive IQ mixer was designed by using Win’s 0.15-µm GaAs pHEMT process. It utilizes a ring diode structure, and the performance can be improved effectively by a modified Marchand balun and U-type coupled lines. Through on-wafer measurement, the mixer shows a conversion loss of 6.6˜9 dB over a bandwidth of 26˜40 GHz, an IF bandwidth from DC to 6 GHz, an image rejection ratio of 21˜30 dB, an LO-RF isolation of above 24 dB, an LO-IF isolation of above 35 dB, and an RF-IF isolation of above 25 dB.

  16. Comparative study on the separation behavior of monolithic columns prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization and via electron beam irradiation triggered free radical polymerization for proteins.

    PubMed

    Bandari, Rajendar; Knolle, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2008-05-16

    Monolithic columns have been prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization using different monomers and crosslinkers, i.e. norborn-2-ene, 1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4,5,8-exo,endo-dimethanonaphthalene, cyclooctene and tris(cyclooct-4-en-1-yloxy)methylsilane. 2-Propanol and toluene were used as macro- and microporogens. Alternatively, monolithic supports were realized via electron beam triggered free radical polymerization using trimethylolpropane triacrylate and ethylmethacrylate. Here, 2-propanol, 1-dodecanol and toluene were used as porogens. The three monolithic supports were structurally characterized by inverse size exclusion chromatography and investigated for their separation capabilities for a series of proteins. Separation efficiencies are discussed within the context of the different structural features of the monolithic supports and are compared to the separation data obtained on a commercial silica-based Chromolith RP-18e column. PMID:18037426

  17. InGaAs monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi, N.S.; Jenkins, P.P.; Weizer, V.G.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Wilt, D.M.; Scheiman, D.; Brinker, D.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.

    1997-12-31

    A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. The MIM device consists of many individual InGaAs cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. An infrared (IR) back surface reflector (BSR), placed on the rear surface of the substrate, returns the unused portion of the TPV radiator output spectrum back to the radiator for recuperation, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Also, the use of a BSR reduces the requirements imposed on a front surface interference filter and may lead to using only an anti-reflection coating. As a result, MIMs are exposed to the entire radiator output, and with increasing output power density. MIMs were fabricated with an active area of 0.9 x 1 cm, and with 15 cells monolithically connected in series. Both lattice-matched and lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP devices were fabricated, with bandgaps of 0.74 and 0.55 eV, respectively. The 0.74 eV MIMs demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 6.16 V and a fill factor of 74.2% at a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 0.84 A/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The 0.55 eV modules demonstrated a Voc of 4.85 V and a fill factor of 57.8% at a Jsc of 3.87 A/cm{sup 2}. The near IR reflectance (2--4 {micro}m) for both lattice-matched and lattice-mismatched structures was measured to be in the range of 80--85%. Latest electrical and optical performance results for these MIMs is presented.

  18. Selective oxidation of cyclohexene through gold functionalized silica monolith microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed T.; Taylor, Martin J.; Liu, Dan; Beaumont, Simon K.; Kyriakou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Two simple, reproducible methods of preparing evenly distributed Au nanoparticle containing mesoporous silica monoliths are investigated. These Au nanoparticle containing monoliths are subsequently investigated as flow reactors for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene. In the first strategy, the silica monolith was directly impregnated with Au nanoparticles during the formation of the monolith. The second approach was to pre-functionalize the monolith with thiol groups tethered within the silica mesostructure. These can act as evenly distributed anchors for the Au nanoparticles to be incorporated by flowing a Au nanoparticle solution through the thiol functionalized monolith. Both methods led to successfully achieving even distribution of Au nanoparticles along the length of the monolith as demonstrated by ICP-OES. However, the impregnation method led to strong agglomeration of the Au nanoparticles during subsequent heating steps while the thiol anchoring procedure maintained the nanoparticles in the range of 6.8 ± 1.4 nm. Both Au nanoparticle containing monoliths as well as samples with no Au incorporated were tested for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene under constant flow at 30 °C. The Au free materials were found to be catalytically inactive with Au being the minimum necessary requirement for the reaction to proceed. The impregnated Au-containing monolith was found to be less active than the thiol functionalized Au-containing material, attributable to the low metal surface area of the Au nanoparticles. The reaction on the thiol functionalized Au-containing monolith was found to depend strongly on the type of oxidant used: tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) was more active than H2O2, likely due to the thiol induced hydrophobicity in the monolith.

  19. SUBGRADE MONOLITHIC ENCASEMENT STABILIZATION OF CATEGORY 3 LOW LEVEL WASTE (LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    PHILLIPS, S.J.

    2004-02-03

    A highly efficient and effective technology has been developed and is being used for stabilization of Hazard Category 3 low-level waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Using large, structurally interconnected monoliths, which form one large monolith that fills a waste disposal trench, the patented technology can be used for final internment of almost any hazardous, radioactive, or toxic waste or combinations of these waste materials packaged in a variety of sizes, shapes, and volumes within governmental regulatory limits. The technology increases waste volumetric loading by 100 percent, area use efficiency by 200 percent, and volumetric configuration efficiency by more than 500 percent over past practices. To date, in excess of 2,010 m{sup 3} of contact-handled and remote-handled low-level radioactive waste have been interned using this patented technology. Additionally, in excess of 120 m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive waste requiring stabilization in low-diffusion coefficient waste encasement matrix has been disposed using this technology. Greater than five orders of magnitude in radiation exposure reduction have been noted using this method of encasement of Hazard Category 3 waste. Additionally, exposure monitored at all monolith locations produced by the slip form technology is less than 1.29 x E-07 C {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. Monolithic encasement of Hazard Category 3 low-level waste and other waste category materials may be successfully accomplished using this technology at nominally any governmental or private sector waste disposal facility. Additionally, other waste materials consisting of hazardous, radioactive, toxic, or mixed waste materials can be disposed of using the monolithic slip form encasement technology.

  20. Silicon-based optoelectronics: Monolithic integration for WDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Matthew Richard T.

    2000-10-01

    This thesis details the development of enabling technologies required for inexpensive, monolithic integration of Si-based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) components and photodetectors. The work involves the design and fabrication of arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), the development of advanced SiGe photodetectors capable of photodetection at 1.55 mum wavelengths, and the development of a low cost fabrication technique that enables the high volume production of Si-based photonic components. Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers were designed and fabricated in SOI. The fabrication of AWGs in SOI has been reported in the literature, however there are a number of design issues specific to the SOI material system that can have a large effect on device performance and design, and have not been theoretically examined in earlier work. The SOI AWGs presented in this thesis are the smallest devices of this type reported, and they exhibit performance acceptable for commercial applications. The SiGe photodetectors reported in the literature exhibit extremely low responsivities at wavelengths near 1.55 mum. We present the first use of three dimensional growth modes to enhance the photoresponse of SiGe at 1.55 mum wavelengths. Metal semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors were fabricated using this undulating quantum well structure, and demonstrate the highest responsivities yet reported for a SiGe-based photodetector at 1.55 mum. These detectors were monolithically integrated with low-loss SOI waveguides, enabling integration with nearly any Si-based passive WDM component. The pursuit of inexpensive Si-based photonic components also requires the development of new manufacturing techniques that are more suitable for high volume production. This thesis presents the development of a low cost fabrication technique based on the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS), a standard processing technique used for Si integrated circuits

  1. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    DOEpatents

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  2. High-Tc superconducting monolithic phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto-Kobayashi, June H.; Jackson, Charles M.; Pettiette-Hall, Claire L.; Burch, John F.

    1992-03-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) X-band phase shifter using a distributed Josephson inductance (DJI) approach was designed and fabricated. Phase swings of over 60 deg were measured at 65 K and below, with measurable phase shifts at temperatures above 77 K. High quality HTS films and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) were deposited by laser ablation. A total of 40 HTS step edge SQUIDs were successfully integrated into a monolithic HTS circuit to produce a phase shifter in a resonant configuration. The magnitude of the Josephson inductance is calculated and a lumped element model is compared to measurements.

  3. Monolithic aerogels with nanoporous crystalline phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Christophe; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-05-01

    High porosity monolithic aerogels with nanoporous crystalline phases can be obtained from syndiotactic polystyrene and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene)oxide thermoreversible gels by removing the solvent with supercritical CO2. The presence of crystalline nanopores in the aerogels based on these polymers allows a high uptake associated with a high selectivity of volatile organic compounds from vapor phase or aqueous solutions even at very low activities. The sorption and the fast kinetics make these materials particularly suitable as sorption medium to remove traces of pollutants from water and moist air.

  4. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Minh, N.Q.; Horne, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array. 10 figures.

  5. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Horne, Craig R.

    1994-01-01

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array.

  6. Creating deep soil core monoliths: Beyond the solum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil monoliths serve as useful teaching aids in the study of the Earth’s critical zone where rock, soil, water, air, and organisms interact. Typical monolith preparation has so far been confined to the 1 to 2-m depth of the solum. Critical ecosystem services provided by soils include materials from ...

  7. Catalytic Ignition and Upstream Reaction Propagation in Monolith Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Miller, Fletcher J.; T'ien, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, this work demonstrates a concept called back-end ignition for lighting-off and pre-heating a catalytic monolith in a power generation system. In this concept, a downstream heat source (e.g. a flame) or resistive heating in the downstream portion of the monolith initiates a localized catalytic reaction which subsequently propagates upstream and heats the entire monolith. The simulations used a transient numerical model of a single catalytic channel which characterizes the behavior of the entire monolith. The model treats both the gas and solid phases and includes detailed homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. An important parameter in the model for back-end ignition is upstream heat conduction along the solid. The simulations used both dry and wet CO chemistry as a model fuel for the proof-of-concept calculations; the presence of water vapor can trigger homogenous reactions, provided that gas-phase temperatures are adequately high and there is sufficient fuel remaining after surface reactions. With sufficiently high inlet equivalence ratio, back-end ignition occurs using the thermophysical properties of both a ceramic and metal monolith (coated with platinum in both cases), with the heat-up times significantly faster for the metal monolith. For lower equivalence ratios, back-end ignition occurs without upstream propagation. Once light-off and propagation occur, the inlet equivalence ratio could be reduced significantly while still maintaining an ignited monolith as demonstrated by calculations using complete monolith heating.

  8. Design considerations for monolithic unidirectional planar ring oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Bao, Guojun; Ge, Yi; Wang, Zhongming; He, Anzhi; Tao, Hailin

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of monolithic unidirectional planar ring oscillator (PROs) are analyzed, and design criteria for PROs with low thresholds and large nonreciprocities are expounded on the basis of the eigenpolarization theory of monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators. A Nd:BGO PRO is designed to take advantage of its large Verdet coefficient.

  9. Fibrous monoliths: Economic ceramic matrix composites from powders [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark; Sutaria, Manish; Mulligan, Anthony; Creegan, Peter; Cipriani, Ron

    1999-05-26

    The project was to develop and perform pilot-scale production of fibrous monolith composites. The principal focus of the program was to develop damage-tolerant, wear-resistant tooling for petroleum drilling applications and generate a basic mechanical properties database on fibrous monolith composites.

  10. High-performance monolithic surface emitting GaAs/AlGaAs laser diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groussin, Bernard; Pitard, Francois; Volluet, Gerard; Carriere, Claude

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the development of more advance laser diode pump source: 'Monolithic Surface Emitting Laser Diode' (MOSEL). In this structure, the linear bar arrays are epitaxially grown on an engraved substrate between etched deflection mirrors adjacent to the laser facets. The laser diode structure grown by MOCVD technique is a single quantum well graded index active region (SQW/GRINSCH). A specific process has been designed to have cleaved laser diode facets. Monolithic elements of 0.1 cm(superscript 2) have been designed and mounted. The quasi-CW operation gives over 100 W of optical power or a QCW power density of 1 KW/cm(superscript 2). A compact assembly of 10 similar elements gives an optical power of 1 KW QCW. CW operation have been also tested up to 150 W CW/cm(superscript 2).