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1

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GWB is mainly underlain by Dinantian Lower Impure Limestones. There are small areas of Devonian Old Red Sandstones and Dinantian (early) Sandstones, Limestones and Shales in the east of the GWB, and Dinantian Pure Unbedded Limestones in the centre of the GWB. A small area of Granitic rock occurs near the northern edge, whilst in the northeast of the

Glen Bog; Mannin Wetland

2

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water features Associated terrestrial ecosystems Area (km2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the northern third of the GWB, aquifers are predominantly Pl: Poor aquifers which are generally unproductive except for local zones. In the remainder of the GWB, aquifers are predominantly Ll: Locally important aquifers which are moderately productive only in local zones, with areas underlain by Silurian rocks classified as Pl. The Devonian Old Red Sandstones are classified as Pl

Lough Graney

3

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water features Associated terrestrial ecosystems Area (km2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the GWB comprises Ll: Locally important aquifer which is moderately productive only in local zones. The relatively small areas of Silurian and Ordovician rock unit groups, and the very narrow Dinantian (early) Sandstones, Limestones and Shales are Pl: Poor aquifers which are generally unproductive except for local zones. These aquifers occur on the west tip and along

Mount Brandon

4

Climate change performance measurement, control and accountability in English local authority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to consider how climate change performance is measured and accounted for within the performance framework for local authority areas in England adopted in 2008. It critically evaluates the design of two mitigation and one adaptation indicators that are most relevant to climate change. Further, the potential for these performance indicators to contribute to climate change

Stuart Cooper; Graham Pearce

2011-01-01

5

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water bodies Associated terrestrial ecosystems Area (km2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the uplands in the NW of the GWB, bedrock units are Pl: Poor aquifers which are generally unproductive except for local zones, as are the uplands in the east of the GWB that are underlain by Silurian, Ordovician and Dinantian (early) etc. rocks. In the remainder of the GWB, aquifers are predominantly Ll: Locally important aquifers which are moderately

Doon Lough; Rosroe Lough; Ballycar Lough; Lough Gash Turlough

1999-01-01

6

Loss estimation of debris flow events in mountain areas - An integrated tool for local authorities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Torrents prone to debris flows regularly cause extensive destruction of the built environment, loss of life stock, agricultural land and loss of life in mountain areas. Climate change may increase the frequency and intensity of such events. On the other hand, extensive development of mountain areas is expected to change the spatial pattern of elements at risk exposed and their vulnerability. Consequently, the costs of debris flow events are likely to increase in the coming years. Local authorities responsible for disaster risk reduction are in need of tools that may enable them to assess the future consequences of debris flow events, in particular with respect to the vulnerability of elements at risk. An integrated tool for loss estimation is presented here which is based on a newly developed vulnerability curve and which is applied in test sites in the Province of South Tyrol, Italy. The tool has a dual function: 1) continuous updating of the database regarding damages and process intensities that will eventually improve the existing vulnerability curve and 2) loss estimation of future events and hypothetical events or built environment scenarios by using the existing curve. The tool integrates the vulnerability curve together with new user friendly forms of damage documentation. The integrated tool presented here can be used by local authorities not only for the recording of damage caused by debris flows and the allocation of compensation to the owners of damaged buildings but also for land use planning, cost benefit analysis of structural protection measures and emergency planning.

Papathoma-Koehle, M.; Zischg, A.; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.; Glade, T.

2012-04-01

7

Living Authors, Living Stories: Integrating Local Authors into Our Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Keeping literature classrooms vibrant, energized, and current can require supreme pedagogical effort, especially in light of students' sometimes pointed disinterest in traditional and/or canonical texts. Integrating local authors into a standard curriculum can be an effective strategy for invigorating students' interest in literature and helping…

Newman, Beatrice Mendez

2009-01-01

8

Waterford Area Local History Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located west of Racine and southwest of Milwaukee, the town of Waterford, Wisconsin sits along the Fox River. In addition to its scenic location, Waterford also happens to have a vibrant public library that has worked with other local organizations to create this elaborate digital local history archive. Working in partnership with the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections, they have created this digital home for an array of maps, photographs, books, manuscripts, and other printed ephemera. The thematic headings include "community", "maps", and "people and portraits" As the town served as a popular resort for decades, visitors will be delighted to learn that the archive has several dozen photographs of the various leisure pursuits that were popular throughout the town and its outlying areas.

9

Rail transport policy-making in UK Passenger Transport Authority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the findings of a research project which analysed the impact of local administrative geography on the development of local rail transport policies in Merseyside and Strathclyde, two of the UK’s Passenger Transport Authority (PTA) areas, between 1986 and 1996. The ways in which statutory local authorities and other public, private and voluntary sector organisations engaged in the

Iain Docherty

2000-01-01

10

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Paging geographic area authorizations. The FCC considers applications for and issues...this section. (a) Channels. The FCC may issue a paging geographic area authorization...Department of Commerce's 172 EAs, the FCC shall separately license Guam and the...

2010-10-01

11

Local Area Networks and the Learning Lab of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers educational applications of local area computer networks and discusses industry standards for design established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). A futuristic view of a learning laboratory using a local area network is presented. (Author/LRW)

Ebersole, Dennis C.

1987-01-01

12

Where should health services go: local authorities versus the NHS?  

PubMed

The Association of Metropolitan Authorities has recently proposed that responsibility for the NHS should pass from health authorities to local authorities. One of the fiercest debates at the outset of the NHS was whether the hospitals should be run by local authorities. In the end the minister for health, Aneurin Bevan, decided against local democracy and in favour of a national health service. His arguments included the fact that equality of treatment could not be guaranteed if facilities varied with local finances and that even the largest authorities were not big enough to pool risks and expertise. All these arguments still apply today, and the recent changes in community care provide an insight into how a market model of local authority control might work. The changes have been accompanied by a shift from public to private sector provision and the introduction of charges for services that the NHS once provided free. As important, the willingness and ability of local authorities to raise extra revenue from local taxes and charges affect the service they can provide, so leading to inequalities of provision. Local authorities have yet to make the case that they can preserve the fundamental principles and benefits of the NHS, including its reliance on central taxation and unified funding formulas. PMID:7787651

Pollock, A M

1995-06-17

13

200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document  

SciTech Connect

Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

DODD, E.N.

2000-03-28

14

Statutory authorizations for the work of local health departments.  

PubMed Central

A study of public health statutes of the 50 states identifies 44 specific services or functions that are assigned to local health departments by all or some of the states. Authorizations are most commonly assigned conjointly both to local and state health departments; exceptions are identified. Data suggest striking inconsistencies between what local health departments are authorized to perform and the services they actually render with regard to a selected group of programs that involve personal health services. The full scope of authorizations for local health departments is not revealed by examination of public health statutes. For this reason, among others, development of up-to-date health codes for all states would be beneficial. PMID:911005

Miller, C A; Gilbert, B; Warren, D G; Brooks, E F; DeFriese, G H; Jain, S C; Kavaler, F

1977-01-01

15

Thinking global, acting local? British local authorities and their environmental plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing globalisation of environmental policy?making it might be expected that the traditionally strong role of British local authorities would be weakening. Yet local authorities have been extremely active in promoting their role as local environmental guardians. In particular there has been a widespread emergence since the late 1980s of local environmental plans that attempt to highlight and co?ordinate

Stephen Ward

1993-01-01

16

Labour market integration of immigrants: estimating local authority effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method for computing indicators of the relative success of local authorities at integrating new immigrants in\\u000a the labour market, taking account of differences in characteristics of immigrants and local labour markets. The indicator\\u000a for integration success is based on mean duration from date of residence permit to start of an employment spell. We apply\\u000a this method to

Leif Husted; Eskil Heinesen; Signe Hald Andersen

2009-01-01

17

200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. This document includes the PUREX Tunnels and the 224-T facility, both of which are category 2 nuclear facilities. While both facilities have an authorization agreement (AA) as required by HNF-PRO-2701, the AA's do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements.

DODD, E.N.

2001-01-31

18

Applying Psychology in Local Authority Emergency Planning Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the work of two EPs involved in a multi-agency project to produce Local Authority (LA) guidelines on psycho/social support following critical incidents and disasters. EPs were involved as participant observers during a simulation of setting up and running a LA reception centre for evacuees. A questionnaire was then…

Posada, Susan E.

2006-01-01

19

Local Area Networks - Applications to Energy Management  

E-print Network

systems. The idea of the Local Area Network is described, and it is compared to the distributed processing technique, one that is more commonly used in energy management systems. The two techniques are compared by applying each to common examples, and pros...

Bakken, B. M.

1984-01-01

20

Amphibious assault ship local area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amphibious Assault Ship, USS Makin Island (LHD 8) encompasses multiple systems to support the Navy's missions. The USS Makin Island systems include ballast, steering, propulsion, fresh water, power distribution as well as many damage control systems. The systems utilize various signal types to operate the systems while receiving signals to monitor the system components via the Machinery Control System (MCS). Many input/output (I/O) signals exchange information between the MCS and the various systems' equipment. The MCS monitors and controls the system components using a Human Machine Interface (HMI). The user-friendly HMI permits authorized operators to perform many daily operations remotely allowing operators to address system issues from multiple MCS units located throughout the ship. The MCS utilizes a fiber optic network that serves as the backbone connecting the Local Area Network (LAN) switches via blown optical fiber. Each MCS unit is intricately connected to the LAN switches for maximum redundancy via fiber optic connections to non-adjacent LAN switches to ensure system communications continuity. The LAN switches are connected in a star configuration for added system survivability. The backbone's blown fiber is designed and installed with a sufficient percentage of spare blowing tubes to ensure the potential of future growth. Conventional optical fiber is used to interconnect the MCS consoles, workstations, and Data Acquisition Units (DAU) to each other and the LAN switches. The conventional fiber also contains sufficient spare conductors in a combination of eight and four conductor optical fiber. The network backbone is redundantly connected allowing for continuous transmission of information throughout the ship.

Goff, Jonathan S.; Million, Troy P.

2010-08-01

21

The Savannah River Site local area network  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of thirteen separate operating or administrative facilities, or areas, spread out over 300 square miles of federal reservation. A facility of this size presents rather unique difficulties to anyone attempting to provide a comprehensive and high performance computer network, or local area network (LAN). Figure 1 is a diagram of the SRS and indicates the approximate number of ''knowledge workers'' (i.e., managerial, professional, and clerical staff) which are located in each site area. The goal of the SRS LAN project is to have each of these workers connected to and using the computer network by the end of 1990. By mid 1989 SRS is three quarters of the way to completing this goal. The fundamental LAN strategy for Savannah River is the integration of personal computers with mid size ''departmental'' computers located within each site area with links to the site's mainframe computer systems and offsite databases for information access. This integration is being provided by baseband local area networks in each of the site areas adjoined together via a broadband and digital telephone communications system to form one sitewide internetwork. The site internetwork is used to connect the departmental and mainframe computers together as well as provide workstation to computer access between site areas. 6 figs.

Johnson, A.J.

1989-01-01

22

Administrative Use of Computers by Local Education Authorities: Report of a Questionnaire Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1983 survey conducted in England and Wales by the Education Management Information Exchange and the Society of Education Officers Industry Committee examined the widespread administrative use of computers and related technology in Local Education Authorities (LEA's). This report summarizes responses from 95 of the 108 LEA's in the survey area.…

Streatfield, David; Thompson, Sue

23

Hypercube simulation on a local area network  

SciTech Connect

We describe the structure and use of a distributed computing environment based on a hypercube programming model that runs on most UNIX systems with TCP/IP network support. The package uses a library of message-passing routines and multiple user processes, written in either C or FORTRAN, to provide an environment for the development and testing of algorithms for hypercube parallel processors simulated by a collection of computers on a local area network. Each node of the simulated hypercube is a workstation on the network. The simulator produces a trace file that can be used for debugging, performance analysis, or graphical display. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Dunigan, T.H.

1988-11-01

24

Congestion control over ATM local area networks  

SciTech Connect

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) has emerged as a standard which offers integration of different classes of service as well as scalability in terms of network size and speed. While the early focus on ATM was mainly on wide-area networks, the driving force behind this new technology is increasingly coming from local-area applications. The need for an ATM LAN to support existing protocols (e.g., TCP/IP) transparently is key to its adoption in the local-area environment. In traditional shared medium LANS, congestion control on the medium is handled by medium access control (MAC) protocol. Once a network device gains access to the shared medium, it has the full bandwidth to itself. Other contending network devices must wait until the shared medium becomes free. In ATM LANS, the MAC protocol is removed, and as a result the congestion control it provides is also removed. Each network device can transmit at the full link bandwidth, and can thus potentially cause congestion at some output ports of an ATM switch. This report presents some simulation results and demonstrates the importance of congestion control in ATM networks. First, we show the effects of cell loss on TCP performance in a congested ATM LAN. When congestion results in switch buffer overflow, cells are dropped. The effect of a small cell loss rate is found to translate into a much larger TCP packet retransmission rate, resulting in poor TCP performance. Secondly, we will describe a credit-based, per virtual circuit, per hop flow control algorithm proposed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). We show that when flow control is employed, cell loss and TCP retransmissions are eliminated, resulting in greatly improved TCP performance.

Chen, H.Y.; Fang, C.; Hutchins, J.A.

1995-03-01

25

Fault-Tolerant Local-Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local-area network (LAN) for computers prevents single-point failure from interrupting communication between nodes of network. Includes two complete cables, LAN 1 and LAN 2. Microprocessor-based slave switches link cables to network-node devices as work stations, print servers, and file servers. Slave switches respond to commands from master switch, connecting nodes to two cable networks or disconnecting them so they are completely isolated. System monitor and control computer (SMC) acts as gateway, allowing nodes on either cable to communicate with each other and ensuring that LAN 1 and LAN 2 are fully used when functioning properly. Network monitors and controls itself, automatically routes traffic for efficient use of resources, and isolates and corrects its own faults, with potential dramatic reduction in time out of service.

Morales, Sergio; Friedman, Gary L.

1988-01-01

26

LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two programs, a simulation program and a user-interface program. The simulation program requires the SLAM II simulation library from Pritsker and Associates, W. Lafayette IN; the user interface is implemented using the Ingres database manager from Relational Technology, Inc. Information about running the simulation program without the user-interface program is contained in the documentation. The memory requirement is 129,024 bytes. LANES was developed in 1988.

Gibson, J.

1994-01-01

27

The Garbage Collection Advantage: Improving Program Locality Authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As improvements in processor speed continue to outpace improve- ments in cache and memory speed, poor locality increasingly degrades performance. Because copying garbage collectors move objects, they have an opportunity to improve locality. However, no static copy- ing order is guaranteed to match program traversal orders. This pa- per introduces online object reordering(OOR) which includes a new dynamic, online class

Xianglong Huang; Stephen M Blackburn; Kathryn S McKinley; J. Eliot B. Moss; Zhenlin Wang; Perry Cheng

2004-01-01

28

ANALYSIS OF WEB SITE PORTALS IN SOME LOCAL AUTHORITIES  

E-print Network

· Online permitting · One / several languages · Message of the Mayor · Urban risks #12;http and teenagers; · Chambéry gives a list of local celebrities; · Freiburg (CH) gives access to an online

Laurini, Robert

29

76 FR 1429 - Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-154  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority--Rate Order No. WAPA-154 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

2011-01-10

30

76 FR 5148 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority--Rate Order No. WAPA-155 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

2011-01-28

31

Local control of area-preserving maps  

E-print Network

We present a method of control of chaos in area-preserving maps. This method gives an explicit expression of a control term which is added to a given area-preserving map. The resulting controlled map which is a small and suitable modification of the original map, is again area-preserving and has an invariant curve whose equation is explicitly known.

Cristel Chandre; Michel Vittot; Guido Ciraolo

2008-09-01

32

Basic Mars Navigation System For Local Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: This project has been first set up as a basic solution in navigation during EVA (extra-vehicular activities) in the Mars Society Desert Research Station in the desert of Utah. The main idea is to keep the system as simple as possible so that it can be easily adaptable and portable. The purpose of such a device is to tell the astronauts in EVA where they roughly are and then letting them reaching different points in avoiding any risky way. Thus the precision needed has not to be really high: even if it is about 50m, every astronaut can then look on a map and be able to design a way to another point. This navigation system will improve the safety of the EVA as it is an added reliable orientating tool. Concept: To look at a simple way to localize oneself, one should have a look at what has been done by mankind on Earth. Today, everyone can think of the GPS because it's simple and very reliable. However the infrastructure for such a system is huge and will not be for sure available during the first missions. We can think of course of a basic GPS using the satellites being in orbit but this approach is not yet as simple as we would like. If we want to keep the sky in sight, we can use the stars and the moons of Mars. Yet this would be a good solution and we can even have a star tracker that would give a good position according to the time of the picture. This solution has to be kept in mind but a star tracker is quite big for an astronaut without any rover nearby and using the sky may not be as precise as one should expect. Another useful tool is the compass. It has been used for centuries by sailors but on Mars, without a good magnetic field for this purpose. But sailors also use lighthouses and some placemarks on the land to localize themselves. This is done with a compass, measuring the angle between a placemark and the magnetic North. With two angles, we can then have the position of the boat. The idea here is the same: measuring the angles between different placemarks so that we can compute the position. But which placemarks? We have to think about something that can be installed on Mars and is light enough to be brought there. Balloons are really light, and in order to place them, we need a gas as helium (or hydrogen) and also some rope. Hydrogen is likely to be produced in situ and rope will be useful for astronauts. So we started on a concept with some balloons around the base, with different colors or patterns. The crew in EVA can thus know where the base is every time they are in sight of a balloon and with at least three balloons; they can compute their position according to the base. Procedure of the test: During EVA, the astronauts will measure the angle between the different balloons. The balloons are high in the sky so they can be seen far from their location. This is particularly important on Mars where the horizon is nearer than on Earth. The balloons have different colors so they can be identified and we can even think of adding an autonomous colored light under so they can be observed during the night. With good quality balloons, we can keep them in the sky for a few days without maintenance. Angle measurement is done thanks to a camera. A numeric camera can have a precision of less than 0.01°/pixel, which is enough for our application. The distance between the different balloons can easily be seen in a free picture management software and a Matlab tool is under development for this. An algorithm is then run and it gives the positions that fit with the observations on a map. Simulation gave areas 20m width, which is enough for the astronaut who has a map. The exact precision will be investigated in situ, at the MDRS. For this first test bench, computations will be manually done on a computer in order to validate the concept without huge development. Afterwards, one can imagine an implementation on a PDA brought by the astronauts. This PDA would have its own camera so the process can be fully automatic. Such a system can also implement other navigation system as a Martian GPS or a radio locali

Petitfils, E.-A.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Monaghan, E.; Crews, Eurogeomars

2009-04-01

33

From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a democratic…

Moss, Peter

2011-01-01

34

48 CFR 26.202 - Local area preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...202 Section 26.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities 26.202 Local area...

2013-10-01

35

48 CFR 26.202 - Local area preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...202 Section 26.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities 26.202 Local area preference....

2012-10-01

36

48 CFR 26.202 - Local area preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...202 Section 26.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities 26.202 Local area preference....

2011-10-01

37

48 CFR 26.202 - Local area preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...202 Section 26.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities 26.202 Local area preference....

2010-10-01

38

Traffic management for ATM local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the first switching technology to be capable of supporting circuit switching and packet switching within a single integrated switching mechanism. This was one of the research goals that led to the development of ATM. Considerable progress has already been made in implementing constant bit-rate services, similar to conventional circuit switching, over ATM. The authors briefly

Peter Newman

1994-01-01

39

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?...

2010-07-01

40

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?...

2013-07-01

41

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?...

2011-01-01

42

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?...

2012-01-01

43

HPC\\/VORX: a local area multicomputer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described that combines the major strengths of local area networks and multicomputers, namely resource sharing over geographically significant distances and small communication latencies. The result is a new architecture called a local area multicomputer (LAM). The system that is described attempts to solve the seemingly incompatible needs of the two application domains by utilizing a high-capacity, low-latency

R. D. Gaglianello; B. S. Robinson; T. L. Lindstrom; E. E. Sampieri

1989-01-01

44

A local area network for controlling the ordering and purchasing of radioactive material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient control over the purchase and receipt of radioactive material is a necessary part of any radiation safety program. The authors describe a novel computerized method for monitoring the flow of radioactive material within a large broad-licensed medical research complex. The Local Area Network (LAN) described interfaces the radiation safety office with radionuclide receiving, the authorized user, grants and contracts,

Paul J. Weber; Frank P. Castronovo

1991-01-01

45

Local Authorities and the Education of Young People with Sickle Cell Disorders in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local

Dyson, S. M.; Abuateya, H.; Atkin, K.; Culley, L. A.; Dyson, S. E.; Rowley, D. T.

2008-01-01

46

The long goodbye: how local authorities lost control of further education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act, local education authorities (LEAs) lost control of further education in England. Now, after spending almost two decades out in the cold, from 2010, local authorities are set to become re?involved in the further education system. Given this, this paper takes the opportunity to look back on the end of LEA control and

Robin Simmons

2009-01-01

47

Looked after Children: Non-Local Authority Placements and Meeting Educational Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research consistently reports an educational disadvantage of being looked after. There is a lack of literature pertaining specifically to young people who are placed out of their local authority. The following research reports on an investigation of educational psychologists' views on the educational implications of non-local authority residential…

Thomson, Aicha Isabel

2007-01-01

48

Scenarios of London Local Authorities' Engagement with Evidence Bases for Education Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the use of research and evidence in the formation of education policy within London local authorities. In particular it explores the policy processes in three local authorities, and observes the role of research and the interplay between research and policy within each. We begin the paper with a general overview of policy…

Al Hallami, Mariam; Brown, Chris

2014-01-01

49

Guide to sharing personal computer resources via local area networks  

SciTech Connect

This Guide is for professional staff who commonly need computing tools on personal computers, minicomputers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers. It provides information and recommendations about personal computer local area networks in the context of the larger scheme of computing tools and services at the Laboratory. The material presented here is for the person considering installation of a personal computer local area network. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the concept of personal computer local area networks and provides background material on networking. Chapter 2 summarizes Computing Services' evaluation of personal computer local area networking in general terms. Chapter 3 describes the technical and functional details of Computing Services' Personal Computer Local Area Network Evaluation and Demonstration Project. Chapters 4 and 5 are for individuals who are familiar with personal computing and who will be responsible for establishing a local area network. Chapter 4 covers technical issues relating to the prototype network installation in Building 221. Chapter 5 warns potential users what to expect when establishing a local area network. 7 figs., 9 tabs.

Winkler, L.

1986-03-01

50

Priority and fair scheduling in wireless local area networks  

E-print Network

In recent years, fair scheduling and quality of service (QoS) in Wireless Local Area Networks have received significant attention from the networking research community. This thesis presents a distributed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol...

Dugar, Anurag

2012-06-07

51

75 FR 60285 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...locality pay areas for the States of Alaska and Hawaii and extend coverage of the...Alaska and one cover the entire State of Hawaii, it did not actually establish...Hawaii--consisting of the State of Hawaii; (15)...

2010-09-30

52

76 FR 32859 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska and one cover the entire State of Hawaii, it did not actually establish...2010, making Alaska and Hawaii separate whole-State locality pay areas and adding...Hawaii--consisting of the State of Hawaii; (15)...

2011-06-07

53

Gateway design specification for fiber optic local area networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a Design Specification for a gateway to interconnect fiber optic local area networks (LAN's). The internetworking protocols for a gateway device that will interconnect multiple local area networks are defined. This specification serves as input for preparation of detailed design specifications for the hardware and software of a gateway device. General characteristics to be incorporated in the gateway such as node address mapping, packet fragmentation, and gateway routing features are described.

1985-01-01

54

Local Environmental Groups: A Systematic Enumeration in Two Geographical Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local environmental groups, although acknowledged increas- ingly since the mid-1980s, have not been sampled systematically, have been reported to consist of only a few types, and are often considered to be of only minor political significance. In this study we systematically invento- ried all local environmental groups in two U.S. geographical areas: the Delmarva Peninsula and the state of North

Willett Kempton; Dorothy C. Holland; Katherine Bunting-Howarth; Erin Hannan; Christopher Payne

2001-01-01

55

24 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Recognition Agreement Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association...ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING...Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association...Authority”), a public body corporate...

2010-04-01

56

Geographic information in eLocal government: evaluating online mapping applications in Irish local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates geographic applications provided on Irish local government websites through the application of a method developed by Campagna and Deplano (2004). This method assesses geographic applications against categories of content and technology with reference to public participation. Results from this and previous studies are used to produce a cross-country comparison between Ireland, Italy and Denmark. Irish geographic applications

Mairéad de Róiste

2009-01-01

57

Authors  

Cancer.gov

Authors Laura Boyle, MPH, CHES Consultant, National Cancer Institute Megan Homer, MA Emerging Leader, Department of Health and Human Services Acknowledgements Lenora Johnson, MPH, National Cancer Institute; Jon Kerner, PhD, National Cancer Institute;

58

Cell Cycle . Author manuscript Localization of aurora A and aurora B kinases during interphase: role of  

E-print Network

Cell Cycle . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Localization of aurora A and aurora B kinases during Abstract Aurora kinases possess a conserved catalytic domain (CD-terminal domain of AuroraA (AurA) participates in the localization of the kinase to the centrosome in interphase

Boyer, Edmond

59

Local Area Network Implementation: Moving toward Phase III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a LAN (local area network)-based automation project which has neared completion of the first phase of implementation at the Health Sciences Library of Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA). Changes in the library and its objectives with increased technological experience are examined. Diagrams of the current LAN configuration and…

Hoehl, Susan B.

1989-01-01

60

Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas  

E-print Network

Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas Georg Langs, Polina Golland Computer@bwh.harvard.edu, lrigolo@bwh.harvard.edu agolby@bwh.harvard.edu Abstract Matching functional brain regions across. It is particularly difficult, but highly relevant, for patients with pathologies such as brain tumors, which can

Golland, Polina

61

SSNET: A Spread Spectrum Local Area Network Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SSNET is a simulated spread spectrum local area network, intended for the investigation of the application of correlation based communications to networking. Originally developed on the IBM PC, the initial phase of the study centered around the problems encountered in the correlation mceiver process and some measurement of the multiple access capabilities of various families. The second phase will involve

S. Mowbray; R. D. Pringle

1990-01-01

62

Localized Sensor Area Coverage with Low Communication Overhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose several localized sensor area coverage pro- tocols, for arbitrary ratio of sensing and transmission rad ii. Sensors are assumed to be time synchronized, and active sensors are determined at the beginning of each round. The approach has a very small communication overhead since prior knowledge about neighbor existence is not required. Each node selects a random timeout and

Antoine Gallais; Jean Carle; David Simplot-ryl; Ivan Stojmenovic

2006-01-01

63

STATE AND LOCAL AREA INTEGRATED TELEPHONE SURVEY (SLAITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) is a telephone interview mechanism that employs the sampling frame of the National Immunization Survey. The purpose of SLAITS is to provide high quality health and welfare-related data on individuals and families at th...

64

Myrinet: A Gigabit-per-Second Local Area Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrinet local area network employs the same technology used for packet communication and switching within massively parallel processors. In realizing this distributed MPP network, we developed specialized communication channels, cut-through switches,host interfaces, and software. To our knowledge, Myrinet demonstrates the highest performance per unit cost of any current LAN.

N. J. Boden; Daniel I. A. Cohen; Robert E. Felderman; Alan E. Kulawik; Charles L. Seitz; Jakov N. Seizovic; Wen-king Su

1995-01-01

65

Local Area Networks: Vehicles for Connecting and Sharing Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes local area networks (LANs) and discusses advantages of their use in schools for students and teachers, including networking in labs, media centers, and classrooms. Roles of the network supervisor and/or technician are explained, including making decisions about the rights of users and instruction and assistance. (LRW)

Lipman, Art

1993-01-01

66

A Cooperative MAC Protocol for Wireless Local Area Networks  

E-print Network

A Cooperative MAC Protocol for Wireless Local Area Networks Pei Liu, Zhifeng Tao and Shivendra the performance of the IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol. The new MAC protocol leverages the multi MAC protocol, namely CoopMAC I and CoopMAC II, are introduced in the paper. Both are able to increase

Panwar, Shivendra S.

67

Synchronizing computer clocks using a local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers completed the first tests of a method to synchronize the clocks of networked computers to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) time scale. The method uses a server computer to disseminate the time to other clients on the same local-area network. The server is synchronized to NIST using the ACTS protocol over a dial-up telephone line. The software in both the server and the parameters of this model are used to adjust the time of the local clock and the interval between calibration requests in a statistically optimum way. The algorithm maximizes the time between calibrations while at the same time keeping the time of the local clock correct within a specific tolerance. The method can be extended to synchronize computers linked over wide-area networks, and an experiment to test the performance of the algorithms over such networks is being planned.

Levine, Judah

1990-01-01

68

High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

Tobagi, Fouad A.

1988-01-01

69

Explaining local authority choices on public hospital provision in the 1930s: a public policy hypothesis.  

PubMed

This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of 'commissioner' and 'provider' roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

Neville, Julia

2012-01-01

70

Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

Neville, Julia

2012-01-01

71

A Halifax Case Study that Offers an Alternative History of Care Provided by Local Authorities under the 1913 Mental Deficiency Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutions, and their problems, have traditionally dominated learning disability histories. We know far more about what happened in areas where councils established and/or enthusiastically used local institutions than other places. Local authorities less committed to institutional care must have relied more on family and other carers. This may…

Dale, Pamela

2014-01-01

72

49 CFR 356.1 - Authority to serve a particular area-construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MOTOR CARRIER ROUTING REGULATIONS § 356.1 Authority to serve a particular area—construction. (a) Service at municipality....

2010-10-01

73

Grand Rapids Area Transit Authority High Impact Gainsharing Demonstration Program: A Case Study of the Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates the efforts of the Grand Rapids Area Transit Authority to design, develop and demonstrate financial incentive programs, specifically 'Gainsharing' in the transit industry. The report covers the history of the project and the condition...

J. L. Teague, J. M. Statman

1991-01-01

74

Sector level analysis of management development : The case of Scottish local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of management development (MD) can be pursued at company, sector or national levels. “Sector” studies of MD are quite rare, despite providing a potential natural “laboratory” in which a variety of approaches to MD can be studied. The research here was concerned with MD in local authorities (LAs). It is based on a survey of MD policies, methods and

Linda Knox; Stephen Gibb

2001-01-01

75

Assessment of consumer food safety education provided by local authorities in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent, sources, diversity, costs, formats and content of food safety educational interventions for consumers provided by UK Local Authorities (LAs). Inadequate implementation of food safety practices in the home is known to contribute to the incidence of foodborne disease and therefore effective food safety education concerning risks and correct

Elizabeth C. Redmond; Christopher J. Griffith

2006-01-01

76

Collaborative Good Practice between Local Authorities and the Further Education Sector. LGA Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010 planning and funding responsibilities for 16-19 year olds will be transferred from the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) back to the local authorities (LAs). LAs will have responsibility for commissioning and funding all education and training for young people up to the age of 19, making them the strategic lead for all children's services…

McCrone, Tami; Southcott, Clare; Evans, Kelly

2009-01-01

77

Optimising recycling effort: an evaluation of local authority PCW recycling initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure to divert post-consumer waste (PCW) from landfill has focused on recycling and, to a lesser extent, incineration with energy recovery. Waste collection authorities (WCAs) seeking to minimize costs have favoured the use of centralized rather than localized recycling options. This paper compares the environmental burdens associated with various collection options for recyclables. It shows that, whilst kerbside collection offers

John Butler; Paul Hooper

1999-01-01

78

Multiagency Protocols in Intellectual Disabilities Transition Partnerships: A Survey of Local Authorities in Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the findings of a study of transition protocols (for adolescents leaving school and entering the general marketplace) in place for intellectual disability partnerships in 22 local authorities in Wales. The study consisted of a survey of existing protocols and a documentary analysis of the content of the obtained protocols. The…

Kaehne, Axel

2010-01-01

79

Further Education outside the Jurisdiction of Local Education Authorities in Post-War England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article revisits the three decades following the end of World War Two--a time when, following the 1944 Education Act, local education authorities (LEAs) were the key agencies responsible for running the education system across England. For the first time, there was a statutory requirement for LEAs to secure adequate facilities for further…

Simmons, Robin

2014-01-01

80

School and Residential Ethnic Segregation: An Analysis of Variations across England's Local Education Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johnston R., Burgess S., Wilson D. and Harris R. (2006) School and residential ethnic segregation: an analysis of variations across England's Local Education Authorities, Regional Studies40, 973–990. Schools are central to the goals of a multicultural society, but their ability to act as arenas within which meaningful intercultural interactions take place depends on the degree to which students from various

Ron Johnston; Simon Burgess; Deborah Wilson; Richard Harris

2006-01-01

81

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water features Associated terrestrial ecosystem(s) Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater body is roughly rectangular, with the long axis orientated NE-SW, in line with the structural grain. The outline is very irregular, and two other GWBs (Ferbane and Woodfield Bridge) are completely contained within it. Within this large GWB, the topography ranges between flat-lying through undulating to hilly. Elevation within the GWB ranges from less than 40 mAOD next

Durrow Abby; Mount Dalton

82

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water bodies Associated terrestrial ecosystem(s) Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major part of the groundwater body is roughly rectangular, with the longer axis oriented E-W. There is a spur leading northwards to about 3 km north of Lorrha. Elevation within the GWB ranges from 30 mAOD along the shore of Lough Derg to 489 mAOD in the Silvermine Mountains in the south of the GWB. Overall, elevation decreases westwards

North Tipperary

83

Program For Local-Area-Network Electronic Mail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MailRoom is computer program for local-area network (LAN) electronic mail. Enables users of LAN to exchange electronically notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computers. Links all users of LAN into communication circle in which messages created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through series of menu-driven screens. Includes feature that enables users to determine whether messages sent have been read by receivers. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

Weiner, Michael J.

1989-01-01

84

Training Primary Care Physicians for Local Health Authority Duties in Texas  

PubMed Central

Only one fourth of Texas counties have a local health authority (LHA) or health district. Primary care physicians in the remaining counties could be trained in public health basics by providing an online LHA training course and courses at annual meetings of the Texas Medical Association and the Texas Academy of Family Physicians. The Texas Department of State Health Services should develop a web portal for LHAs. The Texas Association of Local Health Officials should also provide automatic limited membership for LHAs. These initiatives would provide public health training to primary care physicians and would greatly improve availability of public health services for the citizens of Texas. PMID:22594741

Zuniga, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

85

Multiple Nuclear Localization Signals Mediate Nuclear Localization of the GATA Transcription Factor AreA  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus nidulans GATA transcription factor AreA activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. Sequence analysis of AreA revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs), five putative classical NLSs conserved in fungal AreA orthologs but not in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs Gln3p and Gat1p, and one putative noncanonical RRX33RXR bipartite NLS within the DNA-binding domain. In order to identify the functional NLSs in AreA, we constructed areA mutants with mutations in individual putative NLSs or combinations of putative NLSs and strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AreA NLS fusion genes. Deletion of all five classical NLSs individually or collectively did not affect utilization of nitrogen sources or AreA-dependent gene expression and did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of the bipartite NLS conferred the inability to utilize alternative nitrogen sources and abolished AreA-dependent gene expression likely due to effects on DNA binding but did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of all six NLSs simultaneously prevented AreA nuclear accumulation. The bipartite NLS alone strongly directed GFP to the nucleus, whereas the classical NLSs collaborated to direct GFP to the nucleus. Therefore, AreA contains multiple conserved NLSs, which show redundancy and together function to mediate nuclear import. The noncanonical bipartite NLS is conserved in GATA factors from Aspergillus, yeast, and mammals, indicating an ancient origin. PMID:24562911

Hunter, Cameron C.; Siebert, Kendra S.; Downes, Damien J.; Wong, Koon Ho; Kreutzberger, Sara D.; Fraser, James A.; Clarke, David F.; Hynes, Michael J.; Davis, Meryl A.

2014-01-01

86

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.2000...authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting...to, or agree to the content of that electronic document...signing, to review the content or meaning of the required...issuing state, tribe, or local government. In...

2010-07-01

87

Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?  

PubMed

State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities. PMID:24588100

Davis, Charles

2014-08-01

88

A local area computer network expert system framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past years an expert system called LANES designed to detect and isolate faults in the Goddard-wide Hybrid Local Area Computer Network (LACN) was developed. As a result, the need for developing a more generic LACN fault isolation expert system has become apparent. An object oriented approach was explored to create a set of generic classes, objects, rules, and methods that would be necessary to meet this need. The object classes provide a convenient mechanism for separating high level information from low level network specific information. This approach yeilds a framework which can be applied to different network configurations and be easily expanded to meet new needs.

Dominy, Robert

1987-01-01

89

Study of distributed Fair Scheduling in wireless local area networks  

E-print Network

of Distributed Fair Scheduling in Wireless Local Area Networks. (August 2000) Seema Gupta, M. Sc. , Indian Institute of Technology Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Nitin H. Vaidya A Fair Scheduling policy is required to support differentiated Qo$ require... Resolution in 802. 11 and DFS C. Performance of DFS IV FAIRNESS IN DFS A. Fairness in 802. 11 B. Contention Behavior of 802. 11 and DFS C. Analysis of Collision Resolution in DFS . D. Comparison of DFS with GPS . E. Short-term Fairness in DFS V...

Gupta, Seema

2012-06-07

90

Implementing a local area network for nursing in a large teaching hospital.  

PubMed

The authors describe the assessment, planning, implementation, and benefits of a local area network (LAN) for the nursing service of a 504-bed urban teaching hospital. The major goals of the network were to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the nursing administrative areas and improve communication systems. A network of more than 90 workstations, spanning 12 buildings, was installed. The network provides access to multiple programs that support clinical, managerial, and research activities. Gateways provide access to the hospital's two mainframe computers. Network benefits identified by nursing management include: improved communication and access to information; increased accuracy, efficiency and timeliness of data; and improved computer literacy. PMID:8199928

Chapman, R H; Reiley, P; McKinney, J; Welch, K; Toomey, B; McCausland, M

1994-01-01

91

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

92

76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region--Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority...Rate Order No. WAPA-151 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

2011-09-27

93

Local area networking in a radio quiet environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.

2002-11-01

94

Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems.  

PubMed

The design of a scalable optical local area network formultiprocessing systems is described. Each workstation has aparallel-fiber-ribbon optical link to a centralized complementarymetal-oxide silicon (CMOS) switch core, implemented on a singlecompact printed circuit board (PCB). When the Motorola Optobusfiber technology is used, each workstation has a data bandwidth of 6.4Gbits/s to the core. A centralized switch core interconnecting 32workstations supports a 204-Gbit/s aggregate data bandwidth. Theswitch core is based on a conventional broadcast-and-selectarchitecture, implemented with parallel CMOS integrated circuits(IC's). The switch core scales well; by incorporation of theCMOS optoelectronic IC's with optical input-output, the electricalcore can be reduced to a single-chip optoelectronic IC with terabitcapacities. A prototype of an optoelectronic switch core has been fabricated and is described. The appeal of the architectureincludes its reliance on commercially available parallel-fibertechnology, its reliance on the well-developed markets of local areanetworks and networks of workstations, and its smooth scalability from the electrical to optical domains as technology matures. PMID:18268582

Szymanski, T H; Au, A; Lafrenière-Roula, M; Tyan, V; Supmonchai, B; Wong, J; Zerrouk, B; Obenaus, S T

1998-01-10

95

5 CFR 334.103 - Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of State and local governments and...  

...authorities of State and local governments and “other organizations...authority of a State or local government or as an “other organization...services, or related services to governments or universities concerned...maintained by the National Science Foundation are eligible...

2014-01-01

96

Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has prepared this report to facilitate compliance with the requirements of Section 123 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 123 requires the Department of Energy to issue recommendations for establishing state and local incentive programs to encourage acceleration of voluntary consumer replacement of existing water closets, urinals, showerheads and faucets with water-saving products meeting EPACT standards. The authors recommend that state and local authorities working together and also with utilities: (A) investigate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary replacement of plumbing fixtures and fittings as an effective component of a water efficiency incentive program; (B) allow utilities to distribute the costs of water saving products by billing at pre-installation rates until devices have been paid for; (C) encourage decreased water usage by establishing rate structures such as increasing block rates or seasonal pricing; (D) add additional incentive to rebate programs by making the rebates untaxable income. (E) require municipalities or utilities to exhaust every reasonable method of water conservation before applying for permits to construct water supply or water treatment systems; (F) require high-efficiency toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in new construction and changing plumbing codes to incorporate different pipe sizing needs; and (G) and mandate installation of meters to correctly measure water consumption. Following the introduction, a general overview of these recommendations is presented. Each recommendation is discussed briefly. After determining the cost-effectiveness of a plumbing replacement program (or plumbing replacement aspect of a larger program) states can encourage replacement of toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in a number of ways. This report lists both legislative and economic measures that can be implemented on the state level that impact local programs.

Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.; Pickle, S.J.

1995-06-01

97

What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.  

PubMed

Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services. PMID:25024121

van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

2014-09-01

98

Using area-based presentations and metrics for localization systems in wireless LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show the utility of WLAN localization using areas and volumes as the fundamental localization unit. We demonstrate that area-based algorithms have a critical advantage over point-based approaches because they are better able to describe localization uncertainty, which is a common theme across WLAN based localization systems. Next, we present two novel area-based algorithms. To evaluate area-based approaches, we introduce

Eiman Elnahrawy; Xiaoyan Li; Richard P. Martin

2004-01-01

99

Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

Meike, Roger

1988-01-01

100

MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

Weiner, M. J.

1994-01-01

101

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

102

Areas of localized organochlorine contamination in Arizona and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wings from mallard ducks harvested in 1980 in Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico were pooled into county aggregates and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCB's. Organochlorine concentrations in duck wings were compared among counties comprising major river drainages within each state. DDE concentrations in the wings of mallards collected from the Verde River and the lower portion of the Gila River drainages in Arizona ranged up to 6 ppm (wet weight basis), which was 17 times higher than the 1979 Pacific Flyway average. DDE at these high levels may be hazardous to wildlife. In combination with other published data, our findings indicate a serious DDT problem in portions of the Verde River and Gila River drainages. High levels of heptachlor (up to 1.7 ppm) and PCB's (3.7 ppm, 61 times the 1979 Central Flyway average) were found in mallard wings from the upper Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages, respectively. We did not detect areas of heavy local organochlorine pesticide or PCB contamination in Arkansas and Louisiana.

Fleming, W.J.; Cain, B.W.

1985-01-01

103

Detection and localization of face feature area for man-machine interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe methods of detecting a human face and localizing the feature area in our man-machine interaction project. We use a simplified human skin color model for pre-segmenting the input image. From candidate areas we use linear Fisher discriminate analysis (LFDA) to choose the most like face area, then in the detected face area, we localize the

Shan Meng; Youwei Zhang

2002-01-01

104

Local Environmental Groups: A Systematic Enumeration in Two Geographical Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic, labor-intensive inventory of all local environmental groups in the Delmarva Peninsula and the state of North Carolina found 566 local groups, 7-20 times the number in published directories. Unexpectedly, high school student groups made up about 30 percent of the total. Groups' diverse objectives, primary activities, and alliances are…

Kempton, Willett; Holland, Dorothy C.; Bunting-Howarth, Katherine; Hannan, Erin; Payne, Christopher

2001-01-01

105

75 FR 34923 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a change in the name of the Portland Metropolitan Statistical Area. DATES: Effective on July 21, 2010. Applicability Date...Bulletin No. 10-02 making changes in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). One of these changes renamed...

2010-06-21

106

Population Change in Local Areas. Hard Times: Communities in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although knowledge of how the population of an area is structured and how it is constantly changing will not solve problems created by the changes, it will provide a basis for understanding the needs of an area and for better program planning. Population processes that produce growth or decline in areas include natural increase, migration, and…

Cook, Annabel Kirschner

107

Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ? = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of the expert pathologist is not affected by our CAD system which is what we want to prove. However, the usage of our CAD system substantially account for the reduced inter- and intra- proliferation rate estimation variability and especially for less-experienced pathologists.

Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

2012-03-01

108

CRISM MTRDR Applications - Hyperspectral Targeted Observation Local Area Mosaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been in operation since late 2006 and has acquired over 22,000 hyperspectral targeted observations (~400 - 4000 nm, 6.55 nm sampling, ~20 m/pxl Full Resolution Targeted [FRT]). The MRO spacecraft capabilities and operational profile have supported the acquisition of numerous spatially overlapping targeted observation sets covering sites of high scientific interest. The CRISM Science Operations Center (SOC) has developed software procedures, specifications, and definitions for a new high level analysis and visualization data product suite - the Map Projected Targeted Reduced Data Record (MTRDR) product family. The MTRDRs are derived from CRISM TRR3 (Targeted Reduced Data Record version 3 - the latest radiometric calibration including noise remediation) hyperspectral targeted observations with the image cubes processed through a series of standard and empirical spectral corrections, spatial transforms, parameter calculations, and renderings. The primary MTRDR data product is a full spectral range (VNIR and IR) co-registered, map projected hyperspectral image cube that has been corrected for illumination geometry and atmospheric gas absorptions, normalized to the nearest-nadir sampled geometry to correct atmospheric aerosol and path length effects, with minor radiometric residuals mitigated and bad data bands removed. Additional products in the MTRDR family include spectral summary parameter maps that encode mineralogically indicative or diagnostic spectral structure, and browse product renderings that combine thematically related spectral parameters (Fe mineral signatures, phyllosilicate mineral signatures, etc.) into readily interpretable RGB composites. The MTRDR product suite represents a major advance in the accessibility of CRISM-derived spectral information and is expected to become the preferred entry point into the CRISM targeted observation data set for the majority of the Mars science community. For sites where multiple overlapping high quality CRISM targeted observations are available, the MTRDR data processing also allows for the generation of scientifically compelling mosaic products. The first such product set was generated for the Gale Crater MSL landing ellipse and field site and was made available to the MSL team prior to landing. The CRISM Gale Crater mosaic product set illustrates local area VNIR and IR surface spectral variability and the distribution of ferric and mafic minerals, hydrated phases, and phyllosilicates. The Gale Crater product set and targeted observations mosaics for additional sites of particular scientific interest will be presented in detail, highlighting the integrated utility of the end-to-end CRISM hyperspectral targeted observation data processing pipeline and mosaicking procedures.

Seelos, F. P.; Seelos, K. D.; Viviano, C. E.; Morgan, F.; Humm, D. C.; Murchie, S. L.

2012-12-01

109

Accountability and Local Control: Response to Incentives with and without Authority over Resource Generation and Allocation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the interaction between school accountability and local control over revenue raising and resource allocation. In particular, it asks whether accountability policies are more or less effective at improving student outcomes in states with stronger local control. Local control is operationalized with multiple measures, including…

Loeb, Susanna; Strunk, Katharine

2007-01-01

110

76 FR 47228 - Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office Administrators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native...Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing...of redelegation of authority...Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing delegates authority, through the...

2011-08-04

111

Local authorities, community and Private Operators Partnerships in small towns water service delivery in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the performance of partnerships between local authorities (District Assemblies) and private operators (POs) in the community managed small towns’ water service delivery in Ghana. Since 2002, partnerships in the form of management contracts are increasing especially for towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants but there has been no systematic analysis of the partnerships. Using a case study approach based on five selected community managed piped systems; three under private operator partnerships and two under direct Community Ownership and Management as study controls, the study focused on the partnership development, partnership relationship between stakeholders and the outcome of the service. The study revealed that the partnership emerged as a result of the relatively large communities and/or the complexity of the systems. Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDBs) are community representatives with the responsibility of overseeing the management contracts with private operators or directly managing the water systems through hired operating staff. With time the management contracts have improved as some earlier defects have been corrected in subsequent contracts. Yet some contracts suffered post-contract opportunism, weak monitoring and regulation by the District Assembly (DA), political interference in tariffs setting and removal of WSDBs members after change of government. Conflicts between the DAs and the Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDBs) were common resulting in direct management by the District Assembly. The success or failure of the partnership is linked to degree of conflict resolution amongst the stakeholders as well as external factors. The study also discusses the outcome of the partnerships in relation to the quality of water service delivered.

Nyarko, K. B.; Oduro-Kwarteng, S.; Owusu-Antwi, P.

112

Middleware Support for Locality-aware Wide area Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent wide-area data caching can improve the scalability and responsiveness of dis- tributed services such as wide-area le access, database and directory services, and content distribution. However, distributed services differ widely in the frequency of read\\/write sharing, the amount of contention between clients for the same data, and their ability to make tradeoffs between consistency and availability. Aggressive replication enhances

Sai Susarla; John Carter

113

48 CFR 26.202-1 - Local area set-aside.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 26.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities 26.202-1 Local area...

2011-10-01

114

48 CFR 26.202-1 - Local area set-aside.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 26.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities 26.202-1 Local area...

2010-10-01

115

48 CFR 26.202-1 - Local area set-aside.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 26.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities 26.202-1 Local area...

2013-10-01

116

48 CFR 26.202-1 - Local area set-aside.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 26.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities 26.202-1 Local area...

2012-10-01

117

Holographic inspection of plates containing areas of localized thickness variation  

SciTech Connect

Circular plates, under unknown clamping conditions and containing simulated defects in the form of circular localized thinning or thickening, are inspected by double-exposure holography. With an incremental uniform pressure applied between exposures, eccentric defects are readily revealed from the distinct irregular fringe patterns. In the case of central circular defects, however, the absence of distinct irregular fringe patterns does not enable easy visual detection of the defects. The simple method of analysis described in this paper, based on the fact that the displacement in a defective plate differs from that in a defect-free plate, alloys easy deduction of central and eccentric defects from the fringe patterns. Furthermore, this method enables identification of the type of defect (localized thinning or thickening), the extent of thickness variation, as well as an accurate estimation of the location and size of the defect.

Shang, H.M.; Lwin, M.; Tay, T.E. (National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore))

1994-04-01

118

Secrecy and Privacy in a Local Area Network Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, much effort has gone into the development of high bandwidth communication networks for use over relatively\\u000a short (local) distances, e.g. an office, an industrial complex, a research laboratory, etc.. The high bandwidth of these networks\\u000a allows many of the services now requiring separate networks such as facsimile, digitized voice, file transfer and interactive\\u000a terminal data, to be

Gordon B. Agnew

1984-01-01

119

Local education authorities and student learning: the effects of policies and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses an issue that has not been well explored in empirical research, namely whether local education agencies (districts) have an impact on student learning. We assumed that local district effects on learning would be largely indirect, mediated by how teachers work together in schools (in professional communities) and the quality of instruction that is provided. Based on the

Moosung Lee; Karen Seashore Louis; Stephen Anderson

2012-01-01

120

Local Education Authorities and Student Learning: The Effects of Policies and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses an issue that has not been well explored in empirical research, namely whether local education agencies (districts) have an impact on student learning. We assumed that local district effects on learning would be largely indirect, mediated by how teachers work together in schools (in professional communities) and the quality…

Lee, Moosung; Louis, Karen Seashore; Anderson, Stephen

2012-01-01

121

How local authority services may be affected during the 2012 Olympics and how they can be maintained.  

PubMed

On 6th July, 2005, the International Olympic Committee awarded London the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This is the first time an event of this magnitude has been hosted in a western country since the September 11th attacks. The UK Government continues to assess the risk, and five years on, planning is well under way. With a limited amount of time remaining, those UK local authorities hosting Olympic events will be considering what they need to have in place to support command and control arrangements during the Games. This paper provides an overview of what local authorities need to be doing over the next two years to prepare. PMID:21482515

Smith, Kevin

2011-02-01

122

Amending Default Outdoor Lighting Zones by Local Jurisdictions Having Authority (AHJ)  

E-print Network

of North America (IESNA), is that the eyes adapt to darker surrounding conditions, and less light is needed the boundaries of Lighting Zones based on U.S. Census Bureau boundaries for urban and rural areas as well designated parks, recreation areas and wildlife preserves are Lighting Zone 1; rural areas are Lighting Zone

123

78 FR 5115 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statistical Area definitions that are contained...attachments to Office of Management and Budget Bulletin...updates MSA and CSA definitions in 2013. Executive...12866 The Office of Management and Budget has...Sec. 531.602 Definitions. * * * * * CSA...by the Office of Management and Budget...

2013-01-24

124

77 FR 70381 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statistical Area definitions that are contained...attachments to Office of Management and Budget Bulletin...updates MSA and CSA definitions in 2013. Executive...12866 The Office of Management and Budget has...Sec. 531.602 Definitions. * * * * * CSA...by the Office of Management and Budget...

2012-11-26

125

MIMO technology for advanced wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first gives a brief introduction to Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. Various architectures of MIMO systems and corresponding features are discussed, including those proposed for the IEEE 802.11n standard. The impact on chip area and required data processing rates is then presented.

Jeffrey M. Gilbert; Won-Joon Choi; Qinfang Sun

2005-01-01

126

How useful are child death reviews: a local area's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Child Death Overview Panels (CDOP) provide a multidisciplinary and confidential forum to learn from and reduce deaths in those under 18 years. How well they perform and how to improve their effectiveness is a question posed at both local and national levels in England. With this in mind, this study looked at the child death review process in two London boroughs with a joint CDOP. Findings Data on cases reviewed from April 2008 to January 2011 were analysed focusing on cause of death and modifiable factors. Key stakeholders involved in the child death review process were interviewed regarding the effectiveness of the local death review process with responses analysed thematically. 105 (50.5%) of all notified deaths were reviewed to completion by CDOP of which 26.7% had modifiable factors. Neonates were the largest group of deaths (42.8%). Stakeholders found reviews time consuming, required significant administration and better integration with related processes e.g. hospital mortality meetings. Too much time was spent analysing cases of limited modifiability such as neonates. Implementation of recommendations needed strengthening and inclusion into the wider health and social care economy including joint strategic needs assessments and commissioning processes. Delayed reporting of information on cases contributed to a backlog. Conclusions The current process is bureaucratic, should better address neonatal deaths and needs more focus on implementing recommendations. Solutions include simpler forms, neonates-only subgroups, and linking recommendations to strategic initiatives such as Health and Wellbeing Boards. PMID:23890108

2013-01-01

127

Efficient Reliable Real-Time Group Communication for Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider teams of mobile autonomous robot systems that coordinate their work via communication over a wireless local area network. In such a scenario, timely delivery and group support are the predominant requirements on the communication protocol. As the mobile robot systems are communicating via standard hardware, we base our work on the IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless local area

Michael Mock; Edgar Nett; Stefan Schemmer

1999-01-01

128

Local Economic Development in Area-based Urban Regeneration in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is intended to give insight into the state of the art of local economic development in area-based urban regeneration in Germany. The importance of local economic development has been widely recognised and a series of workshops, evaluation reports and programmes has been initiated to promote this policy area. A set of policy programmes has been developed to support

Sabine Weck

2009-01-01

129

Networking CD-ROMs: The Decision Maker's Guide to Local Area Network Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era when patrons want access to CD-ROM resources but few libraries can afford to buy multiple copies, CD-ROM local area networks (LANs) are emerging as a cost-effective way to provide shared access. To help librarians make informed decisions, this manual offers information on: (1) the basics of LANs, a "local area network primer"; (2) the…

Elshami, Ahmed M.

130

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning Program: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning (LAP) Program is a community-based approach to developing comprehensive neighbourhood plans. In order to achieve sustainable and implementable Local Area Plans (LAPs), the City of Saskatoon has been using innovative methods of collaborative decision-making to engage citizens. The program has been…

Kellett, Livia; Peter, Lyla; Moore, Kelley

2008-01-01

131

76 FR 56433 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration...Plant on the Towaoc Canal in southwestern Colorado, and the Glen Canyon...Control, and Dispatch Service. Western will continue to bundle transmission...WACM Ancillary Services Western will offer seven...

2011-09-13

132

76 FR 61183 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Western Area Power Administration...Plant on the Towaoc Canal in southwestern Colorado, and the Glen Canyon...Control, and Dispatch Service. Western will continue to bundle transmission...WACM Ancillary Services Western will offer seven...

2011-10-03

133

Use of the Support Group Method to Tackle Bullying, and Evaluation from Schools and Local Authorities in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Support Group Method (SGM), formerly the No Blame Approach, is widely used as an anti-bullying intervention in schools, but has aroused some controversy. There is little evidence from users regarding its effectiveness. We aimed to ascertain the use of and support for the SGM in Local Authorities (LAs) and schools; and obtain ratings of satisfaction with its use; sources

Peter K. Smith; Sharon Howard; Fran Thompson

2007-01-01

134

Use of the Support Group Method to Tackle Bullying, and Evaluation from Schools and Local Authorities in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Support Group Method (SGM), formerly the No Blame Approach, is widely used as an anti-bullying intervention in schools, but has aroused some controversy. There is little evidence from users regarding its effectiveness. We aimed to ascertain the use of and support for the SGM in Local Authorities (LAs) and schools; and obtain ratings of…

Smith, Peter K.; Howard, Sharon; Thompson, Fran

2007-01-01

135

Developing Policy and Practice for Dyslexia across a Local Authority: A Case Study of Educational Psychology Practice at Organisational Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper two premises are set out: first, that within Children's Services educational psychologists (EPs) have a distinctive contribution to make towards policy and practice in relation to "dyslexia"; second, that they may be well placed to lead development work at an organisational level within a local authority. Building on…

Woods, Kevin; Stothard, Jan; Lydon, Jackie; Reason, Rea

2013-01-01

136

Performing 'Initial Assessment': Identifying the Latent Conditions for Error at the Front-Door of Local Authority Children's Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article draws attention to the faulty design elements at the front-door of children's local authority services, arguing that current attempts to increase safety, through the formalization of organizational procedures and their enactment by IT systems, may have had the contrary effect. We argue that the analysis of errors in organizational set- tings should focus on immanent systemic weaknesses,

K. Broadhurst; D. Wastell; S. White; S. Peckover; K. Thompson; A. Pithouse; D. Davey

2009-01-01

137

287(g) and the Politics of Interior Immigration Control in the United States: Explaining Local Cooperation with Federal Immigration Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to improve our understanding of emerging patterns of interior immigration control in the United States by examining local law enforcement cooperation with federal immigration authorities under the 287(g) Program. While several recent studies have drawn attention to the shifting terrain of immigration enforcement away from borders into the interior, few have attempted to systematically explain reasons for

Tom K. Wong

2012-01-01

138

Introduction to Local Area Networks for Microcomputers — Characteristics, Costs, Implementation Considerations  

PubMed Central

The essence of a local area network (LAN) is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. A local area network can save in hardware costs when expensive peripherals are shared; it can save time when large blocks of data are rapidly exchanged among users. The need for more cost-effective and capable communications has inspired the emergence of rapidly developing markets and technologies for local area networks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the characteristics, components, costs, and implementation considerations of local area networks. The paper does not compare or define specific vendor offerings; however, recent IBM announcements regarding local area networks are summarized in the last section of the paper.

Haney, James P.

1984-01-01

139

Impacts of community-based conservation on local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

140

Impacts of Community-based Conservation on Local Communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

2006-01-01

141

Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

142

A Better Answer for Education: Reviving State and Local Policymaking Authority. Heritage Lectures. No. 994  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the fifth anniversary of No Child Left Behind, Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Jim DeMint (R-SC) outline their alternative for restoring state and local ownership of education policymaking while ensuring transparency about results and accountability to parents and taxpayers. The A-PLUS Act of 2007 (Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success) will…

Cornyn, John; DeMint, Jim

2007-01-01

143

Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Primary School Children in an Inner-City Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…

Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

2010-01-01

144

Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

Ascher, Jacques

2013-01-01

145

Conservation of the Asiatic lion: integrating the vision of park authorities with the values of local communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gir Protected Area in Gujarat, India, is the last remaining shelter of the Asian lion (Panthera leo persica). This article presents different visions on lion conservation and ecosystem management practices of the Maldhari people. We analysed how these could be incorporated in the management of local wildlife. The field study was undertaken in the state of Gujarat, India, over

Maria Costanza Torri

2010-01-01

146

[Immunofluorescent-histologic localization of a placenta-antigen with antibodies from pregnancy blood (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Placenta-specific antibodies were isolated by the incubation of washed placental tissue with pregancy serum and then desorption with citric acid pH3. The antigen responsible for the formation of the antibody could be localized via the immunofluorescence technique together with application of the placenta antibody in the syncytiotrophoblast layer. The antibodies are not complement-fixing and belong to the IgG class. PMID:333799

Skrabei, H; Meyer-Falk, E; Mettler, L

1977-08-01

147

30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.  

...reclaim strip-mined areas, the land shall be owned by the Federal...conducted upon or under the land in the future. (3) If...control or prevent erosion, water pollution, or discharge of harmful mine...right, title or interest in the lands as will assure the...

2014-07-01

148

LMIP/AAA: Local Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Protocol for Mobile IP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile IP represents a simple and scalable global mobility solution. However, it inhibits various vulnerabilities to malicious attacks and, therefore, requires the integration of appropriate security services. In this paper, we discuss two authentication schemes suggested for Mobile IP: standard authentication and Mobile IP/AAA authentication. In order to provide Mobile IP roaming services including identity verication, we propose an improvement to Mobile/AAA authentication scheme by applying a local politic key management in each domain, hence we reduce hando latency by avoiding the involvement of AAA infrastructure during mobile node roaming.

Chenait, Manel

149

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...eradication program is effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of the area. (b) Less than an entire State will be...

2012-01-01

150

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...eradication program is effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of the area. (b) Less than an entire State will be...

2014-01-01

151

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...eradication program is effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of the area. (b) Less than an entire State will be...

2011-01-01

152

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...eradication program is effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of the area. (b) Less than an entire State will be...

2013-01-01

153

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...eradication program is effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of the area. (b) Less than an entire State will be...

2010-01-01

154

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area...the PEP to each station in the plan. If a state's emergency alert system is capable of initiating EAS messages formatted...

2012-10-01

155

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...

2011-10-01

156

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area...the PEP to each station in the plan. If a state's emergency alert system is capable of initiating EAS messages formatted...

2013-10-01

157

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...

2010-10-01

158

Modality-specific frontal and parietal areas for auditory and visual spatial localization in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the importance of the posterior parietal and prefrontal regions in spatial localization of visual stimuli is well established, their role in auditory space perception is less clear. Using positron emission tomography (PET) during auditory and visual spatial localization in the same subjects, modality-specific areas were identified in the superior parietal lobule, middle temporal and lateral prefrontal cortices. These findings

Khalafalla O. Bushara; Kenji Ishii; Maria-Jose Catalan; Biao Tian; Josef P. Rauschecker; Mark Hallett

1999-01-01

159

The probability of finding a localized area with elevated contamination by using a mobile detector.  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the probability that a localized area with elevated contamination can be found by using a mobile detector. In the case studied, the area of elevated contamination has an elliptical shape and the detector has a circular field of view. The probability of finding the contaminated area is a function of factors related to both the contaminated area and the detector. The paper examines the dependence of the probability on a number of these factors. The results presented are applicable to any characteristic that can be detected with a scanning system that provides complete coverage of an area. They can be used as the basis for designs or evaluations that involve determining whether localized areas of contamination are present in an area of interest.

Davis, M. J.; Environmental Assessment

2002-10-01

160

The Lubbock Area State Employee Charitable Campaign (SECC) is the only authorized workplace  

E-print Network

Area United Way American Red Cross $10,986.14 Boy Scouts $6,972.00 Big Brothers Big Sisters $5,705.24 CASA $25,957.43 Catholic Family Services $36,091.32 Children's Advocacy Center $8,320.20 Communities In Schools $860.20 Early Learning Centers $5,845 Family Counseling Services $831.24 Girl Scouts $2

Rock, Chris

161

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access  

...Non-DOD personnel in transit on public-access route only (appendix B) Non-Commercial recreational use: Hunting, fishing and trapping (FL Reg 215-1) Dog training (not allowed 1 April through 31 July in selected areas) Horseback...

2014-07-01

162

An Evaluation of San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority Educational Program Activities; October 2, 1967 to May 17, 1968.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An example of evaluation under the requirements of an ESEA Title III "Pace" project, this report encompasses the instructional television development and broadcast activities of the San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority (ITVA). Qualitative data based on a series of teacher interview-questionnaire surveys in ten ITVA county school…

Stegeman, William J.; And Others

163

Efficient Minimum Cost Area Localization for Wireless Sensor Network with a Mobile Sink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localization has been a major research area within wireless sensor network. In a self-configuring, ad hoc wireless sensor network, it is a matter of foremost importance to have knowledge of the location of sensor nodes within a particular geographical area. This location not only helps in giving more meaning to the information gathered from sensor nodes, but also helps to

Saad Ahmed Munir; Yu Wen Bin; Jian Ma

2007-01-01

164

Local Area Water Removal Analysis of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell under Gas Purge Conditions  

PubMed Central

In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold. PMID:22368495

Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

2012-01-01

165

20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?  

...1) of this section) relating to: (A) Excess youth poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and (B) Excess...d)(1) of this section) relating to: (A) Excess poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and (B)...

2014-04-01

166

Is the surface area of the red cell membrane skeleton locally conserved?  

PubMed Central

The incompressibility of the lipid bilayer keeps the total surface area of the red cell membrane constant. Local conservation of membrane surface area requires that each surface element of the membrane skeleton keeps its area when its aspect ratio is changed. A change in area would require a flow of lipids past the intrinsic proteins to which the skeleton is anchored. in fast red cell deformations, there is no time for such a flow. Consequently, the bilayer provides for local area conservation. In quasistatic deformations, the extent of local change in surface area is the smaller the larger the isotropic modulus of the skeleton in relation to the shear modulus. Estimates indicate: (a) the velocity of relative flow between lipid and intrinsic proteins is proportional to the gradient in normal tension within the skeleton and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the bilayer; (b) lateral diffusion of lipids is much slower than this flow; (c) membrane tanktreading at frequencies prevailing in vivo as well as the release of a membrane tongue from a micropipette are fast deformations; and (d) the slow phase in micropipette aspiration may be dominated by a local change in skeleton surface. PMID:1547320

Fischer, T M

1992-01-01

167

Use of local and regional newspapers for historical flood investigation in small catchment areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the work presented is to study if local and regional newspapers can provide accurate and exhaustive regional information about historical floods in small catchment areas (of less than 200 km2). In Mediterranean regions, such catchment areas may generate discharges over 20 m3.s-1.km-2 during extreme events (Gaume, 1999), and such a risk can justify a specific flood frequency analysis using historical information. However, these catchment areas are often characterized by a low population density, which may cause difficulties in collecting specific historical flood information. The studied area was the Aude river catchment, where about 30 small tributary catchment areas where previously identified and examined. For a few well-known dates of big floods of the Aude river (in 19th and 20th centuries), several local newspapers from three main towns (Carcassonne, Narbonne, and Perpignan) where examined in order to detect which small catchment areas were touched by important floods. Maps of catchment areas quoted in different newspapers could be drawn for each event. In addition for one event, an exhaustive list of concerned catchment areas could be found from other information source. Results show that each Aude river big flood was effectively quoted in newspapers, but that information concerning small catchment areas cannot be considered as exhaustive: high differences where found from one to other newspaper, and in addition, it seems that some catchment areas are very little or even never quoted. One explanation is that quotations in newspapers are almost relative to damages to human activities : the frequency of quotation for a catchment area also depends on the urban density on its watershed, on the presence of high value agricultural activity (i.e. wineyards), and on local political stakes. It finally appears that historical flood information given by newspapers can be considered as exhaustive only over a sufficient catchment area size. The same work is currently performed on archives.

Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.; Andrieu, H.

2003-04-01

168

Synoptic and local scale atmospheric circulation associated with air pollution episodes in an urban Mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution episodes in urban coastal areas follow certain pre-determined patterns, being associated with certain local\\u000a meteorological conditions and emission of primary pollutants. In this study, the synoptic and local scale atmospheric circulation\\u000a that prevails during air pollution episodes in a coastal major city in Greece, Thessaloniki, is examined for a period of 15 years\\u000a (1989–2004). The study signifies the importance

H. Flocas; A. Kelessis; C. Helmis; M. Petrakakis; M. Zoumakis; K. Pappas

2009-01-01

169

Analysis of the uniformity of the localized area epitaxy by spectrally resolved scanning photoluminescence  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution, room temperature spectrally resolved scanning photoluminescence technique with spatial resolution (<1 {micro}m) is introduced and applied to control the uniformity of the composition and of the thickness of quantum well (Q.W.) structures obtained by localized area epitaxy. Furthermore, this technique is applied here to study lateral uniformity of Q.W. InGaAs/InP heterostructures grown by localized area Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy (GSMBE) at various conditions (temperature, Arsine flow rate) and as a function of stripe width and spacing.

Nuban, M.F.; Krawczyk, S.K.; Buchheit, M.; Blanchet, R.C. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully (France). Lab. d`Electronique; Nagy, S.C.; Robinson, B.J.; Thompson, D.A.; Simmons, J.G. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Center for Electrophonic Materials and Devices

1996-12-31

170

Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

2013-04-01

171

Local Autonomy Is Alive and Well: The Results of a National Study on Locations of Effective Decision-Making Authority in State Community College Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of the location of decision-making authority in state community colleges at the college or governance board level. Examines differences in authority for academic, personnel, and administrative matters. Suggests that decision-making authority generally rested at the local level, although personnel decisions were more likely to be…

Ingram, William G.; Tollefson, Terrence A.

1996-01-01

172

Gex-Model Using Local Area Fraction for Binary Electrolyte Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation and prediction of phase equilibria of electrolyte systems are essential in the design and operation of many industrial processes such as downstream processing in biotechnology, desalination, hydrometallurgy, etc. In this research, the local composition non-random two liquid-nonrandom factor (NRTL-NRF) model of Haghtalab and Vera was extended for uni-univalent aqueous electrolyte solutions. Based on the assumptions of the NRTL-NRF model, excess Gibbs free energy ( g E) functions were derived for binary electrolyte systems. In this work, the local area fraction was applied and the modified model of NRTL-NRF was developed with either an equal or unequal surface area of an anion to the surface area of a cation. The modified NRTL-NRF models consist of two contributions, one due to long-range forces represented by the Debye-Hückel theory, and the other due to short-range forces, represented by local area fractions of species through nonrandom factors. Each model contains only two adjustable parameters per electrolyte. In addition, the model with unequal surface area of ionic species gives better results in comparison with the second new model with equal surface area of ions. The results for the mean activity coefficients for aqueous solutions of uni-univalent electrolytes at 298.15 K showed that the present model is more accurate than the original NRTL-NRF model.

Haghtalab, Ali; Joda, Marzieh

2007-06-01

173

Distributed Scheduling Conflict-Free Multiple Access for Local Area Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conflict-free distributed scheduling multiple access (DSMA) scheme using a high-speed main channel for data transmission and a subchannel for distributed decision scheduling is described and analyzed. DSMA, which has a variable cycle length and employs a slow speed subchannel for scheduling, is suitable for local area communication networks which employ a data bus as transmission support. With the data

J. Mark

1980-01-01

174

Expressnet: A High-Performance Integrated-Services Local Area Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressnet is a local area communication network comprising an inbound channel and an outbound channel to which the stations are connected. Stations transmit on the outbound channel and receive on the inbound channel. The inbound channel is connected to the outbound channel so that all signals transmitted on the outbound channel are duplicated on the inbound channel, thus achieving broadcast

FOUAD A. TOBAGI; FLAMINIO BORGONOVO; L. Fratta

1983-01-01

175

Local Extinction in the Bird Assemblage in the Greater Beijing Area from 1877 to 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China’s natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows

Philippe Chouteau; Zhigang Jiang; Benjamin D. Bravery; Jing Cai; Zhongqiu Li; Miguel Pedrono; Olivier Pays

2012-01-01

176

Assessment of local thin areas in a marine pipeline by using the FITNET FFS corrosion module  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the structural integrity of the marine stretch of a pipeline which is placed over a natural bay. The pipeline is part of a 30-year-old installation used for the provision of petrochemical products to a nearby chemical plant. Although there have been no relevant leaks in the past, both the visual inspections performed (revealing numerous local thin areas)

S. Cicero; R. Lacalle; R. Cicero; D. Ferreño

2009-01-01

177

High-Speed Non-Directional Infrared Communication for Wireless Local-Area Networks  

E-print Network

radio are the availabil- ity of a virtually unlimited, unregulated spectrum, and the fact that infrared- diodes, the wavelength band near 800 nm is probably the best choice for diffuse infrared communicationsHigh-Speed Non-Directional Infrared Communication for Wireless Local-Area Networks J. M. Kahn, J. R

Carruthers, Jeffrey

178

Extending the Independent Living Center Model to Rural Areas: Expanding Services through State and Local Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Title VII-Part B of the Rehabilitation Act of 1978 created federally funded independent living centers (ILCs), but funding shortages left many rural areas unserved. A survey found 76 ILCs in 24 states that did not receive Part-B funds. Most were supported solely by state and local funds. (SV)

Seekins, Tom; And Others

1992-01-01

179

The Business Education Lab and Local Area Networking for Curriculum Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide explains how to incorporate a local area network (LAN) into the business education curriculum. The first section defines LAN, a communications system that links computers and other peripherals within an office or throughout nearby buildings and shares multiuser software and send and/or receive information. Curriculum planning…

Seals, Georgina; And Others

180

Local Field Potential Activity Associated with Temporal Expectations in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oscillatory brain activity is attracting increasing interest in cognitive neuroscience. Numerous EEG, magnetoencephalography, and local field potential (LFP) measurements have related cognitive functions to different types of brain oscillations, but the functional significance of these rhythms remains poorly understood. Despite its proven value, LFP activity has not been extensively tested in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP), which has been

Elsie Premereur; Wim Vanduffel; Peter Janssen

181

GPS Ephemeris Verification for Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) Ground Stations  

E-print Network

GPS Ephemeris Verification for Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) Ground Stations Shuichi operations. The first solution is the combination of the GPS Operational Control Segment (OCS) and monitors operations. For Category II and III operations, the integrity requirement is 200 times tighter than

Rotkowitz, Michael C.

182

A model-based approach for WLAN localization in indoor parking areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless location of a User Equipment (UE) has received growing attention in recent years. The first step for the design of a wireless location system consists in choosing the system architecture and the localization algorithm that match the requirements of the working scenario. In this paper the area of interest is represented by an indoor parking lot, in which the

Paolo Addesso; Luigi Bruno; Roberto Garufi; Maurizio Longo; Rocco Restaino; Anton Luca Robustelli

2010-01-01

183

Propagation Path Visibility Estimation for Radio Local Distribution Systems in Built-Up Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the design of radio local distribution systems in densely built-up areas, estimating how many subscribers are in sight from a nodal station is important. This paper proposes a method for estimating probability of success of line-of-sight paths termed visibility. Method validity is confirmed bypractical field examinations.

E. Ogawa; AKIO SATOH

1986-01-01

184

How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn`t as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group`s patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

Hayhoe, G.F.

1991-12-31

185

How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn't as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group's patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

Hayhoe, G.F.

1991-01-01

186

LandScape Command Set: Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment (LandScape) commands set that provides a Generic Device Subsystem Application Programmers Interface (API). These commands are implemented using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification with Orbix from Iona Technologies.

Burchard, R.L.; Small, D.E.

1999-01-01

187

Flight Test Evaluation of a Prototype Local Area Augmentation System Architecture  

E-print Network

processed at the aircraft to improve vertical performance and thus increase navigation availability, including a 95% vertical navigation error of 0.46 m. INTRODUCTION The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is a ground-based differential satellite navigation system to be implemented by the Federal Aviation

Stanford University

188

Spring 2005 CS575A Advanced Local Area Networks T. Borick Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise LAN Network  

E-print Network

________________________________________________________________ Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise LAN Network Tom Borick Rivier College CS575A Advanced Local Area 26, 2005 Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise Network 1 #12;Spring 2005 CS575A Advanced LocalSpring 2005 CS575A Advanced Local Area Networks T. Borick

Riabov, Vladimir V.

189

20 CFR 667.600 - What local area, State and direct recipient grievance procedures must be established?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be established? (a) Each local area, State and direct...CFR 670.990. (b) Each local area, State, and direct recipient...Provide information about the content of the grievance and complaint...interested parties affected by the local Workforce Investment...

2010-04-01

190

Local-Area Age Structure and Population Composition: Implications for Elderly Health in Japan  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines relationships between local-area age structure and health at older ages. Method We estimate random intercept models for two disability measures using four-waves of data from a national panel study of 3,580 Japanese older adults. Results Elderly living in relatively older areas reported more difficulties with activities of daily living compared to those living in an “average” age structure. Controlling for individual characteristics and time did little to change this relationship; while a similar relationship between older age structure and functional limitations emerged. Discussion Residents of relatively older are as tended to have lower socioeconomic status, but this “disadvantage” was offset by their higher rates of employment and marriage. These compositional differences highlight the role of local-area age structure in identifying and understanding elderly health variation between places. PMID:24084525

Vogelsang, Eric M.; Raymo, James M.

2014-01-01

191

Exploring the Links between Ethnobotany, Local Therapeutic Practices, and Protected Areas in Santa Catarina Coastline, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We investigated the knowledge of medicinal plants in two areas proposed for the creation of protected areas for sustainable use in the city of Imbituba (SC). In this study, we analyzed the influence of gender, form of learning, and modern medicine on medicinal plant knowledge while also reflecting on the relationship of this knowledge to in situ conservation. Data collection was conducted through structured interviews, free listings, guided tours, and collection of botanical material. 197 species of medicinal plants belonging to 70 botanical families were recorded. Gender and the form of learning were factors that significantly influenced the similarity of the knowledge of medicinal plants among the informants. We also observed the existence of a therapeutic pluralism among key informants. Local medicinal plant knowledge emphasizes the importance of strategies to create protected areas of sustainable use as a way to ensure the maintenance of traditional lifestyles and associated local knowledge. PMID:22203874

Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia

2012-01-01

192

Independent sector mental health care: a 1-day census of private and voluntary sector placements in seven Strategic Health Authority areas in England.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (i) to map the extent of all mental health placements in the independent sector, for adults of working age, and elderly people (excluding those with a diagnosis of dementia placed in Local Authority care homes), on a census date, across the areas in which the study was commissioned; (ii) to identify the characteristics of the population in placements; (iii) to explore some of the characteristics of the placements and the patterns of use within the private and voluntary sectors; and (iv) to identify the funding source of placements, and cost differences between the private and voluntary sector. The study took place in seven Strategic Health Authority areas, and information was sought from all Primary Care Trust and Social Services commissioners of mental health services, including regional secure commissioning teams, within those areas. A cross-sectional sample was used. Information was requested in relation to every individual meeting the inclusion criteria, placed in independent (private or voluntary) psychiatric hospitals, registered mental nursing homes and care homes on a specified study 'census date' of 28 June 2004 in six of the Strategic Health Authority areas, and 7 October 2004 in the seventh. Information was recorded on a standard questionnaire specifically designed for the study. Information was obtained on 3535 adults and 1623 elderly people in private or voluntary facilities. The largest groups of adults and elderly people had diagnoses of severe mental illnesses (42.1% and 30.5%, respectively), and placements were described as 'continuing care' or rehabilitation, with a 'niche' in specialist forensic care. Around four-fifths of units were in the private sector, which for adults was significantly more expensive than the voluntary sector. A large proportion of units (47.2% of adult placements and 59.3% of placements for elderly people) had only single placements from particular commissioning authorities, whilst others had large numbers, raising issues for effective commissioning. The distance of placements from patients' area of origin, is also an issue highlighted by the study. The study findings are discussed in relation to commissioning practice, and the development of the independent sector in mental health care. PMID:17685986

Hatfield, Barbara; Ryan, Tony; Simpson, Victoria; Sharma, Indhu

2007-09-01

193

Evaluation of Existing Structure and Civil Protection Management Framework in Greek Local Authorities: A Questionnaire Survey Demonstrates Why Prevention Fails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of a growing number of natural disasters and the increasing costs associated with them, Europe and Greece in particular, have devoted significant efforts and resources in natural hazards mitigation during the last decades. Despite the significant legislative efforts (e.g. 1998/22/EC, 2001/792/EC, 2007/60/EC Directives, 3013/2002 Act) and even though a number of steps has been taken towards improving civil protection, recent catastrophic events have illustrated the weaknesses of current approaches. In particular, in Greece, events such as the 1999 Athens earthquake, the 2007 and 2009 wildfires have shown the inadequacy of prevention and mitigation practices. Given the enhanced civil protection responsibilities, given by the Greek national law (Acts 3013/2002, 3852/2010) to local authorities in Greece, this work analyses and evaluates the existing structure and current management framework under which local authorities function and examines their risk mitigation practices. We conducted the largest questionnaire survey regarding Civil Protections issues, among the municipalities of Greece. To this aim, this work used a innovative online tool to assess current framework. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform that acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). Through this network, municipal civil protection officials completed surveys designed to obtain and quantify information on several aspects of civil protection practices and infrastructure. In particular, the examined factors included: (i) personnel and equipment, (ii) inter-agency cooperation, (iii) training, (iv) compliance with existing regulations and (v) persistent problems encountered by civil protection departments, that prevent the effectiveness of current practices. Responses showed that civil protection personnel lack adequate training and expertise, many are overstretched with several duties, while several prevention actions are carried out by seasonal or voluntary staff. Approximately half of the heads of civil protection offices do not hold a university degree, only 27% have a relevant scientific background (geoscientists or engineers) and more than half of them are elected members and not permanent staff, implying that no continuity is secured. Inter-agency cooperation is shown to be poor and organizational learning from international practices not adequate. Half of the municipalities report that the authorization processes are too slow so that prevention actions particularly regarding forest fires are severely delayed. Existing regulations are not followed by a significant portion of municipalities since 19% have not established a civil protection office and 23% have not compiled an action plan yet. Existing action plans lack important information, present no spatial data and are predominantly catalogues and tables of information regarding authorised personnel and equipment. Overall, underfunding, poor coordination of the different actors involved, lack of training and understaffing, lack of proper equipment and several other issues are held responsible by officials for preventing effectiveness of current practices. Finally, the EU emergency number 112 is widely unknown (87%). This work was held under the LIFE+ project "Local Authorities Alliance for Forest Fire Prevention - LIFE08/ENV/GR/000553" which is implemented with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community.

Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

2013-04-01

194

Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

2014-01-01

195

On The Equivalence of Local and Global Area-constraint Formulations for Lipid Bilayer Vesicles  

E-print Network

Lipid bilayer membranes are commonly modeled as area-preserving fluid surfaces that resist bending. There appear to be two schools of thought in the literature concerning the actual area constraint. In some works the total or global area (GA) of the vesicle is a prescribed constant, while in others the local area ratio is assigned to unity. In this work we demonstrate the equivalence of these ostensibly distinct approaches in the specific case when the equilibrium configuration is a smooth, closed surface of genus zero. We accomplish this in the context of the Euler-Lagrange equilibrium equations, constraint equations and the second-variation with admissibility conditions, for a broad class of models - including the phase-field type.

Dharmavaram, Sanjay

2014-01-01

196

Communications protocols for a fault tolerant, integrated local area network for Space Station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolutionary growth of the Space Station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated,local area networks capable of supporting data, voice and video communications. In addition, fault tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard Space Station of day-to-day data system repair tasks. An experimental, local area network is being developed which will serve as a testbed for investigating candidate algorithms and technologies for a fault tolerant, integrated network. The establishment of a set of rules or protocols which govern communications on the net is essential to obtain orderly and reliable operation. A hierarchy of protocols for the experimental network is presented and procedures for data and control communications are described.

Meredith, B. D.

1984-01-01

197

The development of a common risk assessment methodology for local authorities in southeast Europe focusing on climate change related hazards - first results from the SEERISK project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to influence the magnitude and frequency of a number of natural hazards in the future and hence, change the spatial patterns of risk and vulnerability. Local authorities, emergency planners and other decision makers are in need of tools that enable the assessment of the risks associated with the natural hazards. This research is embedded in the EU-funded SEERISK project ("Joint disaster management risk assessment and preparedness for the Danube macro-region"). The principle aim of this project is to improve coherence and consistency among risk assessments undertaken by the partner countries in national, regional and local level. The project focuses on bringing decision makers from southeast Europe together and it attempts the development of a common methodology for risk assessment of climate change related hazards that will be applied in various pilot areas in the partner countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Romania). The common methodology takes into consideration the lack of data in most of the cases and it offers alternatives for the risk assessment but also for the data collection following future events. The common methodology is presented here in the form of methodological steps for four different natural hazards, namely, floods, droughts, heat waves and extreme wind. The proposed methodology is in line with the EC Guidelines for Risk assessment and mapping and will be implemented in the near future in respective regions.

Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

198

Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

1991-01-01

199

A novel technique for quantitative performance evaluation of wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network performances of two commercial wireless local area networks are measured using a novel technique. Current methods of evaluating the performance of WLANs are largely based on file transfer operations using benchmark tests such as Novell's PERFORM3, AT&T's Read\\/Write, PC Magazine's Lab Series, Smart LAN Performance Test and others. Measurements obtained from these tests must specify the processor type,

Benny Bing; Regu Subramanian

1997-01-01

200

FDDI-a local-area network for distributed real-time applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed real-time control systems increasingly depend on local-area networks (LANs) for information exchange among sensors, processors, and actuators. FDDI (fiber distributed data interface) is a high-speed LAN that can satisfy access delay requirements of such time-constrained applications while simultaneously supporting nontime-constrained applications such as file transfer. The performance of FDDI is examined for time-constrained and nontime-constrained traffic. The simulation results

B. Albert; Anura P. Jayasumana

1990-01-01

201

The infrared physical layer of the IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless local area networks defines a specification for an infrared physical layer. This article gives an overview of infrared technology and describes the IEEE 802.11 specification in detail, presenting a historical perspective of its development. The infrared physical layer was designed for diffuse systems supporting two data rates (1 and 2 Mb\\/s) and includes

Rui T. Valadas; Antonio R. Tavares; A. M. de Oliveira Duarte; Adriano C. Moreira; Cipriano T. Lomba

1998-01-01

202

Inventory management plan for a research and development local area network  

SciTech Connect

An inventory management plan is presented for the local area network (LAN) for the Security Aspects of Database Management Systems, a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project examining computer and network security in a data management environment. The inventory management plan establishes procedures to ensure that changes in system hardware and software are identified and controlled. Management tools are described, and the roles of the project manager, inventory control manager, and research team members in the implementation of inventory management are defined.

Strickler, D.; Chester, R.; Ingle, K.; Payne, P.; Rome, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Kertis, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US)

1993-08-01

203

[Activities related to STIs and HIV and data collection in German local health authorities, 2012 : can we harvest the data?].  

PubMed

In Germany, local health authorities (LHA) offering counseling and testing for sexually transmitted infections or human immunodeficiency virus (STI/HIV) routinely collect data. The study's objective was to get an overview of the activities and data collected by the LHA so as to investigate the possibility of harvesting these data at a national level. We performed a cross-sectional survey among all LHA with STI/HIV counseling and testing by using an electronic questionnaire with information on the type of STI/HIV services offered, groups reached, and data collected. Among the 374 LHA, 250 (67?%) responded. Half of them offered common counseling for STI and HIV; 20% conducted outreach work among sex workers and other groups. While HIV tests were available in all LHA, 62 and 56?% also offered hepatitis B and C testing, respectively. Other available tests included syphilis (56?%), gonorrhea (28?%), and chlamydia (27?%). Only 13?% of LHA offer gynecological examinations. While 98?% of LHA reported collecting data, two thirds of these records were paper-based. Although 77?% analyzed their data, 58?% reported their data to the regional level. Standardization of the STI/HIV data seems feasible for most of the LHA. This would allow annual statistics to be compiled at municipal, regional, and national levels. PMID:23708861

Altmann, M; Nielsen, S; Hamouda, O; Bremer, V

2013-07-01

204

Local residents perception of benefits and losses from protected areas in India and Nepal.  

PubMed

High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas. PMID:22080427

Karanth, Krithi K; Nepal, Sanjay K

2012-02-01

205

Local seismic events in area of Poland based on data from PASSEQ 2006-2008 experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PASSEQ 2006-2008 (Passive Seismic Experiment in TESZ; Wilde-Piórko et al, 2008) was the biggest so far passive seismic experiment in the area of Central Europe (Poland, Germany, Czech Republic and Lithuania). 196 seismic stations (including 49 broadband seismometers) worked simultaneously for over two years. During experiment multiple types of data recorders and seismometers were used making analysis more complex and time consuming. Dataset was unified and repaired to start the detection of local seismic events. Two different approaches for detection were applied for stations located in Poland. One used standard STA/LTA triggers (Carl Johnson's STA/LTA algorithm) and grid search to classify and locate events. Result was manually verified. Other approach used Real Time Recurrent Network (RTRN) detection (Wiszniowski et al, 2014). Both methods gave similar results showing four previously unknown seismic events located in area of Gulf Of Gda?sk in southern Baltic Sea. The investigation of local seismicity is a good opportunity for verification of new seismic models of lithosphere in the area. In this paper we discuss both detection methods with their pros and cons (accuracy, efficiency, manual work required, scalability). We also show details of all detected and previously unknown events in discussed area. This work was partially supported by NCN grant UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/06653.

Polkowski, Marcin; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan; Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Passeq Working Group

2014-05-01

206

Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

2012-01-01

207

Effects of neuropeptides and their local administration to cutaneous wounds in sensory-impaired areas.  

PubMed

Wound healing in sensory-impaired areas such as diabetic foot and spinal cord injuries is intractable. Previous studies have shown that delayed wound healing both of wound contraction and epithelialization in denervated rat skin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the wound healing process was affected by the administration of substance P to skin defects and histological analysis in denervated skin. Full thickness circular skin defects 15 mm in diameter were made symmetrically on the denervated area and the normal innervated area, and substance P and vehicle was administered over a period of 3 days by injecting with a syringe. The rate of wound contraction and epithelialization were measured. The wound surface area in saline injections were larger than the group of substance P injections in denervated area and controls (p < 0.05) on day 3. Wound healing in local administration of substance P to denervated skin defect was equal to in normal animals. It seems that the presence of substance P in the wound area positively affects the early stages of wound healing. PMID:24006918

Ishikawa, Shinsuke; Takeda, Akira; Akimoto, Minekatsu; Kounoike, Natsuko; Uchinuma, Eiju; Uezono, Yasuhito

2014-04-01

208

VIDEO STREAMING TO MULTIPLE CLIENTS OVER WIRELESS LOCAL AREA Hulya Seferoglu*, Ozgur Gurbuz*, Ozgur Ercetin*, Yucel Altunbasak  

E-print Network

VIDEO STREAMING TO MULTIPLE CLIENTS OVER WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS Hulya Seferoglu*, Ozgur@ece.gatech.edu ABSTRACT This paper considers the problem of multiple video streaming over wireless local area networks. In particular, we propose video streaming techniques to improve the quality of video streams over the link from

Markopoulou, Athina

209

Local status and power in area-based health improvement partnerships.  

PubMed

Area-based initiatives have formed an important part of public policy towards more socio-economically deprived areas in many countries. Co-ordinating service provision within and across sectors has been a common feature of these initiatives. Despite sustained policy interest in area-based initiatives, little empirical work has explored relations between area-based initiative providers, and partnership development within this context remains under-theorised. This article addresses both of these gaps by exploring partnerships as a social and developmental process, drawing on concepts from figurational sociology to explain how provider relations develop within an area-based initiative. Qualitative methods were used to explore, prospectively, the development of an area-based initiative targeted at a town in the north west of England. A central finding was that although effective delivery of area-based initiatives is premised on a high level of co-ordination between service providers, the pattern of interdependencies between providers limits the frequency and effectiveness of co-operation. In particular, the interdependency of area-based initiative providers with others in their organisation (what is termed here as 'organisational pull') constrained the ways in which they worked with providers outside of their own organisations. 'Local' status, which could be earned over time, enabled some providers to exert greater control over the way in which provider relations developed during the course of the initiative. These findings demonstrate how historically constituted social networks, within which all providers are embedded, shape partnership development. The theoretical insight developed here suggests a need for more realistic expectations among policymakers about how and to what extent provider partnerships can be managed. PMID:24695385

Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel

2014-11-01

210

Testing scale variance in species–area and abundance–area relationships in a local assemblage: an example from a subtropical boulder shore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constancy or scale variance of species–area and abundance–area relationships has rarely been considered within relatively\\u000a small spatial domains of a local assemblage. Patterns of species\\/abundance–area relationships were experimentally investigated\\u000a in a stone-associated molluscan community on a subtropical boulder shore. In order to systematically examine the effects of\\u000a variation in habitat area while maintaining other habitat characteristics constant through time, naturally

Edgardo Londoño-Cruz; Mutsunori Tokeshi

2007-01-01

211

Local Extinction in the Bird Assemblage in the Greater Beijing Area from 1877 to 2006  

PubMed Central

Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China’s natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877–1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004–2006. Birds recorded as ‘rare’ in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife. PMID:22768146

Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

2012-01-01

212

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized...independent origin, at least one item of which is not subject to change without governmental action or authorization; or (B)...

2012-07-01

213

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized...independent origin, at least one item of which is not subject to change without governmental action or authorization; or (B)...

2013-07-01

214

Neural mechanisms of auditory categorization: from across brain areas to within local microcircuits  

PubMed Central

Categorization enables listeners to efficiently encode and respond to auditory stimuli. Behavioral evidence for auditory categorization has been well documented across a broad range of human and non-human animal species. Moreover, neural correlates of auditory categorization have been documented in a variety of different brain regions in the ventral auditory pathway, which is thought to underlie auditory-object processing and auditory perception. Here, we review and discuss how neural representations of auditory categories are transformed across different scales of neural organization in the ventral auditory pathway: from across different brain areas to within local microcircuits. We propose different neural transformations across different scales of neural organization in auditory categorization. Along the ascending auditory system in the ventral pathway, there is a progression in the encoding of categories from simple acoustic categories to categories for abstract information. On the other hand, in local microcircuits, different classes of neurons differentially compute categorical information. PMID:24987324

Tsunada, Joji; Cohen, Yale E.

2014-01-01

215

Performance Evolution of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wireless network can be employed to connect wired network to the wireless network. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) are more bandwidth limited as compared to the wired networks because they rely on an inexpensive, but error prone, physical medium (air). Hence it is important to evaluate their performance. This paper presents a study of IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN). The performance evaluation has been presented via a series of test with different parameters such as data rate, different number of nodes and physical characteristics. The different qualities of service parameter are chosen to be throughput, media access delay and dropped data packets. The simulation results show that an IEEE 802.11b WLAN can support up to 60 clients with modest throughput. Finally the results are compared to evaluate the performance of wireless local networks.

Malik, Deepak; Singhal, Ankur

2011-12-01

216

Development of Science and Mathematics Education System Including Teaching Experience of Students in Local Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New reformation project on engineering education, which is supported from 2005 to 2008FY by Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in Kyushu Institute of Technology. In this project, teaching experience of students is introduced into the curriculum of Faculty of Engineering. In the curriculum students try to prepare teaching materials and to teach local school pupils with them by themselves. Teaching experience is remarkably effective for them to strengthen their self-dependence and learning motivation. Science Education Center, Science Laboratory and Super Teachers College were also organized to promote the area cooperation on the education of science and mathematics.

Kage, Hiroyuki

217

Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government  

PubMed Central

Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

2014-01-01

218

Locally adaptive unmixing method for lake-water area extraction based on MODIS 250 m bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes in semi-arid and arid regions serve an important function in maintaining regional ecological balance. Thus, the change in lake-water area should be monitored by using remotely sensed images. However, most high-spatial-resolution satellite sensors cannot provide frequent observation data because of the long revisiting cycle and cloud effects. The 250 m MODIS images, as well as red and near-infrared bands, are currently the best monitoring data because of their frequent revisit and medium spatial resolution. Spectral unmixing is commonly used to extract information from coarse-resolution images at the subpixel level. However, in conventional unmixing, endmember selection is problematic, and a sufficient number of bands are necessary to solve the decomposition equations. In this study, we developed a locally adaptive unmixing (LAU) method to extract lake-water area using 250 m MODIS images. In this method, pixels mixed with water and land are initially extracted. Then, two classes of endmembers of each mixed pixel are determined by referring to the reflectivity of the neighboring pixels with different weights. Water abundance in each mixed pixel could be calculated using a single-band image. Owing to the overestimation in the NIR band and the underestimation in the red band, the average of the results from the two bands was set as the ultimate lake-water area to minimize error. This method is not only locally adaptive for endmember selection, but is also independent of the number of bands. This approach would be useful for the frequent monitoring of lake area by using 250 m MODIS images.

Ma, Baodong; Wu, Lixin; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Li, Xingchun; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shenglei

2014-12-01

219

Examining marginalized communities and local conservation institutions: the case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system. PMID:24271617

Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K; Schuett, Michael A

2014-01-01

220

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were

Norun Hjertager Krog; Bo Engdahl

2004-01-01

221

Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities. We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy), for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate. Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%. The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss). This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

Lari, S.; Frattini, P.; Crosta, G. B.

2012-11-01

222

"A Fiberoptic Local-Area-Network Solution For Tactical Command And Control Systems"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines key network requirements for the elements of distributed tactical command and control system. System concepts are evolved that support implementation solutions with emphasis on advanced technologies. Mobile command and control elements of ground and air forces are becoming more vulnerable in an ever increasing threat environment. This vulnerability is caused by the employment of these elements in a manner characterized by functional and physical centralization. A command and control unit typically consists of a centralized operations center surrounded by closely clustered communications and surveillance equipments. Because these elements have different deployment and employment requirements, the command and control unit is not optimized in terms of survivability, mobility, effectiveness, and operational flexibility. In recent years, convincing arguments have been put forth to the effect that distributed operations centers, redundantly structured communication functions, and netted surveillance systems can provide the necessary attributes to be effective in the advanced threat environment. Current technology does not meet the requirements of such a system. A local area network provides a power interconnection mechanism for the distributed elements of the command and control system. The requirements are for a rapid, efficient, and reliable means of transferring voice and data communications between elements. The topology of such a network must primarily consider survivability and reliability of communications interchanges with special emphasis on continued operations under degraded conditions. When such conditions occur, e.g., the result of combat attrition, a complete command and control capability should remain even though it may be at somewhat of a reduced capacity. The interconnection medium for the local area network should be immune to external disruptions, e.g., EMI, EMP, or C3CM, and should have a wide transmission bandwidth with a minimum propagation delay. This logically suggests a fiber optics medium. A universal fiber optics interface device is, therefore, required to provide access to a wide variety of users. Such a device must feature a number of advanced fiber optic technologies to make possible a flexible, survivable, high speed bus medium. (This bus is envisioned to be a synchronous time division multiplexed bus.) Based on tradeoffs between the operational and network requirements, the performance of the fiber optical local area network can be assessed.

Vlasak, Weldon; Pfister, Gerhard

1983-11-01

223

Working Together? Parent and Local Authority Views on the Process of Obtaining Appropriate Educational Provision for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is general agreement across all interested parties that a process of working together is the best way to determine which school or educational setting is right for an individual child with autism spectrum disorder. In the UK, families and local authorities both desire a constructive working relationship and see this as the best…

Tissot, Catherine

2011-01-01

224

Opting Out of Local Authority Control ?Using the Education Reform Act to Defend the Comprehensive Ideal: a case study in educational policy implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on an insider account of the process by which a secondary school, Stantonbury Campus, Milton Keynes, England, used the 1988 Education Reform Act to opt out of local authority control in order to preserve its egalitarian comprehensive character. Using the legislation in this way effectively reversed many of the assumptions surrounding the notion of Grant Maintained

Rosemary Deem; Michael Davies

1991-01-01

225

Using SMS Texting to Encourage Democratic Participation by Youth Citizens: a Case Study of a Project in an English Local Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public administrations across Europe take the view that using digital media for consultation with citizens will help to increase their democratic participation. In the UK, the Government has encouraged local authorities to experiment with new electronic communication channels for this purpose. This paper presents a case study in which one such medium, the mobile phone, is being used in an

David Griffin; Philippa Trevorrow; Edward Halpin

226

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting...electronic signature on the document, the identity of the individual uniquely entitled...authorization; or (B) A method of determining identity no less stringent than would be...

2011-07-01

227

20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area? 664.110...TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Councils § 664.110 Who is...

2010-04-01

228

7 CFR 7.9 - Election of community committee members, delegates to local administrative area and county...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...members, delegates to local administrative area and county conventions, and county committee members. 7.9 Section 7.9 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.9...

2011-01-01

229

7 CFR 7.9 - Election of community committee members, delegates to local administrative area and county...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...members, delegates to local administrative area and county conventions, and county committee members. 7.9 Section 7.9 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.9...

2012-01-01

230

Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN) between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc) for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side) to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops) and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi) access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ) has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID), Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department. PMID:20622360

Mandal, Abhijit; Asthana, Anupam Kumar; Aggarwal, Lalit Mohan

2010-01-01

231

Homogenization of a locally-periodic medium with areas of low and high diffusivity  

E-print Network

We aim at understanding transport in porous materials including regions with both high and low diffusivities. For such scenarios, the transport becomes structured (here: {\\em micro-macro}). The geometry we have in mind includes regions of low diffusivity arranged in a locally-periodic fashion. We choose a prototypical advection-diffusion system (of minimal size), discuss its formal homogenization (the heterogenous medium being now assumed to be made of zones with circular areas of low diffusivity of $x$-varying sizes), and prove the weak solvability of the limit two-scale reaction-diffusion model. A special feature of our analysis is that most of the basic estimates (positivity, $L^\\infty$-bounds, uniqueness, energy inequality) are obtained in $x$-dependent Bochner spaces.

T. van Noorden; A. Muntean

2010-03-21

232

Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats  

SciTech Connect

DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

1996-07-01

233

Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

2006-11-01

234

The relationship between local area labor market conditions and the use of Veterans Affairs health services  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., economic conditions are intertwined with labor market decisions, access to health care, health care utilization and health outcomes. The Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system has served as a safety net provider by supplying free or reduced cost care to qualifying veterans. This study examines whether local area labor market conditions, measured using county-level unemployment rates, influence whether veterans obtain health care from the VA. Methods We used survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in years 2000, 2003 and 2004 to construct a random sample of 73,964 respondents self-identified as veterans. VA health service utilization was defined as whether veterans received all, some or no care from the VA. Hierarchical ordered logistic regression was used to address unobserved state and county random effects while adjusting for individual characteristics. Local area labor market conditions were defined as the average 12-month unemployment rate in veterans’ county of residence. Results The mean unemployment rate for veterans receiving all, some and no care was 5.56%, 5.37% and 5.24%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate in a veteran’s county of residence was associated with an increase in the probability of receiving all care (0.34%, p-value?=?0.056) or some care (0.29%, p-value?=?0.023) from the VA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the important role of the VA in providing health care services to veterans is magnified in locations with high unemployment. PMID:23496888

2013-01-01

235

Local area network inhibition: a model of a potentially important paraepileptic pathomechanism in neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Electroencephalographic abnormalities in the absence of any other major laboratory or imaging findings are a frequently encountered phenomenon in many psychiatric disorders. In some cases, clear-cut interictal epileptiform EEG abnormalities in patients with classic primary psychiatric disorders lead to referrals to epilepsy departments for diagnostic evaluation. Although video/EEG telemetry in these cases generally proves that there is no direct temporal link between the EEG pathologies and psychiatric symptoms, and therefore the psychiatric syndrome cannot be regarded as epilepsy, the relevance of the EEG abnormalities remains open to discussion. In this article we put forward the model of a paraepileptic pathomechanism, which might explain the pathogenetic role of such EEG pathologies, at least in subgroups of such patients. We propose that ictal or nonictal epileptic neurophysiological activity can lead to local area neuronal network inhibition (LANI). In this model clinical symptoms are related not to the excitatory epileptiform abnormalities themselves, but to the extent, site, and dynamics of the resulting local neuronal network inhibition. The LANI hypothesis is capable of explaining the complex relationship between EEG abnormalities and clinical symptoms in different neuropsychiatric syndromes and can be verified and falsified in empirical research. PMID:21784710

Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Krishnamoorthy, E S; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Altenmüller, D-M; Richter, H; Ebert, D; Feige, B

2011-10-01

236

Modelling the Demand for Higher Education by Local Authority Area in England Using Academic, Economic and Social Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing the demand for higher education has been a major concern of successive UK governments over the last 30 years. While initially they sought to increase demand, latterly the emphasis has been on widening participation to include demographic groups among which it has traditionally been low. There had long been an academic and policy interest…

Harrison, Neil

2013-01-01

237

Can areas of myocardial ischemia be localized by the exercise electrocardiogram. A correlative study with thallium-201 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine whether areas of ischemia identified by thallium-201 scintigraphy could be localized by exercise ECG, we studied 54 patients with stable coronary heart disease. All 54 patients had exercise-induced thallium-201 scintigraphic defects. Their exercise ECG test results were compared to their thallium-201 images and also to 14 low-risk normal subjects. Exercise data were analyzed for spatial ST vector shifts, using a computer program in order to most accurately classify ST segment depression and elevation. Thallium-201 ischemic defects detected in our patients included areas in the septum and the inferior, lateral, and anterior walls. Twenty-six of these 54 patients also had coronary angiography for classification and comparison as having either localized or generalized disease. None of the scintigraphic ischemic sites or angiographic diseased areas could be specifically identified by exercise-induced ST vector shifts. Therefore, the surface exercise ECG has limitations in localizing ischemia to specific areas of the myocardium.

Abouantoun, S.; Ahnve, S.; Savvides, M.; Witztum, K.; Jensen, D.; Froelicher, V.

1984-10-01

238

Study of Local Seismic Events in Lithuania and Adjacent Areas Using Data from the PASSEQ Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The territory of Lithuania and adjacent areas of the East European Craton have always been considered a region of low seismicity. Two recent earthquakes with magnitudes of more than 5 in the Kaliningrad District (Russian Federation) on 21 September 2004 motivated re-evaluation of the seismic hazard in Lithuania and adjacent territories. A new opportunity to study seismicity in the region is provided by the PASSEQ (Pasive Seismic Experiment) project that aimed to study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure around the Trans-European Suture Zone. Twenty-six seismic stations of the PASSEQ temporary seismic array were installed in the territory of Lithuania. The stations recorded a number of local and regional seismic events originating from Lithuania and adjacent areas. This data can be used to answer the question of whether there exist seismically active tectonic zones in Lithuania that could be potentially hazardous for critical industrial facilities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to find any natural tectonic seismic events in Lithuania and to obtain more general view of seismicity in the region. In order to do this, we make a manual review of the continuous data recorded by the PASSEQ seismic stations in Lithuania. From the good quality data, we select and relocate 45 local seismic events using the well-known LocSAT and VELEST location algortithms. In order to discriminate between possible natural events, underwater explosions and on-shore blasts, we analyse spatial distribution of epicenters and temporal distribution of origin times and perform both visual analysis of waveforms and spectral analysis of recordings. We show that the relocated seismic events can be grouped into five clusters (groups) according to their epicenter coordinates and origin and that several seismic events might be of tectonic origin. We also show that several events from the off-shore region in the Baltic Sea (at the coasts of the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation) are non-volcanic tremors, although the origin of these tremor-type events is not clear.

Janutyte, Ilma; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Motuza, Gediminas

2013-05-01

239

Evidence of Interaction Between Synoptic and Local Scales in the Surface Layer over the Paris Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) turbulent processes in the Paris area have been documented in the framework of the étude de la Couche Limite en Agglomération Parisienne (ECLAP). Under anticyclonic conditions, simulations are made with a column modelling approach, based on the three-dimensional version of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MERCURE restricted to a small domain. This column model uses existing state-of-the-art surface-layer parameterizations (the addition of the convective velocity scale to the mean wind speed in near free convection periods, the prescription of the effective dynamical roughness length as well as a differentiation between dynamical and thermal roughness lengths). To ensure the representativeness of the comparison between measurements and simulations, the dynamical and thermal effective roughness lengths characterizing the experimental site are prescribed explicitly in the model, using sonic anemometer measurements. We show that the parameterizations implemented in MERCURE for this study enable a good description, by the three-dimensional model, of the observed complex ABL dynamics. We also show that in the region of Paris, the synoptic scale and mesoscale dynamics can have a dramatic impact on the ABL dynamics and turbulent processes at the local scale. This study is a first attempt at improving our ability to predict meteorological factors affecting urban air quality.

Menut, Laurent; Flamant, Cyrille; Pelon, Jacques

240

Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities: Finite-field, intensity, and area corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components and for other charge transport quantities. Both resistive and Hall sensitivities, for a van der Pauw specimen in a finite magnetic field, are a superposition of the zero-field sensitivities to both sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance. Strong perturbations produce a nonlinear correction term that depends on the strength of the inhomogeneity. Solution of the specific case of a finite-sized circular inhomogeneity coaxial with a circular specimen suggests a first-order correction for the general case. Our results are confirmed by computer simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Náhlík et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc.

Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole

2014-10-01

241

A study of topologies and protocols for fiber optic local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.

Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.

1985-01-01

242

Latino immigrants’ perceptions of crime and police authorities in the United States: A case study from the Phoenix Metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies that link immigration and crime focus on assessing rates and explaining incidence. In this article we attempt to elucidate the immigrants’ fear of crime and their perceptions of U.S. authorities as these impinge on their relations with the police and on their own insertion in the host society. Based on sixty-one in-depth interviews with immigrants from Cuba, El

Cecilia Menjívar; Cynthia Bejarano

2004-01-01

243

Think globally, act locally?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While climate change is obviously a global environmental problem, there is nevertheless potential for policy initiatives at the local level. Although the competences of local authorities vary between countries, they all have some responsibilities in the crucial areas of energy and transport policy. This paper examines local competences in Sweden and the UK and looks at the responses to the

Ute Collier; Ragnar E Löfstedt

1997-01-01

244

The impact of Local Authorities' interventions on household waste collection: a case study approach using time series modelling.  

PubMed

At a local Government level there have been many interventions and changes made to household waste collection services to meet new regulatory requirements. These changes include separate collection of recyclable and organic materials. This paper has used a time series model to quantify the success of interventions introduced by a LA. The case study was a medium sized UK LA, Charnwood Borough Council (CBC), the research analyses monthly data of quantities of recyclates, garden waste for composting and residual waste for landfill disposal. The time series model was validated with a five year data set and used to measure the impacts of the various changes to identify which intervention was the most successful, while controlling for season and number of working days. The results show the interventions analysed both had abrupt and permanent positive impacts on the yield of recyclable materials, and a corresponding negative impact on the residual waste. The model could be added to the National data base to help LAs to compare interventions and to understand which schemes encourage householder participation and improve recycling performance. PMID:24256716

Cole, Christine; Quddus, Mohammed; Wheatley, Andrew; Osmani, Mohamed; Kay, Kath

2014-02-01

245

Ionospheric TEC disturbances over the area of Thessaloniki in relation to the local seismic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the data from the permanently operating GPS Reference Station of the Department of Surveying and Geodesy of the University of Thessaloniki (latitude 40 37 39.0885N and longitude 22 57 34.0885E), we estimated the Total Electron Content (TEC) over the area of the receiver. The sampling interval of our data is 45 min. We used the Consecutive Day Correlation Coefficient (CDCC-index) for a quick picking out of days with exceptional Total Electron Content (TEC) variations and we compare the CDCC-index and TEC variations with the magnitudes and time of occurrence of the earthquakes which occurred in a distance R< 250km from GPS receiver. In addition wavelet analysis of the daily measurements was carried out. The following conclusion was drown: a) A CDCC-index decrease occur 5-1 days before an earthquake of magnitude 3.0local tectonic activity.

Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D.; Asteriadis, G.; Pikridas, Ch.; Spatalas, S.; Chatzinikos, M.

2005-09-01

246

Theta activity in local field potential of the ventral tegmental area in sleeping and waking rats.  

PubMed

Hippocampal theta rhythm appears in two vigilance states: active waking and paradoxical sleep. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is active in sleep and waking and is connected to the hippocampus. We assessed the relationship between local field potential (LFP) of the VTA and sleep-waking stages in freely moving rats. Electrical activity of the VTA was divided into: quiet waking (W), waking with theta (WT), slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS), depending on the hippocampal signal and the animal's behavior. We analyzed total power in the VTA signal and we also extracted peak power (Pmax) and corresponding frequency (Fmax) in theta and delta bands from both the VTA and hippocampal recording. In the VTA the 6-9 Hz band had the highest power during PS, and the ratio of the 6-9 to 3-6 Hz power was highest during both PS and WT, which accentuated Pmax of this particular theta sub-band. During W, a very slight increase (or plateau) in signal power was seen in theta range. Pmax and Fmax of theta were higher in PS than in both WT and W, and these parameters did not differ between W and WT. During WT and PS, Fmax in the 6-9 Hz band was greatly correlated between the VTA and hippocampus signal. We also detected high cross-correlation in power spectra between the hippocampus and the VTA (for delta and theta, during WT and PS). The results suggest that the VTA may belong to the broad network involved in theta rhythm induction. PMID:24569012

Orze?-Gryglewska, Jolanta; Matulewicz, Pawe?; Jurkowlaniec, Edyta

2014-05-15

247

Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence farming and illegal logging. This intensification of activities has mostly affected land on slopes in an area where over 40 % of the area is subject to landslides. Relatively, the prevailing land use/cover change process in both areas, as usually in most European mountain areas, is reforestation. Small-scale changes however were most important in terms of negative consequences. Therefore we think it is necessary to focus on the local scale when identifying possible future negative consequences of land use/cover change. Acknowledgement This work is a part of the CHANGES project (Changing hydro-meteorological risks - as Analysed by a New Generation of European Scientists), a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, funded by the European Community's 7'th Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under Grant Agreement No. 263953.

Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

248

Using American Community Survey Data to Estimate Local Area Unemployment Characteristics  

E-print Network

, counties, metropolitan statistical areas, labor market areas, etc. · Uses: allocation of > $43 billion, unemployment, earnings, etc. ­ demographic characteristics: age, sex, race, etc. · Design: ­ monthly sample

249

Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

2013-12-01

250

When Do Local Land-Tenure Arrangements Matter? Lessons from Two Marginal Productive Areas in Argentina and Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implications of local land-tenure arrangements in managing common resources are examined in two different marginal productive areas: (1) vicuña management by five indigenous communities in the arid highlands of South Bolivia, and (2) rangeland management by eight rural families in a wetland basin of Northeast Argentina. Methods focused on qualitative enquiry including household interviews, participative observation, maps, diagrams and

Nadine Renaudeau d'Arc

251

Role of Women in Agricultural Development and Their Constraints: A Case Study of Biliri Local Government Area, Gombe State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The study focused on role of women in agricultural development and their constraints in Biliri Local Government Area of Gombe State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select six villages from the LGA and 60 women farmers. Interview scheduled was used to obtain information from the women, on their socio-economic characteristics, farm activities, farm production and their

E. F. Fabiyi; B. B. Danladi; K. E. Akande; Y. Mahmood

2007-01-01

252

The Neural Bases of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Are Not Localized in Real Color-Sensitive Areas  

E-print Network

The Neural Bases of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Are Not Localized in Real Color- Sensitive Areas to as � synesthesia �, or union of the senses, since the end of the XIXth century (Supplementary Text S1). Here, we focus on much studied grapheme-color synesthesia, which concerns 1-5 people in 100 (Suarez de Mendoza

253

Use of Positron Emission Tomography for Presurgical Localization of Eloquent Brain Areas in Children with Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful surgical management of a neoplastic or nonneoplastic seizure focus in close proximity to or within eloquent brain areas relies on precise delineation of the relationship between the lesion and functional brain areas. The aim of this series was to validate the usefulness and test the efficacy of noninvasive presurgical PET mapping of eloquent brain areas to predict surgical morbidity

Johnny D. Duncan; David Moss; Daniel J. Bandy; Kim Manwaring; Allen M. Kaplan; Eric M. Reiman; Kewei Chen; Michael A. Lawson; David L. Wodrich

1997-01-01

254

Bandwidth characteristics of multimedia data traffic on a local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited spacecraft communication links call for users to investigate the potential use of video compression and multimedia technologies to optimize bandwidth allocations. The objective was to determine the transmission characteristics of multimedia data - motion video, text or bitmap graphics, and files transmitted independently and simultaneously over an ethernet local area network. Commercial desktop video teleconferencing hardware and software and Intel's proprietary Digital Video Interactive (DVI) video compression algorithm were used, and typical task scenarios were selected. The transmission time, packet size, number of packets, and network utilization of the data were recorded. Each data type - compressed motion video, text and/or bitmapped graphics, and a compressed image file - was first transmitted independently and its characteristics recorded. The results showed that an average bandwidth of 7.4 kilobits per second (kbps) was used to transmit graphics; an average bandwidth of 86.8 kbps was used to transmit an 18.9-kilobyte (kB) image file; a bandwidth of 728.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 15 frames per second (fps); and a bandwidth of 75.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 1.5 fps. Average packet sizes were 933 bytes for graphics, 498.5 bytes for the image file, 345.8 bytes for motion video at 15 fps, and 341.9 bytes for motion video at 1.5 fps. Simultaneous transmission of multimedia data types was also characterized. The multimedia packets used transmission bandwidths of 341.4 kbps and 105.8kbps. Bandwidth utilization varied according to the frame rate (frames per second) setting for the transmission of motion video. Packet size did not vary significantly between the data types. When these characteristics are applied to Space Station Freedom (SSF), the packet sizes fall within the maximum specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The uplink of imagery to SSF may be performed at minimal frame rates and/or within seconds of delay, depending on the user's allocated bandwidth. Further research to identify the acceptable delay interval and its impact on human performance is required. Additional studies in network performance using various video compression algorithms and integrated multimedia techniques are needed to determine the optimal design approach for utilizing SSF's data communications system.

Chuang, Shery L.; Doubek, Sharon; Haines, Richard F.

1993-01-01

255

Local Restaurants -Cambridge Cuisine Type Description Location by Neighborhood/Area  

E-print Network

in small production wine + beer, handcrafted local cheese and homemade provisions MIT - Mass. Ave Square, Cambridge The Blue Room One Kendall Square 617-494-9034 http://www.theblueroom.net/ Mediterranean

de Weck, Olivier L.

256

Comparison of regional and local horizontal strain field on the area of Central Europe determined from GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permanent GPS observations on EPN stations are being continued already about 15 years and so velocities of horizontal and vertical movements of the sites are determined with the great credibility. However density of the EPN sites on the area of Central Europe allow to determine only a very general model of deformation field. For determining the local strain field epoch-making GPS observations in local research networks can be used. As en example the GEOSUD GPS Network located in the area of the Sudeten mountains in South-West Poland were used. Velocities of GPS points were estimated from observations of annually repeated two-day measuring campaigns, connected to the EPN stations. On the basis of these velocities local velocity field and local strain field were estimated. The toolbox grid_strain (Teza, Pesci and Galgaro, 2008) was used. Areas of the maximum compressions and extensions were outlined as well as they were confronted with the tectonic structure of area. In the picture of the deformation field clearly four principal zones of deformations are standing out. The presence of the Sudetic Marginal Fault is becoming scratched slightly in south-eastern his parts. Values of deformations in the vicinity of fault zone are generally smaller than in more distant area. It is proving the hypothesis on interseismic character of changes and the weak tectonic activity of the fault. Such an image of horizontal deformations in which extensions are perpendicular to main direction of the fault line, is matching with the hypothesis on normal character of the SMF. On the entire research area however compression deformations are dominating.

Kontny, B.

2012-04-01

257

The Segmentation of Local Government Areas: Creating a New Geography of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social area classifications group areas on the basis of social or socio-economic similarity into cluster units which define\\u000a their demographic and social characteristics. The methods used to create these systems combine geographic thought and theory\\u000a with statistical manipulations of multivariate data. The development and use of geodemographic systems appear to be restricted\\u000a within developing countries. Some commentators suggest that area

Adegbola A. Ojo; Daniel Vickers; Dimitris Ballas

258

ESTELA: a method for evaluating the source and travel time of the wave energy reaching a local area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of wave climate at a local scale is of paramount importance for offshore and coastal engineering applications. Conditions influencing wave characteristics at a specific location cannot, however, be fully understood by studying only local information. It is necessary to take into account the dynamics of the ocean surface over a large `upstream' wave generation area. The goal of this work is to provide a methodology to easily characterize the area of influence of any particular ocean location worldwide. Moreover, the developed method is able to characterize the wave energy and travel time in that area. The method is based on a global scale analysis using both geographically and physically based criteria. The geographic criteria rely on the assumption that deep water waves travel along great circle paths. This limits the area of influence by neglecting energy that cannot reach a target point, as its path is blocked by land. The individual spectral partitions from a global wave reanalysis are used to reconstruct the spectral information and apply the physically based criteria. The criteria are based on the selection of the fraction of energy that travels towards the target point for each analysed grid point. The method has been tested on several locations worldwide. Results provide maps that inform about the relative importance of different oceanic areas to the local wave climate at any target point. This information cannot be inferred from local parameters and agrees with information from other approaches. The methodology may be useful in a number of applications, such as statistical downscaling, storm tracking and grid definition in numerical modelling.

Pérez, Jorge; Méndez, Fernando J.; Menéndez, Melisa; Losada, Inigo J.

2014-08-01

259

PLACE ATTACHMENT OF LOCAL RESIDENTS WITH AN URBAN FOREST AND PROTECTED AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban forests are important components of cities, providing many benefits to society. They are places for outdoor recreation activities, refuges from hectic city life and valuable habitats for wildlife. Understanding the attachments that local residents form with urban forests will enhance land managers' ability to address deeper landscape meaning and place-specific symbolic values in natural resource and urban planning decision

Arne Arnberger; Renate Eder

260

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas  

E-print Network

different management models. Usually, small scale local operators provide water supply or sewage solutions water supplies are managed by communities in Colombia. Nevertheless, government has not public policies-management model for small water supplies, review the state-of-the-art of co-management, describes the phenomena

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

77 FR 16978 - Special Local Regulation; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display Spectator Viewing Areas; Hudson...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to restrict and control vessel movement around the location of the fireworks...In order to coordinate the safe movement of vessels within the area and...Constitutionally Protected Property Rights. Civil Justice Reform This proposed...

2012-03-23

262

DEVELOPMENT OF CFD SIMULATION APPLICATIONS FOR LOCAL-SCALE AREAS AND POTENTIAL INTERFACE WITH MESOSCALE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation summarizes developments of ongoing applications of fine-scale (geometry specific) CFD simulations to urban areas within atmospheric boundary layers. Enabling technology today and challenges for the future are discussed. There is a challenging need to develop a ...

263

A stated preference experiment to value access to quiet areas and other local environmental factors  

E-print Network

-tipping; litter; fly-posting; graffiti; dog- fouling; discarded chewing gum; trees; light pollution (obscuring areas; fly-tipping; litter; fly-posting; graffiti; dog-fouling; discarded chewing gum; trees; light

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Author! Author! Beverly Cleary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief biography of author Beverly Cleary. Born on April 12, 1916 in McMinnville, Oregon (Yamhill County), Beverly Cleary celebrated her eighty-ninth birthday in 2005. Cleary is probably best known for creating "Ramona" and the other children's book characters who live on Klickitat Street in Portland, Oregon. A selective…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

265

Tuberculosis in an Urban Area in China: Differences between Urban Migrants and Local Residents  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006–2008, among whom 440 (32.6%) were local residents and 908 (67.4%) were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population) had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population), and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk?=?0.92, 95% CI: 0.91–0.94, p<0.001), poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR?=?4.12, 95% CI: 2.65–5.72, p<0.001), and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR?=?0.20, 95% CI: 0.13–0.26, p?=?0.013) were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants). Conclusions/Significance A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006–2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT). PMID:23226479

Shen, Xin; Xia, Zhen; Li, Xiangqun; Wu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yuan; Guo, Juntao; Chen, Jing; Hong, Jianjun; Yuan, Zheng'an; Pan, Qichao; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Sun, Guomei; Gao, Qian; Mei, Jian

2012-01-01

266

An assessment of solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area - Implications for local utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of residential solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area is presented with estimates of the total solar energy contribution per year. These estimates are examined in relation to a local utility's peak-load curves to determine the impact of a substantial increase in solar domestic hot water use over the next 20 yr in the area of utility management. The results indicate that a 10% market penetration of solar water heaters would have no detrimental effect on the utility's peak-load profile and could save several million dollars in new plant construction costs.

Stuart, M. W.

1980-04-01

267

Local Circulation Diurnal Patterns and Their Relationship with Large-Scale Flows in a Coastal Area of the Tyrrhenian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to characterise the local low-level circulation in the Tyrrhenian Sea coastal area near Rome, the wind field observed by conventional anemometers, Doppler sodar, and rawinsonde has been analysed. The prevailing diurnal behaviour of wind speed and direction as a function of season was highlighted, and the existence of two different patterns of the local circulation, mainly due to land and sea breezes and to the drainage flow from the mouth of the Tiber valley, revealed. The comparison between the low-level circulation and synoptic flow allowed us to determine the influence of the large-scale flow on nocturnal currents that are observed at the Pratica di Mare site and the way that wind direction evolves during the day. Numerical simulations are consistent with experimental data and depict the main features of the low-level wind field in the area.

Petenko, Igor; Mastrantonio, Giangiuseppe; Viola, Angelo; Argentini, Stefania; Coniglio, Lucia; Monti, Paolo; Leuzzi, Giovanni

2011-05-01

268

Numerical simulation for the coupling effect of local atmospheric circulations over the area of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the model system MM5.V3 and multi-layer grid nesting technique, we have done a multi-scale numerical simulation over\\u000a the area of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province to analyze the temperature and wind field there and study its local circulations.\\u000a The results show a coupling effect of Urban Heat Island Circulation (UHIC), Mountain Valley Breeze (MVB) and Sea Land Breeze\\u000a (SLB)

ShuHua Liu; ZhenXin Liu; Ju Li; YinChun Wang; YanJun Ma; Li Sheng; HePing Liu; FuMing Liang; GuoJun Xin; JianHua Wang

2009-01-01

269

Donor-driven local economic development in peripheral areas of KwaZulu-Natal: The Gijima Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gijima Programme in one of KwaZulu-Natal's peripheral economic areas represents a fourth phase of local economic development (LED) approaches in South Africa. This paper assesses the programme by comparing it with international trends and recent developments in South Africa. Despite some noteworthy innovations, the overall programme reflects a supply-driven approach that seldom considers projects funded from the market side.

Lochner Marais

2010-01-01

270

Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

1990-01-01

271

Autonet: A High-Speed, Self-Configuring Local Area Network Using Point-to-Point Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonet is a self-configuring local area network composed of switches interconnectedby 100 Mbit\\/second, full-duplex, point-to-point links. The switches contain 12 ports thatare internally connected by a full crossbar. Switches use cut-through to achieve a packetforwarding latency as low as 2 microseconds per switch. Any switch port can be cabled toany other switch port or to a host network controller.

Michael D. Schroeder; Andrew D. Birrell; Michael Burrows; Hal Murray; Roger M. Needham; Thomas L. Rodeheffer; Edwin H. Satterthwaite; Charles P. Thacker

1991-01-01

272

Measurements for enhanced bandwidth performance over 62.5-?m multimode fiber in short-wavelength local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) FO-2.2.1 Working Group on the modal dependence of bandwidth has conducted industrywide interlaboratory comparisons on measurements aimed at improving the bandwidth performance of short-wavelength, laser-based, multimode-fiber local area networks (LANs). Measurements of both transceiver encircled flux and fiber restricted-mode-launch bandwidth can together successfully predict an enhanced system performance, provided that the proper limiting criteria are

J. B. Schlager; Michael J. Hackert; Petar Pepeljugoski; J. Gwinn

2003-01-01

273

Multielement neutron activation analysis of human scalp hair a local population survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying instrumental neutron activation analysis, multielement analysis of human hair was carried out to elucidate the levels\\u000a of various trace element concentrations in hair of local population in the Tokyo metropolitan area. 202 hair samples were\\u000a collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age groups. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling\\u000a time and counting time, forty elements

A. Imahori; I. Fukushima; S. Shiobara; Y. Yanagida; K. Tomura

1979-01-01

274

Slotted Aloha and reservation Aloha protocols for very high-speed optical fiber local area networks using passive star topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of cases of slotted Aloha protocols for high-speed optical fiber local area networks (LANs) are presented and analyzed. The results are compared to the cases of Slotted Aloha\\/Aloha schemes presented by I.M.I. Habab et al., (1987) and N. Mehravori (1990). The proposed schemes were found to offer better throughput and delay characteristics. These cases are also compared with

Ganti N. M. Sudhakar; Nicolas D. Georganas; Mohsen Kavehrad

1991-01-01

275

The link between local environment and obesity: A multilevel analysis in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although individual factors have been shown to predict weight gain, contextual determinants have also attracted attention, with some authors stressing the role played by deprivation, urban sprawl, social capital and safety. Recent evidence has implicated environmental factors that facilitate the consumption of excess calories and\\/or make it more difficult to expend them in routine physical activity. The interrelationships found in

Paula Santana; Rita Santos; Helena Nogueira

2009-01-01

276

Large area nanoscale patterning of silicon surfaces by parallel local oxidation.  

PubMed

The homogeneity and the reproducibility of parallel local oxidation have been improved by introducing a thin film of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) between the stamp and the silicon surface. The flexibility of the polymer film enables a homogeneous contact of the stamp with the silicon surface to be achieved. The oxides obtained yield better aspect ratios compared with the ones created with no PMMA layer. The pattern is formed when a bias voltage is applied between the stamp and the silicon surface for 1 min. The patterning can be done by a step and repeat technique and is reproducible across a centimetre length scale. Once the oxide nanostructures have been created, the polymer is removed by etching in acetone. Finally, parallel local oxidation is applied to fabricate silicon nanostructures and templates for the growth of organic molecules. PMID:19875876

Losilla, N S; Martínez, J; García, R

2009-11-25

277

Cervical cancer screening in less-developed areas should be tailored to local conditions  

Cancer.gov

The best approach to detecting cervical cancer in HIV-positive women living in research limited countries such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa combines commonly used testing methods tailored to local levels of development and medical infrastructure, according to a study by researchers from and the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa and the University of North Carolina, home of the UNC Lineberger Cancer Center.

278

Plants used for female reproductive health care in Oredo local government area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of maternal health in Nigeria is poor and can be attributed to inadequate access to reproduce- tive health services, poverty and in some areas cultural resistance. Consequently, many rural people in Nigeria turn to ethno-medicinal health care systems due to accessibility, affordability, availability and an inherent trust in this method. These systems are threatened by erosion of plant

Folu M. Dania Ogbe; L. Eruogun; Marilyn Uwagboe

2009-01-01

279

A Study of the Environmental Impact of Wired and Wireless Local Area Network Access  

E-print Network

consumed and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of Ethernet switches and WiFi access points, educational and public places. Among the various available technologies, Ethernet (or IEEE 802.3) and WiFi (or area networks by evaluating the energy and emission intensity of WiFi access points and Ethernet

Sikdar, Biplab

280

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas and the recreationists' noise situation at home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. Most studies concentrate on one setting of the everyday life of a noise-exposed population, which mainly has been the residential setting. This article relates annoyance with aircraft noise in outdoor recreational areas to the recreationists' noise situation at home. In conjunction with the relocation of the main airport

Norun Hjertager Krog; Bo Engdahl

2005-01-01

281

CS445E Local Area Networks Rivier College Fall 2006 Rivier College  

E-print Network

in these areas. Topics to be covered include data communication networking models, protocols (TCP/IP, IPv4, IPv6, Wireless LANs) · Internetworking Protocols (IPv4, IPv6, ICMP, IGMP) · Routing Protocols (BGP, OSPF, RSVP) · Transport Protocols (TCP, UDP) · Network Security (Encryption, Digital Signature, IPSec) · Networking

Riabov, Vladimir V.

282

Localization of the motor hand area using transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The anatomical location of the motor area of the hand may be revealed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The motor cortex representation of the intrinsic hand muscles consists of a knob-like structure. This is omega- or epsilon-shaped in the axial plane and hook-shaped in the sagittal plane. As this knob lies on the surface of the brain, it

B Boroojerdi; H Foltys; T Krings; U Spetzger; A Thron; R Töpper

1999-01-01

283

Analysis of satellite precipitation products referred to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation measurement is a key factor for several scientific disciplines, research activities and management of human activities related to water resources. Climatology, meteorology and hydrology can be considered three main sectors in which precipitation estimation is carefully addressed although with different peculiarities. In order to retrieve precipitation information several products have been developed related to different information sources, methodologies and final products features. In this study we select a specific area in Sicily island (Italy) having high density rain gauges to evaluate of satellite precipitation products. Sicily has an area of 26,000 km2 and the gauge density of the network considered in this study is about 250 km2/gauge. It is an island in the Mediterranean sea with variegated climatology and morphology, which is considered as an interesting test site for satellite precipitation products on the European mid-latitude area. Four only satellite products (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TMPA-RT, PERSIANN-CCS) along with two adjusted products (TMPA and PERSIANN Adjusted) have been selected for the study. Evaluation and comparisons between selected products is performed with reference to data provided by the gauge network of Sicily and using statistical and visualization tools. An interpolation procedure has been adopted to compare reference rain-gauge network data to satellite products. An effort to organize and characterize evaluation tools within a simplified application framework has been done. Then three evaluation index groups have been identified corresponding to related application groups. Results show that bias is considerable for all satellite products although adjusted products are effective reducing it. Climatic considerations are reported to address this issue along with an overall analysis of the PMW retrieval algorithm performances. A convective/stratiform classification procedure is used to relate precipitation features to satellite information and retrieval algorithms. A strong convective component is present probably due to the study area morphology. It results affecting PMW capability to retrieve information since most of the precipitation event are convective in nature.

Noto, L. V.; Lo Conti, F.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

2011-12-01

284

20 CFR 664.710 - Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...Services to Youth § 664.710 Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible...

2013-04-01

285

20 CFR 664.710 - Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...Services to Youth § 664.710 Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible...

2012-04-01

286

20 CFR 664.710 - Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...Services to Youth § 664.710 Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible...

2011-04-01

287

20 CFR 664.710 - Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...Services to Youth § 664.710 Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible...

2014-04-01

288

A computer program for the localization of small areas in roentgenological images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and associated algorithm are presented which allow a simple and accurate determination to be made of the location of small symmetric areas presented in roentgenological images. The method utilizes an operator to visually spot object positions but eliminates the need for critical positioning accuracy on the operator's part. The rapidity of measurement allows results to be evaluated on-line. Parameters associated with the algorithm have been analyzed, and methods to facilitate an optimum choice for any particular experimental setup are presented.

Keller, R. A.; Baily, N. A.

1976-01-01

289

Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

Muhs, Eric C.

2006-12-01

290

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were conducted before and after the relocation the main airport of Norway in 1998 in one area near each airport. The relationship between individual noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events, percentage of time aircraft were audible, and LAsel) for the aircraft events. The analyses included the ``situation'' in which data were collected (before or after the relocation), and variables describing the recreational context. A strong effect of the ``situation'' was found in both cases, but the size of the effect was influenced by the choice of exposure variable in one of the study areas. Other context variables were also influencing annoyance. The effect of the situation (before/after a change in exposure) on the dose-response relationship may be influenced by the initial noise levels, the amount of change, and the time elapsed since the change at the time of the second survey. Further research should investigate the significance of these variables.

Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

2004-07-01

291

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables.  

PubMed

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were conducted before and after the relocation the main airport of Norway in 1998 in one area near each airport. The relationship between individual noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events, percentage of time aircraft were audible, and LAsel) for the aircraft events. The analyses included the "situation" in which data were collected (before or after the relocation), and variables describing the recreational context. A strong effect of the "situation" was found in both cases, but the size of the effect was influenced by the choice of exposure variable in one of the study areas. Other context variables were also influencing annoyance. The effect of the situation (before/after a change in exposure) on the dose-response relationship may be influenced by the initial noise levels, the amount of change, and the time elapsed since the change at the time of the second survey. Further research should investigate the significance of these variables. PMID:15295993

Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

2004-07-01

292

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

293

Numerical investigation of conjugate heat transfer in a local working area in conditions of its radiant heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical modeling of unsteady conjugate heat transfer in a closed rectangular area with a local heat-conducting object in a gas cavity in conditions of radiative heat supply is conducted. Fields of temperatures and stream functions, illustrating the influence of Grashof number on the character of heat transfer are formulated. The dependence of average Nusselt number from time at different Grashof numbers is given. The influence of heat-conductive object on the intensity of heat transfer in under study solution domain is shown.

Nee, A.; Nagornova, T.

2014-10-01

294

FUNDAMENTAL STUDY ON REAL-TIME FLOOD FORECASTING METHOD FOR LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL IN URBAN DRAINAGE AREAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, locally heavy rainfall occurs frequently at highly urbanized area, and causes serious personal accidents, so importance of flood forecasting system is growing in order to reduce damage of inundation. However, flood forecasting that secured lead-time for evacuation is extremely difficult, because the rainfall flows out rapidly. In this study, the numerical simulation model that can finely express inundation mechanism of urban drainage areas was applied with the most recent available data and analysis tool. The influence of the factor (i.e. sewer system, overland and rainfall information) which affected inundation mechanism was evaluated through the sensibility analysis with this model, and evaluation results show some requirements of model condition and information on time and space resolution of real-time flood forecasting.

Kimura, Makoto; Kido, Yoshinobu; Nakakita, Eiichi

295

Copyright 2011 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. German, L., G. C. Schoneveld, and P. Pacheco. 2011. Local social and environmental impacts of biofuels  

E-print Network

, L., G. C. Schoneveld, and P. Pacheco. 2011. Local social and environmental impacts of biofuels Impacts of Biofuels Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Global Comparative Assessment witnessed the rapid expansion of biofuel plantations in the global South in the context of a growing trend

296

Optimal lightpath placement on a metropolitan-area network linked with optical CDMA local nets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flexible optical metropolitan-area network (OMAN) [J.F. Huang, Y.F. Wang, C.Y. Yeh, Optimal configuration of OCDMA-based MAN with multimedia services, in: 23rd Biennial Symposium on Communications, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada, May 29-June 2, 2006, pp. 144-148] structured with OCDMA linkage is proposed to support multimedia services with multi-rate or various qualities of service. To prioritize transmissions in OCDMA, the orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes widely used in wireless CDMA are adopted. In addition, for feasible multiplexing, unipolar OCDMA modulation [L. Nguyen, B. Aazhang, J.F. Young, All-optical CDMA with bipolar codes, IEEE Electron. Lett. 31 (6) (1995) 469-470] is used to generate the code selector of multi-rate OMAN, and a flexible fiber-grating-based system is used for the equipment on OCDMA-OVSF code. These enable an OMAN to assign suitable OVSF codes when creating different-rate lightpaths. How to optimally configure a multi-rate OMAN is a challenge because of displaced lightpaths. In this paper, a genetically modified genetic algorithm (GMGA) [L.R. Chen, Flexible fiber Bragg grating encoder/decoder for hybrid wavelength-time optical CDMA, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13 (11) (2001) 1233-1235] is used to preplan lightpaths in order to optimally configure an OMAN. To evaluate the performance of the GMGA, we compared it with different preplanning optimization algorithms. Simulation results revealed that the GMGA very efficiently solved the problem.

Wang, Yih-Fuh; Huang, Jen-Fa

2008-01-01

297

Accurate single-sequence prediction of solvent accessible surface area using local and global features.  

PubMed

We present a new approach for predicting the Accessible Surface Area (ASA) using a General Neural Network (GENN). The novelty of the new approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Instead we use solely sequential window information and global features such as single-residue and two-residue compositions of the chain. The resulting predictor is both highly more efficient than sequence alignment-based predictors and of comparable accuracy to them. Introduction of the global inputs significantly helps achieve this comparable accuracy. The predictor, termed ASAquick, is tested on predicting the ASA of globular proteins and found to perform similarly well for so-called easy and hard cases indicating generalizability and possible usability for de-novo protein structure prediction. The source code and a Linux executables for GENN and ASAquick are available from Research and Information Systems at http://mamiris.com, from the SPARKS Lab at http://sparks-lab.org, and from the Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine at http://mathmed.org. Proteins 2014; 82:3170-3176. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25204636

Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

2014-11-01

298

[Adverse effects of local use of beta-blockaders in glaucoma. A literature review and a survey of reports to the adverse drug reaction authority 1986-95].  

PubMed

The review is based on a survey of studies on adverse reactions related to topical administration of beta-blockers for glaucoma. Locally applied beta-blocking agents are partially resorbed from the nasal mucosa. Concentrations which give rise to systemic effects occur invariably. Several reports exist of congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, severe respiratory symptoms, depression, hallucinations and confusion provoked by topical use of beta-blockers, especially timolol. It is impossible to estimate from the literature how often the various adverse effects occur. One has the impression, however, that adverse effects in the pulmonary and central nervous systems have not been fully considered. Between 1986 and 1995 the Norwegian Medicines Control Authority received reports on adverse reactions related to topical use of beta-blockers in 17 patients. Six of these patients had cardiovascular and four of them severe respiratory symptoms. The latter group also included three fatal cases. The adverse effects seem to occur most frequently in the elderly, and it has been suggested that timolol should not be used in elderly people. Adverse effects related to treatment with topical beta-blockers are probably underreported in Norway. PMID:9235677

Nygaard, H A; Høvding, G

1997-05-30

299

Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

2009-01-01

300

CATLAC: Calibration and validation analysis tool of local area coverage for the SeaWiFS mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration and validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage (CATLAC) is an analysis package for selecting and graphically displaying Earth and space targets for calibration and validation activities on a polar orbiting satellite. The package is written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and includes a graphical user interface. Although it is designed specifically for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, the package can be used for analysis on other Earth-viewing missions. An individual can use text or graphical methods in CATLAC to select Earth targets to be scanned by a satellite. Additional onboard calibration activities (such as observations of the moon, or solar irradiance from a solar diffuser), which use data recorder time, can also be specified. All information pertinent to the creation of a command schedule can be written to a file which is read by a command scheduler. The scheduler can be invoked and the Local Area Coverage (LAC) recording periods can be visually verified using CATLAC. The schedule can also be verified by examining record and error files written by the scheduler.

Woodward, Robert H.; Gregg, Watson W.; Patt, Frederick S.

1994-01-01

301

Structure of regional dykes and local cone sheets in the Midhyrna-Lysuskard area, Snaefellsnes Peninsula (NW Iceland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the first detailed structural description of 48 vertical dykes, 384 inclined sheets and two large intrusions and the geometry (strike, dip direction and dip) of 1116 fractures in the central area of the Snaefellsnes peninsula, NW Iceland. Our data show a more complex setting than that depicted by the WNW-ESE en-echelon trend of the volcanic structures at the surface. In the Miocene basement lavas, dykes dominantly strike N50-100°E whereas other directions are also present with a higher dispersion. Two main swarms of centrally dipping sheets have also been recognized, focussing towards two areas. Sheet dips range from 2 to 75° with the higher frequency between 10 and 45°. In section view, there is no systematic variation of sheet dip with distance from the focus area. Gabbro and granophyre laccoliths are present in the studied area but cross-cutting relations indicate that most of the inclined sheets are younger. Comparison with regional tectonics suggests that the N50-80°E-striking dykes are coherent with emplacement under the stress field of the pre-6 Ma Snaefellsnes Rift dominated by a NNW-SSE-directed least principal stress (?3). The N80-100°E dykes and the late Quaternary WNW-trending sub-aerial volcanic features are instead consistent with the development of a more recent E-W, right-lateral shear zone affecting the Snaefellsnes peninsula. Coherent sets of fractures have also been found. Within the inclined sheet swarms, the stress tensor rotated in response to an excess magma pressure linked to two underlying magma chambers of lobate shape, located at an estimated depth of about 400 and 500 m below sea level. This local magmatic stress also produced the centrally inclined fracture swarms that have been found in this area.

Tibaldi, Alessandro; Bonali, Fabio Luca; Pasquaré, Federico Aligi; Rust, Derek; Cavallo, Alessandro; D'Urso, Alessandro

2013-11-01

302

Crustal deformation in the Calabro-Peloritan area from GPS measurements: an analytical model of the local tectonic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 1908 December 28 a Mw=7.1 earthquake struggled the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria causing more than 100.000 casualties. Since that dramatic episode, geologists and geophysicists have attempted to understand the complex tectonic of the Calabro-Peloritan Arc, with the aim to improve the knowledge of the active faults of this area and the seismic hazard. In this work we have studied the deformation pattern along the southernmost part of the Calabro-Peloritan Arc through 12 years of GPS measurements. We present and discuss mayor results, in terms of rates of movements along the principal fault systems and of velocity field (computed in an Eurasian reference frame) and strain-rate field of the investigated area. In particular, we have found that a 0.15 ?strain/yr extension across the Messina Strait and across the Aeolian-Tindari-Letoianni fault system is acting. Moreover, an N-S compressive strain (0.65 ?strain/yr) is acting across Vulcano and Lipari Islands coupled with an extensional strain-rate of 0.15 ?strain/yr in E-W direction. The results are also investigated through a simplified analytical model of the local tectonic, taking into account the regional context at a larger scale (Eurasia-Africa convergence). The results inferred from the analytical inversion of geodetic velocities have been compared with structural and seismological data of the investigated area.

Mattia, M.; Palano, M.; Bruno, V.; Cannavò, F.

2009-04-01

303

Chemical character of ground water in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight deep wells are being monitored in the Memphis, Tenn., area to detect any changes in the chemical character of water moving through the Memphis Sand towards major pumping centers. These wells are strategically located so as to intercept groundwater enroute through the Memphis Sand from the outcrop-recharge area. Although water quality analyses are available for many wells in the shallow water-table aquifer, no specific investigation has been made to characterize the quality of the water in this aquifer from which the Memphis Sand also receives part of its recharge. This investigation is to determine the chemical character of groundwater in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area. Methods used to install eight shallow wells at abandoned dump sites containing chemical and/or industrial waste are described. Water samples from the eight shallow wells and two deep wells in the Memphis Sand were collected and analyzed. Results of the analysis are presented and the locations of the wells and dumps are shown on maps. (USGS)

Parks, William Scott; Graham, D. D.; Lowery, J. F.

1981-01-01

304

Screening for gonorrhoea using samples collected through the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme and risk of false positives: a national survey of Local Authorities  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate use of dual tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae on samples collected through the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) in England. Design and setting During May–July 2013, we delivered an online survey to commissioners of sexual health services in the 152 upper-tier English Local Authorities (LAs) who were responsible for commissioning chlamydia screening in people aged 15–24?years. Main outcome measures (1) The proportion of English LAs using dual tests on samples collected by the NCSP; (2) The estimated number of gonorrhoea tests and false positives from samples collected by the NCSP, calculated using national surveillance data on the number of chlamydia tests performed, assuming the gonorrhoea prevalence to range between 0.1% and 1%, and test sensitivity and specificity of 99.5%. Results 64% (98/152) of LAs responded to this national survey; over half (53% (52/98)) reported currently using dual tests in community settings. There was no significant difference between LAs using and not using dual tests by chlamydia positivity, chlamydia diagnosis rate or population screening coverage. Although positive gonorrhoea results were confirmed with supplementary tests in 93% (38/41) of LAs, this occurred after patients were notified about the initial positive result in 63% (26/41). Approximately 450–4500 confirmed gonorrhoea diagnoses and 2300 false-positive screens might occur through use of dual tests on NCSP samples each year. Under reasonable assumptions, the positive predictive value of the screening test is 17–67%. Conclusions Over half of English LAs already commission dual tests for samples collected by the NCSP. Gonorrhoea screening has been introduced alongside chlamydia screening in many low prevalence settings without a national evidence review or change of policy. We question the public health benefit here, and suggest that robust testing algorithms and clinical management pathways, together with rigorous evaluation, be implemented wherever dual tests are deployed. PMID:25324326

Field, Nigel; Kennedy, Iain; Folkard, Kate; Duffell, Stephen; Town, Katy; Ison, Catherine A; Hughes, Gwenda

2014-01-01

305

Female circumcision and its health implications: a study of the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A total of 400 subjects was randomly selected from 40 villages in the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State for the study. The purposes of the study were to: i. identify the 'established benefits' of female circumcision; ii. identify the health hazards that accompany the practice; and iii. create awareness among community members of the ill-effects of the practice. The study discovered a strong belief in the established benefits and poor appreciation of the health hazards of female circumcision by the participants. Recommendations were made for more efforts in public health education programmes on the ill-effects of the practice. Studies were also recommended to be conducted in other parts of the country to assess the level of awareness on the ill-effects of such an operation and the institution of educational programmes where applicable. PMID:9223848

Ebong, R D

1997-04-01

306

Copyright 2003 by the author(s). Published here under licence by The Resilience Alliance. Ricketts, T. and M. Imhoff. 2003. Biodiversity, urban areas, and agriculture: locating priority ecoregions  

E-print Network

effects of chemical pollution and disturbance of water and nutrient cycles (Pimentel et al. 1992, Vitousek. Ricketts, T. and M. Imhoff. 2003. Biodiversity, urban areas, and agriculture: locating priority ecoregions Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation Taylor Ricketts1

Vermont, University of

307

The neural bases of grapheme-color synesthesia are not localized in real color-sensitive areas.  

PubMed

The subjective experience of color by synesthetes when viewing achromatic letters and numbers supposedly relates to real color experience, as exemplified by the recruitment of the V4 color center observed in some brain imaging studies. Phenomenological reports and psychophysics tests indicate, however, that both experiences are different. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tried to precise the degree of coactivation by real and synesthetic colors, by evaluating each color center individually, and applying adaptation protocols across real and synesthetic colors. We also looked for structural differences between synesthetes and nonsynesthetes. In 10 synesthetes, we found that color areas and retinotopic areas were not activated by synesthetic colors, whatever the strength of synesthetic associations measured objectively for each subject. Voxel-based morphometry revealed no white matter (WM) or gray matter difference in those regions when compared with 25 control subjects. But synesthetes had more WM in the retrosplenial cortex bilaterally. The joint coding of real and synesthetic colors, if it exists, must therefore be distributed rather than localized in the visual cortex. Alternatively, the key to synesthetic color experience might not lie in the color system. PMID:21914631

Hupé, Jean-Michel; Bordier, Cécile; Dojat, Michel

2012-07-01

308

Residential mobility across local areas in the United States and the geographic distribution of the healthy population.  

PubMed

Determining whether population dynamics provide competing explanations to place effects for observed geographic patterns of population health is critical for understanding health inequality. We focus on the working-age population-the period of adulthood when health disparities are greatest-and analyze detailed data on residential mobility collected for the first time in the 2000 U.S. census. Residential mobility over a five-year period is frequent and selective, with some variation by race and gender. Even so, we found little evidence that mobility biases cross-sectional snapshots of local population health. Areas undergoing large or rapid population growth or decline may be exceptions. Overall, place of residence is an important health indicator; yet, the frequency of residential mobility raises questions of interpretation from etiological or policy perspectives, complicating simple understandings that residential exposures alone explain the association between place and health. Psychosocial stressors related to contingencies of social identity associated with being black, urban, or poor in the United States may also have adverse health impacts that track with structural location even with movement across residential areas. PMID:24781651

Geronimus, Arline T; Bound, John; Ro, Annie

2014-06-01

309

Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

2014-05-01

310

Global Moho Estimate from Goce Space-Wise Solution and a Local Application in the Mediterranean Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to estimate a global Moho depth using the GOCE global gravity model GO_CONS_GFC_2_SPW_R2. A simple two-layers model, with known density contrast, has been considered and a linearized relationship between the spherical harmonic coefficient of the anomalous potential Tnm and those of the Moho depth has been derived. In this way, a simple and straightforward formula can be established to get the spherical harmonic expansion of the Moho depth with respect to its mean depth estimated from previous models (e.g. CRUST 2.0). Moreover, in the same framework, a collocation solution to estimate the Moho by merging gravity and direct Moho depth information (coming from e.g. seismic) has been derived. In this way, collocation can be used as a physical interpolation method (based on gravity) to merge seismic derived Moho profiles. In order to be as close as possible to the two layers model, reductions for the gravity signal related to topography/bathymetry have been applied. Furthermore, the impact of sediments, at global scale, has been evaluated. The information on the sediments have been derived from the CRUST2.0 model and their effect on the Moho estimate has been discussed. The obtained global Moho is in substantial agreement with its main known features at low frequencies. Possible improvements with respect to previous estimates are mainly due to the homogeneous data and model used to get it. This estimate can be usefully applied to reduce the Moho gravity signal in local areas. In fact, by analyzing the residuals after regional signal reduction, high frequency details of the Moho can be derived and investigated by applying standard inversion methods. To prove the reliability and the effectiveness of the estimated global Moho model in local analyses, a test has been performed in the Mediterranean area. This test showed that high frequency components of the Moho structure can be more properly defined, particularly in complex areas such those in the Alpine region.

Sampietro, D.; Barzaghi, R.; Borghi, A.; Reguzzoni, M.

2011-12-01

311

A taxonomic revision of two local endemic Radix spp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from Khodutka geothermal area, Kamchatka, Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Khodutka geothermal area is located near Khodutka and Priemysh volcanoes and is one of the largest geothermal areas of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Vakin (2003) described geological, geochemical and geothermic conditions of this geothermal area in detail. The main thermal water sources have temperatures up to 87°C and a discharge of approximately 150 l×sec.-1 are flows out into the warm lake with dimensions of ca. 250 m length and 80 m width. This warm river is ca. 20 m in width beginning from the lake and flows to the Bolshaya Khodutka River basin. Two local endemic Radix species were described from this geothermal area, especially Lymnaea (Radix) hadutkae Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 and L. (R.) thermokamtschatica Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Kruglov 2005). These species were separated using proportions of shell and reproductive system (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Starobogatov et al. 2004). According to the diagnosis, L. (R.) hadutkae differs in the ear-shape shell, a form of the provaginal duct with cylindrical distal part and conical proximal part, and larger value of the index of the copulatory apparatus (ICA: proportion of the preputium to phallotheca is 1.27) from other species within the section Thermoradix Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989. The last whorl is large, 0.86-0.89 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.15-0.16 of the aperture height. L. (R.) thermokamtschatica has the cylindrical provaginal duct, relatively short bursa duct (1.5X longer than the bursa copulatrix diameter) and very long phallotheca (ICA is 0.77). The last whorl is large, 0.85-0.87 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.2-0.25 of the aperture height. In accordance with an identification key (Starobogatov et al. 2004), the main diagnostic feature is an excess of the last whorl over the shell aperture, which has ?0.78 and ?0.80 of the penultimate whorl width in the first and second species, respectively. In the present paper, we revised these taxa using newly collected topotypes and additional Radix spp. specimens from other areas of the Russian Far East.  PMID:25283942

Bolotov, Ivan; Bespalaya, Yulia; Aksenova, Olga; Aksenov, Andrey; Bolotov, Nikita; Gofarov, Mikhail; Kondakov, Alexander; Paltser, Inga; Vikhrev, Ilya

2014-01-01

312

Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

2009-01-01

313

To Establish, Operate and Maintain Supplementary Educational Services: Instructional Television Experience Development and Distribution. An Evaluation of San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority Educational Program Activities; September 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this report represent a digest of activity by the San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority from the organization's inception in 1966 to 1969 when the Title III Grant expired. Each year the Authority provided instructional television to some 250,000 students and teachers. The report includes information relating to…

All, Stephen A., Ed.; Stegeman, William H., Ed.

314

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Tr?s-os-Montes, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

2011-01-01

315

Regional and local increases in storm intensity in the San Francisco Bay Area, USA, between 1890 and 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of extreme precipitation have documented changes at the continental scale during the twentieth century, but few studies have quantified changes at small to regional spatial scales during the same time. We analyze historic data from over 600 precipitation stations in the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), California, to assess whether there have been statistically significant changes in extreme precipitation between 1890 and 2010. An annual exceedance probability analysis of extreme precipitation events in the SFBA, coupled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, reveals an increase in the occurrence of large events. The depth-duration-frequency characteristics of maximum annual precipitation events having durations of 1 h to 60 days indicate on average an increase in storm intensity in the last 120 years, with the intensity of the largest (least frequent) events increasing the most. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) also increased during the study period, but the relative increase in extreme event intensity exceeds that of MAP, indicating that a greater fraction of precipitation fell during large events. Analysis of data from subareas within the SFBA region indicates considerable heterogeneity in the observed nonstationarity; for example, the 5 day, 25 year event exceedance depth changed by +26%, +16%, and -1% in San Francisco, Santa Rosa, and San Jose, respectively. These results emphasize the importance of analyzing local data for accurate risk assessment, emergency planning, resource management, and climate model calibration.

Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Winslow, Dustin M.

2013-04-01

316

Single-wavelength-pump bi-directional hybrid fiber amplifier for bi-directional local area network application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel bi-directional hybrid fiber amplifier using a single-wavelength pump laser diode (LD) at 1495 nm. The hybrid amplifier is theoretically applied in a 50 km bi-directional local area network (LAN) with 26 ch × 10 Gb/s for bi-directional transmission. Thirteen C-band channels serve as downlink signals while the other 13 L-band channels are employed as uplink signals. Without loss of generality, four channels (two from each band) are experimentally analyzed. Erbium doped fiber (EDF) provides amplification for the C-band channels and Raman amplification amplifies the L-band channels. The pump efficiency is improved by employing a double-pass scheme for both the Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and Raman fiber amplifier (RFA). The chromatic dispersion incurred by all the channels is precisely compensated for by inserting a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array in appropriate locations along the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) segments. Moreover, gain equalization of all the channels is achieved by adjusting the FBG reflectivity. Both the simulation results and experimental measurements confirm the proposed device feasibility and potential application in a bi-directional LAN.

Guo, Mars Ning; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Shum, Perry Ping; Chen, Nan-Kuang; Hung, Hsin-Kai; Lin, Chinlon

2011-01-01

317

Evolution of a Patient Information Management System in a Local Area Network Environment at Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center  

PubMed Central

The Department of Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC) of Chicago has implemented a local area network (LAN) based Patient Information Management System (PIMS) as part of its integrated departmental database management system. PIMS consists of related database applications encompassing demographic information, current medications, problem lists, clinical data, prior events, and on-line procedure results. Integration into the existing departmental database system permits PIMS to capture and manipulate data in other departmental applications. Standardization of clinical data is accomplished through three data tables that verify diagnosis codes, procedures codes and a standardized set of clinical data elements. The modularity of the system, coupled with standardized data formats, allowed the development of a Patient Information Protocol System (PIPS). PIPS, a userdefinable protocol processor, provides physicians with individualized data entry or review screens customized for their specific research protocols or practice habits. Physician feedback indicates that the PIMS/PIPS combination enhances their ability to collect and review specific patient information by filtering large amount of clinical data.

Price, Ronald N; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J; Tamirisa, Balaji

1990-01-01

318

Money for value: the Kinzigtal-way to measure the produced value and health gain in a local area  

PubMed Central

‘Triple Aim’ is the buzzword for the initiatives of the Obama-administration in the US and is referring to a famous article of Don Berwick et al. in 2008 in health affairs asking for better health, better health care, and lower per capita costs. A similar venture started already in 2006 in Germany. One of the most challenging ventures towards reorienting health care in the direction of outcome-orientation is the measurement of the produced value and health gain in a local area. In this keynote the financial architecture and the specific way to measure the produced value and health gain in the integrated care pilot ‘Gesundes Kinzigtal’ will be described—as well some of the operating details and the results within. Located in Southwest Germany, Gesundes Kinzigtal is the only population-based integrated care approaches in Germany, organising care across all health service sectors and indications, that is thoroughly scientifcally evaluated on its medical outcomes in regard to normal care. The system serving nearly half of the population of the region is run by a regional health management company in cooperation with the physicians’ network in the region, a German health care management company with a background in medical sociology and health economics and with two statutory health insurers. Having started in 2006 the more effective trans-sector organisation of the local health care system and increased investments in well-designed preventive and health promotion programmes have led to a reduction in morbidity and mortality, and in particular to reduced overall costs for the insurees of these sickness funds. The results for one of the insurers show a substantial morbidity adjusted efficiency gain already for the years 2007–2010, rising to more than 16% of total costs (included are pharmaceutical, hospital, nursing, emergency as well as physiotherapist and sick leave costs). More Information can be found on www.optimedis.de and www.gesundes-kinzigtal.de and on the evaluation (in German and English) www.ekiv.org.

Hildebrandt, Helmut

2012-01-01

319

Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of\\u000a MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and\\u000a local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study\\u000a to investigate whether the

Angela DikouNiki Dionysopoulou; Niki Dionysopoulou

2011-01-01

320

Differences in recourse to HIV testing according to migration origin in the Paris metropolitan area in Authors: Annabelle Lapostollea,b  

E-print Network

in 2010 Authors: Annabelle Lapostollea,b , Véronique Massaria,b , Nathalie Beltzerc , Sandrine Halfenc Santé Publique, F75012 Paris, France Contact person : Annabelle Lapostolle, PhD. Inserm U707DS3 27

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and one or more partners. Under either...negotiated with each partner annually to clarify...elected officials and partners may request assistance...administering the partner program, the...Local Board and partners must document the...Board and a required partner must be...

2010-04-01

322

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and one or more partners. Under either...negotiated with each partner annually to clarify...elected officials and partners may request assistance...administering the partner program, the...Local Board and partners must document the...Board and a required partner must be...

2011-04-01

323

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

...and one or more partners. Under either...negotiated with each partner annually to clarify...elected officials and partners may request assistance...administering the partner program, the...Local Board and partners must document the...Board and a required partner must be...

2014-04-01

324

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and one or more partners. Under either...negotiated with each partner annually to clarify...elected officials and partners may request assistance...administering the partner program, the...Local Board and partners must document the...Board and a required partner must be...

2012-04-01

325

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and one or more partners. Under either...negotiated with each partner annually to clarify...elected officials and partners may request assistance...administering the partner program, the...Local Board and partners must document the...Board and a required partner must be...

2013-04-01

326

Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

2011-05-01

327

Communicating a marine protected area through the local press: the case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece.  

PubMed

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy. PMID:21424571

Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

2011-05-01

328

Helpful and Unhelpful Practices in Meeting the Needs of Pupils with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A Pilot Survey of Staff Views in One Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emotional and behavioural problems experienced by pupils continue to be a key concern for educationalists. In this article, Peter Lloyd Bennett, an educational psychologist, reports on his research into the views of staff about this important area of work. Questionnaires on meeting the needs of pupils with emotional and behavioural…

Bennett, Peter Lloyd

2006-01-01

329

Local perceptions of jaguars ( Panthera onca) and pumas ( Puma concolor) in the Iguaçu National Park area, south Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaguars (Panthera onca) have been killed by local residents within the boundaries and lands surrounding Iguaçu National Park (INP), Brazil. Both jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) occur in the region, however, livestock predation by pumas has rarely been reported. Our objective was to assess the local perceptions about jaguars and pumas. We identified two major factors that distinguished the perceptions

Valéria Amorim Conforti; Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo

2003-01-01

330

Increasing crop yield in water scarce environments using locally available materials: An experience from semi-arid areas in Mpwapwa District, central Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experience on working with farmers in water scarce environments in improving crop yield through the application of locally available materials in semi-arid areas of Mpwapwa District, central Tanzania. Findings are presented from the interdisciplinary study that involved documenting farmers perceptions and on-farm field experimentation. In the farmers’ perceptions study, three different traditional tillage practices applied by smallholder

R. S. Shemdoe; P. Van Damme; I. S. Kikula

2009-01-01

331

Local Circulations Developed in the Vicinity of Both Coastal and Inland Urban Areas: A Numerical Study with a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical study was conducted of the effects of two nearby urban areas, one coastal and one inland, on the local circulations and transport of urban pollutants, using a 3D mesoscale incompressible and hydrostatic atmospheric model. The Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model was applied in the atmospheric model to study the transport of pollutants. The main experimental results are as follows:

Yukitaka Ohashi; Hideji Kida

2002-01-01

332

Using Multiple Environmental Age Tracers to Investigate Interactions between Hydrothermal and Shallow Local Systems in the Norris Geyser Basin Area, Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple age tracers are used to constrain the evolution of groundwater and interactions between shallow local flow and the hydrothermal system in the area surrounding Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park. Springs, ranging in temperature from 4°C - 92°C, were sample for dissolved chloroflourocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) concentrations and tritium concentrations. Sample springs had a wide distribution of

P. Gardner; D. Susong; D. K. Solomon; H. Heasler

2008-01-01

333

The mission of the Research Centers is to serve the specific needs of the clientele in local production areas and the broader needs of Montana agriculture  

E-print Network

production areas and the broader needs of Montana agriculture in general through applied research directed to the problems and impacts of agricultural production. New knowledge generated by Agricultural Research Center programs benefits Montana agriculture and the scientific community at local, state and national levels

Dyer, Bill

334

The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07) SUPPORTING FIRST PERSON SHOOTER GAMES IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA  

E-print Network

of interaction among players in the shared virtual environment. In comparison with other multi-player gaming (PIMRC'07) SUPPORTING FIRST PERSON SHOOTER GAMES IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS Brian Carrig School Dublin, Belfield Dublin 4, Ireland Email: j.murphy@ucd.ie ABSTRACT First Person Shooter (FPS) games

335

A Survey of Users' Reactions to the Local Area Network in the Library School at the University of North Texas. A Research Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research analyzing users' reactions to the implementation of automation and computer technology in the industrial and business fields indicates that users will respond more positively to these new technologies if they are adequately trained beforehand. To measure response in the academic sector, users' reactions to the local area network (LAN) in…

Brazile, Orella Ramsey

336

Fast CollisionResolution (FCR) MAC Algorithm for Wireless Local Area Networks YounggooKwon, YugyangFang, and Haniph Latch"  

E-print Network

Fast CollisionResolution (FCR) MAC Algorithm for Wireless Local Area Networks YounggooKwon, Yugyang 32611-6130 Absmzc-Dwelopmrat of rffidcot medlum ~ C C D I Ieootml (MAC) pro- tomb lr a fnadmentnlCoUkion Awidiarr(CSMA/CA). We `propow an efficient dWbotrd mitention-hmed MAC pmtoeol for wiml`ss 1-1 *rea

Latchman, Haniph A.

337

A multi-scale assessment of local and contextual threats to existing and potential U.S. protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing threats to protected areas is a critical step to ensure effective resource conservation and to leverage future conservation actions. It is equally important to assess external and internal threats because human activities both in and around a protected area can impair the area's ecological goals or impart important ecological benefits to adjacent lands. We applied a threat framework that

Alisa A. Wade; David M. Theobald; Melinda J. Laituri

2011-01-01

338

Could the Fermi Large Area Telescope detect ?-rays from dark matter annihilation in the dwarf galaxies of the Local Group?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: The detection of ?-rays from dark matter (DM) annihilation is among the scientific goals of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (formerly known as GLAST) and Cherenkov telescopes. Aims: In this paper we investigate the chances of such a discovery, selecting some nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) as a target, and adopting the DM density profiles derived from both astronomical observations and N-body simulations. We also make use of recent studies about the presence of black holes and of a population of sub-subhalos inside the Local Group (LG) dwarfs to carry out boost factor studies. Methods: We study the detectability with the Fermi-LAT of the ?-ray flux from DM annihilation in four of the nearest and highly DM-dominated dSph galaxies of the LG, namely Draco, Ursa Minor, Carina, and Sextans, for which state-of-art DM density profiles were available. We assume the DM is made of weakly interacting massive particles such as the lightest supersymmetric particle and compute the expected ?-ray flux for estimations of the unknown underlying particle physics parameters. We then compute the boost factors due to the presence of DM clumps and of a central supermassive black hole. Finally, we compare our predictions with the Fermi-LAT sensitivity maps. Results: We find that the dSph galaxies shine above the Galactic smooth halo: e.g., the Galactic halo is brighter than the Draco dSph only for angles smaller than 2.3 degrees above the Galactic Center. We also find that the presence of a cusp or a constant density core in the DM mass density profile does not produce any relevant effects in the ?-ray flux due to the fortunate combination of the geometrical acceptance of the Fermi-LAT detector and the distance of the galaxies. Moreover, no significant enhancement is given by the presence of a central black hole or a population of sub-subhalos. Conclusions: We conclude that, even for the most optimistic scenario of particle physics, the ?-ray flux from DM annihilation in the dSph galaxies of the LG would be too low to be detected with the Fermi-LAT.

Pieri, L.; Pizzella, A.; Corsini, E. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Bertola, F.

2009-03-01

339

Reranking of area sources in light of seasonal/regional emission factors and state/local needs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report gives results of a study of air-pollution area sources and their emissions, their importance as emitters of volatile organic compounds, and sources for which better emission-estimation methodologies are needed. Area sources in general and area-source solvent categories were prioritized based on annual and seasonal emissions and EPA Regional emission dependencies (i.e., certain categories, such as forest wildfires, were identified as categories in which activity occurs significantly more in one region that in others and therefore show regional emission dependencies). Factors affecting the variability of each area-source category were also identified. Inventory assumptions and seasonal/regional factors were documented and discussed.

Kersteter, S.L.

1989-08-01

340

Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland?  

PubMed Central

It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on interactions between individual and environmental factors in shaping health and health inequalities. PMID:18599170

Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

2008-01-01

341

Comparative abundance and population structure of sympatric Afrotropical tortoises in six rainforest areas: the differential effects of ``traditional veneration'' and of ``subsistence hunting'' by local people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hinge-back tortoises are actively hunted by human populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and are currently threatened in wide areas of their ranges. The wide wetlands and moist rainforests of the Niger Delta (southeastern Nigeria, west Africa) house three sympatric species of hinge-back tortoises: Kinixys erosa, K. homeana, and K. belliana nogueyi. These tortoises are subjected to strong hunting pressure for several reasons (mainly domestic consumption), but in a few places in Bayelsa and Rivers States (eastern axis of the Niger Delta), they are traditionally venerated as "holy animals" bringing happiness. These few places may represent ideal laboratories for monitoring the effects of hundreds of years of "traditional conservation" on the wild populations of a tropical reptile. Here, I compare the apparent abundance, sex ratio, body sizes, microhabitats, and seasonal occurrence of free-ranging Kinixys populations inhabiting three of these "traditional sanctuaries" with the same ecological aspects of conspecifics from three neighbouring areas where the tortoises are actively hunted. K. homeana was the most common species at all sites, followed by K. erosa, whereas K. belliana was extremely rare. Adult sex ratio did not depart significantly from equality both in K. erosa and in K. homeana, and was not influenced by locality or by type of "management" (veneration or harvesting). The frequency of juveniles of K. homeana was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas of harvesting, but the same pattern was not observed in K. erosa. There was a significant decrease in terms of the number of observed specimens between areas of traditional protection and areas of usual harvesting in all species, and this trend was more obvious in K. homeana than in K. erosa. The ratio "number of observed erosa/number of observed homeana" was not dependent on the presence of traditional veneration. Mean body sizes were not different in harvest areas and in veneration areas in K. homeana, but the same comparisons were not done for K. erosa because sample sizes were too small. Tortoises in veneration areas inhabited a wider range of microhabitats than in harvest areas, where they were found almost only in dense bushes. Specimens of both K. erosa and K. homeana were observed mainly during the wet season, and this excess of observed specimens was significantly affected both by locality and by type of management, i.e., the frequency of observed specimens of both species during the dry season was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas with local harvesting. The conservation implications of the ecological patterns observed are discussed.

Luiselli, Luca

2003-07-01

342

Military Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

2001-01-01

343

Utah Authors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A smattering of Utah's talented children's book authors. The Girls: Shannon Hale Jessica Day George One of her books: Dragon Slippers Lisa Mangum The Boys: Brandon Mull His New York Times Bestselling series: Fablehaven James Dashner s Blog One of his books: The 13th Reality ...

Brittani

2009-06-25

344

Local peoples' responses to co-management regime in protected areas: A case study from Satchari National Park, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a rather recent and widely promoted, and hence, accepted paradigm for managing protected areas in most developing countries. Protected area managers in Bangladesh face challenges because of the complex sociocultural and political dynamics that result from the high population densities and extreme poverty of people living in or near lands designated for conservation. In

Sharif Ahmed Mukul; A. Z. M. Manzoor Rashid; Shimona A. Quazi; Mohammed Belal Uddin; Jefferson Fox

2012-01-01

345

Recolonization or local reproduction? An assessment of river otter recovery in previously-oiled areas of Prince William Sound via non-invasive genetic sampling.  

E-print Network

River otters (Lontra canadensis) were one of the first resources to recover from the impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS). Nonetheless, genetic evidence suggests that the numerical recovery of otters in oiled sites resulted from recolonization from adjacent areas rather than from local reproduction. Because increased trapping pressure on otters in recent years occurs mainly in non-oiled areas of PWS, previously-oiled sites may become important source locations for these animals. Whether otter reproduction has been attained in previously-oiled areas, however, is unknown. In this project we propose to determine whether reproduction was recovered in otter populations inhabiting previously-oiled areas of PWS, using genetic tools and non-invasive fecal sampling. In this project we will: 1. Estimate the abundance of river otters in previously-oiled and non-oiled areas in PWS via fecal DNA analysis and capture re-capture models to demonstrate that otter recovery is persistent. 2. Assess genetic structure of otter populations to determine the degree of gene flow among previously-oiled and non-oiled areas, and compare these estimates with those obtained in 1996-1998 (Blundell et al. 2002). 3. Evaluate relatedness of individuals within previously-oiled and non-oiled areas as a measure of local reproduction and compare these estimates with those obtained in 1996-1998. 4. Estimate emigration of individual otters from previously-oiled areas to non-oiled areas from fecal DNA analyses and GIS mapping to determine patterns of dispersal on the landscape. 1. Accomplishments to date: Since our previous report (03/31/2008) we have completed genotyping most of the viable samples (Kodiak (KOD; 2007) – 94; Katmai National Park and Preseve (KATM; 2005) –

Merav Ben-david; Kaithryn E. Ott

2008-01-01

346

Visiting Author  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

1999-01-01

347

Fiscal Conservatism versus Local Paternalism: Divergent Experiences of Public Housing Decline in Rural Areas of England during the 1980s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the differential response of two rural districts of England (Fenland and Waveney) to changes in council house provisioning in the 1980s. It is situated in a decade when major policy shifts in social housing policy were occurring at the national level with local governments devising new social housing strategies in response.…

Long, Ian

2005-01-01

348

Fiscal conservatism versus local paternalism: divergent experiences of public housing decline in rural areas of England during the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the differential response of two rural districts of England (Fenland and Waveney) to changes in council house provisioning in the 1980s. It is situated in a decade when major policy shifts in social housing policy were occurring at the national level with local governments devising new social housing strategies in response. Against a fast moving legislative background,

Ian Long

2005-01-01

349

A Preliminary Assessment of the Local Diversity of Family Farms Change Trajectories Since 1950 in a Pyrenees Mountains Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agriculture and environmental sustainability research, assessment of local diversity of individual farm dynamics and farmers' behaviors appears of special interest for enlightening changes in ecological, social, and economical functions related to farming in rural communities and landscapes. It also includes challenges due to current methodology limitations. In this study, we developed a method for assessing the variety in individual

Camille Rueff; Jean-Philippe Choisis; Gerard Balent; Annick Gibon

2012-01-01

350

Interpretation of the concentrations of aldehydes in rainwater over a wide area and local areas of Japan by some dominant factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainwater pollution with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other aliphatic aldehydes was investigated from May 2008 to June 2011 at 19 locations over a wide area in Japan to survey the pollution level. The pollution level was remarkably controlled by the amount of precipitation. The concentrations of total aliphatic aldehydes and formaldehyde sometimes exceeded 0.6 mg L-1 and 0.2 mg L-1 when the rainfall was small, and decreased rapidly with increasing the amount of rainfall. And in larger rainfall, the concentrations were converged to ca. 0.09 mg L-1 and 0.06 mg L-1 respectively. It was found that the concentration of the pollutants collected in a bottle for a single rainfall event is expressed by an equation based on a dilution model where heavy deposition occurred only at early rainfall followed by continuous dilution of the water with less polluted rainwater. These results were interpreted that the aldehydes in air were washed out very quickly due to their high solubility in water. As progressing of rainfall, the pollution level attained to an equilibrium state between influx and outflux of the pollutants. Precise investigation through a sequential sampling of rainwater by 1 mm during a rainfall event was also performed at several sites. It was found that a break of rainfall is another dominant factor to control the pollution level. A break of rainfall quickly enhanced the pollution level of the resumed rain. Regional difference on rainwater pollution level was observed only at the early stage throughout a rainfall event. The air-pollution levels were high just before beginning rainfall, and they decreased quickly with increasing the amount of rainfall, but never converged to zero. These results suggest that continuous influx of the pollutants occurs in a wide area in Japan besides regional influx.

Taguchi, Shigeru; Murai, Keita; Takamatsu, Mizuho; Hayakawa, Yukari; Tamizu, Shinya; Kuwata, Makoto; Katayama, Yuuki; Kuramitz, Hideki; Hata, Noriko

2012-12-01

351

Partitioning, sources and variability of regional and local oxidant (OX?=?O3?+?NO 2) in a coastal rural area in the southwest of Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to investigate the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX?=?NO2?+?O3), for the first time, in a rural coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, affected by several air masses types. Detailed database (built-up over the years 2008 to 2011, and containing around 500,000 data) from the Atmospheric Sounding Station "El Arenosillo" was used. The observed daily cycles of NO x and OX were influenced by air masses coming from industrial and urban area. It can be seen that the concentration of OX is made up of a NO x -independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O3 background), and a linearly NO x -dependent 'local' contribution from primary emissions, such as traffic. The local emission is very low in this area. Also, the regional contribution is similar to unpolluted sites and presents seasonal variation, being higher in May. However, our measurements showed that the proportion of OX in the form of NO2 increases with the increase in NO x concentration during the day. The higher proportion of NO2 observed at night must be due to the conversion of NO to NO2 by the NO?+?O3 reaction. With regards to the source of the local NO x -dependent contribution, it may be attributed to industrial emission, or the termolecular reaction 2NO?+?O2?=?2NO2, at high-NO x levels and stagnant air during several days. Finally, we estimated the photolysis rate of NO2, J NO2, an important key atmospheric reaction coupled with ozone. We also present surface plots of annual variation of the daily mean NO x and OX levels, which indicate that oxidants come from transport processes instead of local emissions associated as local photochemistry. PMID:23529402

Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

2013-09-01

352

Session: LAN application Extension of a local area network from voice and data applications to video communications facilities: the CARTHAGE and ARTIS NETWORKS.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this communication is to examine the different possibilities to design Integrated Services Networks, to justify the technical choices made for a Fiber's Optic Local Area Network, the CARTHAGE/LCT 6500 Network carriiing voice and data in an office automation and telematics environment and to present its extension to videocommunications facilities by tiing a star configured video switched network to the first Network.

Renoulin, R.; Fruchard, C.; Marti

1986-07-01

353

Data link level interconnection of remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Networks (FDDI LANs) through the Critical Data Link (CDL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the features and performance of a network interface device to interconnect two remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Local Area Networks (LAN's) through the Critical Data Link (CDL) which is a full-duplex, jam-resistant, point-to-point microwave communications system for use in imagery and signals intelligence collection systems. In particular, OPNET, a commercially available network engineering tool is

Selcuk Karayakaylar

1994-01-01

354

Design, Analysis, and DSP-Based Implementation of a Code-Phase-Shift Keying Receiver for Wireless Local Area Network Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces code-phase-shift keying(CPSK), a novel M-ary direct-sequence spread-spectrum(DS-SS) signaling technique that is particularlysuitable for wireless local area network applications. In CPSK, each of the M signaling waveforms isobtained by a different code phase shift of a singlepseudonoise (PN) sequence. It increases the data ratewithout sacrificing spreading gain, and is more power efficient over additive white Gaussian noise(AWGN) than

Robert Link; Victor C. M. Leung

1998-01-01

355

Evaluation of local amplification in the seismic microzonation: comparison between punctual multidisciplinary integrated studies and macroseismic methods in Fivizzano's area (Toscana, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the seismic microzonation the evaluation of the local amplification issue may be solved using different methodological\\u000a approaches. Taking the hint from the studies made within VEL project framework, sponsored by Tuscany Region on Fivizzano's\\u000a area we are herewith comparing the results of geotechnical and geophysical integrated multidisciplinary studies with the existing\\u000a data available from previous studies, mainly using a

Patrizio Signanini; Vittorio D'Intinosante; Maurizio Ferrini; Mario L. Rainone

2004-01-01

356

A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming.  

PubMed

Movements of water that transport pathogens mean that in net-pen aquaculture diseases are often most effectively managed collaboratively among neighbours. Such area management is widely and explicitly applied for pathogen management in marine salmon farms. Effective area management requires the active support of farm managers and a simple game-theory based framework was developed to identify the conditions required under which collaboration is perceived to be in their own best interest. The model applied is based on area management as practiced for Scottish salmon farms, but its simplicity allows it to be generalised to other area-managed net-pen aquaculture systems. In this model managers choose between purchasing tested pathogen-free fish or cheaper, untested fish that might carry pathogens. Perceived pay-off depends on degree of confidence that neighbours will not buy untested fish, risking input of pathogens that spread between farms. For a given level of risk, confidence in neighbours is most important in control of moderate-impact moderate-probability diseases. Common low-impact diseases require high confidence since there is a high probability a neighbour will import, while testing for rare high-impact diseases may be cost-effective regardless of neighbours actions. In some cases testing may be beneficial at an area level, even if all individual farms are better off not testing. Higher confidence is required for areas with many farms and so focusing management on smaller, epidemiologically imperfect, areas may be more effective. The confidence required for collaboration can be enhanced by the development of formal agreements and the involvement of outside disinterested parties such as trade bodies or government. PMID:24767813

Murray, Alexander G

2014-08-01

357

AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FAMILIARITY AND WILLINGNESS TO USE ONLINE FOOD SHOPPING SERVICES IN A LOCAL AREA OF TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online food shopping is not only one of the newest innovations in grocery shopping but also one of the many services integrating the changing needs of consumers and the increasing use of modern technology. A survey was conducted in the Bryan\\/College Station area of Texas to determine a quantitative profile of consumers, via logit analysis, who are familiar with the

Jennifer Hiser; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.; Oral Capps Jr.

1999-01-01

358

A METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ARMY TRAINING AND TESTING AREA CARRYING CAPACITY (ATTACC) VEHICLE SEVERITY FACTORS AND LOCAL CONDITION FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) program is a methodology for estimating training and testing land carrying capacity. The methodology is used to determine land rehabilitation and maintenance costs associated with land-based training. ATTACC is part of...

359

Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors Among States and Selected Local Areas — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Continuous monitoring of behaviors that increase the risk for chronic diseases and use of preventive practices are essential for the development, implementation, and evaluation of health promotion programs and policies, and other inter- vention strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality. Data from states\\/territories, selected metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs), and counties provide the impetus for policymakers and other

Elizabeth Hughes; Melissa McCracken; Henry Roberts; Ali H. Mokdad; Ronald Goodson; Evelyn Dunn; Laurie Elam-Evans; Wayne Giles; Ruth Jiles

2010-01-01

360

A study of EMI-endurance of two polling-type local area networks used in real-time automation applications in a simulated electrical environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three modelling ideas: disturbance generator, applying risk, and availability area to be used in the planning, testing and use of real-time automation applications installed in EMI-environments (electromagnetic interference), for the evaluation of EMI-endurance of a local area network (LAN) used on the process data bus level are presented. The effect of electrical disturbances is taken into consideration by the disturbance generator. It takes into consideration parameters affecting the EMI-endurance of a LAN: the physical installation, and parameters of the data communications, and of the electrical transient disturbances. Generation of messages, disturbances, and the network were simulated and tested. The time stationary probability distributions of the performance and unreliability are evaluated as a function of the disturbance voltage. By using the time stationary probability distributions of EMI-levels measured from field conditions, and the probability distributions, the risks and availability areas of a LAN-based system can be evaluated in different EMI-conditions.

Takala, Josu

1988-08-01

361

Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

2013-04-01

362

Direct modification of colloidal hole-masks for locally ordered hetero-assemblies of nanostructures over large areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a direct mask modification method applicable in hole-mask nanostructure fabrication. It is demonstrated that by using this technique the size, material, relative location and ordering of individual subunits can be controlled and varied independently to generate hetero-assemblies of nanostructures including chiral structures over large areas.We have developed a direct mask modification method applicable in hole-mask nanostructure fabrication. It is demonstrated that by using this technique the size, material, relative location and ordering of individual subunits can be controlled and varied independently to generate hetero-assemblies of nanostructures including chiral structures over large areas. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials used, detailed fabrication and characterisation description, schematic representation of the fabrication steps for all structures presented in this work, graph of disk diameters versus modification thickness and investigation of optical properties of Au disks on silica supports. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03871h

Frederiksen, Maj; Sutherland, Duncan S.

2013-12-01

363

Immunocytochemical localization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the area postrema of the cat - Light and electron microscopic study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was demonstrated in the cytoplasm and processes of ependymal cells and astroglial components of the area postrema of the cat. These observations differ from the findings in the ependyma of the ventricular cavities which are consistently negative for the protein. Since some studies have suggested sensory functions of the glial cells in this emetic chemoreceptor trigger zone, a careful consideration of morphological and biochemical attributes of these cells seems appropriate.

Damelio, F. E.; Gibbs, M. A.; Mehler, W. R.; Eng, L. F.

1985-01-01

364

Co Authors  

E-print Network

The aim of the present study was to highlight the comparative nootropic effects of Evolvulus alsinoides and Convolvulus pluricaulis using two validated models of memory namely jumping box and elevated plus maze. Evolvulus alsinoides and Convolvulus pluricaulis are regarded as the botanical source of Shankhpushpi along with Clitorea ternatea and Canscora decussata. Shankhpushpi, an important drug of indigenous system of medicine is known as a brain tonic, alterative and laxative. However various authors on Indian medicinal plants have different opinion about its correct botanical source. Rats were treated orally with vehicle (2 % Tween 80 suspension), standard treatment (Piracetam, 200mg/kg body weight), alcoholic extracts of Evolvulous alsinoides and Convolvulus pluricaulis (250mg/kg body weight) respectively, one hour prior to the evaluation of behavioral parameters. The results indicate that alcoholic extracts of Evolvulous alsinoides exhibited superior nootropic activity as compared to Convolvulus pluricaulis in terms of time spent in the enclosed arm in plus maze model and the mean avoidance response on the jumping box model This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net

Preeti Kothiyal

365

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 Authority. (a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found...

2012-10-01

366

The Structure of Local Public Finance and the Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in local fiscal conditions generate compensating differentials across local land and labor markets just as the authors have known amenities to do. Thus, the local fiscal climate affects the quality of life across metropolitan areas. The authors present new results showing that intercity fiscal differentials are nearly as important as amenity differentials in determining the quality of life across

Joseph Gyourko; Joseph Tracy

1991-01-01

367

Local social capital and the acceptance of Protected Area policies: an empirical study of two Ramsar river delta ecosystems in northern Greece.  

PubMed

Managing Protected Areas (PAs) is a challenging task, and globally many instruments have been utilised for this purpose. Existing research demonstrates that the effectiveness of these instruments is highly dependent on their social acceptability among local communities resident within PAs. Consequently, investigating local attitudes and perceptions of Protected Area (PA) policies has been emphasised in recent studies. Drawing on empirical work conducted in two National Parks including river delta ecosystems designated as Ramsar wetlands in northern Greece, this paper examines local residents' perceptions of three hypothesized policy options (regulatory, market-based and participatory) for Park management. The influence of social capital elements (social trust, institutional trust and social networks) on residents' perceptions is explored. The findings reveal a high degree of importance attached by resident communities to Park designation in both PAs, though residents' perceptions of the proposed management options varied. The regulatory option was regarded as the least restrictive, while the most restrictive was perceived to be the market-based option. However, greater benefits were identified by residents from the market-based option, while the fewest benefits were considered to arise from the proposed regulatory option. Furthermore, local residents' perceptions were significantly shaped by the proposed management and decision-making structure offered under each policy option. The influence of different social capital elements on residents' perceptions also varied in the study sample, with social trust and institutional trust positively correlated with the benefits that were perceived to arise from the different policy options. Moreover, when social capital was measured as an aggregate indicator at the level of the individual, it was positively correlated with perceived environmental benefits. PMID:22208398

Jones, N; Clark, J R A; Panteli, M; Proikaki, M; Dimitrakopoulos, P G

2012-04-15

368

Local axon collaterals of area CA1 support spread of epileptiform discharges within CA1, but propagation is unidirectional.  

PubMed

CA3 and subiculum are hippocampal formation regions that can initiate seizure activity because each has a substantial intrinsic excitatory connectivity. We studied the intrinsic connectivity of area CA1 by exploring the spread of synchronous population discharges in ventral hippocampal slices from rats using a recording chamber that permitted multiple simultaneous extracellular recordings along all laminae of CA1. Brief single stimulus pulses were applied to stratum oriens (SO) or stratum radiatum (SR) on the CA3 side or the subicular side of CA1. In disinhibited slices, events triggered with SO or SR stimulation on the CA3-side propagated over the proximo-distal extent of CA1 with a maximal conduction velocity of 0.4 m/s, comparable with antidromic conduction velocities within CA1. By contrast, SO or SR stimuli applied on the subicular side of CA1 triggered events that did not spread "backward" toward CA3. These events are rapidly decremented in amplitude and duration. Whereas antidromic responses were largest when stimuli were applied on the subicular side of CA1, such responses were not sufficient to trigger epileptiform discharges when excitatory transmission was intact. We conclude that the unidirectional spread of epileptiform activity in area CA1 is the result of an intrinsic axon collateral system where each pyramidal cell has a proportionally larger projection toward subiculum. Although this collateral system is sparse compared with other hippocampal formation regions, its unidirectionality protects against re-entrant activation of CA3 and may be physiologically significant as a relay from proximal CA1 to distal CA1. PMID:18548581

Orman, R; Von Gizycki, H; Lytton, W W; Stewart, M

2008-01-01

369

More than jobs and houses: mental health, quality of life and the perceptions of locality in an area undergoing urban regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Urban regeneration initiatives are considered to be one means of making a contribution to improving people’s quality of life\\u000a and mental health. This paper considers the relationship between lay perceptions of locality adversity, mental health and\\u000a social capital in an area undergoing urban regeneration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using qualitative methods as part of a larger multi-method study, perceptions of material, and non-material aspects

Anne Rogers; Peter Huxley; Sherrill Evans; Claire Gately

2008-01-01

370

Evidence of a posterior cingulate involvement (Brodmann area 31) in dyslexia: a study based on source localization algorithm of event-related potentials.  

PubMed

The study investigates the differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of P50 component of ERPs in 38 dyslexic children aged 11.47+/-2.12 years compared with their 19 healthy siblings aged 12.21+/-2.25. The dipoles were extracted by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem according to the recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm approach. For improved localization of the main dipole the solutions were optimized using genetic algorithms. The statistical analysis revealed differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of low frequency of P50. Particularly, dyslexics showed main activity being located at posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 31) while controls exhibited main activity being located at retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 30). These results may indicate a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the pre-attentive processing operation of dyslexia beyond of its traditional function in terms of spatial attention and motor intention. PMID:18180091

Stoitsis, John; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Nikita, Konstantina S; Rabavilas, Andreas; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

2008-04-01

371

Do you think that your local area is a good place for young people to grow up? The effects of traffic and car parking on young people's views.  

PubMed

The damaging effects on well-being of the increasing number of motor vehicles on the roads, accidents and emissions aside, are often overlooked. Among 11-16 year olds in Wales, those who reported living with busy traffic and car parking were found to be less likely to have positive perceptions of the safety, friendliness, appearance, play facilities and helpfulness of the people in their local area. This was independent of the effect of socio-economic circumstance. Results are discussed in terms of the potential negative effect on sense of community identity, health and well-being, and the need for good environmental design and development of more pedestrian-friendly living areas. PMID:14499219

Mullan, Elaine

2003-12-01

372

3D structure effects on local and near-regional seismic wave propagation in the San Francisco Bay Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed 3D waveform modeling of 10 small to moderate events (Mw 4.1-5.0) in the San Francisco Bay Area using the USGS SF06 3D velocity model (Brocher et al., 2005; Jachens et al., 2005). In the simulations we assumed the source parameters reported in the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) Moment Tensor Catalog. Broadband seismic data from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN), and strong motion data from the USGS and the California Geologic Survey California strong motion arrays were used in the analysis. We analyzed and modeled the data in three frequency bands, namely 0.03-0.15 Hz, 0.1-0.25 Hz, and 0.1-0.5Hz. Preliminary waveform modeling shows that the USGS SF06 model predicts many important features of observed seismograms including bodywave arrival times, and peak ground velocity. On the other hand, as reported by Rodgers et al. (2007), the model produces late arriving surface waves. While peak ground velocity is generally well modeled there are paths that have significant amplitude mismatches and also poor waveform fit to sedimentary basin generated surface waves. We are identifying which paths need additional waveform modeling in order to further calibrate the 3D structure. We will present the bodywave and surface wave arrival time, and peak ground velocity correlations as well as forward modeling results for the problematic paths. References Brocher, T. M., (2005). Emprical relations between elastic wave speeds and density in the Earth's crust, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 95 No. 6, 2081-2092. Jachens, R., R. Simpson, R. Graymer, C. Wentworth, T. Brocher (2006). Three-dimensional geologic map of northern and central California: A basic model for supporting ground motion simulation and other predictive modeling, 2006 SSA meeting abstract, Seism. Res. Lett., 77, No.2, p 270. Rodgers, A., A. Petersson, S. Nilsson, B Sjogreen, K. McCandless (2007). Broadband waveform modeling of moderate earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area and preliminary assessment of the USGS 3D seismic velocity model, submitted Bull. Seism. Soc. Am.

Kim, A.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.

2007-12-01

373

Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

1998-01-01

374

A comparative study of factors influencing decisions on desired family size among married men and women in Bokkos, a rural local government area in Plateau state.  

PubMed

The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population. PMID:24069744

Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N

2013-03-01

375

Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%). Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p?local and regional health authorities led by a NCM (GoHeart) improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up. PMID:25396055

Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

2014-01-01

376

The contribution of permanent GPS station PW data on heavy local rainfall events in the Greek area.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two decades GPS has demonstrated its ability to estimate and monitor the magnitude of atmospheric water vapor with good time resolution and under all meteorological conditions. In this study, the precipitable water (pw) values estimated over specific permanent GPS stations of various Greek networks are analyzed by using different processing options dealing with the selection of different mapping functions for the computation of troposheric delay. Another, basic topic of this study is the combination of pw values with ground meteorological data and more specifically with precipitation values, recorded few days before and after the heavy rainfall events. These events occurred within the year 2013 at various locations of the Greek territory like, Epirus, Central Macedonia, the city of Athens and Rhodes island, and included various rainfall kinds like the flash flood type. For example, the amount of precipitation in the case of Rhodes over passed the 100 mm within few hours. In order to account for the tropospheric delay gradients and for the estimation of precipitable water GPS data were processed with high precision software such as GAMIT of MIT. Pw values were estimated for all GPS permanent stations around and inside of each test area. The estimated values which derived are discussed through the comparison and statistical analysis between various parameters, like the pw precipitation, rate of time changing and tropospheric delay gradients time series. The main analysis applied indicates the complexity of the phenomena close to rainfall zone at time of precipitation in order to provide a clear precursor of the torrential rainfall events. For this type of successful scenarios more kind of atmospheric data may be needed. However, some peculiar conclusions through the monitoring process can be highlighted.

Pikridas, Christos; Katsougiannopoulos, Symeon; Bitharis, Stylianos; Chatzinikos, Miltiadis; Zinas, Nikolaos; Kouroudi, Aikaterini; Argyris, Ilias

2014-05-01

377

Experimental study and mathematical simulation of the mixed convection in a rectangular area with a local heat source and the heat sink at the external boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the experimental determination of temperatures and numerical simulation of temperature fields in a mixed convection in a rectangular area with a heat-conducting walls at a local energy source on the bottom are presented. For the experimental determination of temperature fields in a mixed convection method of thermocouple measurements was used. Studies were conducted at Reynolds numbers 10 ?Re ? 1500 and Rayleigh 103 ?Ra ? 105. For the verification of obtained experimental data mathematical simulation of mixed convection in the region with the use of a software package Comsol Multiphysics is carried out. A good agreement between the results of experimental determination of the local characteristics of mixed convection in a rectangular volume with a local source of energy and heat-conducting walls with theoretical consequences obtained in the simulation of convective flows using a mathematical package is established. It makes it possible to make a conclusion about the possibility of application for the analysis of flow conditions of viscous heat-conducting gas of experimental procedure based on methods of thermocouple measurements. At the same time the developed approach to the experimental study of mixed convection is applicable in a wide enough range of the main flow parameters and the experimental conditions.

Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornov, Dmitriy A.

2014-08-01

378

Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

2011-01-01

379

Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France  

PubMed Central

Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities. PMID:23563257

Padilla, Cindy M.; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Veronica M.

2014-01-01

380

Risk management for distributed authorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed authorization takes into account several elements, includ- ing certiflcates that may be provided by non-local actors. While most trust management systems treat all assertions as equally valid up to certiflcate authentication, realistic considerations may associate risk with some of these elements, for example some actors may be less trusted than others. Furthermore, practical online authorization may require certain levels

Christian Skalka; Xiaoyang Sean Wang; Peter C. Chapin

2007-01-01

381

Federal Labor Relations Authority  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA) is an independent agency that is responsible for administering the labor-management relations program for close to 2 million federal employees across the world. As noted on the Web site, their mission is "to promote stable and constructive labor-management relations that contribute to an efficient and effective government." To achieve that end, the FLRA's site provides a host of information about recent cases decided by the Authority, along with information about its activities and current staff roster. Visitors to the site will want to take a look at the FLRA strategic plan for the period from 2002-2005, and review previous annual reports filed by the Authority, which are located in the News and Publications area of the site.

382

On the relationship between citations of publication output and Hirsch index h of authors: conceptualization of tapered Hirsch index h(T), circular citation area radius R and citation acceleration a.  

PubMed

The nature of the empirical proportionality constant A in the relation L = Ah(2) between total number of citations L of the publication output of an author and his/her Hirsch index h is analyzed using data of the publication output and citations for six scientists elected to the membership of the Royal Society in 2006 and 199 professors working in different institutions in Poland. The main problem with the h index of different authors calculated by using the above relation is that it underestimates the ranking of scientists publishing papers receiving very high citations and results in high values of A. It was found that the value of the Hirsch constant A for different scientists is associated with the discreteness of h and is related to the tapered Hirsch index h(T) by A(1/2) ? 1.21h(T). To overcome the drawback of a wide range of A associated with the discreteness of h for different authors, a simple index, the radius R of circular citation area, defined as R = (L/?)(1/2) ? h, is suggested. This circular citation area radius R is easy to calculate and improves the ranking of scientists publishing high-impact papers. Finally, after introducing the concept of citation acceleration a = L/t(2) = ?(R/t)(2) (t is publication duration of a scientist), some general features of citations of publication output of Polish professors are described in terms of their citability. Analysis of the data of Polish professors in terms of citation acceleration a shows that: (1) the citability of the papers of a majority of physics and chemistry professors is much higher than that of technical sciences professors, and (2) increasing fraction of conference papers as well as non-English papers and engagement in administrative functions of professors result in decreasing citability of their overall publication output. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0805-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23162174

Sangwal, Keshra

2012-12-01

383

Modeling and simulation of a Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Network (FDDI LAN) using OPNET (tm) for interfacing through the Common Data Link (CDL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET) is a commercially available communications network simulation package. This thesis involves the modification of OPNET's Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Network (FDDI LAN) model in order to enhance its usefulness as an aid in the development of recommendations for the characteristics and metrics to be eventually included in the Defense Service Project Office's (DSPO) Common Data Link (CDL) project. This work includes a step-by-step guide for FDDI simulation in OPNET, and a discussion of the changes made to the original model to enhance its performance and data display characteristics. Simple tests are provided to verify the completed model's performance and usefulness as a working tool for further development.

Nix, Ernest E., Jr.

1994-06-01

384

Data link level interconnection of remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Networks (FDDI LANs) through the Critical Data Link (CDL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis deals with the features and performance of a network interface device to interconnect two remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Local Area Networks (LAN's) through the Critical Data Link (CDL) which is a full-duplex, jam-resistant, point-to-point microwave communications system for use in imagery and signals intelligence collection systems. In particular, OPNET, a commercially available network engineering tool is used to model a medium access level remote bridge interface connecting two LAN's. The effectiveness of two different load balancing techniques used to distribute traffic over the multiple channels of the CDL has been studied. Also, the effect of different jamming patterns on the bit error rate seen by the users has been studied.

Karayakaylar, Selcuk

1994-06-01

385

Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

2014-01-01

386

Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and substance P in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis: Effects of vagal stimulation on GAD immunoreactivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by means of its biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the neuropeptide substance P in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and gelatinous nucleus (GEL). In addition, electrical stimulation was applied to the night vagus nerve at the cervical level to assess the effects on GAD-immunoreactivity (GAR-IR). GAD-IR terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. They showed pronounced density at the level of the ASP and gradual decrease towards the solitary complex. Nerve cells were not labelled in our preparations. Ultrastructural studies showed symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contracts between labelled terminals and non-immunoreactive dendrites, axons, or neurons. Some of the labelled terminals contained both clear- and dense-core vesicles. Our preliminary findings, after electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, revealed a bilateral decrease of GAD-IR that was particularly evident at the level of the ASP. SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed varying densities in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. In our preparations, the lateral sub-division of the NTS showed the greatest accumulation. The ASP showed medium density of immunoreactive varicosities and terminals and the AP and GEL displayed scattered varicose axon terminals. The electron microscopy revealed that all immunoreactive terminals contained clear-core vesicles which make symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contact with unlabelled dendrites. It is suggested that the GABAergic terminals might correspond to vagal afferent projections and that GAD/GABA and substance P might be co-localized in the same terminal allowing the possibility of a regulated release of the transmitters in relation to demands.

Damelio, F.; Gibbs, M. A.; Mehler, W. R.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

1991-01-01

387

Chlorofluorocarbon and Tritium Concentration in Springs in the Norris Geyser Basin Area: Constraining Circulation Rate, Mixing Processes, and Ground-Water Evolution of Locally Derived Ground-Water in Yellowstone National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium concentrations were measured in cool to warm springs in the Norris area of Yellowstone National Park to constrain the scale and rate of circulation within the shallow, local ground-water system and investigate interactions between locally derived water and the geothermal system. Water from more than 65 springs in and surrounding the Norris Geyser Basin, varying in

P. Gardner; D. Susong; K. Solomon; H. Heasler

2007-01-01

388

Radioactivity in the community water supplies of Ife-Central and Ife-East local government areas of Osun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average concentrations of radionuclides in the various types of community water supplies of the Ife-Central and Ife-East Local Government areas with a population of 200 000 people were estimated from the measurements of mean specific activity using a well-calibrated Canberra vertical coaxial high-purity germanium detector system. Water samples were collected from dam, streams, boreholes, wells, tap water, etc., being the most frequently used water sources in the study area. The radionuclides observed with reliable regularity belonged to the series - decay naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th as well as the non-series nuclide, 40K. The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K, respectively, were 8.67±4.28, 2.31±1.48 and 98.99±6.23 Bq l -1 for well water; 12.45±3.39, 3.02±0.64 and 97.46±6.35 Bq l -1 for borehole water; 12.41±1.37, 2.47±0.09 and 85.06±17.27 Bq l -1 for tap water; 10.40±1.70, 2.70±1.30 and 72.60±9.10 Bq l -1 for dam water; 7.04±0.66, 3.55±0.13 and 69.18±20.80 Bq l -1 for stream water.

Tchokossa, P.; Olomo, J. B.; Osibote, O. A.

1999-02-01

389

Awareness of antimalarial policy and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment in communities of two selected local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

With limited data on the awareness of changes in the use of antimalaria drugs and availability and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the context of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program, we conducted this descriptive cross-sectional study of 262 registered women attending antenatal clinics and 233 mothers of under-five children. We used a questionnaire to assess the awareness, availability and use of ACT in Ijebu North and Yewa North Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ogun State. Malaria is holo-endemic in these areas, and the RBM program has been implemented for years prior to the 2010 RBM deadline. Data were also collected through focus group discussions, along with secondary data from hospital records. Hospital stock records showed inadequate and inconsistent supplies of ACT drugs in hospitals surveyed. Only 23.0% of respondents knew about ACT drugs. About 48% preferred analgesics over ACT drugs (0.6%) for malaria treatment. Lack of awareness was the major reason for non-use of ACT drugs (86.1%). Communities in Yewa North had more supplies of ACT drugs and knew more about ACT than those in Ijebu North. Adequate information on ACT needs to be made available and accessible under a public-private partnership if 2010 RBM targets (now past) and the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (ongoing) for malaria are to be realized in the study communities and Ogun State in general. PMID:24702765

Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Jegede, Ayodele S; Mafe, Margaret A; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa E

2014-01-01

390

Age and proximity to local ore-smelters as determinants of tissue metal levels in beaver (Castor canadensis) of the sudbury (Ontario) area.  

PubMed

An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area beaver (Castor canadensis) revealed that animals in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Ni and Pb in the liver and kidneys. Tissue concentrations averaged 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting through food chain contamination. Tissue levels of Cu, Cd and Zn did not vary in relation to distance from source. Tissue Cd levels were uniformly elevated throughout the four populations examined and are believed to reflect an enhanced level of food chain transfer occurring on the poorly buffered, acid-sensitive soils of the area. Burden: body weight correlations indicated that tissue concentrations of Cd increased whereas Cu levels decreased as a function of animal age. Most striking among these age-related trends was the disproportionate uptake of Cd by renal tissues, resulting in 10-fold higher burdens than those present within the liver. PMID:15091874

Hillis, T L; Parker, G H

1993-01-01

391

The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

Background Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. Methods In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to contextualize aspects of organizational response and performance, we recruited two types of key informants: public health professionals who were involved with the epidemiology and surveillance response for each jurisdiction, as well as the health officer or his/her designee responsible for H1N1 response activities. Information about the organization, data sources for situation awareness, decision-making, and issues related to surge capacity, continuity of operations, and sustainability were collected during the key informant interviews. Content and interpretive analyses were conducted using ATLAS.ti software. Results The study found that disease investigations were important in the first months of the pandemic, often requiring additional staff support and sometimes forcing other public health activities to be put on hold. We also found that while the Incident Command System (ICS) was used by all participating agencies to manage the response, the manner in which it was implemented and utilized varied. Each local health department (LHD) in the study collected epidemiologic data from a variety of sources, but only case reports (including hospitalized and fatal cases) and laboratory testing data were used by all organizations. While almost every LHD attempted to collect school absenteeism data, many respondents reported problems in collecting and analyzing these data. Laboratory capacity to test influenza specimens often aided an LHD’s ability to conduct disease investigations and implement control measures, but the ability to test specimens varied across the region and even well-equipped laboratories exceeded their capacity. As a whole, the health jurisdictions in the region communicated regularly about key decision-making (continued on next page) (continued from previous page) related to the response, and prior regional collaboration on pandemic influenza planning helped to prepare the region for the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. The study did find, however, that many respondents (including the majority of epidemiologists interviewed) desired an increase in regional communication about epidemiology and surveillance issues. Conclusion The study collected information about the epidemiology and surveillance response among LHDs in the San Francisco Bay Area that has implications for public health preparedness and emergency response training, public health best practices, regional public health collaboration, and a perceived need for information sharing. PMID:23530722

2013-01-01

392

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 ...(a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found in §...

2011-10-01

393

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 ...(a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found in §...

2013-10-01

394

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nuristan mineral district in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nuristan mineral district, which has gem, lithium, and cesium deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

395

Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for each of the 24 mineral project areas (referred to herein as areas of interest), whose locality names, locations, and main mineral occurrences are shown on the index map of Afghanistan (fig. 1). ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. PRISM image orthorectification for one-half of the target areas was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchro

Davis, Philip A.

2012-01-01

396

Community attitude towards the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, the Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic remains a major public health problem. In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS has already reversed the post-independence developmental gains. Purpose This study assessed community attitudes regarding the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Design and methods In a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study, the sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 67% of the target population has a negative attitude regarding the reproductive rights of PLWHA; a confidence interval (CI) of 95% was used. A minimum sample size of 340 was obtained using the formula n = Z2pq/d2. An anticipated 10% nonresponse rate was added to obtain a sample size of 374; a multistage sampling technique was utilized to select a total of 450 respondents. Data collected through a semistructured standardized and pretested questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 15. Results The study revealed that 283 (66.6%) and 142 (33.4%) of respondents were urban and rural dwellers, respectively. Mean age of respondents was 28.7 years ± 2.2 years. Four hundred and two (94.6%) respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 88.7% had knowledge of at least six different modes of HIV/AIDS transmission. About 30.7% of respondents had discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLWHA, and 50.9% and 44.8% had negative attitudes towards their sexual and reproductive rights, respectively. There were significant associations between gender, marital status, educational status, occupation, and residential area of respondents and their attitude towards the reproductive and sexual right of PLWHA (P < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation Discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes to PLWHA found among respondents translated into a negative attitude regarding the reproductive and sexual rights of PLWHA. There is an urgent need to institute programs for raising community awareness about the rights of PLWHA, especially in rural areas, and to strengthen legislative provisions for protecting and preserving the reproductive rights of PLWHA. PMID:23807862

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Adebimpe, WO; Olugbenga-Bello, AI

2013-01-01

397

What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6. The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation research, therefore, contributes to the environmental sociology, gen

Tribbia, John Luke

398

Selling Academies: Local Democracy and the Management of "Consultation"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academies (state schools owned and run by private sponsors on a non-profit basis) are a key element in Labour's education agenda. Proposals to set up Academies, in most cases by taking over existing schools, have provoked local campaigns of opposition in many areas. Replacing a Local Authority with an Academy entails a process of consultation.…

Hatcher, Richard

2008-01-01

399

Allocation of authority in European health policy.  

PubMed

Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. PMID:22858423

Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

2012-11-01

400

THE ALFALFA H I ABSORPTION PILOT SURVEY: A WIDE-AREA BLIND DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM SURVEY OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (H I) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area 'blind' search for H I absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km s{sup -1} < cz < 17, 500 km s{sup -1} and covering 517.0 deg{sup 2} (7% of the full ALFALFA survey). The survey is sensitive to H I absorption lines stronger than 7.7 mJy (8983 radio sources) and is 90% complete for lines stronger than 11.0 mJy (7296 sources). The total redshift interval sensitive to all damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}) is {Delta}z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T{sub s} = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}) it is {Delta}z = 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic H I absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N{sub H{sub i}},X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10{sup 19} (T{sub s} /100 K) (1/f) cm{sup -2}local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line search of the complete ALFALFA survey-or any higher redshift, larger bandwidth, or more sensitive survey, such as those planned for Square Kilometer Array pathfinders or a low-frequency lunar array-will either make numerous detections or will set a strong statistical lower limit on the typical spin temperature of neutral hydrogen gas.

Darling, Jeremy; Macdonald, Erin P. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo, E-mail: jdarling@colorado.edu, E-mail: e.macdonald@physics.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2011-11-20

401

COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON STUDENT CONSENT, MEDICAL AUTHORIZATION, AND RELEASE AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

, and conveyances; local medical and weather conditions; local road conditions, dietary and food differences1 ADDENDUM COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON STUDENT CONSENT, MEDICAL AUTHORIZATION, AND RELEASE AGREEMENT

Young, Paul Thomas

402

A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

2013-12-01

403

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ahankashan mineral district in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ahankashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008, 2009, 2010),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then incr

Davis, Philip A.

2013-01-01

404

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to tha

Davis, Philip A.

2013-01-01

405

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2013-10-01

406

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2011-10-01

407

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2012-10-01

408

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2011-10-01

409

A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR programs, in France, UK and Spain (Alvarez, 2007; Kemp, 2007). The emissions were then estimated using an adjusted tier 3 method. For aviation emissions a tier three method was also used. The findings of this research are mixed. HSR would emit 66% less GHG emissions using today's energy mixes for California and Nevada. Using California's 2020 target energy mix HSR would emit 80% less GHG emissions. However, using today's energy mix HSR would cause 33% more LAP than air travel. Using California's 2020 mix the HSR would cause 22% less LAP the air travel. However this 20% improvement would likely be eroded by aircraft emissions improvement between now and 2020. To conclude, this research found that HSR does offer significant GHG emission reductions, when compared to air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. However is less clear regarding LAP, though HSR has the potential to create savings here in the future as well. For other corridors around the U.S.A., earmarked for HSR, similar studies should be carried out to examine the benefits of such mode transfer.

Mullins, Damien

410

HOW WIDE IS WIDE ENOUGH? THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RIPARIAN BUFFER WIDTH, CONDITION AND BIODIVERSITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF URBAN CREEK SYSTEMS IN THE KU-RING- GAI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NORTH SYDNEY, NSW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study that investigates the effect of riparian buffer width on the biodiversity and condition of riparian systems. Species diversity (richness and abundance) of native woody plants from riparian vegetation within varying buffer widths was calculated from sites in the Ku-ring-gai Local Government Area (LGA). Vegetation cover and composition was recorded along transects parallel to the

Christopher Ives; Mark Patrick Taylor; Peter Davies; David Wilks

411

43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

2011-10-01

412

Author Correction 12193_2014_163_Author  

E-print Network

.co.in/springer/stor_html_corr.asp?file=authtccrbrbubyg 1 van 2 8-6-2014 11:28 #12;17 104-124 99(99):99-99 Please update the references to reflectAuthor Correction 12193_2014_163_Author NO LnNo EqNo TblNo FigNo InCorTxt CorTxt Remarks Added: 6/8/2014 2:57:51 PM Author Query Response: A.Nijholt@ewi.utwente.nl is a correct email address Corrected By

Nijholt, Anton

413

[Selective local hyperthermy of tumor tissue. Homogenized energy supply also to deep-seated tissues by high-performance decametric wave coil section plus dual system raster motion (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Based on results of selective tumor tissue hyperacidification and whole-body hyperthermy the paper deals with the advantages of local hyperthermy and gives a review of the various methods of energy supply for hyperthermy in living tissue. It follows a presentation of physical and biophysical fundamentals on selective local hyperthermy of tumor tissue by radiation, by r. f. rotational magnetic fields and by r. f. capacitor fields. Using a gelatine phantom for measuring the energy supply with the various modes of local hyperthermy it is then shown that it is solely the divergent rotational magnetic field which allows to substantially reduce the inhomogeneity of energy supply also in z-direction (increasing depth in body tissue) by introducing a relative raster motion of the applicator in x-y-direction (plane parallel to body surface). It is only the introduction of the x-y raster principle combined with a described dual system array (CMT Selectotherm System) which permits the high and rather homogeneous supply of thermal energy also to deep-seated tumor tissue in the patient without concomitant critical superheating of tissues near the skin. Finally the paper gives a theoretical derivation of the temperature profile for selective local hyperthermy of tumor tissue. With due consideration of heat dissipation by convection and conduction, this endeavour shows rather promising aspects for the therapeutic efficiency obtainable in each case of treatment. PMID:24430

von Ardenne, M; von Ardenne, T; Böhme, G; Reitnauer, P G

1977-01-01

414

Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%), “providing antenatal services” (16.5%), “performing caesarean section” (13.0%), “providing family planning services” (8.2%), and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%), “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%), “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%), “TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services” (13.2%), “TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers” (43.4%), and “TBA service is the only maternity service that I know” (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past or current) opined that TBA services are effective but could be improved with some form of training (78.3%). More than three-quarters (77.1%) opposed the banning of TBA services. Almost 7/10 (74.8%) users were satisfied with TBA services. Conclusion Study findings revealed a positive perception and use of TBA services by the respondents. This underlines the necessity for TBAs’ knowledge and skills to be improved within permissible standards through sustained partnership between TBAs and health systems. It is hoped that such partnership will foster a healthy collaboration between providers of orthodox and traditional maternity services that will translate into improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes in relevant settings. PMID:22371657

Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, IA

2012-01-01

415

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghunday-Achin mineral district in Afghanistan, in Davis, P.A, compiler, Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghunday-Achin mineral district, which has magnesite and talc deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of t

Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

416

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Badakhshan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter F in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Badakhshan mineral district, which has gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by deter

Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

417

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kundalyan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter H in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kundalyan mineral district, which has porphyry copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

418

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Aynak mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter E in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Aynak mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image b

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

419

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter Q in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Takhar mineral district, which has industrial evaporite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

2013-01-01

420

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kharnak-Kanjar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter K in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kharnak-Kanjar mineral district, which has mercury deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the st

Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

421

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Bakhud mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter U in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Bakhud mineral district, which has industrial fluorite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

2013-01-01

422

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Herat mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter T in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Herat mineral district, which has barium and limestone deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of th

Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

423

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Dudkash mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter R in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Dudkash mineral district, which has industrial mineral deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that

Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

424

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Helmand mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter O in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Helmand mineral district, which has travertine deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to th

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

2013-01-01

425

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Baghlan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter P in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Baghlan mineral district, which has industrial clay and gypsum deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2006, 2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

2013-01-01

426

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nalbandon mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter L in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nalbandon mineral district, which has lead and zinc deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2007, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

2013-01-01

427

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kunduz mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter S in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kunduz mineral district, which has celestite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard

Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

428

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Tourmaline mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter J in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Tourmaline mineral district, which has tin deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground reso