Sample records for local authority area

  1. Advanced local area network concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Terry

    1985-01-01

    Development of a good model of the data traffic requirements for Local Area Networks (LANs) onboard the Space Station is the driving problem in this work. A parameterized workload model is under development. An analysis contract has been started specifically to capture the distributed processing requirements for the Space Station and then to develop a top level model to simulate how various processing scenarios can handle the workload and what data communication patterns result. A summary of the Local Area Network Extendsible Simulator 2 Requirements Specification and excerpts from a grant report on the topological design of fiber optic local area networks with application to Expressnet are given.

  2. 32 CFR 1648.1 - Authority of local board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority of local board. 1648.1 Section 1648.1 National... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.1 Authority of local board. A local board shall consider...

  3. 32 CFR 1648.1 - Authority of local board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority of local board. 1648.1 Section 1648.1 National... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.1 Authority of local board. A local board shall consider...

  4. 32 CFR 1648.1 - Authority of local board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority of local board. 1648.1 Section 1648.1 National... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.1 Authority of local board. A local board shall consider...

  5. 32 CFR 1648.1 - Authority of local board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority of local board. 1648.1 Section 1648.1 National... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.1 Authority of local board. A local board shall consider...

  6. 32 CFR 1648.1 - Authority of local board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of local board. 1648.1 Section 1648.1 National... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.1 Authority of local board. A local board shall consider...

  7. Local Area Networks and the Learning Lab of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersole, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers educational applications of local area computer networks and discusses industry standards for design established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). A futuristic view of a learning laboratory using a local area network is presented. (Author/LRW)

  8. Local Area Networks - Applications to Energy Management 

    E-print Network

    Bakken, B. M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the newest advances in computer technology is the Local Area Network. Its many applications in the office environment are well publicized. This paper describes the application of Local Area Networks to another environment: Energy Management...

  9. The Semi-Planned LAN: Prototyping a Local Area Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    True, John F.; Rosenwald, Judah

    1986-01-01

    Five administrative user departments at San Francisco State University discovered that they had common requirements for office automation and data manipulation that could be addressed with microcomputers. The results of a local area network project are presented. (Author/MLW)

  10. Wireless Local Area Networks Edward C. Prem,

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    Wireless Local Area Networks Edward C. Prem, This paper is designed to give the layman a basic time now, companies and individuals have interconnected computers with local area networks (LANs store by themselves. In the past all local area networks were wired together and in a fixed location

  11. High speed local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hodara; E. Miles

    1992-01-01

    Radical changes are taking place in the computer architecture landscape. The big mainframes are being replaced by networks of microcomputers distributed over a wide geographical area. Increases in the speed and memory of computers has created a need for a communication medium capable of transmitting data at a rate exceeding gigabits per second. The low loss, low dispersion optical fiber

  12. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-03-28

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

  13. Demographic sensitivity inside the local authorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimondo Cagiano de Azevedo; Enrico Todisco

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the administrated population it is not wll appreciated at local level by the Administrators (Majors, Councillors, Public Servants). The attention is more devoted to political items and the sensitivity for the numbers of the population is very feeble. The paper presents the main results a research made in may Municiplities in some Italian Regions (Toscana, Lazio, Molise,

  14. Variations in Local Authority Provision of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howson, John

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the reasons for local and regional variations in British educational funding. A study of the changes in pupil-teacher ratios (PTR) from 1974 to 1981 showed a national trend toward decreased PTR. The impact of future cutbacks in the level of government spending on PTRs is considered. (AM)

  15. Where should health services go: local authorities versus the NHS?

    PubMed

    Pollock, A M

    1995-06-17

    The Association of Metropolitan Authorities has recently proposed that responsibility for the NHS should pass from health authorities to local authorities. One of the fiercest debates at the outset of the NHS was whether the hospitals should be run by local authorities. In the end the minister for health, Aneurin Bevan, decided against local democracy and in favour of a national health service. His arguments included the fact that equality of treatment could not be guaranteed if facilities varied with local finances and that even the largest authorities were not big enough to pool risks and expertise. All these arguments still apply today, and the recent changes in community care provide an insight into how a market model of local authority control might work. The changes have been accompanied by a shift from public to private sector provision and the introduction of charges for services that the NHS once provided free. As important, the willingness and ability of local authorities to raise extra revenue from local taxes and charges affect the service they can provide, so leading to inequalities of provision. Local authorities have yet to make the case that they can preserve the fundamental principles and benefits of the NHS, including its reliance on central taxation and unified funding formulas. PMID:7787651

  16. Local Authority recycling and waste — awareness publicity\\/promotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Evison; Adam D. Read

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores some of the current waste reduction promotion\\/publicity material, and the education and information policies provided by Local Authorities, evaluating their effectiveness, and identifying any loopholes or omissions that exist in public awareness. The study was conducted in three local authorities in England: Luton Borough, Shepway District, and Sutton London Borough. The research involved contacting the Recycling Officers

  17. Fiber Optic Configurations for Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. MEHDI NASSEHI; FOUAD A. TOBAGI; MICHEL E. MARHIC

    1985-01-01

    A number of fiber optic configurations for a new class of demand assignment multiple-access local area networks requiring a physical ordering among stations are proposed. In such networks, the data transmission and linear-ordering functions may be distinguished and be provided by separate data and control subnetworks. The configurations proposed for the data subnetwork are based on the linear, star, and

  18. An Optical Hypercube Local Area Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Reichmeyer; Salim Hariri; Wang Song; Kamal Jabbour

    1994-01-01

    We present an optical hypercube local area network which employs both free-space optics as well as optical fiber interconnections. Each node of the hypercube consists of an optical routing switch (ORS) to which users connect through an optical interface unit (OIU), providing a hierarchical structure. Self electrooptic effect devices (SEEDs) and two-dimensional spatial light modulators (SLMs) are used do perform

  19. The Savannah River Site local area network

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of thirteen separate operating or administrative facilities, or areas, spread out over 300 square miles of federal reservation. A facility of this size presents rather unique difficulties to anyone attempting to provide a comprehensive and high performance computer network, or local area network (LAN). Figure 1 is a diagram of the SRS and indicates the approximate number of ''knowledge workers'' (i.e., managerial, professional, and clerical staff) which are located in each site area. The goal of the SRS LAN project is to have each of these workers connected to and using the computer network by the end of 1990. By mid 1989 SRS is three quarters of the way to completing this goal. The fundamental LAN strategy for Savannah River is the integration of personal computers with mid size ''departmental'' computers located within each site area with links to the site's mainframe computer systems and offsite databases for information access. This integration is being provided by baseband local area networks in each of the site areas adjoined together via a broadband and digital telephone communications system to form one sitewide internetwork. The site internetwork is used to connect the departmental and mainframe computers together as well as provide workstation to computer access between site areas. 6 figs.

  20. Musical Instrument Instruction in Scottish Local Authorities. SCRE Spotlights 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John

    Instrument instruction provided by local authorities has contributed to musical activities in primary and secondary schools for many years. A national survey asked the following questions: How much musical instrumental instruction goes on now in Scottish schools?; Are the numbers of pupils and instructors rising or falling?; How much do the local

  1. New Developments in Local Area Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    Several techniques are used to study local areas in helioseismology, including time-distance helioseismology, acoustic imaging/holography, and ring diagram analysis. These techniques can be used to study flows, magnetic fields, and temperature inhomogeneities. The "local" area studied can be as small as a supergranule, or as large as the entire convection zone in the case of meridional circulation as studied by Giles and colleagues. Active regions have been studied with some interesting results, with complicated flow patterns below sunspots and detectable sound speed inhomogeneitities in the 10 Mm below the spots. Another interesting result is the detection of sunspots on the back side of the Sun by Lindsey and Braun using the holography technique. A confirmation of their result using the time-distance technique will be discussed.

  2. Labour market integration of immigrants: estimating local authority effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Husted; Eskil Heinesen; Signe Hald Andersen

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method for computing indicators of the relative success of local authorities at integrating new immigrants in\\u000a the labour market, taking account of differences in characteristics of immigrants and local labour markets. The indicator\\u000a for integration success is based on mean duration from date of residence permit to start of an employment spell. We apply\\u000a this method to

  3. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

  4. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

  5. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

  6. CSMA Local Area Networking under Dynamic Altruism

    E-print Network

    Antoniadis, Panayotis; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictitious play) regime. We consider either power or throughput based costs of networking, and the cases of identical or heterogeneous (independent) users/players. In a numerical study we consider diverse players, and we see that the effects of altruism for similar players can be beneficial in the presence of significant congestion, but excessive altruism may lead to underuse of the channel when demand is low.

  7. Fiber optic configurations for local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassehi, M. M.; Tobagi, F. A.; Marhic, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of fiber optic configurations for a new class of demand assignment multiple-access local area networks requiring a physical ordering among stations are proposed. In such networks, the data transmission and linear-ordering functions may be distinguished and be provided by separate data and control subnetworks. The configurations proposed for the data subnetwork are based on the linear, star, and tree topologies. To provide the linear-ordering function, the control subnetwork must always have a linear unidirectional bus structure. Due to the reciprocity and excess loss of optical couplers, the number of stations that can be accommodated on a linear fiber optic bus is severely limited. Two techniques are proposed to overcome this limitation. For each of the data and control subnetwork configurations, the maximum number of stations as a function of the power margin, for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal couplers, is computed.

  8. [Diagnostic and therapuetic local anesthesia in facial neuralgia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gross, D

    1978-05-12

    Diagnostic and therapeutic local anesthesias (DLA and TLA) in experienced hands are also an important method first of establishing the cause of certain facial neuralgias and then of treating them successfully. Diagnostic and therapeutic local anesthesias presuppose a thorough examination of all factors which may arise in a particular facial neuralgia. If local anesthesia reveals a peripheral cause for the facial neuralgia concerned, a lasting relief of pain can then be obtained through extinction of the source of pain so that the body can restore, at first temporarily and under certain circumstances after consistent repetition of therapeutic local anesthesia at the same spot continuously, the disordered functions in this area (dysesthesia, dyskinesia, dyscrasia, dysthymia). DLA and TLA are only one method of peripheral neurotherapy. PMID:306542

  9. LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two programs, a simulation program and a user-interface program. The simulation program requires the SLAM II simulation library from Pritsker and Associates, W. Lafayette IN; the user interface is implemented using the Ingres database manager from Relational Technology, Inc. Information about running the simulation program without the user-interface program is contained in the documentation. The memory requirement is 129,024 bytes. LANES was developed in 1988.

  10. Improved Partnership Working for Local Authority Transport Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Forrester

    Diverse perspectives need to be brought together to facilitate the organisational delivery of more sustainable transport plans and policies. This necessitates close-working partnerships and good cross-sector learning. This paper looks at the rationales for design of, and anticipated roles for, two tools to assist this process: one a guide to cross-sector and intra-organisational partnership working written specifically for local authority

  11. 47 CFR 101.61 - Certain modifications not requiring prior authorization in the Local Multipoint Distribution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...authorization in the Local Multipoint Distribution Service and 24 GHz Service 101...authorization in the Local Multipoint Distribution Service and 24 GHz Service In the Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)...

  12. 40 CFR 51.232 - Assignment of legal authority to local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. 51.232 Section...ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Legal Authority § 51.232 Assignment of legal authority to local agencies....

  13. 40 CFR 51.232 - Assignment of legal authority to local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. 51.232 Section...ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Legal Authority § 51.232 Assignment of legal authority to local agencies....

  14. Local control of area-preserving maps

    E-print Network

    Cristel Chandre; Michel Vittot; Guido Ciraolo

    2008-09-01

    We present a method of control of chaos in area-preserving maps. This method gives an explicit expression of a control term which is added to a given area-preserving map. The resulting controlled map which is a small and suitable modification of the original map, is again area-preserving and has an invariant curve whose equation is explicitly known.

  15. Using constant traffic to specific IP destinations for detecting spoofed MAC addresses in Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Sasu; O. Prostean

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of detecting spoofed MAC addresses in a Local Area Network using constant traffic to specific IP destinations, as a fingerprint of the authorized station. In the chapters that follow, the authors describe how to determine this fingerprint and then how can it be used by applications to monitor network traffic in order to determine if

  16. Local Area Weather Radar in Alpine Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.

    2012-04-01

    Space-time variability of precipitation in orographically complex regions is a challenging research topic. The difficult accessibility of remote regions and the high elevations make difficult the operation of conventional raingauges and reduce the visibility of large scale radars. A solution to this limitation might be the use of a number of cost-effective short-range X-band radars as complement to raingauges and conventional, large and expensive weather radars. This paper presents the results of a pilot experiment, which aimed at i) developing and assessing the performance of a cost-effective X-band Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) located in the orographically complex Alpine region and ii) testing whether it could lead to better understanding of the nature of the precipitation process, e.g. identifying any possible dependence between precipitation and topography. The LAWR was deployed between August 2007 and October 2011 on the summit of the Kl. Matterhorn, located in the Swiss Alps at 3883 m a.s.l. (Valais, Switzerland). This was the first time that a cost-effective X-band radar was installed at such elevation and could be tested in operation-like conditions. Beside the technological improvements that were necessary for a reliable functioning of the LAWR hardware, much effort went into the development of a set of radar corrections and into the design of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which includes the algorithms necessary to convert radar received echoes into precipitation rates, specifically accounting for the presence of the pronounced topography. The ARCOM was developed and tested on the basis of a set of precipitation events for which precipitation was measured also by 43 automatic raingauges located within 60 km range from the radar antenna. Conversely to the state-of-the-art conversion models, ARCOM accounts not only for the seasonal climatological condition but also of geometric and orographic forcings such as partial beam filling and beam blocking. The results showed that the LAWR systems and the newly developed ARCOM can be successfully deployed in high mountain settings. Indeed the experimental LAWR was able to measure precipitation in all its forms as well as its spatial variability. The ARCOM proved to be stable and robust across seasons, precipitation types and intensities, and to be able to account for the disturbances due to orography. The LAWR observations were additionally used to study the distribution of precipitation occurrences in relation to elevation and topography. The results show in most of the observed events precipitation occurs in this sector of the Alps significantly more often in a given range of elevations, regardless of the season and of the event type. This suggests the limitation of the assumption of positive gradient of precipitation with elevation, which is frequently used in hydrological modelling applications, and points to the importance of measuring more accurately the space-time distribution of precipitation in orographically complex areas for a correct representation of the hydrologic response of mountain watersheds.

  17. HPC\\/VORX: a local area multicomputer system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Gaglianello; B. S. Robinson; T. L. Lindstrom; E. E. Sampieri

    1989-01-01

    A system is described that combines the major strengths of local area networks and multicomputers, namely resource sharing over geographically significant distances and small communication latencies. The result is a new architecture called a local area multicomputer (LAM). The system that is described attempts to solve the seemingly incompatible needs of the two application domains by utilizing a high-capacity, low-latency

  18. Evaluating and Improving Wireless Local Area Networks performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traore Soungalo; Li Renfa; Zeng Fanzi

    2010-01-01

    A Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a type of Local Area Network (LAN) that uses high frequency radio waves rather than wires to communicate and transmit data [1]. It is a flexible data communication system implemented as an extension to or as an alternative for, a wired LAN. It provides large companies the option to connect the current wired

  19. A wireless local area network employing distributed radio bridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor C. M. Leung; Andrew W. Y. Au

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed wireless local area network (WLAN) architecture, where each wireless terminal (WT) accesses a backbone local area network (LAN) segment via multiple radio bridges (RB's). We introduce a self-learning routing algorithm for the RB's, which automatically adapts to changes in terminal locations, and prevents multiple copies of each data frame from being forwarded over the

  20. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Access to Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Spracklen; C. Smythe

    1987-01-01

    The Electronics Research Groups of Aberdeen and Surrey Universities have for several years been involved in the development of local area networks (LAN's) specifically oriented towards the military communications environment.[l, 2, 3, 4]. In particular they have been responsible for development of the ASWE Serial Highway a token passing bus local area network currently employed in the Command and Control

  1. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Based on Local Binary Patterns of Local Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-feng Liu; Shu-juan Li; Yan-jiang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Automatic facial expression recognition is one of the great challenges in facial expression recognition field. An algrithom of automatic facial expression recognition is proposed based on Local Binary Patterns of local areas (LLBP)in this work. First, the position of eye balls is fixed by projection method. Then the local areas of the eyes and mouthpsilas neighbourhood could be determined through

  2. Performance analysis of slotted aloha protocol for optical fiber local area networks with star topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. U. Ahmed; T. H. Yeap

    1995-01-01

    In [1, 2] the present authors initiated the development of dynamic models for optical fiber local area networks. This is a major departure from the traditional approach of communication engineers who are used to steady state analysis based on queueing network theory. Here in this paper, theoretical analysis of the proposed model for a passive star coupler based on the

  3. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet...Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.2000 What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must...

  4. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet...Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.2000 What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must...

  5. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet...Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.2000 What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must...

  6. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet...Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.2000 What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must...

  7. Districts, Local Education Authorities, and the Context of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the author's commentary on the special issue of "Journal of Educational Administration" entitled "Systemwide Reform: Examining Districts under Pressure". Design/methodology/approach: The author gives her personal opinions, draws upon her recent experiences in the national…

  8. 29 CFR 1601.5 - District; area; supervisor authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...include the Director of the Washington Field Office. The term “field” shall mean that part of the United States within...the Commission's chief officer in each field. The term “area” shall mean that part of the United States within...

  9. ANALYSIS OF WEB SITE PORTALS IN SOME LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    · is a database need? if so, what could be its size? · will be an active or a passive web site (information, · Poitiers has a subsite for the its local expatriates ; · Vercelli gives the list of pharmacy and gas

  10. 20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... What performance indicators apply to local areas? 666.300 Section 666.300...TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Local Measures of Performance § 666.300 What performance indicators apply to local areas? (a) Each local...

  11. 20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... What performance indicators apply to local areas? 666.300 Section 666.300...TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Local Measures of Performance § 666.300 What performance indicators apply to local areas? (a) Each local...

  12. 20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... What performance indicators apply to local areas? 666.300 Section 666.300...TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Local Measures of Performance § 666.300 What performance indicators apply to local areas? (a) Each local...

  13. Localized Sensor Area Coverage with Low Communication Overhead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Gallais; Jean Carle; David Simplot-ryl; Ivan Stojmenovic

    2006-01-01

    We propose several localized sensor area coverage pro- tocols, for arbitrary ratio of sensing and transmission rad ii. Sensors are assumed to be time synchronized, and active sensors are determined at the beginning of each round. The approach has a very small communication overhead since prior knowledge about neighbor existence is not required. Each node selects a random timeout and

  14. Kernel-Based Positioning in Wireless Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azadeh Kushki; Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

    2007-01-01

    The recent proliferation of Location-Based Services (LBSs) has necessitated the development of effective indoor positioning solutions. In such a context, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) positioning is a particularly viable solution in terms of hardware and installation costs due to the ubiquity of WLAN infrastructures. This paper examines three aspects of the problem of indoor WLAN positioning using received signal

  15. The Educational Importance of Local Area Networks in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Presents reasons for choosing a connected computer system for student use in secondary schools. The systems approach is discussed; two alternatives are compared, a central computer and a local area network (LAN) of microcomputers; software is described; and two scenarios of LAN use are presented. (four references) (LRW)

  16. Modulation and Coding Techniques for Infrared Wireless Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Gulliver

    2006-01-01

    Because of low-cost optical devices and virtually unlimited bandwidth, optical wireless communications (OWC) for indoor wireless local area networks (WLANs) has become an attractive alternative to radio frequency systems. Since optical signals cannot penetrate through walls or other opaque barriers, the security of infrared WLANs is very high and there is no interference between rooms. This makes cell planning easier,

  17. Design and Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Local Area Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethem M. Sozer; Milica Stojanovic; John G. Proakis

    An underwater acoustic (UWA) local area network (LAN) is designed and tested using Opnet's Radio Modeler. The network consists of master and sensor nodes that will be deployed in sea with battery powered modems. We modeled the UWA channel using the Radio Transceiver Pipeline stages supplied with Opnet. Since the network nodes are stationary, we assumed that channel is slowly

  18. Terminal Centric Optimisation for the Wireless Local Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Farnham; Mahesh Sooriyabandara; Costas Efthymiou

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest within industry and standardisation bodies to permit wireless local area networks to utilise the scarce radio resources more efficiently and intelligently. One approach is to increase the physical layer data rate and exploit multi-path and spatial diversity using multi antenna systems, the other, and complementary, approach is to use more intelligent dynamic channel and mode selection.

  19. Radio coverage and performance analysis for local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Androne; Tudor Palade

    2010-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the study of coverage and co-channel interference for local area networks operating at three different frequencies -2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 60 GHz. The studies will be conducted in an indoor environment. The effects of the surrounding environment on the radio wave propagation are studied in detail for each of the three technologies. Advantages and

  20. Placement of access points in wireless local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faisal A. Al-nasser; Mansour A. Al-dajani; Uthman Baroudi; Shokri Z. Selim

    2009-01-01

    There are basic design elements in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) architecture to provide good service for the users like locations, number and transmission power of the Access Points (APs), also known as Base Stations (BSs). The number of deployed stations has a direct impact on the cost of the WLAN. Moreover, the intercell interference is affected by the number

  1. Multipath Channel Models for Wireless Local and Metropolitan Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyungsoo Jeong; S. H. Kim; K. M. Chung; J. C. Kim; J. H. Yu; J. S. Lee; S. H. Seo

    2005-01-01

    Wideband mobile radio channel characteristics were measured in various environments in Korea. SKT conducted impulse response measurements at 2.3 GHz with a commercial channel sounder and presents multipath channel models for wireless local and metropolitan area networks. In this paper, we describe the process to analyze the measured data and build tapped delay line channel models. The whole measurements were

  2. INTERNET AND INTRANET CONNECTIVITY THROUGH WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhibul Haque Bhuyan; Ikhtiar Uddin Ahmed

    There is an increasing demand for newer Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) systems to meet the emerging data communication challenges with respect to reliability, performance and cost. The wired networks have some problems which cannot be overcome; these can be achieved by using WLAN. This paper presents the site survey, link budget and device installation procedure for establishing a WLAN

  3. Local Area Network Implementation: Moving toward Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehl, Susan B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a LAN (local area network)-based automation project which has neared completion of the first phase of implementation at the Health Sciences Library of Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA). Changes in the library and its objectives with increased technological experience are examined. Diagrams of the current LAN configuration and…

  4. Use of Local Area Networks in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhold, Fran

    The current status and apparent trends of local area networks (LANs) in school districts are explored in this short report. Results of a 1987-88 Quality Education Data survey are cited, indicating that 64% of 173 of the largest school districts in the country were already networking and 36% intended to be networking by 1990. The advantages of…

  5. Wireless Local Area Networks: The Next Evolutionary Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers recently approved a high-speed wireless standard that enables devices from different manufacturers to communicate through a common backbone, making wireless local area networks more feasible in schools. Schools can now use wireless access points and network cards to provide flexible…

  6. Local Area Networks for K-12 Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Tim

    A Local Area Network (LAN) allows computing equipment to share information from any device on a network with other devices on the same network. Uses for LANs in schools include sharing printers and programs, centralized file sharing, access to library databases and catalog, cost-effective connection to external networks, electronic mail, school…

  7. A Unified Approach to Local Area Network Interconnection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Dowd; K. Jabbour

    1987-01-01

    An approach to local area network interconnection is presented Which combines the advances in static interconnection topologies, demand assignment multiple access protocols, and the availability of high-bandwidth fiber optic channels to create a cost-effective structure capable of interconnecting a large number of LAN's with heavy traffic. This approach is independent of the protocol implemented at each LAN. The structure is

  8. Local Area Networks for Libraries--Cast and Recast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Dorothy S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rationale, methodology, capabilities and problems of a local area network created for the Library Consortium of Health Institutions in Buffalo, using a multi-user microcomputer. The rationale and design of a new network, designed to better meet information and compatibility requirements, are described and suggestions to network…

  9. Local Authorities and the Education of Young People with Sickle Cell Disorders in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, S. M.; Abuateya, H.; Atkin, K.; Culley, L. A.; Dyson, S. E.; Rowley, D. T.

    2008-01-01

    The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local

  10. Local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-03-01

    Many cities around the world are located in mountainous areas. Understanding local circulations in mountainous urban areas is important for improving local weather and air quality prediction as well as understanding thermally forced mesoscale flow dynamics. In this study, we examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model. Ulaanbaatar lies in an east-west-oriented valley between the northern base of Mt. Bogd Khan and the southern base of branches of the Khentiin Nuruu mountain range. Idealized summertime fair-weather conditions with no synoptic winds are considered. In the daytime, mountain upslope winds, up-valley winds, and urban breeze circulation form and interact with each other. Mountain upslope winds precede up-valley winds. It is found that the transition of upslope winds to downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan occurs and the downslope winds in the afternoon strengthen due to urban breezes. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds are prominent and strong channeling flows form over the city. The sensitivities of local circulations to urban fraction, atmospheric stability, and soil water content are examined. As urban fraction increases, daytime up-valley winds over the city and daytime downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan strengthen. Daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city strengthen with increasing atmospheric stability. As soil water content decreases, daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city weaken. The daytime urban atmospheric boundary-layer height is found to be sensitive to atmospheric stability and soil water content. This study is a first attempt to examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar metropolitan area and demonstrates that the city alters mountain slope winds and up-/down-valley winds.

  11. Local Government Reform Programs and Human Resource Capacity Building in Africa: Evidence from Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Pallangyo; Christopher J. Rees

    2010-01-01

    The Local Government Reform Program (LGRP) in Tanzania was introduced to improve the access and quality of services provided by Local Government Authorities (LGAs). The main aim of the study is to clarify the practice and impact of Human Resource Capacity Building with reference to the LGRP in Tanzania. The study adopted a three-dimensional framework involving Human Resource Development (HRD),

  12. Coexistence and Local Extinction in Two Pierid Butterflies Author(s): Frances S. Chew

    E-print Network

    Chew, Frances Sze-Ling

    New Englandoccurredabout thetimethatits Palearcticcon- gener,P. (Artogeia)rapae L., became naturalized.(Pieris oleracea of inferredcompetitionin butterfliesis the presumed exclusionofan indigenousPieris butterflyby itsnaturalizedPalearcticcongener. Local extinctionofPieris (Artogeia) (napi) oleracea Harris (Lepidoptera) from partsof southern

  13. Program For Local-Area-Network Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    MailRoom is computer program for local-area network (LAN) electronic mail. Enables users of LAN to exchange electronically notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computers. Links all users of LAN into communication circle in which messages created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through series of menu-driven screens. Includes feature that enables users to determine whether messages sent have been read by receivers. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  14. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Crow; I. Widjaja; L. G. Kim; P. T. Sakai

    1997-01-01

    The draft IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) specification is approaching completion. In this article, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is explained, with particular emphasis on the medium access control sublayer. Performance results are provided for packetized data and a combination of packetized data and voice over the WLAN. Our performance investigation reveals that an IEEE 802.11 network may be

  15. Priority and fair scheduling in wireless local area networks

    E-print Network

    Dugar, Anurag

    2001-01-01

    queueing: A scheduling al- gorithm for integrated services packet switching networks, " IEEE/ACM Trans- actions on Networking, vol. 5, pp. 690 ? 704, October 1997. [11] IEEE, "IEEE std 802. 11 ? wireless LAN mediunr access control (MAC) and phys- ical... always inspired me to do my best. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page INTRODUCTION . BACKGROUND A. Wireless Local Area Network Standards . 1. IEEE 802. 11 Access Mechanism 2. Hiperlan Access Mechanism . B. Priority and Fair Scheduling in Wireless LANs...

  16. The study of wireless local area networks and wireless personal area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Li; A. Bose; Y. Q. Zhao

    2005-01-01

    There are two prevailing technologies which support the information exchange via radio links in the industrial, scientific, medical (ISM) 2.4-GHz frequency band for which no license is required to use. One is IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN), and the other is IEEE 802.15 wireless personal area network (WPAN) or Bluetooth. Although operating in the same frequency band and

  17. 20 CFR 666.400 - Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive Grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive Grants...INVESTMENT ACT Incentives and Sanctions for Local Performance § 666.400 Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive...

  18. 20 CFR 666.400 - Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive Grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive Grants...INVESTMENT ACT Incentives and Sanctions for Local Performance § 666.400 Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive...

  19. 20 CFR 666.400 - Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive Grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive Grants...INVESTMENT ACT Incentives and Sanctions for Local Performance § 666.400 Under what circumstances are local areas eligible for State Incentive...

  20. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.10 ...If the objective of the project is to prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local authority shall have or acquire...

  1. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.10 ...If the objective of the project is to prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local authority shall have or acquire...

  2. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.10 ...If the objective of the project is to prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local authority shall have or acquire...

  3. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.10 ...If the objective of the project is to prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local authority shall have or acquire...

  4. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.10 ...If the objective of the project is to prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local authority shall have or acquire...

  5. 76 FR 47228 - Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office Administrators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office...Assistant Secretary for the Office of Native American Programs to perform program administration...Assistant Secretary for the Office of Native American Programs to redelegate such...

  6. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  7. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  8. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  9. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  10. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  11. Local Area Damage Detection in Composite Structures Using Piezoelectric Transducers

    E-print Network

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F

    1998-01-01

    An integrated and automated smart structures approach for structural health monitoring is presented, utilizing an array of piezoelectric transducers attached to or embedded within the structure for both actuation and sensing. The system actively interrogates the structure via broadband excitation of multiple actuators across a desired frequency range. The structure's vibration signature is then characterized by computing the transfer functions between each actuator/sensor pair, and compared to the baseline signature. Experimental results applying the system to local area damage detection in a MD Explorer rotorcraft composite flexbeam are presented.

  12. Special School Reorganization by a Local Unitary Authority: Some Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashdown, Rob; Darlington, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of special school reorganization in one local authority with a particular emphasis upon the implications for those concerned with the education of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). The authors believe that reporting this experience provides pointers for others…

  13. Local Seismicity Analysis of the Ometepec, Guerrero Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinidad, F.; Yamamoto, J.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; González, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Ometepec Guerrero area in southern Mexico (16° - 17.5° N, 99° - 97.5° W) is a region of high seismic potential. In spite of the geological importance of the area, few works have been related to the correlation between local seismic distribution and geological features, this motivated us to the installation of a local seismic network that has been in operation since early May 2008; consisting of four GURALP broadband three component stations. The signals are recorded continuously at 100 samples per second. The network is complemented with a nearby permanent station (PNIG) from the National Seismologic Service (SSN). We intend to maintain the network operating for approximately three years. We present such a preliminary analysis of results of the first 4 month period of observations. Most of the recorded events have epicenters on land-and within the network. A few percent were located offshore with a wider margin of location error. The distribution of epicenters delineate several clusters that could be probably related to the surface expression of geological features; however, this situation will be clarified as more data is gathered.

  14. 76 FR 81984 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Local Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...Comment Request; Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program ACTION: Notice...is submitting the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) sponsored information collection...titled, ``Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program,'' to the Office of...

  15. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  16. Using area-based presentations and metrics for localization systems in wireless LANs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiman Elnahrawy; Xiaoyan Li; Richard P. Martin

    2004-01-01

    We show the utility of WLAN localization using areas and volumes as the fundamental localization unit. We demonstrate that area-based algorithms have a critical advantage over point-based approaches because they are better able to describe localization uncertainty, which is a common theme across WLAN based localization systems. Next, we present two novel area-based algorithms. To evaluate area-based approaches, we introduce

  17. Local area networking in a radio quiet environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.

    2002-11-01

    The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

  18. Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongquan; Soong, Seng-jaw; Grimes, Gary J; Orthner, Helmuth F

    2004-01-01

    Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER). The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management. PMID:15339336

  19. Ireland's Creative Development: Local Authority Strategies for Culture-led Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrin Bayliss

    2004-01-01

    Bayliss D. (2004) Ireland's creative development: local authority strategies for culture-led development, Regional Studies38, 817-831. This paper addresses specific gaps in our understanding of practice and policy concerning culture and local and regional development in Ireland. It is a country in which the development impacts of cultural policy are of increasing importance, yet the state of knowledge and policy in

  20. IEEE Trans Med Imaging . Author manuscript A fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian segmentation approach for volume

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IEEE Trans Med Imaging . Author manuscript Page /1 21 A fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian as well as the previously proposed fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC) and the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM ; Computer Simulation ; Fuzzy Logic ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; methods ; Markov Chains

  1. ASSISTANCE FROM LOCAL AUTHORITIES VERSUS SURVIVORS' NEEDS FOR SUPPORT AFTER SUICIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Dyregrov

    2002-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this article describes the local authorities in Norway as providers of help and survivors as recipients of help after the suicide of a young person (<30 years) in 83 families. A questionnaire developed for this study maps the extent of professional community support as reported by parent survivors (N ¼ 128). Additionally, 41 survivors

  2. Nurturing property investment by re-engineered systems for land pricing by local authorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred M. Matipa; Ronald Barham

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The research in this paper is aimed at re-engineering existing approaches to the analysis of proposed developments in local authorities – from land pricing to planning permission – hence reducing the loss of revenue in councils, and nurture property development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a case study of seven city councils on the Copperbelt province of Zambia

  3. announcement by local authorities in November that their response to cash shortfalls in education

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    announcement by local authorities in November that their response to cash shortfalls in education registration schemes, the importance of a Curriculum for Excellence, increased setting, raising the school of the immediacy of single issue campaigning. Elections for the third Scottish Parliament since devolution

  4. Clin Pharmacol Ther . Author manuscript Sildenafil increases digital skin blood flow during all phases of local

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Clin Pharmacol Ther . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Sildenafil increases digital skin blood flow the effect of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil, which potentiates the effect of NO, on skin blood flow. We recruited 15 patients with primary RP, performing local cooling without sildenafil (day 1), after a single 50

  5. Nuanced Understandings of Privatization in Local Authorities' Services to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon findings from the New Relations between Local Authorities (LAs) and Schools project to identify ideological and value-based differences between the models of service to schools adopted within four case study LAs. While each of the LAs has developed a privatized model of service, there are subtle differences between the…

  6. Cleaner production in SMEs through a partnership with (local) authorities: successes from the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieke Gombault; Stephan Versteege

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to total industrial production and their dominance in some sectors indicate that their contribution to total industrial environmental impact is considerable. This paper therefore focuses on pollution prevention by SMEs and on the ways in which local authorities can become a strategic partner in this process. The paper consists of a theoretical

  7. Recovering Failing local authorities - Is There a Need for Turnaround Management Strategies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itai Beeri

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with Turnaround Management Strategies in failing local authorities. The paper suggests that while the New Public Management reform resulted in some achievements, some public organizations are persistently failing. Although there is no clear-cut distinction between failing and good performing public organizations, the paper points out some of their characteristics. The Paper analyzes the efforts to recover English

  8. MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

  9. Testbed for a scalable terabit optical local area network.

    PubMed

    Au, A; Supmonchai, B; Szymanski, T H

    2000-08-10

    The design of a fiber-optic local area network (LAN) demonstration system is described. A complete LAN system would consist of an array of 16 personal computers (PC's), where each PC has a network interface card (NIC) with a parallel fiber-optic datalink to a centralized optoelectronic switch core. The centralized core switches the data generated by 16 NIC's, up to 128 Gbit/s of bandwidth. The demonstrator is designed to scale to terabits of bandwidth by use of an emerging optoelectronic technology, i.e., integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) substrates with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and photodetector optical input and output. A subset of the complete system was constructed and is operational. A prototype NIC card, with Motorola Optobus VCSEL transceivers for the optical datalinks, was constructed and is described. A prototype high-speed bipolar switch core, with statically configurable electrical positive-emitter coupled-logic 16 x 16 crossbar switches, CMOS field-programmable gate arrays, and Motorola Optobus transceivers, was constructed and is described. We successfully demonstrated the transmission of high-speed packetized data from one NIC card, through 10 m of parallel fiber ribbon and the centralized switch core, and back to the NIC. We summarize our experiences on the design and testing of our first demonstration system and our development toward a terabit switch core. PMID:18349995

  10. Educational Psychology in Scotland: Making a Difference. An Aspect Report on the Findings of Inspections of Local Authority Educational Psychology Services 2006-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides, for the first time, an overview based on inspections of all 32 local authority educational psychology services. The picture it presents is broadly a very positive one although it also points to areas in which there is certainly scope for further improvement. The report shows that services are making a positive difference to…

  11. A Security Application of the Warwick Optical Antenna in Wireless Local and Personal Area Networks

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    A Security Application of the Warwick Optical Antenna in Wireless Local and Personal Area Networks any further requirements other than a LOS between the sender and receiver. For Local Area Networks for exchanging information, security can be maintained in any radio communication taking place in the local

  12. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000...PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and...

  13. Characterizing Mobility and Network Usage in a Corporate Wireless LocalArea Network

    E-print Network

    Characterizing Mobility and Network Usage in a Corporate Wireless Local­Area Network Magdalena Center pcastro@us.ibm.com Abstract Wireless local­area networks are becoming increas­ ingly popular [16] also studied the Metri­ com metropolitan­area packet radio wireless network, a public network

  14. Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2012-03-01

    Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ? = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of the expert pathologist is not affected by our CAD system which is what we want to prove. However, the usage of our CAD system substantially account for the reduced inter- and intra- proliferation rate estimation variability and especially for less-experienced pathologists.

  15. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    PubMed

    Davis, Charles

    2014-08-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities. PMID:24588100

  16. Automated localization of macula-fovea area on retina images using blood vessel network topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huajun Ying; Jyh-Charn Liu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple yet robust unsupervised algorithm for automated localization of macula-fovea area on retina images. The small sizes and weak contrast of the macula-fovea area on retina images make it unreliable to detect it directly. As such, we extract the retina blood vessel network topology based on local energy function of blood vessel widths and

  17. Effect of channel interference on indoor wireless local area network positioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. L. Chan; G. Baciu; S. C. Mak

    2010-01-01

    Localization systems for indoor areas have recently been suggested that make use of existing wireless local area network (WLAN) infrastructure and location fingerprinting approach. However, most existing research work ignores channel interference between wireless infrastructures and this could affect accurate and precise positioning. A better understanding of the properties of channel interference could assist in improving the positioning accuracy while

  18. Networking CD-ROMs: The Decision Maker's Guide to Local Area Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elshami, Ahmed M.

    In an era when patrons want access to CD-ROM resources but few libraries can afford to buy multiple copies, CD-ROM local area networks (LANs) are emerging as a cost-effective way to provide shared access. To help librarians make informed decisions, this manual offers information on: (1) the basics of LANs, a "local area network primer"; (2) the…

  19. 24 CFR 1000.320 - How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area...Formula § 1000.320 How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area...adjust the allocation of funds for the Current Assisted Stock portion of the...

  20. 24 CFR 1000.320 - How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area...Formula § 1000.320 How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area...adjust the allocation of funds for the Current Assisted Stock portion of the...

  1. Probabilistic Model Checking of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network Protocol ?

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Probabilistic Model Checking of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network Protocol ? Marta of the increased demand for wireless local area net- works. Its medium access control mechanism is described; procedure involves a uniform probabilistic choice of an integer-valued delay from an interval, where

  2. Probabilistic Model Checking of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network Protocol

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Probabilistic Model Checking of the IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network Protocol Marta demand for wireless local area net- works. Its medium access control mechanism is described according involves a uniform probabilistic choice of an integer-valued delay from an interval, where the size

  3. Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

    The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

  4. Introduction to Local Area Networks for Microcomputers — Characteristics, Costs, Implementation Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Haney, James P.

    1984-01-01

    The essence of a local area network (LAN) is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. A local area network can save in hardware costs when expensive peripherals are shared; it can save time when large blocks of data are rapidly exchanged among users. The need for more cost-effective and capable communications has inspired the emergence of rapidly developing markets and technologies for local area networks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the characteristics, components, costs, and implementation considerations of local area networks. The paper does not compare or define specific vendor offerings; however, recent IBM announcements regarding local area networks are summarized in the last section of the paper.

  5. Impacts of Community-based Conservation on Local Communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

    2006-01-01

    Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

  6. Impacts of community-based conservation on local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

    Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

  7. Avoiding pitfalls when implementing local area networks in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Kaudewitz, G; Schulte, A

    1995-01-01

    This paper is intended to outline some of the most commonly encountered, but yet still underestimated pitfalls during the implementation of computer systems networks in hospitals and health care institutions and to give information technology planners and responsibles some practical hints for avoiding them. Pitfalls encountered during the difficult process of achieving consensus among all groups concerned on the necessity for electronic data processing in health care institutions will not be addressed here [1], though the authors believe that some major risks for project failure stem from shortcomings in this field. Instead, those pitfalls encountered during project initialization and project realization with the phases of analysis, design, contracting, installation, and maintenance will be discussed. The paper concludes with the authors' opinion that only the application of industry-proven project management and realization techniques will allow health care administrators to cope with the steadily increasing risks for failure of information technology projects in health care. PMID:8591225

  8. Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature Points and Spatial Voting

    E-print Network

    Ünsalan, Cem

    - gions is an important problem in remote sensing. Very high res- olution aerial and satellite images. Unfortunately, these images cover very large areas. Therefore, their manual inspection is very hard and prone of these difficulties, manually monitoring urbanization using very high resolution aerial and satellite images

  9. 75 FR 34923 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...for comments, the regulations moved the McGuire Air Force Base, NJ, and Fort Dix, NJ...pay area portions of the new Joint Base McGuire- Dix-Lakehurst, from the Philadelphia...Department of Defense established Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst effective October...

  10. Active star coupler based fiber-optic local area network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Suh; S. Granlund; A. Lumsdaine; D. Snyder; S. Wetzel; C. Daniels; K. Haag

    1987-01-01

    A 50-MBd active star fiber optical Iocal area network (LAN) and its optical combiner and mixing rod splitter are presented. The limited power budget and relatively large tapping losses of lightwave technology, which limit the use of fiber optics in tapped bus LAn topologies, are examined and proven tolerable in optical star topologies. The optical combiner and splitter, compononets necessary

  11. Management and development of local area network upgrade prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouser, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Given the situation of having management and development users accessing a central computing facility and given the fact that these same users have the need for local computation and storage, the utilization of a commercially available networking system such as CP/NET from Digital Research provides the building blocks for communicating intelligent microsystems to file and print services. The major problems to be overcome in the implementation of such a network are the dearth of intelligent communication front-ends for the microcomputers and the lack of a rich set of management and software development tools.

  12. Modeling and monitoring a LAN. [Local Area Network

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.B.

    1983-04-18

    Clark, Program and Reed have suggested that the issues of local network design can be classified as either configuration issues or protocol issues. They visualize networks as consisting of four basic elements: the transmission medium, a control mechanism, the interfaces, and the protocols. Network performance is strongly dependent not only upon each of these elements but also upon their mutual interactions. The remainder of this paper consists of three sections. The first section deals with the validation of LLNL's discrete event simulation of the NSC Hyperchannel. The second section concerns the current state of traffic measurement in the Craynet. Lastly, the third section discusses the design and functionality of a Hyperchannel Monitoring Device (HMD).

  13. 76 FR 1429 - Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-154

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...Balancing Authority Ancillary Services Formula Rates...Authority (WACM) Ancillary Services Formula Rates through February 28, 2013. The existing transmission and ancillary services formula rates will expire February 28,...

  14. 20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...a) Each local workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators described...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart E of... - Sitka Local Area Management Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart E of Part 300—Sitka Local Area Management Plan...

  16. Are environmental health officers and transport planners in English local authorities working together to achieve air quality objectives?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Olowoporoku; E. T. Hayes; N. S. Leksmono; J. W. S. Longhurst; G. P. Parkhurst

    Since 1997, Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) has been used as a process through which local authorities in England identify and manage specific air quality problems within their jurisdictions in order to achieve the air quality objectives (AQO). However, the limitation of this process is that of policy disconnect between diagnosis and solutions proffered within it. Over 90% of air

  17. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard...activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., within Site 28, in...

  18. Toward an integrated marine protected areas policy: connecting the global to the local

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marivic G. Pajaro; Monica E. Mulrennan; Amanda C. J. Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Policy development related to marine protected areas (MPAs) occurs at three levels: international, national, and local. Recent\\u000a developments with MPAs highlight their close links to broader national-level park and protected area policies, which in turn\\u000a take their lead from initiatives and recommendations initiated, and increasingly dictated, by international organizations.\\u000a Local-level inputs to MPA policies have tended to be limited to

  19. Ampelographic and DNA characterization of local grapevine accessions of the Tuscia area (Latium,Italy)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of local vines in the Tuscia area (Latium region, Italy) was documented by historical sources. Ampelographic and molecular characterization (35 morphological descriptors and 16 microsatellite loci) was carried out on accessions belonging to the most frequently mentioned local vines. S...

  20. Optical Layer Local Area Network Emulation in a Multifunctional Repeater-Based Optical Access Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishaanthan Nadarajah; Chang-Joon Chae; An Vu Tran; Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas

    2009-01-01

    A simple and bandwidth-efficient scheme for providing local area networking among customers in a multifunctional repeater-based optical access network is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The local traffic from a customer premises is carried on a radio frequency carrier along with the upstream traffic, and this traffic is electrically separated and then combined with downstream traffic at the remote repeater for

  1. Mechanization of Cassava Processing in Iwo Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Davies; M. O. Olatunji; W. Burubai

    A study was conducted to assess the different cassava processing machinery available, the most acceptable machine, effect of machines cost on the acceptability of mechanisation, cost of maintenance and services of the machines in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken using structured questionnaires administered through a participatory learning technique. The local government was divided into

  2. Modality-specific frontal and parietal areas for auditory and visual spatial localization in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalafalla O. Bushara; Kenji Ishii; Maria-Jose Catalan; Biao Tian; Josef P. Rauschecker; Mark Hallett

    1999-01-01

    Although the importance of the posterior parietal and prefrontal regions in spatial localization of visual stimuli is well established, their role in auditory space perception is less clear. Using positron emission tomography (PET) during auditory and visual spatial localization in the same subjects, modality-specific areas were identified in the superior parietal lobule, middle temporal and lateral prefrontal cortices. These findings

  3. The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local Exceptionality

    E-print Network

    #12;The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local The factors that explain differences in the economic productivity of urban areas have remained difficult of economic activity in a city in terms of a production function, together with a scaling perspective

  4. Characterizing mobility and network usage in a corporate wireless local-area network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Balazinska; Paul Castro

    2003-01-01

    Wireless local-area networks are becoming increasingly popular. They are commonplace on university campuses and inside corporations, and they have started to appear in public areas [17]. It is thus becoming increasingly important to understand user mobility patterns and network usage characteristics on wireless networks. Such an understanding would guide the design of applications geared toward mobile environments (e.g., pervasive computing

  5. Light Cognitive Radio Enabled Flexible Spectrum Usage in Local Area Deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kumar; Valentina Palma; Erwann Borgat; Nicola Marchetti; Preben E. Mogensen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a mechanism to enable flexible spectrum usage (FSU) in local area indoor deployment scenario with several operators in the given geographical area. The proposed scheme is referred to as policy assisted light cognitive radio (CR) enabled FSU, because it follows the CR cycle and considers policy as an important element to assist FSU. It facilitates

  6. BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas based on co-management for small water, and propose predefined variables to analyze some Colombian small communities located in rural areas in order to develop model based in actors and roles. It shows how the government can support this management

  7. [Health care for undocumented migrants--a quantitative study on the role of local health authorities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Mylius, M; Frewer, A

    2014-07-01

    Public welfare on a municipal level for groups with special health risks has been an important topic of public health service for more than a century. This notion has been taken up by the German "Protection against Infection Act" (IfSG) in § 19 IfSG. Local health service authorities may provide out-patient treatment in addition to counselling and diagnosis for patients with sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis, which is covered by public resources in cases of apparent need. Due to altered legislation and increased global mobility, this may become important for migrants without access to regular health care.Aims of this study were recording, counselling, diagnosis and out-patient treatment of migrants without legal residence status under the German Protection against Infection Act in the public health care system.An electronic mail survey of all local health authorities (n=384) by means of a standardised questionnaire was undertaken. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. In the annex of the questionnaire the participants were asked to describe a case study.139 of 384 local health authorities completed the questionnaire (36.2%) of whom approximately a quarter (24.6%) described contacts to "illegal" migrants. Contacts to migrants without legal residence status are more frequent in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants than in ismaller cities (p<0.05). 22.6% of all local health authorities make an effort to reach undocumented migrants for counseling and diagnosis. 25 of the local health authorities (18.4%) indicated the capability to provide treatment in accordance with § 19 IfSG. A majority of these local health authorities also have contacts to undocumented migrants (75%). 16 local health authorities (13.3%) provide out-patient treatment for diseases not listed in Protection against Infection Act. 56 authorities (46.7%) refer patients to aid organisations or to resident doctors.Only a small number of local health authorities have contacts to migrants without health insurance. The option-al out-patient treatment is provided by few local health authorities especially in cases of sexual transmitted diseases except for HIV/AIDS. In most cases undocumented migrants are only one group among others. The large number of cases in cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants shows the massive requirements. PMID:24671893

  8. Local Area Water Removal Analysis of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell under Gas Purge Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold. PMID:22368495

  9. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to...Delivery System § 662.310 Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to...Local Board and each partner? (a) A single “umbrella” MOU may be...

  10. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to...Delivery System § 662.310 Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to...Local Board and each partner? (a) A single “umbrella” MOU may be...

  11. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to...Delivery System § 662.310 Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to...Local Board and each partner? (a) A single “umbrella” MOU may be...

  12. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to...Delivery System § 662.310 Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to...Local Board and each partner? (a) A single “umbrella” MOU may be...

  13. 40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3...EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.1000 How does a state, tribe...government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting?...

  14. 40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3...EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.1000 How does a state, tribe...government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting?...

  15. Environmental Conditions and Body Temperatures of Elderly Women Living Alone or in Local Authority Home

    PubMed Central

    Salvosa, Carmencita B.; Payne, P. R.; Wheeler, Erica F.

    1971-01-01

    The environmental and body temperatures of two groups of elderly women have been measured. One group was living in a local authority home (L.A.H.) and the others in their own homes in North London. The L.A.H. provided a constant environmental temperature which was at all times higher than that of the private houses. In the latter group the ambient temperature was higher in bed-sitting rooms than in houses with separate living rooms and bedrooms. Body temperatures in summer were similar throughout both groups. In winter the skin and mouth temperatures of the subjects living independently were lower than those in the L.A.H. Four subjects who had low mouth temperatures measured during two consecutive winters did not prove to have lowered deep body temperatures. The diet of these four subjects was similar in respect of all nutrients to that found in other groups of subjects of the same age, and in relation to published dietary standards was adequate in all respects. PMID:5134562

  16. Fat future for firefighters? Changes in prevalence of obesity in Scottish local authority firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ide, C W

    2012-11-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in adult obesity in the Scotland during the past two decades, but little research has been undertaken into populations defined specifically by occupation. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of obesity in a group of local authority firefighters arising early in their careers, between enlistment and initial examination for a large goods vehicle (LGV) licence. The body mass index (BMI) from initial LGV medical examinations of firefighters during a 30-month period up to the end of September 2005 was compared with that at enlistment. Enlistment and LGV BMI data were available for 114 firefighters, all men. Of 114, 77 (68%) of LGV examinations took place within five years of enlistment. None were obese (BMI ?30) at enlistment, but by LGV medical the BMI of 88 (84%) had increased, and nine (8%) were obese. Assuming uniform accrual, BMI increased annually at rates varying between 0.06% and 2.25% (mean, 0.56; standard deviation [SD], 0.42). For the nine obese, this was 0.29-2.25% (mean, 1.06; SD, 0.61). In a population for which fitness is an essential selection criterion, the implied decline of fitness as measured by rising BMI in a short period should be cause for concern. PMID:23028175

  17. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  18. Access all areas: integrating accessibility planning into the local transport planning process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Bishop; B Lockwood

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the last 10 years, the United Kingdom has experienced major decentralisation of power with various functions of Central Government, including many transport functions, passed to the newly created Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly. Simultaneously, many of the same transport functions in England have been decentralised to eight Regional Governments and their Local Authorities. In England, the Transport

  19. Local-area simulations of rotating compressible convection and associated mean flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlburt, Neal E.; Brummell, N. H.; Toomre, Juri

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of compressible convection within a curved local segment of a rotating spherical shell are considered in relation to the turbulent redistribution of angular momentum within the solar convection zone. Current supercomputers permit fully turbulent flows to be considered within the restricted geometry of local area models. By considering motions in a curvilinear geometry in which the Coriolos parameters vary with latitude, Rossby waves which couple with the turbulent convection are thought of as being possible. Simulations of rotating convection are presented in such a curved local segment of a spherical shell using a newly developed, sixth-order accurate code based on compact finite differences.

  20. High-speed non-directional infrared communication for wireless local-area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Kahn; J. R. Barry; W. J. Krause; M. D. Audeh; J. B. Carruthers; G. Messerschmitt; E. A. Lee; D. G. Messerschmitt

    1992-01-01

    The use of wide-area infrared beams to establish high-speed digital links between portable terminals and a base station, allowing construction of in-building wireless local-area networks, is discussed. Key impairments to high-speed communication using nondirectional infrared links, namely, small received power in the face of potentially intense ambient infrared radiation and intersymbol interference caused by multipath optical propagation, are examined. Transmitter

  1. In these tighter economic times the University needs to look at all areas where costs can be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This includes activities such as the printing of emails, printing of documents and draft documents, all of which are areas which could be reduced to provide savings. Another area is how you specify your print work to Printing Services there are many areas

  2. 287(g) and the Politics of Interior Immigration Control in the United States: Explaining Local Cooperation with Federal Immigration Authorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom K. Wong

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to improve our understanding of emerging patterns of interior immigration control in the United States by examining local law enforcement cooperation with federal immigration authorities under the 287(g) Program. While several recent studies have drawn attention to the shifting terrain of immigration enforcement away from borders into the interior, few have attempted to systematically explain reasons for

  3. ITL BULLETIN FOR FEBRUARY 2012 GUIDELINES FOR SECURING WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    ITL BULLETIN FOR FEBRUARY 2012 GUIDELINES FOR SECURING WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS (WLANS) Shirley the security practices of federal government organizations that use wireless networks and technologies in a report, Federal Agencies Have Taken Steps to Secure Wireless Networks, but Further Actions Can Mitigate

  4. On the Planning Problem of Wireless Local Area Networks with Directional Antennas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc-olivier Ouellet; Steven Chamberland; Philippe Galinier

    2008-01-01

    Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are more deployed today than ever before. However, this rapid growth led to uncoordinated deployment and planning tools are rarely used. In this paper, we first propose a mathematical model to solve the WLAN planning problem considering directional antennas. The problem consists of selecting the location of the access points in the network and selecting

  5. Dynamo: design, implementation, and evaluation of cooperative persistent object management in a local area network

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei

    technology, especially the emergence of network attached disks, the traditional client­server architecture network­ attached disks, thus avoiding copies from a disk to the server buffer and then over the network in a local area network Jiong Yang 1 \\Lambda , Wei Wang 1 , Silvia Nittel 2 , Richard Muntz 2 , and Vince

  6. Development of a Computer Program To Improve Sixth Graders Use of a Local Area Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castoldi, Shirley S.

    This practicum was developed in response to a concern that a week-long orientation program did not eliminate the difficulties experienced by sixth graders in signing onto and using the school's Local Area Network (LAN). Class printouts demonstrated a noticeable discrepancy between the number of skills students were supposed to complete and the…

  7. LandScape Command Set: Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Burchard, R.L.; Small, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment (LandScape) commands set that provides a Generic Device Subsystem Application Programmers Interface (API). These commands are implemented using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification with Orbix from Iona Technologies.

  8. Correlation between forward voltage drop and local carrier lifetime for a large area segmented thyristor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Linnros; Roland Revsater; Lars Heijkenskjold; Peter Norlin

    1995-01-01

    The forward voltage drop for individual segments of a large area thyristor has been correlated to the local, bulk carrier lifetime by lifetime mapping of the the wafer after final device processing. The lifetime mapping was performed under high injection conditions using an all-optical technique where carriers were generated by a short YAG laser pulse and the subsequent carrier decay

  9. Installing a CD-ROM Local Area Network in a Science and Engineering Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Moid Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the literature on local area network (LAN) installation and describes the installation of a CD-ROM LAN at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia). Server evaluation and installation, access menu, user training, LAN licensing, campus-wide networking, the impact of networking, and future projects planned are…

  10. Rearing a toothless tiger? From area child protection committee to local safeguarding children board

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Horwath

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a model describing different levels of collaboration to chart the development of area child protection committees (ACPCs) and their successors, local safeguarding children boards (LSCBs). It argues that concerns about these partnerships lacking ‘teeth’ have resulted in a broadening of remit and increased regulation and statutory guidance. Using criteria from the literature for effective multidisciplinary strategic partnerships,

  11. Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL R. PRUCNAL; MARIO A. SANTORO; TING RUI FAN

    1986-01-01

    Spread spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) allows asynchronous multiple access to a local area network (LAN) with no waiting. The additional bandwidth required by spread spectrum can be accommodated by using a fiber-optic channel and incoherent optical signal processing. New CDMA sequences are designed specifically for optical processing. It is shown that increasing the number of chips per bit,

  12. An Improvement Approach of Indoor Location Based on Radio-Map Using Wireless Local Area Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miao Chen; Jishun Jin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved approach of indoor location using Wireless Local Area Network. To reduce the influence from multi-path interference, we used a max filter to preprocess the original received signal strength indications. We also used a more conformable distribution to substitute the standard Gaussian distribution in indoor location system. Our experiments results show that the proposed

  13. Optimization of propagation models for the radio performance evaluation of wireless local area network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Chung Tuan; J.-C. Chen; H.-T. Chou; H.-H. Chou

    2003-01-01

    The wireless local area network (WLAN) has become very popular in recent years because of its utilization on free frequency bands and high speed of data transmission. However, due to increasing applications of wireless communications in these free bands, WLANs are facing interference from themselves and other applications, not only because the utilization of these free bands are very crowed,

  14. MC-CDMA\\/VSF for the downlink physical layer in next generation wireless local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Gutierrez Diaz de Leon; Jaime Sánchez García; M. C. Bean; L. A. G. D. de Leon

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new physical layer for the downlink in future generation wireless local area networks (WLANs), operating in the ISM band, and based on multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) is proposed. Taking advantage of the CDMA properties, this physical layer aims to provide service simultaneously to several users with different data rate needs. Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes are

  15. Space-Time Models of Asynchronous CSMA Protocols for Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Molle; K. Sohraby; A. N. Venestanopoulos

    1987-01-01

    Carrier sense multiple-access (CSMA) protocols are widely used in local area networks (LAN's) to control access to a shared communications channel such as a coaxial cable or radio frequency band. CSMA protocols are designed to exploit the property that the signal propagation time across the LAN is much smaller than the packet transmission time. Consequently, their performance depends on the

  16. Optimization of wireless local area network in IC factory using a jumping-gene paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Chan; K. F. Mani; K. S. Tang; S. Kwong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a jumping gene paradigm is proposed to optimize the base station placement for the wireless local area network (WLAN) of an IC factory. In order to offer adequate radio coverage quality for the terminals, the locations of base stations should be correctly determined. Since there is a tradeoff between the signal quality of terminals and the number

  17. Orthogonal frequency division multiplex synchronisation techniques for wireless local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Keller; L. Hanzo

    1996-01-01

    A range of frequency acquisition, frequency tracking, symbol synchronisation and frame synchronisation techniques are proposed and evaluated for employment in 155 Mbit\\/s, 60 GHz local area networks. The algorithms are based on two correlation functions, exhibit a moderate implementational complexity and high robustness against channel noise

  18. Unauthorised access to wireless local area networks: The limitations of the present Australian laws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niloufer Selvadurai; Peter Gillies

    2009-01-01

    Wireless local area networks (WLANs) have enjoyed a rapid increase in usage in recent years. WLANs serve to connect users to the Internet by means of radio or infrared frequencies. The rise in WLAN usage has however served to highlight some of the inadequacies of the present laws governing unauthorised access to WLANs. At present, the legislation serves to make

  19. Dynamic Load Balancing and Channel Allocation in Indoor Wireless Local Area Networks

    E-print Network

    Akl, Robert

    waves through the air medium between a wireless client and an Access Point (AP), as well as among two wireless devices connected to each others in a peer-to-peer manner or through APs, which in turn1 Dynamic Load Balancing and Channel Allocation in Indoor Wireless Local Area Networks A Thesis

  20. Scalable Local Area Service Discovery Richard Black, Heimir Sverrisson and Laurent Massouli

    E-print Network

    Massoulié, Laurent

    . In addition, we consider the industrial requirement as to the certification of independent implementations. INTRODUCTION Service Discovery is an important part of a Local Area Network (LAN) such as Ethernet. On actively rely on the Ethernet MAC's exponential backoff for load control (appropriate historically

  1. System for analysis of LANDSAT agricultural data: Automatic computer-assisted proportion estimation of local areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Kauth, R. J.; Thomas, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conceptual man machine system framework was created for a large scale agricultural remote sensing system. The system is based on and can grow out of the local recognition mode of LACIE, through a gradual transition wherein computer support functions supplement and replace AI functions. Local proportion estimation functions are broken into two broad classes: (1) organization of the data within the sample segment; and (2) identification of the fields or groups of fields in the sample segment.

  2. Exploring the Links between Ethnobotany, Local Therapeutic Practices, and Protected Areas in Santa Catarina Coastline, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the knowledge of medicinal plants in two areas proposed for the creation of protected areas for sustainable use in the city of Imbituba (SC). In this study, we analyzed the influence of gender, form of learning, and modern medicine on medicinal plant knowledge while also reflecting on the relationship of this knowledge to in situ conservation. Data collection was conducted through structured interviews, free listings, guided tours, and collection of botanical material. 197 species of medicinal plants belonging to 70 botanical families were recorded. Gender and the form of learning were factors that significantly influenced the similarity of the knowledge of medicinal plants among the informants. We also observed the existence of a therapeutic pluralism among key informants. Local medicinal plant knowledge emphasizes the importance of strategies to create protected areas of sustainable use as a way to ensure the maintenance of traditional lifestyles and associated local knowledge. PMID:22203874

  3. Municipal Solid Waste Costs: A Comparative Analysis of Local Authority Policies in Attica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis Rovolis; Katia Lazaridi; Margarita Kehagioglou

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a comparative study of solid waste costs of the municipal authorities in Attica. At first, it attempts to estimate the economic cost of solid waste for a number of municipal authorities of the Attica region. The solid waste costs are determined by a number of factors, including the quantity and composition of the solid

  4. Collecting and distributing wearable sensor data: an embedded personal area network to local area network gateway server.

    PubMed

    Neuhaeuser, Jakob; D'Angelo, Lorenzo T

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the concept and of the device presented in this contribution is to be able to collect sensor data from wearable sensors directly, automatically and wirelessly and to make them available over a wired local area network. Several concepts in e-health and telemedicine make use of portable and wearable sensors to collect movement or activity data. Usually these data are either collected via a wireless personal area network or using a connection to the user's smartphone. However, users might not carry smartphones on them while inside a residential building such as a nursing home or a hospital, but also within their home. Also, in such areas the use of other wireless communication technologies might be limited. The presented system is an embedded server which can be deployed in several rooms in order to ensure live data collection in bigger buildings. Also, the collection of data batches recorded out of range, as soon as a connection is established, is also possible. Both, the system concept and the realization are presented. PMID:24110771

  5. Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P

    2014-01-01

    In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region's locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

  6. Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

    2014-01-01

    In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

  7. How habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant assemblages in isolated closed depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herault, Bruno; Thoen, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Classifying species by shared life-history traits is important if common ecological response groups are to be identified among different species. We investigated how habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant communities in small isolated closed depressions, and how the species richness is related to the interplay between environmental factors and specific life-history trait combinations. In Central-Western Europe, 169 closed depressions were completely surveyed for plant presence in two highly contrasted landscapes (forested and open landscapes). All species were clustered into 9 Emergent Groups based on 10 life-history traits related to plant dispersal, establishment and persistence. Habitat areas were related to species presence using logistic regressions. Most Emergent Groups were more area-dependent in open than in forested landscapes, owing to heterogeneous light levels in forest weakening the species-area relationship. In open landscapes, Floating Hydrophytes were severely underrepresented in very small depressions, owing to the absence of waterfowl population. Local environmental and regional factors were related to species richness using Generalized Linear Models. In open landscapes, local environmental factors such as water conductivity or soil productivity are respectively the main predictors. In forested landscapes, the abundance of most Emergent Groups was better predicted by regional factors, i.e., habitat connectivity and distance to the forest edge. Forested landscapes strongly impeded the closed depressions' colonization by the less mobile Emergent Groups such as Large-seeded Perennials.

  8. 76 FR 50540 - Pilot Program of Enhanced Contract Care Authority for Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...Pilot Program of Enhanced Contract Care Authority for Veterans...implementing Sec. 403 of Public Law (Pub. L.) 110-387...establish a pilot program to contract with non-VA health...which requires VA to use contracts in order to arrange for...program. See Public Law 110- 387, Sec....

  9. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  10. Fibernet II:A Fiber Optic Local Area Network With Data Collision Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Ronald V.; Rawson, Eric G.

    1983-03-01

    A fiber-optic local area network, named Fibernet II, has been demonstrated. Fibernet II has been designed for use with the channel access discipline known as carrier-sense multiple-access with collision-detection. The detection of data packet collisions is necessary for Ethernet, a coaxial cable local area network, which uses statistical arbitration to coordinate net access. Plug compatible with Ethernet at the transceiver cable interface, Fibernet II can extend an existing Ethernet installation or can serve as a stand alone Ethernet, replacing coaxial cable with fiber cable. Fibernet II is a five channel prototype active-star configured network operating at a 10M Bit/s data rate. Fibernet is designed for modular growth to enable easy network expansion.

  11. MAP Fault Localization Based on Wide Area Synchronous Phasor Measurement Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yagang; Wang, Zengping

    2015-02-01

    In the research of complicated electrical engineering, the emergence of phasor measurement units (PMU) is a landmark event. The establishment and application of wide area measurement system (WAMS) in power system has made widespread and profound influence on the safe and stable operation of complicated power system. In this paper, taking full advantage of wide area synchronous phasor measurement information provided by PMUs, we have carried out precise fault localization based on the principles of maximum posteriori probability (MAP). Large numbers of simulation experiments have confirmed that the results of MAP fault localization are accurate and reliable. Even if there are interferences from white Gaussian stochastic noise, the results from MAP classification are also identical to the actual real situation.

  12. Communications protocols for a fault tolerant, integrated local area network for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the Space Station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated,local area networks capable of supporting data, voice and video communications. In addition, fault tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard Space Station of day-to-day data system repair tasks. An experimental, local area network is being developed which will serve as a testbed for investigating candidate algorithms and technologies for a fault tolerant, integrated network. The establishment of a set of rules or protocols which govern communications on the net is essential to obtain orderly and reliable operation. A hierarchy of protocols for the experimental network is presented and procedures for data and control communications are described.

  13. The Evolving Marriage of a Local Area Network (LAN) and a Hospital Information System (HIS)

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Eugene T.; Pickren, John D.; Mangum, Patricia; Tomlins, Helen F.; Pickren, Ann S.

    1983-01-01

    Over the last eight years, a teleprocessing/database Hospital Information System (HIS) for the Medical College of Georgia hospital and clinics has evolved to include approximately 200 terminal functions, 100 cathode ray terminals (CRT's) and 25 printers running on an IBM 4341. Concurrent with this development, several specialized standalone departmental minicomputer systems have evolved in response to specific requirements. In early 1981, a networking concept was proposed whereby the various information management systems within the hospital and clinics could communicate with each other. This concept has been successfully applied to several systems including a Local Area Network (LAN) of 24 processors and 45 workstations. This paper will outline the evolution from a single host processor multiple terminal oriented HIS, to a communications network of computers, to the integration of the host terminal network and a flexible Local Area Network.

  14. Low cost solution for location determination of mobile nodes in a wireless local area network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansar-ul-haque Yasar; M. A. Ansari; Sherjeel Farooqui

    2006-01-01

    In this research paper we undertook the problem of Location Determination of Mobile nodes in a Wireless Local area network, as finding out the location in a wireless environment is to-date not very easy, cheap and accurate using 802.11b technology. We used the classical method of Triangulation with a little alteration which is later on described in the paper. Another

  15. Low Cost Solution for Location Determination of Mobile Nodes in a Wireless Local Area Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Ansari; Sherjeel Farooqui; Ansar-Ul-Haque Yasar

    2005-01-01

    In this research paper we undertook the problem of location determination of mobile nodes in a wireless local area network, as finding out the location in a wireless environment is to-date not very easy, cheap and accurate using 802.11b technology. We used the classical method of triangulation with a little alteration which is later on described in the paper. Another

  16. Radio map fusion for indoor positioning in wireless local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kushki; K. N. Plataniotis; A. N. Venetsanopoulos; C. S. Regazzoni

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of indoor location estimation (LE) in wireless local area network (WLAN) using received signal strength (RSS). The difficultly of the problem lies in the complexity of the indoor propagation channel at operating WLAN frequency of 2.4 GHz, resulting in nonlinear and non-Gaussian spatio-temporal RSS properties. The first contribution of this paper is the introduction of

  17. A novel local area network emulation technique on passive optical networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishaanthan Nadarajah; Manik Attygalle; Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas; Elaine Wong

    2005-01-01

    An optical layer solution for intercommunication between customers in a passive optical network by placing a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating close to the star coupler in the feeder fiber is proposed. The local area network (LAN) emulation technique is experimentally demonstrated with 1.25-Gb\\/s upstream transmission to the central office and with 155 Mb\\/s customer data transmission that is multiplexed on

  18. Smart-antenna operation for indoor wireless local-area networks using OFDM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari T. Alastalo; Mika Kahola

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports link-level Monte Carlo simulations for a system that is compatible with the physical layer of the 5-GHz IEEE 802.11a wireless-local-area network and utilizes an adaptive antenna array at the access point for single-user smart-antenna operation, as well as for space-division multiple access (SDMA). For the spatial indoor radio propagation channel, complex impulse-response recordings are used. These are

  19. Local-area radio navigation: a tool for GPS-denied geolocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. A. Taylor; Peter N. Johnson; W. T. Faulkner

    2003-01-01

    Ranger is a local area radio frequency ranging system implemented in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific andMedical band. Roundtrip time-of-flight measurements are made in a two-stage process: a coarse measurement provides +\\/- 3.4 m accuracy, followed by a fine measurement correction that reduces error to below 20 cm. This innovative approach can be implemented in other parts of the radio

  20. A frequency hopping microwave radio system for local area network communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Williams

    1993-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of a frequency-hopping radio transceiver operating in the 2.4-2.483-GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band are described. The principal application of the device is in portable computers where it facilitates 'roving connectivity' to other portable or fixed computer systems. This radio transceiver meets the requirements of a frequency agile transmission scheme for local area network

  1. A novel medium access control protocol for passive optical network supporting local area networking capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang Yang; Minming Zhang; Deming Liu; Yinbo Qian; Lei Deng

    2011-01-01

    An alternate solution for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPON) providing local area networking (LAN) capabilities is proposed\\u000a in this article. Our solution adopts a star coupler-based PON architecture and uses radio frequency subcarrier multiplexed\\u000a transmission for the LAN traffic delivery. The proposed medium access control (MAC) protocol supports a fully distributed\\u000a control plane among the optical network units (ONUs) for

  2. Protection switching and local area network emulation in passive optical networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishaanthan Nadarajah; Elaine Wong; Manik Attygalle; A. Nirmalathas

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates an automatic-protection-switching (APS) mechanism against distribution fiber breaks in passive optical networks (PONs). The protection of optical-network units (ONUs) that are located at the customer premises is carried out by monitoring the distribution fiber using the traffic that is transported among the customers in the PON. This configuration emulates a local area network (LAN)

  3. Millimeter-Wave Wireless Local Area Network Over Multimode Fiber System Demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne James; Pengbo Shen; Anthony Nkansah; Xing Liang; Nathan J. Gomes

    2010-01-01

    A radio over fiber system using millimeter-wave for downlink (DL) and intermediate frequency for uplink (UL) transmission, that includes a wireless path and uses multimode fiber (MMF), is investigated by throughput measurements. Live wireless local area network transmissions (IEEE 802.11g, 54 Mbps), are upconverted to 25.2 GHz for the DL by using an optical phase modulator and optical filter millimeter-wave

  4. Novel channel estimation for the OFDM-based wireless local area network systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zi-Wei Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Due to the efficiency of mitigation multipath delay spread, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is extensively used in the wireless local area network domain, such as the IEEE 802.11a standard defined by the IEEE 802.11 standardization group and the HIPERLAN\\/2 defined by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute Project on Broadband Radio Access Networks. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is an effective technique

  5. A low-cost and portable local area network for interconnecting PC's using electric power lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Vuong; A. H. T. Ma

    1989-01-01

    The development and implication of medium-access-control (MAC) and logical-link-control (LLC) protocols for a low-cost power-line local area network (LAN) is described. A hub polling scheme is developed for use in the MAC sublayer. For the LLC sublayer, a modified version of the IEEE 802.2 standard has been adopted. Some measurements and a performance evaluation of throughput and delay are presented

  6. Delay analysis for multidimensional queueing processes in CSMA\\/CD local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June S. Park; Keebom Kang

    1993-01-01

    A CSMA\\/CD local area network consists of a single server (the channel) and multiple interacting queues of message packets. The message queueing process in a buffered,p-persistent CSMA\\/CD system is modeled as a multidimensional semi-Markov chain. An effective approximation method to compute the mean packet delay in equilibrium is developed, based on an exact joint probability generating function of the queue

  7. A Wireless Local Area Network Protocol that Improves Throughput via Adaptive Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry E. Mullins; Nathaniel J. Davis Iv; Scott F. Midkiff

    1997-01-01

    We develop and analyze an elegant, opportunistic medium access control (MAC) protocol based on the proposed MAC standard for wireless local area networks (WLAN)-IEEE 802.11. Our adaptation of 802.11 is called CATER (code adapts to enhance reliability) and allows communicating stations to reconfigure their transceivers to use a longer pseudonoise (PN) code when retransmissions are unsuccessful over a degraded channel.

  8. Traffic analysis of a local area network with a star topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MUSTAFA K. MEHMET-ALI; JEREMIAH F. HAYES; A. K. Elhakeem

    1988-01-01

    Two forms of fast circuit switching are modeled and studied through mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. The two examples described use the switching technique in an optical-fiber-based local area network with a star topology. The technique is compatible with time-division multiplexing techniques that are used for a range of traffic classes. Further, the technique trades transmission capacity for processing

  9. VIDEO STREAMING TO MULTIPLE CLIENTS OVER WIRELESS LOCAL AREA Hulya Seferoglu*, Ozgur Gurbuz*, Ozgur Ercetin*, Yucel Altunbasak

    E-print Network

    Markopoulou, Athina

    VIDEO STREAMING TO MULTIPLE CLIENTS OVER WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS Hulya Seferoglu*, Ozgur@ece.gatech.edu ABSTRACT This paper considers the problem of multiple video streaming over wireless local area networks. In particular, we propose video streaming techniques to improve the quality of video streams over the link from

  10. A Better Answer for Education: Reviving State and Local Policymaking Authority. Heritage Lectures. No. 994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornyn, John; DeMint, Jim

    2007-01-01

    On the fifth anniversary of No Child Left Behind, Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Jim DeMint (R-SC) outline their alternative for restoring state and local ownership of education policymaking while ensuring transparency about results and accountability to parents and taxpayers. The A-PLUS Act of 2007 (Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success) will…

  11. Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dunham; J. D. Lutz; S. J. Pickle

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has prepared this report to facilitate compliance with the requirements of Section 123 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 123 requires the Department of Energy to issue recommendations for establishing state and local incentive programs to encourage acceleration of voluntary consumer replacement of existing water closets, urinals, showerheads and faucets with water-saving

  12. Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

  13. J Mol Cell Cardiol. Author manuscript Localization of K(+) channels in the tubules of cardiomyocytes as

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , transient accumulation of K ions in cardiac T-tubules may take place and+ modulate excitation-contraction coupling. MESH Keywords Animals ; Cell Membrane ; physiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Heart ; physiology ; Ion ; physiology ; Rabbits Author Keywords T-tubule ; Background inward rectifier K channels ; ATP-sensitive K

  14. Differential localization of protein kinase A type II isozymes in the Golgi-centrosomal area.

    PubMed

    Keryer, G; Skålhegg, B S; Landmark, B F; Hansson, V; Jahnsen, T; Taskén, K

    1999-05-25

    Selectivity in the action of cAMP may be mediated by compartmentalized pools of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PKA type II is directed to different subcellular loci by interaction of the type II regulatory subunits (RIIalpha, RIIbeta) with A-kinase anchoring proteins. In order to separately investigate the subcellular localization of PKA type II isozymes, monospecific antibodies to human RIIalpha and RIIbeta subunits of PKA were developed. We demonstrate that centrosomes bind both RIIalpha and RIIbeta. Centrosomes were the preferred intracellular anchoring site for RIIbeta. However, centrosomal localization of RIIbeta was observed only in some highly differentiated cells such as keratinocytes, granulosa cells, and macrophages and in all neoplastic cell lines examined. Centrosomal localization of RIIbeta was not observed in normal undifferentiated cells such as fibroblasts, myoblasts, and T and B cells. In contrast, RIIalpha was abundant in the Golgi area and in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Furthermore, although RIIalpha appeared to colocalize with microtubules in the Golgi/TGN, extractions with nonionic detergent demonstrated that RIIalpha was mainly membrane-associated. In addition, alterations of microtubule dynamics with Nocodazole or Taxol affected the distribution of the detergent-extractable pool of RIIalpha, indicating that RIIalpha may localize with microtubule-associated vesicles. Thus, RIIalpha and RIIbeta clearly localize differently in the Golgi-centrosomal region. This indicates specific roles for PKA isozymes containing either RIIalpha or RIIbeta. PMID:10328961

  15. Impact of Rice Paddy Areas Decrease on Local Climate over Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, M. H.; Wen, W. H.; Chen, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural irrigation practice is one of the important anthropogenic processes in the land surface modeling. Irrigation can decrease local surface temperature with alternating surface energy partitioning. Rice paddy is the major food crop in Asian monsoon region and rice is grown under flooded conditions during the growing season; hence, the rice paddy can be considered as an open water body, which has more impacts on the surface energy budget than other cropland does. In this study, we explore how the rice paddy area changes affect Taiwan's regional climate from both observational data and numerical modeling exercise. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is utilized to explore impacts of rice paddy area changes on the regional climate, and energy and water budget changes. In addition, temperature datasets from six automatic weather stations in the northern Taiwan and two stations in the southern Taiwan are analyzed in this study to explore how the Daily Temperature Range (DTR) changes with the decreased rice paddy areas. Previous studies show that due to the urban heat island effect, aerosol direct and indirect effects, and global warming, the DTR has decreased in the past 4 decades observed from most of the weather stations around Taiwan. However, the declined rice paddy area may increase the DTR with higher Bowen ratio during the daytime. Preliminary results show that DTR is decreased in weather stations near the urban area, but increased in weather stations near fallow areas in the past 20 years. It shows that different land use changes may have opposite impacts on local and regional climate.

  16. LOCALIZED AREAS OF HIGH ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY IN THE TERMINAL ARTERIAL TREE

    PubMed Central

    Romanul, Flaviu C. A.; Bannister, Roger G.

    1962-01-01

    Fresh frozen skeletal muscles of rats, rabbits, and humans were sectioned in a cryostat. Sections 12 to 32 micra thick were incubated in a substrate solution for the histochemical demonstration of non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity. A modified azo dye coupling technique was used at pH 9.5. Localized areas of high enzymatic activity were found in specific and well defined areas along the terminal arterial tree, in addition to the activity which has been previously described in capillary endothelium. Arterial branches with luminal diameters of 25 micra or less showed staining of their endothelium starting abruptly at their origin from the parent vessel and fading distally. Smaller arterial branches showed the same localization of enzymatic activity and stained more intensely. Other organs of rats surveyed showed arterial branches with the same pattern of staining. Identical results were obtained using the Gomori technique for alkaline phosphatase. Extensive saline perfusion of the vascular tree did not affect the observed localization of enzymatic activity. The enzymatic activity described may be part of the mechanism regulating the blood flow. PMID:13982613

  17. Wintertime Local Circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar Metropolitan Area in the Presence of Temperature Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Temperature inversions are frequently observed in mountainous urban areas and can cause severe air pollution problems especially in wintertime. This study investigates wintertime local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, metropolitan area in the presence of temperature inversion using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model (SNUUCM). Ulaanbaatar is located in complex terrain and in a nearly east-west oriented valley. A wintertime scenario with clear skies, weak synoptic winds, and temperature inversion under the influence of a Siberian high-pressure system is selected. It is found that the thickness and strength of temperature inversion layer are associated with the terrain. The temperature inversion layer is deeper and stronger in the valleys than the mountain slopes, and its top height is typically lower than the maximum ridge top height of the surrounding mountains but higher than the boundary layer height. Weak local circulations develop in the presence of temperature inversion. In the daytime, weak mountain upslope winds develop, up-valley winds appear to be stronger in the urban area, and channeling winds are produced in the narrow valleys. The bottom of temperature inversion layer rises up in the urban area, and winds below the bottom of temperature inversion layer strengthen. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds develop with a lifted daytime residual layer. Urban effects in the presence of temperature inversion are examined by comparing simulation cases with and without the city. It is shown that in the daytime the urban area acts to elevate the bottom of temperature inversion layer and weaken the strength of temperature inversion layer. Compared to the simulation case without the city, the simulation case with the city shows that winds east of the city weaken in the afternoon and that down-valley winds develop later. These result from the interactions of urban breezes with valley winds.

  18. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  19. The ecological association between suicide rates and indices of deprivation in English local authorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Rezaeian; Graham Dunn; Selwyn St Leger; Louis Appleby

    2005-01-01

    IntoductionThere are several published studies that have been focused on the ecological association between suicide rates\\u000a in different areas with indices of deprivation or fragmentation. Most of these studies, however, have used census-based indices\\u000a of deprivation or fragmentation. In the present study the newly developed Indices of Deprivation have been used, taking into account the results of the spatial autocorrelation

  20. Securing institutional legitimacy or organizational effectiveness? : A case examining the impact of public sector reform initiatives in an Australian local authority

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahirul Hoque

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider the impact of a major initiative (the National Competition Policy) and pieces of legislation (the Local Government Act and the Local Government Finance Standards) on the internal practices of a large Australian local authority. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A theoretical framework is developed using new public management (NPM) and neo-institutional theory literatures

  1. Local Extinction in the Bird Assemblage in the Greater Beijing Area from 1877 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China’s natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877–1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004–2006. Birds recorded as ‘rare’ in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife. PMID:22768146

  2. Local extinction in the bird assemblage in the greater Beijing area from 1877 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China's natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877-1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004-2006. Birds recorded as 'rare' in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife. PMID:22768146

  3. The Economic Impact of Madison Area Technical College-Area Vocational Technical and Adult Education District No. 4 Programs on the Local Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, William A.; And Others

    Results of a study of the economic impact of Madison Area Technical College and the District 4 Area Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) programs on the local economy are presented in this report. Chapter 1 outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of the study, and assesses the productivity/income, financial, and economic…

  4. A synchronous fiber optic ring local area network for multigigabit/s mixed-traffic communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    A synchronous-ring fiber optic local area network is reported that facilitates the simultaneous transmission of packet and real-time traffic at gigabit/s rates, minimizes the amount of high-speed logic, and simplifies the user interface to the network. The novelty of the technique is based on (1) suspending in transit around the ring's circumference an integral number of data frames and (2) achieving this condition by skewing the frame clock rate a small amount. Rather than use the whole data frame as one packet destined to a specific user, many individual channels are instead time-multiplexed into the data frame. This technique only becomes feasible for local networks as data rates approach the Gbit/s range. This departure from other synchronous rings results in several advantages both in terms of system performance and hardware simplicity.

  5. Local Dominance MOEA Including Control of Dominance Area of Solutions on 0/1 Multiobjective Knapsack Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; E. Aguirre, Hernán; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    Local dominance has been shown to improve significantly the overall performance of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) on combinatorial optimization problems. This work proposes the control of dominance area of solutions in local dominance MOEAs to enhance Pareto selection aiming to find solutions with high convergence and diversity properties. We control the expansion or contraction of the dominance area of solutions and analyze its effects on the search performance of a local dominance MOEA using 0/1 multiobjective knapsack problems. We show that convergence can be significantly improved while keeping a good distribution of solutions along the whole true Pareto front by using the local dominance MOEA with expansion of dominance area of solutions. We also show that dominance can be applied within very small neighborhoods by controlling the dominance area of solutions, which reduces significantly the computational cost of the local dominance MOEA.

  6. Hyperendemicity of Onchocerciasis in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher Ehis

    2010-01-01

    Background: Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, endemicity, and symptomatic effects of the disease in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area. Methods: The prevalence of onchocerciasis was investigated in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between March 2008 and June 2009 using the standard skin-snip method. A total of 2020 subjects, who had visited various primary health centres located in each community, were enlisted using randomised sampling, and the data were analysed using the Chi-squared (?2) test and logistic regression. Results: A Of the 2020 individuals examined, 1674 (83%) harboured microfilaria in their skin tissues. On the basis of the standardised scale for microfilaria prevalence—less than 10% is considered sporadic, 10%–29% is considered hypoendemic, 30%–59% is considered mesoendemic, and 60% and above is considered hyperendemic—the prevalence (83%) reported in this study led to the disease being classified as hyperendemic. Females were more frequently infected than were males, and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Prevalence was also found to increase with age, and this correlation was significant (P < 0.001). The prevalence of the clinical features of the disease in the local government area was 87.5% for leopard skin, 84.16% for itching, and 75.42% for nodules. Conclusion: A prevalence of 83% was observed and considered hyperendemic. Female gender and age (50 years or more) were significant risk factors that affected the prevalence of onchocerciasis. The findings demonstrated the hyperendemicity of infection and the need for urgent attention with ivermectin treatment and other control measures. PMID:22135557

  7. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

  8. Transitioning Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS) to Meet International Reporting Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    MCRAE, L.P.

    2002-05-01

    The LANMAS is a nuclear material accounting system that was constructed and is being maintained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The purpose of this paper is to communicate the results of a software enhancement activity that incorporated an International Atomic Energy Agency reporting capability into the Local Area Network Material Accounting System and discuss some of the problems encountered during the process. During this activity we discovered a significant number of differences between the domestic and Agency reporting requirements. Some of these differences are obvious because they address the description of the nuclear material or a processing characteristic of the material. Other differences are quite subtle. One example is the movement of material between material balance areas. For domestic reporting. this transfer has no significance and, therefore, it is not reported. However, the move is of great significance to the Agency and considerable transactional information must be communicated.

  9. Locally adaptive unmixing method for lake-water area extraction based on MODIS 250 m bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Baodong; Wu, Lixin; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Li, Xingchun; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shenglei

    2014-12-01

    Lakes in semi-arid and arid regions serve an important function in maintaining regional ecological balance. Thus, the change in lake-water area should be monitored by using remotely sensed images. However, most high-spatial-resolution satellite sensors cannot provide frequent observation data because of the long revisiting cycle and cloud effects. The 250 m MODIS images, as well as red and near-infrared bands, are currently the best monitoring data because of their frequent revisit and medium spatial resolution. Spectral unmixing is commonly used to extract information from coarse-resolution images at the subpixel level. However, in conventional unmixing, endmember selection is problematic, and a sufficient number of bands are necessary to solve the decomposition equations. In this study, we developed a locally adaptive unmixing (LAU) method to extract lake-water area using 250 m MODIS images. In this method, pixels mixed with water and land are initially extracted. Then, two classes of endmembers of each mixed pixel are determined by referring to the reflectivity of the neighboring pixels with different weights. Water abundance in each mixed pixel could be calculated using a single-band image. Owing to the overestimation in the NIR band and the underestimation in the red band, the average of the results from the two bands was set as the ultimate lake-water area to minimize error. This method is not only locally adaptive for endmember selection, but is also independent of the number of bands. This approach would be useful for the frequent monitoring of lake area by using 250 m MODIS images.

  10. Topographic thresholds in gully development on the hillslopes of communal areas in Ngqushwa Local Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, V.; Xanga, W. W.; Rowntree, K.

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between the spatial distribution of gully erosion and topographic thresholds in the form of slope angle, position and configuration, as well as land use change in the form of abandoned lands were examined in several affected catchments of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Land use and permanent gullies were mapped, digitized from orthophoto maps in Arc/info 3.5.2 GIS and converted to shapefiles using ArcView 3.2 GIS. Relationships between the mapped phenomena and topographic variables were sought using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS. A comparison between areas with a high potential for gullying and actual gully erosion was made using the Stream Power Index ( SPI) as a surrogate for critical flow shear stress. Field surveys were also conducted to assess the present condition of the gullied sites as well as to validate DEM derivations. Seventy five percent of the gullied area was noted to lie on abandoned lands. A predominance of gullying in concave bottom lands was also identified. The SPI values highlighted a distinct preferential topographic zone for gully location. A conceptual model depicting the interaction between land use and topographic parameters to induce gully erosion was developed. This should assist local authorities to develop a policy regarding management of abandoned lands.

  11. Target Localization Using Radar Sensor Networks Target localization in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) has been an active research area due

    E-print Network

    Amir, Yair

    in the 5.8 GHz range and transmit signals in a 60 degree conical pattern. The maximum detection rangeTarget Localization Using Radar Sensor Networks Target localization in WSNs (Wireless Sensor with the localization infrastructure. For example, mobile targets can emit RF or acoustic signals either on purpose

  12. Examining marginalized communities and local conservation institutions: the case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K; Schuett, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system. PMID:24271617

  13. [Ecology of Culex pipiens fatigans larvae in an area of high endemicity of Bancroftian filariasis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Subra, R; Hebrard, G

    1975-03-01

    Culex pipiens fatigans in the main vector of bancroftian filariasis in the Mayotte island (Comores) where it imposes an important health problem. The breeding-sites of C. p. fatigans are either man-made (latrines, cesspools, various containers), or natural (polluted water of estuaries of some rivers). The man-made breeding-sites are not similarly distributed in the different localities of the island. Their distribution varies according to the customs of the inhabitants, size and site of the community. They are mainly represented by latrines, where Anjouan ethnic group is predominent; by cesspools in localities inhabited by Sakalava (a Malagasian ethnic group) and by other latrines and cesspools in mahoraises (inhabitants of Mayotte) and cosmopolitan localities. In rural areas, the percentage of habitations with cesspools usually increases with the size of the villages. The various breeding-sites are primarily productive when they are built on a ground with poor permeability. The importance of the present information is further discussed with relation to the population dynamics of C.p. fatigans and to the measures which may be useful for a control program of this mosquito. PMID:1096384

  14. Tobacco use amongst out of school adolescents in a Local Government Area in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Out-of-school adolescents are often neglected when planning for tobacco prevention programmes whereas they are more vulnerable. Few studies exist in Nigeria about their pattern of tobacco use to serve as the basis for effective policy formulation. Method A sub sample of 215 out of school adolescents was analyzed from a descriptive cross sectional study on psychoactive substance use amongst youths in two communities in a Local Government Area in Nigeria which used a multi-stage sampling technique. Results Males were 53% and females 47%. Only 20.5% had ever used tobacco while 11.6% were current users. Males accounted for 60% of current users compared to 40% amongst females. Of current users, 84% believed that tobacco is not harmful to health. In addition, the two important sources of introduction to tobacco use were friends 72% and relatives 20%. Use of tobacco amongst significant others were: friends 27%, fathers 8.0%, relatives 4.2% and mothers 0.5%. The most common sources of supply were motor parks 52% and friends 16%. Conclusion The study showed that peer influence is an important source of introduction to tobacco use while selling of tobacco to adolescents in youth aggregation areas is common. We advocate for a theory based approach to designing an appropriate health education intervention targeted at assisting adolescents in appreciating the harmful nature of tobacco use in this locality. A point-of-sale restriction to prevent adolescent access to tobacco in youth aggregation areas within the context of a comprehensive tobacco control policy is also suggested. However, more research would be needed for an in-depth understanding of the tobacco use vulnerability of this group of adolescents. PMID:20955555

  15. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

  16. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

  17. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

  18. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

  19. The G4R GMES Academy - linking research, academia, service providers and local authorities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related research projects in the EU EDUCATION - a compendium of courses offered by universities in the field of GMES LECTURES - G4R offers to arrange lectures on GMES at interested universities and institutions The initiative by G4R invites collaboration to strengthen the role of research and education for the evolution of GMES services.

  20. Spring 2005 CS575A Advanced Local Area Networks T. Borick Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise LAN Network

    E-print Network

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    ________________________________________________________________ Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise LAN Network Tom Borick Rivier College CS575A Advanced Local Area Networks (LANs) Dr. Vladimir V. Riabov Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise LAN Network Tuesday, April 26, 2005 Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise Network 1 #12;Spring 2005 CS575A Advanced Local

  1. A mixed-modem approach to data isolation on a broadband local area network

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Ewing, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Data isolation is required to broadband networks to prevent unauthorized access to the sensitive data of other users. Isolation can be obtained by using equipment from more than one manufacturer to introduce incompatibility between nonassociated users. This paper develops the basis for isolation and postulates that four layers of isolation will exist when the proper equipment is chosen. An experimental broadband local area network (LAN) was constructed to verify isolation. This independent network allowed variations in operating conditions without causing interference in normal broadband operations. The measured results indicate that a broadband LAN can transmit data of varying sensitivity levels without compromising data security. When combined with certain administrative restrictions, the mixed-modem technique provides a cost-effective method of sharing a broadband network while maintaining isolation of data having different sensitivities. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. RADPLANET—A New Integrated Radiation Therapy Planning Facility Structured as a Local Area Computer Network

    PubMed Central

    Neilsen, Ivan R.; Slater, James M.

    1982-01-01

    RADPLANET is an integrated information management and computing resource structured as a packet broadcast local area network for the Radiation Oncology Service. Computed tomography as input to the radiation treatment planning and delivery process is central to the RADPLANET system design. The initial network implementation plan has therefore been extended to include resources for the CT scanner service within its structure. The RADPLANET concept has implications extending beyond radiation therapy planning. A strong case can now be made for the idea that the future of radiology as a medical specialty will be based on the acquisition, processing, storage, transmission, retrieval, manipulation and interpretation of digital images (rather than conventional radiographs). RADPLANET design addresses the issues of a total radiology information system in the context of the rapidly emerging importance of digital radiography.

  3. Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-07-01

    DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

  4. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  5. Local-area radio navigation: a tool for GPS-denied geolocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, David W. A.; Johnson, Peter N.; Faulkner, W. T.

    2003-08-01

    Ranger is a local area radio frequency ranging system implemented in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific andMedical band. Roundtrip time-of-flight measurements are made in a two-stage process: a coarse measurement provides +/- 3.4 m accuracy, followed by a fine measurement correction that reduces error to below 20 cm. This innovative approach can be implemented in other parts of the radio frequency spectrum; the 2.4 GHz band was chosen both for regulatory acceptance and availability of commercial components. The Ranger system consists of fixed and mobile radios. Fixed location radios provide the reference from which distances are measured to the mobile radio. A single distance measurement requires approximately 50 ms, therefore with a network of four fixed radios, the position of the mobile can be updated five times per second. Additionally, the digital communications link that is used for distance measurement is also used for concurrent high-bandwidth data communication.

  6. Indoor positioning in wireless local area networks with online path-loss parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Luigi; Addesso, Paolo; Restaino, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    Location based services are gathering an even wider interest also in indoor environments and urban canyons, where satellite systems like GPS are no longer accurate. A much addressed solution for estimating the user position exploits the received signal strengths (RSS) in wireless local area networks (WLANs), which are very common nowadays. However, the performances of RSS based location systems are still unsatisfactory for many applications, due to the difficult modeling of the propagation channel, whose features are affected by severe changes. In this paper we propose a localization algorithm which takes into account the nonstationarity of the working conditions by estimating and tracking the key parameters of RSS propagation. It is based on a Sequential Monte Carlo realization of the optimal Bayesian estimation scheme, whose functioning is improved by exploiting the Rao-Blackwellization rationale. Two key statistical models for RSS characterization are deeply analyzed, by presenting effective implementations of the proposed scheme and by assessing the positioning accuracy by extensive computer experiments. Many different working conditions are analyzed by simulated data and corroborated through the validation in a real world scenario. PMID:25165755

  7. Evaluation of Existing Structure and Civil Protection Management Framework in Greek Local Authorities: A Questionnaire Survey Demonstrates Why Prevention Fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    In the face of a growing number of natural disasters and the increasing costs associated with them, Europe and Greece in particular, have devoted significant efforts and resources in natural hazards mitigation during the last decades. Despite the significant legislative efforts (e.g. 1998/22/EC, 2001/792/EC, 2007/60/EC Directives, 3013/2002 Act) and even though a number of steps has been taken towards improving civil protection, recent catastrophic events have illustrated the weaknesses of current approaches. In particular, in Greece, events such as the 1999 Athens earthquake, the 2007 and 2009 wildfires have shown the inadequacy of prevention and mitigation practices. Given the enhanced civil protection responsibilities, given by the Greek national law (Acts 3013/2002, 3852/2010) to local authorities in Greece, this work analyses and evaluates the existing structure and current management framework under which local authorities function and examines their risk mitigation practices. We conducted the largest questionnaire survey regarding Civil Protections issues, among the municipalities of Greece. To this aim, this work used a innovative online tool to assess current framework. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform that acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). Through this network, municipal civil protection officials completed surveys designed to obtain and quantify information on several aspects of civil protection practices and infrastructure. In particular, the examined factors included: (i) personnel and equipment, (ii) inter-agency cooperation, (iii) training, (iv) compliance with existing regulations and (v) persistent problems encountered by civil protection departments, that prevent the effectiveness of current practices. Responses showed that civil protection personnel lack adequate training and expertise, many are overstretched with several duties, while several prevention actions are carried out by seasonal or voluntary staff. Approximately half of the heads of civil protection offices do not hold a university degree, only 27% have a relevant scientific background (geoscientists or engineers) and more than half of them are elected members and not permanent staff, implying that no continuity is secured. Inter-agency cooperation is shown to be poor and organizational learning from international practices not adequate. Half of the municipalities report that the authorization processes are too slow so that prevention actions particularly regarding forest fires are severely delayed. Existing regulations are not followed by a significant portion of municipalities since 19% have not established a civil protection office and 23% have not compiled an action plan yet. Existing action plans lack important information, present no spatial data and are predominantly catalogues and tables of information regarding authorised personnel and equipment. Overall, underfunding, poor coordination of the different actors involved, lack of training and understaffing, lack of proper equipment and several other issues are held responsible by officials for preventing effectiveness of current practices. Finally, the EU emergency number 112 is widely unknown (87%). This work was held under the LIFE+ project "Local Authorities Alliance for Forest Fire Prevention - LIFE08/ENV/GR/000553" which is implemented with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community.

  8. Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

  9. Assessment of Antibody Responses in Local and Immigrant Residents of Areas with Autochthonous Malaria Transmission in Greece.

    PubMed

    Piperaki, Evangelia-Theofano; Mavrouli, Maria; Tseroni, Maria; Routsias, John; Kallimani, Athina; Veneti, Lamprini; Georgitsou, Maria; Chania, Maria; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2015-07-01

    Greece has been officially malaria free since 1974. However, from 2009 to 2012, several locally acquired, cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria were detected, in immigrants and in Greek citizens. In this study, the antibody (Ab) response of Greeks and immigrants with documented malaria was initially assessed, followed by an Ab screening of Greeks and immigrant residents of local transmission areas. Of the 38 patients tested, 10.5% of Greeks and 15.7% of immigrants were positive 5-7 months after infection. Of the 1,019 individuals from various areas of Greece, including those of autochthonous transmission, 85 of the 721 (11.8%) immigrants were positive, whereas all 298 Greeks were negative. The rapid Ab titer decline observed is reasonable, given the non-endemic epidemiological setting. The seroepidemiological findings indicate that the local Greek population remains malaria naive and that at this point Greeks are unlikely to serve as reservoir for the infection of local mosquitoes. PMID:26013377

  10. Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

  11. An evaluation of a surgical telepresence system for an intrahospital local area network.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A; Wilhelm, D; Bohn, U; Wichert, A; Feussner, H

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a digital telepresence system in an operating theatre (OR) environment which enabled a consultant to join the surgical team from a remote site by audiovisual communication. The system is based on video transmission using a streaming technique, with a server and a client connected via a local area network (LAN). Two cameras can be remotely controlled: one camera is built into the OR lamp and a second, laparoscopic camera is mounted on a robotic arm. Another feature of the system is teledemonstration, which permits the remote consultant to demonstrate points of particular interest. We evaluated the system clinically in 237 cases. In 28 cases (12%), telepresence could not be established for various reasons, mainly human failure. In 42 cases (18%), the full potential of telepresence was used. Technical evaluation showed that a data rate of 2 Mbit/s provides sufficient audio and video quality, as well as reliable teledemonstration. The data transmission delay was acceptable for clinical purposes (video 0.92 s, audio 0.6 s from OR to client, audio 0.7 s from client to OR). The study showed that telepresence is a promising means of providing highly specialized expertise within the OR. PMID:16356315

  12. Unavailability of essential obstetric care services in a local government area of south-west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijadunolal, Kayode T; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Owolabi, Olabimpe O; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O; Omideyi, Adekunbi K; Adewuyi, Alfred A

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports the findings at baseline in a multi-phase project that aimed at reducing maternal mortality in a local government area (LGA) of South-West Nigeria. The objectives were to determine the availability of essential obstetric care (EOC) services in the LGA and to assess the quality of existing services. The first phase of this interventional study, which is the focus of this paper, consisted of a baseline health facility and needs assessment survey using instruments adapted from the United Nations guidelines. Twenty-one of 26 health facilities surveyed were public facilities, and five were privately owned. None of the facilities met the criteria for a basic EOC facility, while only one private facility met the criteria for a comprehensive EOC facility. Three facilities employed a nurse and/or a midwife, while unskilled health attendants manned 46% of the facilities. No health worker in the LGA had ever been trained in lifesaving skills. There was a widespread lack of basic EOC equipment and supplies. The study concluded that there were major deficiencies in the supply side of obstetric care services in the LGA, and EOC was almost non-existent. This result has implications for interventions for the reduction of maternal mortality in the LGA and in Nigeria. PMID:17615909

  13. Unavailability of Essential Obstetric Care Services in a Local Government Area of South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fatusi, Adesegun O.; Orji, Ernest O.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Owolabi, Olabimpe O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Omideyi, Adekunbi K.; Adewuyi, Alfred A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the findings at baseline in a multi-phase project that aimed at reducing maternal mortality in a local government area (LGA) of South-West Nigeria. The objectives were to determine the availability of essential obstetric care (EOC) services in the LGA and to assess the quality of existing services. The first phase of this interventional study, which is the focus of this paper, consisted of a baseline health facility and needs assessment survey using instruments adapted from the United Nations guidelines. Twenty-one of 26 health facilities surveyed were public facilities, and five were privately owned. None of the facilities met the criteria for a basic EOC facility, while only one private facility met the criteria for a comprehensive EOC facility. Three facilities employed a nurse and/or a midwife, while unskilled health attendants manned 46% of the facilities. No health worker in the LGA had ever been trained in lifesaving skills. There was a widespread lack of basic EOC equipment and supplies. The study concluded that there were major deficiencies in the supply side of obstetric care services in the LGA, and EOC was almost non-existent. This result has implications for interventions for the reduction of maternal mortality in the LGA and in Nigeria. PMID:17615909

  14. Protection Switching and Local Area Network Emulation in Passive Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajah, Nishaanthan; Wong, Elaine; Attygalle, Manik; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai Thas

    2006-05-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates an automatic-protection-switching (APS) mechanism against distribution fiber breaks in passive optical networks (PONs). The protection of optical-network units (ONUs) that are located at the customer premises is carried out by monitoring the distribution fiber using the traffic that is transported among the customers in the PON. This configuration emulates a local area network (LAN) over the existing PON while facilitating the switching of signal transmissions to a predetermined protection path in an event of a distribution fiber break. As failure detection and APS are performed independently by each ONU in a distributed manner, the processing complexities and delays are reduced at the central office (CO). The restoration of the traffic transported between the CO and an ONU in the event of the distribution fiber break is performed by interconnecting adjacent ONUs and carrying out signal transmissions via an independent but interconnected ONU. Such a protection mechanism enables multiple adjacent ONUs to be simultaneously protected by a single ONU utilizing its maximum available bandwidth. This paper experimentally verifies the feasibility of the proposed protection mechanism in conjunction with two different LAN-emulation schemes with a 1.25-Gb/s upstream baseband transmission to the CO and a 155-Mb/s LAN data transmission on a radio-frequency carrier. The experimental results obtained from both schemes are compared, and the power budgets are calculated to analyze the scalability of each scheme.

  15. Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Gaudart, Jean; Touré, Ousmane; Dessay, Nadine; Dicko, A lassane; Ranque, Stéphane; Forest, Loic; Demongeot, Jacques; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2009-01-01

    Background The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models. Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. Methods A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI), issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA) from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data. The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia. Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. Results The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001). An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007) provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR) of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]). The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately predicted. The error parameters have shown the smallest values for a monthly model of environmental changes. Conclusion Remote-sensed data were coupled with field study data in order to drive a malaria transmission model. Several studies have shown that the NDVI presents significant correlations with climate variables, such as precipitations particularly in Sudanese savannah environments. Non-linear model combining environmental variables, predisposition factors and transmission pattern can be used for community level risk evaluation. PMID:19361335

  16. Ranging error overbounds for navigation integrity of local area augmented GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayim, Irfan

    The use of Differential GPS (DGPS) in aviation has been especially attractive in the past decade because of its potential to provide the means for satellite-based aircraft navigation spanning all aspects of flight, from takeoff to touchdown, with low cost and high availability. While this has been an inspiring goal, serious technical obstacles exist, the most difficult of which are related with navigation integrity for aircraft precision approach and landing. For example, for Category I precision approach, it is required that integrity risk (probability of hazardously misleading navigation information) never exceed 10-8. The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is the DGPS architecture standard under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide precision approach and landing navigation for civil aircraft. Navigation integrity risk for LAAS will be managed at the aircraft via the computation of Protection Levels, which are position error bounds within which navigation integrity is to be ensured. Existing standardized algorithms for the generation of the protection levels implicitly assume zero-mean, normally distributed ranging error distributions. Unfortunately, while the assumed error model is likely consistent with the effects of certain error sources (receiver thermal noise and diffuse multipath), it is widely understood that significant remaining errors, such as ground reflection multipath and systematic receiver/antenna errors, cannot be directly modeled by zero-mean normal distributions. In this dissertation, the critical issues concerning establishment and sufficiency of overbounding ranging error distributions are addressed in detail. These include: quantification of the sensitivity of integrity risk due to statistical uncertainty; derivation of theoretical bounding models for non-zero-mean error sources; derivation of new bounding distribution models for non-gaussian ground-reflection multipath error; quantification and compensation for the effects of seasonal variation of multipath error; development, implementation, and testing of a new, adaptive binning algorithm to conservatively accommodate non-stationary and time-correlated empirical satellite ranging error data.

  17. Selecting Local Area Networks and CD-ROM/Computer Workstations for the High School Library: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behn, John; Kirsch, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selection of a local area network for a high school library and discusses network and equipment costs and computer requirements, including recommendations regarding monitors, printers, compact disk players, mouse devices, and computer architecture. A second article reviews new technology exhibited at a recent computer…

  18. The Impact of Physics Laboratory on Students Offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Oluwasegun; Adrian, Ohwofosirai; Johnbull, Emagbetere

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Physics laboratory on students was carried out among senior secondary school students offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State using descriptive survey. Five public schools were random-even samplying technique was adopted for precision. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to students in each school,…

  19. The Case for a Multi-hop Wireless Local Area Network Seungjoon Lee Suman Banerjee Bobby Bhattacharjee

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Suman

    The Case for a Multi-hop Wireless Local Area Network Seungjoon Lee Suman Banerjee Bobby@cs.umd.edu Abstract-- We propose a multi-hop wireless LAN architecture and demonstrate its benefits to wireless examine the performance of such multi-hop wireless LANs through detailed simulation studies. Our results

  20. Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

  1. Computation on the Optimal Control of Networked Control Systems with Multiple Switching Modes Over High Speed Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Zheng; Wenli Zeng; Fanjiang Xu

    2006-01-01

    The optimal control problem for the networked control system with multiple switching modes over high speed local area networks is addressed, where an initial state is a parametric vector. Because in the general case, the time delay is much less than the sampling period and the possibility of the packets collision is much lower, it can be assumed that the

  2. Performance evaluation with receiver collisions analysis in very high-speed optical fiber local area networks using passive star topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis E. Pountourakis

    1998-01-01

    The problem of receiver collisions in high-speed optical fiber local area networks is studied in this paper. The configuration of high-speed multichannel LAN's with wavelength division multiplexing techniques using an optical fiber bandwidth gives rise to receiver collisions phenomena. We give a detailed analysis and develop rigorous methods to examine the effect of receiver collisions in this type of multiaccess

  3. Comparison of protocols for high-speed optical fiber local area networks using WDM passive star topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wonhong Cho; Myong-Lyol Song; Sang-Bae Lee

    1993-01-01

    Two protocols based on the slotted Aloha technique are proposed for very high-speed optical fiber local area networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) passive star topology. Without setting a separated control channel, the adopted architecture uses all channels for transmitting messages and allows a successful user in the control slot to transmit continuously all his packets for getting the high

  4. Local polynomial inference for small area statistics: estimation, validation and prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Sperlich; María José Lombardía

    2010-01-01

    Small area statistics has received considerable attention in the last two decades from both public and private sectors. More recently, semiparametric mixed-effects models have been proposed for a more flexible modelling. Surprisingly, although model specification testing is of particular importance in small area statistics, this has been less explored. Its importance is based on the fact that small area statistics

  5. Experimental demonstration of a novel indoor optical wireless localization system for high-speed personal area networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2015-04-01

    In this Letter, we propose a novel indoor localization system based on optical wireless technology. By using the same architecture as the high-speed full-duplex indoor optical wireless communication system, the "search and scan" process, and the added transmission power and beam footprint information in the "search and scan" message, indoor localization functionality is achieved. Proof-of-concept experiments are carried out, and results show that an average error of <15??cm is achieved with a localization beam size of 1 m. In addition, the major localization-accuracy-limiting factors are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. When incorporated with the optical wireless communication system, high-speed indoor wireless personal area networks can be achieved. PMID:25831304

  6. The Use of Local Parks by Older Residents of Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Blazey, Michael

    Local parks in five large cities (San Francisco, Houston, Atlanta, Chicago, Boston) were selected for a study of the use of urban parks by older adults (55 to 65 and over). Interviews were conducted with park users to determine: (1) meaning, motivation, and satisfactions associated with local park usage; (2) factors of usage such as time of day,…

  7. In the best interests of elderly people? The role of local authorities in handling and safeguarding the personal finances of elderly people with dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Langan

    1997-01-01

    This article focuses upon local authority responses when elderly people with dementia are incapable of managing their own financial affairs. The article starts with a critique of existing legal and administrative arrangements for handling and managing other people's money and examines some of the recommendations contained within the Law Commission report Mental Incapacity. Drawing on research about the policies, procedures

  8. Distributing College Budgets: A Study of Local Education Authority (LEA) Planning and Formulae-Funding Mechanisms in England. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Derek W.; Spencer, Anne C.

    The Education Reform Act 1988 provides for the reform of the funding and governance of colleges of further education in England and Wales, comprising about 400 colleges (equivalent to community colleges and vocational schools) across 104 local education authorities (LEAs). The process and formula for budget-setting is described, and a number of…

  9. Bandwidth characteristics of multimedia data traffic on a local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Shery L.; Doubek, Sharon; Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Limited spacecraft communication links call for users to investigate the potential use of video compression and multimedia technologies to optimize bandwidth allocations. The objective was to determine the transmission characteristics of multimedia data - motion video, text or bitmap graphics, and files transmitted independently and simultaneously over an ethernet local area network. Commercial desktop video teleconferencing hardware and software and Intel's proprietary Digital Video Interactive (DVI) video compression algorithm were used, and typical task scenarios were selected. The transmission time, packet size, number of packets, and network utilization of the data were recorded. Each data type - compressed motion video, text and/or bitmapped graphics, and a compressed image file - was first transmitted independently and its characteristics recorded. The results showed that an average bandwidth of 7.4 kilobits per second (kbps) was used to transmit graphics; an average bandwidth of 86.8 kbps was used to transmit an 18.9-kilobyte (kB) image file; a bandwidth of 728.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 15 frames per second (fps); and a bandwidth of 75.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 1.5 fps. Average packet sizes were 933 bytes for graphics, 498.5 bytes for the image file, 345.8 bytes for motion video at 15 fps, and 341.9 bytes for motion video at 1.5 fps. Simultaneous transmission of multimedia data types was also characterized. The multimedia packets used transmission bandwidths of 341.4 kbps and 105.8kbps. Bandwidth utilization varied according to the frame rate (frames per second) setting for the transmission of motion video. Packet size did not vary significantly between the data types. When these characteristics are applied to Space Station Freedom (SSF), the packet sizes fall within the maximum specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The uplink of imagery to SSF may be performed at minimal frame rates and/or within seconds of delay, depending on the user's allocated bandwidth. Further research to identify the acceptable delay interval and its impact on human performance is required. Additional studies in network performance using various video compression algorithms and integrated multimedia techniques are needed to determine the optimal design approach for utilizing SSF's data communications system.

  10. Local area mask patterning of extreme ultraviolet lithography reticles for native defect analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Adam

    Understanding the nature and behavior of native defects on EUV reticles, particularly their printability, is of critical importance to the successful implementation of EUV lithography for high volume manufacturing, as will be demonstrated in the upcoming chapters. Previous defect characterization work has focused on the examination of programmed defects, native defects on blank reticles, and unaligned native defects on patterned reticles. Each of these approaches has drawbacks, which will be discussed in detail, and the aim of this research is to address these deficiencies by developing a method to pattern features of interest over native defects, enabling the direct observation of their effect on lithography. The development of this Local Area Mask Patterning, or LAMP process, posed significant challenges, each of which are discussed in detail in the following chapters. Chapter 1 describes the history of semiconductor lithography and how EUV lithography came to be the leading candidate for the manufacture of future technology nodes. Chapter 2 describes EUV technology in more detail, presenting some of the major challenges facing its implementation, and how the LAMP project can contribute to their solution. Since electron beam lithography is used to create reticles for the LAMP project, an overview of this technology is provided in Chapter 3 below. After the reticle has been patterned using EBL, the pattern must be transferred to the absorber layer, and Chapter 4 describes a method developed for absorber patterning using a bench-top lift-off lithography technique. The major disadvantage of using lift-off lithography is the tendency of the process to re-deposit absorber particles across the reticle surface, and there is no tool available at CNSE to perform patterned reticle defect inspection. To address this need the functionality of the VB300 was extended to allow the inspection of the patterned reticle using the VB300 backscatter electron SEM imaging capability. The development of this functionality and an analysis of its effectiveness are detailed in Chapter 5. If the effect of the targeted defect on lithography is to be accurately gauged then the line-width of the pattern must be well controlled. To this end proximity effect correction (PEC) parameters for the EUV reticles were determined using a method described in Chapter 6. Each of the challenges of lithography, lift-off process development, defect inspection and PEC were successfully overcome in the course of this study, and Chapter 7 presents the results of exposures on the AIT and MET showing aligned-to-defect EUV lithography.

  11. MEMS-based compact dual-band bandpass filters with applications to wireless local area network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Sanghyo; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Kim, Jung-Mu; Baek, Chang-Wook; Kwon, Youngwoo; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports two types of compact dual-band bandpass filters for wireless local area network (WLAN) applications operating at two frequency bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. The two types of filters (contact-type and capacitive-type) are focused on their digital mode operations in order to alternatively select the operational frequency band of the WLAN. Different types of micromachined frequency-tuning elements having only two states are implemented on each filter to control the center frequencies of the filters. Two digitally operated WLAN filters are fabricated using a surface micromachining technology, which enables us to make simple planar structures of the filters, resulting in easy integration with other planar circuits. Besides, external switching devices for frequency selection are not required, since they are already implemented on the filter's own structures. One of the proposed filters is a contact-type filter using switched inductors with direct-contact MEMS switches. In this filter, a precise and stable frequency-tuning ratio can be obtained because the center frequency is changed by total inductance change due to ON/OFF actuations of the switch. The measured center frequencies of the filter were 2.5 and 5.1 GHz (49% tuning ratio), and the passband insertion loss and return loss were 4.7 dB and 21.5 dB at 2.5 GHz, and 5.2 dB and 21 dB at 5.1 GHz, respectively. The other is a low-loss capacitive-type filter using micromachined variable capacitors. The frequency tunability of this filter is controlled by discrete change of a capacitance according to simultaneous actuations of a total of 12 variable capacitors. This filter shows lower loss compared to the contact-type filter, since loss due to contact resistance of the switch is not included in this filter configuration. The initial center frequency was measured to be 5.4 GHz and it was shifted to 2.6 GHz (48% tuning ratio) with the applied voltage. The total insertion loss and return loss were 2.8 dB and 24.4 dB at 5.4 GHz and 3.3 dB and 20.1 dB at 2.6 GHz, respectively.

  12. ESTELA: a method for evaluating the source and travel time of the wave energy reaching a local area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Jorge; Méndez, Fernando J.; Menéndez, Melisa; Losada, Inigo J.

    2014-08-01

    The description of wave climate at a local scale is of paramount importance for offshore and coastal engineering applications. Conditions influencing wave characteristics at a specific location cannot, however, be fully understood by studying only local information. It is necessary to take into account the dynamics of the ocean surface over a large `upstream' wave generation area. The goal of this work is to provide a methodology to easily characterize the area of influence of any particular ocean location worldwide. Moreover, the developed method is able to characterize the wave energy and travel time in that area. The method is based on a global scale analysis using both geographically and physically based criteria. The geographic criteria rely on the assumption that deep water waves travel along great circle paths. This limits the area of influence by neglecting energy that cannot reach a target point, as its path is blocked by land. The individual spectral partitions from a global wave reanalysis are used to reconstruct the spectral information and apply the physically based criteria. The criteria are based on the selection of the fraction of energy that travels towards the target point for each analysed grid point. The method has been tested on several locations worldwide. Results provide maps that inform about the relative importance of different oceanic areas to the local wave climate at any target point. This information cannot be inferred from local parameters and agrees with information from other approaches. The methodology may be useful in a number of applications, such as statistical downscaling, storm tracking and grid definition in numerical modelling.

  13. Impact of Short Interval SMS Digital Data on Wind Vector Determination for a Severe Local Storms Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslen, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of 5 minute interval SMS-2 visible digital image data in analyzing severe local storms is examined using wind vectors derived from cloud tracking on time lapsed sequence of geosynchronous satellite images. The cloud tracking areas are located in the Central Plains, where on 6 May 1975, hail-producing thunderstorms occurred ahead of a well defined dry line. The results demonstrate that satellite-derived wind vectors and their associated divergence fields complement conventional meteorological analyses in describing the conditions preceding severe local storm development.

  14. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

  15. Recording specimen localities in New Zealand: An arbitrary system of areas and codes defined

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Crosby; J. S. Dugdale; J. C. Watt

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand is divided into 29 approximately equal?sized arbitrary areas, and their boundaries are defined and mapped. A 2?letter code is given for each area. The system is designed primarily for use on specimen labels of the New Zealand National Arthropod Collection, and introduces a more reliable basis for the sorting and documentation of specimens.

  16. Performance comparison of asynchronous and synchronous code-division multiple-access techniques for fiber-optic local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wing C. Kwong; Philippe A. Perrier; Paul R. Prucnal

    1991-01-01

    Synchronous code-division multiple access (S\\/CDMA) is investigated for fiber-optic local area networks. It is shown that the large bandwidth expansion required by spread-spectrum techniques, such as CDMA, can be accommodated by using a fiber-optic channel for transmission and incoherent optical signal processing for code generation and correlation. Prime sequence codes, previously developed for a fiber-optic network using (asynchronous) CDMA, are

  17. A new family of optical code sequences for use in spread-spectrum fiber-optic local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetislav V. MariC; Zoran I. KostiC; Edward L. Titlebaum

    1993-01-01

    The problem of the algebraic construction of a particular family of optical codes for use in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) fiber-optic local area networks (LANs) is treated. The conditions that the code families have to satisfy when used in such systems are reviewed. The new codes are called quadratic congruence codes, and the construction of the corresponding sequences is based on

  18. Characterization of nanostructured GaSb: comparison between large-area optical and local direct microscopic techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Nerbø; M. Kildemo; S. Le Roy; I. Simonsen; E. Søndergård; L. Holt; J. C. Walmsley

    2008-01-01

    Low energy ion-beam sputtering of GaSb results in self-organized nanostructures, with the potential of structuring large surface areas. Characterisation of such nanostructures by optical methods is studied and compared to direct (local) microscopic methods. The samples consist of densely packed GaSb cones on bulk GaSb, approximately 30, 50 and 300 nm in height, prepared by sputtering at normal incidence. The

  19. Autonet: A High-Speed, Self-Configuring Local Area Network Using Point-to-Point Links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Schroeder; Andrew D. Birrell; Michael Burrows; Hal Murray; Roger M. Needham; Thomas L. Rodeheffer; Edwin H. Satterthwaite; Charles P. Thacker

    1991-01-01

    Autonet is a self-configuring local area network composed of switches interconnectedby 100 Mbit\\/second, full-duplex, point-to-point links. The switches contain 12 ports thatare internally connected by a full crossbar. Switches use cut-through to achieve a packetforwarding latency as low as 2 microseconds per switch. Any switch port can be cabled toany other switch port or to a host network controller.

  20. Analysis of the end-to-end performance of multimedia information services on a local area network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Shibata; Judith H. Irven

    1988-01-01

    The end-to-end performance of a general multimedia information retrieval service, operating across a local area network (LAN) using the Transmission Control Protocol\\/Internet Protocol packet protocols, is evaluated for various message sizes representative of full-color and gray-scale images and a typical text article. The end-to-end performance, as seen by the user, must take into account not only transmission network, but also

  1. Large area 19.4% efficient rear passivated silicon solar cells with local Al BSF and screen-printed contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiun-Hong Lai; Ajay Upadhyaya; Rishi Ramanathan; Arnab Das; Keith Tate; Vijaykumar Upadhyaya; Aditya Kapoor; Chai-Wei Chen; Ajeet Rohatgi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the cell design and technology for achieving 19.4% efficient cells on large-area (239 cm2) commercial grade Cz Si wafers using industrially feasible oxide\\/SiNx rear passivation and screen-printed local back contacts. A combination of optimized front and back dielectrics, rear surface finish, oxide thickness and fixed oxide charge and interface quality provided effective surface passivation without parasitic shunting.

  2. Measurements for enhanced bandwidth performance over 62.5-?m multimode fiber in short-wavelength local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Schlager; Michael J. Hackert; Petar Pepeljugoski; J. Gwinn

    2003-01-01

    The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) FO-2.2.1 Working Group on the modal dependence of bandwidth has conducted industrywide interlaboratory comparisons on measurements aimed at improving the bandwidth performance of short-wavelength, laser-based, multimode-fiber local area networks (LANs). Measurements of both transceiver encircled flux and fiber restricted-mode-launch bandwidth can together successfully predict an enhanced system performance, provided that the proper limiting criteria are

  3. Using Large-Scale FDTD Method to Obtain Precise Numerical Estimation of Indoor Wireless Local Area Network Office Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis-Ray Harris; Takashi Hikage; Toshio Nojima

    2009-01-01

    The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique is presented in this paper as an estimation method for radio propagation prediction in large and complex wireless local area network (WLAN) environments. Its validity is shown by comparing measurements and Ray-trace method with FDTD data. The 2GHz (802.11b\\/g) and 5GHz (802.11a) frequency bands are used in both the calculations and experiments. The electric field

  4. An adaptive wireless local area network protocol that improves throughput via adaptive control of direct sequence spread spectrum parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry E. Mullins; Nathaniel J. Davis IV; Scott F. Midkiff

    1997-01-01

    We develop and analyze an elegant, opportunistic medium access control (MAC) protocol based on the proposed MAC standard for wireless local area networks (WLAN)---IEEE 802.11. Our adaptation of 802.11 is called CATER (Code Adapts To Enhance Reliability) and allows communicating stations to reconfigure their transceivers to use a longer pseudo-noise (PN) code when retransmissions are unsuccessful over a degraded channel.

  5. Lignite occurrence in relation to depositional facies, Eocene Wilcox group, Sabine uplift area, east Texas - regional and local comparative studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, M.L.; Jackson, M.L.W.; Kaiser, W.R.; Fly, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    Lignite occurrence was related to sandbody geometry in two subsurface studies: a 12-county regional study and a local study of the Trawick gas field area, north-central Nacogdoches County. For both studies, the Wilcox Group was informally divided into lower progradational (deltaic) and upper aggradational (fluvial) units. The local study utilized closely spaced data to investigate a more detailed Wilcox stratigraphy. The most continuous lignite-bearing zone lies at the transition between lower and upper Wilcox strata. Mapping of lignite occurrence in both studies shows this zone to be coincident with distributary channels indicative of delta-plain settings. Lignites and laterally equivalent muds rest on platforms of sandy sediments. Initiation of peat accumulation in interdistributary basins, with upward and subsequent lateral development as blanket peat, is inferred from the local study. Thickness and most laterally extensive seams occur in Shelby and Panola Counties on the flanks of major delta lobes. Thick upper Wilcox lignites (> 5 ft, 1.5 m) occur regionally between major fluvial channel sand belts and cap 30 to 40-ft (9 to 12-m) upward-coarsening sequences (crevasse splays.). These lignites are surface-mined in Panola and Harrison Counties at Martin Lake and Darco. Westward, in northern Cherokee County, our drilling shows thick lignites (up to 11 ft, 3.4 m) have limited lateral extent in channel sand belt areas. Similarly, the local study lies within a major sand belt; small interchannel basins limit lateral continuity of lignites.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CFD SIMULATION APPLICATIONS FOR LOCAL-SCALE AREAS AND POTENTIAL INTERFACE WITH MESOSCALE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes developments of ongoing applications of fine-scale (geometry specific) CFD simulations to urban areas within atmospheric boundary layers. Enabling technology today and challenges for the future are discussed. There is a challenging need to develop a ...

  7. CS445E Local Area Networks Rivier College Fall 2006 Rivier College

    E-print Network

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    pair wires, coaxial cables, fiber optics, and satellite communications), broadband technologies pair, coaxial cable, optical fiber), wireless transmission technologies (microwave, infrared, radio (ISDN, ASDN, xDSL, and cable modem) · Fiber optic transmission systems and SONET · Wide-Area Networks

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of local seismicity in the Chipilapa-Ahuachapán geothermal area, El Salvador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Fabriol; Alain Beauce

    1997-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring of the Chipilapa-Ahuachapán area was carried out during August-November 1988 and October 1991–April 1992. The objective was to use the study of microearthquakes as an exploration tool to invvestigate the geothermal potential of the Chipilapa area and to evaluate the main characteristics of the seismic activity, prior to and during the exploitation tests. Since 1989, seven wells have

  9. Local and regional sources of air pollutants at Northern Lisbon area, Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Farinha; S. M. Almeida; M. C. Freitas; T. G. Verburg; H. Th. Wolterbeek

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol chemical composition data for PM2.5 and PM2.5–10, were acquired from 1999 to 2002 at a sub-urban area located at Northern Lisbon area. Monte Carlo target transformation factor analysis (MCTTFA) was used to identify the main sources of air particulate matter. Eight main groups of sources were identified: soil, sea, traffic, an industrial source related to coal combustion, cement production

  10. Local species immigration, extinction, and turnover of butterflies in relation to habitat area and habitat isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Krauss; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Teja Tscharntke

    2003-01-01

    Temporal dynamics of insect communities in terrestrial habitat fragments have been rarely studied. Here it was tested whether immigration, extinction, and turnover of butterfly species change with area and isolation of 31 calcareous grasslands. The area ranged from 0.03 to 5.14 ha, the isolation index from 2,100 to 86,000 (edge-to-edge distance 55–1,894 m). In both study years (1996, 2000), the total number

  11. A stated preference experiment to value access to quiet areas and other local environmental factors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -tipping; litter; fly-posting; graffiti; dog- fouling; discarded chewing gum; trees; light pollution (obscuring pollution (obscuring the stars); light intrusion (into the home) and odour The emphasis was on local], while [2] estimate the cost of light pollution in the US to be $7 billion per annum in terms of wasted

  12. 24 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Recognition Agreement Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Homebuyers Association (Subpart D) WHEREAS, the __________ (“Authority”), a public body corporate and politic, has developed or acquired with the aid of loans and annual contributions from the Department of Housing and Urban...

  13. 24 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Recognition Agreement Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Homebuyers Association (Subpart D) WHEREAS, the __________ (“Authority”), a public body corporate and politic, has developed or acquired with the aid of loans and annual contributions from the Department of Housing and Urban...

  14. Proving the efficiency of DTF method in a local area network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Sasu; O. Prostean; V. Groza

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the method for determining spoofed MAC Addresses by extracting a fingerprint of constant traffic to specific IP destinations. This method, called DTF (Destination Traffic Fingerprint), was described in detail by the authors [8]. This paper presents results of the DTF method in a software tool called NetDTF, which is able to capture traffic in

  15. Local vs. wide-area undervoltage load shedding in the presence of induction motor loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bogdan Otomega; Thierry Van Cutsem

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of induction motor loads, long-term voltage instability may end up in a sharp voltage decrease, which makes the tuning of undervoltage load shedding more delicate. This paper first investigates the ability of a purely distributed load shedding scheme, previously proposed by the authors, to cope with these situations. Owing to difficulties to reconcile dependability and security, an

  16. LOCALIZATION, PHARMACOLOGY, AND ORGANIZATION OF BRAIN LOCOMOTOR AREAS IN LARVAL LAMPREY

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Adam W.; McClellan, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    In larval lamprey, spinal locomotor activity can be initiated by pharmacological microstimulation from the following higher order brain locomotor areas (Paggett et al., 2004; Jackson et al., 2007): rostrolateral rhombencephalon (RLR); ventromedial diencephalon (VMD); or dorsolateral mesencephalon (DLM). In the present study, pharmacological microstimulation with excitatory amino acids (EAAs) or their agonists in the brains of in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations was used to determine the sizes, pharmacology, and organization of these locomotor areas. First, the RLR, DLM and VMD locomotor areas were confined to relatively small areas of the brain, and stimulation as little as 50 ?m outside these areas was ineffective or elicited tonic or uncoordinated motor activity. Second, pharmacological stimulation with NMDA, kainate, or AMPA in the VMD or DLM reliably initiated well-coordinated spinal locomotor activity. In the RLR, stimulation with all three ionotropic EAA receptor agonists could initiate spinal locomotor activity, but NMDA or AMPA was more reliable than kainate. Third, with synaptic transmission blocked only in the brain, stimulation in the RLR, VMD, or DLM no longer initiated spinal locomotor activity, suggesting that these locomotor areas do not directly activate spinal locomotor networks. Fourth, following a complete transection at the mesencephalon-rhombencephalon border, stimulation in the RLR no longer initiated spinal motor activity. Thus, the RLR locomotor area does not appear able to initiate spinal locomotor activity by neural circuits confined entirely within the rhombencephalon but requires more rostral neural centers, such as those in the VMD and DLM, as previously proposed (Paggett et al., 2004). PMID:21081157

  17. [Local fibrinolytic therapy of vascular occlusions in the pelvic-leg area and the upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Schild, H; Schuster, C J; Grönniger, J; Schmied, W; Weilemann, L; Lindner, P; Wagner, P; Brunier, A; Thelen, M; Meyer, J

    1987-01-01

    Seventy-three patients with vascular occlusions in the pelvis or lower limbs and three patients with upper limb lesions were treated by local low dose fibrinolysin, with strict control of any possible bleeding tendencies. Adequate recanalisation was obtained in 56 patients (73.6%). In ten patients, the occlusion recurred while the patient was still in hospital. After four to six months, 37 of the 56 (67%) of the vessels were still patent. In 18 patients, peripheral emboli resulted in some deterioration, but in 15 of these cases this could be treated successfully by operation. The methods and indications of local fibrinolysis therapy and the problems associated with it are discussed. PMID:3027788

  18. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Vallejo, José-Fernando; Mar-Ortiz, Julio; López-Ramos, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ricardo Pedraza

    2015-01-01

    Local access networks (LAN) are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower’s problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach. PMID:26102502

  19. Multilateration (local and Wide area) as a distributed sensor system: Lower bounds of accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Galati; M. Leonardi; M. Tosti

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this work is to analyse the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) for passive location of radio sources, as in multilateration (MLAT) systems and in their wide area version. The CRLB is used, in this paper, as the analysis method for the accuracy of position estimation using different measurements, related in a non-linear way to the target kinematics

  20. Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup

    E-print Network

    Heikenfeld, Jason

    and reflective displays.1­3 Some applications, such as smart windows or switchable architectural/privacy glass com- mercial products. Current approaches for smart windows include4­13 photoelectrochromics, electrochromics, counterion exchange, and electrowetting. For large area windows or architectural glass, unlike

  1. Localization of the motor hand area to a knob on the precentral gyrus. A new landmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Yousry; U. D. Schmid; H. Alkadhi; D. Schmidt; A. Peraud; A. Buettner; P. Winkler

    1997-01-01

    Summary Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we reliable landmark for identifying the precentral gyrus directly. We therefore conclude that neural elements involved in motor have evaluated the anatomical location of the motor hand area. The segment of the precentral gyrus that most often hand function are located in a characteristic 'precentral knob' which is a reliable landmark for identifying

  2. Area Health Education Center of the Navajo Health Authority to Establish the Navajo Center for Health Professions Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    The Area Health Education Center (AHEC) is designed to provide educational opportunities in health and allied fields and to improve health care for the Navajo people and other Indians in the region that includes and immediately surrounds the Navajo Indian Reservation. As prime contractor, the University of New Meixco School of Medicine will…

  3. Investigation of the effect of sealed surfaces on local climate in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Hasel, Stefan; Mursch-Radlgruber, Erich; Gützer, Christian; Krispel, Stefan; Peyerl, Martin; Trimmel, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    Local climate is driven by the interaction between energy balance and energy transported by advected air. Short-wave and long-wave radiation are major components in this interaction. Some few studies (e.g. Santamouris et al.) showed that adjusting the grade of reflection of surfaces is an efficient way to influence temperature. The present study investigates the influence of high albedo concrete surfaces on local climate. The first step of the study consisted of experimental investigations: routine measurements of the short and longwave radiation balance, of the ground and of the air temperature and humidity at different heights above 6 different types of sealed surfaces were performed. During this measurement campaign the above mentioned components were measured over a duration of 4 months above two conventional asphalt surfaces, one conventional concrete and three newly developed concrete surfaces with increased reflectances. Measured albedo values amounted to 0.12±0.02 for the asphalt surfaces and to maximum values of 0.56 for high albedo concrete. The maximum difference in surface temperature between the asphalt surfaces and the high albedo concrete surfaces amounted to 15°C. In addition the emission constants of the different sealed surfaces were also determined and were compared to values from literature.. In a second step the urban energy balance model Envi_Met was used to simulate the surface temperature of the six surfaces. The simulated surface temperatures were compared to the measured surface temperatures and statements as to uncertainties of the model simulations were made In a third step, Envi_Met was used to simulate the local climate of an urban district in Vienna. The surface and air temperature and the SW, LW fluxes were calculated for different types of sealed surfaces. By performing calculations of thermal stress indices (UTCI, PMV), statements as to the influence of the type of sealed surface on thermal stress on humans was made.

  4. Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Pupils with Severe Learning Disabilities in an Inner City Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Claire; Lever, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    To plan the effective delivery of local services, it is important to find out the extent to which children with learning disabilities are perceived as experiencing difficulties such as finding it hard to behave or make friends, or being overactive. Having obtained ethical approval, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was sent to 178…

  5. The Impact of National Agenda on a Local Education Authority's Website: A Visual Semiotic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, Barbara Gail; Pendergast, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the website of an education authority in the state of Queensland, Australia during the changeover from a state-based curriculum to a national curriculum. The paper's value lies in the capture of an exact moment of change. Kress and van Leeuwen's grammar of visual design is employed to analyse the changes…

  6. Inner Circles and Outer Reaches: Local and Global Information-Seeking Habits of Authors in Acknowledgment Paratext

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Nadine; Pecoskie, Jen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This research investigates paratextual acknowledgements in published codices in order to study how relationships inform the information-seeking habits of authors, an understudied group in library and information science. Method: A purposive sample consisting of the books from the 2010 nominations list of the Canadian Governor…

  7. Tuning nano electric field to affect restrictive membrane area on localized single cell nano-electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Tuhin Subhra; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Chang, Hwan-You; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-12-01

    Interaction of electric field with biological cells is an important phenomenon for field induced drug delivery system. We demonstrate a selective and localized single cell nano-electroporation (LSCNEP) by applying an intense electric field on a submicron region of the single cell membrane, which can effectively allow high efficient molecular delivery but low cell damage. The delivery rate is controlled by adjusting transmembrane potential and manipulating membrane status. Thermal and ionic influences are deteriorated from the cell membrane by dielectric passivation. Either reversible or irreversible by LSCNEP can fully controlled with potential applications in medical diagnostics and biological studies.

  8. Local tests of global entanglement and a counterexample to the generalized area law

    E-print Network

    Dorit Aharonov; Aram W. Harrow; Zeph Landau; Daniel Nagaj; Mario Szegedy; Umesh Vazirani

    2014-10-03

    We introduce a technique for applying quantum expanders in a distributed fashion, and use it to solve two basic questions: testing whether a bipartite quantum state shared by two parties is the maximally entangled state and disproving a generalized area law. In the process these two questions which appear completely unrelated turn out to be two sides of the same coin. Strikingly in both cases a constant amount of resources are used to verify a global property.

  9. Integration of foreign and local medical staff in a disaster area: the Honduras and El Salvador experiences.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Yehezkel

    2003-06-01

    International medical aid after natural disasters may take various forms, ranging from self-sufficient military forces to single experts or specialists who function primarily as advisers. A model integrating foreign and local medical staff has not previously been reported. In response to the call for international aid by the Honduran and El Salvadorian governments in the wake of Hurricane Mitch in November 1998 and the San Salvador earthquake in January 2001, Israel sent medical supplies and 10 member teams of medical professionals to each country. The aim of the present paper is to describe the unique Israeli approach to providing healthcare in disaster areas by integrating foreign and local medical staff, and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages. The paper focuses on the experience of the two emergency medicine physicians on the team who were assigned to the Atlantida General Hospital in La Ceiba, Honduras. The same team in San Salvador subsequently applied the same approach. PMID:12789069

  10. Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Eric C.

    2006-12-01

    4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

  11. Radon concentration in soil gas around local disjunctive tectonic zones in the Krakow area.

    PubMed

    Swako?, J; Kozak, K; Paszkowski, M; Gradzi?ski, R; ?oskiewicz, J; Mazur, J; Janik, M; Bogacz, J; Horwacik, T; Olko, P

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate radon in the vicinity of geologic fault zones within the Krakow region of Poland, and to determine the influence of such formations on enhanced radon concentrations in soil. Radon ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) concentration measurements in soil gas (using ionization chamber AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO and diffusion chambers with CR-39 detectors), as well as radioactive natural isotopes of radium, thorium and potassium in soil samples (using gamma ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors), were performed. Site selection was based on a geological map of Krakow. Geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar and shallow acoustic seismic) were applied to recognize the geological structure of the area and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and thoron in soil gas were found in the study area when compared with those observed in an earlier survey covering Krakow agglomeration. For (222)Rn, the arithmetic mean of registered concentration values was 39 kBq/m(3) (median: 35.5 kBq/m(3)). For (220)Rn, the arithmetic mean was 10.8 kBq/m(3) and median 11.8 kBq/m(3). PMID:15511556

  12. Local Scale Comparisons of Biodiversity as a Test for Global Protected Area Ecological Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Bernard W. T.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of global biodiversity conservation. Their efficacy in terms of maintaining biodiversity is, however, much debated. Studies to date have been unable to provide a general answer as to PA conservation efficacy because of their typically restricted geographic and/or taxonomic focus, or qualitative approaches focusing on proxies for biodiversity, such as deforestation. Given the rarity of historical data to enable comparisons of biodiversity before/after PA establishment, many smaller scale studies over the past 30 years have directly compared biodiversity inside PAs to that of surrounding areas, which provides one measure of PA ecological performance. Here we use a meta-analysis of such studies (N?=?86) to test if PAs contain higher biodiversity values than surrounding areas, and so assess their contribution to determining PA efficacy. We find that PAs generally have higher abundances of individual species, higher assemblage abundances, and higher species richness values compared with alternative land uses. Local scale studies in combination thus show that PAs retain more biodiversity than alternative land use areas. Nonetheless, much variation is present in the effect sizes, which underscores the context-specificity of PA efficacy. PMID:25162620

  13. Encoding of point of view during action observation in the local field potentials of macaque area F5.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Giese, Martin; Thier, Peter; Casile, Antonino

    2015-02-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons compellingly shows that the monkey premotor area F5 is active not only during the execution but also during the observation of goal-directed motor acts. Previous studies have addressed the functioning of the mirror-neuron system at the single-unit level. Here, we tackled this research question at the network level by analysing local field potentials in area F5 while the monkey was presented with goal-directed actions executed by a human or monkey actor and observed either from a first-person or third-person perspective. Our analysis showed that rhythmic responses are not only present in area F5 during action observation, but are also modulated by the point of view. Observing an action from a subjective point of view produced significantly higher power in the low-frequency band (2-10 Hz) than observing the same action from a frontal view. Interestingly, an increase in power in the 2-10 Hz band was also produced by the execution of goal-directed motor acts. Independently of the point of view, action observation also produced a significant decrease in power in the 15-40 Hz band and an increase in the 60-100 Hz band. These results suggest that, depending on the point of view, action observation might activate different processes in area F5. Furthermore, they may provide information about the functional architecture of action perception in primates. PMID:25442357

  14. Survival and local recruitment are driven by environmental carry-over effects from the wintering area in a migratory seabird.

    PubMed

    Szostek, K Lesley; Becker, Peter H

    2015-07-01

    We estimated annual apparent survival rates, as well as local recruitment rates in different age groups and for different breeding status in the common tern Sterna hirundo using mark-recapture analysis on a long-term individual-based dataset from a breeding colony in Germany. Strong inter-annual variability in survival rates became apparent, especially in prospectors. Local recruitment also varied strongly between years and age groups. To explain these fluctuations, we linked survival and recruitment estimates to several environmental covariates expected to be limiting during the wintering period and migration, including the global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Oscillation, fish abundance indices, and marine primary productivity in the West African wintering area. Contrary to expectations, global indices did not seem to be linked strongly to vital rates. Results showed that primary productivity had the strongest effect on annual survival, especially in young and inexperienced individuals. Primary productivity in the wintering area was also strongly associated with the probability of recruitment in the following breeding season, indicating that conditions during winter can have carry-over effects on the life cycle of individuals. PMID:25864177

  15. CATLAC: Calibration and validation analysis tool of local area coverage for the SeaWiFS mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Robert H.; Gregg, Watson W.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration and validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage (CATLAC) is an analysis package for selecting and graphically displaying Earth and space targets for calibration and validation activities on a polar orbiting satellite. The package is written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and includes a graphical user interface. Although it is designed specifically for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, the package can be used for analysis on other Earth-viewing missions. An individual can use text or graphical methods in CATLAC to select Earth targets to be scanned by a satellite. Additional onboard calibration activities (such as observations of the moon, or solar irradiance from a solar diffuser), which use data recorder time, can also be specified. All information pertinent to the creation of a command schedule can be written to a file which is read by a command scheduler. The scheduler can be invoked and the Local Area Coverage (LAC) recording periods can be visually verified using CATLAC. The schedule can also be verified by examining record and error files written by the scheduler.

  16. Locality of Area Coverage on Digital Acoustic Communication in Air using Differential Phase Shift Keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Keiichi; Ebihara, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally evaluate the locality of digital acoustic communication in air. Digital acoustic communication in air is suitable for a small cell system, because acoustic waves have a short propagation distance in air. In this study, optimal cell size is experimentally evaluated. Each base station (BS) transmits different commands. In our experiment, differential phase shift keying (DPSK), especially binary DPSK (DBPSK), is adopted as a modulation and demodulation scheme. The evaluated system consists of a personal computer (PC), a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a loud speaker (SP), a microphone (MIC), and transceiver software. All experiments are performed in an anechoic room. The cell size of the transmitter can be limited under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. If another transmitter works, cell size is limited by the effect of the interference from that transmitter. The cell size-to-distance ratio of transmitter A to transmitter B is 37.5%, if cell edge bit-error-rate (BER) is taken as 10-3.

  17. [Combined therapy of locally advanced squamous epithelial cancers in the area of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Fountzilas, G; Daniilidis, J; Kalogera-Fountzila, A; Apostolidis, T; Vritsios, A; Tourkantonis, A

    1988-04-01

    In an effort to improve treatment results in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, we designed a multimodality treatment programme consisting of three cycles of inductive chemotherapy, after 2-3 weeks loco-regional therapy (surgery and/or radiotherapy), two more cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with the same regimen were given finally. The chemotherapeutic regimen included cis-platinum 100 mg/m2 on day 1, 5-fluorouracil 100 mg/m2 on days 2-6 as a continuous infusion, bleomycin 15 units on days 15, 29; mitomycin-C 4 mg/m2 on day 2 and hydroxyurea 100 mg/m2 on days 22-26. From August 1984 onwards, 37 patients entered in this study. The group included 31 men and 6 women with a medium age of 54 (18-71) and a performance status of 80 (60-90). Primary sites were nasopharynx (13), oropharynx (5), hypopharynx (3), sinus (3), ethmoids (2), tongue (2), floor of the mouth (2), larynx (6) and unknown (1). 25 patients received 3 cycles of induction therapy whereas 22 completed the whole treatment programme. Following induction therapy, 28% of the patients demonstrated histologically confirmed CR, 40% PR and 32% SD, while after the full multimodality therapy 59% demonstrated CR, 36% PR and 5% SD. Follow-up is 9-36 months. Actual survival at 3 years is 80% for those with a CR post loco-regional therapy. Toxicities were leukopenia (40%), thrombocytopenia (20%), anaemia (40%), nausea and vomiting (60%), stomatitis (52%) diarrhoea (16%) and alopecia (79%). There was one death related to chemotherapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2455206

  18. XAFS imaging of Tsukuba gabbroic rocks: area analysis of chemical composition and local structure.

    PubMed

    Mizusawa, Mari; Sakurai, Kenji

    2004-03-01

    Gabbroic rocks were collected at Mount Tsukuba in Japan, and their XAFS images were studied using a projection-type X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscope, which is a powerful new tool recently developed for extremely rapid imaging. The instrument employs a grazing-incidence arrangement in order that primary X-rays illuminate the whole sample surface, as well as parallel-beam optics and an extremely close geometry in order to detect XRF by a high-performance X-ray CCD system with 1024 x 1024 pixels. The XRF image indicated that black amphibole and white feldspar, both of which are typical mineral textures of the rock, contain iron. The origin has been suggested to be several small yellowish-brown minerals contained there. The XAFS imaging has been carried out by repeating the exposure of XRF images during the energy scan of the primary X-rays. It has been found that the structure is qualitatively close to that of olivine, and the main differences found in both areas can be explained as a difference in iron and magnesium concentration, i.e. the mixed ratio of forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) and fayalite (Fe(2)SiO(4)). The feasibility of the present XAFS imaging method has been demonstrated for realistic inhomogeneous minerals. PMID:14960788

  19. Automatic localization of backscattering events due to particulate in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, Andrea; Parracino, Stefano; Richetta, M.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2014-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM), emitted by vehicles in urban traffic, can greatly affect environment air quality and have direct implications on both human health and infrastructure integrity. The consequences for society are relevant and can impact also on national health. Limits and thresholds of pollutants emitted by vehicles are typically regulated by government agencies. In the last few years, the interest in PM emissions has grown substantially due to both air quality issues and global warming. Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a costeffective alternative to monitor large regions of the atmosphere. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements and to guarantee reliable, automatic monitoring of large areas, new data analysis techniques are required. In this paper, an original tool, the Universal Multi-Event Locator (UMEL), is applied to the problem of automatically indentifying the time location of peaks in Lidar measurements for the detection of particulate matter emitted by anthropogenic sources like vehicles. The method developed is based on Support Vector Regression and presents various advantages with respect to more traditional techniques. In particular, UMEL is based on the morphological properties of the signals and therefore the method is insensitive to the details of the noise present in the detection system. The approach is also fully general, purely software and can therefore be applied to a large variety of problems without any additional cost. The potential of the proposed technique is exemplified with the help of data acquired during an experimental campaign in the field in Rome.

  20. Effective August 2012 AIRFARE BOOKING OPTIONS and SERVICES NOTE: Each administrative area may have local procedures impacting travel arrangement and reimbursement. Before booking travel, please

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Anne

    print comparison documentation showing cost for business only travel versus for business only travel versus combined travel. Must be done at time of purchase: Each administrative area may have local procedures impacting travel arrangement

  1. UAVSAR and TerraSAR-X Based InSAR Detection of Localized Subsidence in the New Orleans Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Latini, D.

    2014-12-01

    Vulnerability of the US Gulf coast to inundation has received increased attention since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Compounding effects of sea level rise, wetland loss, and regional and local subsidence makes flood protection a difficult challenge, and particularly for the New Orleans area. Key to flood protection is precise knowledge of elevations and elevation changes. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements show surprising complexity, including locations subsiding more rapidly than considered during planning of hurricane protection and coastal restoration projects. Combining traditional, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations can provide geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We use two InSAR capable systems, the L- band (24 cm wavelength) airborne JPL/NASA UAVSAR, and the DLR/EADS Astrium spaceborne TerraSAR X-band (3 cm wavelength), and compare results. First, we are applying pair-wise InSAR to the longer wavelength UAVSAR data to detect localized elevation changes potentially impacting flood protection infrastructure from 2009 - 2014. We focus on areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify changes indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage. The Spaceborne TerraSAR X-band SAR system has relatively frequent observations, and dense persistent scatterers in urban areas, enabling measurement of very small displacements. We compare L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period. Thus we can evaluate results from the different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Preliminary results indicate subsidence features potentially of a variety of causes, including ground water pumping to post recent construction ground compaction. Our overall goal is to enable incorporation of InSAR into the decision making process via identification and delineation of areas of persistent subsidence, and provide input to improve monitoring and planning in flood risk areas.

  2. Government Regulations and Housing Markets: An Index to Characterize Local Land Use Regulatory Environments for Residential Markets in the Houston - Galveston Area 

    E-print Network

    Estevez Jimenez, Luis

    2012-07-16

    GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND HOUSING MARKETS: AN INDEX TO CHARACTERIZE LOCAL LAND USE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENTS FOR RESIDENTIAL MARKETS IN THE HOUSTON ? GALVESTON AREA A Dissertation by LUIS ESTEVEZ JIMENEZ Submitted to the Office... TO CHARACTERIZE LOCAL LAND USE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENTS FOR RESIDENTIAL MARKETS IN THE HOUSTON ? GALVESTON AREA A Dissertation by LUIS ESTEVEZ JIMENEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  3. Detailed crustal structure in the area of the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new seismic velocity model for the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border region with the aim to better define the crustal structures at the northern edge of the Ionian subduction zone. This sector also includes the Pollino Mts. area, where a seismic sequence of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes has been recorded between spring 2010 and 2013. In this sector a seismic gap was previously hypothesized by paleoseismological evidences associated with the lack of major earthquakes in historical catalogs. To perform the tomographic inversion we selected ca. 3600 earthquakes that have occurred in the last thirty years and recorded by permanent and temporary networks managed by INGV and Calabria University. Using for the first time the Local Tomography Software for passive tomography inversion (LOTOS hereinafter) to crustal analysis in southern Italy, we have computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. The obtained velocity model, jointly evaluated with results of synthetic modeling, as well as with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, gives us new constraints on the geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. The comparison between the shallow tomography sections and surface geology shows good correlation between velocity patterns and the main geological features of the study area. In the upper crust a low-velocity anomaly of P- and S-waves is detectable beneath the Pollino Mts. area and seems to separate the Calabrian and southern Apennines domains, characterized by higher velocities. The distributions of high Vp/Vs ratio, representing strongly fractured rocks with likely high fluid content, clearly correlate with areas of significant seismicity. In the lower crust we detect a clear transition from high to low seismic velocities in correspondence with the Tyrrhenian coast of the study area, which may represent the transition from the thinner Tyrrhenian crust to the thicker one beneath Calabria. In this area, also characterized by a progressive detachment of a retreating lithospheric slab, the generation of a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault zone, that laterally decouples subducting lithosphere from non-subducting lithosphere in a scissor type of fashion, may have taken place. These conditions imply the existence of a kinematic decoupling which allows for differential movement between the Calabrian Arc and the southern Apennine chain. The low velocity anomaly separating the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc domain may be related to fluid upwelling occurring in correspondence with the northern edge of the Calabrian subducting slab.

  4. Political Asylum Applicants. Financial Effect on Local Services in the Miami Area. Fact Sheet for the Honorable Bob Graham and the Honorable Connie Mack, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    This fact sheet discusses the effect of Nicaraguan immigrants entering the country at Brownsville (Texas) on local service providers in Miami (Florida). During individual meetings held on February 1, 1989 with Miami area officials, concerns were expressed over the immigrants' general welfare and the financial strain on local organizations…

  5. Using Large-Scale FDTD Method to Obtain Precise Numerical Estimation of Indoor Wireless Local Area Network Office Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Louis-Ray; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio

    The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique is presented in this paper as an estimation method for radio propagation prediction in large and complex wireless local area network (WLAN) environments. Its validity is shown by comparing measurements and Ray-trace method with FDTD data. The 2GHz (802.11b/g) and 5GHz (802.11a) frequency bands are used in both the calculations and experiments. The electric field (E-field) strength distribution has been illustrated in the form of histograms and cumulative ratio graphs. By using the FDTD method to vary the number of human bodies in the environment, the effects on E-field distribution due to human body absorption are also observed for 5GHz WLAN design.

  6. A survey of attitudes of local citizens of a residential area toward urban stray cats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Yamada, Sayoko; Yano, Mei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    This study surveyed the attitudes of local residents living in an urban area in Japan toward stray cats. An anonymous questionnaire asked local residents (359 houses) about their attitudes toward stray cats. Responses were received from126 houses (35%). Answers about nuisance, respondents' actions, and actions to be taken with regard to stray cats did not differ by place or type of residence of respondents. More than one third (36.7 ± 16.6%) of the respondents answered that the "bad smell of the feces and urine" was a nuisance. Respondents who lived in detached houses tended to like cats compared with those who lived in condominiums. Respondents who liked cats took care of cats more frequently, whereas those who disliked cats chased cats away and prevented their intrusion into their houses and land. However, it is noteworthy that one third or more (minimum value: 37.8%) of respondents of all kinds answered that neutering is one effective way to suppress the population of stray cats. PMID:23924029

  7. Residential Mobility Across Local Areas in the United States and the Geographic Distribution of the Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Bound, John; Ro, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether population dynamics provide competing explanations to place effects for observed geographic patterns of population health is critical for understanding health inequality. We focus on the working-age population—the period of adulthood when health disparities are greatest—and analyze detailed data on residential mobility collected for the first time in the 2000 U.S. census. Residential mobility over a five-year period is frequent and selective, with some variation by race and gender. Even so, we found little evidence that mobility biases cross-sectional snapshots of local population health. Areas undergoing large or rapid population growth or decline may be exceptions. Overall, place of residence is an important health indicator; yet, the frequency of residential mobility raises questions of interpretation from etiological or policy perspectives, complicating simple understandings that residential exposures alone explain the association between place and health. Psychosocial stressors related to contingencies of social identity associated with being black, urban, or poor in the United States may also have adverse health impacts that track with structural location even with movement across residential areas. PMID:24781651

  8. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

  9. Local area gigabit networking

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Computer networks must become faster as the equipment that is being interconnected increases in power and performance. Ethemet, with a 10 Mbit/s speed, seemed awesome a few years ago, but is beginning to show its age as more machines are tied together, and workstations attain the power of yesterdays mainframes. Networks using gigabit speeds are just starting to become available and offer a whole new set of problems and potential. This paper addresses what the higher speeds are being used for, the ''standards'' efforts specifying the higher speed channels, the network architectures being proposed, and some of the open problems requiring extensive further work. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Revenue Alternatives for State and Local Governments: Crisis-Ridden Areas and Those Seeking Fiscal Equity and Stability Offered New Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Reed R.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes "Financing and Managing State and Local Governments," by Richard W. Lindholm and Hartojo Wignjowijoto, which discusses public fiscal administration, land value taxes, and land use control. Availabilty: Office of Publication, 5 East 44th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017. (Author/RW)

  11. Spatial aggregation of soil predictions over pre-defined areas of interest for better use by local land managers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaysse, Kévin; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Lagacherie, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The GlobalSoilMap project aims to provide global soil property predictions and associated uncertainties at multiple depths at fine spatial resolution (100mx100m grid). This product is specifically tailored for agro-environmental modellers that produce results at global scales over large regions. However, local land managers are less interested in fine resolution maps because they need to make decisions for much larger areas of interest, such as provinces, districts, watersheds or farm territories. To serve their need, we propose a spatial aggregation approach that uses the GlobalSoilMap prediction maps as input and derives from these linear as well as non-linear spatial aggregates, such as the spatial mean, the spatial median or any other quantile, or the proportion of land within the area of interest that satisfies a pre-specified criterion (e.g. pH < 5; clay content > 400g/kg). The method must also be able to quantify the uncertainty in the spatial aggregate. For this reason, we employed a spatial stochastic simulation approach. We tested the method in the Languedoc-Roussillon region (27,236 km2), by first applying regression kriging using legacy soil profile observations (Vaysse and Lagacherie, 2015). Next we predicted the proportion of land for all districts within the region (average size 18 km2) that is suitable with regard to a threshold applied to three different soil properties: pH, organic carbon and clay content at 5-15 cm interval of depth. This procedure comprises four different steps: i) empirical reproduction of the joint conditional probability distribution of the soil properties at all grid cells in the district by means of sequential Gaussian simulation applied to a regression kriging model (Goovaerts, 2001); ii) calculation of the indicator (0 or 1, depending on whether the thresholds are met) for each simulation and each grid cell; iii) calculation of the proportion of "suitable" land area by zonal statistics of the indicator variable over the district for each simulation; and iv) for each district, derivation of the empirical probability distribution and from it a prediction interval of the proportion of "suitable" land. The performance of the method was evaluated for 30 districts using independent soil validation data derived from the French soil analyses database (BDAT).

  12. Wireless local area networking for linking a PC reporting system and PACS: clinical feasibility in emergency reporting.

    PubMed

    Yoshihiro, Akiko; Nakata, Norio; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shimpei

    2002-01-01

    Although local area networks (LANs) are commonplace in hospital-based radiology departments today, wireless LANs are still relatively unknown and untried. A linked wireless reporting system was developed to improve work throughput and efficiency. It allows radiologists, physicians, and technologists to review current radiology reports and images and instantly compare them with reports and images from previous examinations. This reporting system also facilitates creation of teaching files quickly, easily, and accurately. It consists of a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine 3.0-based picture archiving and communication system (PACS), a diagnostic report server, and portable laptop computers. The PACS interfaces with magnetic resonance imagers, computed tomographic scanners, and computed radiography equipment. The same kind of functionality is achievable with a wireless LAN as with a wired LAN, with comparable bandwidth but with less cabling infrastructure required. This wireless system is presently incorporated into the operations of the emergency and radiology departments, with future plans calling for applications in operating rooms, outpatient departments, all hospital wards, and intensive care units. No major problems have been encountered with the system, which is in constant use and appears to be quite successful. PMID:12006700

  13. Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. II. The prevalence of human filariasis in Darazo Local Government area.

    PubMed

    Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O

    1994-11-01

    In an eleven months study of eleven communities of Darazo Local Government Area of Bauchi state, northern Nigeria, 293 (21.7) of 1,349 persons examined harboured various filarial parasites. Of the sampled population, 18%, 1.9%, 1.6%, 0.5% and 0.2% had microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, Mansonella perstans, M. streptocerca and Loa loa respectively. Of the 637 females examined, 90 (14.1%) were infected, while 203 (23.5%) of 712 males sampled had filarial infections. The high rate in males was significant (P < 0.001). O. volvulus mf-rate increased gradually from the first decade to the seventh decade of life but declined thereafter. Prevalence of bancroftian filariasis was consistently lower in females of reproductive age, while the distribution of various filarial parasites varied significantly among age groups and communities (P < 0.05). Fishermen (42.9%), farmers (42.4%) and cattle rearers (40.9%) were the most affected occupational categories. Control strategies are highlighted. PMID:7812311

  14. The prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of Onchocerca volvulus infection in Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, J C; Celestine; Onwuliri, O E; Onwuliri, V A

    2001-07-01

    Between January and October 1994, a study of the prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in nine communities of Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria was undertaken using the skin-snip method. Of the 1117 inhabitants examined, 188 (16.8%) were positive for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. The prevalence of onchocerciasis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among males than females, in subjects 21 years of age and above than in those in the first two decades of life, in nomads, farmers, hunters and fishermen than smiths and traders. Intensity of infection was light, not exceeding a geometric mean of 5.3 microfilaria per 2 mm skin bite. Preponderance of positive cases below 20 years presented no chronic signs. Conversely, persons above 20 years had higher microfilaria counts which coincides with the period when most clinical signs manifest. Microfilarial-rate and -density in relation to age were closely associated (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). The need for a sustained mass distribution of Mectizan in these communities is highlighted. PMID:11556150

  15. Channel access schemes and fiber optic configurations for integrated-services local area networks. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassehi, M. Mehdi

    1987-01-01

    Local Area Networks are in common use for data communications and have enjoyed great success. Recently, there is a growing interest in using a single network to support many applications in addition to traditional data traffic. These additional applications introduce new requirements in terms of volume of traffic and real-time delivery of data which are not met by existing networks. To satisfy these requirements, a high-bandwidth tranmission medium, such as fiber optics, and a distributed channel access scheme for the efficient sharing of the bandwidth among the various applications are needed. As far as the throughput-delay requirements of the various application are concerned, a network structure along with a distributed channel access are proposed which incorporate appropriate scheduling policies for the transmission of outstanding messages on the network. A dynamic scheduling policy was devised which outperforms all existing policies in terms of minimizing the expected cost per message. A broadcast mechanism was devised for the efficient dissemination of all relevant information. Fiber optic technology is considered for the high-bandwidth transmisison medium.

  16. Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

    2011-05-01

    Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

  17. The Enhanced Workflow and Efficiency of the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)-Based Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) Portable Radiography.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Tsz-Lung; Wong, Edward Ting-Hei; Ng, Kris Lap-Shun; Jeor, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Lo, Gladys Goh

    2015-06-01

    With the implementation of the PACS in the hospital, there is an increasing demand from the clinicians for immediate access and display of radiological images. Recently, our hospital has installed the first wireless local area network (WLAN)-based direct digital radiography (DDR) portable radiography system. The DDR portable radiography system allows wireless retrieval of modality worklist and wireless transmission of portable X-ray image on the console to the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), via WLAN connection of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi). The aim of this study was to analyze the workflow and performance between the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system and the old practice using conventional portable X-ray machine with computed radiography (CR) system. A total of 190 portable chest X-ray examinations were evaluated and timed, using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR from March to April of 2012 and using the new DDR portable radiography system on December of 2012 (n?=?97 for old system and n?=?93 for DDR portable system). The time interval of image becoming available to the PACS using the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system was significantly shorter than that of the old practice using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR (6.8?±?2.6 min for DDR portable system; 23?±?10.2 min for old system; p?

  18. Existing Student Study Team Processes in Selected Volunteer Special Education Local Plan Areas, School Districts, and Schools in California: A Descriptive Evaluation Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Program Evaluation and Research.

    This final report constitutes the culmination of findings and recommendations of a series of working papers on a project which conducted a cooperative study of existing student study team (SST) processes in nine California special education local plan areas. The project is thought to be the first in the nation to describe the characteristics of…

  19. Today, stochastic local search (SLS) algorithms belong to the standard methods for solving hard combinatorial problems from various areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Opera

    E-print Network

    Hoos, Holger H.

    for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI). Furthermore, research on SLS algorithms is regularly presented at morePrologue Today, stochastic local search (SLS) algorithms belong to the standard methods for solving hard combinatorial problems from various areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Opera­ tions

  20. A Survey of Users' Reactions to the Local Area Network in the Library School at the University of North Texas. A Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazile, Orella Ramsey

    Research analyzing users' reactions to the implementation of automation and computer technology in the industrial and business fields indicates that users will respond more positively to these new technologies if they are adequately trained beforehand. To measure response in the academic sector, users' reactions to the local area network (LAN) in…

  1. Multi-control channel very high-speed optical fiber local area networks and their interconnections using a passive star topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. M. Sudhaltar; M. Kavehrad; N. D. Georganas

    1991-01-01

    A multi-control-channel LAN (local area network) configuration is introduced for optical star networks using Aloha protocols. It works on the principle of grouping the users of the system into various groups and providing a separate control channel for each group. The users in a group usually monitor their control channel for a possible control packet from other users. The users

  2. The mission of the Research Centers is to serve the specific needs of the clientele in local production areas and the broader needs of Montana agriculture

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    production areas and the broader needs of Montana agriculture in general through applied research directed to the problems and impacts of agricultural production. New knowledge generated by Agricultural Research Center programs benefits Montana agriculture and the scientific community at local, state and national levels

  3. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). 36.212 Section 36...services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area...

  4. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). 36.212 Section 36...services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area...

  5. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). 36.212 Section 36...services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area...

  6. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). 36.212 Section 36...services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area...

  7. Local electronic function shift in LSI chips stacked three-dimensionally by area-arrayed bump structures caused by local deformation of the laminated chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Miura; Nobuki Ueta; Yuki Sato; Takuya Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    The clear periodic thermal deformation and thus, the periodic thermal residual stress distribution appears in each chip in three-dimensionally stacked chip structures due to the periodic alignment of metallic small bumps when the thickness of a chip is decreased to less than 200 mum. The estimated local deformation was validated by using a scanning blue laser microscope. It reached about

  8. The Structure of Local Public Finance and the Quality of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Gyourko; Joseph Tracy

    1991-01-01

    Differences in local fiscal conditions generate compensating differentials across local land and labor markets just as the authors have known amenities to do. Thus, the local fiscal climate affects the quality of life across metropolitan areas. The authors present new results showing that intercity fiscal differentials are nearly as important as amenity differentials in determining the quality of life across

  9. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Macintyre; Laura Macdonald; Anne Ellaway

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of

  10. Copyright 2011 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. German, L., G. C. Schoneveld, and P. Pacheco. 2011. Local social and environmental impacts of biofuels

    E-print Network

    , L., G. C. Schoneveld, and P. Pacheco. 2011. Local social and environmental impacts of biofuels Impacts of Biofuels Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Global Comparative Assessment witnessed the rapid expansion of biofuel plantations in the global South in the context of a growing trend

  11. Assessment between pollen seasons in areas with different urbanization level related to local vegetation sources and differences in allergen exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Javier Rodríguez-Rajo; Diego Fdez-Sevilla; Alicja Stach; Victoria Jato

    2010-01-01

    Pollen data recorded by a single sampler in any given city often fail to reflect particular events occurring in surrounding\\u000a areas. This is frequently overlooked when interpreting aerobiological results, and therefore pollen data obtained in urban\\u000a areas may not necessarily be representative of the situation in more rural areas of the same city. Our purpose is to assess\\u000a differences between

  12. Changing concepts of local open space in inner urban areas with particular reference to Great Britain and the United States 

    E-print Network

    Morris, Eleanor Kenner Smith

    1979-01-01

    The thesis considers the changing concepts of local open space in relation to the demand, supply and standards of open space. The development of parks in Britain first are contrasted with the development of parks in ...

  13. Three dimensional images of geothermal systems: local earthquake P-wave velocity tomography at the Hengill and Krafla geothermal areas, Iceland, and The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Prisk, A.; Foulger, G.R.; Evans, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Local earthquake tomography - the use of earthquake signals to form a 3-dimensional structural image - is now a mature geophysical analysis method, particularly suited to the study of geothermal reservoirs, which are often seismically active and severely laterally inhomogeneous. Studies have been conducted of the Hengill (Iceland), Krafla (Iceland) and The Geysers (California) geothermal areas. All three systems are exploited for electricity and/or heat production, and all are highly seismically active. Tomographic studies of volumes a few km in dimension were conducted for each area using the method of Thurber (1983).

  14. 146 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 7, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature

    E-print Network

    Mignotte, Max

    146 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 7, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 Urban Area Detection in remote sensing. Very high res- olution aerial and satellite images provide valuable information to solve cover very large areas. Therefore, their manual inspection is very hard and prone to errors. Furthermore

  15. Partitioning, sources and variability of regional and local oxidant (OX?=?O3?+?NO 2) in a coastal rural area in the southwest of Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX?=?NO2?+?O3), for the first time, in a rural coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, affected by several air masses types. Detailed database (built-up over the years 2008 to 2011, and containing around 500,000 data) from the Atmospheric Sounding Station "El Arenosillo" was used. The observed daily cycles of NO x and OX were influenced by air masses coming from industrial and urban area. It can be seen that the concentration of OX is made up of a NO x -independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O3 background), and a linearly NO x -dependent 'local' contribution from primary emissions, such as traffic. The local emission is very low in this area. Also, the regional contribution is similar to unpolluted sites and presents seasonal variation, being higher in May. However, our measurements showed that the proportion of OX in the form of NO2 increases with the increase in NO x concentration during the day. The higher proportion of NO2 observed at night must be due to the conversion of NO to NO2 by the NO?+?O3 reaction. With regards to the source of the local NO x -dependent contribution, it may be attributed to industrial emission, or the termolecular reaction 2NO?+?O2?=?2NO2, at high-NO x levels and stagnant air during several days. Finally, we estimated the photolysis rate of NO2, J NO2, an important key atmospheric reaction coupled with ozone. We also present surface plots of annual variation of the daily mean NO x and OX levels, which indicate that oxidants come from transport processes instead of local emissions associated as local photochemistry. PMID:23529402

  16. Evaluation of local amplification in the seismic microzonation: comparison between punctual multidisciplinary integrated studies and macroseismic methods in Fivizzano's area (Toscana, Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizio Signanini; Vittorio D'Intinosante; Maurizio Ferrini; Mario L. Rainone

    2004-01-01

    In the seismic microzonation the evaluation of the local amplification issue may be solved using different methodological\\u000a approaches. Taking the hint from the studies made within VEL project framework, sponsored by Tuscany Region on Fivizzano's\\u000a area we are herewith comparing the results of geotechnical and geophysical integrated multidisciplinary studies with the existing\\u000a data available from previous studies, mainly using a

  17. Spectrally Efficient 60GHz xy-MIMO Data Transport over a Radio-Over-Fiber System for Gigabit Wireless Local Area Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Hao Fan; Hung-Chang Chien; Arshad Chowdhury; Gee-Kung Chang

    2010-01-01

    A radio-over-fiber system can provide a robust backbone network for the deployment of multi-gigabit wireless local area networks. By transmitting 2×2, MIMO signals over two polarizations in an optical fiber, we developed a new radio-over-fiber system to support MIMO-based wireless communications to improve the signal diversity or multiplexity. Two-Gb\\/s millimeter-wave signals were successfully transmitted through a 10-km optical fiber and

  18. Town and Culture: New Responses to Cultural Problems. Bremen Declaration. Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany, 25-27 May 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This declaration details the 68 motions adopted by the representatives of European towns taking part in the Conference on Town and Culture. The meeting was jointly organized by the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe and the Council for Cultural Cooperation. Recommendations focus on the following: (1) that new means of…

  19. vol. 168, no. 2 the american naturalist august 2006 Integration of Local and Regional Species-Area Relationships

    E-print Network

    Fridley, Jason D.

    reflect the spatial scaling of richness of each larger floristic province. Our analysis suggests that fine and Lauenroth 2003; Adler 2004), in that the species composition of smaller areas must fluctuate more rapidly

  20. Holocene regional and local vegetation history and lake-level changes in the Torneträsk area, northern Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Barnekow

    2000-01-01

    A combination of pollen and macrofossil analyses from six lakes at altitudes between 370 and 999 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Torneträsk area reflect the Holocene vegetation history. The main field study area has been the Abisko valley at altitudes around 400 m a.s.l. The largest lake, Vuolep Njakajaure has annually laminated (varved) sediments. The chronology and sedimentation

  1. A Study of Local Genealogical Societies' Cooperation with Area Libraries in Promoting Genealogically Related Services and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzer, Don

    Local genealogical societies and libraries have a common interest in providing genealogical researchers with materials and expert assistance. Societies and libraries can cooperate to meet genealogists' needs in several ways: (1) collection development, access, and creation; (2) indirect reference service (societies as a referral resource; (3)…

  2. Young People Envision the Future of Their Local Area: An Explorative Study From the Wet Tropics, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris C. Bohnet; Margaret Gooch; Ruth Hickey

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present the results from an exploratory study conducted in the Wet Tropics in Australia. The study was initiated as part of a larger research program to support the development of a water quality improvement plan. Seven schools were invited to participate in this study. Students were asked to develop visions for the future of their local

  3. Local Maximum Filtering for the Extraction of Tree Locations and Basal Area from High Spatial Resolution Imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Wulder; K. Olaf Niemann; David G. Goodenough

    2000-01-01

    In this study we investigate the use of local maximum (LM) filtering to locate trees on high spatial resolution (1-m) imagery. Results are considered in terms of commission error (falsely indicated trees) and omission error (missed trees). Tree isolation accuracy is also considered as a function of tree crown size. The success of LM filtering in locating trees depends on

  4. Learning from Local Strategic Partnerships: LGA Advice Note for Working with the Community and Voluntary Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document is intended to assist local authorities in England and Wales who are interested in forming local strategic partnerships (LSPs) with the community and voluntary sectors. Section 1 presents the following guidelines for LSPs when developing a community strategy to meet local priorities: (1) have each local area prepare a plan to improve…

  5. A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2014-08-01

    Movements of water that transport pathogens mean that in net-pen aquaculture diseases are often most effectively managed collaboratively among neighbours. Such area management is widely and explicitly applied for pathogen management in marine salmon farms. Effective area management requires the active support of farm managers and a simple game-theory based framework was developed to identify the conditions required under which collaboration is perceived to be in their own best interest. The model applied is based on area management as practiced for Scottish salmon farms, but its simplicity allows it to be generalised to other area-managed net-pen aquaculture systems. In this model managers choose between purchasing tested pathogen-free fish or cheaper, untested fish that might carry pathogens. Perceived pay-off depends on degree of confidence that neighbours will not buy untested fish, risking input of pathogens that spread between farms. For a given level of risk, confidence in neighbours is most important in control of moderate-impact moderate-probability diseases. Common low-impact diseases require high confidence since there is a high probability a neighbour will import, while testing for rare high-impact diseases may be cost-effective regardless of neighbours actions. In some cases testing may be beneficial at an area level, even if all individual farms are better off not testing. Higher confidence is required for areas with many farms and so focusing management on smaller, epidemiologically imperfect, areas may be more effective. The confidence required for collaboration can be enhanced by the development of formal agreements and the involvement of outside disinterested parties such as trade bodies or government. PMID:24767813

  6. Mercury pollution in two typical areas in Guizhou province, China and its neurotoxic effects in the brains of rats fed with local polluted rice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua; Jia, Jinping; Lin, Xueyu; Qu, Liya; Ding, Zhenhua

    2006-12-01

    Guizhou province, which located in southwestern of China, is an important mercury (Hg) production center. This study was to investigate the environmental levels and ecological effects of mercury in two typical Hg polluted areas in Guizhou province. In addition, to improve the understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Hg, a rats based laboratory study was also carried out in this study. Samples of water, soil, plants, crops and animals collected from Wanshan mercury mine area, Guzhou province, were analyzed by mercury analyzer. The effects of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat's brain and the expression of c-JUN protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury contents in most environmental samples of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and the biomass of corn, plant and animals, were higher than the national standard and the corresponding data from unpolluted area. It was found mercury pollutions were significant in soil and air. In the laboratory study, the expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein was significantly induced by Hg polluted rice collected from local area. Selenium could reduce the Hg accumulation in the body and had antagonist effect on Hg in terms of the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-JUN protein. The environmental data and Hg levels in different creatures collected in this study will facilitate the environmental and ecological risk assessment of Hg in the polluted areas. It was urged to be alert of mental health problem in human beings when any kind of Hg-polluted food was taken. More efforts should be performed to protect the local ecosystem and human health in the mercury polluted area of Wanshan, Guizhou province of China. PMID:17120105

  7. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  8. On-Chip High-Performance Millimeter-Wave Transmission Lines on Locally Grown Porous Silicon Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamza Issa; Philippe Ferrari; Emmanouel Hourdakis; Androula G. Nassiopoulou

    2011-01-01

    High-performance on-chip coplanar-waveguide (CPW) transmission lines (TLs) were fabricated on locally formed porous silicon membranes on the Si wafer, and their millimeter- wave (mmW) characteristics were measured up to 110 GHz. It was demonstrated that a quality factor three times higher than that of conventional CPWs fabricated in standard CMOS on bulk crystalline Si can be obtained in mmW frequencies.

  9. A contention-based reservation protocol using a TDD channel for wireless local area networks: A performance analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Suzuki; Shuji Tasaka

    1993-01-01

    A typical configuration of a LAN having wireless terminals is a network of microcells. The authors report on a microcell which consists of a single base station and wireless terminals. A channel allocation scheme between uplink (terminal-to-base) and downlink (base-to-terminal) communications and a media access control (MAC) protocol used for the uplink communication are considered. In particular, a reservation protocol

  10. Crustal structure modelling for the northern part of the Aswan lake area using seismic waves generated by explosions and local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebeasy, R. M.; Bayoumi, A. I.; Gharib, A. A.

    In this work, two types of seismic waves generated from explosions and local earthquakes were used as wave sources to model the crust and upper mantle structure of the Aswan area. Two reserved refraction profiles oriented N-S were carried out in the northern part of the Aswan Lake area across the E-W fault trends. Interpretation of seismic explosion data shows the crust beneath the Aswan reservoir area to be characterized by three major refractors below the sedimentary cover. P-and S-Wave velocities and depths of these layers respectively are; 5.3 and 3.0 km/s from the base of the Nubian sandstone to a depth of 4.7 km; 6.2 and 3.5 km/s to a depth of 16 km and 6.9 and 3.7 km/s for depths greater than 16 km. The uppermost mantle P velocity is 8.1 km/s which is deduced from the old Aswan Dam explosion, as a P mP phase. Near the reservoir area, the sediments comprise a single layer with Vp1 of 2.2. km/s and Vs1 of 1.25 kms/s with varying thickness from 250 m at the northern shot (Khor Kurkur) to 350 m at the southern shot (Garf Hussein) west of Gebel Marawa; along the Sinn El-Kaddab profile, however, it shows two different velocity layers having Vp2 of 2.2 km/s and Vp1 of 1.22 km/s for the layer and Vp2 of km/s and Vs2 of 1.98 km/s for the second with thickness of 250 m and 450 m, respectively. A remarkable slowing of Pg at Gebel Marawa is due to abundant faults and fractures. Local earthquake data indicate that the velocity variations in the Aswan crust similar to those deduced from the refraction explosion experiment. The P-wave ( P ?) velocity of 6.9 km/s for the lower crust was extended to a depth of 30 km by introducing a P n velocity of 8.1 km/s for the upper mantle, this significantly improved the RMS residuals. The relative station correction derived from the velocity inversion of local earthquakes reflects the local variations in the crustal structure combined with local sedimentary inhomogeneities and variation in thickness.

  11. Local Area Forcing of Urban-to Regional-Scale Atmospheric Dispersion: Exchanging Fluxes in A Multiscale Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W P Dannevik; S T Chan; M J Leach; A A Mirin

    2003-01-01

    Urban areas are likely locations for release of toxic material into the atmosphere, whether by accident or terrorist act. Both the Department of Energy, through the Chemical and Biological National Security Program, and the Department of Defense, through the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, are supporting simulation and experimental efforts to develop urban modeling capabilities. These developed tools would be used

  12. A METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ARMY TRAINING AND TESTING AREA CARRYING CAPACITY (ATTACC) VEHICLE SEVERITY FACTORS AND LOCAL CONDITION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) program is a methodology for estimating training and testing land carrying capacity. The methodology is used to determine land rehabilitation and maintenance costs associated with land-based training. ATTACC is part of...

  13. New multichannel optical local area network based on an original star topology with an adapted multi-Ethernet protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Brisson; Alain Kueng; P.-A. Nicati; Philippe-Alain Robert; Daniel Rodellar; C. Bungarzeanu

    1998-01-01

    We propose a new optical physical layer and protocol for optical Load Area Networks (LANs), which allow a large number of hosts to be connected while offering a large capacity and exhibiting a high degree of modularity and scalability. The physical layer of the optical LAN is first presented. It is based on a passive star topology and exploits the

  14. Central Authority and Order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Erikson; Joseph M. Parent

    2007-01-01

    Strong central authorities are able to effectively manage costly defection, but are unable to adequately address lesser conflicts because of limits to their ability to monitor and enforce. We argue, counterintuitively, that these limitations build coop- eration and trust among subordinates:the limitations contribute to the production of order. First, limits to authority leave space for locally informed decentralized enforce- ment.

  15. Direct modification of colloidal hole-masks for locally ordered hetero-assemblies of nanostructures over large areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, Maj; Sutherland, Duncan S.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a direct mask modification method applicable in hole-mask nanostructure fabrication. It is demonstrated that by using this technique the size, material, relative location and ordering of individual subunits can be controlled and varied independently to generate hetero-assemblies of nanostructures including chiral structures over large areas.We have developed a direct mask modification method applicable in hole-mask nanostructure fabrication. It is demonstrated that by using this technique the size, material, relative location and ordering of individual subunits can be controlled and varied independently to generate hetero-assemblies of nanostructures including chiral structures over large areas. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials used, detailed fabrication and characterisation description, schematic representation of the fabrication steps for all structures presented in this work, graph of disk diameters versus modification thickness and investigation of optical properties of Au disks on silica supports. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03871h

  16. Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

    2013-04-01

    Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

  17. Chemical analyses (raw laboratory data) and locality index maps of the Confederate Gulch area, Broadwater and Meagher Counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of the side looking airborn radar imagery of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island indicates that radar shows the topography in great detail. Since bedrock geologic features are frequently expressed in the topography the radar lends itself to geologic interpretation. The radar was studied by comparisons with field mapped geologic data first at a scale of approximately 1:125,000 and then at a scale of 1:500,000. The larger scale comparison revealed that faults, minor faults, joint sets, bedding and foliation attitudes, lithology and lithologic contacts all have a topographic expression interpretable on the imagery. Surficial geologic features were far less visible on the imagery over most of the area studied. The smaller scale comparisons revealed a pervasive, near orthogonal fracture set cutting all types and ages of rock and trending roughly N40?E and N30?W. In certain places the strike of bedding and foliation attitudes and some lithologic Contacts were visible in addition to the fractures. Fracturing in southern New England is apparently far more important than has been previously recognized. This new information, together with the visibility of many bedding and foliation attitudes and lithologic contacts, indicates the importance of radar imagery in improving the geologic interpretation of an area.

  18. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on C? atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone ? and ? angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of C?-based ? and ? angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking. PMID:26098304

  19. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on C? atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone ? and ? angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of C?-based ? and ? angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking. PMID:26098304

  20. [The combined activities of the temporal cortical area and hippocampus in man during the localization of a moving sound image].

    PubMed

    Al'tman, Ia A

    1990-01-01

    In patients with epileptic lesions in the cortex and mediobasal structures of the brain, studies have been made on the perception of spatial position of sound images during dichotic stimulation. It was established that the extreme interval which is necessary for formation of sensation of the moving sound image increases during right-side lesions of the temporal cortex. During left-side lesion of the temporal lobe, more diffuse disturbances in the trajectory of image movement (from the right and left) are observed, whereas right-side lesions result in disturbances of movement only at the opposite side of the latter. Cortical lesions and those in the mediobasal parts of the temporal lobe are accompanied by identical gradient of disturbances in the trajectory of sound image movement and short-term imprinting of succession of signals which differ with respect to their spatial position. Maximum disturbances are observed during lesions in the cortical and mediobasal parts of the temporal lobe, whereas only cortical lesions or only hippocampal lesions result in less significant disturbances. It is suggested that combined activity of the auditory cortex and hippocamp is necessary for localization of a sound source. PMID:2092557

  1. Novel Schemes for Local Area Network Emulation in Passive Optical Networks With RF Subcarrier Multiplexed Customer Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajah, Nishaanthan; Attygalle, Manik; Wong, Elaine; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai

    2005-10-01

    This paper proposes two novel optical layer schemes for intercommunication between customers in a passive optical network (PON). The proposed schemes use radio frequency (RF) subcarrier multiplexed transmission for intercommunication between customers in conjunction with upstream access to the central office (CO) at baseband. One scheme employs a narrowband fiber Bragg grating (FBG) placed close to the star coupler in the feeder fiber of the PON, while the other uses an additional short-length distribution fiber from the star coupler to each customer unit for the redirection of customer traffic. In both schemes, only one optical transmitter is required at each optical network unit (ONU) for the transmission of customer traffic and upstream access traffic. Moreover, downstream bandwidth is not consumed by customer traffic unlike in previously reported techniques. The authors experimentally verify the feasibility of both schemes with 1.25 Gb/s upstream baseband transmission to the CO and 155 Mb/s customer data transmission on the RF carrier. The experimental results obtained from both schemes are compared, and the power budgets are calculated to analyze the scalability of each scheme. Further, the proposed schemes were discussed in terms of upgradability of the transmission bit rates for the upstream access traffic, bandwidth requirements at the customer premises, dispersion tolerance, and stability issues for the practical implementations of the network.

  2. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

  3. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

  4. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

  5. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

  6. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

  7. Locally application of amphetamine into the ventral tegmental area enhances dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex through noradrenergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Pan, W H; Sung, J C; Fuh, S M

    1996-08-01

    The effects and mechanisms of locally applied d-amphetamine (AMPH) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations in both the nucleus accumbens (N ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were investigated. A solution containing either, 0, 100, 500 or 1000 microM AMPH was infused, using a 1-ml Hamilton syringe, into the VTA of chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats for 100 min through a microdialysis probe. Infusion of AMPH into the VTA dose-dependently increased extracellular DA in the N ACC and in the mPFC. The introductory rate of AMPH application through the dialysis probe into the VTA was estimated simultaneously. Local infusion of either a selective alpha adrenoceptor antagonist (phentolamine, 1 and 10 microM) or a selective beta adrenoceptor antagonist (alprenolol, 1 and 10 nM) dose-dependently blunted the intra-VTA AMPH-induced extracellular DA increase in the N ACC. Further, local infusion of phentolamine (0.1 and 1 microM) and alprenolol (1 and 10 nM) appreciably and dose-dependently reduced the effects of AMPH on the DA increase in the mPFC. These results suggest that intra-VTA AMPH can enhance DA release in the N ACC and in the mPFC by activating noradrenergic neurotransmission in the VTA. PMID:8768724

  8. Broadband, wide-area active control of sound radiated from vibrating structures using local surface-mounted radiation suppression devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, V. Bradford; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Toth, G. K.

    A new active noise-control device, which offers a practical solution for complex noise problems, has been developed and experimentally evaluated. Noise reduction is achieved by distributing an array of control devices over the surface of the radiating structure (e.g., aircraft fuselage interior). Each device consists of a motion sensor, a control circuit, and a loudspeaker. The control circuits are independent and can be manufactured inexpensively from analog components. The loudspeaker is driven such that it reduces the volume velocity of the radiating structure within its close proximity. Experimental verification of this concept was performed using a uniformly vibrating circular plate with a single device. The controller transfer function was derived and implemented in an analog circuit. Broadband (50-500 Hz) sound reductions in the range of 10-20 dB were achieved over a wide spatial area, including the immediate vicinity of the device. The controller was found to be stable and robust. Since this device in its final implementation may be mounted behind the aircraft trim panels, it was covered by a large, flexible panel. The performance was measured and found to be excellent.

  9. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  10. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Frenette Jeremy Gwin

    2010-01-01

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket;

  11. Molecular typing of the recently expanding subtype B HIV-1 epidemic in Romania: Evidence for local spread among MSMs in Bucharest area???

    PubMed Central

    Paraschiv, Simona; Otelea, Dan; Batan, Ionelia; Baicus, Cristian; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 subtype B is predominant in Europe except in some countries from Eastern Europe which are characterized by a high prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Romania is a particular case: the HIV-1 epidemic started with subtype F1 which is still the most prevalent. Previous studies have shown an increasing prevalence of subtype B which is the second most frequent one among the newly diagnosed individuals, followed by subtype C and several CRFs as well as unique recombinant forms (URFs). Our objective was to analyze in detail the characteristics (way of dispersal, association with transmission risk groups) of the subtype B infections in Romania by means of phylogenetic analysis. Among all the individuals sampled during 2003–2010, 71 out of 1127 patients (6.3%) have been identified to be infected with subtype B strains. The most frequent route of infection identified in HIV-1 subtype B patients in Romania was MSM transmission (39.6%), followed by the heterosexual route (35.2%). Many of the patients acquired the infection abroad, mainly in Western European countries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the existence of a local transmission network (monophyletic clade) including 14 patients, mainly MSM living in the Bucharest area. We estimate the origin of the local transmission network that dates at the beginning of the 90s; the introduction of the F1 and C subtypes occurred earlier. The rest of the sequences were intermixed with reference strains sampled across Europe suggesting that single infection were not followed by subsequent dispersal within the local population. Although HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in Romania is recent, there is evidence for local spread among the MSMs, in addition to multiple introductions. PMID:22430050

  12. Molecular typing of the recently expanding subtype B HIV-1 epidemic in Romania: evidence for local spread among MSMs in Bucharest area.

    PubMed

    Paraschiv, Simona; Otelea, Dan; Batan, Ionelia; Baicus, Cristian; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1 subtype B is predominant in Europe except in some countries from Eastern Europe which are characterized by a high prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Romania is a particular case: the HIV-1 epidemic started with subtype F1 which is still the most prevalent. Previous studies have shown an increasing prevalence of subtype B which is the second most frequent one among the newly diagnosed individuals, followed by subtype C and several CRFs as well as unique recombinant forms (URFs). Our objective was to analyze in detail the characteristics (way of dispersal, association with transmission risk groups) of the subtype B infections in Romania by means of phylogenetic analysis. Among all the individuals sampled during 2003-2010, 71 out of 1127 patients (6.3%) have been identified to be infected with subtype B strains. The most frequent route of infection identified in HIV-1 subtype B patients in Romania was MSM transmission (39.6%), followed by the heterosexual route (35.2%). Many of the patients acquired the infection abroad, mainly in Western European countries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the existence of a local transmission network (monophyletic clade) including 14 patients, mainly MSM living in the Bucharest area. We estimate the origin of the local transmission network that dates at the beginning of the 90s; the introduction of the F1 and C subtypes occurred earlier. The rest of the sequences were intermixed with reference strains sampled across Europe suggesting that single infection were not followed by subsequent dispersal within the local population. Although HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in Romania is recent, there is evidence for local spread among the MSMs, in addition to multiple introductions. PMID:22430050

  13. The contribution of permanent GPS station PW data on heavy local rainfall events in the Greek area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikridas, Christos; Katsougiannopoulos, Symeon; Bitharis, Stylianos; Chatzinikos, Miltiadis; Zinas, Nikolaos; Kouroudi, Aikaterini; Argyris, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    For the last two decades GPS has demonstrated its ability to estimate and monitor the magnitude of atmospheric water vapor with good time resolution and under all meteorological conditions. In this study, the precipitable water (pw) values estimated over specific permanent GPS stations of various Greek networks are analyzed by using different processing options dealing with the selection of different mapping functions for the computation of troposheric delay. Another, basic topic of this study is the combination of pw values with ground meteorological data and more specifically with precipitation values, recorded few days before and after the heavy rainfall events. These events occurred within the year 2013 at various locations of the Greek territory like, Epirus, Central Macedonia, the city of Athens and Rhodes island, and included various rainfall kinds like the flash flood type. For example, the amount of precipitation in the case of Rhodes over passed the 100 mm within few hours. In order to account for the tropospheric delay gradients and for the estimation of precipitable water GPS data were processed with high precision software such as GAMIT of MIT. Pw values were estimated for all GPS permanent stations around and inside of each test area. The estimated values which derived are discussed through the comparison and statistical analysis between various parameters, like the pw precipitation, rate of time changing and tropospheric delay gradients time series. The main analysis applied indicates the complexity of the phenomena close to rainfall zone at time of precipitation in order to provide a clear precursor of the torrential rainfall events. For this type of successful scenarios more kind of atmospheric data may be needed. However, some peculiar conclusions through the monitoring process can be highlighted.

  14. Helpful and Unhelpful Practices in Meeting the Needs of Pupils with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A Pilot Survey of Staff Views in One Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Peter Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    The emotional and behavioural problems experienced by pupils continue to be a key concern for educationalists. In this article, Peter Lloyd Bennett, an educational psychologist, reports on his research into the views of staff about this important area of work. Questionnaires on meeting the needs of pupils with emotional and behavioural…

  15. A systematic review to identify areas of enhancements of pandemic simulation models for operational use at provincial and local levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, computer simulation models have supported development of pandemic influenza preparedness policies. However, U.S. policymakers have raised several concerns about the practical use of these models. In this review paper, we examine the extent to which the current literature already addresses these concerns and identify means of enhancing the current models for higher operational use. Methods We surveyed PubMed and other sources for published research literature on simulation models for influenza pandemic preparedness. We identified 23 models published between 1990 and 2010 that consider single-region (e.g., country, province, city) outbreaks and multi-pronged mitigation strategies. We developed a plan for examination of the literature based on the concerns raised by the policymakers. Results While examining the concerns about the adequacy and validity of data, we found that though the epidemiological data supporting the models appears to be adequate, it should be validated through as many updates as possible during an outbreak. Demographical data must improve its interfaces for access, retrieval, and translation into model parameters. Regarding the concern about credibility and validity of modeling assumptions, we found that the models often simplify reality to reduce computational burden. Such simplifications may be permissible if they do not interfere with the performance assessment of the mitigation strategies. We also agreed with the concern that social behavior is inadequately represented in pandemic influenza models. Our review showed that the models consider only a few social-behavioral aspects including contact rates, withdrawal from work or school due to symptoms appearance or to care for sick relatives, and compliance to social distancing, vaccination, and antiviral prophylaxis. The concern about the degree of accessibility of the models is palpable, since we found three models that are currently accessible by the public while other models are seeking public accessibility. Policymakers would prefer models scalable to any population size that can be downloadable and operable in personal computers. But scaling models to larger populations would often require computational needs that cannot be handled with personal computers and laptops. As a limitation, we state that some existing models could not be included in our review due to their limited available documentation discussing the choice of relevant parameter values. Conclusions To adequately address the concerns of the policymakers, we need continuing model enhancements in critical areas including: updating of epidemiological data during a pandemic, smooth handling of large demographical databases, incorporation of a broader spectrum of social-behavioral aspects, updating information for contact patterns, adaptation of recent methodologies for collecting human mobility data, and improvement of computational efficiency and accessibility. PMID:22463370

  16. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A. [SAIC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Swanson, D.A. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada.

  17. Thinking globally and acting locally in Mindanao: Supporting the delicate balance of future sustainability in South-East Asian wilderness as well as rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, C.

    2014-02-01

    Although models of future sustainability often talk about effectively balancing economic, social and environmental imperatives or factors, in practice this typically remains an elusive ideal. This paper explores the exemplary possibilities but also dilemmas of a proposed initiative in the resource-rich but under-developed Filippino island province of Mindanao to achieve such a delicate balance in practice. This initiative by Raintrust Sustainable Ventures' proposes to link foreign investment in agricultural development to both the social advancement of local tribal peoples and the protection of large amounts of remaining wilderness areas. Such a case study provides an exemplary basis for discussing the challenge of achieving social and environmental as well as economic domains of 'future sustainability'. The crucial supporting role of information and geospatial technologies in the Raintrust plan will also be discussed.

  18. Data link level interconnection of remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Networks (FDDI LANs) through the Critical Data Link (CDL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karayakaylar, Selcuk

    1994-06-01

    This thesis deals with the features and performance of a network interface device to interconnect two remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Local Area Networks (LAN's) through the Critical Data Link (CDL) which is a full-duplex, jam-resistant, point-to-point microwave communications system for use in imagery and signals intelligence collection systems. In particular, OPNET, a commercially available network engineering tool is used to model a medium access level remote bridge interface connecting two LAN's. The effectiveness of two different load balancing techniques used to distribute traffic over the multiple channels of the CDL has been studied. Also, the effect of different jamming patterns on the bit error rate seen by the users has been studied.

  19. Modeling and simulation of a Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Network (FDDI LAN) using OPNET (tm) for interfacing through the Common Data Link (CDL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Ernest E., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET) is a commercially available communications network simulation package. This thesis involves the modification of OPNET's Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Network (FDDI LAN) model in order to enhance its usefulness as an aid in the development of recommendations for the characteristics and metrics to be eventually included in the Defense Service Project Office's (DSPO) Common Data Link (CDL) project. This work includes a step-by-step guide for FDDI simulation in OPNET, and a discussion of the changes made to the original model to enhance its performance and data display characteristics. Simple tests are provided to verify the completed model's performance and usefulness as a working tool for further development.

  20. Distribution of polarization-entangled photonpairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: theoretical model and experiment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2008-09-15

    We present a theoretical model for the distribution of polarization-entangled photon-pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network. This model allows an entanglement distributor who plays the role of a service provider to determine the photon-pair generation rate giving highest two-photon interference fringe visibility for any pair of users, when given user-specific parameters. Usefulness of this model is illustrated in an example and confirmed in an experiment, where polarization-entangled photon-pairs are distributed over 82 km and 132 km of dispersion-managed optical fiber. Experimentally observed visibilities and entanglement fidelities are in good agreement with theoretically predicted values. PMID:18794986

  1. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  2. On Designing Thermal-Aware Localized QoS Routing Protocol for in-vivo Sensor Nodes in Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Bajaber, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the thermal rise and Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning issue for an intra-body Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) having in-vivo sensor nodes. We propose a thermal-aware QoS routing protocol, called TLQoS, that facilitates the system in achieving desired QoS in terms of delay and reliability for diverse traffic types, as well as avoids the formation of highly heated nodes known as hotspot(s), and keeps the temperature rise along the network to an acceptable level. TLQoS exploits modular architecture wherein different modules perform integrated operations in providing multiple QoS service with lower temperature rise. To address the challenges of highly dynamic wireless environment inside the human body. TLQoS implements potential-based localized routing that requires only local neighborhood information. TLQoS avoids routing loop formation as well as reduces the number of hop traversal exploiting hybrid potential, and tuning a configurable parameter. We perform extensive simulations of TLQoS, and the results show that TLQoS has significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:26083228

  3. On Designing Thermal-Aware Localized QoS Routing Protocol for in-vivo Sensor Nodes in Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Bajaber, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the thermal rise and Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning issue for an intra-body Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) having in-vivo sensor nodes. We propose a thermal-aware QoS routing protocol, called TLQoS, that facilitates the system in achieving desired QoS in terms of delay and reliability for diverse traffic types, as well as avoids the formation of highly heated nodes known as hotspot(s), and keeps the temperature rise along the network to an acceptable level. TLQoS exploits modular architecture wherein different modules perform integrated operations in providing multiple QoS service with lower temperature rise. To address the challenges of highly dynamic wireless environment inside the human body. TLQoS implements potential-based localized routing that requires only local neighborhood information. TLQoS avoids routing loop formation as well as reduces the number of hop traversal exploiting hybrid potential, and tuning a configurable parameter. We perform extensive simulations of TLQoS, and the results show that TLQoS has significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:26083228

  4. Awareness of antimalarial policy and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment in communities of two selected local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Jegede, Ayodele S; Mafe, Margaret A; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa E

    2014-01-01

    With limited data on the awareness of changes in the use of antimalaria drugs and availability and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the context of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program, we conducted this descriptive cross-sectional study of 262 registered women attending antenatal clinics and 233 mothers of under-five children. We used a questionnaire to assess the awareness, availability and use of ACT in Ijebu North and Yewa North Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ogun State. Malaria is holo-endemic in these areas, and the RBM program has been implemented for years prior to the 2010 RBM deadline. Data were also collected through focus group discussions, along with secondary data from hospital records. Hospital stock records showed inadequate and inconsistent supplies of ACT drugs in hospitals surveyed. Only 23.0% of respondents knew about ACT drugs. About 48% preferred analgesics over ACT drugs (0.6%) for malaria treatment. Lack of awareness was the major reason for non-use of ACT drugs (86.1%). Communities in Yewa North had more supplies of ACT drugs and knew more about ACT than those in Ijebu North. Adequate information on ACT needs to be made available and accessible under a public-private partnership if 2010 RBM targets (now past) and the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (ongoing) for malaria are to be realized in the study communities and Ogun State in general. PMID:24702765

  5. Age and proximity to local ore-smelters as determinants of tissue metal levels in beaver (Castor canadensis) of the sudbury (Ontario) area.

    PubMed

    Hillis, T L; Parker, G H

    1993-01-01

    An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area beaver (Castor canadensis) revealed that animals in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Ni and Pb in the liver and kidneys. Tissue concentrations averaged 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting through food chain contamination. Tissue levels of Cu, Cd and Zn did not vary in relation to distance from source. Tissue Cd levels were uniformly elevated throughout the four populations examined and are believed to reflect an enhanced level of food chain transfer occurring on the poorly buffered, acid-sensitive soils of the area. Burden: body weight correlations indicated that tissue concentrations of Cd increased whereas Cu levels decreased as a function of animal age. Most striking among these age-related trends was the disproportionate uptake of Cd by renal tissues, resulting in 10-fold higher burdens than those present within the liver. PMID:15091874

  6. The Transfer of Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Describes the response of the Department of Education to the demand from the nation's teachers for relief from regulations and procedures which some teachers find burdensome. The author defines regulatory relief and discusses the elimination of fraud, waste, and abuse; compliance with civil rights regulations; and state and local relationships.…

  7. What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribbia, John Luke

    This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6. The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation research, therefore, contributes to the environmental sociology, gen

  8. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nuristan mineral district in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nuristan mineral district, which has gem, lithium, and cesium deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of

  9. Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for each of the 24 mineral project areas (referred to herein as areas of interest), whose locality names, locations, and main mineral occurrences are shown on the index map of Afghanistan (fig. 1). ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. PRISM image orthorectification for one-half of the target areas was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchro

  10. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  11. Vegetation Cover and Habitat Heterogeneity derived from QuickBird data as proxies of Local Plant Species Richness in recently burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viedma, Olga; Torres, Ivan; Moreno, Jose Manuel

    2010-05-01

    In fire-prone ecosystems, it is very common that, following fire, plant species richness increases very markedly, mainly due to an explosion of annuals, following a rapid change during the first few years after the blaze. Herbs play a major role in the system, among other, by fixing nutrients that might be lost, or by changing competitive interactions with shrubs or tree seedlings. But assessing species richness, particularly, herbaceous one, in space and at large scale is very costly. Furthermore, the scale of measurement is also important. In this work we attempted to asses plant species richness during the first year after fire in an abandoned dehesa (open parkland) at three scales (1 m2, 25 m2 and 100 m2) using QuickBird images. The study area was located in Central Spain (Anchuras, Ciudad Real), and was affected by a large summer fire (ca. 2000 ha). Before the fire the system was composed of a shrubland intermixed with trees and open spaces. Two 90x180 m plots were selected and field species richness measures were made at the three scales, using a nested design. Field-based data were related to remotely sensed data using Regression Trees (RT) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling. Explanatory spectral and textural remotely sensed data were ecologically interpreted based on vegetation cover ground-based data. We found that areas with low spectral contrast and high reflectivity were dominated by herbaceous species, and had greater species richness than those characterized by low contrast and medium-low reflectivity, which were dominated by shrubs and trees. The highest species richness was found in the areas characterized by high contrast and medium-high reflectivity, which had a mix of herbs and woody layers. Variance explained varied depending on the modelling approach and the scale, from 21% and 50% for 1 m2 using RT and BRT, respectively; to 65% and 79% for 100 m2. The contribution of different life forms in model fitting was scale-dependent. At smaller scales, herbaceous layer explained the greatest variability of species richness; whereas at higher scales, shrubs and trees increased their contribution in fitting plant species richness. Model's predictions and Moran's Index on residuals indicated that the best sampling scale to predict species richness from QuickBird data was at 100 m2. The high variance explained in most cases indicates that species richness in space can be well predicted by QuickBird derived data. Keywords: plant species richness, local nested scales, vegetation cover, spatial heterogeneity, texture, reflectivity, QuickBird.

  12. Attitude and beliefs of traditional birth attendants to prematurely erupted teeth of infants in urban local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs. PMID:23376760

  13. Rhode Island Higher Education Library Integrated Network (HELIN). Final Report. Task Force on Bibliographic and Authority Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocino, Michael; And Others

    The final report from the Higher Education Library Integrated Network (HELIN)'s Task Force on Bibliographic and Authority Control begins with a statement of the charge to the task force. It then summarizes its activities in each of five areas: (1) documentation of local authority control (cataloging) practices; (2) consultation with vendors of…

  14. Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%). Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p?local and regional health authorities led by a NCM (GoHeart) improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up. PMID:25396055

  15. THE ALFALFA H I ABSORPTION PILOT SURVEY: A WIDE-AREA BLIND DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM SURVEY OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Jeremy; Macdonald, Erin P. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo, E-mail: jdarling@colorado.edu, E-mail: e.macdonald@physics.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-11-20

    We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (H I) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area 'blind' search for H I absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km s{sup -1} < cz < 17, 500 km s{sup -1} and covering 517.0 deg{sup 2} (7% of the full ALFALFA survey). The survey is sensitive to H I absorption lines stronger than 7.7 mJy (8983 radio sources) and is 90% complete for lines stronger than 11.0 mJy (7296 sources). The total redshift interval sensitive to all damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}) is {Delta}z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T{sub s} = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}) it is {Delta}z = 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic H I absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N{sub H{sub i}},X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10{sup 19} (T{sub s} /100 K) (1/f) cm{sup -2}local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line search of the complete ALFALFA survey-or any higher redshift, larger bandwidth, or more sensitive survey, such as those planned for Square Kilometer Array pathfinders or a low-frequency lunar array-will either make numerous detections or will set a strong statistical lower limit on the typical spin temperature of neutral hydrogen gas.

  16. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

  17. A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

  18. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-05-01

    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 ?m a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 ?m a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar irradiance differs significantly from that of travertine in the NIR region, while similar contributions are modelled in the VIS.

  19. Existing Student Study Team Processes in Selected Volunteer Special Education Local Plan Areas, School Districts, and Schools in California: A Descriptive Evaluation Study. Draft Preliminary Findings. Working Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Roxanne L.

    The paper is the third of a series of working papers developed by a project which conducted a cooperative study of existing student study team (SST) processes in nine California special education local plan areas. The working papers augment the final report by providing detailed descriptions of the methods used and the preliminary findings. This…

  20. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ahankashan mineral district in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ahankashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008, 2009, 2010),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then incr

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to tha

  2. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  3. Authoring Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Comprehensively describes NJCATE's instructional materials development and authoring process. The Guide covers traditional style manual topics as well as issues particular to instructional materials development and publishing, such as readability, assessment, copyrights and contracts. Although originally developed for use by NJCATE's Mecomtronics Engineering Technology Program, the Guide's principles easily apply to any modular-based instructional materials development. Target Audience 2-4 year College Faculty/AdministratorsSelf Evaluation DataAn excellent resource to guide the development of integrated technical curricula, primarily at the post-secondary level, but also applicable to high school curriculum development.

  4. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey local areas in and near the western edge of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, Nevada have probable resource potential for silver and small amounts of associated lead, zinc, and gold.

  5. Decentralisation for Schools, but Not for Knowledge: The RSA Area Based Curriculum and the Limits of Localism in Coalition Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Use of local environments and stakeholders to illuminate the school curriculum, and increase ownership of it, has been demonstrated by international research as an effective means by which to make the curriculum more relevant and engaging to students. Localism is a key tenet of the Government's policy platform, and in education policy the…

  6. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Damien

    Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR programs, in France, UK and Spain (Alvarez, 2007; Kemp, 2007). The emissions were then estimated using an adjusted tier 3 method. For aviation emissions a tier three method was also used. The findings of this research are mixed. HSR would emit 66% less GHG emissions using today's energy mixes for California and Nevada. Using California's 2020 target energy mix HSR would emit 80% less GHG emissions. However, using today's energy mix HSR would cause 33% more LAP than air travel. Using California's 2020 mix the HSR would cause 22% less LAP the air travel. However this 20% improvement would likely be eroded by aircraft emissions improvement between now and 2020. To conclude, this research found that HSR does offer significant GHG emission reductions, when compared to air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. However is less clear regarding LAP, though HSR has the potential to create savings here in the future as well. For other corridors around the U.S.A., earmarked for HSR, similar studies should be carried out to examine the benefits of such mode transfer.

  7. 40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

  8. 40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

  9. 40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

  10. 40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

  11. 40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

  12. Pre-School Educational Provision in Rural Areas. Interchange 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, Andrew; Petrie, Scott; Shucksmith, Janet; Shucksmith, Mark; Still, Margaret; Watt, Joyce

    The Scottish Executive Education Department has pledged to achieve universal provision of preschool education for 3- and 4-year-olds, whose parents want it, by 2002. The particular factors affecting delivery of preschool education in rural areas were examined through telephone interviews with local education authorities and voluntary preschool…

  13. Evaluation of HACCP plans of food industries: case study conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the local health authority of Foggia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Panunzio, Michele F; Antoniciello, Antonietta; Pisano, Alessandra; Rosa, Giovanna

    2007-09-01

    With respect to food safety, many works have studied the effectiveness of self-monitoring plans of food companies, designed using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) method. On the other hand, indepth research has not been made concerning the adherence of the plans to HACCP standards. During our research, we evaluated 116 self-monitoring plans adopted by food companies located in the territory of the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Foggia, Italy. The general errors (terminology, philosophy and redundancy) and the specific errors (transversal plan, critical limits, hazard specificity, and lack of procedures) were standardized. Concerning the general errors, terminological errors pertain to half the plans examined, 47% include superfluous elements and 60% have repetitive subjects. With regards to the specific errors, 77% of the plans examined contained specific errors. The evaluation has pointed out the lack of comprehension of the HACCP system by the food companies and has allowed the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service), in its capacity as a control body, to intervene with the companies in order to improve designing HACCP plans. PMID:17911662

  14. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Aynak mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter E in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Aynak mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image b

  15. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Dudkash mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter R in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Dudkash mineral district, which has industrial mineral deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that

  16. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter Q in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Takhar mineral district, which has industrial evaporite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that

  17. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kunduz mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter S in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kunduz mineral district, which has celestite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard

  18. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Helmand mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter O in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Helmand mineral district, which has travertine deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to th

  19. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Tourmaline mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter J in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Tourmaline mineral district, which has tin deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by de

  20. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kundalyan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter H in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kundalyan mineral district, which has porphyry copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Dusar-Shaida mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter I in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Dusar-Shaida mineral district, which has copper and tin deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standar

  2. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Herat mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter T in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Herat mineral district, which has barium and limestone deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of th

  3. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kharnak-Kanjar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter K in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kharnak-Kanjar mineral district, which has mercury deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the st

  4. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Badakhshan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter F in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Badakhshan mineral district, which has gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by deter

  5. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Baghlan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter P in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Baghlan mineral district, which has industrial clay and gypsum deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2006, 2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then

  6. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nalbandon mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter L in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nalbandon mineral district, which has lead and zinc deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2007, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased

  7. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Bakhud mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter U in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Bakhud mineral district, which has industrial fluorite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased

  8. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghunday-Achin mineral district in Afghanistan, in Davis, P.A, compiler, Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghunday-Achin mineral district, which has magnesite and talc deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of t

  9. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, IA

    2012-01-01

    Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%), “providing antenatal services” (16.5%), “performing caesarean section” (13.0%), “providing family planning services” (8.2%), and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%), “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%), “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%), “TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services” (13.2%), “TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers” (43.4%), and “TBA service is the only maternity service that I know” (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past or current) opined that TBA services are effective but could be improved with some form of training (78.3%). More than three-quarters (77.1%) opposed the banning of TBA services. Almost 7/10 (74.8%) users were satisfied with TBA services. Conclusion Study findings revealed a positive perception and use of TBA services by the respondents. This underlines the necessity for TBAs’ knowledge and skills to be improved within permissible standards through sustained partnership between TBAs and health systems. It is hoped that such partnership will foster a healthy collaboration between providers of orthodox and traditional maternity services that will translate into improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes in relevant settings. PMID:22371657

  10. System of indexes and indicators for the quality evaluation of HACCP plans based on the results of the official controls conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Panunzio, Michele F; Antoniciello, Antonietta; Pisano, Alessandra

    2007-03-01

    Within the realm of evaluating self-monitoring plans, developed based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) method and adopted by food companies, little research has been done concerning the quality of the plans. The Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy, has conducted research with the aim to adopt a system of indexes and indicators for the qualitative evaluation of HACCP plans. The critical areas considered were the following: simplicity, specificity, feasibility and adherence. During the period from January 2004 to June 2005, the evaluation grid was used in examining 250 HACCP self-monitoring plans of food companies. For the analysis of the determining factor four groups were considered, with reference to HACCP self-monitoring plans designed: group 1 - with the aid of a qualified team; group 2 - with the aid of an unqualified team; group 3 - with the aid of an unqualified expert; group 4 - without the aid of an expert. The mean values of the measures elaborated decrease towards insufficiency moving from group 1 to group 4. In particular, collaboration by teams of unqualified experts brought about drafting unacceptable HACCP plans on the levels of specificity and adherence, with respect to the HACCP method. The method proposed of the analysis of the indexes and indicators beginning with an evaluation sheet can also help the individual company to better adjust contribution by internal or external professionals to the company. PMID:17431313

  11. Near-field microwave probe for local ferromagnetic resonance characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragos I. Mircea; T. W. Clinton

    2007-01-01

    A local ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique using a thin-film microwave probe fabricated on coaxial transmission line is presented. Some key features of this probe are its micron-scale size coupled with broadband FMR characterization and mobility: a small area of any location on a magnetic medium can be probed. Permeability of Permalloy (Py) films has been measured, where the authors extract

  12. MODFLOW-2005, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - Documentation of the Multiple-Refined-Areas Capability of Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the addition of the multiple-refined-areas capability to shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package of MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR now provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow by using one or more block-shaped, higher resolution local grids (child model) within a coarser grid (parent model). LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundaries. The ability to have multiple, nonoverlapping areas of refinement is important in situations where there is more than one area of concern within a regional model. In this circumstance, LGR can be used to simulate these distinct areas with higher resolution grids. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. The BFH Package can be used to simulate these situations by using either the parent or child models independently.

  13. The Patterns of Care Survey of radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer: Similarities between the practice nationally and in minority-rich areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Zietman; Jennifer Moughan; Jean Owen; Gerald Hanks

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last two decades, the chance for the cure of localized prostate cancer by radiation has been improved by the widespread use of PSA for early detection and by a number of technical advances in treatment delivery. This study was designed to determine whether the stage of presentation and the quality of radiation treatment delivered are comparable between

  14. Manuscript title: Evaluating the two-source energy balance model using local thermal and surface flux observations in a strongly advective irrigated agricultural area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application and validation of many thermal remote sensing-based energy balance models involve the use of local meteorological inputs of incoming solar radiation, wind speed and air temperature as well as accurate land surface temperature (LST), vegetation cover and surface flux measurements. For ...

  15. Local agency, adaptation and the shadow system: The institutional architecture of social learning in rural areas of the UK and India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Pelling; S. Rengasamy

    Rural communities across the world face at times a range of environmental , social and economic pressures that threaten their viability in their current form. The ability of local actors to exercise agency in response to potential and emerging threats is of key interest in understanding their capacity to adapt. This paper argues that top-down narratives which focus on canonical

  16. 20 CFR 664.710 - Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    Yes, however, One-Stop services for non-eligible youth must be funded by programs that are authorized to provide services to such youth. For example, basic labor exchange services under the Wagner-Peyser Act may be provided to any...

  17. Evaluating the two-source energy balance model using local thermal and surface flux observations in a strongly advective irrigated agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustas, William P.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Anderson, Martha C.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Prueger, John H.; Evett, Steven R.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; French, Andrew N.; Hipps, Lawrence E.; Chávez, José L.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.

    2012-12-01

    Application and validation of many thermal remote sensing-based energy balance models involve the use of local meteorological inputs of incoming solar radiation, wind speed and air temperature as well as accurate land surface temperature (LST), vegetation cover and surface flux measurements. For operational applications at large scales, such local information is not routinely available. In addition, the uncertainty in LST estimates can be several degrees due to sensor calibration issues, atmospheric effects and spatial variations in surface emissivity. Time differencing techniques using multi-temporal thermal remote sensing observations have been developed to reduce errors associated with deriving the surface-air temperature gradient, particularly in complex landscapes. The Dual-Temperature-Difference (DTD) method addresses these issues by utilizing the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. (1995) [1], and is a relatively simple scheme requiring meteorological input from standard synoptic weather station networks or mesoscale modeling. A comparison of the TSEB and DTD schemes is performed using LST and flux observations from eddy covariance (EC) flux towers and large weighing lysimeters (LYs) in irrigated cotton fields collected during BEAREX08, a large-scale field experiment conducted in the semi-arid climate of the Texas High Plains as described by Evett et al. (2012) [2]. Model output of the energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat flux, sensible and latent heat flux) generated with DTD and TSEB using local and remote meteorological observations are compared with EC and LY observations. The DTD method is found to be significantly more robust in flux estimation compared to the TSEB using the remote meteorological observations. However, discrepancies between model and measured fluxes are also found to be significantly affected by the local inputs of LST and vegetation cover and the representativeness of the remote sensing observations with the local flux measurement footprint.

  18. Approach to spatialize local to long-range atmospheric metal input (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) in epiphytic lichens over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France).

    PubMed

    Barre, Julien P G; Deletraz, Gaëlle; Frayret, Jérôme; Pinaly, Hervé; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David

    2015-06-01

    Geographically based investigations into atmospheric bio-monitoring usually provide information on concentration or occurrence data and spatial trends of specific contaminants over a specified study area. In this work, an original approach based on geographic information system (GIS) was used to establish metal contents (Hg, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in epiphytic lichens from 90 locations as atmospheric bio-monitors over a meso-scale area (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France). This approach allows the integration of the heterogeneity of the territory and optimization of the sampling sites based on both socioeconomical and geophysical parameters (hereafter defined as urban, industrial, agricultural, and forested areas). The sampling strategy was first evaluated in several sites (n?=?15) over different seasons and years in order to follow the temporal variability of the atmospheric metal input in lichens. The results demonstrate that concentration ranges remain constant over different sampling periods in "rural" areas (agricultural and forested). Higher variability is observed in the "anthropized" urban and industrial areas in relation to local atmospheric inputs. In this context, metal concentrations in lichens over the whole study show that (1) Hg and Cd are homogeneous over the whole territory (0.14?±?0.04 and 0.38?±?0.26 mg/kg, respectively), whereas (2) Cu and Pb are more concentrated in "anthropized" areas (9.3 and 11.9 mg/kg, respectively) than in "rural" ones (6.8 and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively) (Kruskall-Wallis, K(Cu)?=?13.7 and K(Pb)?=?9.7, p?local enrichment for all metals in many locations in the Pays Basque (West) mainly due to metal and steel industrial activities. This confirms the local contribution of this contamination source over a wider geographic scale. A multiple linear regression model was applied to give an integrated spatialization of the data. This showed significant relationships for Pb and Cu (adjusted r (2) of 0.39 and 0.45, respectively), especially with regards to variables such as industry and road densities (source factors) and elevation or water balance (remote factors). These results show that an integrated GIS-based sampling strategy can improve biomonitoring data distribution and allows better differentiation of local and long-range contamination. PMID:25561253

  19. Modelling and mapping the local distribution of representative species on the Le Danois Bank, El Cachucho Marine Protected Area (Cantabrian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alegre, Ana; Sánchez, Francisco; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Hinz, Hilmar; Serrano, Alberto; Parra, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    The management and protection of potentially vulnerable species and habitats require the availability of detailed spatial data. However, such data are often not readily available in particular areas that are challenging for sampling by traditional sampling techniques, for example seamounts. Within this study habitat modelling techniques were used to create predictive maps of six species of conservation concern for the Le Danois Bank (El Cachucho Marine Protected Area in the South of the Bay of Biscay). The study used data from ECOMARG multidisciplinary surveys that aimed to create a representative picture of the physical and biological composition of the area. Classical fishing gear (otter trawl and beam trawl) was used to sample benthic communities that inhabit sedimentary areas, and non-destructive visual sampling techniques (ROV and photogrammetric sled) were used to determine the presence of epibenthic macrofauna in complex and vulnerable habitats. Multibeam echosounder data, high-resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS system) and geological data from box-corer were used to characterize the benthic terrain. ArcGIS software was used to produce high-resolution maps (75×75 m2) of such variables in the entire area. The Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) technique was used to process these data and create Habitat Suitability maps for six species of special conservation interest. The model used seven environmental variables (depth, rugosity, aspect, slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) in fine and broad scale and morphosedimentary characteristics) to identify the most suitable habitats for such species and indicates which environmental factors determine their distribution. The six species models performed highly significantly better than random (p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney test) when Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were tested. This indicates that the environmental variables chosen are relevant to distinguish the distribution of these species. The Jackknife test estimated depth to be the key factor structuring their distribution, followed by the seabed morpho-sedimentary characteristics and rugosity variables. Three of the species studied (Asconema setubalense, Callogorgia verticillata and Helicolenus dactylopterus) were found to have small suitable areas as a result of being restrictive species related to the environmental characteristics of the top of the bank. The other species (Pheronema carpenteri, Phycis blennoides and Trachyscorpia cristulata), which were species less restrictive to the environmental variables used, had highly suitable areas of distribution. The study provides high-resolution maps of species that characterize the habitat of two communities included in OSPAR and NATURA networks, whose distributions corroborate the adequate protection of this area by the management measures applied at present.

  20. Areas, Volumes, Surface Areas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-28

    This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).

  1. A summary of niobium and rare earth localities from Ha'il and other areas in western Saudi Arabia: a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Naqvi, Mohammed Ibne

    1978-01-01

    Investigations in 1965 located veins containing radioactive material in the Halaban Group on the east side of a granite pluton at Jabal Aja near Ha'il. Later study extended the known area of radioactivity to a total length of about 30 km. Mineralogic studies indicated that the samples were low in uranium and that the radioactivity was due principally to thorium in niobium-bearing minerals. Two samples were reexamined to identify the sources of radioactivity, but X-ray and alpha plate studies did not reveal the radioactive minerals, even though uranium mineralization was indicated by the alpha plates. Further sampling is suggested to isolate the sources of radioactivity. This study indicates that niobium occurrences are related to alkaline intrusives in many areas of western Saudi Arabia. These areas should be investigated for their possible niobium and rare earth contents; their uranium content is apparently too low to be of economic interest.

  2. Improved Programming Efficiency through Additional Boron Implantation at the Active Area Edge in 90 nm Localized Charge-Trapping Non-volatile Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Xu; Feng Yan; Dun-Jun Chen; Yi Shi; Yong-Gang Wang; Zhi-Guo Li; Fan Yang; Jos-Hua Wang; Peter Lin; Jian-Guang Chang

    2010-01-01

    As the scaling-down of non-volatile memory (NVM) cells continues, the impact of shallow trench isolation (STI) on NVM cells becomes more severe. It has been observed in the 90 nm localized charge-trapping non-volatile memory (NROM™) that the programming efficiency of edge cells adjacent to STI is remarkably lower than that of other cells when channel hot electron injection is applied.

  3. Therapeutic use of plants by local communities in and around Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary: implications for protected area management in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Masao Koike

    2010-01-01

    Traditional systems of medicine have become a topic of global importance recently. Increased commercialization of economically\\u000a important medicinal plants has resulted in overharvesting, threatening their survival. The present study was carried out to\\u000a document the indigenous uses of medicinal plants by the local communities in and around Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh.\\u000a Data collection was predominantly qualitative recording the species use,

  4. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the population of small, rural areas: a case study of the local expert procedure.

    PubMed

    Roe, L K; Carlson, J F; Swanson, D A

    1992-06-01

    Sociologists designed a random sampling study based on an adaptation of the Housing Unit Method and the local expert method to determine the socioeconomic features of a 3 unincorporated rural communities near Yucca Mountain, Nevada which scientists will use to conduct a comprehensive impact analysis of the proposed geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, about 90 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Electrical company representatives indicated the location and type of housing with all up to date electrical connections in southern Nye county. This information was included in the housing unit file made from utility records from each community. After determining the sample size needed, households were randomly chosen from each file (326 Amargosa Valley, 672 Beatty, and 3224 Pahrump). Meter readers from the local utility companies were the local experts. 2 local experts worked together to authenticate the accuracy of recorded data which included number of person in the household as of July 15, 1990 and age and gender of each member. Data accuracy was tested and it was found that the 1990 US Census counts were within the relatively narrow 95% confidence intervals. The mean width was 7.2% of the estimated population, thus the estimates were meaningful. The estimates were too low for Pahrump (7190 vs. 7425) and Amargosa Valley (841 vs. 853), however. This may have been due to recent in-migration from the Las Vegas Valley. Age and gender accuracy could not be tested since the 1990 census data were not yet ready. Nevertheless, it is believed that this procedure can obtain very accurate estimates. PMID:12285558

  5. 43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

  8. 43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

  9. Tests for the Recovery of 5° Mean Gravity Anomalies in Local Areas From ATS 6\\/Geos 3 Satellite to Satellite Range-Rate Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Hajela

    1979-01-01

    trend from\\/ values due to residual errors in the initial state vectors. The correlation coefficients between the predicted values of neighboring anomalies are considered. The procedures are tested numerically by predicting eight 5 ø anomalies in the Cardbean Sea area using destruct-Doppler data from four Geos 3 revolutions. The predicted anomalies are compared with anomalies obtained from altimeter data, with

  10. TO APPEAR IN IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS (SPECIAL ISSUE ON ULTRA WIDEBAND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS) 1 Secure Localization and Authentication in

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    .S. Office of Naval Research under Young Investigator Award N000140210464, and the US National ScienceTO APPEAR IN IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS (SPECIAL ISSUE ON ULTRA WIDEBAND limit the paper scope to range-based approaches and leave the investigation on range-free ones

  11. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Haji-Gak mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter C in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has iron ore deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2006,2007), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then co-registered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image-coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by de

  12. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Farah mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter FF in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Farah mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of copper, zinc, lead, silver, and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2007, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolutio

  13. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Khanneshin mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter A in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Khanneshin mineral district, which has uranium, thorium, rare-earth-element, and apatite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral imag

  14. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Zarkashan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter G in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Zarkashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased

  15. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Balkhab mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter B in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Balkhab mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that of the panchrom

  16. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Panjsher Valley mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter M in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Panjsher Valley mineral district, which has emerald and silver-iron deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2009, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then

  17. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Katawas mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter N in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Katawas mineral district, which has gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©AXA, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that of the panchromatic image

  18. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Uruzgan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter V in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Uruzgan mineral district, which has tin and tungsten deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to th

  19. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghazni2 mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter EE in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghazni2 mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of gold, mercury, and sulfur deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multis

  20. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kandahar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter Z in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kandahar mineral district, which has bauxite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2006,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar- elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image- registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative- reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that of the p

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter D in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Takhar mineral district, which has placer gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that

  2. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Parwan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter CC in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Parwan mineral district, which has gold and copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006, 2007), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that of the panchromatic image mosaic using the SPARKLE logic, which is described in Davis (2006). Each of the four

  3. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghazni1 mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter DD in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghazni1 mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of clay, aluminum, gold, silver, mercury, and sulfur deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The

  4. Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in the area postrema of the cat. Light and electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, Fernando E.; Mehler, William R.; Gibbs, Michael A.; Eng, Lawrence F.; Wu, Jang-Yen

    1987-01-01

    Morphological evidence is presented of the existence of the putative neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in axon terminals and of glutamine synthetase (GS) in ependymoglial cells and astroglial components of the area postrema (AP) of the cat. Purified antiserum directed against the GABA biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GS antiserum were used. The results showed that punctate structures of variable size corresponding to axon terminals exhibited GAD-immunoreactivity and were distributed in varying densities. The greatest accumulation occurred in the caudal and middle segment of the AP and particularly in the area subpostrema, where the aggregation of terminals was extremely dense. The presence of both GAD-immunoreactive profiles and GS-immunostained ependymoglial cells and astrocytes in the AP provide further evidence of the functional correlation between the two enzymes.

  5. Local network assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  6. Stereoscopic system for inexpensive hazardous area three-dimensional robot localization applications based on incoherent optical fiber bundle calibrated for high-resolution image transmission.

    PubMed

    Demuynck, Olivier; Menéndez, José Manuel

    2011-05-20

    Computer vision, despite all the recent progress, still cannot be employed technically in most hazardous and harsh industrial areas. Most of the alternative solutions to this modern issue are usually unavailable mainly due to the global visual inspection solution cost. The best suitable option is the use of an incoherent optical fiber bundle (IOFB) that obviously requires a calibration step before image transmission purpose. We already presented our contribution to this topic improving the calibration method of the IOFB for image transmission, with some additional and essential steps that considerably improve the reconstructed image quality while also drastically reducing the processing time needed. We also proposed and evaluated a new full-resolution calibration method in a very recent study. We present and discuss in this paper an application using the IOFB for robot guiding in hazardous areas, based on a stereoscopic vision system. Conclusions compare the low- and full-resolution IOFB calibration methods for the depicted application and introduce some advantages of a specially designed IOFB that could perfectly fit with some industrial applications. PMID:21614122

  7. 30 CFR 764.25 - Regulatory authority responsibility for implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulatory authority responsibility for implementation. 764.25 Section 764.25 Mineral...AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING STATE PROCESSES FOR DESIGNATING AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR...Regulatory authority responsibility for implementation. (a) The regulatory...

  8. Localized (super)gravity

    E-print Network

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a string-theory-derived mechanism for localized gravity, which produces a deviation from Newton's law of gravitation at cosmological distances. This communication is based on the paper [1] (Non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds and localized gravity) by Ruben Minasian and the present authors.

  9. Quantification of the efficiency of treatment of Anopheles gambiae breeding sites with petroleum products by local communities in areas of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Djouaka, Rousseau F; Bakare, Adekunle A; Bankole, Honore S; Doannio, Julien MC MC; Kossou, Hortense; Akogbeto, Martin C

    2007-01-01

    Background The emergence of Anopheles populations capable of withstanding lethal doses of insecticides has weakened the efficacy of most insecticide based strategies of vector control and, has highlighted the need for developing new insecticidal molecules or, improving the efficacy of existing insecticides or abandoning those to which resistance has emerged. The use of petroleum products (PP) against mosquito larvae had an immense success during early programmes of malaria control, but these compounds were abandoned and replaced in the 1950s by synthetic insecticides probably because of the high performances given by these new products. In the current context of vector resistance, it is important to elucidate the empirical use of PP by quantifying their efficiencies on resistant strains of Anopheles. Methods Larvae of Anopheles Ladji a local resistant strain were exposed to increasing concentrations of various PP (kerosene, petrol and engine oils) for 24 hours and the lethal activities recorded. The highest concentration (HiC) having no lethal activity (also referred as the NOEL or no effect level) and the lowest concentration (LoC100) yielding 100% mortality were rated for each PP on the Ladji strain. Prior to laboratory analysis, KAP studies were conducted in three traditional communities were insecticide resistance is clearly established to confirm the use of PP against mosquitoes. Results Laboratory analysis of petrol, kerosene and engine oils, clearly established their lethal activities on resistant strains of Anopheles larvae. Contrary to existing references, this research revealed that exposed larvae of Anopheles were mostly killed by direct contact toxicity and not by suffocation as indicated in some earlier reports. Conclusion This research could serve as scientific basis to backup the empirical utilisation of PP on mosquito larvae and to envisage possibilities of using PP in some traditional settings where Anopheles have developed resistance to currently used insecticides. PMID:17488523

  10. Regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl in a 188,000 km 2 area in the European arctic as displayed by terrestrial moss samples-long-range atmospheric transport vs local impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Clemens; De Caritat, Patrice; Halleraker, Jo H.; Finne, Tor Erik; Boyd, Rognvald; Jæger, Øystein; Volden, Tore; Kashulina, Galina; Bogatyrev, Igor; Chekushin, Viktor; Pavlov, Vladimir; Äyräs, Matti; Räisänen, Marja Liisa; Niskavaara, Heikki

    The regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl have been mapped in a 188,000 km2 area of the European Arctic (N Finland, N Norway, NW Russia) using the moss technique. The Russian nickel mining and smelting industry (Nikel and Zapoljarnij (Pechenganikel) and Monchegorsk (Severonikel)) in the eastern part of the survey area represents two of the largest point sources for S0 2 and metal emissions on a world wide basis. In contrast, parts of northern Finland and northern Norway represent still some of the most pristine areas in Europe. The terrestrial mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were used as monitors of airborne deposition. Samples in all three countries were collected during the summer of 1995 and analysed in one laboratory using ICP-MS. Maps for most elements clearly show elevated element concentrations near the industrial sites and delineate the extent of contamination. Pollution follows the main wind and topographical directions in the area (N-S). The gradients of deposition are rather steep. Background levels for all the elements are reached within 150-200 km from the industrial plants. The relative importance of long-range atmospheric transport of air pollutants from industrial point sources on the world wide increase of heavy metals observed in the atmosphere is thus debatable for many elements. Increasing population and traffic density, accompanied by increasing local dust levels, may play a much more important role than industrial emissions. The regional distribution patterns as displayed in the maps show some striking differences between the elements. The regional distribution of Hg and TI in the survey area is completely dominated by sources other than industry.

  11. 43 CFR 1882.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.0-3 Authority...States and their political subdivisions to relieve social or economic impacts resulting from the development of Federal...

  12. FINLAND SOURCES 2007 -Forest industry production Authorities

    E-print Network

    FINLAND SOURCES 2007 - Forest industry production Print Home Finland Government Authorities Local administration Federations, organizations Company outlooks Industry » Overview » Forest industry production.1 million tons of paper and paperboard in 2006, which was more than ever before. Chemical and mechanical

  13. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Adults Screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Ahoada–East Local Government Area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Azuonwu; Osaro, Erhabor; Nnenna, Frank-Peterside

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using “Determine” (Abbott Laboratories, Japan), Start–Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea). All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Subjects included 152) consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25±7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ?0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%). HIV infection was higher among females (10.9%) compared to males (10.1%) and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1%) (P= 0.08). HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74%) compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection. PMID:22223994

  14. jessies author project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Meikle

    2009-11-13

    Students will discover authors by visiting websites. Then they will write a letter to an author. Choose five different authors and answer the questions below about each author. 1. Write the name of the author. 2. Where and when was this author born? 3. Name five books this author has written. 4. Tell one interesting thing you found on his or her website. 5. Tell one fact about ...

  15. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  16. Local geological dust in the area of Rome (Italy): linking mineral composition, size distribution and optical properties to radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Salzano, Roberto; Bassani, Cristiana; Pareti, Salvatore; Perrino, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust plays a key role in the energy balance of the Earth - atmosphere coupled system. The microphysical and optical properties of dust drive the direct radiative effects and are in turn influenced by the dust mineralogical composition. The latter varies largely, depending on the geology of the source region. Knowledge gaps still exist about relationships between the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation by mineral dust and its mineralogical, size distribution and particle morphology features; this also affects the reliability of radiative transfer (RT) modelling estimates (Hansell et al., 2011). In this study, these relationships were investigated focusing on the crustal suspended PM10 dust, sourced from outcropping rocks of the local geological domains around Rome (Latium, Italy). The mineral composition variability of the Latium rocks ranges from the silicate-dominated (volcanics domain) to the calcite-dominated (travertine), through lithological materials composed in different proportions by silicates, silica and calcite, mainly (limestone series, siliciclastic series) (Cosentino et al., 2009). This peculiarity of the Latium region was thus exploited to investigate the behavior of the size distribution, optical properties and radiative transfer at BOA (Bottom Of Atmosphere) of the suspended dust PM10 fraction with the variability of mineral composition. Elemental source profiles of the same dust samples were previously determined (Pietrodangelo et al., 2013). A multi-faceted analysis was performed, and outcomes from the following approaches were merged: individual-particle scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), bulk mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), size distribution fit of the individual-particle data set and modelling of the dust optical and radiative properties. To this aim, the 6SV atmospheric radiative transfer code (Kotchenova et al., 2008; Vermote et al., 1997) was employed, which computes aerosol optical properties (single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, extinction coefficient, scattering coefficient, phase function) by the Mie Theory, and simulates the downward flux at BOA (FdBOA) by solving the radiative transfer equation. Conditions of dryness and of spherical particle shape were applied to all parts of this work. The size distribution fitting to the log-normal function appears unimodal, both for the volcanics and travertine domains, the first showing coarser mode than the latter. Volume distributions of quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and calcite fall in the coarse fraction, showing maximum around 5µm (aerodynamic diameter); differences in the curve height suggest particle density variety among mineral species. The single-scattering albedo highlights the weak absorption of travertine, with respect to volcanics, along the visible and Near-InfraRed (NIR) spectral domain. The asymmetry parameter indicates that the volcanics dust appears composed by particles with highly forward scattering, mainly in the Near-InfraRed (NIR) spectral domain, while the travertine shows more isotropic particles. Finally, both volcanics and travertine dusts leave the direct component of FdBOA unchanged, while the diffuse component depends strongly on the mineral composition. Hansell, R.A., et al. (2011), Atmos. Chem. Phys. Cosentino, D., et al. (2009), Quaternary Research Pietrodangelo, A., et al. (2013), Atmos. Env. Kotchenova, S.Y., et al. (2008), Appl. Optics Vermote, E.F., et al. (1997), IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

  17. Geology of the Devils Hole area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed and reconnaissance mapping of the Devils Hole, Nevada, area has improved definition of the local geologic structure within a regional carbonate aquifer near its primary discharge points -- the springs of Ash Meadows. Several formerly unmapped calcite veins, and other young calcite-lined paleo-spring feeder zones were found, as well as a number of previously unknown small collapse areas in the limestone. Although the predominant structural grain of the area is oriented northwest, the importance of the very subordinate northeast-striking faults and fractures is underscored by their association with Devils Hole itself, with most of the collapse depressions, and with many of the calcite veins in ' lake beds ' and alluvium. Probable channeling of groundwater flow may occur along one important northeast-striking fault zone. The persistent tendency for openings may have been facilitated by underlying low-angle faults that separate brittle carbonate rocks from underlying, less-competent clastic rocks. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Localized Scleroderma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease has gone into remission. Does Localized Scleroderma Go Away? As a general rule, localized scleroderma is ... disease has gone into remission. Does Localized Scleroderma Go Away? As a general rule, localized scleroderma is ...

  19. Authoring Newspaper Science Articles: A Rewarding Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.

  20. Charter School Authorizers and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Lavery, Lesley; Witte, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between charter school authorizers and student achievement. We perform this analysis using a 10-year panel dataset from Minnesota, a state that permits four distinct types of authorizers--local school boards, postsecondary institutions, nonprofit organizations, and the Minnesota Department of Education.…