Science.gov

Sample records for local authority area

  1. Local Authority and Town Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duder, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview and definition of local authority and town planning in New Zealand. Demonstrates the relevance of planning matters to the teaching of geography. Reviews objectives of geography and specific planning methods used in several districts. (BR)

  2. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasatir, Marilyn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four papers discuss LANs (local area networks) and library applications: (1) "Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standards..." (Charles D. Brown); (2) "Facilities Planning for LANs..." (Gail Persky); (3) "Growing up with the Alumni Library: LAN..." (Russell Buchanan); and (4) "Implementing a LAN...at the Health Sciences Library"

  3. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  4. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasatir, Marilyn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four papers discuss LANs (local area networks) and library applications: (1) "Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standards..." (Charles D. Brown); (2) "Facilities Planning for LANs..." (Gail Persky); (3) "Growing up with the Alumni Library: LAN..." (Russell Buchanan); and (4) "Implementing a LAN...at the Health Sciences Library"…

  5. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, David

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of word processors, micro- and minicomputer systems, and other digital office equipment is causing major design changes in existing networks. Local Area Networks (LANs) which have adequately served terminal users in the past must now be redesigned. Implementation at Clemson is described. (MLW)

  6. Living Authors, Living Stories: Integrating Local Authors into Our Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Beatrice Mendez

    2009-01-01

    Keeping literature classrooms vibrant, energized, and current can require supreme pedagogical effort, especially in light of students' sometimes pointed disinterest in traditional and/or canonical texts. Integrating local authors into a standard curriculum can be an effective strategy for invigorating students' interest in literature and helping…

  7. Health underachievement and overachievement in English local authorities

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Tim; Drever, Frances; Whitehead, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify English local authorities that “overachieve” and “underachieve” in health terms, given their level of deprivation, sociodemographic context, and region. Design Cross sectional study using data from the 1991 UK census and mortality data from 2000–2. Setting England. Participants 354 local authorities (total population 49 558 000). Main outcome measures Life expectancy. Residual life expectancy after regression analysis. Results In general, the more materially deprived the population of a local authority was in 1991, the lower its life expectancy a decade later, with men being more sensitive to the effects of deprivation than women. Many local authorities, however, did not follow this general trend, and these shared common characteristics. Mining, Manufacturing and Industry, and Urban Fringe authorities collectively had lower life expectancies than predicted by their level of deprivation, as did authorities located in the north west. Outer London and Education Centres and Inner London authorities had much higher life expectancies than predicted, as did authorities located in the east, south east, and south west. Given their level of deprivation, sociodemographic context, and region, 11 local authorities significantly overachieved for male life expectancy and 10 underachieved, while 12 overachieved for female life expectancy and three underachieved. Conclusions Life expectancy in English local authorities is strongly associated not only with material deprivation, but with the local sociodemographic context and the region where the authority is located. Some authorities defy their contexts, however, and overachieve in health terms, while others, including some in affluent areas, underachieve. PMID:16840758

  8. Local Area Networks (The Printout).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

  9. Local-Area-Network Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Jim; Jordan, Joe; Grant, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) computer program provides method for simulating performance of high-speed local-area-network (LAN) technology. Developed as design and analysis software tool for networking computers on board proposed Space Station. Load, network, link, and physical layers of layered network architecture all modeled. Mathematically models according to different lower-layer protocols: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Star*Bus. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  11. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,

  12. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  13. 47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.503 Paging geographic area authorizations... replacement. (d) Filing windows. The FCC accepts applications for paging geographic area authorizations...

  14. Local Authorities and the School System: The New Authority-Wide Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Coalition government policies have put into question the role of local authorities in a "self-improving school system". In a number of local authorities new authority-wide partnership bodies are being set up involving all local schools, including academies, and controlled by headteachers. This article begins with an analysis of the new…

  15. 40 CFR 142.4 - State and local authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State and local authority. 142.4 Section 142.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... local authority. Nothing in this part shall diminish any authority of a State or political...

  16. 25 CFR 175.4 - Authority of area director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of area director. 175.4 Section 175.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.4 Authority of area director. The Area Director may delegate authority under...

  17. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-03-28

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

  18. Local Area Networks and the Learning Lab of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersole, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers educational applications of local area computer networks and discusses industry standards for design established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). A futuristic view of a learning laboratory using a local area network is presented. (Author/LRW)

  19. Local Authority Approaches to the School Admissions Process. LG Group Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Peter; Gardiner, Clare; Marson-Smith, Helen

    2010-01-01

    What are the challenges, barriers and facilitating factors connected to the various school admissions approaches used by local authorities? This report gathers the views of local authority admissions officers on the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, as well as the issues and challenges they face in this important area. It covers:…

  20. Statutory authorizations for the work of local health departments.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C A; Gilbert, B; Warren, D G; Brooks, E F; DeFriese, G H; Jain, S C; Kavaler, F

    1977-01-01

    A study of public health statutes of the 50 states identifies 44 specific services or functions that are assigned to local health departments by all or some of the states. Authorizations are most commonly assigned conjointly both to local and state health departments; exceptions are identified. Data suggest striking inconsistencies between what local health departments are authorized to perform and the services they actually render with regard to a selected group of programs that involve personal health services. The full scope of authorizations for local health departments is not revealed by examination of public health statutes. For this reason, among others, development of up-to-date health codes for all states would be beneficial. PMID:911005

  1. Applying Psychology in Local Authority Emergency Planning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the work of two EPs involved in a multi-agency project to produce Local Authority (LA) guidelines on psycho/social support following critical incidents and disasters. EPs were involved as participant observers during a simulation of setting up and running a LA reception centre for evacuees. A questionnaire was then

  2. 47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.503 Paging geographic area authorizations...) One grant per geographic area. The FCC may grant one and only one application for a paging geographic....200 through 22.299. If after the selection process but prior to filing a “long form” application,...

  3. 47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.503 Paging geographic area authorizations...) One grant per geographic area. The FCC may grant one and only one application for a paging geographic....200 through 22.299. If after the selection process but prior to filing a “long form” application,...

  4. 47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paging geographic area authorizations. 22.503... and all States, Territories and possessions of the United States of America. (2) Major Economic Areas...: MEAs EAs 1 (Boston) 1-3. 2 (New York City) 4-7, 10. 3 (Buffalo) 8. 4 (Philadelphia) 11-12....

  5. 47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Paging geographic area authorizations. 22.503... of Economic Analysis. See Final Redefinition of the MEA Economic Areas, 60 FR 13114 (March 10, 1995...: MEAs EAs 1 (Boston) 1-3. 2 (New York City) 4-7, 10. 3 (Buffalo) 8. 4 (Philadelphia) 11-12....

  6. [The contributions of local authorities to regional public health policy].

    PubMed

    de Maria, Florence; Grémy, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Local authorities in France are key players in shaping public health policy by their action on the determinants of health and through their actions aimed at specific population groups. Since the public health act of 9 August 2004 establishing the first regional public health plans, their level of involvement and role continues to grow as coordinators, funders and project managers within the greater Paris metropolitan region. Their active participation in regional policy to improve population health and reduce inequalities in health has led to a better organization of the public health programs implemented (in terms of visibility, dialogue, coordination, transparency, and better awareness of context and integration of local issues). Their participation is also a source of innovation resulting in the proposal and use of new approaches (such as the development of health surveillance and observation for advising the local decision-making process). Within the current context of the "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" bill, which entrusts the governance of regional health policy to a specific agency, the role given to local authorities in this new organizational structure must be clearly defined to take into account all of their existing and potential contributions to public health policy. PMID:20218412

  7. Pulse position modulation for local area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John D.

    1989-10-01

    The technique of Pulse-Position-Modulation offers greater receiver sensitivity than PCM, and is ideally suited to optical sources. A broad analysis shows that more taps could be made available on an existing multi-point fibre Local-Area-Network at a data rate of 10 Mb/s, by using PPM instead of PCM as a method of signalling.

  8. Local Area Networks in the School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluhm, Harry P.

    1986-01-01

    Defines local area networks (LANs); describes basic components and configurations of LANs; and discusses LANs benefits (reduced costs, better management of computer resources, enhanced communications) and pitfalls (hidden costs, time delays, network maintenance, lack of standardization, network security breaches, lack of network compatible…

  9. Local Area Network Management: An Unresolved Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…

  10. Local Area Networks--For Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggott, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes a typical configuration for a local area network (LAN), and discusses positive and negative factors to be considered when deciding whether to implement a LAN in a library setting. Situations in which LANS are or are not appropriate are identified, and alternatives to LANs are described. (CLB)

  11. Local Area Networks and Classroom Anarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Explores the use of local area networks (LAN's) in learning laboratories and how they are improving learning outcomes for certain student populations (e.g., deaf and developmental students). Describes how LAN's alter the instructor's role and how instructors can manage student-driven classrooms. Offers guidance on implementing a network system.…

  12. Local Area Networks for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibirige, Harry M.

    This examination of the use of local area networks (LANs) by libraries summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of 600 libraries and information centers and 200 microcomputer networking system manufacturers and vendors, which was conducted to determine the relevance of currently available networking systems for library and information center…

  13. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  14. Introducing local property tax for fiscal decentralization and local authority autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Labropoulos, Tassos; Hadjimitsis, Diafantos G.

    2015-06-01

    Charles Tiebout (1956), in his work "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures", provides a vision of the workings of the local public sector, acknowledging many similarities to the features of a competitive market, however omitting any references to local taxation. Contrary to other researchers' claim that the Tiebout model and the theory of fiscal decentralization are by no means synonymous, this paper aims to expand Tiebout's theory, by adding the local property tax in the context, introducing a fair, ad valorem property taxation system based on the automated assessment of the value of real estate properties within the boundaries of local authorities. Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal methodology integrated with Remote Sensing technology and GIS analysis is applied to local authorities' property registries and cadastral data, building a spatial relational database and providing data to be statistically processed through Multiple Regression Analysis modeling. The proposed scheme accomplishes economy of scale using CAMA procedures on one hand, but also succeeds in making local authorities self-sufficient through a decentralized, fair, locally calibrated property taxation model, providing rational income administration.

  15. The health of children looked after by local authorities.

    PubMed

    Brodie, I; Berridge, D; Beckett, W

    There are some 40,000 children 'in care' in England and Wales, i.e. being 'looked after' by local authorities and living in foster and residential homes. These children come from highly disadvantaged social backgrounds and are likely to experience more serious health problems than the wider population. Despite this, there is evidence to suggest that their health needs are frequently neglected. This is reflected in the dearth of research information. Health professionals play a key role in combating child abuse and are particularly concerned about future mental health, self-injury and high levels of pregnancy in this group of children. Health promotion is therefore vital, but is complicated by the fact that this group of children often do not attend school. The Department of Health has introduced a major initiative which has a strong health dimension to help promote better care planning and monitoring for children who have been separated from their parents. PMID:9155287

  16. A Preliminary Report on San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority, CA.

    The San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority (SDA-ITVA) produces educational television programs that are related to the local instructional needs of 24 school districts and 10 private schools in San Diego County. The Farr-Quimby Act and assessments on the schools pay the costs of the television programs. A number of programs (28)…

  17. Congestion control over ATM local area networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.Y.; Fang, C.; Hutchins, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) has emerged as a standard which offers integration of different classes of service as well as scalability in terms of network size and speed. While the early focus on ATM was mainly on wide-area networks, the driving force behind this new technology is increasingly coming from local-area applications. The need for an ATM LAN to support existing protocols (e.g., TCP/IP) transparently is key to its adoption in the local-area environment. In traditional shared medium LANS, congestion control on the medium is handled by medium access control (MAC) protocol. Once a network device gains access to the shared medium, it has the full bandwidth to itself. Other contending network devices must wait until the shared medium becomes free. In ATM LANS, the MAC protocol is removed, and as a result the congestion control it provides is also removed. Each network device can transmit at the full link bandwidth, and can thus potentially cause congestion at some output ports of an ATM switch. This report presents some simulation results and demonstrates the importance of congestion control in ATM networks. First, we show the effects of cell loss on TCP performance in a congested ATM LAN. When congestion results in switch buffer overflow, cells are dropped. The effect of a small cell loss rate is found to translate into a much larger TCP packet retransmission rate, resulting in poor TCP performance. Secondly, we will describe a credit-based, per virtual circuit, per hop flow control algorithm proposed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). We show that when flow control is employed, cell loss and TCP retransmissions are eliminated, resulting in greatly improved TCP performance.

  18. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. . Environmental Div.)

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  19. Fiber optic configurations for local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassehi, M. M.; Tobagi, F. A.; Marhic, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of fiber optic configurations for a new class of demand assignment multiple-access local area networks requiring a physical ordering among stations are proposed. In such networks, the data transmission and linear-ordering functions may be distinguished and be provided by separate data and control subnetworks. The configurations proposed for the data subnetwork are based on the linear, star, and tree topologies. To provide the linear-ordering function, the control subnetwork must always have a linear unidirectional bus structure. Due to the reciprocity and excess loss of optical couplers, the number of stations that can be accommodated on a linear fiber optic bus is severely limited. Two techniques are proposed to overcome this limitation. For each of the data and control subnetwork configurations, the maximum number of stations as a function of the power margin, for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal couplers, is computed.

  20. Fault-Tolerant Local-Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Sergio; Friedman, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    Local-area network (LAN) for computers prevents single-point failure from interrupting communication between nodes of network. Includes two complete cables, LAN 1 and LAN 2. Microprocessor-based slave switches link cables to network-node devices as work stations, print servers, and file servers. Slave switches respond to commands from master switch, connecting nodes to two cable networks or disconnecting them so they are completely isolated. System monitor and control computer (SMC) acts as gateway, allowing nodes on either cable to communicate with each other and ensuring that LAN 1 and LAN 2 are fully used when functioning properly. Network monitors and controls itself, automatically routes traffic for efficient use of resources, and isolates and corrects its own faults, with potential dramatic reduction in time out of service.

  1. Districts, Local Education Authorities, and the Context of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the author's commentary on the special issue of "Journal of Educational Administration" entitled "Systemwide Reform: Examining Districts under Pressure". Design/methodology/approach: The author gives her personal opinions, draws upon her recent experiences in the national…

  2. Solid waste treatment opportunities in the Palestinian authority areas.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Imad; Al-Khateeb, Nader

    2009-05-01

    Municipal services in the Palestinian Authority (PA) areas, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS), are facing serious difficulties that have been intensified following the outbreak of the Palestinian uprising in late September 2000. The solid waste management services, being the most essential services provided by the municipalities and village councils, are mostly affected by the ongoing harsh situation and hence proper solutions that take into account the actual amount of generated municipal solid waste and its composition is a pre-requisite for planning proper treatment. Hence, a study was carried out to identify the actual status of solid waste in eight West Bank districts. A social survey was also conducted to collect information concerning the level of public awareness among communities surveyed to the perception of solid waste recycling and reuse. The results of the survey conducted in 2001-2002 were later reviewed during July-October 2008 to assess if the trend of domestic solid waste generation had changed. Based on the survey and post-assessment, it is found that political and economic conditions have both significantly impacted the trend of generated municipal solid waste and since no improvements in either condition are forthcoming, it is concluded that survey results could be used in a planning study. A possible handling of the generated wastes may entail transferring the recyclable waste to Israeli recycling industries, and in constructing three composting plants in different accessible locations in the West Bank. PMID:19121576

  3. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric...

  4. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric...

  5. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric...

  6. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health. PMID:26652743

  7. Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking.

    PubMed

    Roland, P E; Friberg, L

    1985-05-01

    These experiments were undertaken to demonstrate that pure mental activity, thinking, increases the cerebral blood flow and that different types of thinking increase the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in different cortical areas. As a first approach, thinking was defined as brain work in the form of operations on internal information, done by an awake subject. The rCBF was measured in 254 cortical regions in 11 subjects with the intracarotid 133Xe injection technique. In normal man, changes in the regional cortical metabolic rate of O2 leads to proportional changes in rCBF. One control study was taken with the subjects at rest. Then the rCBF was measured during three different simple algorithm tasks, each consisting of retrieval of a specific memory followed by a simple operation on the retrieved information. Once started, the information processing went on in the brain without any communication with the outside world. In 50-3 thinking, the subjects started with 50 and then, in their minds only, continuously subtracted 3 from the result. In jingle thinking the subjects internally jumped every second word in a nine-word circular jingle. In route-finding thinking the subjects imagined that they started at their front door and then walked alternatively to the left or the right each time they reached a corner. The rCBF increased only in homotypical cortical areas during thinking. The areas in the superior prefrontal cortex increased their rCBF equivalently during the three types of thinking. In the remaining parts of the prefrontal cortex there were multifocal increases of rCBF. The localizations and intensities of these rCBF increases depended on the type of internal operation occurring. The rCBF increased bilaterally in the angular cortex during 50-3 thinking. The rCBF increased in the right midtemporal cortex exclusively during jingle thinking. The intermediate and remote visual association areas, the superior occipital, posterior inferior temporal, and posterior superior parietal cortex, increased their rCBF exclusively during route-finding thinking. We observed no decreases in rCBF. All rCBF increases extended over a few square centimeters of the cortex. The activation of the superior prefrontal cortex was attributed to the organization of thinking. The activation of the angular cortex in 50-3 thinking was attributed to the retrieval of the numerical memory and memory for subtractions. The activation of the right midtemporal cortex was attributed to the retrieval of the nonverbal auditory memory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3998807

  8. LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two programs, a simulation program and a user-interface program. The simulation program requires the SLAM II simulation library from Pritsker and Associates, W. Lafayette IN; the user interface is implemented using the Ingres database manager from Relational Technology, Inc. Information about running the simulation program without the user-interface program is contained in the documentation. The memory requirement is 129,024 bytes. LANES was developed in 1988.

  9. 40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... familiarize police, fire departments, and emergency response teams with the layout of the facility, properties...; (2) Where more than one police and fire department might respond to an emergency, agreements designating primary emergency authority to a specific police and a specific fire department, and...

  10. 40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Arrangements to familiarize police, fire departments, and emergency response teams with the... possible evacuation routes; (2) Where more than one police and fire department might respond to an emergency, agreements designating primary emergency authority to a specific police and a specific...

  11. Local Authors in the Classroom: Bringing Readers and Writers Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students seem to believe that novels appear whole cloth; the writer just types away, channeling the muse in the attic. Poetry is pure inspiration--one has the gift or one does not. Students need to know that writing is hard work, and that the blank page stares down every good writer, even authors whose books have won critical acclaim and graced…

  12. The rhetoric and realities of integrating air quality into the local transport planning process in English local authorities.

    PubMed

    Olowoporoku, Dotun; Hayes, Enda; Longhurst, James; Parkhurst, Graham

    2012-06-30

    Regardless of its intent and purposes, the first decade of the Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) framework had little or no effect in reducing traffic-related air pollution in the UK. Apart from the impact of increased traffic volumes, the major factor attributed to this failure is that of policy disconnect between the process of diagnosing air pollution and its management, thereby limiting the capability of local authorities to control traffic-related sources of air pollution. Integrating air quality management into the Local Transport Plan (LTP) process therefore presents opportunities for enabling political will, funding and joined-up policy approach to reduce this limitation. However, despite the increased access to resources for air quality measures within the LTP process, there are local institutional, political and funding constraints which reduce the impact of these policy interventions on air quality management. This paper illustrate the policy implementation gaps between central government policy intentions and the local government process by providing evidence of the deprioritisation of air quality management compared to the other shared priorities in the LTP process. We draw conclusions on the policy and practice of integrating air quality management into transport planning. The evidence thereby indicate the need for a policy shift from a solely localised hotspot management approach, in which the LAQM framework operates, to a more holistic management of vehicular emissions within wider spatial administrative areas. PMID:22387327

  13. 5 CFR 531.603 - Locality pay areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Locality pay areas. 531.603 Section 531.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Locality-Based Comparability Payments § 531.603 Locality pay areas. (a) Locality rates...

  14. [Local treatment of angiomas with corticoids (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Poquet Tormos, J; Martínez Verduch, M; Roques, J L; Ruiz Company, S

    1976-11-01

    The angiomas studied at the Clinica Infantil "La Fe" in a four and a half years period are reviewed. The different therapeutic approaches are considered. Thirteen cases selected at random have been treated with local injections of steroids, with a 84% satisfactory results. The technique seems to be simple and without complications. It is recommended in the management of the parotideal, small size, subcutaneous and those angiomas in which the therapy could be followed by sequelae and in those where other therapy has failed. PMID:1015684

  15. Basic Mars Navigation System For Local Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitfils, E.-A.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Monaghan, E.; Crews, Eurogeomars

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: This project has been first set up as a basic solution in navigation during EVA (extra-vehicular activities) in the Mars Society Desert Research Station in the desert of Utah. The main idea is to keep the system as simple as possible so that it can be easily adaptable and portable. The purpose of such a device is to tell the astronauts in EVA where they roughly are and then letting them reaching different points in avoiding any risky way. Thus the precision needed has not to be really high: even if it is about 50m, every astronaut can then look on a map and be able to design a way to another point. This navigation system will improve the safety of the EVA as it is an added reliable orientating tool. Concept: To look at a simple way to localize oneself, one should have a look at what has been done by mankind on Earth. Today, everyone can think of the GPS because it's simple and very reliable. However the infrastructure for such a system is huge and will not be for sure available during the first missions. We can think of course of a basic GPS using the satellites being in orbit but this approach is not yet as simple as we would like. If we want to keep the sky in sight, we can use the stars and the moons of Mars. Yet this would be a good solution and we can even have a star tracker that would give a good position according to the time of the picture. This solution has to be kept in mind but a star tracker is quite big for an astronaut without any rover nearby and using the sky may not be as precise as one should expect. Another useful tool is the compass. It has been used for centuries by sailors but on Mars, without a good magnetic field for this purpose. But sailors also use lighthouses and some placemarks on the land to localize themselves. This is done with a compass, measuring the angle between a placemark and the magnetic North. With two angles, we can then have the position of the boat. The idea here is the same: measuring the angles between different placemarks so that we can compute the position. But which placemarks? We have to think about something that can be installed on Mars and is light enough to be brought there. Balloons are really light, and in order to place them, we need a gas as helium (or hydrogen) and also some rope. Hydrogen is likely to be produced in situ and rope will be useful for astronauts. So we started on a concept with some balloons around the base, with different colors or patterns. The crew in EVA can thus know where the base is every time they are in sight of a balloon and with at least three balloons; they can compute their position according to the base. Procedure of the test: During EVA, the astronauts will measure the angle between the different balloons. The balloons are high in the sky so they can be seen far from their location. This is particularly important on Mars where the horizon is nearer than on Earth. The balloons have different colors so they can be identified and we can even think of adding an autonomous colored light under so they can be observed during the night. With good quality balloons, we can keep them in the sky for a few days without maintenance. Angle measurement is done thanks to a camera. A numeric camera can have a precision of less than 0.01°/pixel, which is enough for our application. The distance between the different balloons can easily be seen in a free picture management software and a Matlab tool is under development for this. An algorithm is then run and it gives the positions that fit with the observations on a map. Simulation gave areas 20m width, which is enough for the astronaut who has a map. The exact precision will be investigated in situ, at the MDRS. For this first test bench, computations will be manually done on a computer in order to validate the concept without huge development. Afterwards, one can imagine an implementation on a PDA brought by the astronauts. This PDA would have its own camera so the process can be fully automatic. Such a system can also implement other navigation system as a Martian GPS or a radio localization system like a VOR in order to enhance the reliability of the system and use all the advantages of each method. Acknowledgements: We thank the ExoGeoLab, EuroGeoMars teams for support during tests, operations and data analysis. References: [1] "ExoGeoLab Lander/Rover instruments and EuroGeoMars MDRS campaign", B.H. Foing, LPSC abstract 2009

  16. Biomass analyses for four areas in the Tennessee Valley Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Analyses for four biomass procurement areas in the Tennessee Valley are presented. The Marlow and Perryville, Tennessee, sites can provide 38,000 dry tons of industrial residue annually. Mulberry Creek, Alabama, and Watts Bar, Tennessee, can annually provide 330,000 dry tons of industrial residue and/or forest biomass. Methanol can be produced at the Perryville and Marlow sites and ethanol at Mulberry Creek and Watts Bar. 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. 30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the organization executing the project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the... State or local authorities; (f) Grant to the Government the right to enter upon streets, roads, and other land owned or controlled by the State or the local authorities overlying or adjacent to...

  18. 30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the organization executing the project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the... State or local authorities; (f) Grant to the Government the right to enter upon streets, roads, and other land owned or controlled by the State or the local authorities overlying or adjacent to...

  19. 30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the organization executing the project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the... State or local authorities; (f) Grant to the Government the right to enter upon streets, roads, and other land owned or controlled by the State or the local authorities overlying or adjacent to...

  20. 30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the organization executing the project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the... State or local authorities; (f) Grant to the Government the right to enter upon streets, roads, and other land owned or controlled by the State or the local authorities overlying or adjacent to...

  1. 30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the organization executing the project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the... State or local authorities; (f) Grant to the Government the right to enter upon streets, roads, and other land owned or controlled by the State or the local authorities overlying or adjacent to...

  2. 40 CFR 51.232 - Assignment of legal authority to local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. 51.232 Section 51.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....232 Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. (a) A State government agency other than...

  3. 40 CFR 51.232 - Assignment of legal authority to local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. 51.232 Section 51.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....232 Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. (a) A State government agency other than...

  4. 40 CFR 51.232 - Assignment of legal authority to local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. 51.232 Section 51.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....232 Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. (a) A State government agency other than...

  5. 40 CFR 51.232 - Assignment of legal authority to local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. 51.232 Section 51.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....232 Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. (a) A State government agency other than...

  6. 40 CFR 51.232 - Assignment of legal authority to local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. 51.232 Section 51.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....232 Assignment of legal authority to local agencies. (a) A State government agency other than...

  7. Looked after Children: Non-Local Authority Placements and Meeting Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Aicha Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Research consistently reports an educational disadvantage of being looked after. There is a lack of literature pertaining specifically to young people who are placed out of their local authority. The following research reports on an investigation of educational psychologists' views on the educational implications of non-local authority residential…

  8. Local Authorities and the Education of Young People with Sickle Cell Disorders in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, S. M.; Abuateya, H.; Atkin, K.; Culley, L. A.; Dyson, S. E.; Rowley, D. T.

    2008-01-01

    The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local

  9. The Long Goodbye: How Local Authorities Lost Control of Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Following the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act, local education authorities (LEAs) lost control of further education in England. Now, after spending almost two decades out in the cold, from 2010, local authorities are set to become re-involved in the further education system. Given this, this paper takes the opportunity to look back on the…

  10. Local Authorities' Experiences of Improving Parental Confidence in the Special Educational Needs Process. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard; Macleod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    How can we help parents to understand the special educational needs (SEN) process? What sort of information and support do they need? This report details the results of research with SEN officers (or their equivalent) in 26 local authorities, covering: (1) the referral process; (2) early identification and intervention; (3) local authority and…

  11. Managed Moves: School and Local Authority Staff Perceptions of Processes, Success and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; Hallam, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The current research aimed to increase understanding of the processes of managed moves for children at risk of exclusion from school, particularly exploring what contributed to success and the nature of the challenges experienced. The study was conducted in one English local authority where 11 school staff and 5 local authority staff were…

  12. 76 FR 32859 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...On behalf of the President's Pay Agent, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the locality pay program for General Schedule employees. The regulations, which became applicable as an interim rule on January 2, 2011, established separate locality pay areas for the States of Alaska and Hawaii and extended coverage of the Rest of U.S. locality pay area to include......

  13. The Health Role of Local Area Coordinators in Scotland: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael; Karatzias, Thanos; O'Leary, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The study set out to explore whether local area coordinators (LACs) and their managers view the health role of LACs as an essential component of their work and identify the health-related activities undertaken by LACs in Scotland. A mixed methods cross-sectional phenomenological study involving local authority service managers (n = 25) and LACs (n…

  14. 43 CFR 6302.13 - Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a wilderness area? 6302.13 Section 6302.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.13 Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area? You...

  15. 43 CFR 6302.13 - Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a wilderness area? 6302.13 Section 6302.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.13 Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area? You...

  16. 43 CFR 6302.13 - Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a wilderness area? 6302.13 Section 6302.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.13 Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area? You...

  17. 43 CFR 6302.13 - Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a wilderness area? 6302.13 Section 6302.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.13 Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area? You...

  18. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobagi, F. A.

    1986-02-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  19. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  20. The Transfer of Local Authority School Support Services to External Social Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores an emerging and largely unresearched sector of the school education market, the transfer of local authority support services to external social enterprises. It locates these new social enterprises as a consequence of government strategies to reduce public spending, shrink local government and create competitive markets in

  1. What's in a Vision? Introducing an Organisational Learning Strategy in a Local Authority's Education Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenny; Boreham, Nick

    2006-01-01

    It is frequently asserted that schools and local authorities should become "learning organisations" as a pre-condition for school improvement, but there is very little evidence about the specific processes and activities involved in such a transformation. This paper analyses the initial stages of the implementation by a Scottish local authority…

  2. The Transfer of Local Authority School Support Services to External Social Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores an emerging and largely unresearched sector of the school education market, the transfer of local authority support services to external social enterprises. It locates these new social enterprises as a consequence of government strategies to reduce public spending, shrink local government and create competitive markets in…

  3. Gateway design specification for fiber optic local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a Design Specification for a gateway to interconnect fiber optic local area networks (LAN's). The internetworking protocols for a gateway device that will interconnect multiple local area networks are defined. This specification serves as input for preparation of detailed design specifications for the hardware and software of a gateway device. General characteristics to be incorporated in the gateway such as node address mapping, packet fragmentation, and gateway routing features are described.

  4. Local Authorities and the Education of Young People with Sickle Cell Disorders in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, S. M.; Abuateya, H.; Atkin, K.; Culley, L. A.; Dyson, S. E.; Rowley, D. T.

    2008-01-01

    The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local…

  5. 33 CFR 126.11 - Waiver authority based on local or unusual conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waiver authority based on local or unusual conditions. 126.11 Section 126.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.11 Waiver authority based on...

  6. 33 CFR 126.11 - Waiver authority based on local or unusual conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waiver authority based on local or unusual conditions. 126.11 Section 126.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.11 Waiver authority based on...

  7. 33 CFR 126.11 - Waiver authority based on local or unusual conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waiver authority based on local or unusual conditions. 126.11 Section 126.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.11 Waiver authority based on...

  8. 33 CFR 126.11 - Waiver authority based on local or unusual conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waiver authority based on local or unusual conditions. 126.11 Section 126.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.11 Waiver authority based on...

  9. Special School Reorganization by a Local Unitary Authority: Some Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashdown, Rob; Darlington, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of special school reorganization in one local authority with a particular emphasis upon the implications for those concerned with the education of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). The authors believe that reporting this experience provides pointers for others…

  10. Automated Bilingual Circulation System Using PC Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskanderani, A. I.; Anwar, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a local automated bilingual circulation system using personal computers in a local area network that was developed at King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia) for Arabic and English materials. Topics addressed include the system structure, hardware, major features, storage requirements, and costs. (nine references) (LRW)

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access...

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... areas authorized in interior space? 102-74.325 Section 102-74.325 Public Contracts and Property... authorized in interior space? No, unless specifically established by an agency head as provided by § 102-74.320(d). A previous exception for designated smoking areas is being eliminated. All designated...

  14. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

  15. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has a peak load greater than 200 megawatts (MW) based on net energy for load for the reporting year... approval has been given by the Office of Management and Budget. ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...

  16. Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  17. Explaining local authority choices on public hospital provision in the 1930s: a public policy hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of 'commissioner' and 'provider' roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  18. Multiagency Protocols in Intellectual Disabilities Transition Partnerships: A Survey of Local Authorities in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaehne, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a study of transition protocols (for adolescents leaving school and entering the general marketplace) in place for intellectual disability partnerships in 22 local authorities in Wales. The study consisted of a survey of existing protocols and a documentary analysis of the content of the obtained protocols. The…

  19. Collaborative Good Practice between Local Authorities and the Further Education Sector. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, Tami; Southcott, Clare; Evans, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In 2010 planning and funding responsibilities for 16-19 year olds will be transferred from the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) back to the local authorities (LAs). LAs will have responsibility for commissioning and funding all education and training for young people up to the age of 19, making them the strategic lead for all children's services…

  20. Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

    This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of

  1. Nuanced Understandings of Privatization in Local Authorities' Services to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon findings from the New Relations between Local Authorities (LAs) and Schools project to identify ideological and value-based differences between the models of service to schools adopted within four case study LAs. While each of the LAs has developed a privatized model of service, there are subtle differences between the

  2. Nuanced Understandings of Privatization in Local Authorities' Services to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon findings from the New Relations between Local Authorities (LAs) and Schools project to identify ideological and value-based differences between the models of service to schools adopted within four case study LAs. While each of the LAs has developed a privatized model of service, there are subtle differences between the…

  3. Further Education outside the Jurisdiction of Local Education Authorities in Post-War England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits the three decades following the end of World War Two--a time when, following the 1944 Education Act, local education authorities (LEAs) were the key agencies responsible for running the education system across England. For the first time, there was a statutory requirement for LEAs to secure adequate facilities for further…

  4. The Local Education Authority's Role in Operating Teacher Capability Procedures: Working towards Best Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchington, Lorrie; Earnshaw, Jill; Torrington, Derek; Ritchie, Eve

    2004-01-01

    This article uses research commissioned by the Department for Education and Skills to investigate the operation of teacher capability procedures in England. The article examines the role of local education authorities (LEAs) in supporting headteachers and governors in dealing with underperformance by giving support outside of capability procedures…

  5. [Local health policies and health planning from the viewpoint of the decision-makers of the local authorities].

    PubMed

    Ziemer, B; Grunow-Lutter, V

    2007-10-01

    In 1997 the new law about Public Health Service (OGDG) in Northrhine-Westfalia was put into operation. It included two new sets of compulsory tasks: local health reporting (GBE) and local health conferences (KGK). These new tasks are installed as planning and steering instruments aiming for a better health-care on the local level. The central object is the knowledge-based formation of local health policies. Thereby, local representatives concerned with health and social services should participate as well as administrators and politicians. Since the middle of the 1990 s both new tasks have been established by the public health department of the county of Heinsberg in Northrhine-Westfalia. The experience of this department over almost ten years is the background for the empirical research project that is described in this paper. The study investigates the vocational practices, the decision-making and the health-related attitudes of the relevant local administrative and political representatives. The impulse for the start of the study was given by the constant reluctance of political and administrative top managers to make use of these new planning instruments in agenda setting and decision making. 44 high-ranking staff members and politicians (mayors, party chairmen, heads of departments far beyond the health office) were personally interviewed. Although they are not part of the health administration they claim to be occupied with quite a few health-related tasks. The overlapping of their set of tasks with the local health policies is evident for the interviewed managers. How-ever, this does not cause them to use the two new planning instruments. In particular, they do not participate in the local health conferences. They rather prefer the traditional path of policy making (parties, committees, fractions) even if these paths are less efficient than the new ones. The health conference is much more used by health-service providers as a platform for setting priorities and organising their implementation effectively. So far, the inclusion of the other local representatives (administrative managers, etc.) although they are concerned with health issues has not been achieved. This is also true for local politicians who are responsible for health-care policies. The authors of the paper see it to be the task of the local public health department to convince all these players that the health conference is a productive tool and a useful platform for the discussion of the health problems in the county and the coordination of necessary actions to be taken. The most important focus point is seen in the intersection of health policies with other local policies. PMID:18040960

  6. Wireless Local Area Networks: The Next Evolutionary Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers recently approved a high-speed wireless standard that enables devices from different manufacturers to communicate through a common backbone, making wireless local area networks more feasible in schools. Schools can now use wireless access points and network cards to provide flexible

  7. 5 CFR 531.603 - Locality pay areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Locality pay areas. 531.603 Section 531.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE... of the United States and its territories and possessions as listed in 5 CFR 591.205 not...

  8. Local Area Networks (LAN) in the Special Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angier, Jennifer J.; Hoehl, Susan B.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a planning model for the automation of operations in a large hospital library and specifically describes the design and implementation of a local area network. Part 1 deals with the evolution of the idea, system planning, and design, and Part 2 addresses installation and implementation issues. (EM)

  9. Local Area Networks for K-12 Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Tim

    A Local Area Network (LAN) allows computing equipment to share information from any device on a network with other devices on the same network. Uses for LANs in schools include sharing printers and programs, centralized file sharing, access to library databases and catalog, cost-effective connection to external networks, electronic mail, school

  10. Local Area Network: What Can a Library Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermody, Melinda Bako

    With the ever growing interest that libraries have in the Internet, the potentials of other computer resources may be overlooked or under-utilized. One such resource is the campus local area network (LAN). For libraries, a campus LAN presents possibilities ranging from simple library promotion to networked databases. The Internet provides…

  11. 77 FR 70381 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 531 RIN 3206-AM51 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: On behalf of the President's Pay Agent, the Office of Personnel Management is issuing proposed...

  12. 78 FR 5115 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Office of Personnel Management (OPM) published proposed regulations (77 FR 70381) on General Schedule... / Thursday, January 24, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 531 RIN 3206-AM51 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management....

  13. HIGH SPEED WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKING FOR FARM APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-speed wireless local area network (WLAN) was designed and implemented on a commercial farm in Macon County, MS, to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing such a network and to provide the basis for continuing development of software and hardware for farm applications. Since the farm was...

  14. Wireless Local Area Networks: The Next Evolutionary Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers recently approved a high-speed wireless standard that enables devices from different manufacturers to communicate through a common backbone, making wireless local area networks more feasible in schools. Schools can now use wireless access points and network cards to provide flexible…

  15. Applications of Local Area Networks of Microcomputers in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levert, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    Important features of local area networks (LAN) are reviewed, and several microcomputer LANs are described (ARCnet, Hinet, ShareNet, Ethernet, Omninet, PLAN 4000). Results of survey of 10 libraries using or planning to use a microcomputer LAN and considerations in choosing a LAN are reported. Forty-one references are cited. (EJS)

  16. Local Area Networks: Effective Tools for Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehl, Susan B.

    1988-01-01

    Examines technological changes in the local area network (LAN) of the Health Sciences Library of Allegheny General Hospital during three years of operation and describes the resulting evolution of staff, services, network requirements, budget, and external relationships of the library. LAN expenditures over four years are shown. (1 reference) (MES)

  17. The Local Area Network (LAN) and Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Rick C.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the use of inexpensive microcomputers in local area information networks (LAN) notes such minicomputer problems as costs, capacity, downtime, and vendor dependence, and the advantages of using LAN in offices and libraries, less costly LAN upgrades, library vendors and LAN systems, and LAN problems. A 28-item bibliography is provided.…

  18. Local Area Network Implementation: Moving toward Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehl, Susan B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a LAN (local area network)-based automation project which has neared completion of the first phase of implementation at the Health Sciences Library of Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA). Changes in the library and its objectives with increased technological experience are examined. Diagrams of the current LAN configuration and…

  19. The Educational Importance of Local Area Networks in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Presents reasons for choosing a connected computer system for student use in secondary schools. The systems approach is discussed; two alternatives are compared, a central computer and a local area network (LAN) of microcomputers; software is described; and two scenarios of LAN use are presented. (four references) (LRW)

  20. Selecting a Local Area Network for an Academic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Mohammed M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the process used to select a local area network (LAN) for the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Library and Information Science. The use of computers at the library school by staff, faculty, and students is described, technical aspects of a LAN are explained, and the future of LANs is discussed. (LRW)

  1. A Geac Local Area Network for the Bobst Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Gail; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Provides detailed description of New York University's (NYU) Bobst Library Local Area Network (LAN), which was designed and implemented by Geac Computers International technical personnel and NYU library systems staff. Definitions of terminology, why the library installed a LAN, planning, network installation, and the LAN configuration and…

  2. Local Area Networks in Education: Overview, Applications, and Current Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Local area networks (LAN) are privately owned communication systems that connect multivendor devices at high speed. As microcomputers become more common in schools, user interest in sharing information, software, and peripherals will increase. A basic understanding of the operation of all LAN's can be gained by knowing four elements: media,…

  3. 48 CFR 26.202 - Local area preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local area preference. 26... preference. When awarding emergency response contracts during the term of a major disaster or emergency... Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C.5121, et seq.), preference shall be given, to the...

  4. STATE AND LOCAL AREA INTEGRATED TELEPHONE SURVEY (SLAITS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) is a telephone interview mechanism that employs the sampling frame of the National Immunization Survey. The purpose of SLAITS is to provide high quality health and welfare-related data on individuals and families at th...

  5. The occipital place area represents the local elements of scenes.

    PubMed

    Kamps, Frederik S; Julian, Joshua B; Kubilius, Jonas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Dilks, Daniel D

    2016-05-15

    Neuroimaging studies have identified three scene-selective regions in human cortex: parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA). However, precisely what scene information each region represents is not clear, especially for the least studied, more posterior OPA. Here we hypothesized that OPA represents local elements of scenes within two independent, yet complementary scene descriptors: spatial boundary (i.e., the layout of external surfaces) and scene content (e.g., internal objects). If OPA processes the local elements of spatial boundary information, then it should respond to these local elements (e.g., walls) themselves, regardless of their spatial arrangement. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded similarly to images of intact rooms and these same rooms in which the surfaces were fractured and rearranged, disrupting the spatial boundary. Next, if OPA represents the local elements of scene content information, then it should respond more when more such local elements (e.g., furniture) are present. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded more to multiple than single pieces of furniture. Taken together, these findings reveal that OPA analyzes local scene elements - both in spatial boundary and scene content representation - while PPA and RSC represent global scene properties. PMID:26931815

  6. Synchronizing computer clocks using a local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Judah

    1990-01-01

    Researchers completed the first tests of a method to synchronize the clocks of networked computers to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) time scale. The method uses a server computer to disseminate the time to other clients on the same local-area network. The server is synchronized to NIST using the ACTS protocol over a dial-up telephone line. The software in both the server and the parameters of this model are used to adjust the time of the local clock and the interval between calibration requests in a statistically optimum way. The algorithm maximizes the time between calibrations while at the same time keeping the time of the local clock correct within a specific tolerance. The method can be extended to synchronize computers linked over wide-area networks, and an experiment to test the performance of the algorithms over such networks is being planned.

  7. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling Submission Patterns, Topic Areas, and Authors: 1999-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Bordeau, Wendy Charkow; Evanoff, James C.

    2005-01-01

    In October 2001, an article was published in the "Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling" ("JAOC") to examine the journal's submission patterns, topic areas, and authors from 1979 through 1998. The current authors reviewed articles published in "JAOC" between 1999 and 2004 to provide an updated analysis of the types of information published…

  8. High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1988-01-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

  9. A partial solution: a local mental health authority for the UK.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Trevor R.; Goldman, Howard H.

    1998-07-01

    BACKGROUND: the structural problems of the mental health system in the UK have been analyzed by a number of authors over the past several years as the "reforms" of the health and social service systems have continued (Kavanagh and Knapp, 1995; Mechanic, 1995). In a recent article, Hadley and Goldman (1995) suggest that one possible solution to some of these issues may be the creation of a local mental health authority. Such an authority would consolidate the funding, authority and responsibility in a single entity. We believe this model, which is typical of many local public mental health systems in the US, is at least part of the solution to the current problem of financial and service fragmentation of the current system in the UK. The numerous "reforms" of the health and social service systems (which include the Community Care Act, the development of the Internal Market, GP fundholding and the purchaser-provider split) were not designed for the care of the mentally ill (Han, 1996). These policy changes in the design of health and social services have created a complicated and difficult context in which services must be delivered. Too many agencies play a significant role in the delivery and management of mental health services. Health authorities, social service agencies and GP fundholders are direct and indirect funders of the system while community care trusts, social service agencies and GPs are service providers (Hadley, 1996a). RESULTS AND A PROPOSAL: We believe that the development of local mental health authorities may be part of the solution to the structural and economic problems of the current system in the UK. It is not the answer to limited resources or limited skills, but can create a new structure, which will permit and encourage the cooperation and innovation that is now possible only with unusual effort. Local mental health authorities have a number of crucial characteristics, but, most importantly, they refocus the system on the provision of care to the seriously mentally ill. This is the expressed priority of government, advocates and providers, alike.These new entities could be created at either the purchaser or provider level or, as exists in a number of jurisdictions in the US, at both levels, where a single purchaser may be responsible for multiple consolidated providers. This combination is now the emerging model for innovative services in the US. In the UK, the development of a local mental health authority at the purchaser and/or provider level might be relatively simple. Although the creation of a statutory authority would require primary legislation and is therefore probably not a short-term solution, there appears to be a variety of administrative options that would have the same effect. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICY FORMULATION: The creation of a local mental health authority may be a necessary first step towards the development of a coordinated and comprehensive system of care. It seems likely that there is currently more "political" support for the development of a purchaser model but the development of a sophisticated purchsaer is also likely to take considerable time and effort. Although all the structural and policy problems of the mental health system in the UK will not all be solved by local mental health authorities, they may be beneficial if responsibility for mental illness care is to be centralized and fragmentation is to be reduced. Without making structural changes, the best efforts by clinicians, policymakers and managers are most likely to be in vain. Without a clear point of ultimate purchasing and service responsibility, the fragmentation and inefficiency of the current system will remain (Hadley et al., 1996). PMID:11964493

  10. Local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Many cities around the world are located in mountainous areas. Understanding local circulations in mountainous urban areas is important for improving local weather and air quality prediction as well as understanding thermally forced mesoscale flow dynamics. In this study, we examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model. Ulaanbaatar lies in an east-west-oriented valley between the northern base of Mt. Bogd Khan and the southern base of branches of the Khentiin Nuruu mountain range. Idealized summertime fair-weather conditions with no synoptic winds are considered. In the daytime, mountain upslope winds, up-valley winds, and urban breeze circulation form and interact with each other. Mountain upslope winds precede up-valley winds. It is found that the transition of upslope winds to downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan occurs and the downslope winds in the afternoon strengthen due to urban breezes. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds are prominent and strong channeling flows form over the city. The sensitivities of local circulations to urban fraction, atmospheric stability, and soil water content are examined. As urban fraction increases, daytime up-valley winds over the city and daytime downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan strengthen. Daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city strengthen with increasing atmospheric stability. As soil water content decreases, daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city weaken. The daytime urban atmospheric boundary-layer height is found to be sensitive to atmospheric stability and soil water content. This study is a first attempt to examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar metropolitan area and demonstrates that the city alters mountain slope winds and up-/down-valley winds.

  11. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    PubMed

    Davis, Charles

    2014-01-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities. PMID:24588100

  12. Implementation of a local area network for nursing management.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, R. H.; Reiley, P.; McKinney, J.; Toomey, B.; Powers, E.; McCausland, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the planning and implementation of a Local Area Network (LAN) for the nursing service of a 504-bed urban teaching hospital. The major goals of the network were: support for nurse executives, nurse managers, and the departmental assistants assigned to administrative offices; increased efficiency and effectiveness of the nursing administrative areas; and improved communication systems. Collaboration between the nursing service and the Computer Information Center (CIC) resulted in a network of over 70 workstations, spanning 11 buildings. The network provides access to multiple programs that support clinical, managerial, and research activities. Gateways provide access to the hospital's two mainframes. PMID:1807569

  13. Program For Local-Area-Network Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    MailRoom is computer program for local-area network (LAN) electronic mail. Enables users of LAN to exchange electronically notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computers. Links all users of LAN into communication circle in which messages created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through series of menu-driven screens. Includes feature that enables users to determine whether messages sent have been read by receivers. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  14. Multiple Nuclear Localization Signals Mediate Nuclear Localization of the GATA Transcription Factor AreA

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Cameron C.; Siebert, Kendra S.; Downes, Damien J.; Wong, Koon Ho; Kreutzberger, Sara D.; Fraser, James A.; Clarke, David F.; Hynes, Michael J.; Davis, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans GATA transcription factor AreA activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. Sequence analysis of AreA revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs), five putative classical NLSs conserved in fungal AreA orthologs but not in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs Gln3p and Gat1p, and one putative noncanonical RRX33RXR bipartite NLS within the DNA-binding domain. In order to identify the functional NLSs in AreA, we constructed areA mutants with mutations in individual putative NLSs or combinations of putative NLSs and strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AreA NLS fusion genes. Deletion of all five classical NLSs individually or collectively did not affect utilization of nitrogen sources or AreA-dependent gene expression and did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of the bipartite NLS conferred the inability to utilize alternative nitrogen sources and abolished AreA-dependent gene expression likely due to effects on DNA binding but did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of all six NLSs simultaneously prevented AreA nuclear accumulation. The bipartite NLS alone strongly directed GFP to the nucleus, whereas the classical NLSs collaborated to direct GFP to the nucleus. Therefore, AreA contains multiple conserved NLSs, which show redundancy and together function to mediate nuclear import. The noncanonical bipartite NLS is conserved in GATA factors from Aspergillus, yeast, and mammals, indicating an ancient origin. PMID:24562911

  15. 32 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Authorized Activities for Maneuver Training Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Maneuver Training Area Access C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis,...

  16. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas. 301.45-2 Section 301.45-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas. 301.45-2 Section 301.45-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas. 301.45-2 Section 301.45-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas. 301.45-2 Section 301.45-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas. 301.45-2 Section 301.45-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  4. 47 CFR 22.201 - Paging geographic area authorizations are subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paging geographic area authorizations are subject to competitive bidding. 22.201 Section 22.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures...

  5. 5 CFR 334.103 - Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of State and local governments and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INTERGOVERNMENTAL PERSONNEL ACT (IPA) § 334.103 Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of... the IPA mobility program as an instrumentality or authority of a State or local government or as...

  6. 5 CFR 334.103 - Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of State and local governments and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INTERGOVERNMENTAL PERSONNEL ACT (IPA) § 334.103 Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of... the IPA mobility program as an instrumentality or authority of a State or local government or as...

  7. The Unique Authority of State and Local Health Departments to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The United States has 51 state health departments and thousands of local health agencies. Their size, structure, and authority differ, but they all possess unique abilities to address obesity. Because they are responsible for public health, they can take various steps themselves and can coordinate efforts with other agencies to further health in all policy domains. I describe the value of health agencies' rule-making authority and clarify this process through 2 case studies involving menu-labeling regulations. I detail rule-making procedures and examine the legal and practical limitations on agency activity. Health departments have many options to effect change in the incidence of obesity but need the support of other government entities and officials. PMID:21566027

  8. Management of the Space Station Freedom onboard local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Frank W.; Mitchell, Randy C.

    1991-01-01

    An operational approach is proposed to managing the Data Management System Local Area Network (LAN) on Space Station Freedom. An overview of the onboard LAN elements is presented first, followed by a proposal of the operational guidelines by which management of the onboard network may be effected. To implement the guidelines, a recommendation is then presented on a set of network management parameters which should be made available in the onboard Network Operating System Computer Software Configuration Item and Fiber Distributed Data Interface firmware. Finally, some implications for the implementation of the various network management elements are discussed.

  9. A local area computer network expert system framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Over the past years an expert system called LANES designed to detect and isolate faults in the Goddard-wide Hybrid Local Area Computer Network (LACN) was developed. As a result, the need for developing a more generic LACN fault isolation expert system has become apparent. An object oriented approach was explored to create a set of generic classes, objects, rules, and methods that would be necessary to meet this need. The object classes provide a convenient mechanism for separating high level information from low level network specific information. This approach yeilds a framework which can be applied to different network configurations and be easily expanded to meet new needs.

  10. Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.; Pickle, S.J.

    1995-06-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has prepared this report to facilitate compliance with the requirements of Section 123 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 123 requires the Department of Energy to issue recommendations for establishing state and local incentive programs to encourage acceleration of voluntary consumer replacement of existing water closets, urinals, showerheads and faucets with water-saving products meeting EPACT standards. The authors recommend that state and local authorities working together and also with utilities: (A) investigate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary replacement of plumbing fixtures and fittings as an effective component of a water efficiency incentive program; (B) allow utilities to distribute the costs of water saving products by billing at pre-installation rates until devices have been paid for; (C) encourage decreased water usage by establishing rate structures such as increasing block rates or seasonal pricing; (D) add additional incentive to rebate programs by making the rebates untaxable income. (E) require municipalities or utilities to exhaust every reasonable method of water conservation before applying for permits to construct water supply or water treatment systems; (F) require high-efficiency toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in new construction and changing plumbing codes to incorporate different pipe sizing needs; and (G) and mandate installation of meters to correctly measure water consumption. Following the introduction, a general overview of these recommendations is presented. Each recommendation is discussed briefly. After determining the cost-effectiveness of a plumbing replacement program (or plumbing replacement aspect of a larger program) states can encourage replacement of toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in a number of ways. This report lists both legislative and economic measures that can be implemented on the state level that impact local programs.

  11. Resilience: a Study of Risk and Protective Factors from the Perspective of Young People with Experience of Local Authority Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    As part of a review of services in one local authority, young people aged 13-19 with experience of local authority care were asked to provide their views of what makes a difference to them. As Jackie Dearden makes clear in this article, young people consistently reported on themes collated from previous research into resilience and identified…

  12. Educational Psychology in Scotland: Making a Difference. An Aspect Report on the Findings of Inspections of Local Authority Educational Psychology Services 2006-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides, for the first time, an overview based on inspections of all 32 local authority educational psychology services. The picture it presents is broadly a very positive one although it also points to areas in which there is certainly scope for further improvement. The report shows that services are making a positive difference to…

  13. Local markets and systems: hospital consolidations in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed Central

    Luke, R D; Ozcan, Y A; Olden, P C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examines the formation of local hospital systems (LHSs) in urban markets by the end of 1992. We argue that a primary reason why hospitals join LHSs is to achieve improved positions of market power relative to threatening rivals. DATA SOURCES/DATA COLLECTION. The study draws from a unique database of LHSs located in and around metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Data were obtained from the 1991 AHA Annual Hospital Survey, updated to the year 1992 using information obtained from multiple sources (telephone contacts of systems, systems lists of hospitals, published changes in ownership, etc.). Other measures were obtained from a variety of sources, principally the 1989 Area Resources File. STUDY DESIGN. The study presents cross-sectional analyses of rival threats and other factors bearing on LHS formation. Three characteristics of LHS formation are examined: LHS penetration of urban areas, LHS size, and number of LHS members located just outside the urban boundaries. LHS penetration is analyzed across urban markets, and LHS size and rural partners are examined across the LHSs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Major hypothesized findings are: (1) with the exception of the number of rural partners, all dependent variables are positively associated with the number of hospitals in the markets; the rural partner measure is negatively associated with the number of hospitals; (2) the number of doctors per capita is positively associated with all but the rural penetration measure; and (3) the percentage of the population in HMOs is positively associated with local cluster penetration and negatively associated with rural system partners. Other findings: (1) average income in the markets is negatively associated with all but the rural penetration measure; (2) LHS size and rural partners are both positively associated with nonprofit system ownership; and (3) they are also both negatively associated with the degree to which their multihospital systems are geographically concentrated in a single state. CONCLUSIONS. The findings generally support the argument that LHS formation is the product of hospital providers attempting to improve positions of power in their local markets. PMID:7591781

  14. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  15. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  16. Large area photonic crystal cavities: a local density approach.

    PubMed

    Dobbelaar, M C F; Greveling, S; van Oosten, D

    2015-03-23

    Large area photonic crystal cavities are devices of interest for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, and solid-state lighting. However, depending on their dimensions they pose a large computational challenge. Here, we use a local density approach to avoid direct simulation of the device. We capture the effect of both ideal and distorted photonic crystals in an effective mass and an effective potential. We use these to map the problem of calculating the electromagnetic field modes to solving a simple time-independent Schrdinger equation. We show that, in the case that the hole radius varies quadratically as a function of position, the eigenmodes of the photonic crystals can be described by the corresponding eigenmodes of the quantum harmonic oscillator with typical agreements well above 90%. PMID:25837088

  17. Local area networking in a radio quiet environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.

    2002-11-01

    The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

  18. Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongquan; Soong, Seng-jaw; Grimes, Gary J; Orthner, Helmuth F

    2004-01-01

    Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER). The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management. PMID:15339336

  19. What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

    2014-09-01

    Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services. PMID:25024121

  20. Areas of localized organochlorine contamination in Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Cain, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Wings from mallard ducks harvested in 1980 in Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico were pooled into county aggregates and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCB's. Organochlorine concentrations in duck wings were compared among counties comprising major river drainages within each state. DDE concentrations in the wings of mallards collected from the Verde River and the lower portion of the Gila River drainages in Arizona ranged up to 6 ppm (wet weight basis), which was 17 times higher than the 1979 Pacific Flyway average. DDE at these high levels may be hazardous to wildlife. In combination with other published data, our findings indicate a serious DDT problem in portions of the Verde River and Gila River drainages. High levels of heptachlor (up to 1.7 ppm) and PCB's (3.7 ppm, 61 times the 1979 Central Flyway average) were found in mallard wings from the upper Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages, respectively. We did not detect areas of heavy local organochlorine pesticide or PCB contamination in Arkansas and Louisiana.

  1. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects.

    PubMed

    Strano, Emanuele; Shai, Saray; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of coupling different modes and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralizing force creating congestion in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London—but not for New York—there is an optimal subway speed in terms of global congestion. These results show that it is crucial to consider the full, multimodal, multilayer network aspects of transportation systems in order to understand the behaviour of cities and to avoid possible negative side-effects of urban planning decisions. PMID:26400198

  2. MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

  3. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  4. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  5. Testbed for a scalable terabit optical local area network.

    PubMed

    Au, A; Supmonchai, B; Szymanski, T H

    2000-08-10

    The design of a fiber-optic local area network (LAN) demonstration system is described. A complete LAN system would consist of an array of 16 personal computers (PC's), where each PC has a network interface card (NIC) with a parallel fiber-optic datalink to a centralized optoelectronic switch core. The centralized core switches the data generated by 16 NIC's, up to 128 Gbit/s of bandwidth. The demonstrator is designed to scale to terabits of bandwidth by use of an emerging optoelectronic technology, i.e., integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) substrates with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and photodetector optical input and output. A subset of the complete system was constructed and is operational. A prototype NIC card, with Motorola Optobus VCSEL transceivers for the optical datalinks, was constructed and is described. A prototype high-speed bipolar switch core, with statically configurable electrical positive-emitter coupled-logic 16 x 16 crossbar switches, CMOS field-programmable gate arrays, and Motorola Optobus transceivers, was constructed and is described. We successfully demonstrated the transmission of high-speed packetized data from one NIC card, through 10 m of parallel fiber ribbon and the centralized switch core, and back to the NIC. We summarize our experiences on the design and testing of our first demonstration system and our development toward a terabit switch core. PMID:18349995

  6. Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

  7. Local Area Co-Ordination: Strengthening Support for People with Learning Disabilities in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, Kirsten Ogilvie; Malloch, Margaret; Barry, Monica Anne; Watson, June Ann

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study commissioned by the Scottish Executive which examined the introduction and implementation of local area co-ordination (LAC) in Scotland. A questionnaire about their posts was completed by 44 local area co-ordinators, interviews were conducted with 35 local area co-ordinators and 14 managers and case…

  8. 20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... areas? 666.300 Section 666.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Performance § 666.300 What performance indicators apply to local areas? (a) Each local workforce investment... to local areas in the State. (WIA sec. 136(c)(1).)...

  9. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in the agreement as the point of contact in the event of release on bail or on recognizance (see... requested member is located in that state. 884.7 Section 884.7 National Defense Department of Defense... AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.7 Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located...

  10. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in the agreement as the point of contact in the event of release on bail or on recognizance (see... requested member is located in that state. 884.7 Section 884.7 National Defense Department of Defense... AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.7 Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located...

  11. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the agreement as the point of contact in the event of release on bail or on recognizance (see... requested member is located in that state. 884.7 Section 884.7 National Defense Department of Defense... AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.7 Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located...

  12. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in the agreement as the point of contact in the event of release on bail or on recognizance (see... requested member is located in that state. 884.7 Section 884.7 National Defense Department of Defense... AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.7 Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located...

  13. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and...

  14. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and...

  15. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and...

  16. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and...

  17. 40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and...

  18. Authorizing Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutelbaum, Wendy

    In contrast to a teacher-dominated literature classroom where authority rests with the one who has the power to grade, a classroom dedicated to cultivating the creative process breaks down the traditional hierarchies (such as theory and practice, text and reader, and organization and improvisation) and concentrates on the needs of the individual

  19. Accountability and Local Control: Response to Incentives with and without Authority over Resource Generation and Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Strunk, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the interaction between school accountability and local control over revenue raising and resource allocation. In particular, it asks whether accountability policies are more or less effective at improving student outcomes in states with stronger local control. Local control is operationalized with multiple measures, including…

  20. A method to evaluate the generation area of local wave climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando; Menendez, Melisa

    2013-04-01

    The description of wave conditions at a local scale is of paramount importance for off-shore and coastal engineering applications (maritime works, ship design and route definition, offshore structures design, harbours operability). However, wave characteristics at a specific location cannot be fully understood studying only information of such location. They are the integrated result of the dynamics of the ocean surface over an area of influence. The goal of this work is to provide a methodology to easily characterize the area of influence of any particular ocean location in the world. The method is based on a global scale analysis using both geographic and oceanographic criteria. The geographic criterion relies on the realistic assumption that deep water waves travel along great circle paths, taking into account the spherical shape of the Earth. This allows limiting the study area by neglecting energy that cannot reach a target point, as its path is blocked by land. The oceanographic criterion is applied to global wave reanalysis data (Reguero et al., 2012), considering different spectral parameters such as mean direction, directional spread, wave energy period and energy flux, and taking into account in its specific location, the fraction of energy of the directional sector that travels towards the target point. A better understanding of the spatial generation and propagation area and an estimation of the time span the waves take to arrive to the target point is obtained. We have applied the methodology worldwide to obtain detailed maps of the relative importance of different oceanic areas to the climate of any location. Results show important spatial patterns that cannot be inferred from local parameters and validation with different climate analysis of other authors (Izaguirre et al., 2012; Alves et al., 2006) confirm the robustness of the method. This methodology facilitates enormously the study of wave generation area that induces local wave climate.

  1. [Health care for undocumented migrants--a quantitative study on the role of local health authorities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Mylius, M; Frewer, A

    2014-07-01

    Public welfare on a municipal level for groups with special health risks has been an important topic of public health service for more than a century. This notion has been taken up by the German "Protection against Infection Act" (IfSG) in § 19 IfSG. Local health service authorities may provide out-patient treatment in addition to counselling and diagnosis for patients with sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis, which is covered by public resources in cases of apparent need. Due to altered legislation and increased global mobility, this may become important for migrants without access to regular health care.Aims of this study were recording, counselling, diagnosis and out-patient treatment of migrants without legal residence status under the German Protection against Infection Act in the public health care system.An electronic mail survey of all local health authorities (n=384) by means of a standardised questionnaire was undertaken. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. In the annex of the questionnaire the participants were asked to describe a case study.139 of 384 local health authorities completed the questionnaire (36.2%) of whom approximately a quarter (24.6%) described contacts to "illegal" migrants. Contacts to migrants without legal residence status are more frequent in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants than in ismaller cities (p<0.05). 22.6% of all local health authorities make an effort to reach undocumented migrants for counseling and diagnosis. 25 of the local health authorities (18.4%) indicated the capability to provide treatment in accordance with § 19 IfSG. A majority of these local health authorities also have contacts to undocumented migrants (75%). 16 local health authorities (13.3%) provide out-patient treatment for diseases not listed in Protection against Infection Act. 56 authorities (46.7%) refer patients to aid organisations or to resident doctors.Only a small number of local health authorities have contacts to migrants without health insurance. The option-al out-patient treatment is provided by few local health authorities especially in cases of sexual transmitted diseases except for HIV/AIDS. In most cases undocumented migrants are only one group among others. The large number of cases in cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants shows the massive requirements. PMID:24671893

  2. Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2012-03-01

    Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ρ = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of the expert pathologist is not affected by our CAD system which is what we want to prove. However, the usage of our CAD system substantially account for the reduced inter- and intra- proliferation rate estimation variability and especially for less-experienced pathologists.

  3. How local authority services may be affected during the 2012 Olympics and how they can be maintained.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    On 6th July, 2005, the International Olympic Committee awarded London the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This is the first time an event of this magnitude has been hosted in a western country since the September 11th attacks. The UK Government continues to assess the risk, and five years on, planning is well under way. With a limited amount of time remaining, those UK local authorities hosting Olympic events will be considering what they need to have in place to support command and control arrangements during the Games. This paper provides an overview of what local authorities need to be doing over the next two years to prepare. PMID:21482515

  4. [The influence of local anesthetics on corneal epithelium. A scanning electron microscopic study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Brewitt, H; Honegger, H

    1978-09-01

    The effect of different local anesthetics (Cocain 4%, Lidocaine 2%, Proparacain) on the corneal epithelium in rabbits was examined under scanning electron microscope. The experiment was divided into three groups. Group 1 received one application of two drops of the given local anesthetic for a reaction time of 5 minutes. Group 2 received two drops of the given anesthetic after 0, 5 and 10 minutes. The cornea was excised after 15 minutes. Group 3 were measured after a single application of Proparacain using a Schiötz or hand applanation tonometer according to Draeger. After a single dose of a local anesthetic principally the same changes in the surface of the cornea were observed with all the preparations used: a distinct decrease in the number of microvilli and microplicae, disruption of the intercellular spaces and the prominence of the cell nuclei which under normal conditions are not visible. After several applications the greater toxicity of Cocain compared with the other preparations was clearly seen through the disruption of the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. The damage effected several layers of cells. Tonometry when correctly performed causes no additional damage to the cell surface.- The effect of local anesthetics on the cell membrane can only take place after the disruption of the tear film. The results emphasize that local anesthetics should only be applied when absolutely essential. PMID:750708

  5. Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers in localized culling areas.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Cox, D R; Gilks, Peter; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; Le Fevre, Andrea M; Bourne, F John; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Gettinby, George; Hewinson, R Glyn; McInerney, John P; Mitchell, A P; Morrison, W Ivan; Watkins, Gavin H

    2009-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease that can have serious consequences for cattle farming and, potentially, for public health. In Britain, failure to control bovine TB has been linked to persistent infection of European badger (Meles meles) populations. However, culling of badgers in the vicinity of recent TB outbreaks in cattle has failed to reduce the overall incidence of cattle TB. Using data from a large-scale study conducted in 1998-2005, we show that badgers collected on such localized culls had elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine TB, suggesting that infections in cattle and badgers were indeed associated. Moreover, there was a high degree of similarity in the M. bovis strain types isolated from cattle and associated badgers. This similarity between strain types appeared to be unaffected by time lags between the detection of infection in cattle and culling of badgers, or by the presence of purchased cattle that might have acquired infection elsewhere. However, localized culling appeared to prompt an increase in the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers, probably by disrupting ranging and territorial behavior and hence increasing intraspecific transmission rates. This elevated prevalence among badgers could offset the benefits, for cattle, of reduced badger densities and may help to explain the failure of localized culling to reduce cattle TB incidence. PMID:19204342

  6. Local Education Authorities' Approaches to Provision for Children with Specific Speech and Language Difficulties in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E.; Mackie, Clare; Letchford, Becky

    2005-01-01

    Children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLD) pose a challenge to the education system as a result of their language needs and associated educational and social-behavioural difficulties. Local education authorities (LEAs) in England and Wales have developed language units to meet their needs but previous research has indicated

  7. 40 CFR 60.5050 - What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies? 60.5050 Section 60.5050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  8. Developing Policy and Practice for Dyslexia across a Local Authority: A Case Study of Educational Psychology Practice at Organisational Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Stothard, Jan; Lydon, Jackie; Reason, Rea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper two premises are set out: first, that within Children's Services educational psychologists (EPs) have a distinctive contribution to make towards policy and practice in relation to "dyslexia"; second, that they may be well placed to lead development work at an organisational level within a local authority. Building on

  9. 5 CFR 334.103 - Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of State and local governments and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of State and local governments and âother organizations.â 334.103 Section 334.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY ASSIGNMENTS UNDER THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PERSONNEL ACT...

  10. Scoring Opportunity or Hospital Pass? The Changing Role of Local Authorities in 14-19 Education and Training in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the UK Labour government unveiled plans to abolish the Learning and Skills Council and transfer funding for the education and training of 16-19-year-olds in England to local authorities (LAs). The transfer of 16-19 funding complements the responsibilities that LAs have already acquired in relation to the raising of the education and…

  11. 40 CFR 60.2542 - What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies? 60.2542 Section 60.2542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2542 - What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies? 60.2542 Section 60.2542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2542 - What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies? 60.2542 Section 60.2542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  14. 40 CFR 60.5050 - What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies? 60.5050 Section 60.5050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  15. 40 CFR 60.5050 - What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies? 60.5050 Section 60.5050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  16. 40 CFR 60.5050 - What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies? 60.5050 Section 60.5050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2542 - What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What authorities will not be delegated to state, local, or tribal agencies? 60.2542 Section 60.2542 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  18. 24 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Recognition Agreement Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recognition Agreement Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association II Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 904 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  19. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN... that state. (a) The Air Force normally will turn over to the civilian authorities of the state, upon their request. Air Force members charged with an offense against state or local law. Each request...

  20. Local Education Authorities' Approaches to Provision for Children with Specific Speech and Language Difficulties in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E.; Mackie, Clare; Letchford, Becky

    2005-01-01

    Children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLD) pose a challenge to the education system as a result of their language needs and associated educational and social-behavioural difficulties. Local education authorities (LEAs) in England and Wales have developed language units to meet their needs but previous research has indicated…

  1. Use of the Support Group Method to Tackle Bullying, and Evaluation from Schools and Local Authorities in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter K.; Howard, Sharon; Thompson, Fran

    2007-01-01

    The Support Group Method (SGM), formerly the No Blame Approach, is widely used as an anti-bullying intervention in schools, but has aroused some controversy. There is little evidence from users regarding its effectiveness. We aimed to ascertain the use of and support for the SGM in Local Authorities (LAs) and schools; and obtain ratings of…

  2. Developing Policy and Practice for Dyslexia across a Local Authority: A Case Study of Educational Psychology Practice at Organisational Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Stothard, Jan; Lydon, Jackie; Reason, Rea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper two premises are set out: first, that within Children's Services educational psychologists (EPs) have a distinctive contribution to make towards policy and practice in relation to "dyslexia"; second, that they may be well placed to lead development work at an organisational level within a local authority. Building on…

  3. 75 FR 33587 - Local Redevelopment Authority and Available Surplus Buildings and Land at Air Force Research Labs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Force Research Labs (AFRL) Mesa, Located in Maricopa County, AZ SUMMARY: This notice provides information regarding the surplus property at AFRL Mesa in Maricopa County, Arizona and information about ] the local redevelopment authority that has been established to plan the reuse of the AFRL...

  4. A Better Answer for Education: Reviving State and Local Policymaking Authority. Heritage Lectures. No. 994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornyn, John; DeMint, Jim

    2007-01-01

    On the fifth anniversary of No Child Left Behind, Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Jim DeMint (R-SC) outline their alternative for restoring state and local ownership of education policymaking while ensuring transparency about results and accountability to parents and taxpayers. The A-PLUS Act of 2007 (Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success) will…

  5. Autonomy and Governance in Local Authority Provision for Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth; Donkin, Arnet; Waite, Sue; Lawson, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    The role of local government in addressing issues of social equity is undergoing significant reconstruction in current educational policy reforms in England. The current conceptualisation of social provision places individual rights at the centre of policy, and social responsibility is represented as the work of individuals. Drawing upon a…

  6. Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Primary School Children in an Inner-City Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…

  7. Autonomy and Governance in Local Authority Provision for Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth; Donkin, Arnet; Waite, Sue; Lawson, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    The role of local government in addressing issues of social equity is undergoing significant reconstruction in current educational policy reforms in England. The current conceptualisation of social provision places individual rights at the centre of policy, and social responsibility is represented as the work of individuals. Drawing upon a

  8. New Relationship with Schools: Evaluation of Trial Local Authorities and Schools. RR689

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Karen; Judkins, Michelle; Atkinson, Mary; Rudd, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This summary outlines the key findings from a national evaluation of the first-year trials of the New Relationship with Schools (NRwS) carried out by a team at the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER). The trials took place in the period September 2004 to July 2005 and involved 93 schools in eight local educational authorities…

  9. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA...) If the objective of the project is to rehabilitate or reclaim strip-mined areas, the land shall...

  10. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA...) If the objective of the project is to rehabilitate or reclaim strip-mined areas, the land shall...

  11. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA...) If the objective of the project is to rehabilitate or reclaim strip-mined areas, the land shall...

  12. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA...) If the objective of the project is to rehabilitate or reclaim strip-mined areas, the land shall...

  13. 30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA...) If the objective of the project is to rehabilitate or reclaim strip-mined areas, the land shall...

  14. Management and development of local area network upgrade prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouser, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Given the situation of having management and development users accessing a central computing facility and given the fact that these same users have the need for local computation and storage, the utilization of a commercially available networking system such as CP/NET from Digital Research provides the building blocks for communicating intelligent microsystems to file and print services. The major problems to be overcome in the implementation of such a network are the dearth of intelligent communication front-ends for the microcomputers and the lack of a rich set of management and software development tools.

  15. 76 FR 1429 - Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-154

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... through February 28, 2011. 73 FR 48382, August 19, 2008. \\3\\ WAPA-118 was approved by FERC on a final... Authority Ancillary Services Formula Rates. SUMMARY: This action is being taken to temporarily extend the... (WACM) Ancillary Services Formula Rates through February 28, 2013. The existing transmission...

  16. Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

  17. Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in

  18. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  19. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  20. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  1. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  2. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  3. [Management of the influenza pandemic on a local health authority level].

    PubMed

    Bellinger, O; Götsch, U; Böddinghaus, B; Kraus-Leonhäuser, D; Gottschalk, R

    2010-12-01

    In most cities and districts, the influenza pandemic of 2009 could be handled without any restrictions in providing medical care or any disturbance in public life. Despite its relatively mild course, the local public health services reached their limits of capacity. Based on nationwide regulations, the local management determines the success of the measures. Evaluating the experience on the community level offers the chance of facing future pandemics more efficiently. Press conferences, press releases, and the internet are the most reliable tools to inform the public even in terms of personnel expenses. Telephone conferences and internet platforms help to reduce time-consuming meetings. An electronic database and logbook provide up-to-date information for all parties involved and allow quick, rational, coordinated, and transparent decision-making. Local evaluation of registration data, reports on cases of illness, and the availability of hospital beds on a daily basis allow intervention at an early stage to cope with the pandemic efficiently and helps save resources. Recruitment of external personnel, e.g., for the call center and the vaccination campaign, relieves the public health employees in charge with respect to their main tasks of directing and management functions. PMID:21161475

  4. Modeling and monitoring a LAN. [Local Area Network

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.B.

    1983-04-18

    Clark, Program and Reed have suggested that the issues of local network design can be classified as either configuration issues or protocol issues. They visualize networks as consisting of four basic elements: the transmission medium, a control mechanism, the interfaces, and the protocols. Network performance is strongly dependent not only upon each of these elements but also upon their mutual interactions. The remainder of this paper consists of three sections. The first section deals with the validation of LLNL's discrete event simulation of the NSC Hyperchannel. The second section concerns the current state of traffic measurement in the Craynet. Lastly, the third section discusses the design and functionality of a Hyperchannel Monitoring Device (HMD).

  5. 76 FR 61183 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Authority--Rate Order No. WAPA-155 Republication Editorial Note: FR Doc. 2011-23391 was originally published...-AS5, L-AS6, and L-AS7 on December 30, 2003 (Rate Order No. WAPA- 106, 69 FR 1723, January 12, 2004).\\1..., Extension of Rate Order No. WAPA-106 through February 28, 2011. 73 FR 48382, August 19, 2008. \\3\\...

  6. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency. 11.55 Section 11.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.55 EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency. (a) All EAS Participants within a state...

  7. 76 FR 81984 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Local Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... information, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on September 27, 2011 (76 FR 59741...; Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is..., ``Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart E of... - Sitka Local Area Management Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sitka Local Area Management Plan 1 Figure 1 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... Part 300—Sitka Local Area Management Plan ER18JY05.000...

  9. 47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General 11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain guidelines...

  10. Networking CD-ROMs: The Decision Maker's Guide to Local Area Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elshami, Ahmed M.

    In an era when patrons want access to CD-ROM resources but few libraries can afford to buy multiple copies, CD-ROM local area networks (LANs) are emerging as a cost-effective way to provide shared access. To help librarians make informed decisions, this manual offers information on: (1) the basics of LANs, a "local area network primer"; (2) the…

  11. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart E of... - Sitka Local Area Management Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sitka Local Area Management Plan 1 Figure 1 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart E of Part 300—Sitka Local Area Management...

  12. The evaluation of axisymmetric local thin areas in pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, M.T.; Laverty, K.D.; Chou, C.H.; Andrews, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    This investigation focused on the development of procedures and acceptance criteria to evaluate the fitness for continued service of pressure vessels containing LTAs based on the results of elastic-plastic finite element analyses. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analyses of various circumferential groove geometries in pressure vessel shells, including elliptical head regions both with and without nozzles, were performed. These analyses reveal that use of an elastic-perfectly plastic material model will always provide lower bound remaining strength factors (RSFs) for materials which work harden when the RSF calculation is based on the peak pressure. However, these analyses will not always predict accurately the failure location in vessels containing LTAs constructed from materials which work harden because the location at which strain localizes in these models can shift with load level. The proposed MPC criteria that RSF > 0.9 is effective in limiting plastic strain development near LTAs in all materials to very small values. However, this criteria is overly conservative for work-hardening materials which can have much lower minimum RSF values and still experience only limited plastic straining.

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are designated smoking... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas....320(d). A previous exception for designated smoking areas is being eliminated. All designated...

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are designated smoking... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas....320(d). A previous exception for designated smoking areas is being eliminated. All designated...

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are designated smoking... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas....320(d). A previous exception for designated smoking areas is being eliminated. All designated...

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are designated smoking... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas....320(d). A previous exception for designated smoking areas is being eliminated. All designated...

  17. [Potable water in Local Health Area 12 from 1980 to 1987].

    PubMed

    Maspero, A; Sesana, B

    1989-01-01

    This research work deals with the problem of the pollution of both public and industrial water supplies in a local health authority area (U.S.S.L.) in Lombardy. This is an area of approximately 120 square kilometres which, for the most part, does not as yet have a public sewage system purification plant. As a result, almost all effluent enters the local watercourses which have developed physico-chemical characteristics similar to those of sewage, thus creating very serious health risks for the inhabitants of the area. Our study deals especially with the hydrological characteristics of the area which possesses two water-tables, one above the other. The lower of these two water-tables has a particularly large supply in the source areas of the rivers. Following this our study presents data concerning the wells in the area, their position, methods of excavation, depth, stratigraphy and capacity of water-supply. Since 1980, all wells have had regular four-monthly or six-monthly microbiological and chemical tests. Special attention has been paid to the levels of ammonia, nitric and nitrous acid, pH, sulphates, electrical conductivity, chlorides, chromium and chlorate solvents. During 1986-87, one investigation was carried out on the presence of Cu, Pb, Ni, F, Cd, Al, hydrocarbons and tensioactive substances. The main pollutants were discovered to be chlorohydrocarbons and nitrates. The chlorohydrocarbons come from textile factories and metallurgical and mechanical industries which discharge these substances into the drainage system either as the result of accidents of because or inadequate depuration. The source of the nitrates is, for the most part, domestic although a small proportion is also due to agriculture. As a result of the discovery of this pollution of the water-tables, a programme of preventive checks has been introduced for all the industries which use chlorate solvents. The purpose of these checks is to identify the methods of use and of disposal of these substances. A more satisfactory discharge of industrial effluent has been achieved by at least some of the firms in the area with a consequent reduction both in illegal discharge and in pollution of the water-tables. PMID:2484497

  18. [Local tolerance of subcutaneous heparin. Double-blind comparison of calcium and sodium heparins (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blard, J M; Rincon, F; Nakache, J P; Chastang, C

    One hundred and twelve subcutaneous injections of concentrated heparin (25,000 IU/ml), half in sodium heparin and half in calciparine, both with an identical heparin cation, were given in doses varying from 0.2 ml to 0.5 ml by a single operator in a double-blind study to assess the comparative local tolerance of the two heparin salts. The occurrence of bruising at the point of injection, more frequent with sodium heparin than with Calciparine, proved to be the distinguishing factor. Overall after 48 hours, 31 hematomas were observed with the sodium salt versus 20 with calciparine. McNemar's test of comparing matched proportions confirms this result (p = 0.03) and, with the order of the two treatments taken into consideration, J.J. Gart's exact test gives p = 0.0101. PMID:218296

  19. The response of a local health authority to reported cases of salmonellosis in a Portuguese municipality, 2007 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human salmonelloses are statutorily reportable infectious diseases (SRID) in Portugal. Data derived from SRID surveillance systems have been used in international comparisons as well as in studies assessing the sources and modes of transmission of Salmonella infections in humans. Methods We evaluated a salmonellosis (statutorily reportable) surveillance system in a Portuguese local health authority, consulting routine data available. The main objectives were describing procedures used to investigate and respond to reported cases, and identifying the sources of infection and modes of transmission. Results In the five year period from 2007 to 2011, medical doctors reported 58 cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis to the local health authority. Fifty four reported cases were in hospitalized children (age range 1 – 19 years) and 44 were associated with drinking water from private wells or eating raw egg products, which is consistent with other studies. Conclusions This local surveillance system was useful for detecting both isolated cases and outbreaks of salmonellosis and for identifying modes of transmission and sources of infection. It stimulated community health educational activities to prevent future cases. However, further evaluation including economic analysis and an impact assessment is required at both local and national levels. PMID:24642182

  20. 76 FR 47228 - Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office Administrators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... performance problems and describing corrective actions. The Office of Community Planning and Development... offices to implement HUD's Strategic Goal 5 to transform the way HUD does business by delegating authority... ONAP and ONAP officers, including the redelegations published on September 9, 2003 (68 FR 53195...

  1. The G4R GMES Academy - linking research, academia, service providers and local authorities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related research projects in the EU EDUCATION - a compendium of courses offered by universities in the field of GMES LECTURES - G4R offers to arrange lectures on GMES at interested universities and institutions The initiative by G4R invites collaboration to strengthen the role of research and education for the evolution of GMES services.

  2. Detection and quantification of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in Spanish authorized shellfish harvesting areas.

    PubMed

    Polo, David; Varela, Miguel F; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-01-16

    An 18-month survey was conducted in ten class "B" harvesting areas from two Galician Rias (NW of Spain), the most important bivalve production area in Europe, to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (NoV), including genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). Quantification was performed by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), according to the recently developed standard method ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. Four bivalve species were studied, including wild and cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), clams (Venerupis philippinarum and Venerupis decussata) and cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Overall, 55.4% of samples were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses, being detected the simultaneous presence of two or three viruses in 11.3% of the cases. NoV GI was the most prevalent virus (32.1%), followed by NoV GII (25.6%) and HAV (10.1%). Cultured mussels showed the highest percentage of positive samples (61.4%), followed by cockles (59.4%), wild mussels (54.3%) and clams (38.7%). Viral contamination levels for most of the positive samples ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) RNA copies/g of digestive tissue (RNAc/g DT). The presence of viral contamination was statistically higher (P<0.0001) in warm months (April to September) than in cold months (October to March). The data presented here may contribute to the development of more representative sampling strategies, in monitoring and management of shellfish growing areas as well as being useful in a future scenario in which viral critical values are adopted in legislation. PMID:25462922

  3. Ampelographic and DNA characterization of local grapevine accessions of the Tuscia area (Latium,Italy)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of local vines in the Tuscia area (Latium region, Italy) was documented by historical sources. Ampelographic and molecular characterization (35 morphological descriptors and 16 microsatellite loci) was carried out on accessions belonging to the most frequently mentioned local vines. S...

  4. 20 CFR 661.250 - What are the requirements for designation of local workforce investment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the requirements for designation of local workforce investment areas? 661.250 Section 661.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) STATEWIDE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...

  5. [Safety and health aspects in urbanised areas of different density (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Boeddinghaus, G

    1978-08-01

    Germans like to live in one-family houses. This way of living prevails more and more during recent years. However, the increase of one-family housing implies a high state of car dependence. Especially for children, youths, aged and disadvantaged people living in a car oriented city becomes difficult. Also a higher use of cars implies more air pollution and waste of energy. And additionaly, the increasing travel distances cause higher rates of traffic accidents. To avoid these disadvantages the alternative must be the high density development comprising both, high density-low-rise buildings and especially high rise buildings. By abandoning all one-family homes and using only tall buildings for dwelling and other purposes (stores, offices, schools etc.) the area of a city could be reduced to about one tenth of that what is urbanized today. Because of the short distances in such a city most of the trips could be made by walking or by using lifts. Accordingly traffic accidents could be reduced to one tenth of today's figures too. Despite of the many advantages the high density city has with respect to safety and health of its population such a city will be rarely realized because it does not meet the ideas and imaginations of many people. Nevertheless it seems to be advisable to promote high density residential areas for all those people who are willing to accept it or who prefer this way of living. This minority, however, should not be irritated by unqualified generalizing negative reports in the media. PMID:716696

  6. Drug users attending general practice in Eastern Regional Health Authority (ERHA) area.

    PubMed

    Cullen, W; Bury, G; Barry, J; O'Kelly, F

    2000-10-01

    Dublin has an estimated 13,460 opiate drug users. The role of general practice in providing care for this group has increased over the last four years. A Central Methadone Treatment List (CMTL) registers all clients currently on treatment. To obtain a social, demographic and drug using profile of opiate users attending general practitioners (GPs) for methadone maintenance. A cross sectional survey of opiate users attending general practice for methadone maintenance in the Dublin area in early 1999. Data was collected on 571 clients (62% of total number attending general practice), of whom 97% had used heroin in the past and 12% had never injected. Although clients had been receiving methadone maintenance in general practice for a mean of 14 months, 16% were still using heroin, of whom 31% were still injecting. The mean age of first drug use was 15.5 years and of first injecting was 19.4 years. Younger clients are starting both to use drugs and inject drugs at an earlier age. Record keeping was good, with most items of information present in over 70% of the charts surveyed. A total of 17% of clients recorded on the CMTL could not be traced to the GP recorded as providing care. Despite treatment with methadone maintenance, there is a high level of continued risk activity in this group. Furthermore, a trend towards earlier initiation to drug use is apparent. The CMTL registration process requires further exploration. PMID:11142958

  7. The Impact of Boston-Area Colleges and Universities on the Local Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SDL Systems Research Group, Toronto (Ontario).

    The impact of the Boston-area colleges and universities on the local economy was studied and major findings include the following: (1) Boston postsecondary education is a $1.3 billion annual enterprise, most of which money is spent in the Boston area. (2) Sources outside metropolitan Boston account for more than half of these expenditures. The…

  8. Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold. PMID:22368495

  9. Local Area Water Removal Analysis of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell under Gas Purge Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold. PMID:22368495

  10. 20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 664.110 Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area? (a) The Local Board, working with the youth council, is responsible for conducting oversight of local youth programs operated... programs in the local area? 664.110 Section 664.110 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  11. Disturbance from low-frequency noise in the environment: A survey among the local environmental health authorities in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, K.; Rylander, R.

    1988-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey undertaken among the local environmental health authorities (MHKs) in Sweden on complaints due to low-frequency noise. The results demonstrate that complaints due to low-frequency noise comprised a majority of all complaints due to noise. The most common sources of low-frequency noise reported were mechanical ventilation, heavy traffic, and heat pumps. Concerning changes over time, the number of complaints had increased, particularly those related to heat pumps. Data from this and previous studies suggest that the use of the dB(A) unit to express exposure to low-frequency noise is inadequate from a medical-hygiene and annoyance point of view.

  12. Localization of the human cortical visual area MT based on computer aided histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Annese, J; Gazzaniga, M S; Toga, A W

    2005-07-01

    We describe human area MT histologically based on the observer independent analysis of cortical myeloarchiteture, multiple complementary staining techniques and 3-D reconstruction. The topography of an architectonic field that presented constant structural characteristics across specimens was studied in relation to the sulcal geography of the occipito-temporal region. Objective and semi-automated analysis of local microstructure revealed a distinct cortical architecture and matched topographically the localization of MT derived from functional imaging. MT was localized by the histotopographic method in relation to definite macroscopic landmarks. This study demonstrates a new set of distinguishing architectonic features of human MT that permit localization on structural grounds and suggests that the characteristic laminar structure of this area may be related to its unique pattern of connections and to its role in visual perception. PMID:15590914

  13. From Provider to Enabler of Care? Reconfiguring Local Authority Support for Older People and Carers in Leeds, 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yeandle, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article explores developments in the support available to older people and carers (i.e., caregivers) in the city of Leeds, United Kingdom, and examines provision changes during a period characterized by unprecedented resource constraint and new developments in national-local governance. Using documentary evidence, official statistics, and findings from recent studies led by the author, the effects of these changes on service planning and delivery and the approach taken by local actors to mitigate their impact are highlighted. The statistical data show a marked decline in some types of services for older people during a 5-year period during which the city council took steps to mobilize citizens and develop new services and system improvements. The analysis focuses on theories of social quality as a framework for analysis of the complex picture of change related to service provision. It concludes that although citizen involvement and consultations exerted a positive influence in delivering support to some older people and carers, research over a longer timescale is needed to show if these changes are adequate to protect older people and carers from the effects of ongoing budgetary constraints. PMID:27019540

  14. Evaluation of Existing Structure and Civil Protection Management Framework in Greek Local Authorities: A Questionnaire Survey Demonstrates Why Prevention Fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    In the face of a growing number of natural disasters and the increasing costs associated with them, Europe and Greece in particular, have devoted significant efforts and resources in natural hazards mitigation during the last decades. Despite the significant legislative efforts (e.g. 1998/22/EC, 2001/792/EC, 2007/60/EC Directives, 3013/2002 Act) and even though a number of steps has been taken towards improving civil protection, recent catastrophic events have illustrated the weaknesses of current approaches. In particular, in Greece, events such as the 1999 Athens earthquake, the 2007 and 2009 wildfires have shown the inadequacy of prevention and mitigation practices. Given the enhanced civil protection responsibilities, given by the Greek national law (Acts 3013/2002, 3852/2010) to local authorities in Greece, this work analyses and evaluates the existing structure and current management framework under which local authorities function and examines their risk mitigation practices. We conducted the largest questionnaire survey regarding Civil Protections issues, among the municipalities of Greece. To this aim, this work used a innovative online tool to assess current framework. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform that acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). Through this network, municipal civil protection officials completed surveys designed to obtain and quantify information on several aspects of civil protection practices and infrastructure. In particular, the examined factors included: (i) personnel and equipment, (ii) inter-agency cooperation, (iii) training, (iv) compliance with existing regulations and (v) persistent problems encountered by civil protection departments, that prevent the effectiveness of current practices. Responses showed that civil protection personnel lack adequate training and expertise, many are overstretched with several duties, while several prevention actions are carried out by seasonal or voluntary staff. Approximately half of the heads of civil protection offices do not hold a university degree, only 27% have a relevant scientific background (geoscientists or engineers) and more than half of them are elected members and not permanent staff, implying that no continuity is secured. Inter-agency cooperation is shown to be poor and organizational learning from international practices not adequate. Half of the municipalities report that the authorization processes are too slow so that prevention actions particularly regarding forest fires are severely delayed. Existing regulations are not followed by a significant portion of municipalities since 19% have not established a civil protection office and 23% have not compiled an action plan yet. Existing action plans lack important information, present no spatial data and are predominantly catalogues and tables of information regarding authorised personnel and equipment. Overall, underfunding, poor coordination of the different actors involved, lack of training and understaffing, lack of proper equipment and several other issues are held responsible by officials for preventing effectiveness of current practices. Finally, the EU emergency number 112 is widely unknown (87%). This work was held under the LIFE+ project "Local Authorities Alliance for Forest Fire Prevention - LIFE08/ENV/GR/000553" which is implemented with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community.

  15. [Progress of clinical application of functional MRI in the localization of brain language area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Lu, Junfeng; Wu, Jinsong

    2016-02-01

    For surgical operation in the functional area in the brain, it's commonly demanded to resect the lesion to the maximal extent on the basis of preserve the normal neural function, thus the precise localization of functional area is extremely important. As for the advantages of being widely available, easy to grasp and non-invasive, the functional MRI (fMRI) has come into wide use, while the application of language fMRI is still in the initial stage. It's important to choose appropriate fMRI task according to the individual condition of the subject, the commonly-adopted tasks include verb generation, picture naming, word recognition, word generation, etc. However, the effectiveness of using fMRI to localize language area is not totally satisfactory, adopting multiple task is an effective approach to improve the sensitivity of this technique. The application of resting state fMRI in the localization of language area and the further research of the role of fMRI in localizing the Chinese language area are the important future directions. PMID:26876086

  16. On the equivalence of local and global area-constraint formulations for lipid bilayer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmavaram, Sanjay; Healey, Timothy J.

    2015-10-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes are commonly modeled as area-preserving fluid surfaces that resist bending. There appear to be two schools of thought in the literature concerning the actual area constraint. In some works the total or global area of the vesicle is a prescribed constant, while in others the local area ratio is assigned to unity. In this work we demonstrate the equivalence of these ostensibly distinct approaches in the specific case when the equilibrium configuration is a smooth, closed surface of genus zero. We accomplish this in the context of the Euler-Lagrange equilibrium equations, constraint equations and the second variation with admissibility conditions, for a broad class of models—including the phase-field type. In particular, the two formulations have equivalent equilibria characterized by the same local-energy properties.

  17. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  18. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations.

  19. Allocating Data and Workload among Multiple Servers in a Local Area Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heeseok; Park, Taeho

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of local area networks and multiple file servers for concurrent information retrievals provides a rationale for workload and data allocation and presents an analytical model which will attain effective allocation policies. Nonlinear integer programming is discussed, and computational results show the effectiveness of the heuristic.…

  20. Installing a CD-ROM Local Area Network in a Science and Engineering Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Moid Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the literature on local area network (LAN) installation and describes the installation of a CD-ROM LAN at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia). Server evaluation and installation, access menu, user training, LAN licensing, campus-wide networking, the impact of networking, and future projects planned are

  1. Installing a CD-ROM Local Area Network in a Science and Engineering Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Moid Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the literature on local area network (LAN) installation and describes the installation of a CD-ROM LAN at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia). Server evaluation and installation, access menu, user training, LAN licensing, campus-wide networking, the impact of networking, and future projects planned are…

  2. Observation of electro-activated localized structures in broad area VCSELs.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, J; Brambilla, M; Columbo, L; Prati, F; Rizza, C; Tissoni, G; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the electro-activation of a localized optical structure in a coherently driven broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operated below threshold. Control is achieved by electro-optically steering a writing beam through a pre-programmable switch based on a photorefractive funnel waveguide. PMID:25606953

  3. 47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM... emergency alert system is capable of initiating EAS messages formatted in the Common Alerting Protocol...

  4. LandScape Command Set: Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Burchard, R.L.; Small, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment (LandScape) commands set that provides a Generic Device Subsystem Application Programmers Interface (API). These commands are implemented using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification with Orbix from Iona Technologies.

  5. An Integrated Online Library System as a Node in a Local Area Network: The Mitre Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Mary Coyle

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the Mitre Corporation's implementation of OCLC's LS/2000 integrated library system using a local area network (LAN). LAN issues--requirements, equipment, reliability, growth, security, and traffic--are covered in general and as they relate to Mitre. Installation of the LAN/system interface and benefits and drawbacks of using a LAN for…

  6. Producing the Docile Body: Analysing Local Area Under-Performance Inspection (LAUI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Sir Michael Wilshaw, the head of the Office for Standards in Education (OfSTED), declared a "new wave" of Local Area Under-performance Inspections (LAUI) of schools "denying children the standard of education they deserve". This paper examines how the threat of LAUI played out over three mathematics lessons taught by a teacher…

  7. 24 CFR 1000.325 - How is the need component adjusted for local area costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the need component adjusted for local area costs? 1000.325 Section 1000.325 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  8. The Business Education Lab and Local Area Networking for Curriculum Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Georgina; And Others

    This guide explains how to incorporate a local area network (LAN) into the business education curriculum. The first section defines LAN, a communications system that links computers and other peripherals within an office or throughout nearby buildings and shares multiuser software and send and/or receive information. Curriculum planning…

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF A WIRELESS HIGH-SPEED LOCAL AREA NETWORK FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A demonstration project implementing a wireless local area network(WLAN)which connected the farm stead with tractors, cotton pickers, combines, and spray equipment along with consultant's vehicle and hand-help personal digital assistants (PDAs) via 802.11 or popularly called WI-FI radios will be pre...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart E of... - Sitka Local Area Management Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sitka Local Area Management Plan 1 Figure 1 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart E...

  11. System for analysis of LANDSAT agricultural data: Automatic computer-assisted proportion estimation of local areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Kauth, R. J.; Thomas, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conceptual man machine system framework was created for a large scale agricultural remote sensing system. The system is based on and can grow out of the local recognition mode of LACIE, through a gradual transition wherein computer support functions supplement and replace AI functions. Local proportion estimation functions are broken into two broad classes: (1) organization of the data within the sample segment; and (2) identification of the fields or groups of fields in the sample segment.

  12. Localization of angiotensin II receptors along the anteroventral third ventricle area of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, L M; Shigematsu, K; Kurihara, M; Saavedra, J M

    1987-03-10

    Autoradiographic techniques were utilized to localize and to quantify angiotensin II (ANG) binding sites in rat forebrain. Specific, localized ANG binding sites were demonstrated in midline sagittal sections, corresponding to the entire anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) area, including the nucleus preopticus medianus and the subependymal area of the anterior third ventricle from the nucleus preopticus medianus to the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis. A continuous band of ANG receptors extended dorsally from the nucleus preopticus medianus along the subependymal area of the third ventricle to the organon subfornicalis. Scatchard analysis performed with consecutive sections from single animals revealed a single class of high-affinity ANG receptors in both the organon subfornicalis and the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis. In addition, ANG receptors were localized in areas anatomically and physiologically related to the AV3V area, including the nuclei paraventricularis and periventricularis and the eminentia mediana. These results support the idea that ANG may act as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter in the central regulation of fluid balance and cardiovascular function, and suggest that the circumventricular organs are the most likely sites for an interaction between the peripheral and central ANG systems. PMID:3567601

  13. Intensity and resolution enhancement of local regions for object detection and tracking in wide area surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Evan; Asari, Vijayan K.; Arigela, Saibabu; Aspiras, Theus

    2015-05-01

    Object tracking in wide area motion imagery is a complex problem that consists of object detection and target tracking over time. This challenge can be solved by human analysts who naturally have the ability to keep track of an object in a scene. A computer vision solution for object tracking has the potential to be a much faster and efficient solution. However, a computer vision solution faces certain challenges that do not affect a human analyst. To overcome these challenges, a tracking process is proposed that is inspired by the known advantages of a human analyst. First, the focus of a human analyst is emulated by doing processing only the local object search area. Second, it is proposed that an intensity enhancement process should be done on the local area to allow features to be detected in poor lighting conditions. This simulates the ability of the human eye to discern objects in complex lighting conditions. Third, it is proposed that the spatial resolution of the local search area is increased to extract better features and provide more accurate feature matching. A quantitative evaluation is performed to show tracking improvement using the proposed method. The three databases, each grayscale sequences that were obtained from aircrafts, used for these evaluations include the Columbus Large Image Format database, the Large Area Image Recorder database, and the Sussex database.

  14. Local Area Unemployment and the Demand for Inpatient Care Among Veterans Affairs Enrollees.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Hebert, Paul L; Nelson, Karin M; Hernandez, Susan E; Sylling, Philip W; Fihn, Stephan D; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Prior research examining the relationship between economic conditions and health service demand has focused primarily on outpatient use. This study examines whether local area unemployment, as an indicator of economic conditions, was associated with use of inpatient care, which is theoretically less subject to discretionary use. Using a random sample of 131,603 patients dually enrolled in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System and fee-for-service Medicare, we measured VA, Medicare, and total (VA and Medicare) hospitalizations. Overall, local unemployment was not associated with VA, Medicare, or total hospitalization probability. Among low-income veterans exempt from VA copayments, higher local unemployment was moderately associated with a lower probability of hospitalization through Medicare. For veterans subject to VA copayments, higher local unemployment was moderately associated with a higher likelihood of VA hospitalization. These results suggest inpatient use is less sensitive to the economy, although worse economic conditions slightly affected inpatient demand for select veterans. PMID:25917275

  15. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn. PMID:17647095

  16. Exploring the Links between Ethnobotany, Local Therapeutic Practices, and Protected Areas in Santa Catarina Coastline, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the knowledge of medicinal plants in two areas proposed for the creation of protected areas for sustainable use in the city of Imbituba (SC). In this study, we analyzed the influence of gender, form of learning, and modern medicine on medicinal plant knowledge while also reflecting on the relationship of this knowledge to in situ conservation. Data collection was conducted through structured interviews, free listings, guided tours, and collection of botanical material. 197 species of medicinal plants belonging to 70 botanical families were recorded. Gender and the form of learning were factors that significantly influenced the similarity of the knowledge of medicinal plants among the informants. We also observed the existence of a therapeutic pluralism among key informants. Local medicinal plant knowledge emphasizes the importance of strategies to create protected areas of sustainable use as a way to ensure the maintenance of traditional lifestyles and associated local knowledge. PMID:22203874

  17. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are more vulnerable when a typhoon comes, on the other hand, the west and the south coast are the mostly inundated areas due to their large difference of tide and low lands. In conclusion, the south coast of Korea is the most vulnerable area. This research could support the efficient planning of coastal zone management plan across the nation.

  18. 20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Youth Councils § 664.110 Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area? (a) The... programs operated under the Act, to ensure both fiscal and programmatic accountability. (b) Local program... programs in the local area? 664.110 Section 664.110 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  19. 20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Youth Councils § 664.110 Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area? (a) The... programs operated under the Act, to ensure both fiscal and programmatic accountability. (b) Local program... programs in the local area? 664.110 Section 664.110 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  20. The development of a common risk assessment methodology for local authorities in southeast Europe focusing on climate change related hazards - first results from the SEERISK project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is expected to influence the magnitude and frequency of a number of natural hazards in the future and hence, change the spatial patterns of risk and vulnerability. Local authorities, emergency planners and other decision makers are in need of tools that enable the assessment of the risks associated with the natural hazards. This research is embedded in the EU-funded SEERISK project ("Joint disaster management risk assessment and preparedness for the Danube macro-region"). The principle aim of this project is to improve coherence and consistency among risk assessments undertaken by the partner countries in national, regional and local level. The project focuses on bringing decision makers from southeast Europe together and it attempts the development of a common methodology for risk assessment of climate change related hazards that will be applied in various pilot areas in the partner countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Romania). The common methodology takes into consideration the lack of data in most of the cases and it offers alternatives for the risk assessment but also for the data collection following future events. The common methodology is presented here in the form of methodological steps for four different natural hazards, namely, floods, droughts, heat waves and extreme wind. The proposed methodology is in line with the EC Guidelines for Risk assessment and mapping and will be implemented in the near future in respective regions.

  1. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... grants awarded on the basis of local coordination of activities under 20 CFR 665.200(d)(2). These... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local Board and each partner? 662.310 Section...

  2. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... grants awarded on the basis of local coordination of activities under 20 CFR 665.200(d)(2). These... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local Board and each partner? 662.310 Section...

  3. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... grants awarded on the basis of local coordination of activities under 20 CFR 665.200(d)(2). These... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local Board and each partner? 662.310 Section...

  4. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... basis of local coordination of activities under 20 CFR 665.200(d)(2). These sanctions are in addition to... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local Board and each partner? 662.310 Section...

  5. 43 CFR 6302.12 - When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use a wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a fee to use a wilderness area? 6302.12 Section 6302.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.12 When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use...

  6. 43 CFR 6302.12 - When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use a wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a fee to use a wilderness area? 6302.12 Section 6302.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.12 When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use...

  7. 43 CFR 6302.12 - When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use a wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a fee to use a wilderness area? 6302.12 Section 6302.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.12 When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use...

  8. 43 CFR 6302.12 - When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use a wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a fee to use a wilderness area? 6302.12 Section 6302.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.12 When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use...

  9. Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

    2014-01-01

    In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

  10. Interaction of katabatic wind and local surface mass balance at Scharffenbergbotnen Blue Ice Area, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwinger, T.; Malm, T.; Schäfer, M.; Stenberg, R.; Moore, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We model the wind causing the formation of a blue ice area in Scharffenbergbotnen valley, Antarctica, using the finite element code Elmer. The high resolution numerical simulations of the local wind flow from katabatic wind fronts show highly spatially variable wind impact patterns and good congruence between places of enhanced wind-impact and the blue ice area. The results were fortuitously confirmed by the destruction of a field camp located in a high wind speed area and its subsequent redistribution to low velocity areas. In addition we perform wind simulations on an altered glacier geometry that resembles the thicker ice cover at the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM). These simulations indicate that the pronounced spatial wind-impact patterns depend on present day geometry and did not occur during the LGM. This leads to the conclusion that the formation of the blue ice area that is situated more inside the valley of Scharffenbergbotnen started only after the lowering of the ice surface, later than the LGM. Experiments with smoothed surface topography suggest that detailed positions of the high wind regions and hence individual blue ice fields, may have varied as the ice sheet lowered. The experiments and the field observations are consistent with localized violent katabatic events, rather than synoptic scale storms, playing the dominant role in the formation and maintenance of this, and perhaps many blue ice areas.

  11. 40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized...

  12. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  13. Efficacy of pertussis vaccination in England. Report from the PHLS Epidemiological Research Laboratory and 21 area health authorities.

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    A national assessment of the efficacy of pertussis vaccination was made in 21 area health authorities in England. Notification rates for children given either three doses of diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine or diphtheria/tetanus vaccine were studied during the two and a half-year period January 1978-June 1980. A survey of home circumstances showed that the two vaccine groups could be validly compared. Home visits were made to assess the severity of the illness, the attack rates in home contacts, and to take pernasal swabs. Pertussis vaccination was found to be of outstanding value in preventing serious disease. Nevertheless, its effect in controlling whooping cough is limited by the fact that protection for home contacts is less satisfactory, and by the occurrence of mild cases in vaccinated children which may contribute to the spread of the disease. PMID:6284296

  14. Communications protocols for a fault tolerant, integrated local area network for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the Space Station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated,local area networks capable of supporting data, voice and video communications. In addition, fault tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard Space Station of day-to-day data system repair tasks. An experimental, local area network is being developed which will serve as a testbed for investigating candidate algorithms and technologies for a fault tolerant, integrated network. The establishment of a set of rules or protocols which govern communications on the net is essential to obtain orderly and reliable operation. A hierarchy of protocols for the experimental network is presented and procedures for data and control communications are described.

  15. Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

  16. How Good Is Our School? The Child at the Centre: The Health Promoting School--The Role of Local Authorities and Their Partners. Self-Evaluation Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To become effective health promoting establishments which achieve the maximum impact on children, young people and families and on the local community, schools and pre-school centres need to operate within a strategic framework developed at the highest levels within their local council and community area. Effective councils are committed to…

  17. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

  18. Local government policies toward environmentally sensitive areas in British Columbia, Canada; Washington and Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Michael D.; Reganold, John P.

    1989-07-01

    While there has been sustained debate on the issue of provincial and state versus local government environmental planning, maintaining privately owned natural resources in the public interest is increasingly viewed as beyond the scope of local governments alone. This paper describes and compares province- and state-level mandates and options for local governments (i.e., city, county, or district) to regulate land uses of environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) in British Columbia in Canada and in Washington and Oregon in the United States. We define ESAs as landscape elements or places that are vital to the long-term maintenance of biological diversity, soil, water, and other natural resources, especially as they relate to human health, safety, and welfare, both on-site and in a regional context. Underlying similarities are that all three jurisdictions legally express the need for land-use planning by local governments in managing ESAs. Although all three jurisdictions exhibit similar problems in their attempt to accomplish this, ESA planning by local governments is an optional process in British Columbia and Washington but mandatory in Oregon. Furthermore, actual processes prescribed by each of the three jurisdictions are quite different. The information base upon which local regulation of privately held ESAs depends is variable, both within and between the province- and statelevel jurisdictions. Other than for some specific water-related resources, standard definitions and inventory methods for ESAs are lacking, as is coordination among local governments or among the province- and state-level governments. This study concludes that there is a need for a regional environmental information system in the Pacific Northwest based upon an integrated and scientific approach toward ESA structures and functions.

  19. Local residents perception of benefits and losses from protected areas in India and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Krithi K; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2012-02-01

    High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas. PMID:22080427

  20. Local seismic events in area of Poland based on data from PASSEQ 2006-2008 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan; Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Passeq Working Group

    2014-05-01

    PASSEQ 2006-2008 (Passive Seismic Experiment in TESZ; Wilde-Piórko et al, 2008) was the biggest so far passive seismic experiment in the area of Central Europe (Poland, Germany, Czech Republic and Lithuania). 196 seismic stations (including 49 broadband seismometers) worked simultaneously for over two years. During experiment multiple types of data recorders and seismometers were used making analysis more complex and time consuming. Dataset was unified and repaired to start the detection of local seismic events. Two different approaches for detection were applied for stations located in Poland. One used standard STA/LTA triggers (Carl Johnson's STA/LTA algorithm) and grid search to classify and locate events. Result was manually verified. Other approach used Real Time Recurrent Network (RTRN) detection (Wiszniowski et al, 2014). Both methods gave similar results showing four previously unknown seismic events located in area of Gulf Of Gdańsk in southern Baltic Sea. The investigation of local seismicity is a good opportunity for verification of new seismic models of lithosphere in the area. In this paper we discuss both detection methods with their pros and cons (accuracy, efficiency, manual work required, scalability). We also show details of all detected and previously unknown events in discussed area. This work was partially supported by NCN grant UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/06653.

  1. Local Residents Perception of Benefits and Losses From Protected Areas in India and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanth, Krithi K.; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2012-02-01

    High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas.

  2. [Impact and state of the art of regional healthcare planning and management guidelines in a local health authority of the Lazio region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Priori, Maria Rosaria; Barbato, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of health care planning and management guidelines, elaborated by the Lazio regional healthcare authority, on the organizational structure and operational processes of local health authorities and, more specifically, of the Roma C local health authority. The guidelines are made up of three volumes and mainly describe an operational model, rather than being a set of standard references aimed at standardizing the quality of information low systems in local healthcare authorities. The guidelines are essentially a didactic text, and were elaborated by a consulting firm, Engineering Management Consulting, on behalf of the Lazio regional authority. In the first section, the main concepts are defined, while in subsequent sections, detailed models regarding the specific subject matter are described. Although the guidelines represent a useful tool in the process of converting local health authorities of the Lazio region into "business" organizations, so far they have been of use only in the first phase of assessment of different organizational models for healthcare planning and management. There is still a long way ahead towards defining standard procedures and references for describing activities and costs. This is what should hopefully be achieved briefly and which will necessarily require the introduction of a data warehouse and business intelligence software that will allow monitoring of activities and making short term predictions through the use balanced scorecards and data mining. PMID:18084348

  3. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  4. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  5. Impact of Rice Paddy Areas Decrease on Local Climate over Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, M. H.; Wen, W. H.; Chen, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural irrigation practice is one of the important anthropogenic processes in the land surface modeling. Irrigation can decrease local surface temperature with alternating surface energy partitioning. Rice paddy is the major food crop in Asian monsoon region and rice is grown under flooded conditions during the growing season; hence, the rice paddy can be considered as an open water body, which has more impacts on the surface energy budget than other cropland does. In this study, we explore how the rice paddy area changes affect Taiwan's regional climate from both observational data and numerical modeling exercise. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is utilized to explore impacts of rice paddy area changes on the regional climate, and energy and water budget changes. In addition, temperature datasets from six automatic weather stations in the northern Taiwan and two stations in the southern Taiwan are analyzed in this study to explore how the Daily Temperature Range (DTR) changes with the decreased rice paddy areas. Previous studies show that due to the urban heat island effect, aerosol direct and indirect effects, and global warming, the DTR has decreased in the past 4 decades observed from most of the weather stations around Taiwan. However, the declined rice paddy area may increase the DTR with higher Bowen ratio during the daytime. Preliminary results show that DTR is decreased in weather stations near the urban area, but increased in weather stations near fallow areas in the past 20 years. It shows that different land use changes may have opposite impacts on local and regional climate.

  6. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here

  7. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  8. Local status and power in area-based health improvement partnerships.

    PubMed

    Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Area-based initiatives have formed an important part of public policy towards more socio-economically deprived areas in many countries. Co-ordinating service provision within and across sectors has been a common feature of these initiatives. Despite sustained policy interest in area-based initiatives, little empirical work has explored relations between area-based initiative providers, and partnership development within this context remains under-theorised. This article addresses both of these gaps by exploring partnerships as a social and developmental process, drawing on concepts from figurational sociology to explain how provider relations develop within an area-based initiative. Qualitative methods were used to explore, prospectively, the development of an area-based initiative targeted at a town in the north west of England. A central finding was that although effective delivery of area-based initiatives is premised on a high level of co-ordination between service providers, the pattern of interdependencies between providers limits the frequency and effectiveness of co-operation. In particular, the interdependency of area-based initiative providers with others in their organisation (what is termed here as 'organisational pull') constrained the ways in which they worked with providers outside of their own organisations. 'Local' status, which could be earned over time, enabled some providers to exert greater control over the way in which provider relations developed during the course of the initiative. These findings demonstrate how historically constituted social networks, within which all providers are embedded, shape partnership development. The theoretical insight developed here suggests a need for more realistic expectations among policymakers about how and to what extent provider partnerships can be managed. PMID:24695385

  9. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). 36.212... Income Accounts Operating Revenues § 36.212 Basic local services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue—Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). (a) Local private line...

  10. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). 36.212... Income Accounts Operating Revenues § 36.212 Basic local services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue—Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). (a) Local private line...

  11. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). 36.212... Income Accounts Operating Revenues § 36.212 Basic local services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue—Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). (a) Local private line...

  12. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). 36.212... Income Accounts Operating Revenues § 36.212 Basic local services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue—Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies). (a) Local private line...

  13. Local Extinction in the Bird Assemblage in the Greater Beijing Area from 1877 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China’s natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877–1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004–2006. Birds recorded as ‘rare’ in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife. PMID:22768146

  14. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  15. Wintertime Local Circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar Metropolitan Area in the Presence of Temperature Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Temperature inversions are frequently observed in mountainous urban areas and can cause severe air pollution problems especially in wintertime. This study investigates wintertime local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, metropolitan area in the presence of temperature inversion using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model (SNUUCM). Ulaanbaatar is located in complex terrain and in a nearly east-west oriented valley. A wintertime scenario with clear skies, weak synoptic winds, and temperature inversion under the influence of a Siberian high-pressure system is selected. It is found that the thickness and strength of temperature inversion layer are associated with the terrain. The temperature inversion layer is deeper and stronger in the valleys than the mountain slopes, and its top height is typically lower than the maximum ridge top height of the surrounding mountains but higher than the boundary layer height. Weak local circulations develop in the presence of temperature inversion. In the daytime, weak mountain upslope winds develop, up-valley winds appear to be stronger in the urban area, and channeling winds are produced in the narrow valleys. The bottom of temperature inversion layer rises up in the urban area, and winds below the bottom of temperature inversion layer strengthen. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds develop with a lifted daytime residual layer. Urban effects in the presence of temperature inversion are examined by comparing simulation cases with and without the city. It is shown that in the daytime the urban area acts to elevate the bottom of temperature inversion layer and weaken the strength of temperature inversion layer. Compared to the simulation case without the city, the simulation case with the city shows that winds east of the city weaken in the afternoon and that down-valley winds develop later. These result from the interactions of urban breezes with valley winds.

  16. Local Slow Waves in Superficial Layers of Primary Cortical Areas during REM Sleep.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chadd M; Honjoh, Sakiko; Rodriguez, Alexander V; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-02-01

    Sleep is traditionally constituted of two global behavioral states, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM), characterized by quiescence and reduced responsiveness to sensory stimuli [1]. NREM sleep is distinguished by slow waves and spindles throughout the cerebral cortex and REM sleep by an "activated," low-voltage fast electroencephalogram (EEG) paradoxically similar to that of wake, accompanied by rapid eye movements and muscle atonia. However, recent evidence has shown that cortical activity patterns during wake and NREM sleep are not as global as previously thought. Local slow waves can appear in various cortical regions in both awake humans [2] and rodents [3-5]. Intracranial recordings in humans [6] and rodents [4, 7] have shown that NREM sleep slow waves most often involve only a subset of brain regions that varies from wave to wave rather than occurring near synchronously across all cortical areas. Moreover, some cortical areas can transiently "wake up" [8] in an otherwise sleeping brain. Yet until now, cortical activity during REM sleep was thought to be homogenously wake-like. We show here, using local laminar recordings in freely moving mice, that slow waves occur regularly during REM sleep, but only in primary sensory and motor areas and mostly in layer 4, the main target of relay thalamic inputs, and layer 3. This finding may help explain why, during REM sleep, we remain disconnected from the environment even though the bulk of the cortex shows wake-like, paradoxical activation. PMID:26804554

  17. Performance Evolution of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Deepak; Singhal, Ankur

    2011-12-01

    The Wireless network can be employed to connect wired network to the wireless network. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) are more bandwidth limited as compared to the wired networks because they rely on an inexpensive, but error prone, physical medium (air). Hence it is important to evaluate their performance. This paper presents a study of IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN). The performance evaluation has been presented via a series of test with different parameters such as data rate, different number of nodes and physical characteristics. The different qualities of service parameter are chosen to be throughput, media access delay and dropped data packets. The simulation results show that an IEEE 802.11b WLAN can support up to 60 clients with modest throughput. Finally the results are compared to evaluate the performance of wireless local networks.

  18. Neural mechanisms of auditory categorization: from across brain areas to within local microcircuits

    PubMed Central

    Tsunada, Joji; Cohen, Yale E.

    2014-01-01

    Categorization enables listeners to efficiently encode and respond to auditory stimuli. Behavioral evidence for auditory categorization has been well documented across a broad range of human and non-human animal species. Moreover, neural correlates of auditory categorization have been documented in a variety of different brain regions in the ventral auditory pathway, which is thought to underlie auditory-object processing and auditory perception. Here, we review and discuss how neural representations of auditory categories are transformed across different scales of neural organization in the ventral auditory pathway: from across different brain areas to within local microcircuits. We propose different neural transformations across different scales of neural organization in auditory categorization. Along the ascending auditory system in the ventral pathway, there is a progression in the encoding of categories from simple acoustic categories to categories for abstract information. On the other hand, in local microcircuits, different classes of neurons differentially compute categorical information. PMID:24987324

  19. Local and distant source contributions to secondary organic aerosol in the Beijing urban area in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; An, Junling; Qu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Li, Ying; Tang, Yujia; Wang, Feng; Xiang, Weiling

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of local and distant source contributions to particulate matter is a key issue to improving air quality in large urban areas, but few studies have focused on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source contributions in a large area, especially in China. In this study, we extended the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMX) version 5.4, replacing the two-product approach by the volatility basis-set (VBS) approach, with updated SOA yields based on smog chamber studies. The modules related to the computationally efficient particulate source apportionment technology (PSAT) used in CAMX v5.4 were extended based on the volatility basis set (VBS) approach. The updated version of the CAMX model was then used to calculate the local and distant source contributions to SOA in Beijing for the first time. The results indicated that the VBS approach substantially improved hourly, daily, and monthly SOA simulations, compared with the two-product approach and the observations. In August 2007, the local source contributions to anthropogenic and biogenic SOA in Beijing were 23.8% and 16.6%, respectively; distant sources dominated for both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA in Beijing: Northern Hebei, Middle Hebei, Northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Tianjin (including Xianghe) contributed 5.1%-18.2% to anthropogenic SOA in Beijing; whereas, Inner Mongolia, Northern Hebei, and Northeast China contributed 12.2%, 18.6%, and 10.1%, respectively, to biogenic SOA in Beijing. Additionally, other areas outside China respectively contributed 5.3% and 10.8% to anthropogenic and biogenic SOA in Beijing: this could be related to strong summer monsoon.

  20. 24 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Recognition Agreement Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (“Association”) fully represents the Homebuyers of the Development; NOW, THEREFORE, this agreement is entered... now held by the Authority, a contract for such purpose will be negotiated by the...

  1. 24 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Recognition Agreement Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (“Association”) fully represents the Homebuyers of the Development; NOW, THEREFORE, this agreement is entered... now held by the Authority, a contract for such purpose will be negotiated by the...

  2. Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prucnal, P. R.; Santoro, M. A.; Fan, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    Spread spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) allows asynchronous multiple access to a local area network (LAN) with no waiting. The additional bandwidth required by spread spectrum can be accommodated by using a fiber-optic channel and incoherent optical signal processing. New CDMA sequences are designed specifically for optical processing. It is shown that increasing the number of chips per bit, by using optical processing, allows an increase in capacity of a CDMA LAN. An experiment is performed demonstrating the performance of an optical CDMA LAN, operating at 100 Mbd with three users.

  3. Local area analysis of high-degree solar oscillations: New ring fitting procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Deborah A.; Toomre, Juri; Hill, Frank; Gough, Douglas O.

    1995-01-01

    The local area analysis of five-minute solar oscillations using ring diagrams to determine subphotospheric velocity flows is a tool for convection zone dynamics. In relation to the problem of the large computational task of fitting the rings, a faster method is presented that carries out the ring fitting using data obtained with a high l helioseismometer. Noise sources are eliminated, and a perturbation approach is used to fit the azimuthally averaged spectrum. The parameters determined in this way are held constant while the ring diagram is fitted. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  4. Electromagnetic interference of wireless local area network on electrocardiogram monitoring system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seungmin; Yi, Joohee; Park, Seung Woo

    2013-03-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect various medical devices. Herein, we report the case of EMI from wireless local area network (WLAN) on an electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. A patient who had a prior myocardial infarction participated in the cardiac rehabilitation program in the sports medicine center of our hospital under the wireless ECG monitoring system. After WLAN was installed, wireless ECG monitoring system failed to show a proper ECG signal. ECG signal was distorted when WLAN was turned on, but it was normalized after turning off the WLAN. PMID:23613696

  5. A Hospital Local Area Communication Network—The First Year's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Simborg, D. W.; Chadwick, M.; Whiting-O'Keefe, Q. E.; Tolchin, S. G.; Stewart, R. L.; Kahn, S. A.; Bergan, E. S.; Gafke, G. P.

    1982-01-01

    A local area communications network has been implemented at the University of California, San Francisco Hospital to integrate major components of the hospital's information system. This microprocessor-based network technology was developed by The Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University. The first year's experience has demonstrated the basic feasibility of this technology in simplifying the integration of diverse hardware and software systems. Four minicomputer-based UCSF systems now use the network to synchronize key patient identification and registration information among the systems. Clinical uses of the network will begin during the second year of the project.

  6. Development of Science and Mathematics Education System Including Teaching Experience of Students in Local Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kage, Hiroyuki

    New reformation project on engineering education, which is supported from 2005 to 2008FY by Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in Kyushu Institute of Technology. In this project, teaching experience of students is introduced into the curriculum of Faculty of Engineering. In the curriculum students try to prepare teaching materials and to teach local school pupils with them by themselves. Teaching experience is remarkably effective for them to strengthen their self-dependence and learning motivation. Science Education Center, Science Laboratory and Super Teachers College were also organized to promote the area cooperation on the education of science and mathematics.

  7. Gravity anomaly and geoid undulation results in local areas from GEOS-3 altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The adjusted GEOS-3 altimeter data, taken as averages within a data frame, have been used to construct free air anomaly and geoid undulation profiles and maps in areas of geophysical interest. Profiles were constructed across the Philippine Trench (at a latitude of 6 deg) and across the Bonin Trench (at a latitude of 28 deg). In the latter case an anomaly variation of 443 mgals in 143 km was derived from the altimeter data. These variations agreed reasonably with terrestrial estimates, considering the predicted point accuracy was about + or - 27 mgals. An area over the Patton Sea mounts was also investigated with the altimeter anomaly field agreeing well with the terrestrial data except for the point directly over the top of the sea mount. It is concluded that the GEOS-3 altimeter data is valuable not only for determining 5 deg and 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomalies, but also can be used to describe more local anomaly variations.

  8. Improved positioning by addition of atmospheric corrections to local area differential GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Malkiat; Reilly, Michael H.

    2006-10-01

    A local area differential GPS (DGPS) method applies corrections from a reference GPS receiver to improve positioning accuracy for a roaming GPS receiver. Increasing separation between reference and roaming receivers dilutes this improvement, largely because ionospheric and tropospheric effects differ between their two locations. We correct differential corrections for this difference and determine the improvement with this "atmospheric" DGPS method at roaming receiver positions that are separated from a Coast Guard reference receiver at Annapolis, Maryland, by 44, 67, and 228 km. For ionospheric corrections we use our Raytrace-Ionospheric conductivity and electron density-Bent-Gallagher ionospheric propagation model with driving parameters obtained from two-frequency data of surveyed reference GPS receivers. For tropospheric corrections we use the Hopfield model and weather station data for surface temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. Internet delivery of atmospheric differential corrections is used to avoid blockage or range cutoff of radio transmissions. Some comparisons are made with Wide Area Augmentation System GPS receiver performance.

  9. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

  10. Distributing College Budgets: A Study of Local Education Authority (LEA) Planning and Formulae-Funding Mechanisms in England. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Derek W.; Spencer, Anne C.

    The Education Reform Act 1988 provides for the reform of the funding and governance of colleges of further education in England and Wales, comprising about 400 colleges (equivalent to community colleges and vocational schools) across 104 local education authorities (LEAs). The process and formula for budget-setting is described, and a number of…

  11. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? 670.945 Section 670.945 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF...

  12. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? 670.945 Section 670.945 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE...

  13. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? 670.945 Section 670.945 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF...

  14. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? 670.945 Section 670.945 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE...

  15. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? 670.945 Section 670.945 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF...

  16. Local Education Authority Policies and Practices Relating to Drugs Education and Drug Misuse: Report of a Questionnaire and Interview Survey of LEAs in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann; Streatfield, David

    In order to identify and document Local Education Authority (LEA) policies and practices in relation to drug misuse and drugs education, a questionnaire was designed which examined: (1) LEA policy development and adoption; (2) staff with designated responsibility to coordinate and implement policies; (3) working parties and subcommittees; (4)…

  17. Working Together? Parent and Local Authority Views on the Process of Obtaining Appropriate Educational Provision for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tissot, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is general agreement across all interested parties that a process of working together is the best way to determine which school or educational setting is right for an individual child with autism spectrum disorder. In the UK, families and local authorities both desire a constructive working relationship and see this as the best…

  18. Integrity of local ecosystems and storm water management in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Weida; Gong, Zhaoguo

    2006-10-01

    The authors designed an ecological storm water system in a residential area to replace the conventional underground channels for the collection of storm water so as to reduce the nutrients and sediments discharged. This system contains natural sub-creeks as drainage channels discharging overflow to nearby creeks, an open green trench, a storage pond, and natural sub-creeks. The sub-creeks were designed to be integrated into community landscape, which not only increases the efficiency of water usage, but also improves the aesthetic qualities of the community residence area as required by Agenda 21. This research proved the feasibility of an open storm water collection and utilization system for the design of a community water system.

  19. Examining Marginalized Communities and Local Conservation Institutions: The Case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K.; Schuett, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system.

  20. Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Pupils with Severe Learning Disabilities in an Inner City Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Claire; Lever, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    To plan the effective delivery of local services, it is important to find out the extent to which children with learning disabilities are perceived as experiencing difficulties such as finding it hard to behave or make friends, or being overactive. Having obtained ethical approval, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was sent to 178

  1. Developing Positive Values: A Case Study of Holocaust Memorial Day in the Primary Schools of One Local Authority in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Paula; Maitles, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 22 of 24 Scottish elementary schools surveyed indicated that strong national commitment to Holocaust education and local support in terms of staff development, materials, a designated Holocaust education coordinator, and community involvement contributed to the quality of learning experiences. Informed attitudes about the Holocaust…

  2. 24 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Recognition Agreement Between Local Housing Authority and Homebuyers Association

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognition Agreement Between Local... Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT LOW RENT...

  3. 7 CFR 301.80-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas. The Deputy... paragraph (b) of this section of any premises designated as a regulated area or a suppressive or a generally... Deputy Administrator may, in a supplemental regulation designated as § 301.80-2b, list regulated...

  4. Local Dominance MOEA Including Control of Dominance Area of Solutions on 0/1 Multiobjective Knapsack Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; E. Aguirre, Hernán; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    Local dominance has been shown to improve significantly the overall performance of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) on combinatorial optimization problems. This work proposes the control of dominance area of solutions in local dominance MOEAs to enhance Pareto selection aiming to find solutions with high convergence and diversity properties. We control the expansion or contraction of the dominance area of solutions and analyze its effects on the search performance of a local dominance MOEA using 0/1 multiobjective knapsack problems. We show that convergence can be significantly improved while keeping a good distribution of solutions along the whole true Pareto front by using the local dominance MOEA with expansion of dominance area of solutions. We also show that dominance can be applied within very small neighborhoods by controlling the dominance area of solutions, which reduces significantly the computational cost of the local dominance MOEA.

  5. Real-time analysis application for identifying bursty local areas related to emergency topics.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuhiro; Tamura, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Since social media started getting more attention from users on the Internet, social media has been one of the most important information source in the world. Especially, with the increasing popularity of social media, data posted on social media sites are rapidly becoming collective intelligence, which is a term used to refer to new media that is displacing traditional media. In this paper, we focus on geotagged tweets on the Twitter site. These geotagged tweets are referred to as georeferenced documents because they include not only a short text message, but also the documents' posting time and location. Many researchers have been tackling the development of new data mining techniques for georeferenced documents to identify and analyze emergency topics, such as natural disasters, weather, diseases, and other incidents. In particular, the utilization of geotagged tweets to identify and analyze natural disasters has received much attention from administrative agencies recently because some case studies have achieved compelling results. In this paper, we propose a novel real-time analysis application for identifying bursty local areas related to emergency topics. The aim of our new application is to provide new platforms that can identify and analyze the localities of emergency topics. The proposed application is composed of three core computational intelligence techniques: the Naive Bayes classifier technique, the spatiotemporal clustering technique, and the burst detection technique. Moreover, we have implemented two types of application interface: a Web application interface and an android application interface. To evaluate the proposed application, we have implemented a real-time weather observation system embedded the proposed application. we used actual crawling geotagged tweets posted on the Twitter site. The weather observation system successfully detected bursty local areas related to observed emergency weather topics. PMID:25918679

  6. Inner Circles and Outer Reaches: Local and Global Information-Seeking Habits of Authors in Acknowledgment Paratext

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Nadine; Pecoskie, Jen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This research investigates paratextual acknowledgements in published codices in order to study how relationships inform the information-seeking habits of authors, an understudied group in library and information science. Method: A purposive sample consisting of the books from the 2010 nominations list of the Canadian Governor…

  7. The Impact of National Agenda on a Local Education Authority's Website: A Visual Semiotic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, Barbara Gail; Pendergast, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the website of an education authority in the state of Queensland, Australia during the changeover from a state-based curriculum to a national curriculum. The paper's value lies in the capture of an exact moment of change. Kress and van Leeuwen's grammar of visual design is employed to analyse the changes…

  8. Modelling the Demand for Higher Education by Local Authority Area in England Using Academic, Economic and Social Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Managing the demand for higher education has been a major concern of successive UK governments over the last 30years. While initially they sought to increase demand, latterly the emphasis has been on widening participation to include demographic groups among which it has traditionally been low. There had long been an academic and policy interest

  9. Modelling the Demand for Higher Education by Local Authority Area in England Using Academic, Economic and Social Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Managing the demand for higher education has been a major concern of successive UK governments over the last 30 years. While initially they sought to increase demand, latterly the emphasis has been on widening participation to include demographic groups among which it has traditionally been low. There had long been an academic and policy interest…

  10. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, S.; Frattini, P.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-11-01

    The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities. We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy), for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate. Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%. The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss). This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  11. Laboratory ascertainment of Cryptosporidium and local authority policies for investigating sporadic cases of cryptosporidiosis in two regions of the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, R M; Hughes, S; Thomas, A L; Woodhouse, S; Thomas, P D; Hunter, P

    2002-06-01

    To discover laboratory ascertainment and reporting practice for cases of cryptosporidiosis in two health authority regions, we surveyed laboratories serving Wales and the North West of England for faecal screening policies and methods for detection of Cryptosporidium. Forty-eight of the 49 laboratories responded, of which 39 (81%) screen all stool specimens from symptomatic individuals for Cryptosporidium and 9 (19%) screen selected specimens. Although laboratory screening is more complete than has been reported in other regions, we identified discrepancies where patient age was used as a selection criterion, and we make suggestions to amend this. Forty-two (88%) responding laboratories report confirmed cases to the regional Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC) and 45 (94%) report to the local authority environmental health department. We also surveyed local authorities in both regions for policy and practice concerning the investigation of reported cases of cryptosporidiosis in the same regions. All 59 local authorities responded, of which 57 (97%) investigate cases by completion of an exposure questionnaire as well as providing advice on the prevention of spread of infection. Variation in case ascertainment may influence perception of incidence, clusters and outbreaks of cases of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:12166296

  12. [On a novel Fomocaine synthesis/10th communication: on syntheses of new compounds with local anaesthetic activity (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Oelschläger, H; Iglesias-Meier, J; Götze, G; Schatton, W

    1977-01-01

    4-[3-(4-phenoxymethyl-phenyl)-propyl]-morpholine (fomocaine, Erbocain) is a very active topical local anaesthetic with low toxicity. A new synthesis starting from 4-phenoxy-methyl-benzonitrile, via a modified Willgerodt-Kindler reaction, is reported. The yield is of the same order as with the known technical process starting from 3-phenylpropanol. The distinct advantage of the new procedure is the avoidance of the C-chloromethylation of 3-phenylpropylchloride during which process the o-chloromethyl derivative is also formed, and this cannot be separated by fractional distillation. PMID:579126

  13. Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-07-01

    DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

  14. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  15. Local-Area Based Traffic Splitter for Improving Performance Using Subnetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Meenakshi; Mittal, Mohit Kumar

    2010-11-01

    This document provides an overview of LAN traffic splitter. The tool "Local-Area based Traffic splitter" is based on subnetting techniques. It is basically used for calculating subnets for sub-dividing the LAN. Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. There are various techniques for calculating subnets that are considered by this tool. This paper will explore the various features of this tool and will also check the effect of subnetting after implementing it on the LAN. These instructions give you basic guidelines for preparing camera-ready papers for conference proceedings.

  16. Fire history reconstruction in grassland ecosystems: amount of charcoal reflects local area burned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Brewer, Simon C.; McConaghy, Scott; Mueller, Joshua; McLauchlan, Kendra K.

    2015-11-01

    Fire is one of the most prevalent disturbances in the Earth system, and its past characteristics can be reconstructed using charcoal particles preserved in depositional environments. Although researchers know that fires produce charcoal particles, interpretation of the quantity or composition of charcoal particles in terms of fire source remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a unique four-year dataset of charcoal deposited in traps from a native tallgrass prairie in mid-North America to test which environmental factors were linked to charcoal measurements on three spatial scales. We investigated small and large charcoal particles commonly used as a proxy of fire activity at different spatial scales, and charcoal morphotypes representing different types of fuel. We found that small (125-250 μm) and large (250 μm-1 mm) particles of charcoal are well-correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.88) and likely reflect the same spatial scale of fire activity in a system with both herbaceous and woody fuels. There was no significant relationship between charcoal pieces and fire parameters <500 m from the traps. Moreover, local area burned (<5 km distance radius from traps) explained the total charcoal amount, and regional burning (200 km radius distance from traps) explained the ratio of non arboreal to total charcoal (NA/T ratio). Charcoal variables, including total charcoal count and NA/T ratio, did not correlate with other fire parameters, vegetation cover, landscape, or climate variables. Thus, in long-term studies that involve fire history reconstructions, total charcoal particles, even of a small size (125-250 μm), could be an indicator of local area burned. Further studies may determine relationships among amount of charcoal recorded, fire intensity, vegetation cover, and climatic parameters.

  17. The relationship between local area labor market conditions and the use of Veterans Affairs health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the U.S., economic conditions are intertwined with labor market decisions, access to health care, health care utilization and health outcomes. The Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system has served as a safety net provider by supplying free or reduced cost care to qualifying veterans. This study examines whether local area labor market conditions, measured using county-level unemployment rates, influence whether veterans obtain health care from the VA. Methods We used survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in years 2000, 2003 and 2004 to construct a random sample of 73,964 respondents self-identified as veterans. VA health service utilization was defined as whether veterans received all, some or no care from the VA. Hierarchical ordered logistic regression was used to address unobserved state and county random effects while adjusting for individual characteristics. Local area labor market conditions were defined as the average 12-month unemployment rate in veterans’ county of residence. Results The mean unemployment rate for veterans receiving all, some and no care was 5.56%, 5.37% and 5.24%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate in a veteran’s county of residence was associated with an increase in the probability of receiving all care (0.34%, p-value = 0.056) or some care (0.29%, p-value = 0.023) from the VA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the important role of the VA in providing health care services to veterans is magnified in locations with high unemployment. PMID:23496888

  18. ASCAT soil moisture data assimilation in the local area model ALADIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.

    2010-09-01

    Soil moisture is crucial for all biological life on land and controls the energy, water and carbon fluxes at the land surface, thus influencing the weather. Therefore, knowledge about the soil moisture distribution is of large interest for weather forecasting, flood and drought monitoring, and civil protection. Investigations are showing that the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture in mid-latitudes has important implications especially for the summertime convective precipitation distribution. In general, higher levels of soil moisture and evapotranspiration lead to higher levels of precipitation due to feedback mechanisms. To determine the soil moisture distribution, the field of microwave remote sensing has been an important research topic since the 1970s, but only in the last few years significant progress towards operational soil moisture services has been made. This progress became possible due to advances in sensor technology and new algorithmic approaches. The first near-real-time (broadcasting within 130 minutes after sensing) soil moisture service was started by EUMETSAT in May 2008 based on METOP ASCAT scatterometer, providing soil moisture data on a 25km grid over Europe with a temporal coverage of about 1.5 days. While there are already several investigations about assimilation of these data to global forecast models resulting in small improvements of screen level parameters, ASCAT soil moisture assimilation in local area model (LAM) is a new scientific topic. For this purpose, the high resolution measurements are assimilated at the Austrian federal weather service ZAMG into its version of the local area model ALADIN. The main goal is the further improvement of the forecast quality, especially in convective situations, taking into account the complex topography in Austria. Data assimilation is executed with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach developed at Météo France and CNRM within the surface modelling system SURFEX. The presentation of results from several test runs will highlight advantages and problems of this new system, both for scientific research and operational weather forecasting.

  19. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortstrm, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180 and automatic event location capability down to ML 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ? -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ? -0.1 to 0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and location capability of the network.

  20. 20 CFR 669.555 - Do the WIA administrative cost limits for States and local areas apply to NFJP grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Performance Accountability, Planning and Waiver Provision 669.555 Do the WIA administrative cost limits for States and local areas apply to NFJP grants? No, under 20 CFR 667.210(b),...

  1. An ethnographic study of acute respiratory infections in four local government areas of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyejide, C O; Oke, E A

    1995-03-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted in four local government areas of Nigeria. The techniques of informal unstructured interviews and participant observation were used. A total of 104 focus group discussions with 53 groups of mothers, 21 groups of grandmothers, and 30 groups of fathers were conducted. Perception of causes of ARI ranged from cold water, to heredity, poor hygiene, exposure to smoke and dust and the supernatural forces. Preventive measures described were related to the perceived causes. For those groups that discussed home remedies to the treatment of ARI, the remedies described for cough included herbal drinks (39% of groups); honey with lemon (19.5%); eating specific vegetables believed to relieve cough (8.4%); and preparations containing palm oil (21.7%). Remedies described for measles included herbal drinks (62%); local tropical creams (24%); and palm wine (13.7%). Those for ear infections included drops of herbal mixtures in the ear (29.4%); putting various type of oil in the ear (38%); plugging the ear with cotton wool previously dipped in honey, or alcohol (17%). The findings of this study have implications for the Health Education Component of the National ARI Control Programm which Nigeria recently embarked upon. There is also the need for research on the efficacy and any possible adverse effects of identified home remedies. PMID:7495206

  2. Indoor Positioning in Wireless Local Area Networks with Online Path-Loss Parameter Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Location based services are gathering an even wider interest also in indoor environments and urban canyons, where satellite systems like GPS are no longer accurate. A much addressed solution for estimating the user position exploits the received signal strengths (RSS) in wireless local area networks (WLANs), which are very common nowadays. However, the performances of RSS based location systems are still unsatisfactory for many applications, due to the difficult modeling of the propagation channel, whose features are affected by severe changes. In this paper we propose a localization algorithm which takes into account the nonstationarity of the working conditions by estimating and tracking the key parameters of RSS propagation. It is based on a Sequential Monte Carlo realization of the optimal Bayesian estimation scheme, whose functioning is improved by exploiting the Rao-Blackwellization rationale. Two key statistical models for RSS characterization are deeply analyzed, by presenting effective implementations of the proposed scheme and by assessing the positioning accuracy by extensive computer experiments. Many different working conditions are analyzed by simulated data and corroborated through the validation in a real world scenario. PMID:25165755

  3. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Local Measures of Performance...

  4. 47 CFR 36.212 - Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Income Accounts Operating Revenues § 36.212 Basic local services revenue—Account 5000 (Class B telephone... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic local services revenue-Account 5000 (Class B telephone companies); Basic area revenue-Account 5001 (Class A telephone companies)....

  5. 20 CFR 667.645 - What procedures apply to the appeals of non-designation of local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... local workforce investment area. (e) The Secretary must issue a written decision to the Governor and the..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Grievance... denial of a request for automatic or temporary and subsequent designation as a local workforce...

  6. [Case report: percutaneous nephrostomy and instrumental extraction of a blocking renal claculus under local anesthesia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thüroff, J W; Hutschenreiter, G

    1980-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasonic guidance is a reliable method for suprapublic urinary diversion with a low complication rate. Indications are acute or chronic obstruction of the upper urinary tract from the intravesical ureter to the neck of renal calyx. Etiology of the obstruction may be a renal or ureteral calculus, an intrinsic or extrinsic (radiogenic, inflammatory, tumorous) stenosis of the ureter or a functional ureteral obstruction (megaureter, reflux). In the reported case of an ultrasonically guided percutaneous nephrostomy, the indication for urinary diversion was blocking renal calculus with urosepsis. Any operative procedure was contraindicated because of several internal disease. With sufficient urinary drainage, fever subsided and gradual dilatation of the nephrostomy channel with instrumental extraction of the calculus could be performed under local anesthesia. Percutaneous nephrostomy is recommended for urinary diversion in cases of blocking renal calculi with infection if an operation cannot be performed. This approach bears the option of a later cure by intrumental extraction, litholypaxy or chemical dissolution of the stone. PMID:7423682

  7. The impact of Local Authorities' interventions on household waste collection: a case study approach using time series modelling.

    PubMed

    Cole, Christine; Quddus, Mohammed; Wheatley, Andrew; Osmani, Mohamed; Kay, Kath

    2014-02-01

    At a local Government level there have been many interventions and changes made to household waste collection services to meet new regulatory requirements. These changes include separate collection of recyclable and organic materials. This paper has used a time series model to quantify the success of interventions introduced by a LA. The case study was a medium sized UK LA, Charnwood Borough Council (CBC), the research analyses monthly data of quantities of recyclates, garden waste for composting and residual waste for landfill disposal. The time series model was validated with a five year data set and used to measure the impacts of the various changes to identify which intervention was the most successful, while controlling for season and number of working days. The results show the interventions analysed both had abrupt and permanent positive impacts on the yield of recyclable materials, and a corresponding negative impact on the residual waste. The model could be added to the National data base to help LAs to compare interventions and to understand which schemes encourage householder participation and improve recycling performance. PMID:24256716

  8. P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Lees, J.M.; Malone, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ???10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Seth C.; Lees, Jonathan M.; Malone, Stephen D.

    1999-05-01

    We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ˜10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics.

  10. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ˜ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ˜ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ˜-0.1 to ˜0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and location capability of the network.

  11. Dense distributed temperature sensing to infer local seepage fluxes in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgersom, Koen; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    In many deltas, land surfaces are largely below sea level, and consequently suffering from saline groundwater seepage. This phenomenon affects the fresh water supply for, for example, agriculture and drinking water production. In many of those deltas, sea level rise and land subsidence enhance these problems. Depending on the geology, the seepage fluxes can occur both distributed and locally. Local seepage occurs through ancient channels that were filled with higher-conductive material at later times, but also works its way up via small vents through the soil. The latter is called boil seepage and usually is the most saline of the mentioned seepage types. Boils commonly appear in ditches and canals, since the pressure gradient is most of the time larger compared to the surrounding area. Although boils appear only as local point inflows, their high discharge and consequent salt flux can make them contribute for over 70% of the salt flux into lowland water systems (de Louw et al., 2010). Seepage measurement methods include the application of so-called seepage meters and tracers like temperature. Conventional methods using temperature differences between groundwater and surface water require drilling temperature sensors into the soil. Because the locations of boils are sensitive to disturbances of the soil, we measure the seepage flux by measuring a 3D temperature profile in the surface water above the boil instead. The seepage flux is inferred from a numerical surface water model that includes salt and temperature transport. Laboratory and field results show the onset of stratification because of the denser groundwater. In the winter situation, the temperature of the groundwater is relatively high, and double diffusive processes may play a role, mainly because there is negligible lateral flow most of the time, when the downstream pumping station is not active. Therefore, a model is set up that is well able to represent these double diffusive processes. References De Louw, P.G.B., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Stuyfzand, P.J., and van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M.: Upward groundwater flow in boils as the dominant mechanism of salinization in deep polders, The Netherlands, Journal of Hydrology, 394, 494-506, 2010.

  12. Can areas of myocardial ischemia be localized by the exercise electrocardiogram. A correlative study with thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Abouantoun, S.; Ahnve, S.; Savvides, M.; Witztum, K.; Jensen, D.; Froelicher, V.

    1984-10-01

    In order to determine whether areas of ischemia identified by thallium-201 scintigraphy could be localized by exercise ECG, we studied 54 patients with stable coronary heart disease. All 54 patients had exercise-induced thallium-201 scintigraphic defects. Their exercise ECG test results were compared to their thallium-201 images and also to 14 low-risk normal subjects. Exercise data were analyzed for spatial ST vector shifts, using a computer program in order to most accurately classify ST segment depression and elevation. Thallium-201 ischemic defects detected in our patients included areas in the septum and the inferior, lateral, and anterior walls. Twenty-six of these 54 patients also had coronary angiography for classification and comparison as having either localized or generalized disease. None of the scintigraphic ischemic sites or angiographic diseased areas could be specifically identified by exercise-induced ST vector shifts. Therefore, the surface exercise ECG has limitations in localizing ischemia to specific areas of the myocardium.

  13. Using a novel source-localized phase regressor technique for evaluation of the vascular contribution to semantic category area localization in BOLD fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Vu, An T.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that gradient-echo blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI is biased toward large draining veins. However, the impact of this large vein bias on the localization and characterization of semantic category areas has not been examined. Here we address this issue by comparing standard magnitude measures of BOLD activity in the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) and Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA) to those obtained using a novel method that suppresses the contribution of large draining veins: source-localized phase regressor (sPR). Unlike previous suppression methods that utilize the phase component of the BOLD signal, sPR yields robust and unbiased suppression of large draining veins even in voxels with no task-related phase changes. This is confirmed in ideal simulated data as well as in FFA/PPA localization data from four subjects. It was found that approximately 38% of right PPA, 14% of left PPA, 16% of right FFA, and 6% of left FFA voxels predominantly reflect signal from large draining veins. Surprisingly, with the contributions from large veins suppressed, semantic category representation in PPA actually tends to be lateralized to the left rather than the right hemisphere. Furthermore, semantic category areas larger in volume and higher in fSNR were found to have more contributions from large veins. These results suggest that previous studies using gradient-echo BOLD fMRI were biased toward semantic category areas that receive relatively greater contributions from large veins. PMID:26578868

  14. Early Local Activity in Temporal Areas Reflects Graded Content of Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Tagliabue, Chiara F.; Mazzi, Chiara; Bagattini, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In visual cognitive neuroscience the debate on consciousness is focused on two major topics: the search for the neural correlates of the different properties of visual awareness and the controversy on the graded versus dichotomous nature of visual conscious experience. The aim of this study is to search for the possible neural correlates of different grades of visual awareness investigating the Event Related Potentials to reduced contrast visual stimuli whose perceptual clarity was rated on the four-point Perceptual Awareness Scale. Results revealed a left centro-parietal negative deflection (Visual Awareness Negativity; VAN) peaking at 280–320 ms from stimulus onset, related to the perceptual content of the stimulus, followed by a bilateral positive deflection (Late Positivity; LP) peaking at 510–550 ms over almost all electrodes, reflecting post-perceptual processes performed on such content. Interestingly, the amplitude of both deflections gradually increased as a function of visual awareness. Moreover, the intracranial generators of the phenomenal content (VAN) were found to be located in the left temporal lobe. The present data thus seem to suggest (1) that visual conscious experience is characterized by a gradual increase of perceived clarity at both behavioral and neural level and (2) that the actual content of perceptual experiences emerges from early local activation in temporal areas, without the need of later widespread frontal engagement. PMID:27199809

  15. An Ethernet local area network controller with supporting operating system software

    SciTech Connect

    Konigsfeld, K.G.

    1987-08-01

    Presented in this thesis is the design of an Ethernet local area network as applied to both a general purpose interface and an application specific network system. First, the design considerations for both hardware and software are analyzed. Next, the design of an IBM PC/AT Ethernet controller and interface is presented. The hardware is described as it relates specifically to the IBM PC/AT environment as well as a development system for a stand-alone processor and communication link. One application of this stand-alone processor is the Cedar diagnostic system which uses several remote processors linked together through an Ethernet network. In addition to being a development system, the IBM PC/AT controller is also a potential network manager for the diagnostic system. The design of the controller's low-level operating system is also described as an implementation of the issues of protocol control and processor management. The operating system executes within the confines of the stand-alone processor system and may also be applied to the Cedar diagnostic system as a flexible program executive. Finally, current development problems and future work are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Wireless body area network node localization using small-scale spatial information.

    PubMed

    Lo, Geoffrey; Gonzalez-Valenzuela, Sergio; Leung, Victor C M

    2013-05-01

    We present a new scheme to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Instantaneous atmospheric air pressure readings are compared to map nodes in physical space. This enhancement enables unassisted sensor node placement, providing a practical solution to obtain and continuously monitor node locations without anchor nodes or beacons. To validate this localization scheme, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the performance and limitations. Based on a 60 cm separation between nodes, indicative of the expected separation between limbs and placement positions along a patient's body, the measurements consistently exceeded p -value reliability within a 95% confidence interval. We also present and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement aiming to reduce false-positive (Type I) errors in conventional accelerometer-based on-body fall detection schemes. Our statistical analysis has shown that by continuously monitoring the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate “fall-like” motions from actual falls. PMID:24592472

  17. A study of topologies and protocols for fiber optic local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.

    1985-01-01

    The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.

  18. Autonomous Local Area Control over Membrane Transport in Chara Internodal Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Fisahn, Joachim; Lucas, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Internodal cells of Chara were separated with a Plexiglas divider into two segments and the vibrating probe was used to investigate the extracellular current profiles that formed along these two surfaces. Treating one segment of the Chara cell with K+ concentrations greater than 2 millimolar caused a dramatic reduction in the extracellular current pattern in this compartment. Concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 millimolar K+ were used to establish that a normal current profile could be maintained along the cell surface in the control compartment, whereas the extracellular current profile was strongly reduced along the entire cell surface that was located in the second, high-K+ compartment. Simultaneous measurements of the membrane potential in the two segments of the divided Chara cell established that, in the presence of elevated K+ concentrations, a longitudinal voltage gradient of up to 60 millivolts was maintained. Experiments in which the pH value in one compartment was either decreased (pH 6.0) or increased (pH 11) gave rise to a reduced extracellular current profile along this segment of the cell, whereas the pattern in the control segment remained unaltered. These results are discussed in terms of the cellular spatial control system that must function to regulate the regions of outward and inward current, and the concept of autonomous local area (domain) control is presented. PMID:16668102

  19. Implementation of local area network extension for instrumentation standard trigger capabilities in advanced data acquisition platformsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. M.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; de Arcas, G.; Vega, J.

    2008-10-01

    Synchronization mechanisms are an essential part of the real-time distributed data acquisition systems (DASs) used in fusion experiments. Traditionally, they have been based on the use of digital signals. The approach known as local area network extension for instrumentation (LXI) provides a set of very powerful synchronization and trigger mechanisms. The Intelligent Test Measurement System (ITMS) is a new platform designed to implement distributed data acquisition and fast data processing for fusion experiments. It is based on COMPATPCI technology and its extension to instrumentation (PXI). Hardware and software elements have been developed to include LXI trigger and synchronization mechanisms in this platform in order to obtain a class A LXI instrument. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, involving the following components: commercial hardware running a Linux operating system; a real-time extension to an operating system and network (RTAI and RTNET), which implements a software precision time protocol (PTP) using IEEE1588; an ad hoc PXI module to support hardware implementation of PTP-IEEE 1588; and the multipoint, low-voltage differential signaling hardware LXI trigger bus.

  20. Local-area health monitoring of aircraft via piezoelectric actuator/sensor patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Zaffir A.; Joseph, T.; Sun, Fanping P.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1995-05-01

    A high-frequency-electrical-impedance-signature-based technique for structural integrity monitoring is presented. The technique which has been under investigation at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures at Virginia Tech for the last 18 months is unique and different from conventional non-destructive damage identification and structural integrity monitoring methods. It relies on tracking the high-frequency (typically > 50 kHz) point impedance of the structure to identify damage. At such high frequencies, the technique is comparable in sensitivity to sophisticated traditional NDE techniques, such as ultrasonics, and is capable of qualitatively detecting incipient-type damage by looking at changes in structural impedance. As yet, it can be implemented in a remote sensing scenario with small non- intrusive piezoelectric (PZT) materials. The structure's high-frequency electrical impedance signature, which is functionally equivalent to its mechanical impedance signature, is obtained through a bonded PZT functioning both as actuator and sensor. A statistic algorithm based on the difference in the electrical impedance of a healthy and a damaged structure, is then applied to extract an index of the health of the structure. High-frequency excitation, which is greatly facilitated by the electrically driven low-power compact PZT patch, assures a clearly visible change in the impedance/vibration signature even for very minor damage/changes. It also limits the actuation/sensing area to a small region, `local-area', close to the PZT patch. Because of the limited actuation/sensing area, the impedance signature is affected only by changes in the structural properties close to the sensor-actuator and is insensitive to changes in far-field boundary conditions, mass loading, etc., which may be part of the normal usage of the structure. As a case study, an application to a real complex aircraft structure is presented. Experimental proof that very minor alterations in the structure are easily identified and the fact that the detection range of the bonded PZT actuator/sensor is constrained to its immediate neighborhood is presented.

  1. Allocating resources to health authorities: results and policy implications of small area analysis of use of inpatient services.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.; Sheldon, T. A.; Carr-Hill, R. A.; Martin, S.; Peacock, S.; Hardman, G.

    1994-01-01

    A study designed to identify the principal determinants of use of inpatient facilities in NHS hospitals in England used the data and methods outlined in the previous paper. The model for the psychiatric sector contains mortality, self reported morbidity, and social variables indicating deprivation and the level of care at home. The non-acute model contains mortality and several socioeconomic variables. The models lay less weight on age than the current formula, and a national formula based on these models would, in the acute sector, redistribute resources to poorer areas compared with the current formula. PMID:7950738

  2. Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Gaudart, Jean; Touré, Ousmane; Dessay, Nadine; Dicko, A lassane; Ranque, Stéphane; Forest, Loic; Demongeot, Jacques; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2009-01-01

    Background The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models. Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. Methods A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI), issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA) from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data. The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia. Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. Results The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001). An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007) provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR) of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]). The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately predicted. The error parameters have shown the smallest values for a monthly model of environmental changes. Conclusion Remote-sensed data were coupled with field study data in order to drive a malaria transmission model. Several studies have shown that the NDVI presents significant correlations with climate variables, such as precipitations particularly in Sudanese savannah environments. Non-linear model combining environmental variables, predisposition factors and transmission pattern can be used for community level risk evaluation. PMID:19361335

  3. Pregnancy-associated outcomes in women who spent some of their childhood looked after by local authorities: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Botchway, Stella K; Quigley, Maria A; Gray, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There has been very little description of the health and social outcomes at pregnancy and early motherhood of girls who were previously looked after by local authorities. The objectives of this study were to compare the sociodemographic and health profiles of mothers who had spent time in a children's home or with foster parents as a child to mothers who had not. In particular, to examine associations between being looked after and the likelihood of smoking during pregnancy, birth weight, the presence of symptoms of maternal depression and the initiation of breastfeeding. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study using the baseline questionnaire of the Millennium Cohort Study. Setting The UK. Participants A nationally representative study of 18 492 mothers of babies born in the UK during 2000–2002. Exposure A history of spending time in a children's home or with foster parents. Outcome measures (1) Smoking during pregnancy; (2) low birth weight; (3) symptoms of maternal depression and (4) initiation of breastfeeding. Results In univariable analyses, women who had been looked after by local authorities were significantly less likely to be of a higher social class, live in a high-income household or have achieved a high level of education. They were more likely to have a low-birthweight baby and be a single parent. In multivariable analyses, women who had been looked after by local authorities were more likely to smoke during pregnancy (adjusted OR 3.0 95% CI 2.14 to 4.3) and were more likely to have symptoms of depression (adjusted OR 1.98 95% CI 1.4 to 2.7) compared with women who had not been looked after. Conclusions Our results suggest that these women carry social disadvantage into motherhood, with the potential of continuing the cycle of deprivation. There is a case for increasing our attention on this group, which can be readily accessed by maternity and early years’ services. PMID:25510884

  4. Assessment of antibody responses in local and immigrant residents of areas with autochthonous malaria transmission in Greece.

    PubMed

    Piperaki, Evangelia-Theofano; Mavrouli, Maria; Tseroni, Maria; Routsias, John; Kallimani, Athina; Veneti, Lamprini; Georgitsou, Maria; Chania, Maria; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2015-07-01

    Greece has been officially malaria free since 1974. However, from 2009 to 2012, several locally acquired, cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria were detected, in immigrants and in Greek citizens. In this study, the antibody (Ab) response of Greeks and immigrants with documented malaria was initially assessed, followed by an Ab screening of Greeks and immigrant residents of local transmission areas. Of the 38 patients tested, 10.5% of Greeks and 15.7% of immigrants were positive 5-7 months after infection. Of the 1,019 individuals from various areas of Greece, including those of autochthonous transmission, 85 of the 721 (11.8%) immigrants were positive, whereas all 298 Greeks were negative. The rapid Ab titer decline observed is reasonable, given the non-endemic epidemiological setting. The seroepidemiological findings indicate that the local Greek population remains malaria naive and that at this point Greeks are unlikely to serve as reservoir for the infection of local mosquitoes. PMID:26013377

  5. H.R. 1085: A Bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to provide congressional authorization for State and local flow control authority over solid waste, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The report H.R. 1085 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to provide congressional authorization for State and local flow control authority over solid waste. The proposed legislative text is provided.

  6. Ranging error overbounds for navigation integrity of local area augmented GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayim, Irfan

    The use of Differential GPS (DGPS) in aviation has been especially attractive in the past decade because of its potential to provide the means for satellite-based aircraft navigation spanning all aspects of flight, from takeoff to touchdown, with low cost and high availability. While this has been an inspiring goal, serious technical obstacles exist, the most difficult of which are related with navigation integrity for aircraft precision approach and landing. For example, for Category I precision approach, it is required that integrity risk (probability of hazardously misleading navigation information) never exceed 10-8. The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is the DGPS architecture standard under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide precision approach and landing navigation for civil aircraft. Navigation integrity risk for LAAS will be managed at the aircraft via the computation of Protection Levels, which are position error bounds within which navigation integrity is to be ensured. Existing standardized algorithms for the generation of the protection levels implicitly assume zero-mean, normally distributed ranging error distributions. Unfortunately, while the assumed error model is likely consistent with the effects of certain error sources (receiver thermal noise and diffuse multipath), it is widely understood that significant remaining errors, such as ground reflection multipath and systematic receiver/antenna errors, cannot be directly modeled by zero-mean normal distributions. In this dissertation, the critical issues concerning establishment and sufficiency of overbounding ranging error distributions are addressed in detail. These include: quantification of the sensitivity of integrity risk due to statistical uncertainty; derivation of theoretical bounding models for non-zero-mean error sources; derivation of new bounding distribution models for non-gaussian ground-reflection multipath error; quantification and compensation for the effects of seasonal variation of multipath error; development, implementation, and testing of a new, adaptive binning algorithm to conservatively accommodate non-stationary and time-correlated empirical satellite ranging error data.

  7. The Expectations of the Local Community and Visitors From Tourism in Rural Areas: Case of Safranbolu-Yorukkoyo Village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiper, Tugba; Arslan, Mukerrem

    The formation and development of tourism in a specific rural area is bound to the natural and cultural landscape assets, which alters that area from others. In fact, many components such as the local culture, agricultural pattern and natural resources are the features that form rural areas. For this reason determining the expectations and inclinations of the local community who are the center of the target group and those participators that are to use these resources is an important subject. In this study, the topics were questioned with a research based on questionnaires, observations and related literature are (1) What is the visitors= land use and satisfaction level? (2) What are the expectations of the local community from tourism and what are they able to do? With this aim, different questionnaires were applied to the visitors and the local community in the case of the Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu Village. These questionnaires were applied to a total of randomly selected 194 people. One hundred and forty four of them were composed of visitors and 50 of them were from the local community. Questionnaires have been applied to people having different socio-economic structures in June and July of 2004. The research shows that Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu has a suitable potential for rural tourism with its historical, cultural and natural resources. These resources can contribute to the diversification and distribution of tourism to different seasons and the local people can have active roles during this process.

  8. Author! Author! Beverly Cleary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Beverly Cleary. Born on April 12, 1916 in McMinnville, Oregon (Yamhill County), Beverly Cleary celebrated her eighty-ninth birthday in 2005. Cleary is probably best known for creating "Ramona" and the other children's book characters who live on Klickitat Street in Portland, Oregon. A selective…

  9. The Use of Local Parks by Older Residents of Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Blazey, Michael

    Local parks in five large cities (San Francisco, Houston, Atlanta, Chicago, Boston) were selected for a study of the use of urban parks by older adults (55 to 65 and over). Interviews were conducted with park users to determine: (1) meaning, motivation, and satisfactions associated with local park usage; (2) factors of usage such as time of day,…

  10. Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence farming and illegal logging. This intensification of activities has mostly affected land on slopes in an area where over 40 % of the area is subject to landslides. Relatively, the prevailing land use/cover change process in both areas, as usually in most European mountain areas, is reforestation. Small-scale changes however were most important in terms of negative consequences. Therefore we think it is necessary to focus on the local scale when identifying possible future negative consequences of land use/cover change. Acknowledgement This work is a part of the CHANGES project (Changing hydro-meteorological risks - as Analysed by a New Generation of European Scientists), a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, funded by the European Community's 7'th Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under Grant Agreement No. 263953.

  11. Local area network with fault-checking, priorities, and redundant backup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Sergio (Inventor); Friedman, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention is a redundant error detecting and correcting local area networked computer system having a plurality of nodes each including a network connector board within the node for connecting to an interfacing transceiver operably attached to a network cable. There is a first network cable disposed along a path to interconnect the nodes. The first network cable includes a plurality of first interfacing transceivers attached thereto. A second network cable is disposed in parallel with the first cable and, in like manner, includes a plurality of second interfacing transceivers attached thereto. There are a plurality of three position switches each having a signal input, three outputs for individual selective connection to the input, and a control input for receiving signals designating which of the outputs is to be connected to the signal input. Each of the switches includes means for designating a response address for responding to addressed signals appearing at the control input and each of the switches further has its signal input connected to a respective one of the input/output lines from the nodes. Also, one of the three outputs is connected to a repective one of the plurality of first interfacing transceivers. There is master switch control means having an output connected to the control inputs of the plurality of three position switches and an input for receiving directive signals for outputting addressed switch position signals to the three position switches as well as monitor and control computer means having a pair of network connector boards therein connected to respective ones of one of the first interfacing transceivers and one of the second interfacing transceivers and an output connected to the input of the master switch means for monitoring the status of the networked computer system by sending messages to the nodes and receiving and verifying messages therefrom and for sending control signals to the master switch to cause the master switch to cause respective ones of the nodes to use a desired one of the first and second cables for transmitting and receiving messages and for disconnecting desired ones of the nodes from both cables.

  12. Bandwidth characteristics of multimedia data traffic on a local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Shery L.; Doubek, Sharon; Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Limited spacecraft communication links call for users to investigate the potential use of video compression and multimedia technologies to optimize bandwidth allocations. The objective was to determine the transmission characteristics of multimedia data - motion video, text or bitmap graphics, and files transmitted independently and simultaneously over an ethernet local area network. Commercial desktop video teleconferencing hardware and software and Intel's proprietary Digital Video Interactive (DVI) video compression algorithm were used, and typical task scenarios were selected. The transmission time, packet size, number of packets, and network utilization of the data were recorded. Each data type - compressed motion video, text and/or bitmapped graphics, and a compressed image file - was first transmitted independently and its characteristics recorded. The results showed that an average bandwidth of 7.4 kilobits per second (kbps) was used to transmit graphics; an average bandwidth of 86.8 kbps was used to transmit an 18.9-kilobyte (kB) image file; a bandwidth of 728.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 15 frames per second (fps); and a bandwidth of 75.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 1.5 fps. Average packet sizes were 933 bytes for graphics, 498.5 bytes for the image file, 345.8 bytes for motion video at 15 fps, and 341.9 bytes for motion video at 1.5 fps. Simultaneous transmission of multimedia data types was also characterized. The multimedia packets used transmission bandwidths of 341.4 kbps and 105.8kbps. Bandwidth utilization varied according to the frame rate (frames per second) setting for the transmission of motion video. Packet size did not vary significantly between the data types. When these characteristics are applied to Space Station Freedom (SSF), the packet sizes fall within the maximum specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The uplink of imagery to SSF may be performed at minimal frame rates and/or within seconds of delay, depending on the user's allocated bandwidth. Further research to identify the acceptable delay interval and its impact on human performance is required. Additional studies in network performance using various video compression algorithms and integrated multimedia techniques are needed to determine the optimal design approach for utilizing SSF's data communications system.

  13. 20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activities, for adults and dislocated workers, and Statewide youth activities, as described in 20 CFR 665.200... WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20 CFR 665.310 through 665.330. In making this reservation, the Governor... operate projects in local areas in accordance with the requirements of WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20...

  14. 20 CFR 667.600 - What local area, State and direct recipient grievance procedures must be established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... individuals. Such efforts must comply with the language requirements of 29 CFR 37.35 regarding the provision... do not apply to discrimination complaints brought under WIA section 188 and/or 29 CFR part 37. Such... applicable to Job Corps are set forth at 20 CFR 670.990. (b) Each local area, State, and direct...

  15. 20 CFR 667.600 - What local area, State and direct recipient grievance procedures must be established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... individuals. Such efforts must comply with the language requirements of 29 CFR 37.35 regarding the provision... do not apply to discrimination complaints brought under WIA section 188 and/or 29 CFR part 37. Such... applicable to Job Corps are set forth at 20 CFR 670.990. (b) Each local area, State, and direct...

  16. 20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities, for adults and dislocated workers, and Statewide youth activities, as described in 20 CFR 665.200... WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20 CFR 665.310 through 665.330. In making this reservation, the Governor... operate projects in local areas in accordance with the requirements of WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20...

  17. 20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities, for adults and dislocated workers, and Statewide youth activities, as described in 20 CFR 665.200... WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20 CFR 665.310 through 665.330. In making this reservation, the Governor... operate projects in local areas in accordance with the requirements of WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20...

  18. 20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activities, for adults and dislocated workers, and Statewide youth activities, as described in 20 CFR 665.200... WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20 CFR 665.310 through 665.330. In making this reservation, the Governor... operate projects in local areas in accordance with the requirements of WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20...

  19. The Impact of Physics Laboratory on Students Offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Oluwasegun; Adrian, Ohwofosirai; Johnbull, Emagbetere

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Physics laboratory on students was carried out among senior secondary school students offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State using descriptive survey. Five public schools were random-even samplying technique was adopted for precision. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to students in each school,

  20. Factors Influencing Low Level of Women Participation in Literacy Programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Aminchi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which poverty, gender stereotype, socio-cultural belief and lack of awareness influence low level of women participation in literacy programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Survey designed was adopted for the study and a sample consisting of three hundred (300) women who were…

  1. 20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities, for adults and dislocated workers, and Statewide youth activities, as described in 20 CFR 665.200... WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20 CFR 665.310 through 665.330. In making this reservation, the Governor... operate projects in local areas in accordance with the requirements of WIA section 134(a)(2)(A) and 20...

  2. The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

  3. Creating a Local Area Network in the School Library Media Center. Greenwood Professional Guides in School Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Becky R.

    This hands-on practical guide contains all the information the network novice needs to plan, fund, create, and maintain a local area network (LAN) in the school library media center. Step-by-step nontechnical instructions and advice for creating an information network are presented in understandable format. The network novice is taken from dream…

  4. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  5. The Impact of Physics Laboratory on Students Offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Oluwasegun; Adrian, Ohwofosirai; Johnbull, Emagbetere

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Physics laboratory on students was carried out among senior secondary school students offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State using descriptive survey. Five public schools were random-even samplying technique was adopted for precision. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to students in each school,…

  6. 20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area? 664.110 Section 664.110 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth...

  7. The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which

  8. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National...

  9. Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

  10. Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

  11. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff from three localities in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Sherman R.

    1978-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data, collected from 1975 to 1977, on three catchment areas in the Denver, Colo., metropolitan area are presented. The catchment are predominantly a single-family residential catchment area in Littleton, a multifamily residential and commercial catchment area in Lakewood, and a high-density residential and commercial catchment area in Denver. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, snowmelt-runoff, water-quality (common constituents, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, coliform bacteria, and solids, trace elements, and pesticides), and catchment-area data are necessary to use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's Storm Water Management Model II. The urban storm-runoff data may be used by planning, water-management, and environmental-protection agencies to assess the impact of urban storm runoff on the hydrologic system. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2013-06-11

    OBJECTIVES:: Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. DESIGN:: A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:: The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. RESULTS:: Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). CONCLUSIONS:: Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance. PMID:23760310

  13. Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Since 1997 all current local geodynamic studies in the area of the Polish and Czech parts of the Sudeten and the Sudetic Foreland have been associated with annual periodic GPS campaigns, epoch measurements. The most epochs consisted of more than twelve observation hours and some of them kept on two or three 24-hour observations. Experience collected by international research teams carrying out geodynamic researches with the GPS technique in seismically active areas (USA, Japan) proved that more information can give permanent measurements. However, the Sudeten area, regarded as an area of the weak tectonic activity, can be hardly covered with the dense network of GNSS stations from economic reasons. Hence rational using of existing permanent GPS stations located in studied area and in its vicinity detects the coordinate changes that cannot be appointed from periodic campaign data and that, on the other hand, have rather regional than local character. Creating the spatial models of irregularities of the continuous signals should improve results of the epoch measurements. From this viewpoint, in this project authors used measurement data of chosen permanent GPS stations located in the area: the EPN stations, ASG-EUPOS stations, GEONAS stations and all epoch observations. These data were gained as part of research projects carried out within 1997-2009 period, as well as during new supplementing campaigns realized in the frame of the project N526278940 in the 2011 and 2012 years. Reprocessing of all the permanent and epoch data performed by the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software (V5.2) was performed using EPN guidelines for the processing, reference frame realization and the usage of physical models (atmosphere, Earth rotation, etc.). Standardized results of processing the aggregated GPS network, including permanent stations and all local networks on the area of research, serve for conducting new geodynamic interpretation. Further parameters that estimate the linear model of position changes of test point coordinates based on results of the permanent and epoch observations had been performed. Then, applying linear site velocities, the surface deformation model for the Sudeten area was compiled. Results of this research constitute the base both for recognizing tectonic impacts to the area and for potential hazard assessments. This research had been granted by the Polish National Science Centre, project No. N526 278940, and accomplished in cooperation of specialists from the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague and the Polish State Geological Institute, Lower Silesia Branch in Wroclaw.

  14. 47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...' personnel to transmit emergency information to the public during a State emergency using the EAS. State EAS...), its State EAS Plan must include specific and detailed information describing how such messages will be... or the NWS to transmit emergency information to the public during a local emergency using the...

  15. 47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...' personnel to transmit emergency information to the public during a State emergency using the EAS. State EAS...), its State EAS Plan must include specific and detailed information describing how such messages will be... or the NWS to transmit emergency information to the public during a local emergency using the...

  16. 47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to transmit emergency information to the public during a State emergency using the EAS, including... information describing how such messages will be aggregated, designated as mandatory, and delivered to EAS... officials or the NWS to transmit emergency information to the public during a local emergency using the...

  17. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EAS Participants within a state (excepting SDARs and DBS providers) must receive and transmit state... leaks or liquid spills, widespread power failures, industrial explosions, and civil disorders. (1) DBS providers shall pass through all EAS messages aired on local television broadcast stations carried by...

  18. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disorders. (1) DBS providers shall pass through all EAS messages aired on local television broadcast stations carried by DBS providers under the Commission's broadcast signal carriage rules to subscribers receiving those channels. (2) SDARS licensees and DBS providers may participate in EAS at the state...

  19. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disorders. (1) DBS providers shall pass through all EAS messages aired on local television broadcast stations carried by DBS providers under the Commission's broadcast signal carriage rules to subscribers receiving those channels. (2) SDARS licensees and DBS providers may participate in EAS at the state...

  20. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disorders. (1) DBS providers shall pass through all EAS messages aired on local television broadcast stations carried by DBS providers under the Commission's broadcast signal carriage rules to subscribers receiving those channels. (2) SDARS licensees and DBS providers may participate in EAS at the state...

  1. 20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators...

  2. 20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators...

  3. 20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CFD SIMULATION APPLICATIONS FOR LOCAL-SCALE AREAS AND POTENTIAL INTERFACE WITH MESOSCALE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes developments of ongoing applications of fine-scale (geometry specific) CFD simulations to urban areas within atmospheric boundary layers. Enabling technology today and challenges for the future are discussed. There is a challenging need to develop a ...

  5. Investigations of an urban area and its locale using ERTS-1 data supported by U-photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Borden, F. Y.; Applegate, D. N.; Bolling, N.

    1973-01-01

    An urban area in central Pennsylvania and the surrounding locality were investigated separately at first by photointerpretation of ERTS-1 imagery and by computer processing of MSS tapes. Next the photointerpretation and processing were coordinated. The results of the cooperative effort of photointerpreters and computer processing analysts were much improved over independent efforts. It was found that single frames of U-2 photography could be projected onto printer output maps with little recognizable distortion in areas 10 to 25 cm square. In this way targets could be identified for use as training areas for computer processed signature identification. In addition, at any stage of category mapping, the level of success in correct classification could be assessed by this method. The results of the classification of the study area are discussed.

  6. Large area nanoscale patterning of silicon surfaces by parallel local oxidation.

    PubMed

    Losilla, N S; Martínez, J; García, R

    2009-11-25

    The homogeneity and the reproducibility of parallel local oxidation have been improved by introducing a thin film of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) between the stamp and the silicon surface. The flexibility of the polymer film enables a homogeneous contact of the stamp with the silicon surface to be achieved. The oxides obtained yield better aspect ratios compared with the ones created with no PMMA layer. The pattern is formed when a bias voltage is applied between the stamp and the silicon surface for 1 min. The patterning can be done by a step and repeat technique and is reproducible across a centimetre length scale. Once the oxide nanostructures have been created, the polymer is removed by etching in acetone. Finally, parallel local oxidation is applied to fabricate silicon nanostructures and templates for the growth of organic molecules. PMID:19875876

  7. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Vallejo, José-Fernando; Mar-Ortiz, Julio; López-Ramos, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ricardo Pedraza

    2015-01-01

    Local access networks (LAN) are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower’s problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach. PMID:26102502

  8. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Vallejo, Jos-Fernando; Mar-Ortiz, Julio; Lpez-Ramos, Francisco; Rodrguez, Ricardo Pedraza

    2015-01-01

    Local access networks (LAN) are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower's problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach. PMID:26102502

  9. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  10. Local Instruction Theory on Division in Mathematics GASING: The Case of Rural Area's Student in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra; Suwasti, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on learning mathematics for rural area's student indicate that students have difficulty in understanding the concept of division operation. Students are more likely to be introduced by the use of the formula without involving the concept itself and learning division separate the concrete situation of learning process. This…

  11. RERANKING OF AREA SOURCES IN LIGHT OF SEASONAL/ REGIONAL EMISSION FACTORS AND STATE/LOCAL NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an effort to provide a better understanding of air pollution area sources and their emissions, to prioritize their importance as emitters of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and to identify sources for which better emission estimation methodologies a...

  12. 75 FR 38408 - Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Spectator Vessels Viewing Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... delay or cancellation of the event in order to allow for a notice and comment period is contrary to the... loss of life or property. Also, a delay or cancellation of the fireworks event in order to allow for....6ft); and (5) a ``spectator area'' designated ECHO in which access is limited to vessels less than...

  13. Application of MODIS Normalized Differential Vegetation Index for Local Land Use Indicators of Impervious Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, E.; Weber, S.; Zewatsky, J.; Engel-Cox, J.

    2007-12-01

    Data derived from satellite measurements offer tremendous potential to contribute to environmental indicators broadly, and land cover/use indicators specifically, given satellite data's consistent, repetitive nature with broad spatial and temporal coverage. This study focuses on the translation of satellite data into meaningful measures that fit within the frame of environmental indicators used by policymakers, resources managers, and the general public. The study area encompasses the Greater Cincinnati Area (6,898 km2), a mid-sized city seeking to address sustainability in the context of urban change and growth. At the center of the study area is downtown Cincinnati in Hamilton County, with suburban areas extending into parts of the seven surrounding counties. Hamilton County staff are particularly interested in tracking impervious surface areas (ISAs) and forest cover as both have been shown to impact nearby water quality. The purpose of this study is to provide Hamilton County and other planning organizations with near real-time information on ISAs and forest cover through a simple, inexpensive methodology that leverages publicly available satellite data products. We obtained 250m resolution Normalized Differential Vegetation Indices (NDVI) data files derived from NASA MODIS (MOD13Q1) for 16-day periods in June/July of 2001-2006. NDVI is calculated based on transformations of the red (620-670 nm), near- infrared (841-876 nm), and blue (459-479 nm) bands designed to enhance the vegetation signal and allow for comparison in terrestrial photosynthetic activity. We examined multiple thresholds of NDVI to act as a surrogate for ISAs (low NDVI) and forest cover (high NDVI). We also calculated changes in NDVI throughout the study period and correlated large decreases in NDVI to known large developments. While this method has potential, further study is needed to ground truth the results, a process that is currently underway. In addition, calculation of NDVI with higher-resolution LANDSAT or ASTER data may improve the results.

  14. Investigation of the effect of sealed surfaces on local climate in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Hasel, Stefan; Mursch-Radlgruber, Erich; Gützer, Christian; Krispel, Stefan; Peyerl, Martin; Trimmel, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    Local climate is driven by the interaction between energy balance and energy transported by advected air. Short-wave and long-wave radiation are major components in this interaction. Some few studies (e.g. Santamouris et al.) showed that adjusting the grade of reflection of surfaces is an efficient way to influence temperature. The present study investigates the influence of high albedo concrete surfaces on local climate. The first step of the study consisted of experimental investigations: routine measurements of the short and longwave radiation balance, of the ground and of the air temperature and humidity at different heights above 6 different types of sealed surfaces were performed. During this measurement campaign the above mentioned components were measured over a duration of 4 months above two conventional asphalt surfaces, one conventional concrete and three newly developed concrete surfaces with increased reflectances. Measured albedo values amounted to 0.12±0.02 for the asphalt surfaces and to maximum values of 0.56 for high albedo concrete. The maximum difference in surface temperature between the asphalt surfaces and the high albedo concrete surfaces amounted to 15°C. In addition the emission constants of the different sealed surfaces were also determined and were compared to values from literature.. In a second step the urban energy balance model Envi_Met was used to simulate the surface temperature of the six surfaces. The simulated surface temperatures were compared to the measured surface temperatures and statements as to uncertainties of the model simulations were made In a third step, Envi_Met was used to simulate the local climate of an urban district in Vienna. The surface and air temperature and the SW, LW fluxes were calculated for different types of sealed surfaces. By performing calculations of thermal stress indices (UTCI, PMV), statements as to the influence of the type of sealed surface on thermal stress on humans was made.

  15. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the contractor. A decision was reached between the NTS regulator and NSTec, opting for alternative authorized limits from DOE Headquarters. In doing so, NSTec personnel performed a dose model using the DOE-approved modeling code RESRAD-BUILD v3.5 to evaluate scenarios. The parameters used in the dose model were conservative. NSTec’s Radiological Engineering Calculation, REC-2010-001, “Public Dose Estimate from the EMAD 25 Ton Locomotive,” concluded that the four scenarios evaluated were below the 25-millirem per year limit, the “likely” dose scenarios met the “few millirem in a year” criteria, and that the EMAD 25-ton locomotive met the radiological requirements to be released with residual radioactivity to the public.

  16. Tuning nano electric field to affect restrictive membrane area on localized single cell nano-electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Tuhin Subhra; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Chang, Hwan-You; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-12-01

    Interaction of electric field with biological cells is an important phenomenon for field induced drug delivery system. We demonstrate a selective and localized single cell nano-electroporation (LSCNEP) by applying an intense electric field on a submicron region of the single cell membrane, which can effectively allow high efficient molecular delivery but low cell damage. The delivery rate is controlled by adjusting transmembrane potential and manipulating membrane status. Thermal and ionic influences are deteriorated from the cell membrane by dielectric passivation. Either reversible or irreversible by LSCNEP can fully controlled with potential applications in medical diagnostics and biological studies.

  17. Evaluation of building fundamental periods and effects of local geology on ground motion parameters in the Siracusa area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzera, Francesco; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Longo, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    The Siracusa area, located in the southeastern coast of Sicily (Italy), is mainly characterized by the outcropping of a limestone formation. This lithotype, which is overlain by soft sediments such as sandy clays and detritus, can be considered as the local bedrock. Records of ambient noise, processed through spectral ratio techniques, were used to assess the dynamic properties of a sample survey of both reinforced concrete and masonry buildings. The results show that experimental periods of existing buildings are always lower than those proposed by the European seismic code. This disagreement could be related to the role played by stiff masonry infills, as well as the influence of adjacent buildings, especially in downtown Siracusa. Numerical modeling was also used to study the effect of local geology on the seismic site response of the Siracusa area. Seismic urban scenarios were simulated considering a moderate magnitude earthquake (December 13th, 1990) to assess the shaking level of the different outcropping formations. Spectral acceleration at different periods, peak ground acceleration, and velocity were obtained through a stochastic approach adopting an extended source model code. Seismic ground motion scenario highlighted that amplification mainly occurs in the sedimentary deposits that are widespread to the south of the study area as well as on some spot areas where coarse detritus and sandy clay outcrop. On the other hand, the level of shaking appears moderate in all zones with outcropping limestone and volcanics.

  18. Atmospheric aerosols local-regional discrimination for a semi-urban area in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, R. K.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Vestenius, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Sharma, V. P.; Vignati, E.; Kulmala, M.; Lihavainen, H.

    2016-02-01

    In the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI), measurements were carried out with a sequential filter-based aerosol sampler and on-line instruments for aerosol composition and behaviour at Gual Pahari, close to New Delhi. In fine mode (PM2.5), the secondary organic carbon (SOC) to total organic carbon ratio was 46%. This indicated that condensation of SOC on fine size particles could occur rapidly which may be related to the growth of aerosols and the potential to the size of cloud condensation nuclei in the region. Source region discrimination was improved significantly through coupling conditional probability functions with receptor modelling, and validation through volume size distribution. The air masses from industrial and dense populated regions show a mix of local as well as regional emissions to fine mode aerosols. The back-trajectory analysis captured the long-range transport of sea-salt aerosols enriched with mineral dust. The surface wind directions identified the influence of local emission activities.

  19. Analysis of satellite precipitation products referred to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, L. V.; Lo Conti, F.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation measurement is a key factor for several scientific disciplines, research activities and management of human activities related to water resources. Climatology, meteorology and hydrology can be considered three main sectors in which precipitation estimation is carefully addressed although with different peculiarities. In order to retrieve precipitation information several products have been developed related to different information sources, methodologies and final products features. In this study we select a specific area in Sicily island (Italy) having high density rain gauges to evaluate of satellite precipitation products. Sicily has an area of 26,000 km2 and the gauge density of the network considered in this study is about 250 km2/gauge. It is an island in the Mediterranean sea with variegated climatology and morphology, which is considered as an interesting test site for satellite precipitation products on the European mid-latitude area. Four only satellite products (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TMPA-RT, PERSIANN-CCS) along with two adjusted products (TMPA and PERSIANN Adjusted) have been selected for the study. Evaluation and comparisons between selected products is performed with reference to data provided by the gauge network of Sicily and using statistical and visualization tools. An interpolation procedure has been adopted to compare reference rain-gauge network data to satellite products. An effort to organize and characterize evaluation tools within a simplified application framework has been done. Then three evaluation index groups have been identified corresponding to related application groups. Results show that bias is considerable for all satellite products although adjusted products are effective reducing it. Climatic considerations are reported to address this issue along with an overall analysis of the PMW retrieval algorithm performances. A convective/stratiform classification procedure is used to relate precipitation features to satellite information and retrieval algorithms. A strong convective component is present probably due to the study area morphology. It results affecting PMW capability to retrieve information since most of the precipitation event are convective in nature.

  20. Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Eric C.

    2006-12-01

    4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

  1. A computer program for the localization of small areas in roentgenological images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, R. A.; Baily, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and associated algorithm are presented which allow a simple and accurate determination to be made of the location of small symmetric areas presented in roentgenological images. The method utilizes an operator to visually spot object positions but eliminates the need for critical positioning accuracy on the operator's part. The rapidity of measurement allows results to be evaluated on-line. Parameters associated with the algorithm have been analyzed, and methods to facilitate an optimum choice for any particular experimental setup are presented.

  2. Satellite data for local investigation in coastal zone: case study for Tangier area (Morrocco).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigny, V.; Elabdellaoui, J.; Stanichny, S.; Djenidi, S.; Stanichnaya, R.; Soloviev, D.

    Recent operative satellite multispectral sensors like MERIS, MODIS with more traditional AVHRR and SeaWiFS and high resolution ASTER and ASAR give an unique opportunity for investigation of the marine processes with spatial scale from few hundred meters and temporal variability from few hours. In addition to this, QuikScat wind data helps to better understand an eventual forcing variation. One of the most important processes in coastal area is water (and probable pollutants) transport and mixing. Optical and thermal properties of the water or surface roughness peculiarities can be used as tracers or markers on subsequent images for the estimation of the currents structure and pollution displacement in ocean upper layer. Such kind of investigation is subject to significant interest near the ports and cities surroundings due to strong anthropogenic impact. Processes for the Tangier bay area were investigated by the means of the above-mentioned satellite data coupled with CTD and ADCP field measurements (August 2003). This analysis shown the strong influence of the mesoscale processes like eddies and wind driven upwelling on the currents patterns in the coastal zone. On the basis of the ASTER and ASAR data we estimated typical pollutions pathways. MODIS (Aqua and Terra ) and MERIS data were used for investigation of the variations of the water optical properties on time scale from few hours. This scale is important according to the typical 12 hours tidal motions in Tangier bay area Mutual analyses shown that mixing on Camarinal sill play a significant role in exchange processes in Tangier bay . AVHRR SST data set were analyzed together with QuikScat wind data. This analysis shown that Westward winds caused coastal upwelling phenomena with temperature difference up to 10 C. Quikscat spatial wind variability was also compared with NCEP wind data in nearest point --6W, 36N. Animations for different seasons, on the basis of subsequent thermal AVHRR images, highlighted the variability of regional dynamics. In addition, SeaWiFS time series images were processed, analyzed and compared with MODIS and MERIS data. Multispectral and multisensors approach for Tangier coastal areas study shown high efficiency at that scale, and can obviously be used for other regions.

  3. Teacher Appraisal Symposium. Section 1: Issues for Policy Makers at the National and Local Authority Levels. Paper 1: Issues from the Perspective of a L.E.A. Adviser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Del

    Issues for policymakers at the national and local authority levels concerning teacher appraisal are discussed, from the perspective of a local educational agency advisor in London, England. Teacher appraisal is one of the ways in which the plurality characterizing the English and Welsh education systems is being replaced by a national system. At…

  4. Localization of specific erythropoietin binding sites in defined areas of the mouse brain.

    PubMed Central

    Digicaylioglu, M; Bichet, S; Marti, H H; Wenger, R H; Rivas, L A; Bauer, C; Gassmann, M

    1995-01-01

    The main physiological regulator of erythropoiesis is the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO), which is induced in response to hypoxia. Binding of EPO to the EPO receptor (EPO-R), a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily, controls the terminal maturation of red blood cells. So far, EPO has been reported to act mainly on erythroid precursor cells. However, we have detected mRNA encoding both EPO and EPO-R in mouse brain by reverse transcription-PCR. Exposure to 0.1% carbon monoxide, a procedure that causes functional anemia, resulted in a 20-fold increase of EPO mRNA in mouse brain as quantified by competitive reverse transcription-PCR, whereas the EPO-R mRNA level was not influenced by hypoxia. Binding studies on mouse brain sections revealed defined binding sites for radioiodinated EPO in distinct brain areas. The specificity of EPO binding was assessed by homologous competition with an excess of unlabeled EPO and by using two monoclonal antibodies against human EPO, one inhibitory and the other noninhibitory for binding of EPO to EPO-R. Major EPO binding sites were observed in the hippocampus, capsula interna, cortex, and midbrain areas. Functional expression of the EPO-R and hypoxic upregulation of EPO suggest a role of EPO in the brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7731971

  5. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil guidelines as inputs into the code was also performed to determine the maximum (peak) dose for all receptors. This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of ALs for the 'Property.' A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines.

  6. Quantity and quality of urban runoff from three localities in the Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Sherman R.; Alley, William M.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable variation in constituent concentrations was shown in urban runoff data for 1975-77 from three metropolitan Denver drainage basins. Constituent concentrations, greatest during initial rainfall runoff, generally peaked midday of snowmelt runoff, corresponding with maximum melting and runoff. Instantaneous loads of constituents were largely a function of discharge. Days since last street sweeping or antecedent precipitation had no apparent effect; snowmelt-runoff loads apparently increased with number of days snow had been on the ground. Urban storm runoff may significantly contribute total ammonia nitrogen, total nonfiltrable residue, total copper, total iron, total lead, and total zinc; and snowmelt runoff may significantly contribute sodium and chloride, to local receiving waters. Data from two basins were used for calibration and verification of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's Storm Water Management Model II for rainfall-runoff modeling of flow and total nitrogen. The model assumption that land-surface loads of total nitrogen are directly proportional to number of days prior to storm during which accumulated rainfall was less than 1.0 inch was not substantiated. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Distributed and localized faulting in extensional settings: Insight from the North Ethiopian Rift-Afar transition area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliva, Roger; Schultz, Richard A.

    2008-04-01

    Extensional fault systems in the Earth's crust can exhibit two end-member geometries that we identify as distributed and localized faulting regimes. A satellite image analysis of fault populations from the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar area reveals that the rift architecture contains these two faulting regimes. The occurrence of these regimes reveals a jump in the scale of fault segmentation and linkage. Strain localization at rift border zones exhibits particularly large-scale fault linkage and a power law size distribution. This regime replaces prior distributed fault systems, showing small-scale fault linkage and an exponential size distribution. The distributed faulting is interpreted as confined to the thick trap basalt carapace. We show that continental fault systems can develop by a combination of these two geometries, and we demonstrate how to quantitatively decipher the jump between them.

  8. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (p<0.05) than provincial protected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies. PMID:26382763

  9. Automatic localization of backscattering events due to particulate in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, Andrea; Parracino, Stefano; Richetta, M.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2014-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM), emitted by vehicles in urban traffic, can greatly affect environment air quality and have direct implications on both human health and infrastructure integrity. The consequences for society are relevant and can impact also on national health. Limits and thresholds of pollutants emitted by vehicles are typically regulated by government agencies. In the last few years, the interest in PM emissions has grown substantially due to both air quality issues and global warming. Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a costeffective alternative to monitor large regions of the atmosphere. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements and to guarantee reliable, automatic monitoring of large areas, new data analysis techniques are required. In this paper, an original tool, the Universal Multi-Event Locator (UMEL), is applied to the problem of automatically indentifying the time location of peaks in Lidar measurements for the detection of particulate matter emitted by anthropogenic sources like vehicles. The method developed is based on Support Vector Regression and presents various advantages with respect to more traditional techniques. In particular, UMEL is based on the morphological properties of the signals and therefore the method is insensitive to the details of the noise present in the detection system. The approach is also fully general, purely software and can therefore be applied to a large variety of problems without any additional cost. The potential of the proposed technique is exemplified with the help of data acquired during an experimental campaign in the field in Rome.

  10. LAN (Local Area Network) interoperability study of protocols needed for distributed command and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elden, W. L.; Miller, A. L.; Morgan, S. L.; Romanzo, B. A.

    1985-03-01

    The study examined distrubuted processing requirements for strategic and tactical C3I systems, reviewed the characteristics and architectural issues for distributed processing global operating systems, compared the DoD and ISO networking protocol architecture models, the protocols for LAN's developed by the IEEE and ANSI, reviewed and conducted performance evaluation of Ethernet, DoD's Internet Protocal and Transmission Control Protocol and reported characteristics of CSMA/CD, Token Bus and Token Ring LAN's, reviewed three alternatives to using TCP for an intra-LAN protocol and examined the methods for employing gateway elements to interconnect LAN-based system elements. A comprehensive discussion of the results is given followed by a set of concise conclusions. Ten recommendations are given, providing a roadmap to guide the Air Force in developing C3I systems and LAN-based protocols. Three major areas are identified where future work is needed. A set of protocols and design approaches for internetworking is contained in a set of appendices.

  11. Accurate single-sequence prediction of solvent accessible surface area using local and global features.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    We present a new approach for predicting the Accessible Surface Area (ASA) using a General Neural Network (GENN). The novelty of the new approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Instead we use solely sequential window information and global features such as single-residue and two-residue compositions of the chain. The resulting predictor is both highly more efficient than sequence alignment-based predictors and of comparable accuracy to them. Introduction of the global inputs significantly helps achieve this comparable accuracy. The predictor, termed ASAquick, is tested on predicting the ASA of globular proteins and found to perform similarly well for so-called easy and hard cases indicating generalizability and possible usability for de-novo protein structure prediction. The source code and a Linux executables for GENN and ASAquick are available from Research and Information Systems at http://mamiris.com, from the SPARKS Lab at http://sparks-lab.org, and from the Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine at http://mathmed.org. PMID:25204636

  12. Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

  13. Encoding of point of view during action observation in the local field potentials of macaque area F5.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Giese, Martin; Thier, Peter; Casile, Antonino

    2015-02-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons compellingly shows that the monkey premotor area F5 is active not only during the execution but also during the observation of goal-directed motor acts. Previous studies have addressed the functioning of the mirror-neuron system at the single-unit level. Here, we tackled this research question at the network level by analysing local field potentials in area F5 while the monkey was presented with goal-directed actions executed by a human or monkey actor and observed either from a first-person or third-person perspective. Our analysis showed that rhythmic responses are not only present in area F5 during action observation, but are also modulated by the point of view. Observing an action from a subjective point of view produced significantly higher power in the low-frequency band (2-10 Hz) than observing the same action from a frontal view. Interestingly, an increase in power in the 2-10 Hz band was also produced by the execution of goal-directed motor acts. Independently of the point of view, action observation also produced a significant decrease in power in the 15-40 Hz band and an increase in the 60-100 Hz band. These results suggest that, depending on the point of view, action observation might activate different processes in area F5. Furthermore, they may provide information about the functional architecture of action perception in primates. PMID:25442357

  14. Local Scale Comparisons of Biodiversity as a Test for Global Protected Area Ecological Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Bernard W. T.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of global biodiversity conservation. Their efficacy in terms of maintaining biodiversity is, however, much debated. Studies to date have been unable to provide a general answer as to PA conservation efficacy because of their typically restricted geographic and/or taxonomic focus, or qualitative approaches focusing on proxies for biodiversity, such as deforestation. Given the rarity of historical data to enable comparisons of biodiversity before/after PA establishment, many smaller scale studies over the past 30 years have directly compared biodiversity inside PAs to that of surrounding areas, which provides one measure of PA ecological performance. Here we use a meta-analysis of such studies (N = 86) to test if PAs contain higher biodiversity values than surrounding areas, and so assess their contribution to determining PA efficacy. We find that PAs generally have higher abundances of individual species, higher assemblage abundances, and higher species richness values compared with alternative land uses. Local scale studies in combination thus show that PAs retain more biodiversity than alternative land use areas. Nonetheless, much variation is present in the effect sizes, which underscores the context-specificity of PA efficacy. PMID:25162620

  15. Local and regional governments and age-friendly communities: a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which cities, county departments of adult and aging services, county transportation authorities, and public transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area have in place age-friendly policies, programs, and infrastructure in the areas of community design, housing, transportation, health care and supportive services, and opportunities for community engagement. The most common age-friendly features include those that target alternative forms of mobility (for example, incentives for mixed-use neighborhoods and changes to improve the accessibility of public transit), while the least common policies and programs are those that aim to help older adults continue driving, such as driver education programs, driver assessment programs, and slow-moving vehicle ordinances. The article concludes with policy and research implications of these findings. PMID:24266586

  16. Survival and local recruitment are driven by environmental carry-over effects from the wintering area in a migratory seabird.

    PubMed

    Szostek, K Lesley; Becker, Peter H

    2015-07-01

    We estimated annual apparent survival rates, as well as local recruitment rates in different age groups and for different breeding status in the common tern Sterna hirundo using mark-recapture analysis on a long-term individual-based dataset from a breeding colony in Germany. Strong inter-annual variability in survival rates became apparent, especially in prospectors. Local recruitment also varied strongly between years and age groups. To explain these fluctuations, we linked survival and recruitment estimates to several environmental covariates expected to be limiting during the wintering period and migration, including the global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Oscillation, fish abundance indices, and marine primary productivity in the West African wintering area. Contrary to expectations, global indices did not seem to be linked strongly to vital rates. Results showed that primary productivity had the strongest effect on annual survival, especially in young and inexperienced individuals. Primary productivity in the wintering area was also strongly associated with the probability of recruitment in the following breeding season, indicating that conditions during winter can have carry-over effects on the life cycle of individuals. PMID:25864177

  17. CATLAC: Calibration and validation analysis tool of local area coverage for the SeaWiFS mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Robert H.; Gregg, Watson W.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration and validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage (CATLAC) is an analysis package for selecting and graphically displaying Earth and space targets for calibration and validation activities on a polar orbiting satellite. The package is written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and includes a graphical user interface. Although it is designed specifically for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, the package can be used for analysis on other Earth-viewing missions. An individual can use text or graphical methods in CATLAC to select Earth targets to be scanned by a satellite. Additional onboard calibration activities (such as observations of the moon, or solar irradiance from a solar diffuser), which use data recorder time, can also be specified. All information pertinent to the creation of a command schedule can be written to a file which is read by a command scheduler. The scheduler can be invoked and the Local Area Coverage (LAC) recording periods can be visually verified using CATLAC. The schedule can also be verified by examining record and error files written by the scheduler.

  18. The construction and periodicity analysis of natural disaster database of Alxa area based on Chinese local records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zheng; Mingzhong, Tian; Hengli, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Chinese hand-written local records were originated from the first century. Generally, these local records include geography, evolution, customs, education, products, people, historical sites, as well as writings of an area. Through such endeavors, the information of the natural materials of China nearly has had no "dark ages" in the evolution of its 5000-year old civilization. A compilation of all meaningful historical data of natural-disasters taken place in Alxa of inner-Mongolia, the second largest desert in China, is used here for the construction of a 500-year high resolution database. The database is divided into subsets according to the types of natural-disasters like sand-dust storm, drought events, cold wave, etc. Through applying trend, correlation, wavelet, and spectral analysis on these data, we can estimate the statistically periodicity of different natural-disasters, detect and quantify similarities and patterns of the periodicities of these records, and finally take these results in aggregate to find a strong and coherent cyclicity through the last 500 years which serves as the driving mechanism of these geological hazards. Based on the periodicity obtained from the above analysis, the paper discusses the probability of forecasting natural-disasters and the suitable measures to reduce disaster losses through history records. Keyword: Chinese local records; Alxa; natural disasters; database; periodicity analysis

  19. Hippocampal theta rhythm after local administration of procaine or amphetamine into the ventral tegmental area in fear conditioned rats.

    PubMed

    Matulewicz, Paweł; Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta; Braszka, Łukasz; Zawistowski, Piotr; Jurkowlaniec, Edyta

    2015-03-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is thought to be an important component in the mesocorticolimbic system involved in the regulation of theta rhythm in the hippocampus. In this study we investigate the effect of pharmacological inactivation (local procaine infusion) or activation (local amphetamine infusion) of the VTA on theta rhythm parameters during task specific behavior in fear conditioned, freely moving rats. Animals were implanted with bilateral recording electrodes into the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) and bilateral injection cannulas into the VTA. Behavioral activities and hippocampal local field potentials (LFP) were recorded throughout the experiment, in pre- and post-injection conditions. We found that intra-VTA injection of procaine temporarily suppressed fear conditioned avoidance response (escape from the foot-shock arena) and also influenced hippocampal theta rhythm parameters during immobility linked with arousal and/or attention. Procaine infusion decreased the signal power (Pmax) of theta rhythm during immobility behavior, in comparison to the control group (water infusion), whereas administration of amphetamine had no effect on the behavior and hippocampal LFP. Our results indicate that temporal inactivation of neuronal activity in the VTA affects hippocampal theta rhythm linked with attentional immobility and suppresses avoidance response in fear conditioned animals. PMID:25617477

  20. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15–19 years), adults aged 30–34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764

  1. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years), adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764

  2. Austerity and old-age mortality in England: a longitudinal cross-local area analysis, 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Taylor-Robinson, David; Barr, Ben; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective There has been significant concern that austerity measures have negatively impacted health in the UK. We examined whether budgetary reductions in Pension Credit and social care have been associated with recent rises in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over. Design Cross-local authority longitudinal study. Setting Three hundred and twenty-four lower tier local authorities in England. Main outcome measure Annual percentage changes in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years or over. Results Between 2007 and 2013, each 1% decline in Pension Credit spending (support for low income pensioners) per beneficiary was associated with an increase in 0.68% in old-age mortality (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.95). Each reduction in the number of beneficiaries per 1000 pensioners was associated with an increase in 0.20% (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.24). Each 1% decline in social care spending was associated with a significant rise in old-age mortality (0.08%, 95% CI: 0.0006–0.12) but not after adjusting for Pension Credit spending. Similar patterns were seen in both men and women. Weaker associations observed for those aged 75 to 84 years, and none among those 65 to 74 years. Categories of service expenditure not expected to affect old-age mortality, such as transportation, showed no association. Conclusions Rising mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over were linked to reductions in spending on income support for poor pensioners and social care. Findings suggest austerity measures in England have affected vulnerable old-age adults. PMID:26980412

  3. UAVSAR and TerraSAR-X Based InSAR Detection of Localized Subsidence in the New Orleans Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Latini, D.

    2014-12-01

    Vulnerability of the US Gulf coast to inundation has received increased attention since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Compounding effects of sea level rise, wetland loss, and regional and local subsidence makes flood protection a difficult challenge, and particularly for the New Orleans area. Key to flood protection is precise knowledge of elevations and elevation changes. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements show surprising complexity, including locations subsiding more rapidly than considered during planning of hurricane protection and coastal restoration projects. Combining traditional, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations can provide geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We use two InSAR capable systems, the L- band (24 cm wavelength) airborne JPL/NASA UAVSAR, and the DLR/EADS Astrium spaceborne TerraSAR X-band (3 cm wavelength), and compare results. First, we are applying pair-wise InSAR to the longer wavelength UAVSAR data to detect localized elevation changes potentially impacting flood protection infrastructure from 2009 - 2014. We focus on areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify changes indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage. The Spaceborne TerraSAR X-band SAR system has relatively frequent observations, and dense persistent scatterers in urban areas, enabling measurement of very small displacements. We compare L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period. Thus we can evaluate results from the different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Preliminary results indicate subsidence features potentially of a variety of causes, including ground water pumping to post recent construction ground compaction. Our overall goal is to enable incorporation of InSAR into the decision making process via identification and delineation of areas of persistent subsidence, and provide input to improve monitoring and planning in flood risk areas.

  4. Chemical character of ground water in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, William Scott; Graham, D.D.; Lowery, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Eight deep wells are being monitored in the Memphis, Tenn., area to detect any changes in the chemical character of water moving through the Memphis Sand towards major pumping centers. These wells are strategically located so as to intercept groundwater enroute through the Memphis Sand from the outcrop-recharge area. Although water quality analyses are available for many wells in the shallow water-table aquifer, no specific investigation has been made to characterize the quality of the water in this aquifer from which the Memphis Sand also receives part of its recharge. This investigation is to determine the chemical character of groundwater in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area. Methods used to install eight shallow wells at abandoned dump sites containing chemical and/or industrial waste are described. Water samples from the eight shallow wells and two deep wells in the Memphis Sand were collected and analyzed. Results of the analysis are presented and the locations of the wells and dumps are shown on maps. (USGS)

  5. Detailed crustal structure in the area of the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new seismic velocity model for the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border region with the aim to better define the crustal structures at the northern edge of the Ionian subduction zone. This sector also includes the Pollino Mts. area, where a seismic sequence of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes has been recorded between spring 2010 and 2013. In this sector a seismic gap was previously hypothesized by paleoseismological evidences associated with the lack of major earthquakes in historical catalogs. To perform the tomographic inversion we selected ca. 3600 earthquakes that have occurred in the last thirty years and recorded by permanent and temporary networks managed by INGV and Calabria University. Using for the first time the Local Tomography Software for passive tomography inversion (LOTOS hereinafter) to crustal analysis in southern Italy, we have computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. The obtained velocity model, jointly evaluated with results of synthetic modeling, as well as with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, gives us new constraints on the geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. The comparison between the shallow tomography sections and surface geology shows good correlation between velocity patterns and the main geological features of the study area. In the upper crust a low-velocity anomaly of P- and S-waves is detectable beneath the Pollino Mts. area and seems to separate the Calabrian and southern Apennines domains, characterized by higher velocities. The distributions of high Vp/Vs ratio, representing strongly fractured rocks with likely high fluid content, clearly correlate with areas of significant seismicity. In the lower crust we detect a clear transition from high to low seismic velocities in correspondence with the Tyrrhenian coast of the study area, which may represent the transition from the thinner Tyrrhenian crust to the thicker one beneath Calabria. In this area, also characterized by a progressive detachment of a retreating lithospheric slab, the generation of a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault zone, that laterally decouples subducting lithosphere from non-subducting lithosphere in a scissor type of fashion, may have taken place. These conditions imply the existence of a kinematic decoupling which allows for differential movement between the Calabrian Arc and the southern Apennine chain. The low velocity anomaly separating the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc domain may be related to fluid upwelling occurring in correspondence with the northern edge of the Calabrian subducting slab.

  6. Implementation of disk sharing between two network management consoles on an Ungermann-Bass local area network

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, C.S.; Farr, D.

    1986-04-28

    In a large Ungermann-Bass Local Area Network (LAN), the network management console (NMC) poses several administrative problems. With over 1500 ports, network reloads and software backups require unacceptable periods of time. If the NMC suffers fatal hardware errors, it takes two hours to rebuild the Net/One software and restore network load files from floppy diskettes. If the network interface unit card in the NMC has failed, the network is left without a management console unless a spare is available. To eliminate these problems a separate personal computer (PC) network has been installed. The PC network consists of a central file server connected to two NMC workstations. Using this redundant system configuration, two NMCs can do network reloads simultaneously from the same data base, or network administrative functions can be done on one NMC while the other stays in download server mode.

  7. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Kroitoru, L.; Ronen, D. |; Magaritz, M.

    1992-10-01

    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient ({minus}0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient ({minus}0.10) and a 0. 83{minus}meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone.

  8. Mapping Frost-Sensitive Areas with a Three-Dimensional Local-Scale Numerical Model. Pad II: Comparison with Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avissar, R.; Mahrer, Y.

    1988-04-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model was developed to predict the microclimate near the ground surface of local-scale domains during radiative frost events. Its performances are compared with an observational topo-climatological survey of minimum temperatures at a height of 0.5 m above the soil surface which was carried out, during radiative float events, in the Hefer Valley, Israel. Considering only topography and soil type in the numerical simulation, relatively good agreement is obtained between predicted and observed minimum temperature. A more realistic picture is given when vegetation is incorporated in the model although larger discrepancies with observations are obtained. This is mainly explained by the fact that measurements were always carried out above bare surfaces, even when dense vegetation was present and, therefore do not provide a representative minimum temperature of many areas. This assumption is validated by field measurements of nighttime temperatures in an orchard and above a bare soil in its immediate vicinity.

  9. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

  10. Analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the King Hill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Elmore County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.S.; King, H.D.; Bradley, L.; Gent, C.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological report is presented detailing analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the King Hill Creek Wilderness Study Area, Elmore County, Idaho.

  11. Analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples from the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness Study Area, Pima County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian, B.M.; Hageman, P.L.; Sharkey, J.D.; Nowlan, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented detailing the analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples from the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness Study Area, Pima County, Arizona.

  12. Analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples from the El Dorado and Ireteba Peaks Wilderness Study Areas, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, J.B.; Bullock, J.H. Jr.; Roemer, T.A.; Nowlan, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented giving analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples from the El Dorado and Ireteba Peaks Wilderness Study Areas, Clark County, Nevada.

  13. Analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the Sierra Estrella Wilderness Study Area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, S.C.; Adrian, B.M.; Briggs, P.H.; Goldfarb, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented giving analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the Sierra Estrella Wilderness Study Area, Maricopa County, Arizona.

  14. Analytical results and sample locality map of rock and stream-sediment samples from the Ferris Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WY-030-407), Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Detra, D.E.; Reynolds, M.W.; Roemer, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented detailing the analytical results and sample locality map of rock and stream-sediment samples from the Ferris Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WY-030-407), Carbon County, Wyoming.

  15. A survey of attitudes of local citizens of a residential area toward urban stray cats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Yamada, Sayoko; Yano, Mei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    This study surveyed the attitudes of local residents living in an urban area in Japan toward stray cats. An anonymous questionnaire asked local residents (359 houses) about their attitudes toward stray cats. Responses were received from126 houses (35%). Answers about nuisance, respondents' actions, and actions to be taken with regard to stray cats did not differ by place or type of residence of respondents. More than one third (36.7 ± 16.6%) of the respondents answered that the "bad smell of the feces and urine" was a nuisance. Respondents who lived in detached houses tended to like cats compared with those who lived in condominiums. Respondents who liked cats took care of cats more frequently, whereas those who disliked cats chased cats away and prevented their intrusion into their houses and land. However, it is noteworthy that one third or more (minimum value: 37.8%) of respondents of all kinds answered that neutering is one effective way to suppress the population of stray cats. PMID:23924029

  16. Political Asylum Applicants. Financial Effect on Local Services in the Miami Area. Fact Sheet for the Honorable Bob Graham and the Honorable Connie Mack, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    This fact sheet discusses the effect of Nicaraguan immigrants entering the country at Brownsville (Texas) on local service providers in Miami (Florida). During individual meetings held on February 1, 1989 with Miami area officials, concerns were expressed over the immigrants' general welfare and the financial strain on local organizations…

  17. Residential Mobility Across Local Areas in the United States and the Geographic Distribution of the Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Bound, John; Ro, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether population dynamics provide competing explanations to place effects for observed geographic patterns of population health is critical for understanding health inequality. We focus on the working-age population—the period of adulthood when health disparities are greatest—and analyze detailed data on residential mobility collected for the first time in the 2000 U.S. census. Residential mobility over a five-year period is frequent and selective, with some variation by race and gender. Even so, we found little evidence that mobility biases cross-sectional snapshots of local population health. Areas undergoing large or rapid population growth or decline may be exceptions. Overall, place of residence is an important health indicator; yet, the frequency of residential mobility raises questions of interpretation from etiological or policy perspectives, complicating simple understandings that residential exposures alone explain the association between place and health. Psychosocial stressors related to contingencies of social identity associated with being black, urban, or poor in the United States may also have adverse health impacts that track with structural location even with movement across residential areas. PMID:24781651

  18. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-dihydrotestosterone in the preoptic area, hypothalamus, and amygdala of a male rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.P.; Rees, H.D.

    1982-06-14

    In a preliminary study, autoradiography was used to localize target cells for /sup 3/H-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a non-aromatizable androgen, in the brain of the rhesus monkey. One castrated male was injected intravenously with 2 mCi of /sup 3/H-DHT (0.42 ..mu..g/kg), and was killed one hour later. Neurons that concentrated radioactivity in their nuclei were located in widespread areas of the brain, which included the medial and suprachiasmatic preoptic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septal nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, ventromedial, arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, ventral premammillary nucleus, and medial, cortical, basal accessory, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei. These results indicate that the topographic distribution of androgen target neurons is considerably wider than that observed in a study using /sup 3/H-testosterone (T) in the male rhesus monkey. However, further work is needed to elucidate these differences before attempting correlations between behavioral activity and androgen receptors in the brain.

  19. Residential mobility across local areas in the United States and the geographic distribution of the healthy population.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Bound, John; Ro, Annie

    2014-06-01

    Determining whether population dynamics provide competing explanations to place effects for observed geographic patterns of population health is critical for understanding health inequality. We focus on the working-age population-the period of adulthood when health disparities are greatest-and analyze detailed data on residential mobility collected for the first time in the 2000 U.S. census. Residential mobility over a five-year period is frequent and selective, with some variation by race and gender. Even so, we found little evidence that mobility biases cross-sectional snapshots of local population health. Areas undergoing large or rapid population growth or decline may be exceptions. Overall, place of residence is an important health indicator; yet, the frequency of residential mobility raises questions of interpretation from etiological or policy perspectives, complicating simple understandings that residential exposures alone explain the association between place and health. Psychosocial stressors related to contingencies of social identity associated with being black, urban, or poor in the United States may also have adverse health impacts that track with structural location even with movement across residential areas. PMID:24781651

  20. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

  1. Global Moho Estimate from Goce Space-Wise Solution and a Local Application in the Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampietro, D.; Barzaghi, R.; Borghi, A.; Reguzzoni, M.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate a global Moho depth using the GOCE global gravity model GO_CONS_GFC_2_SPW_R2. A simple two-layers model, with known density contrast, has been considered and a linearized relationship between the spherical harmonic coefficient of the anomalous potential Tnm and those of the Moho depth has been derived. In this way, a simple and straightforward formula can be established to get the spherical harmonic expansion of the Moho depth with respect to its mean depth estimated from previous models (e.g. CRUST 2.0). Moreover, in the same framework, a collocation solution to estimate the Moho by merging gravity and direct Moho depth information (coming from e.g. seismic) has been derived. In this way, collocation can be used as a physical interpolation method (based on gravity) to merge seismic derived Moho profiles. In order to be as close as possible to the two layers model, reductions for the gravity signal related to topography/bathymetry have been applied. Furthermore, the impact of sediments, at global scale, has been evaluated. The information on the sediments have been derived from the CRUST2.0 model and their effect on the Moho estimate has been discussed. The obtained global Moho is in substantial agreement with its main known features at low frequencies. Possible improvements with respect to previous estimates are mainly due to the homogeneous data and model used to get it. This estimate can be usefully applied to reduce the Moho gravity signal in local areas. In fact, by analyzing the residuals after regional signal reduction, high frequency details of the Moho can be derived and investigated by applying standard inversion methods. To prove the reliability and the effectiveness of the estimated global Moho model in local analyses, a test has been performed in the Mediterranean area. This test showed that high frequency components of the Moho structure can be more properly defined, particularly in complex areas such those in the Alpine region.

  2. A taxonomic revision of two local endemic Radix spp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from Khodutka geothermal area, Kamchatka, Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Bolotov, Ivan; Bespalaya, Yulia; Aksenova, Olga; Aksenov, Andrey; Bolotov, Nikita; Gofarov, Mikhail; Kondakov, Alexander; Paltser, Inga; Vikhrev, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Khodutka geothermal area is located near Khodutka and Priemysh volcanoes and is one of the largest geothermal areas of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Vakin (2003) described geological, geochemical and geothermic conditions of this geothermal area in detail. The main thermal water sources have temperatures up to 87°C and a discharge of approximately 150 l×sec.-1 are flows out into the warm lake with dimensions of ca. 250 m length and 80 m width. This warm river is ca. 20 m in width beginning from the lake and flows to the Bolshaya Khodutka River basin. Two local endemic Radix species were described from this geothermal area, especially Lymnaea (Radix) hadutkae Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 and L. (R.) thermokamtschatica Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Kruglov 2005). These species were separated using proportions of shell and reproductive system (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Starobogatov et al. 2004). According to the diagnosis, L. (R.) hadutkae differs in the ear-shape shell, a form of the provaginal duct with cylindrical distal part and conical proximal part, and larger value of the index of the copulatory apparatus (ICA: proportion of the preputium to phallotheca is 1.27) from other species within the section Thermoradix Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989. The last whorl is large, 0.86-0.89 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.15-0.16 of the aperture height. L. (R.) thermokamtschatica has the cylindrical provaginal duct, relatively short bursa duct (1.5X longer than the bursa copulatrix diameter) and very long phallotheca (ICA is 0.77). The last whorl is large, 0.85-0.87 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.2-0.25 of the aperture height. In accordance with an identification key (Starobogatov et al. 2004), the main diagnostic feature is an excess of the last whorl over the shell aperture, which has ≤0.78 and ≥0.80 of the penultimate whorl width in the first and second species, respectively. In the present paper, we revised these taxa using newly collected topotypes and additional Radix spp. specimens from other areas of the Russian Far East.  PMID:25283942

  3. 20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... basis of local coordination of activities under 20 CFR 665.200(d)(2). These sanctions are in addition to... SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Memorandum of Understanding for the...

  4. Area per Lipid and Cholesterol Interactions in Membranes from Separated Local-Field 13C NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leftin, Avigdor; Molugu, Trivikram R.; Job, Constantin; Beyer, Klaus; Brown, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of lipid membranes using NMR spectroscopy generally require isotopic labeling, often precluding structural studies of complex lipid systems. Solid-state 13C magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy at natural isotopic abundance gives site-specific structural information that can aid in the characterization of complex biomembranes. Using the separated local-field experiment DROSS, we resolved 13C-1H residual dipolar couplings that were interpreted with a statistical mean-torque model. Liquid-disordered and liquid-ordered phases were characterized according to membrane thickness and average cross-sectional area per lipid. Knowledge of such structural parameters is vital for molecular dynamics simulations, and provides information about the balance of forces in membrane lipid bilayers. Experiments were conducted with both phosphatidylcholine (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and egg-yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM) lipids, and allowed us to extract segmental order parameters from the 13C-1H residual dipolar couplings. Order parameters were used to calculate membrane structural quantities, including the area per lipid and bilayer thickness. Relative to POPC, EYSM is more ordered in the ld phase and experiences less structural perturbation upon adding 50% cholesterol to form the lo phase. The loss of configurational entropy is smaller for EYSM than for POPC, thus favoring its interaction with cholesterol in raftlike lipid systems. Our studies show that solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy is applicable to investigations of complex lipids and makes it possible to obtain structural parameters for biomembrane systems where isotope labeling may be prohibitive. PMID:25418296

  5. Comparison of Systemic and Local Methamphetamine Treatment on Acetylcholine and Dopamine Levels in the Ventral Tegmental Area in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Lauren K.; Mark, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important mediator of dopamine (DA) release and the behavioral reinforcing characteristics of drugs of abuse in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the interaction of DA with ACh appears to be integral in mediating motivated behaviors. However, the effects of methamphetamine on VTA ACh and DA release remain poorly characterized. The current investigation performed microdialysis to evaluate the effects of methamphetamine on extracellular levels of ACh and DA. Male C57BL/6J mice received an IP injection (saline, 2 mg/kg, or 5 mg/kg) and an intra-VTA infusion (vehicle, 100 µM or 1 mM) of methamphetamine. Locally perfused methamphetamine resulted in no change in extracellular ACh compared to vehicle, but caused a strong, immediate and dose-dependent increase in extrasynaptic DA levels (1240% and 2473% of baseline, respectively) during the 20-minute pulse perfusion. An IP injection of methamphetamine increased extrasynaptic DA to 275% and 941% of baseline (2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively). Systemic methamphetamine significantly increased ACh levels up to 275% of baseline for 40 – 60 minutes (2 mg/kg) and 397% of baseline for 40 – 160 minutes (5 mg/kg) after injection. ACh remained elevated above baseline for 2 to 3 hours post injection, depending on the methamphetamine dose. Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity was dose-dependently correlated with extrasynaptic VTA ACh, but not DA levels. These data suggest that methamphetamine acts in the VTA to induce a robust and short-lived increase in extracellular DA release but acts in an area upstream from the VTA to produce a prolonged increase in ACh release in the VTA. We conclude that methamphetamine may activate a recurrent loop in the mesocorticolimbic DA system to stimulate pontine cholinergic nuclei and produce a prolonged ACh release in the VTA. PMID:18760336

  6. Evolution of a Patient Information Management System in a Local Area Network Environment at Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Price, Ronald N; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J; Tamirisa, Balaji

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC) of Chicago has implemented a local area network (LAN) based Patient Information Management System (PIMS) as part of its integrated departmental database management system. PIMS consists of related database applications encompassing demographic information, current medications, problem lists, clinical data, prior events, and on-line procedure results. Integration into the existing departmental database system permits PIMS to capture and manipulate data in other departmental applications. Standardization of clinical data is accomplished through three data tables that verify diagnosis codes, procedures codes and a standardized set of clinical data elements. The modularity of the system, coupled with standardized data formats, allowed the development of a Patient Information Protocol System (PIPS). PIPS, a userdefinable protocol processor, provides physicians with individualized data entry or review screens customized for their specific research protocols or practice habits. Physician feedback indicates that the PIMS/PIPS combination enhances their ability to collect and review specific patient information by filtering large amount of clinical data.

  7. Spatial aggregation of soil predictions over pre-defined areas of interest for better use by local land managers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaysse, Kévin; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Lagacherie, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The GlobalSoilMap project aims to provide global soil property predictions and associated uncertainties at multiple depths at fine spatial resolution (100mx100m grid). This product is specifically tailored for agro-environmental modellers that produce results at global scales over large regions. However, local land managers are less interested in fine resolution maps because they need to make decisions for much larger areas of interest, such as provinces, districts, watersheds or farm territories. To serve their need, we propose a spatial aggregation approach that uses the GlobalSoilMap prediction maps as input and derives from these linear as well as non-linear spatial aggregates, such as the spatial mean, the spatial median or any other quantile, or the proportion of land within the area of interest that satisfies a pre-specified criterion (e.g. pH < 5; clay content > 400g/kg). The method must also be able to quantify the uncertainty in the spatial aggregate. For this reason, we employed a spatial stochastic simulation approach. We tested the method in the Languedoc-Roussillon region (27,236 km2), by first applying regression kriging using legacy soil profile observations (Vaysse and Lagacherie, 2015). Next we predicted the proportion of land for all districts within the region (average size 18 km2) that is suitable with regard to a threshold applied to three different soil properties: pH, organic carbon and clay content at 5-15 cm interval of depth. This procedure comprises four different steps: i) empirical reproduction of the joint conditional probability distribution of the soil properties at all grid cells in the district by means of sequential Gaussian simulation applied to a regression kriging model (Goovaerts, 2001); ii) calculation of the indicator (0 or 1, depending on whether the thresholds are met) for each simulation and each grid cell; iii) calculation of the proportion of "suitable" land area by zonal statistics of the indicator variable over the district for each simulation; and iv) for each district, derivation of the empirical probability distribution and from it a prediction interval of the proportion of "suitable" land. The performance of the method was evaluated for 30 districts using independent soil validation data derived from the French soil analyses database (BDAT).

  8. Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

  9. [Clinical use of sodium hypochlorite for local treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and therapy of contracted bladders (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eisen, M; Jurcovic, K; Pfeiffer, E; Skoluda, D; Busse, K

    1976-01-01

    A stable commercial electrolytic sodium hypochlorite solution was tested in 63 urologic patients. The complete germicidal action against all sorts of bacteria was shown in suspension-tests. Irrigation studies of the infected bladder were performed. It was found that continued bladder irrigations were necessary to stop bacterial ascension from the infected urethra. Bladder capacity was increased in 6 of 8 patients with nonmalignant contracted bladder or interstitial cystitis. Desinfection with sodium hypochlorite in urologic practice is cheap, easy to perform and diminishes the risk of hospitalism. Clinical studies confirmed the absence of general or local toxicity. PMID:176760

  10. Effects of a wireless local area network (LAN) system, a telemetry system, and electrosurgical devices on medical devices in a hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Tan, K S; Hinberg, I

    2000-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about interference of wireless local area network (LAN) systems and telemetry systems with medical devices in hospitals. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of 65 electromedical devices to a wireless LAN system and a telemetry system in preselected areas of a hospital. Testing was based on the American National Standards Institute Standard C63.18. The wireless LAN system operated at 2.42 GHz with an output power of 100 mW. The telemetry system operated at 466 MHz with an output power of 4 mW. Of the 65 devices tested, only two hand-held Doppler units, a Mini Doppler Model D900 (Huntleigh Healthcare Ltd) and a Ultrasonic Doppler Model 811 (Parks Medical Electronics, Inc.), were affected by the LAN system. Placed within 10 cm of the LAN system in standby mode, both units emitted periodic high-pitched beating sounds, which could be misinterpreted as normal beating sounds from the patient. These changed to random static noise during data transmission by the LAN. Under normal conditions of use, a LAN system would never be placed this close to a medical device. The quality of data transmission from the LAN system changed from "good" to "acceptable" in the colonoscopy room. This deterioration in transmission quality could have been caused by the lead shielding in the room. Electrosurgical devices operating at 0.5 to 1 MHz did not affect the LAN system at distances up to 3 m. None of the devices was affected by the telemetry system. These findings suggest that wireless LAN systems and telemetry systems can be acceptable for use in hospitals. Nevertheless, other systems should be tested on potentially susceptible devices by the hospital before use. PMID:10820639

  11. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos potenciales de los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) y áreas protegidas (APs) sobre los resultados ambientales y las subsistencias locales en los países en desarrollo son polémicos y se han debatido ampliamente. La evidencia disponible es escasa; ha habido pocas evaluaciones rigurosas de los impactos ambientales y sociales de las APs y particularmente los PSA. Medimos el impacto sobre los bosques y el bienestar humano en tres diferentes programas de PSA que se llevan a cabo dentro de dos APs en el norte de Camboya usando un panel de aldeas de intervención y controles emparejados. Tanto los PSA como las APs brindaron resultados ambientales adicionales en relación a los contrafácticos, esto quiere decir que redujeron las tasas de deforestación significativamente en relación a los controles. Las áreas protegidas incrementaron el acceso seguro a los recursos del suelo y el bosque para las viviendas locales, beneficiando a los usuarios de los recursos del bosque pero restringiendo la habilidad de las viviendas para expandirse y diversificar su agricultura. Los impactos de los pagos por servicios ambientales sobre el bienestar de las viviendas estuvieron relacionados con la magnitud de los pagos proporcionados. Los dos programas de PSA de mayor paga y con conexión al mercado tuvieron impactos positivos significativos, mientras que un programa de menor paga con el objetivo de proteger a la biodiversidad no tuvo un efecto detectable sobre las viviendas, a pesar de sus resultados ambientales positivos. Las viviendas que se inscribieron a los programas de PSA con mayor paga, sin embargo, necesitaban típicamente más bienes capitales, por lo que eran menos pobres y tenían mayor seguridad alimentaria que otros aldeanos. Por esto, mientras los impactos de las APs sobre el bienestar de las viviendas fueron limitados en general y variaron dependiendo de las estrategias de subsistencia, los programas de PSA tuvieron impactos positivos significativos sobre las viviendas para aquellos que podían costear participar. Nuestros resultados son congruentes con las teorías de que los PSA, cuando se designan apropiadamente, pueden ser una herramienta poderosa y novedosa para obtener objetivos de conservación mientras se beneficia a la gente local. PMID:25492724

  12. A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) Directors and Local School District Special Education Directors in Four Counties of Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Gregory Haynes, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceived level of job satisfaction of SELPA directors with that of local school district special education directors in the counties of Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Orange of Southern California and to identify factors that contribute to their job satisfaction. Additionally, this…

  13. The Enhanced Workflow and Efficiency of the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)-Based Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) Portable Radiography.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Tsz-Lung; Wong, Edward Ting-Hei; Ng, Kris Lap-Shun; Jeor, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Lo, Gladys Goh

    2015-06-01

    With the implementation of the PACS in the hospital, there is an increasing demand from the clinicians for immediate access and display of radiological images. Recently, our hospital has installed the first wireless local area network (WLAN)-based direct digital radiography (DDR) portable radiography system. The DDR portable radiography system allows wireless retrieval of modality worklist and wireless transmission of portable X-ray image on the console to the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), via WLAN connection of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi). The aim of this study was to analyze the workflow and performance between the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system and the old practice using conventional portable X-ray machine with computed radiography (CR) system. A total of 190 portable chest X-ray examinations were evaluated and timed, using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR from March to April of 2012 and using the new DDR portable radiography system on December of 2012 (n = 97 for old system and n = 93 for DDR portable system). The time interval of image becoming available to the PACS using the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system was significantly shorter than that of the old practice using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR (6.8 ± 2.6 min for DDR portable system; 23 ± 10.2 min for old system; p < 0.0001), with the efficiency improved by 70 %. The implementation of the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system can enhance the workflow of portable radiography by reduction of procedural steps. PMID:25561071

  14. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

  15. Characteristics of bistable localized emission states in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguy, Y.; Ackemann, T.; Jaeger, R.

    2006-11-15

    Small-area bistable lasing spots (about 10 {mu}m full width at half maximum) can be created at different positions within the aperture of a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (aperture diameter 80 {mu}m) with frequency-selective feedback from a grating in Littrow configuration, and an additional pinhole localizing feedback to a part of the laser. Their characteristics are analyzed depending on the grating tuning, injection current, and feedback strength. These spots are considered to be good candidates for self-localized cavity solitons, if the perturbation by boundaries can be reduced using devices with larger diameter.

  16. Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

    2011-05-01

    Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

  17. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section... DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS § 238.9 Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  18. Visiting Author

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

  19. Local seismicity in the area of Tornio River (northern Fennoscandia) revealed by analysis of local events registered by the POLENET/LAPNET array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, E.; Usoltseva, O.; Konstantinovskaya, N.

    2012-04-01

    The region of Tornio river (22-26 deg E and 66.5-69 deg N) is very interesting for seismological studies because it is crossed by systems of tectonic faults spreading in two different directions. 56 local earthquakes originated from this region were recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET temporary array from May, 2007 to May, 2009. Hypocenter depths of earthquakes are in the range of 1-35 km and their magnitudes vary from 0.8 to 2.2. For events detection we used the bulletin of the Institute of Seismology (Helsinki university) and Norway Global Beam Forming bulletin, compiled on the base of automatic detection of events, using the data of Noress, Arcess, Finess, SPA, HFS, APA arrays. In addition to local earthquakes, the array recorded 364 blasts from this region during the POLENET/LAPNET observation period. The events were relocated using manually measured travel times of refracted P waves from events at local distances (less than 200 km) and the 1-D velocity model along the wide-angle reflection and refraction HUKKA profile. The epicenters of relocated events show good correlation with known faults in the region. For each earthquake we constructed travel-time curves with reduction velocity of 8 km/s and compared them with the theoretical travel-time curves, in order to avoid phase misinterpretation. We found out that the largest reduction of travel time residuals during relocation was reached for deep earthquakes, due to more precise depth determination. The other aim of our study was to estimate what part of travel time residuals is not connected with the reference 1D velocity model and accuracy of location, but is rather due to 3-D heterogeneities in the crust. We also analyzed the amplitude characteristics of P-wave arrivals from different layers in the crust and upper mantle and also compared spectrograms of deep earthquakes, shallow earthquakes and blasts.

  20. 33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... event in accordance with 33 CFR 100. The Captain of the Port will provide notice of the enforcement of...; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility. 100.1308 Section 100.1308... Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility. (a) Location. The following areas are...