Note: This page contains sample records for the topic local authority area from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GWB is mainly underlain by Dinantian Lower Impure Limestones. There are small areas of Devonian Old Red Sandstones and Dinantian (early) Sandstones, Limestones and Shales in the east of the GWB, and Dinantian Pure Unbedded Limestones in the centre of the GWB. A small area of Granitic rock occurs near the northern edge, whilst in the northeast of the

Glen Bog; Mannin Wetland

2

Quality of life in urban-classified and rural-classified English local authority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Audit Commission’s local quality-of-life indicators dataset to compare reported outcomes amongst 208 urban-classified and 144 rural-classified English local authority areas. We contextualise the demarcation of the urban and rural by reference to the transformational politics of the previous Labour government and its establishment of the sustainable communities initiative, whose controversial

Josep M Campanera; Paul Higgins

2011-01-01

3

Local authority investment property – a virtual reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total capital value of the tenanted non-residential property of English and Welsh local authorities is immense, more even than the total holdings of the top eight, UK-based, property companies. However, while property investment companies own tenanted property for financial returns, the primary reason for its ownership by local authorities is far from clear. A survey of councils revealed that

Neil Martindale

1995-01-01

4

Local Area Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the protocols and literature for the performance analysis of Local Area Networks (LANs) available today is presented. Relevant hardware, in particular the transmission media, is described. The standard reference model is considered. The three ...

A. Dekkers

1990-01-01

5

Local Area Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four papers discuss LANs (local area networks) and library applications: (1) "Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standards..." (Charles D. Brown); (2) "Facilities Planning for LANs..." (Gail Persky); (3) "Growing up with the Alumni Library: LAN..." (Russell Buchanan); and (4) "Implementing a LAN...at the Health Sciences Library"…

Nasatir, Marilyn; And Others

1990-01-01

6

Skiatook Area Reservoir Authority Water Supply Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Skiatook Area Reservoir Authority (SARA) water supply study was undertaken to determine the best plan for use of the water that will become available in Skiatook Lake to serve the needs of the potential users. Most of these communities and rural water...

1980-01-01

7

The concept of an ‘enabling’ local authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six distinct though related strands of ‘enabling’ as applied to the ability of local governments to engage in innovative methods of service delivery are distinguished. The practice of ‘enabling’ is analysed to identify possible advantages, obstacles, and disadvantages. Contracting can secure economies and strengthen the local economy but can cause problems of accountability. Consumerism may extend service-user choice but can

Brian Smith

2000-01-01

8

Local Area Networks (The Printout).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

1989-01-01

9

The Rise of the Resilient Local Authority?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term resilience is increasingly being utilised within the study of public policy to depict how individuals, communities and organisations can adapt, cope, and ‘bounce back’ when faced with external shocks such as climate change, economic recession and cuts in public expenditure. In focussing on the local dimensions of the resilience debate, this article argues that the term can provide

Keith Shaw

2012-01-01

10

75 FR 34923 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations on the locality pay program for General Schedule employees. Originally published...authorizes locality pay for General Schedule (GS) employees with duty stations...definition of the locality pay area or in employee entitlements as a...

2010-06-21

11

Local Area Networks: Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

1982-01-01

12

200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document  

SciTech Connect

Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation.

DODD, E.N.

2000-03-28

13

Local Authority recycling and waste — awareness publicity\\/promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores some of the current waste reduction promotion\\/publicity material, and the education and information policies provided by Local Authorities, evaluating their effectiveness, and identifying any loopholes or omissions that exist in public awareness. The study was conducted in three local authorities in England: Luton Borough, Shepway District, and Sutton London Borough. The research involved contacting the Recycling Officers

Tom Evison; Adam D. Read

2001-01-01

14

Local Authority Approaches to the School Admissions Process. LG Group Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What are the challenges, barriers and facilitating factors connected to the various school admissions approaches used by local authorities? This report gathers the views of local authority admissions officers on the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, as well as the issues and challenges they face in this important area. It covers:…

Rudd, Peter; Gardiner, Clare; Marson-Smith, Helen

2010-01-01

15

Local area networks for radiology.  

PubMed

This article is a tutorial on local area networks (LAN) for radiology applications. LANs are being implemented in radiology departments for the management of text and images, replacing the inflexible point-to-point wiring between two devices (computer-to-terminal). These networks enable the sharing of computers and computer devices, reduce equipment costs, and provide improved reliability. Any LAN must include items from the following four categories: transmission medium, topology, data transmission mode, and access protocol. Media for local area networks are twisted pair, coaxial, and optical fiber cables. The topology of these networks include the star, ring, bus, tree, and circuit-switching. Data transmission modes are either analog signals or digital signals. Access protocol methods include the broadcast bus system and the ring system. A performance measurement for a LAN is the throughput rate as a function of the number of active computer nodes. Standards for LANs help to ensure that products purchased from multiple manufacturers will operate successfully. PMID:3154655

Dwyer, S J; Mankovich, N J; Cox, G G; Bauman, R A

1988-11-01

16

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MEAs) and Economic Areas (EAs) are defined below...Redefinition of the MEA Economic Areas, 60 FR 13114 (March...and MEA numbers 49-51, respectively. (3...Virgin Islands) 174. 51 (American Samoa) 175...issue a paging geographic area authorization for...

2012-10-01

17

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MEAs) and Economic Areas (EAs) are defined below...Redefinition of the MEA Economic Areas, 60 FR 13114 (March...and MEA numbers 49-51, respectively. (3...Virgin Islands) 174. 51 (American Samoa) 175...issue a paging geographic area authorization for...

2011-10-01

18

Contested Procurement: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority and Everson Electric.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report investigates the actions of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) regarding its decision to award a contract to Swiger Coil System and to deny a subsequent bid protest from Everson Electric Company under WMATA's Invitation ...

1986-01-01

19

Acquisition of CD-ROM databases for local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of CD-ROM products for the local area network environment presents several new challenges to the acquisitions function. Subscription and pricing options vary widely, licensing issues complicate and extend the order process, and the library's local area network application must be clearly understood and defined. The author presents an analysis of these issues as they impact the role of

Trisha L. Davis

1993-01-01

20

English local planning authorities and design appeals: Perceptions and realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the differential design appeal records of English local planning authorities over 1994 and 1995. It generates a series of hypotheses to explain appeal incidence and dismissal rates, and tests these with aggregate appeals data. Then, using disaggregated data and interviews with planning officers, it explores the various factors which influence appeal incidence and dismissal rates, through detailed

John Punter; Andrew Bell

1999-01-01

21

Are local authority fraud teams fit for purpose?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse fraud investigative practice in London local authorities with reference to recognised best practice and two comparator organisations, the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) and National Health Service (NHS). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary research was undertaken through questionnaires to all London Boroughs and interviews with key personnel in two comparator organisations.

2011-01-01

22

Information for Older People: The Contribution of Local Authority Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older people currently do not view websites as a preferred source of information. This may not be a view held in the future. An exploration of local authority websites suggests room for improvement and collaboration with others to shape a future in which websites are joined up and informative for older people.

Norma Raynes; Dimitri Pagidas; Pat Margiotta; John Lawson

2004-01-01

23

Local area networks in radioactivity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the operation of a Local Area Network at Nuclear Chemistry Laboratory involved in surveillance of environmental radioactivity. Detailed consideration is given separately to computer and network hardware, radiation instrument interfacing, software, as well as operations. The application of a Local Area Network offers considerable improvements in the laboratory preformance, quality assurance of radioactivity analyses, and data reporting.

T. M. Semkow; C. D. Schwenker; M. E. Kitto; J. C. Daly

1994-01-01

24

Security system for wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security and privacy issues complicate wireless local area network deployment. For a wired network, certain levels of security are maintained since access to the physical medium is restricted to the devices physically connected to the network. Though wireless local area networks offer some built-in security features, security breaches are possible if appropriate precautions are not taken. This paper describes security

Larry Korba

1998-01-01

25

The Dissemination of Information by Local Authorities on the World Wide Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of a survey of 161 local authorities (i.e., agencies responsible for providing services to citizens in their areas) in the United Kingdom that have Web sites. Discusses methods of communicating with the public, reasons for using the Web, Web-page design, types of users, type of information available, benefits, problems, and…

Gill, Harjinder S.; Yates-Mercer, Penelope

1998-01-01

26

Administrative Use of Computers by Local Education Authorities: Report of a Questionnaire Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1983 survey conducted in England and Wales by the Education Management Information Exchange and the Society of Education Officers Industry Committee examined the widespread administrative use of computers and related technology in Local Education Authorities (LEA's). This report summarizes responses from 95 of the 108 LEA's in the survey area.…

Streatfield, David; Thompson, Sue

27

Systematic Approach to Local Area Network Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systematic approach to Local Area Network (LAN) administration was presented to help new Administrative Science Department LAN lab staff members conducted management tasks. A two dimensional matrix was developed using the four LAN functional modules and...

M. E. Buker

1989-01-01

28

3Com Etherseries Local Area Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Postgraduate School has implemented a 3Com Etherseries baseband Ethernet Local Area Network (LAN). The purpose of this thesis is to explore the requirements and protocols required in the implementation of an Ethernet LAN, discuss the demands of ...

D. L. Andersland

1989-01-01

29

18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

2013-04-01

30

Solid waste treatment opportunities in the Palestinian authority areas.  

PubMed

Municipal services in the Palestinian Authority (PA) areas, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS), are facing serious difficulties that have been intensified following the outbreak of the Palestinian uprising in late September 2000. The solid waste management services, being the most essential services provided by the municipalities and village councils, are mostly affected by the ongoing harsh situation and hence proper solutions that take into account the actual amount of generated municipal solid waste and its composition is a pre-requisite for planning proper treatment. Hence, a study was carried out to identify the actual status of solid waste in eight West Bank districts. A social survey was also conducted to collect information concerning the level of public awareness among communities surveyed to the perception of solid waste recycling and reuse. The results of the survey conducted in 2001-2002 were later reviewed during July-October 2008 to assess if the trend of domestic solid waste generation had changed. Based on the survey and post-assessment, it is found that political and economic conditions have both significantly impacted the trend of generated municipal solid waste and since no improvements in either condition are forthcoming, it is concluded that survey results could be used in a planning study. A possible handling of the generated wastes may entail transferring the recyclable waste to Israeli recycling industries, and in constructing three composting plants in different accessible locations in the West Bank. PMID:19121576

Khatib, Imad; Al-Khateeb, Nader

2009-01-01

31

Amphibious assault ship local area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amphibious Assault Ship, USS Makin Island (LHD 8) encompasses multiple systems to support the Navy's missions. The USS Makin Island systems include ballast, steering, propulsion, fresh water, power distribution as well as many damage control systems. The systems utilize various signal types to operate the systems while receiving signals to monitor the system components via the Machinery Control System (MCS). Many input/output (I/O) signals exchange information between the MCS and the various systems' equipment. The MCS monitors and controls the system components using a Human Machine Interface (HMI). The user-friendly HMI permits authorized operators to perform many daily operations remotely allowing operators to address system issues from multiple MCS units located throughout the ship. The MCS utilizes a fiber optic network that serves as the backbone connecting the Local Area Network (LAN) switches via blown optical fiber. Each MCS unit is intricately connected to the LAN switches for maximum redundancy via fiber optic connections to non-adjacent LAN switches to ensure system communications continuity. The LAN switches are connected in a star configuration for added system survivability. The backbone's blown fiber is designed and installed with a sufficient percentage of spare blowing tubes to ensure the potential of future growth. Conventional optical fiber is used to interconnect the MCS consoles, workstations, and Data Acquisition Units (DAU) to each other and the LAN switches. The conventional fiber also contains sufficient spare conductors in a combination of eight and four conductor optical fiber. The network backbone is redundantly connected allowing for continuous transmission of information throughout the ship.

Goff, Jonathan S.; Million, Troy P.

2010-08-01

32

Local Area Networks and Classroom Anarchy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of local area networks (LAN's) in learning laboratories and how they are improving learning outcomes for certain student populations (e.g., deaf and developmental students). Describes how LAN's alter the instructor's role and how instructors can manage student-driven classrooms. Offers guidance on implementing a network system.…

Stanley, Ron

1992-01-01

33

Local Area Networks--For Your Library?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a typical configuration for a local area network (LAN), and discusses positive and negative factors to be considered when deciding whether to implement a LAN in a library setting. Situations in which LANS are or are not appropriate are identified, and alternatives to LANs are described. (CLB)

Leggott, Mark

1989-01-01

34

Local Area Network Management: An Unresolved Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…

Howden, Norman

1989-01-01

35

Local Area Networks for Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of the use of local area networks (LANs) by libraries summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of 600 libraries and information centers and 200 microcomputer networking system manufacturers and vendors, which was conducted to determine the relevance of currently available networking systems for library and information center…

Kibirige, Harry M.

36

Local Area Networks in the School Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines local area networks (LANs); describes basic components and configurations of LANs; and discusses LANs benefits (reduced costs, better management of computer resources, enhanced communications) and pitfalls (hidden costs, time delays, network maintenance, lack of standardization, network security breaches, lack of network compatible…

Bluhm, Harry P.

1986-01-01

37

School District Matter: Local Educational Authorities and State Instructional Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Local school districts do not figure prominently in contemporary school reform efforts centered at state and school levels. This article examines how two school districts responded to an expanding state role in instructional policy making. Case studies underline districts' key reform role and suggest that state and local instructional policies…

Spillane, James P.

1996-01-01

38

School Districts Matter: Local Educational Authorities and State Instructional Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local school districts do not figure prominently in contemporary school reform efforts that are primarly centered at the state and school levels of the system. This article explores ways in which school districts matter in current instructional reform efforts. The article examines haw two local school districts responded to an expanding state role in instructional policy making, documenting the way

James P. Spillane

1996-01-01

39

300 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) Authorization Envelope  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to establish the facility Authorization Envelope (AE) for the 300 Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEP )Project and identify the requirements related to the maintenance of the AE as Specified in HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The 300 LEF Project consists of two separate facilities operating under one management organization. They are the 310 Facility and the 340 Facility. The AE documents the limits of operations for all 300 LEF Project activities.

WRIGHT, E.J.; STORDEUR, R.T.

2000-04-07

40

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the United States of America. (2) Major Economic Areas (MEAs) and...Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. See Final...Redefinition of the MEA Economic Areas, 60 FR...except in the following situations: (1) FCC...

2009-10-01

41

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the United States of America. (2) Major Economic Areas (MEAs) and...Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. See Final...Redefinition of the MEA Economic Areas, 60 FR...except in the following situations: (1) FCC...

2010-10-01

42

Dual bus local area network interfacing system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An improved local area network interfacing system. The inventive system includes a frontplane circuit for connecting the interfacing system to a local area network and a backplane circuit for connecting the interfacing system to a host. A first internal bus is included for providing communication between the backplane circuit and the frontplane circuit. A processor is included for controlling the operation of the interfacing system. A second internal bus is included for providing communication between the processor and associated memory. An internal bus control circuit facilitates and controls communication between the first internal bus and the second internal bus. The dual internal busses of interfacing system of the present invention afford high speed operation with an inexpensive processor by allowing for input and output operations to be completed without being impeded by processor operations.

1994-10-11

43

Time and industrial local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time aspects of industrial local area networks are analyzed. Research on and the verification of an architecture satisfying time constraints are discussed. The concept of communication transactions associated with different cooperation models is introduced. These are client\\/server, client\\/multiserver, multiclient\\/multiserver, and producer\\/distributor\\/consumer. The architecture of time-critical communication systems is analyzed, with emphasis on the necessity of explicit time management by services

J. P. Thomesse

1993-01-01

44

Enhancing consultation practices on Air Quality Management in local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schedule 11 of the Environment Act 1995 underpins the requirement for consultation on air quality issues. The ongoing air quality review and assessment process represents one of the largest locally based science policy and communication initiatives ever undertaken in the UK. This paper outlines the practice of consultation and communication for Air Quality Management (AQM) and reviews the interaction between

Nurul Leksmono; Paul Dorfman; Frank Burnet; David Gibbs; James Longhurst; Emma Weitkamp

2010-01-01

45

Accounting for Community Assets in some European Local Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the need for better management information, pubic sector accounting systems have been subjected to a general reform process, especially in local government. These reforms cover, among other things, accounting for capital assets. Given the special nature of some of these assets, such as community assets, this article aims to analyse the problematic roots of accounting, examining different

María Teresa Balaguer Coll; Iluminada Fuertes Fuertes

2001-01-01

46

Communications About Resilience Enhancing Activities By English Local Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Civil Contingencies Act (2004) in the United Kingdom introduced new responsibilities for public authorities regarding Business Continuity Management (BCM) and other emergency planning activities. Using content analysis techniques, this study examined thirty-four English county councils' websites to examine the extent to which this online medium communicated these new responsibilities to stakeholders. Using key-word-in-context (KWIC) and content clustering, this exploratory

Brahim Herbane

2011-01-01

47

GIS AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR LOCAL AUTHORITY IN MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of development control involves a technique for the systematic compilation of expert quantitative analysis and qualitative assessment of project land use and property development viability, including its effect on the surrounding area, and the presentation of results in a way that enables the importance of the predicted results, and the scope of modifying or mitigating them to be

Foziah Johar; Susilawati Sulaiman; Ruslin Hassan

48

Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority - Finance and Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bill amends the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authorit y (WMATA) Compact to add two federally appointed, voting board members; requi re an Office of the Inspector General at WMATA; and require Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia to make payments from a dedicated funding source to match up to $1.5 billion in federal funds for WMATA capital and

Senate Bill

49

Telecommunications, local area networks, and computers-integrated network control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the telecommunications local area network, and computer-integrated network control system (TLC, INC) concept which uses modern network management principles to detect service-affecting problems so that corrective action can be applied to restore service. The information is presented to network managers on a high-resolution color graphic workstation in real time. An operation overview of the TLC, INC is

MICHAEL B. FREEMAN

1988-01-01

50

The rhetoric and realities of integrating air quality into the local transport planning process in English local authorities.  

PubMed

Regardless of its intent and purposes, the first decade of the Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) framework had little or no effect in reducing traffic-related air pollution in the UK. Apart from the impact of increased traffic volumes, the major factor attributed to this failure is that of policy disconnect between the process of diagnosing air pollution and its management, thereby limiting the capability of local authorities to control traffic-related sources of air pollution. Integrating air quality management into the Local Transport Plan (LTP) process therefore presents opportunities for enabling political will, funding and joined-up policy approach to reduce this limitation. However, despite the increased access to resources for air quality measures within the LTP process, there are local institutional, political and funding constraints which reduce the impact of these policy interventions on air quality management. This paper illustrate the policy implementation gaps between central government policy intentions and the local government process by providing evidence of the deprioritisation of air quality management compared to the other shared priorities in the LTP process. We draw conclusions on the policy and practice of integrating air quality management into transport planning. The evidence thereby indicate the need for a policy shift from a solely localised hotspot management approach, in which the LAQM framework operates, to a more holistic management of vehicular emissions within wider spatial administrative areas. PMID:22387327

Olowoporoku, Dotun; Hayes, Enda; Longhurst, James; Parkhurst, Graham

2012-03-03

51

Hypercube simulation on a local area network  

SciTech Connect

We describe the structure and use of a distributed computing environment based on a hypercube programming model that runs on most UNIX systems with TCP/IP network support. The package uses a library of message-passing routines and multiple user processes, written in either C or FORTRAN, to provide an environment for the development and testing of algorithms for hypercube parallel processors simulated by a collection of computers on a local area network. Each node of the simulated hypercube is a workstation on the network. The simulator produces a trace file that can be used for debugging, performance analysis, or graphical display. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Dunigan, T.H.

1988-11-01

52

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?...

2009-07-01

53

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?...

2013-01-01

54

From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a democratic…

Moss, Peter

2011-01-01

55

From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a democratic…

Moss, Peter

2011-01-01

56

Local authorities and the education of young people with sickle cell disorders in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local education authorities, however, have been superseded by centralised curricula on

S. M. Dyson; H. Abuateya; K. Atkin; L. A. Culley; S. E. Dyson; D. T. Rowley

2008-01-01

57

Authoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the integration of sound and images in multimedia presentations may affect the future of writing. Discusses the impact on the concepts of "author" and "authorship." Focuses on the importance of knowing how integrated media texts work. Posits that children already perceive the relationship between image, word, and sound as being…

Moore, Phil

1994-01-01

58

Congestion control over ATM local area networks  

SciTech Connect

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) has emerged as a standard which offers integration of different classes of service as well as scalability in terms of network size and speed. While the early focus on ATM was mainly on wide-area networks, the driving force behind this new technology is increasingly coming from local-area applications. The need for an ATM LAN to support existing protocols (e.g., TCP/IP) transparently is key to its adoption in the local-area environment. In traditional shared medium LANS, congestion control on the medium is handled by medium access control (MAC) protocol. Once a network device gains access to the shared medium, it has the full bandwidth to itself. Other contending network devices must wait until the shared medium becomes free. In ATM LANS, the MAC protocol is removed, and as a result the congestion control it provides is also removed. Each network device can transmit at the full link bandwidth, and can thus potentially cause congestion at some output ports of an ATM switch. This report presents some simulation results and demonstrates the importance of congestion control in ATM networks. First, we show the effects of cell loss on TCP performance in a congested ATM LAN. When congestion results in switch buffer overflow, cells are dropped. The effect of a small cell loss rate is found to translate into a much larger TCP packet retransmission rate, resulting in poor TCP performance. Secondly, we will describe a credit-based, per virtual circuit, per hop flow control algorithm proposed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). We show that when flow control is employed, cell loss and TCP retransmissions are eliminated, resulting in greatly improved TCP performance.

Chen, H.Y.; Fang, C.; Hutchins, J.A.

1995-03-01

59

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project  

SciTech Connect

Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.)

1991-12-01

60

Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority serves the public transportation needs of metropolitan Washington, D.C., including Northern Virginia and Southern Maryland. Because the EPA has classified this area as a severe ozone non-attainment area, ...

M. Melendez J. Taylor J. Zuboy W. S. Wayne D. Smith

2005-01-01

61

43 CFR 6302.13 - Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Where do I obtain an authorization to use a wilderness area? 6302.13 Section 6302.13 Public Lands...CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of...

2012-10-01

62

Acid rain legislation and local areas  

SciTech Connect

This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control.

Jones, G.H.B.

1992-01-01

63

Quality of local authority occupational therapy services: developing an instrument to measure the user's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to describe the development of an instrument measuring quality of care from the specific perspective of the users of local authority occupational therapy services; (2) to present the results from a survey of users' views about the quality of services offered by a county-wide local authority occupational therapy service compared with other

S. Calnan; H. J. Sixma; M. W. Calnan; P. P. Groenewegen

2000-01-01

64

Gains and losses from the changes in the system of grants paid to English local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal purpose of this paper is to contrast the present rate support grant system that applies to local authorities in England with the revenue support grant system that will apply from 1 April 1990. The paper begins by describing the two systems briefly and then seeks to show how much grant receipts per head might change if local authorities

D N King

1990-01-01

65

The Welcome Workbook: A Self Review Framework for Expanding Inclusive Provision in Your Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Welcome Workbook is a practical resource for people working in local authorities who want to see an increase in the number of children fulfilling their right to mainstream education. By providing a clear self-review framework, The Welcome Workbook enables local authorities to audit their existing processes and map a route towards more…

Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, 2009

2009-01-01

66

C-3I local area networks: An assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Command and control systems are now beginning to use local area network technology. In many of the applications, classified data must be handled. This report discusses specific DoD considerations for local area networks with emphasis on security. The accessing and updating of data bases in local area networks is also discussed and directions for further research and development presented.

T. C. Bartee; O. P. Buneman

1983-01-01

67

C-3I local area networks: An assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Command and control systems are now beginning to use local area network technology. In many of the applications, classified data must be handled. This report discusses specific DoD considerations for local area networks with emphasis on security. The accessing and updating of data bases in local area networks is also discussed and directions for further research and development presented.

Bartee, T. C.; Buneman, O. P.

1983-06-01

68

Evaluation of wireless Local Area Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is an in-depth evaluation of the current wireless Local Area Network (LAN) technologies. Wireless LAN's consist of three technologies: they are infrared light, microwave, and spread spectrum. When the first wireless LAN's were introduced, they were unfavorably labeled slow, expensive, and unreliable. The wireless LAN's of today are competitively priced, more secure, easier to install, and provide equal to or greater than the data throughput of unshielded twisted pair cable. Wireless LAN's are best suited for organizations that move office staff frequently, buildings that have historical significance, or buildings that have asbestos. Additionally, an organization may realize a cost savings of between $300 to $1,200 each time a node is moved. Current wireless LAN technologies have a positive effect on LAN standards being developed by the Defense Information System Agency (DISA). DoD as a whole is beginning to focus on wireless LAN's and mobile communications. If system managers want to remain successful, they need to stay abreast of this technology.

McBee, Charles L.

1993-09-01

69

47 CFR 101.61 - Certain modifications not requiring prior authorization in the Local Multipoint Distribution...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses License Transfers, Modifications, Conditions...within the area authorized by the license without prior authorization...the completion of the addition, removal, relocation or...

2012-10-01

70

47 CFR 101.61 - Certain modifications not requiring prior authorization in the Local Multipoint Distribution...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses License Transfers, Modifications, Conditions...within the area authorized by the license without prior authorization...the completion of the addition, removal, relocation or...

2011-10-01

71

77 FR 70381 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authorizes locality pay for General Schedule (GS) employees with duty stations...labor relations and pay policy and representatives of Federal employee organizations...any change in an employee's entitlement to a locality rate of pay under this...

2012-11-26

72

78 FR 5115 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authorizes locality pay for General Schedule (GS) employees with duty stations...labor relations and pay policy and representatives of Federal employee organizations...any change in an employee's entitlement to a locality rate of pay under this...

2013-01-24

73

Win–Win? Early experience from local area agreements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local Area Agreements (LAAs) are a mechanism for delivering improved outcomes for local people, through recasting governance relationships between central government and localities and between local agencies. This paper assesses the effectiveness of LAAs in reforming these critical relationships, drawing on research carried out in 2004–06 into the round one and two negotiations. These early negotiations highlighted the complexity of

Gillian Gillanders; Sophie Ahmad

2007-01-01

74

Young Women, Local Authority Care and Selling Sex: Findings from Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers, practitioners and policy makers have noted the disproportionate number of young women with backgrounds of local authority care who are involved in commercial sex. However, the lack of knowledge about why this occurs means that there is little evidence with which to develop interventions. This article describes research that explored young women’s routes into the sex industry from local

Maddy Coy

2008-01-01

75

Local authority responses to grants: different types of response and equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game theoretic techniques are used to examine the case of local authorities facing a system of closed-ended central government grants. A diagrammatic exposition of the results from a previous paper is provided, and the results extended to cover alternative types of equilibrium. It is shown that local government behaviour may be Pareto inefficient in response to grants, the inefficiency being

M M Barrow

1989-01-01

76

Understanding the mental health needs of primary school children in an inner?city local authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school children in one inner city local authority were

Latha Hackett; Louise Theodosiou; Caroline Bond; Clare Blackburn; Freya Spicer; Rachel Lever

2010-01-01

77

Local authority provision for bilingual pupils: ‘ESI’, bilingual support and community languages teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the findings of a national survey conducted between 1985 and 1988 into local authority provision for language support for the curriculum learning of bilingual pupils, and for the teaching of the languages of local linguistic minority groups in the schools of England and Wales. The full report, Moving into the Mainstream: LEA Provision for Bilingual Pupils, was

Jill Bourne

1990-01-01

78

Basic Mars Navigation System For Local Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: This project has been first set up as a basic solution in navigation during EVA (extra-vehicular activities) in the Mars Society Desert Research Station in the desert of Utah. The main idea is to keep the system as simple as possible so that it can be easily adaptable and portable. The purpose of such a device is to tell the astronauts in EVA where they roughly are and then letting them reaching different points in avoiding any risky way. Thus the precision needed has not to be really high: even if it is about 50m, every astronaut can then look on a map and be able to design a way to another point. This navigation system will improve the safety of the EVA as it is an added reliable orientating tool. Concept: To look at a simple way to localize oneself, one should have a look at what has been done by mankind on Earth. Today, everyone can think of the GPS because it's simple and very reliable. However the infrastructure for such a system is huge and will not be for sure available during the first missions. We can think of course of a basic GPS using the satellites being in orbit but this approach is not yet as simple as we would like. If we want to keep the sky in sight, we can use the stars and the moons of Mars. Yet this would be a good solution and we can even have a star tracker that would give a good position according to the time of the picture. This solution has to be kept in mind but a star tracker is quite big for an astronaut without any rover nearby and using the sky may not be as precise as one should expect. Another useful tool is the compass. It has been used for centuries by sailors but on Mars, without a good magnetic field for this purpose. But sailors also use lighthouses and some placemarks on the land to localize themselves. This is done with a compass, measuring the angle between a placemark and the magnetic North. With two angles, we can then have the position of the boat. The idea here is the same: measuring the angles between different placemarks so that we can compute the position. But which placemarks? We have to think about something that can be installed on Mars and is light enough to be brought there. Balloons are really light, and in order to place them, we need a gas as helium (or hydrogen) and also some rope. Hydrogen is likely to be produced in situ and rope will be useful for astronauts. So we started on a concept with some balloons around the base, with different colors or patterns. The crew in EVA can thus know where the base is every time they are in sight of a balloon and with at least three balloons; they can compute their position according to the base. Procedure of the test: During EVA, the astronauts will measure the angle between the different balloons. The balloons are high in the sky so they can be seen far from their location. This is particularly important on Mars where the horizon is nearer than on Earth. The balloons have different colors so they can be identified and we can even think of adding an autonomous colored light under so they can be observed during the night. With good quality balloons, we can keep them in the sky for a few days without maintenance. Angle measurement is done thanks to a camera. A numeric camera can have a precision of less than 0.01°/pixel, which is enough for our application. The distance between the different balloons can easily be seen in a free picture management software and a Matlab tool is under development for this. An algorithm is then run and it gives the positions that fit with the observations on a map. Simulation gave areas 20m width, which is enough for the astronaut who has a map. The exact precision will be investigated in situ, at the MDRS. For this first test bench, computations will be manually done on a computer in order to validate the concept without huge development. Afterwards, one can imagine an implementation on a PDA brought by the astronauts. This PDA would have its own camera so the process can be fully automatic. Such a system can also implement other navigation system as a Martian GPS or a radio locali

Petitfils, E.-A.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Monaghan, E.; Crews, Eurogeomars

2009-04-01

79

Wide area localization on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fast and memory efficient method for localizing a mobile user's 6DOF pose from a single camera image. Our approach registers a view with respect to a sparse 3D point reconstruction. The 3D point dataset is partitioned into pieces based on visibility constraints and occlusion culling, making it scalable and efficient to handle. Starting with a coarse guess,

Clemens Arth; Daniel Wagner; Manfred Klopschitz; Arnold Irschara; Dieter Schmalstieg

2009-01-01

80

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

2010-01-01

81

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

2013-01-01

82

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

2009-01-01

83

Assessment of WMATA'S (Metropolitan Area Transit Authority's) Automatic Fare Collection Equipment Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority(WMATA) has had an Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) system in operation since June 1977. The AFC system, comprised of entry/exit gates, farecard vendors, and addfare machines, initially encountered many ope...

J. Heisler R. Stevens

1981-01-01

84

Work in progress - implementing a wireless local area network course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless local area networks were once considered a niche network solution. Today, a wireless local area network (WLAN) is no longer just an add-on piece to commercial networks. All industries are being impacted by the flexibility, low-cost, and new markets that WLANs are spurring. One foundational aspect of a wireless network is its inherent nature to be insecure from hackers

D. C. Dellacca

2005-01-01

85

HPC\\/VORX: a local area multicomputer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described that combines the major strengths of local area networks and multicomputers, namely resource sharing over geographically significant distances and small communication latencies. The result is a new architecture called a local area multicomputer (LAM). The system that is described attempts to solve the seemingly incompatible needs of the two application domains by utilizing a high-capacity, low-latency

R. D. Gaglianello; B. S. Robinson; T. L. Lindstrom; E. E. Sampieri

1989-01-01

86

[Defining a set of indicators for the evaluation of healthcare needs and of the performance of local health authorities].  

PubMed

A set of indicators for assessing healthcare needs and evaluating healthcare services are needed. This paper presents a set of indicators for evaluating healthcare districts, defined by a local health authority in the city of Rome. The set of indicators was developed by selecting 11 areas of interest and assigning to each area indicators that would allow an evaluation of its main functional aspects. Overall, 99 indicators were chosen and listed under one of two sections: basic and specific indicators. Annual measurements of the indicators is performed and a study will be conducted during 2010 to evaluate the system of indicators. PMID:20552002

D'Ascanio, Italo; Ciaralli, Fabrizio; Perria, Carla; Spunticchia, Giorgio; Vicario, Gianni; Zega, Maurizio; Borgia, Piero; D'Urso, Antonio; Guasticchi, Gabriella; Degrassi, Flori

87

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.2000 What are the requirements authorized state,...

2013-07-01

88

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.2000 What are the requirements authorized state,...

2010-07-01

89

Local Authorities and Violence to Social Work Staff: Towards a Common Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Task Force on Violence to Social Care Staff is expected to establish clear policy and practice standards for the management of violence to staff. The paper profiles present practice, based on the responses of 30 local authorities to a questionnaire, identifies key issues and suggests a framework for good practice.

Carol Kedward

2000-01-01

90

User involvement in measuring service quality of local authority occupational therapy services: a new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is two-fold: (i) to describe the development of a new measuring instrument for quality of care from the perspective of the users of local authority Occupational Therapy (OT) services, and (ii) to evaluate the potential of the new instrument as a standardized approach for the involving consumers in the service evaluation of home health care

Herman J. Sixma; Siân Calnan; Michael Calnan; Peter P. Groenewegen

2001-01-01

91

Assessment of consumer food safety education provided by local authorities in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent, sources, diversity, costs, formats and content of food safety educational interventions for consumers provided by UK Local Authorities (LAs). Inadequate implementation of food safety practices in the home is known to contribute to the incidence of foodborne disease and therefore effective food safety education concerning risks and correct

Elizabeth C. Redmond; Christopher J. Griffith

2006-01-01

92

Collaborative Good Practice between Local Authorities and the Further Education Sector. LGA Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010 planning and funding responsibilities for 16-19 year olds will be transferred from the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) back to the local authorities (LAs). LAs will have responsibility for commissioning and funding all education and training for young people up to the age of 19, making them the strategic lead for all children's services…

McCrone, Tami; Southcott, Clare; Evans, Kelly

2009-01-01

93

Investigating the importance of factors influencing integration technologies adoption in local government authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The application of enterprise application integration (EAI) technologies in integrating heterogeneous information systems (IS) has been pursued by several private and public organisations. However, where EAI has added effectiveness and strengthened the information technology infrastructures in the private domain, local government authorities (LGAs) have been slow in adopting cost-effective EAI solutions to significantly expand the capabilities of their

Muhammad Mustafa Kamal; Mohamed Alsudairi

2009-01-01

94

Academic Underachievement and Exclusion of People Who Have Been Looked after in Local Authority Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although higher education for 50% of all school leavers by 2010 is the stated aim of the United Kingdom government, it is clear that initiatives aimed at widening access do not reach those most in need. This is nowhere more true than in the case of people who have spent all or part of their childhood in the care of local authorities, and who…

Mallon, James

2005-01-01

95

Nurturing property investment by re-engineered systems for land pricing by local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The research in this paper is aimed at re-engineering existing approaches to the analysis of proposed developments in local authorities – from land pricing to planning permission – hence reducing the loss of revenue in councils, and nurture property development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a case study of seven city councils on the Copperbelt province of Zambia

Wilfred M. Matipa; Ronald Barham

2007-01-01

96

Enhancing Solid Waste Management Capacity of Local Government Authorities: Review of Current Status in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the status of strengthening the capacity of Thailand's local government authorities (LGAs) in solid waste management (SWM). It aims to review the SWM status, to evaluate existing problems relating to the capacity, and to recommend strategies for enhancing the capacity. A number of performance indicators have been used including technical and environmental, financial and economic, social and

Samonporn Suttibak; Vilas Nitivattananon

97

Assistance from local authorities versus survivors' needs for support after suicide.  

PubMed

As part of a larger study, this article describes the local authorities in Norway as providers of help and survivors as recipients of help after the suicide of a young person (<30 years) in 83 families. A questionnaire developed for this study maps the extent of professional community support as reported by parent survivors (N = 128). Additionally, 41 survivors described the quality of the assistance through in-depth interviews. Another questionnaire assesses the provisions and the organization of intervention strategies in local communities. Personnel in 321 of Norway's 481 municipalities responded. Although survivors' wishes for ideal support coincide with recommendations by experts in the field, local authorities lack the organization to fulfill such expectations. The discussion highlights issues relating to content, organization, and ideology of the assistance. PMID:12243197

Dyregrov, Kari

2002-10-01

98

Session Hijacking Attacks in Wireless Local Area Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technologies are becoming widely used since they provide more flexibility and availability, Unfortunately, it is possible for WLANs to be implemented with security flaws which are not addressed in the original 802.11 spe...

H. Onder

2004-01-01

99

Personal Computer Local Area Network Security in an Academic Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis explores the unique security requirements of the Local Area Networks (LAN)s within the Administrative Sciences Department Instructional Laboratories at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. Current operating procedures, directio...

R. R. Alfini

1989-01-01

100

Methodology for Characterizing a Generic Local Area Computer Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis establishes a methodology for a manager of information systems to use when choosing a local area network (LAN) for an organization's computer communications. The methodology proposed describes the various decisions about a network that must be...

T. L. Koontz

1986-01-01

101

Management Requirements of the 3COM Ethernet Local Area Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marine Corps has installed 3COM Ethernet Local Area Networks (LANs) at various sites upon implementation of the Recruit Services Management Information System. With the introduction of new technology comes the requirement to administer the network. Th...

B. K. Geiger

1988-01-01

102

[Local health policies and health planning from the viewpoint of the decision-makers of the local authorities].  

PubMed

In 1997 the new law about Public Health Service (OGDG) in Northrhine-Westfalia was put into operation. It included two new sets of compulsory tasks: local health reporting (GBE) and local health conferences (KGK). These new tasks are installed as planning and steering instruments aiming for a better health-care on the local level. The central object is the knowledge-based formation of local health policies. Thereby, local representatives concerned with health and social services should participate as well as administrators and politicians. Since the middle of the 1990 s both new tasks have been established by the public health department of the county of Heinsberg in Northrhine-Westfalia. The experience of this department over almost ten years is the background for the empirical research project that is described in this paper. The study investigates the vocational practices, the decision-making and the health-related attitudes of the relevant local administrative and political representatives. The impulse for the start of the study was given by the constant reluctance of political and administrative top managers to make use of these new planning instruments in agenda setting and decision making. 44 high-ranking staff members and politicians (mayors, party chairmen, heads of departments far beyond the health office) were personally interviewed. Although they are not part of the health administration they claim to be occupied with quite a few health-related tasks. The overlapping of their set of tasks with the local health policies is evident for the interviewed managers. How-ever, this does not cause them to use the two new planning instruments. In particular, they do not participate in the local health conferences. They rather prefer the traditional path of policy making (parties, committees, fractions) even if these paths are less efficient than the new ones. The health conference is much more used by health-service providers as a platform for setting priorities and organising their implementation effectively. So far, the inclusion of the other local representatives (administrative managers, etc.) although they are concerned with health issues has not been achieved. This is also true for local politicians who are responsible for health-care policies. The authors of the paper see it to be the task of the local public health department to convince all these players that the health conference is a productive tool and a useful platform for the discussion of the health problems in the county and the coordination of necessary actions to be taken. The most important focus point is seen in the intersection of health policies with other local policies. PMID:18040960

Ziemer, B; Grunow-Lutter, V

2007-10-01

103

Automated Bilingual Circulation System Using PC Local Area Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a local automated bilingual circulation system using personal computers in a local area network that was developed at King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia) for Arabic and English materials. Topics addressed include the system structure, hardware, major features, storage requirements, and costs. (nine references) (LRW)

Iskanderani, A. I.; Anwar, M. A.

1992-01-01

104

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water features Associated terrestrial ecosystem(s) Area (km2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This small and narrow GWB is elongated in an ENE-WSW direction, and is about 10.5 km long by 1.5 km wide. In general, the ground is 10-20 mAOD, and flat-lying to gently undulating. Ground elevation within the GWB ranges from 20 mAOD along the river to just over 60 mAOD. The highest ground occurs along the northern margin of the

Knockalisheen Marsh

105

Local decentralization and local economic growth: A cross-sectional examination of US metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the growing empirical literature that explores the relationship between government structure and economic growth. It uses a new data set of 314 US metropolitan areas to examine the relationship between local decentralization and local economic growth. The results indicate a negative relationship between the central-city share of metro area population and economic growth and a positive

Dean Stansel

2005-01-01

106

Case-control study of the health of those looked after by local authorities  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To assess the health needs and provision of health care to school age children in local authority care.?METHODS—A total of 142 children aged 5 to 16 in local authority care, and 119 controls matched by age and sex were studied. Main outcome measures were routine health care, physical, emotional, and behavioural health, health threatening and antisocial behaviour, and health promotion.?RESULTS—Compared with children at home, those looked after by local authorities were significantly more likely to: experience changes in general practitioner; have incomplete immunisations; receive inadequate dental care; suffer from anxieties and difficulties in interpersonal relationships; wet the bed; smoke; use illegal drugs; and have been cautioned by police or charged with a criminal offence. They also tend to receive less health education. They were significantly more likely to have had a recent hearing or eye sight test, and reported significantly less physical ill health overall.?CONCLUSIONS—The overall health care of children who have been established in care for more than six months is significantly worse than for those living in their own homes, particularly with regard to emotional and behavioural health, and health promotion. In contrast to uncontrolled observational studies we have not found evidence of problems with the physical health of these children.??

Williams, J; Jackson, S; Maddocks, A; Cheung, W; Love, A; Hutchings, H

2001-01-01

107

Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

2008-05-06

108

The Unique Authority of State and Local Health Departments to Address Obesity  

PubMed Central

The United States has 51 state health departments and thousands of local health agencies. Their size, structure, and authority differ, but they all possess unique abilities to address obesity. Because they are responsible for public health, they can take various steps themselves and can coordinate efforts with other agencies to further health in all policy domains. I describe the value of health agencies' rule-making authority and clarify this process through 2 case studies involving menu-labeling regulations. I detail rule-making procedures and examine the legal and practical limitations on agency activity. Health departments have many options to effect change in the incidence of obesity but need the support of other government entities and officials.

2011-01-01

109

Prevalence of working smoke alarms in local authority inner city housing: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify which type of smoke alarm is most likely to remain working in local authority inner city housing, and to identify an alarm tolerated in households with smokers. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two local authority housing estates in inner London. Participants 2145 households. Intervention Installation of one of five types of smoke alarm (ionisation sensor with a zinc battery; ionisation sensor with a zinc battery and pause button; ionisation sensor with a lithium battery and pause button; optical sensor with a lithium battery; or optical sensor with a zinc battery). Main outcome measure Percentage of homes with any working alarm and percentage in which the alarm installed for this study was working after 15 months. Results 54.4% (1166/2145) of all households and 45.9% (465/1012) of households occupied by smokers had a working smoke alarm. Ionisation sensor, lithium battery, and there being a smoker in the household were independently associated with whether an alarm was working (adjusted odds ratios 2.24 (95% confidence interval 1.75 to 2.87), 2.20 (1.77 to 2.75), and 0.62 (0.52 to 0.74)). The most common reasons for non-function were missing battery (19%), missing alarm (17%), and battery disconnected (4%). Conclusions Nearly half of the alarms installed were not working when tested 15 months later. Type of alarm and power source are important determinants of whether a household had a working alarm. What is already known on this topicFunctioning smoke alarms can reduce the risk of death in the event of a house fireMany local authorities install smoke alarms in their propertiesSeveral different types of smoke alarm are availableWhat this study addsOnly half of the smoke alarms installed in local authority housing were still working 15 months laterIonising smoke alarms with long life lithium batteries were most likely to remain functioningInstalling smoke alarms may not be an effective use of resources

Rowland, Diane; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Roberts, Ian; Curtis, Katherine; Roberts, Helen; Ginnelly, Laura; Sculpher, Mark; Wade, Angela

2002-01-01

110

[The management control system of the Roma/C Local Health Authority. Financial year 2004].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the budgeting process of the Roma/C Local Health Authority during the 2004 financial year. The planning-control process, which included preparing regular reports, allowed performing comparisons between actual with planned results so that the necessary corrective actions could be taken in a timely manner. It also led to a confrontation between the various managers involved, regarding: 1. the conversion of ordinary regime hospital beds into day hospital beds; 2. the development of a new model of emergency care aimed at integrating care between the hospital and the community; 3. the need to implement dataware housing. PMID:17206223

Caruso, Federica; Sirica, Anna; Barbato, Angelo

111

STATE AND LOCAL AREA INTEGRATED TELEPHONE SURVEY (SLAITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) is a telephone interview mechanism that employs the sampling frame of the National Immunization Survey. The purpose of SLAITS is to provide high quality health and welfare-related data on individuals and families at th...

112

Local Area Networks: Vehicles for Connecting and Sharing Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes local area networks (LANs) and discusses advantages of their use in schools for students and teachers, including networking in labs, media centers, and classrooms. Roles of the network supervisor and/or technician are explained, including making decisions about the rights of users and instruction and assistance. (LRW)|

Lipman, Art

1993-01-01

113

An Area Localization Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

For large wireless sensor networks, identifying the exact location of every sensor may not be feasible and the cost may be very high. A coarse estimate of the sensors' locations is usually sufficient for many applications. In this paper, we propose an efficient Area Localization Scheme (ALS) for underwater sensor networks. This scheme tries to estimate the position of every

Vijay Chandrasekhar; W. Seah

2006-01-01

114

Propagation characteristics of International Space Station wireless local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the application of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) for Space Station 2.4 GHz wireless local area networks (WLAN) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in

Shian U. Hwu; Yin-Chung Loh

2004-01-01

115

Intelligent Dynamic Radio Tracking in Indoor Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor positioning is an enabling technology for delivery of location-based services in mobile computing environments. This paper proposes a positioning solution using received signal strength in indoor wireless local area networks. In this application, an explicit measurement equation and the corresponding noise statistics are unknown because of the complexity of the indoor propagation channel. To address these challenges, we introduce

Azadeh Kushki; Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

2010-01-01

116

Kernel-Based Positioning in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent proliferation of Location-Based Services (LBSs) has necessitated the development of effective indoor positioning solutions. In such a context, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) positioning is a particularly viable solution in terms of hardware and installation costs due to the ubiquity of WLAN infrastructures. This paper examines three aspects of the problem of indoor WLAN positioning using received signal

Azadeh Kushki; Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

2007-01-01

117

Security design for a new wireless local area network TUTWLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a security scheme for a medium access control protocol in a new wireless local area network TUTWLAN (Tampere University of Technology WLAN). The design objective has been to develop a security scheme that will be scalable for various needs and offer high security for demanding applications. The designed security scheme provides both privacy of wireless data communications

Karri-Tuomas Salli; Timo Hamalainen; Jarno Knuutila; Jukka Saarinen

1998-01-01

118

Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission

Dongquan Chen; Seng-jaw Soong; Gary J Grimes; Helmuth F Orthner

2004-01-01

119

Secure use of personal workstations and local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel is charged with presenting solutions to problems associated with securing the personal workstation and local area networks. My function is to set the stage for the presentations which will follow by defining technology changes that are occurring and suggesting security issues that evolve from these changes. My job, then, is to raise the problems while my esteemed associates

Leslie D. Ball

1983-01-01

120

The Educational Importance of Local Area Networks in Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents reasons for choosing a connected computer system for student use in secondary schools. The systems approach is discussed; two alternatives are compared, a central computer and a local area network (LAN) of microcomputers; software is described; and two scenarios of LAN use are presented. (four references) (LRW)

Shor, Richard

1989-01-01

121

Local Area Network: What Can a Library Do with It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the ever growing interest that libraries have in the Internet, the potentials of other computer resources may be overlooked or under-utilized. One such resource is the campus local area network (LAN). For libraries, a campus LAN presents possibilities ranging from simple library promotion to networked databases. The Internet provides…

Dermody, Melinda Bako

122

Applications of Local Area Networks of Microcomputers in Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Important features of local area networks (LAN) are reviewed, and several microcomputer LANs are described (ARCnet, Hinet, ShareNet, Ethernet, Omninet, PLAN 4000). Results of survey of 10 libraries using or planning to use a microcomputer LAN and considerations in choosing a LAN are reported. Forty-one references are cited. (EJS)

Levert, Virginia M.

1985-01-01

123

Selecting a Local Area Network for an Academic Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the process used to select a local area network (LAN) for the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Library and Information Science. The use of computers at the library school by staff, faculty, and students is described, technical aspects of a LAN are explained, and the future of LANs is discussed. (LRW)

Aman, Mohammed M.; And Others

1990-01-01

124

The Local Area Network (LAN) and Library Automation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of inexpensive microcomputers in local area information networks (LAN) notes such minicomputer problems as costs, capacity, downtime, and vendor dependence, and the advantages of using LAN in offices and libraries, less costly LAN upgrades, library vendors and LAN systems, and LAN problems. A 28-item bibliography is provided.…

Farr, Rick C.

1983-01-01

125

A Local Area Network for the Biomedical Engineering Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Biomedical Engineering Department at Mount Sinai Medical Hospital, New York, has the overall responsibility of managing patient care equipment and systems throughout the Medical Center. It is an absolute necessity to maintain detailed information on the history and maintenance of these equipment, from a regulatory standpoint as well as to ascertain good engineering practices. A Local Area Network (LAN)

Kelly Galanopoulos; Moin A. Khan

1992-01-01

126

Temporal verification of carrier-sense local area network protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine local area network protocols and verify the correctness of two representative algorithms using temporal logic. We introduce an interval temporal logic that allows us to make assertions of the form “in the next k units, X holds.” This logic encodes intuitive arguments about contention protocols quite directly. We present two proofs of an Ethernet-like contention protocol, one using

Dennis Shasha; Amir Pnueli; W. Ewald

1984-01-01

127

Synchronizing computer clocks using a local area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers completed the first tests of a method to synchronize the clocks of networked computers to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) time scale. The method uses a server computer to disseminate the time to other clients on the same local-area network. The server is synchronized to NIST using the ACTS protocol over a dial-up telephone line. The software in both the server and the parameters of this model are used to adjust the time of the local clock and the interval between calibration requests in a statistically optimum way. The algorithm maximizes the time between calibrations while at the same time keeping the time of the local clock correct within a specific tolerance. The method can be extended to synchronize computers linked over wide-area networks, and an experiment to test the performance of the algorithms over such networks is being planned.

Levine, Judah

1990-05-01

128

Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has prepared this report to facilitate compliance with the requirements of Section 123 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 123 requires the Department of Energy to issue recommendations for establishing state and local incentive programs to encourage acceleration of voluntary consumer replacement of existing water closets, urinals, showerheads and faucets with water-saving products meeting EPACT standards. The authors recommend that state and local authorities working together and also with utilities: (A) investigate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary replacement of plumbing fixtures and fittings as an effective component of a water efficiency incentive program; (B) allow utilities to distribute the costs of water saving products by billing at pre-installation rates until devices have been paid for; (C) encourage decreased water usage by establishing rate structures such as increasing block rates or seasonal pricing; (D) add additional incentive to rebate programs by making the rebates untaxable income. (E) require municipalities or utilities to exhaust every reasonable method of water conservation before applying for permits to construct water supply or water treatment systems; (F) require high-efficiency toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in new construction and changing plumbing codes to incorporate different pipe sizing needs; and (G) and mandate installation of meters to correctly measure water consumption. Following the introduction, a general overview of these recommendations is presented. Each recommendation is discussed briefly. After determining the cost-effectiveness of a plumbing replacement program (or plumbing replacement aspect of a larger program) states can encourage replacement of toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in a number of ways. This report lists both legislative and economic measures that can be implemented on the state level that impact local programs.

Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.; Pickle, S.J.

1995-06-01

129

Implementation of a local area network for nursing management.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the planning and implementation of a Local Area Network (LAN) for the nursing service of a 504-bed urban teaching hospital. The major goals of the network were: support for nurse executives, nurse managers, and the departmental assistants assigned to administrative offices; increased efficiency and effectiveness of the nursing administrative areas; and improved communication systems. Collaboration between the nursing service and the Computer Information Center (CIC) resulted in a network of over 70 workstations, spanning 11 buildings. The network provides access to multiple programs that support clinical, managerial, and research activities. Gateways provide access to the hospital's two mainframes.

Chapman, R. H.; Reiley, P.; McKinney, J.; Toomey, B.; Powers, E.; McCausland, M.

1991-01-01

130

Reducing health care costs--potential and limitations of local authority health services.  

PubMed

Local authorities (LAs) currently provide preventive and promotive services. It is argued that, by extending the role of the LA to the provision of comprehensive services, including ambulatory and hospital curative care, both the quality and the cost-effectiveness of health care would be improved. Making health care the responsibility of the LA would minimise fragmentation, allow for the provision of a number of services that currently are neglected because they fall through the gap that exists between preventive and curative services, and result in the more effective use of personnel currently restricted to providing preventive care only. LAs offer an appropriate structure for effective community control over the health services, and are more likely to be sensitive to local needs and demands. In addition, their administrative proximity to other LA departments responsible for housing, town planning and parks and recreation allows for an effective multisectoral approach to health. The positive aspects of LA care can only be achieved in the context of racially integrated services provided by an LA elected by universal adult franchise. Smaller LAs may need to be grouped together in larger units for the purpose of achieving satisfactory economies of scale in the provision of health care. PMID:2377948

Ijsselmuiden, C B; De Beer, C

1990-08-01

131

Defending Against Jamming Attacks in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless local area networks(WLANs) work upon a shared medium and broadcast data frames via radio waves. These features let\\u000a legitimate users connect to Internet conveniently at WLAN access points but also let a malicious attacker misuse network flexibly.\\u000a Attackers can launch jamming attacks by exploiting vulnerabilities in 802.11, which is a dominant protocol used by WLAN. We\\u000a discuss two jamming

Wei Chen; Danwei Chen; Guozi Sun; Yingzhou Zhang

2007-01-01

132

Analysis of a local-area wireless network  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand better how users take advantage of wireless networks, we examine a twelve-week trace of a building-wide local-area wireless network. We analyze the network for overall user behavior (when and how intensively people use the network and how much they move around), overall network traffic and load characteristics (observed throughput and symmetry of incoming and outgoing traffic), and traffic

Diane Tang; Mary Baker

2000-01-01

133

Multi-Attribute Evaluation of Local Area Network Topologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a multi-attribute evaluation model to the choice between local area network (LAN) topologies in an office automation project. A computerized decision support system, JustLAN, has been developed to facilitate sensitivity studies. It incorporates the following features: (1) a group-participative process for data acquisition, (2) the development of ratio-scaled importance weights for the attributes, (3) detailed cost estimation

Hampton R. Liggett; William G. Sullivan

1992-01-01

134

Extending IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Networks to the Metropolitan Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The IEEE 802.11b wireless local area networking (WLAN) protocol does not specify a maximum permissible range limitation. Rather, the protocol permits network data rates to vary based on the instantaneous link conditions present. This thesis analyzes the i...

P. L. Mallory

2001-01-01

135

Extended producer responsibility for packaging wastes and WEEE - a comparison of implementation and the role of local authorities across Europe.  

PubMed

A comparison of the implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR) to packaging waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is presented for a representative sample of eleven European Union countries based on five indicators: stakeholders and responsibilities; compliance mechanisms; role of local authorities; financing mechanisms and merits and limitations, with four countries selected for more detailed case study analysis. Similarities, trends and differences in national systems are highlighted with particular focus on the role of local authorities and their relationship with obligated producers and the effect on the operation and success of each system. The national systems vary considerably in design, in terms of influence of pre-existing policy and systems, methods of achieving producer compliance (multiple or single collective schemes), fee structures, targets, waste stream prioritization and local authority involvement. Differing approaches are evident across all member states with respect to the role played by local authorities, responsibility apportioned to them, and the evolution of working relationships between obligated producers and municipalities. On the whole, EPR for packaging and WEEE has been successfully implemented throughout Europe in terms of Directive targets. It is, however, clear that the EPR systems currently in application across Europe differ primarily due to contrasting opinion on the legitimacy of local authorities as stakeholders and, in some cases, a fear on the part of industry of associated costs. Where local authorities have been engaged in the design and implementation of national systems, existing infrastructure used and defined roles established for producers and local authorities, results have been significantly more positive than in the cases where local authorities have had limited engagement. PMID:20705678

Cahill, Rachel; Grimes, Sue M; Wilson, David C

2010-08-12

136

The functional status of elderly people admitted to a local authority residential home.  

PubMed

One hundred and forty-one consecutive admissions to a large local authority residential home were studied to assess their functional level. Both panel (71) and emergency (70) admissions were assessed. Forty-seven per cent of the panel admissions came from hospital and 39% from home compared with 4% and 83% of the emergency admissions. Severe mental impairment was found in 22% panel admissions and 34% of emergencies. Dementia was the commonest underlying condition. Inability to cope at home was the most common reason for referral in both groups. The activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed where possible on admission and after two to four weeks. No statistically significant change was found in any aspect of ADL between the two assessments although 9% of the panel and 19% of the emergency group were assessed as being unacceptable for residential care in one function. Residents initially showed a high level of negative attitude to the concept of residential care but this lessened over the four weeks. This study has shown that although new residents are suitable on admission to residential care, they are marginally so and are likely to become more dependent. This has future implications for staff levels and training in residential homes. PMID:2807899

Rafferty, J; Smith, R G; Lewis, S J; Levack, H

1989-05-01

137

Evaluating the Potential of a Web-based Portal to Support the Leverage of Professional Expertise across Local Authority Boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national strategy for local e-government identifies joining up services and the sharing of information as key components in improving the quality and efficiency of public services. A project to design and evaluate a web-based portal to support leverage of professional health and safety enforcement expertise across local authority (LA) boundaries was undertaken. The project clearly demonstrated that there was

Norma Ford; Gai Murphy

2008-01-01

138

Magnetoencephalographic localization of the basal temporal language area.  

PubMed

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were made on 25 native English-speaking patients with localization-related epilepsy during a semantic language task (verb generation). Eighteen right-handed subjects with normal reading ability had MEG scans performed during the same language task. MEG data was analyzed by MR-FOCUSS, a current density imaging technique. Detectable MEG signals arising from activation in the left fusiform gyrus, also known as the basal temporal language area (BTLA), occurred at 167 +/- 18 ms (n = 43) in all subjects. The BTLA has been associated with a variety of language production and comprehension tasks involving processing of semantic, orthographic, and phonologic information. MEG may become an important tool in efforts to further define the linguistic operations of specific regions within this language area. PMID:15710309

Bowyer, Susan M; Fleming, Toya; Greenwald, Margaret L; Moran, John E; Mason, Karen M; Weiland, Barbara J; Smith, Brien J; Barkley, Gregory L; Tepley, Norman

2005-03-01

139

Accountability and Local Control: Response to Incentives with and without Authority over Resource Generation and Allocation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the interaction between school accountability and local control over revenue raising and resource allocation. In particular, it asks whether accountability policies are more or less effective at improving student outcomes in states with stronger local control. Local control is operationalized with multiple measures,…

Loeb, Susanna; Strunk, Katharine

2007-01-01

140

Local authorities, community and Private Operators Partnerships in small towns water service delivery in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the performance of partnerships between local authorities (District Assemblies) and private operators (POs) in the community managed small towns' water service delivery in Ghana. Since 2002, partnerships in the form of management contracts are increasing especially for towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants but there has been no systematic analysis of the partnerships. Using a case study approach based on five selected community managed piped systems; three under private operator partnerships and two under direct Community Ownership and Management as study controls, the study focused on the partnership development, partnership relationship between stakeholders and the outcome of the service. The study revealed that the partnership emerged as a result of the relatively large communities and/or the complexity of the systems. Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDBs) are community representatives with the responsibility of overseeing the management contracts with private operators or directly managing the water systems through hired operating staff. With time the management contracts have improved as some earlier defects have been corrected in subsequent contracts. Yet some contracts suffered post-contract opportunism, weak monitoring and regulation by the District Assembly (DA), political interference in tariffs setting and removal of WSDBs members after change of government. Conflicts between the DAs and the Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDBs) were common resulting in direct management by the District Assembly. The success or failure of the partnership is linked to degree of conflict resolution amongst the stakeholders as well as external factors. The study also discusses the outcome of the partnerships in relation to the quality of water service delivered.

Nyarko, K. B.; Oduro-Kwarteng, S.; Owusu-Antwi, P.

141

Local earthquake tomography model for the southern Dead Sea area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local earthquake data from a dense temporary seismological network in the southern Dead Sea area have been analyzed within the project DESIRE (Dead Sea Integrated Research Project). Local earthquakes are used for the first precise image of the distribution of the P velocity and the vp/vs ratios. 65 stations registered 655 local events within 18 months of observation time. A subset of 530 well locatable events with 26,730 P- and S-arrival times was used to calculate a tomographic model for the vp and vp/vs distribution. Since the study area is at first order two-dimensional, a gradual approach was chosen, which compromised a 2-D inversion followed by a 3-D inversion. The sedimentary basin fill, clearly imaged through high vp/vs ratios and low vp, shows an asymmetric structure with a vertical eastern boundary and an inclined western boundary. Within the basin fill the Lisan salt diapir is imaged through low vp/vs ratios. Below the basin fill the pre-basin sediments and the reworked crust, indicated by low P velocities and low vp/vs ratios, form a 10 km wide body between 12 and 18 km depth with vertical boundaries. No indications are found for a significant change of the P velocity structure in NS direction. Meanwhile, the change of the vp/vs ratios from high to low values varies in NS direction. This change, interpreted as the lower boundary of the basin fill, is reached already at 10 km depth in the area of the Boqeq fault, but not until 14 km depth below the Lisan peninsula. This difference is most likely related to different amounts of faulting at the transverse normal faults. North of the Boqeq fault the seismic activity between 3 and 15 km depth is mostly related to the fluid containing basin sediments. South of the Boqeq fault the seismic events occur between 12 and 18 km depth, and thus within the pre-basin sediments and the underlying crust.

Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

2012-04-01

142

Local markets and systems: hospital consolidations in metropolitan areas.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study examines the formation of local hospital systems (LHSs) in urban markets by the end of 1992. We argue that a primary reason why hospitals join LHSs is to achieve improved positions of market power relative to threatening rivals. DATA SOURCES/DATA COLLECTION. The study draws from a unique database of LHSs located in and around metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Data were obtained from the 1991 AHA Annual Hospital Survey, updated to the year 1992 using information obtained from multiple sources (telephone contacts of systems, systems lists of hospitals, published changes in ownership, etc.). Other measures were obtained from a variety of sources, principally the 1989 Area Resources File. STUDY DESIGN. The study presents cross-sectional analyses of rival threats and other factors bearing on LHS formation. Three characteristics of LHS formation are examined: LHS penetration of urban areas, LHS size, and number of LHS members located just outside the urban boundaries. LHS penetration is analyzed across urban markets, and LHS size and rural partners are examined across the LHSs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Major hypothesized findings are: (1) with the exception of the number of rural partners, all dependent variables are positively associated with the number of hospitals in the markets; the rural partner measure is negatively associated with the number of hospitals; (2) the number of doctors per capita is positively associated with all but the rural penetration measure; and (3) the percentage of the population in HMOs is positively associated with local cluster penetration and negatively associated with rural system partners. Other findings: (1) average income in the markets is negatively associated with all but the rural penetration measure; (2) LHS size and rural partners are both positively associated with nonprofit system ownership; and (3) they are also both negatively associated with the degree to which their multihospital systems are geographically concentrated in a single state. CONCLUSIONS. The findings generally support the argument that LHS formation is the product of hospital providers attempting to improve positions of power in their local markets.

Luke, R D; Ozcan, Y A; Olden, P C

1995-01-01

143

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

1991-12-01

144

[Improvement of the preoperative localization technique in the surgery of hyperparathyroidism (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The possibility of preoperatively localizing overactive parathyroid adenoma by measuring the difference in parathormone levels in selective blood samples from the thyroid venous plexus and from the periphery (large veins) by radioimmunoassay has brought a decisive advance in parathyroid surgery. We report our experience with this preoperative localization technique, which we have used in 10 patients. PMID:408640

Klempa, I; Palau, V; Schwedes, V; Usadel, K H

1977-08-01

145

Local Education Authorities and Student Learning: The Effects of Policies and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses an issue that has not been well explored in empirical research, namely whether local education agencies (districts) have an impact on student learning. We assumed that local district effects on learning would be largely indirect, mediated by how teachers work together in schools (in professional communities) and the quality…

Lee, Moosung; Louis, Karen Seashore; Anderson, Stephen

2012-01-01

146

Local education authorities and student learning: the effects of policies and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses an issue that has not been well explored in empirical research, namely whether local education agencies (districts) have an impact on student learning. We assumed that local district effects on learning would be largely indirect, mediated by how teachers work together in schools (in professional communities) and the quality of instruction that is provided. Based on the

Moosung Lee; Karen Seashore Louis; Stephen Anderson

2012-01-01

147

Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment  

PubMed Central

Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER). The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management.

Chen, Dongquan; Soong, Seng-jaw; Grimes, Gary J; Orthner, Helmuth F

2004-01-01

148

Local area networking in a radio quiet environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.

2002-11-01

149

A local area network diagnostic assistant expert system  

SciTech Connect

We are currently developing a stand-alone Local Area Network (LAN) Diagnostic Assistant expert system to assist system managers in diagnosing network-related hardware and software malfunctions. The goal of this system is to aid in identifying malfunctions associated with a single workstation, a group of workstations, communications between workstations, and general statements of the ''Ethernet not working'' type of problems. The system consists of a geographical editor for data entry and modification of LAN information and a diagnostic environment for solving problems. Much work has been done in laying the initial framework for the system in the areas of LAN representation, the problem-solving strategy, and the user interface. We used a hierarchical frame-based representation for the LAN. Information for the strategy mechanism was gathered through case studies and background information. Ideas from heuristic classification were incorporated into the strategy mechanism. As in any system development, a majority of the time was spent developing a good user interface. We used graphics renditions wherever natural and minimized keyboard input by using mouse-selectable buttons and menus. Currently, a prototype version of the system is available that assists with some single-workstation problems. 7 refs., 10 figs.

Mniszewski, S.M.; Peter, E.A.; Lloyd, S.C.

1988-01-01

150

Bohlabela District Municipality: Water Services Provider Options Study for Maruleng Local Municipal Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study area is that of the Maruleng Local Municipality. There are two distinct service areas in the study area which have to be supplied with municipal water services, Hoedspruit including Kampersrus and the Sekororo - Letsoalo - Mametja area, referred...

2003-01-01

151

How local authority services may be affected during the 2012 Olympics and how they can be maintained.  

PubMed

On 6th July, 2005, the International Olympic Committee awarded London the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This is the first time an event of this magnitude has been hosted in a western country since the September 11th attacks. The UK Government continues to assess the risk, and five years on, planning is well under way. With a limited amount of time remaining, those UK local authorities hosting Olympic events will be considering what they need to have in place to support command and control arrangements during the Games. This paper provides an overview of what local authorities need to be doing over the next two years to prepare. PMID:21482515

Smith, Kevin

2011-02-01

152

Use of the Support Group Method to Tackle Bullying, and Evaluation from Schools and Local Authorities in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Support Group Method (SGM), formerly the No Blame Approach, is widely used as an anti-bullying intervention in schools, but has aroused some controversy. There is little evidence from users regarding its effectiveness. We aimed to ascertain the use of and support for the SGM in Local Authorities (LAs) and schools; and obtain ratings of…

Smith, Peter K.; Howard, Sharon; Thompson, Fran

2007-01-01

153

The 1983 Mental Health Act in Five Local Authorities: a Study of the Practice of Approved Social Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents the first report of an ongoing collaborative project and charts the activities of social workers undertaking their duties within the framework of the 1983 Mental Health Act in five English Local Authorities for one year. Social workers are involved in a range of duties under the Act, but most commonly they are involved in assessments with a

Barbara Hatfield; Hadi Mohamad; Peter Huxley

1992-01-01

154

Safe Physical Activity Environments--To What Extent Are Local Government Authorities Auditing the Safety of Grassed Sporting Grounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical activity (PA) participation is influenced by the safety of the settings in which it is undertaken. This study describes the grounds assessment practices of Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia to ensure the safety of grassed sporting grounds. It also makes recommendations for improving these practices to maximise the…

Otago, Leonie; Swan, Peter; Donaldson, Alex; Payne, Warren; Finch, Caroline

2009-01-01

155

Investigating EAI adoption in the local government authorities : A case of mapping the influential factors on the adoption lifecycle phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and validate the adoption lifecycle phases and perform the mapping of factors influencing the decision making process for enterprise application integration (EAI) adoption on the adoption lifecycle phases in two local government authorities (LGAs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study based research approach using interviews with the decision makers is utilised

Muhammad Mustafa Kamal; Marinos Themistocleous

2009-01-01

156

Scoring Opportunity or Hospital Pass? The Changing Role of Local Authorities in 14-19 Education and Training in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2008, the UK Labour government unveiled plans to abolish the Learning and Skills Council and transfer funding for the education and training of 16-19-year-olds in England to local authorities (LAs). The transfer of 16-19 funding complements the responsibilities that LAs have already acquired in relation to the raising of the education and…

Payne, Jonathan

2010-01-01

157

287(g) and the Politics of Interior Immigration Control in the United States: Explaining Local Cooperation with Federal Immigration Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to improve our understanding of emerging patterns of interior immigration control in the United States by examining local law enforcement cooperation with federal immigration authorities under the 287(g) Program. While several recent studies have drawn attention to the shifting terrain of immigration enforcement away from borders into the interior, few have attempted to systematically explain reasons for

Tom K. Wong

2012-01-01

158

47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the State and Local Area Plans. Analog and...specified in § 11.51(a) through (e...specified in § 11.51(j). EAS Participants...the State or Local Area EAS transmission procedures...the State and Local Area Plans. (2) Analog...specified in § 11.51(a) through...

2012-10-01

159

30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...organization executing the project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the location of the project and the location of water...and power lines within the project area, and maps or plats showing...

2013-07-01

160

Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Primary School Children in an Inner-City Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…

Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

2010-01-01

161

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

162

Information governance, records management, and freedom of information: A study of local government authorities in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many democratic states political rhetoric gives weight to increasing public participation in and understanding of the political process; (re)-establishing public trust in government decision making; increasing transparency, openness, and accountability of public authorities; and, ultimately, improving government decision-making on behalf of citizens. Access to the public record and freedom of information (FOI) are mechanisms which help to facilitate the

Elizabeth Shepherd; Alice Stevenson; Andrew Flinn

2010-01-01

163

76 FR 47228 - Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office Administrators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Housing and Urban Development Act, as...Department of Housing and Urban Development, 490 L'Enfant...Tribes, Alaska Native Villages, Native Hawaiians...Tribes and Alaska Native Villages. Section E. Authority...Department of Housing and Urban Development Act,...

2011-08-04

164

A method to evaluate the generation area of local wave climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of wave conditions at a local scale is of paramount importance for off-shore and coastal engineering applications (maritime works, ship design and route definition, offshore structures design, harbours operability). However, wave characteristics at a specific location cannot be fully understood studying only information of such location. They are the integrated result of the dynamics of the ocean surface over an area of influence. The goal of this work is to provide a methodology to easily characterize the area of influence of any particular ocean location in the world. The method is based on a global scale analysis using both geographic and oceanographic criteria. The geographic criterion relies on the realistic assumption that deep water waves travel along great circle paths, taking into account the spherical shape of the Earth. This allows limiting the study area by neglecting energy that cannot reach a target point, as its path is blocked by land. The oceanographic criterion is applied to global wave reanalysis data (Reguero et al., 2012), considering different spectral parameters such as mean direction, directional spread, wave energy period and energy flux, and taking into account in its specific location, the fraction of energy of the directional sector that travels towards the target point. A better understanding of the spatial generation and propagation area and an estimation of the time span the waves take to arrive to the target point is obtained. We have applied the methodology worldwide to obtain detailed maps of the relative importance of different oceanic areas to the climate of any location. Results show important spatial patterns that cannot be inferred from local parameters and validation with different climate analysis of other authors (Izaguirre et al., 2012; Alves et al., 2006) confirm the robustness of the method. This methodology facilitates enormously the study of wave generation area that induces local wave climate.

Perez, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando; Menendez, Melisa

2013-04-01

165

Substantive Issues in the Definition of “Localities”: Evidence from Sub–Group Local Labour Market Areas in the West Midlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

COOMBES M. G., GREEN A. E. and OWEN D. W. (1988) Substantive issues in the definition of “localities”: evidence from sub-group local labour market areas in the West Midlands, Reg. Studies22, 303–318. Local Labour Market Areas (LLMAs) are now widely accepted as the most appropriate areal units for analyses of spatial patterns of employment and unemployment. The most commonly used

M. G. Coombes; A. E. Green; D. W. Owen

1988-01-01

166

GIS and development control system for a local authority in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of development control involves a technique for the systematic compilation of expert quantitative analysis and qualitative assessment of project land use and property development viability, including its effect on the surrounding area, and the presentation of results in a way that enables the importance of the predicted results, and the scope of modifying or mitigating them to be

Ahris Yaakup; Foziah Johar; Susilawati Sulaiman; Ruslin Hassan; Abdul Rashid Ibrahim

2003-01-01

167

Local Environmental Groups: A Systematic Enumeration in Two Geographical Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A systematic, labor-intensive inventory of all local environmental groups in the Delmarva Peninsula and the state of North Carolina found 566 local groups, 7-20 times the number in published directories. Unexpectedly, high school student groups made up about 30 percent of the total. Groups' diverse objectives, primary activities, and alliances…

Kempton, Willett; Holland, Dorothy C.; Bunting-Howarth, Katherine; Hannan, Erin; Payne, Christopher

2001-01-01

168

Scoring opportunity or hospital pass? The changing role of local authorities in 14–19 education and training in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, the UK Labour government unveiled plans to abolish the Learning and Skills Council and transfer funding for the education and training of 16–19?year?olds in England to local authorities (LAs). The transfer of 16–19 funding complements the responsibilities that LAs have already acquired in relation to the raising of the education and training ‘participation age’ and ensuring that all

Jonathan Payne

2010-01-01

169

Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ? = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of the expert pathologist is not affected by our CAD system which is what we want to prove. However, the usage of our CAD system substantially account for the reduced inter- and intra- proliferation rate estimation variability and especially for less-experienced pathologists.

Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

2012-02-01

170

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN THE MBASHE LOCAL MUNICIPAL AREA IN THE EASTERN CAPE: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning for economic development at the local level has become increasingly important in many countries of the world. South Africa is no exception and has had the local focus entrenched through constitutional provisions for developmental local government. In this paper, the Mbashe Local Municipal area is used as a case study for an examination of the linkages between economic development

John Reynolds

171

The G4R GMES Academy - linking research, academia, service providers and local authorities.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related research projects in the EU EDUCATION - a compendium of courses offered by universities in the field of GMES LECTURES - G4R offers to arrange lectures on GMES at interested universities and institutions The initiative by G4R invites collaboration to strengthen the role of research and education for the evolution of GMES services.

Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio

2013-04-01

172

Theoretical Investigation of Single-Frequency 8-Element Localizer Signal Scattering for Critical Area Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical investigation of the log-periodic, 8-element, single-frequency localizer has been performed to establish critical area criteria for all categories of ILS operation. Contour maps are provided which predict the peak localizer CDI perturbation ...

W. D. Phipps

1985-01-01

173

Neighborhood Strategy Area (NSA) Demonstration: A Case Study of Local Control Over Housing Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Neighborhood Strategy Area (NSA) Demonstration was assessed in 116 cities containing 150 NSA's. The demonstration was established by HUD in 1978 to strengthen local neighborhood revitalization efforts by giving local governments control over Section 8...

K. D. Bleakly M. J. Holin L. H. Fitzpatrick C. Newman

1982-01-01

174

Localization of Broca's area using verb generation tasks in the MEG: Validation against fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional MRI (fMRI) is routinely used to non-invasively localize language areas. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is being explored as an alternative technique. MEG tasks to localize receptive language are well established although there are no standardized tasks to localize expressive language areas. We developed two expressive language tasks for MEG and validated their localizations against fMRI data. Ten right-handed adolescents (?=17.5 years)

Elizabeth W. Pang; Frank Wang; Marion Malone; Darren S. Kadis; Elizabeth J. Donner

2011-01-01

175

Correlation between localized anodic areas and Oceanospirillum biofilms on copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Oceanospirillum produces copious amounts of exopolymer when grown on copper surfaces and binds Cu+2 from the substratum. The organism and associated exopolymers result in local anodic regions that can be detected by scanning vibrating electrode microscopy. Oceanospirillum was grown in small laminar flow cells with two carbon sources on copper and 316 stainless steel as substrata. The

Brenda Little; Patricia Wagner; Peter Angell; David White

1996-01-01

176

Closed form localization algorithms for mode S wide area multilateration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilateration (MLAT) is an increasingly important location and identification system for surface traffic surveillance, is in use in large airports such as London-Heathrow, Frankfurt\\/Main and Rome-Fiumicino. Target location can be extended to approach and terminal area surveillance (wide area multilateration, WAM), with a system coverage to some hundred kilometers around the airport. Practically used MLAT systems exploit signals transmitted by

Mauro Leonardi; Adolf Mathias; Gaspare Galati

2009-01-01

177

48 CFR 26.202 - Local area preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contracts during the term of a major disaster or emergency declaration by the President of the United States under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C.5121, et seq.), preference shall be given, to...

2011-10-01

178

Public Key Authentication Schemes for Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention of public-key cryptography makes many new network applications, such as electronic commerce (CE), possible. However, the widely used Internet is open and unprotected. Therefore, verifying the legitimacy of an individual's public key is very important. Most of the key authentication schemes require one or more trustworthy authorities to authenticate the key of a user. Consequently, the system security

Tzungher Chen; Gwoboa Horng; Chuan-sheng Yang

2008-01-01

179

43 CFR 6302.12 - When do I need an authorization and to pay a fee to use a wilderness area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...authorization and to pay a fee to use a wilderness area? 6302.12 Section 6302.12 Public Lands...CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of...

2012-10-01

180

Magnetoencephalographic localization of the basal temporal language area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were made on 25 native English-speaking patients with localization-related epilepsy during a semantic language task (verb generation). Eighteen right-handed subjects with normal reading ability had MEG scans performed during the same language task. MEG data was analyzed by MR-FOCUSS, a current density imaging technique. Detectable MEG signals arising from activation in the left fusiform gyrus, also known

Susan M. Bowyer; Toya Fleming; Margaret L. Greenwald; John E. Moran; Karen M. Mason; Barbara J. Weiland; Brien J. Smith; Gregory L. Barkley; Norman Tepley

2005-01-01

181

Performance of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) local area and wide area networks for medical imaging transmission in clinical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology emerges as a leading candidate for medical image transmission in both local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) applications. This paper describes the performance of an ATM LAN and WAN network at the University of California, San Francisco. The measurements were obtained using an intensive care unit (ICU) server connecting to four image

H. K. Huang; Albert W. K. Wong; Xiaoming Zhu

1997-01-01

182

Exploring data parallelism and locality in wide area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing has demonstrated that processing very large datasets over commodity clusters can be done simply given the right programming structure. Work to date, for example MapReduce and Hadoop, has focused on systems within a data center. In this paper, we present Sphere, a cloud computing system that targets distributed data-intensive applications over wide area networks. Sphere uses a data-parallel

Yunhong Gu; Robert Grossman

2008-01-01

183

Two Years Later - The Marriage of a Local Area Network and a Hospital Information System  

PubMed Central

At the Seventh SCAMC meeting in 1983, I reported on The Evolving Marriage of a Local Area Network (LAN) and A Hospital Information System (HIS). Over the ensuing two year period, considerable changes have been made. This paper will review the advances and continuing progress of this local area network.

Harrison, Eugene T.

1985-01-01

184

The management of local government modernisation : Area decentralisation and pragmatic localism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Seeks to analyse the complexity of current practices surrounding the management and governance of urban regeneration activities in the UK. In particular, aims to focus on the potential of initiatives decentralised to the sub-local level that have been designed both to effectively manage public service provision and to improve citizen participation in local government management decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Jon Coaffee; Lorraine Johnston

2005-01-01

185

Modeling and monitoring a LAN. [Local Area Network  

SciTech Connect

Clark, Program and Reed have suggested that the issues of local network design can be classified as either configuration issues or protocol issues. They visualize networks as consisting of four basic elements: the transmission medium, a control mechanism, the interfaces, and the protocols. Network performance is strongly dependent not only upon each of these elements but also upon their mutual interactions. The remainder of this paper consists of three sections. The first section deals with the validation of LLNL's discrete event simulation of the NSC Hyperchannel. The second section concerns the current state of traffic measurement in the Craynet. Lastly, the third section discusses the design and functionality of a Hyperchannel Monitoring Device (HMD).

Watson, W.B.

1983-04-18

186

Localization of a pontine vocalization-controlling area.  

PubMed

To find out whether there exist additional regions in the pontine brainstem, apart from the phonatory motoneuron pools involved in vocal motor control, the effects of a localized blockade of excitatory neurotransmission in the pons were studied on squirrel monkey vocalization. Vocalization was elicited by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray of the midbrain. Blockade was carried out by stereotaxic injections of kynurenic acid, a nonspecific glutamate antagonist. It was found that injections made into the ventrolateral pons around the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and superior olive could block periaqueductally elicited vocalization. Injections were only effective ipsilaterally, not contralaterally to the stimulation site. The blockade was limited to one particular class of calls, all of which had in common a characteristic stereotyped frequency modulation over several kHz. It is concluded that critical processing steps of vocal motor control take place in the periolivary region. PMID:11051465

Jürgens, U

2000-10-01

187

Impacts of community-based conservation on local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

188

Impacts of Community-based Conservation on Local Communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

2006-01-01

189

Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

190

Allocating resources to health authorities: development of method for small area analysis of use of inpatient services.  

PubMed Central

Every year about 22 billion pounds is allocated to health authorities for hospital and community services in England. The distribution of most of these funds is based on a formula developed to reflect the population's needs, but the existing formula has been criticised on several grounds. This paper describes the development of a method to determine the health needs for small geographical areas. Data from the hospital episodes statistics and 1991 census together with information on vital statistics and supply of health care facilities were used in the model. Two stage least squares regression was used to identify true indicators of need, and these were entered into a multilevel model to take account of variations in practice in different health authorities. The resulting formula should be more statistically robust and more sensitive to needs than previous approaches.

Carr-Hill, R. A.; Sheldon, T. A.; Smith, P.; Martin, S.; Peacock, S.; Hardman, G.

1994-01-01

191

PEOPLE'S PERCEPTION ON HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current work examined the structure of household waste management system, collection and disposal within the context of a wider research on integrated solid waste management in households. A sample of 30 households from eleven selected residential areas with a focus group of 60 respondents in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria was used. The selected residential areas were

E. O. Longe; O. O. Longe; E. F. Ukpebor

2009-01-01

192

The Experiences of Women in Local Government - A Casestudy in the Durban Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equal opportunity for all citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution of South Africa (1996), places gender as one of the key areas of redress in the process of transformation of the state and its structures. Local government has been a focal area of policy transformation, ensuring gender equity and equality. A case study of the Durban Metropolitan Area (1996 to

Nutan Maharaj

193

The local volumetric interfacial area transport equation: derivation and physical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the two-fluid model, the closure relations for the mass, momentum and energy interfacial transfer terms involve the contact area between the phases per unit volume, namely the volumetric interfacial area. Ishii suggested that the local volumetric interfacial area should obey a transport equation. The main purpose of this paper is to derive this transport equation from geometrical considerations. No

Christophe Morel; Nicolas Goreaud; Jean-Marc Delhaye

1999-01-01

194

International research and local authorities: interplay between research and police agendas in the field of drug abuse and AIDS.  

PubMed

International study of drug use and HIV derives much of its value from affording investigators opportunities to compare similar behaviors in contrasting cultural contexts. In these contrasting cultural contexts, people entrusted with conducting police work and minimizing crime have ways of conducting their business that may or may not interfere with research on illegal or socially disapproved behaviors. Two cases illustrate interactions between well-meaning researchers and local authorities. In both, investigations benefited from having laid groundwork for local endorsement of study activities. Research on marijuana smoking in Costa Rica enjoyed strong cooperation from the Ministry of Health, but not so strong from the Ministry of Security because of a fledgling office of Narcotics. Studies of HIV risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Valencia, Spain, encountered no problems with police but noted dangers of low drug enforcement. Five principles of preparing for international research may help investigators to anticipate some varieties of contextual obstructions to research outside the United States. PMID:16107435

Page, J Bryan

2005-09-01

195

Should ACSC (Air Command and Staff College) Purchase a Local Area Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Command and Staff College has established a requirement for a Local Area Network (LAN). This study reviews current technology available to ACSC to accomplish electronic communications needs. It addresses LAN capabilities and limitations, and discu...

C. D. Fry

1988-01-01

196

Local Area Network to Facilitate Office Automation in the Administrative Sciences Department.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis explores the implementation of a Local Area Network (LAN) to increase the usefulness of microcomputers in an office environment by linking individual microcomputers and associated peripheral devices together into a communications network. The ...

W. H. Peck

1986-01-01

197

Local Area Network Terminal Management in Support of Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the questions of user requirements, design considerations, and network environment for a local area network Terminal Management function in support of the Naval Supply Systems Command's Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications ...

J. D. Barnes

1982-01-01

198

Toward an integrated marine protected areas policy: connecting the global to the local  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy development related to marine protected areas (MPAs) occurs at three levels: international, national, and local. Recent\\u000a developments with MPAs highlight their close links to broader national-level park and protected area policies, which in turn\\u000a take their lead from initiatives and recommendations initiated, and increasingly dictated, by international organizations.\\u000a Local-level inputs to MPA policies have tended to be limited to

Marivic G. Pajaro; Monica E. Mulrennan; Amanda C. J. Vincent

2010-01-01

199

Optimization of Bandwidth and Energy Consumption in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years the proliferation of portable computers, handheld digital devices, and PDAs has led to a rapid growth\\u000a in the use of wireless technologies for the Local Area Network (LAN) environment. Beyond supporting wireless connectivity\\u000a for fixed, portable and moving stations within a local area, the wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies can provide a mobile and\\u000a ubiquitous connection to

Marco Conti; Enrico Gregori

2002-01-01

200

Ampelographic and DNA Characterization of Local Grapevine Accessions of the Tuscia Area (Latium, Centre of Italy)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of local vines in the Tuscia area (Latium region, Italy) was documented by historical sources. Ampelographic and molecular characterization (35 morphological descriptors and 16 microsatellite loci) was carried out on accessions belonging to the most frequently mentioned local vines. S...

201

20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACCOUNTABILITY UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Local Measures of Performance § 666.300 What performance indicators apply...local workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction...

2013-04-01

202

Information Needs of Illiterate Female Farmers in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aimed to find out the information needs of illiterate female farmers in Ethiope East local government area of Delta State, Nigeria. Agriculture is the mainstay of people in the rural areas, and is mostly for subsistence living. To bring about improvement in practice requires finding out: at what stages of farming illiterate female farmers need agricultural

Joseph Welfare Irivwieri

2007-01-01

203

Local seismic response in Catania (Italy): A test area in the northern part of the town  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site effects were studied in an area located in the northern part of Catania town using ambient noise measurements. The study zone is particularly suitable for investigating local seismic response both because most of the terrains characterizing the urban area are here outcropping and a considerable amount of field measurements of their elastic properties is available.The recorded ambient noise was

G. Lombardo; R. Rigano

2007-01-01

204

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to

R. R. Hinchman; S. D. Zellmer; W. D. Severinghaus; J. J. Brent

1989-01-01

205

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to

R. R. Hinchman; S. D. Zellmer; W. D. Severinghaus; J. J. Brent

1989-01-01

206

Characterizing mobility and network usage in a corporate wireless local-area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless local-area networks are becoming increasingly popular. They are commonplace on university campuses and inside corporations, and they have started to appear in public areas [17]. It is thus becoming increasingly important to understand user mobility patterns and network usage characteristics on wireless networks. Such an understanding would guide the design of applications geared toward mobile environments (e.g., pervasive computing

Magdalena Balazinska; Paul Castro

2003-01-01

207

The development of a common risk assessment methodology for local authorities in southeast Europe focusing on climate change related hazards - first results from the SEERISK project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to influence the magnitude and frequency of a number of natural hazards in the future and hence, change the spatial patterns of risk and vulnerability. Local authorities, emergency planners and other decision makers are in need of tools that enable the assessment of the risks associated with the natural hazards. This research is embedded in the EU-funded SEERISK project ("Joint disaster management risk assessment and preparedness for the Danube macro-region"). The principle aim of this project is to improve coherence and consistency among risk assessments undertaken by the partner countries in national, regional and local level. The project focuses on bringing decision makers from southeast Europe together and it attempts the development of a common methodology for risk assessment of climate change related hazards that will be applied in various pilot areas in the partner countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Romania). The common methodology takes into consideration the lack of data in most of the cases and it offers alternatives for the risk assessment but also for the data collection following future events. The common methodology is presented here in the form of methodological steps for four different natural hazards, namely, floods, droughts, heat waves and extreme wind. The proposed methodology is in line with the EC Guidelines for Risk assessment and mapping and will be implemented in the near future in respective regions.

Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

208

20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1) of this section) relating to: (A) Excess youth poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and (B) Excess...d)(1) of this section) relating to: (A) Excess poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and (B)...

2013-04-01

209

Local Area Water Removal Analysis of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell under Gas Purge Conditions  

PubMed Central

In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold.

Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

2012-01-01

210

How Good Is Our School? The Child at the Centre: The Health Promoting School--The Role of Local Authorities and Their Partners. Self-Evaluation Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To become effective health promoting establishments which achieve the maximum impact on children, young people and families and on the local community, schools and pre-school centres need to operate within a strategic framework developed at the highest levels within their local council and community area. Effective councils are committed to…

Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

211

[Impact and state of the art of regional healthcare planning and management guidelines in a local health authority of the Lazio region (Italy)].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of health care planning and management guidelines, elaborated by the Lazio regional healthcare authority, on the organizational structure and operational processes of local health authorities and, more specifically, of the Roma C local health authority. The guidelines are made up of three volumes and mainly describe an operational model, rather than being a set of standard references aimed at standardizing the quality of information low systems in local healthcare authorities. The guidelines are essentially a didactic text, and were elaborated by a consulting firm, Engineering Management Consulting, on behalf of the Lazio regional authority. In the first section, the main concepts are defined, while in subsequent sections, detailed models regarding the specific subject matter are described. Although the guidelines represent a useful tool in the process of converting local health authorities of the Lazio region into "business" organizations, so far they have been of use only in the first phase of assessment of different organizational models for healthcare planning and management. There is still a long way ahead towards defining standard procedures and references for describing activities and costs. This is what should hopefully be achieved briefly and which will necessarily require the introduction of a data warehouse and business intelligence software that will allow monitoring of activities and making short term predictions through the use balanced scorecards and data mining. PMID:18084348

Priori, Maria Rosaria; Barbato, Angelo

212

Area laws in a many-body localized state and its implications for topological order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question whether Anderson insulators can persist to finite-strength interactions—a scenario dubbed many-body localization—has recently received a great deal of interest. The origin of such a many-body localized phase has been described as localization in Fock space, a picture we examine numerically. We then formulate a precise sense in which a single energy eigenstate of a Hamiltonian can be adiabatically connected to a state of a non-interacting Anderson insulator. We call such a state a many-body localized state and define a many-body localized phase as one in which almost all states are many-body localized states. We explore the possible consequences of this; the most striking is an area law for the entanglement entropy of almost all excited states in a many-body localized phase. We present the results of numerical calculations for a one-dimensional system of spinless fermions. Our results are consistent with an area law and, by implication, many-body localization for almost all states and almost all regions for weak enough interactions and strong disorder. However, there are rare regions and rare states with much larger entanglement entropies. Furthermore, we study the implications that many-body localization may have for topological phases and self-correcting quantum memories. We find that there are scenarios in which many-body localization can help to stabilize topological order at non-zero energy density, and we propose potentially useful criteria to confirm these scenarios.

Bauer, Bela; Nayak, Chetan

2013-09-01

213

Capacity enhancement by terminal originated beamforming for wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dense traffic areas, wireless local area networks (WLANs) suffer from interference problems due to the usage of the crowded\\u000a unlicensed ISM band and the lack of available spectrum. To mitigate these problems, a terminal side beamforming framework\\u000a is proposed—this beamforming is capable of focusing the transmission and the reception in the relevant direction of the access\\u000a point to exploit

Chenguang Lu; Frank H. P. Fitzek; Patrick C. F. Eggers

2007-01-01

214

How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn't as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group's patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

Hayhoe, G.F.

1991-01-01

215

The Development of The Local Area Network Market As Determined By User Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Events in the Local Area Network (LAN) market are used to illuminate recent developments in the economics of technical standards. Several analytical themes emerge: the role of complementarities in social increasing returns, the strategic importance of standardization in determining industry structure, and the coordination problems facing the sponsor(s) of a new technology. The contrast between office LANs, with a traditional

Timothy F. Bresnahan; Amit Chopra

1990-01-01

216

Packet Scheduling for Link-Sharing and Quality of Service Support in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing deployment of wireless local area networks (WLANs) in corporate envi- ronments, the increasing number of wireless Internet service providers and demand for quality of service support create a need for controlled sharing of wireless bandwidth. In this technical report a method for using long-term channel-state information in order to control the sharing of wireless bandwidth is studied. The

Lars Wischhof; John W. Lockwood

2001-01-01

217

IMPLEMENTATION OF A WIRELESS HIGH-SPEED LOCAL AREA NETWORK FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A demonstration project implementing a wireless local area network(WLAN)which connected the farm stead with tractors, cotton pickers, combines, and spray equipment along with consultant's vehicle and hand-help personal digital assistants (PDAs) via 802.11 or popularly called WI-FI radios will be pre...

218

The Research on Science and Technology Area Incorporated with the Local Education of the Cooperative Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research discusses cooperative learning incorporated with local education to design a lesson plan of science and technology area with implemented in traditional teaching is mainly aimed at the impact. The target group is the two classes of the Grade Nine students in a junior high school. The conclusions of the research can be: 1) the students have a positive

Rong-Jyue Fang; Tsung-Wen Cheng; I-Wen Li; Tsai Hua-Lin

219

JANUS/Ada Software Implementation of a Star Cluster Local Area Network of Personal Computers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes the detailed design and implementation of a star cluster local area network among multiple Zenith Z-100 microcomputers. The Z-100s are linked together by the Concentrator, a server system consisting of a power supply, an iSBC 86/12A ...

T. V. Works

1986-01-01

220

Energy efficient local area source routing protocol of underwater sensor networks in the deep ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sensor networks (IJWSN) usually face difficulties with battery draining. In the underwater environments, no available recharging system can cause severe degradation of performance in sensor network systems. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient routing path by using Local Area Source Routing protocol. First of all, we derive relationship between energy consumption and environmental variables from underwater environmental properties

Eunjo Kim; Jonggu Kang; Poh Kit Chong; Seongeun Yoo; Daeyoung Kim

2007-01-01

221

Measuring performance impact of security protocols in wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study and quantify the impact of the most widely used security protocols, such as 802.1x, EAP, IPSEC, SSL and RADIUS, in wireless local area net- works (WLANs). Based on the measurements in a wire- less network testbed, we present quantitative, realistic find- ings with regards to both security functions as well as net- work performance. First,

Avesh Kumar Agarwal; Wenye Wang

2005-01-01

222

Local area navigation using sonar feature extraction and model based predictive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a method to navigate an autonomous underwater vehicle in a local area using an acoustic sensor for position information derived from feature detection. A dynamic model of the vehicle response is used for control between location updates. Favorable results have been found using this approach, and precision positioning of the vehicle to centimeters has been accomplished. Another

D. B. Marco; A. J. Healey

1996-01-01

223

Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spread spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) allows asynchronous multiple access to a local area network (LAN) with no waiting. The additional bandwidth required by spread spectrum can be accommodated by using a fiber-optic channel and incoherent optical signal processing. New CDMA sequences are designed specifically for optical processing. It is shown that increasing the number of chips per bit,

PAUL R. PRUCNAL; MARIO A. SANTORO; TING RUI FAN

1986-01-01

224

Space Station Wireless Local Area Network Signal Characteristics Modeling and Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the signal characteristic analysis of the International Space Station 2.4 GHz wireless local area networks (WLANs). The test data indicate the Space Station RF environment is quite different from typical indoor environment. The empty Space Station modules may be regarded as oversized waveguides with very little propagation loss. The furnished Space Station modules are imperfect waveguides with

Shian U. Hwu; Yin-Chung Loh; Catherine C. Sham

2006-01-01

225

On the Impact of Quality of Protection in Wireless Local Area Networks with IP Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless local area networks (LANs) are vul- nerable to malicious attacks due to their shared medium in unlicensed frequency spectrum, thus requir- ing security features for a variety of applications even at the cost of quality of service (QoS). However, there is very little work on investigating to what extent system performance is affected by security configurations with respect to

Avesh Kumar Agarwal; Wenye Wang

2007-01-01

226

How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn`t as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group`s patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

Hayhoe, G.F.

1991-12-31

227

Local Area Personal Income, 1982-87. Volume 4. Southeast Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is part 4 of a five-volume set published annually by the Regional Economic Measurement Division of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). The set presents BEA's estimates of total and per capita personal income for local areas for 1982-87, as w...

1989-01-01

228

Local Area Personal Income, 1982-87. Volume 3. Plains Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is part 3 of a five-volume set published annually by the Regional Economic Measurement Division of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). The set presents BEA's estimates of total and per capita personal income for local areas for 1982-87, as w...

1989-01-01

229

An Integrated Online Library System as a Node in a Local Area Network: The Mitre Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Mitre Corporation's implementation of OCLC's LS/2000 integrated library system using a local area network (LAN). LAN issues--requirements, equipment, reliability, growth, security, and traffic--are covered in general and as they relate to Mitre. Installation of the LAN/system interface and benefits and drawbacks of using a LAN for…

Kidwell, Mary Coyle

1987-01-01

230

A Security Application of the Warwick Optical Antenna in Wireless Local and Personal Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to propose an implementatio n utilising the Warwick optical antenna for securing wireless communications in a combined radio and infrared environment. By treating the infrared channel as a protected medium for exchanging information, security can be maintained in any radio communication taking place in the local or personal area network, provided the correct methods

I. Pavlosoglou; R. Ramirez-Iniguez; M. S. Leeson; R. J. Green

231

LandScape Command Set: Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment (LandScape) commands set that provides a Generic Device Subsystem Application Programmers Interface (API). These commands are implemented using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification with Orbix from Iona Technologies.

Burchard, R.L.; Small, D.E.

1999-01-01

232

Comparative Performance Evaluation of iSCSI Protocol over Metro, Local, and Wide Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the tunable parameters of iSCSI and TCP that affect the performance characteristics for local, metropolitan, and wide area networks. Through measurements, we determine the effect of these parameters on the throughput. We conclude that with the appropriate tuning of those parameters, iSCSI and TCP protocols maintain a good level of throughput for all types of networks.

Ismail Dalgic; Kadir Ozdemir; Rajkumar Velpuri; Jason Weber; Helen Chen; Umesh Kukreja

2004-01-01

233

20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666...a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? (a) If a local...that have been identified as achieving poor levels of performance; or (3)...

2009-04-01

234

20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666...a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? (a) If a local...that have been identified as achieving poor levels of performance; or (3)...

2010-04-01

235

Laminar Analysis of Excitatory Local Circuits in Vibrissal Motor and Sensory Cortical Areas  

PubMed Central

Rodents move their whiskers to locate and identify objects. Cortical areas involved in vibrissal somatosensation and sensorimotor integration include the vibrissal area of the primary motor cortex (vM1), primary somatosensory cortex (vS1; barrel cortex), and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). We mapped local excitatory pathways in each area across all cortical layers using glutamate uncaging and laser scanning photostimulation. We analyzed these maps to derive laminar connectivity matrices describing the average strengths of pathways between individual neurons in different layers and between entire cortical layers. In vM1, the strongest projection was L2/3?L5. In vS1, strong projections were L2/3?L5 and L4?L3. L6 input and output were weak in both areas. In S2, L2/3?L5 exceeded the strength of the ascending L4?L3 projection, and local input to L6 was prominent. The most conserved pathways were L2/3?L5, and the most variable were L4?L2/3 and pathways involving L6. Local excitatory circuits in different cortical areas are organized around a prominent descending pathway from L2/3?L5, suggesting that sensory cortices are elaborations on a basic motor cortex-like plan.

Hooks, B. M.; Hires, S. Andrew; Zhang, Ying-Xin; Huber, Daniel; Petreanu, Leopoldo; Svoboda, Karel; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.

2011-01-01

236

The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.  

PubMed

Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn. PMID:17647095

Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

2007-07-24

237

78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard), Winston-Salem...Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., within Site 28, in Winston-Salem, North...

2013-07-26

238

Potential N-losses in three scenarios for conversion to organic farming in a local area of Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are needed to investigate whether different strategies for conversion to organic farming might help to reduce N-losses. In this study, an N-balance technique was applied in a local area of Denmark; 25% of this area was designated as environmentally sensitive with special interests to protect groundwater quality. Three scenarios, where 25% of the local area was converted to organic

Tommy Dalgaard; Tove Heidmann; Lisbeth Mogensen

2002-01-01

239

Recognising the Person within the Developing Professional: Tracking the Early Careers of Newly Qualified Child Care Social Workers in Three Local Authorities in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study follows the progress of newly qualified social workers (NQSWs) through their first year in employment. Questionnaire and interview data were gathered from NQSWs and line managers working in children and families teams in three local authorities in the south west of England during 2007. Although all of the NQSWs started their first jobs with optimism and confidence, a

Gordon Jack; Helen Donnellan

2010-01-01

240

Working Together? Parent and Local Authority Views on the Process of Obtaining Appropriate Educational Provision for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: There is general agreement across all interested parties that a process of working together is the best way to determine which school or educational setting is right for an individual child with autism spectrum disorder. In the UK, families and local authorities both desire a constructive working relationship and see this as the best…

Tissot, Catherine

2011-01-01

241

Working Together? Parent and Local Authority Views on the Process of Obtaining Appropriate Educational Provision for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is general agreement across all interested parties that a process of working together is the best way to determine which school or educational setting is right for an individual child with autism spectrum disorder. In the UK, families and local authorities both desire a constructive working relationship and see this as the best…

Tissot, Catherine

2011-01-01

242

Working together? Parent and local authority views on the process of obtaining appropriate educational provision for children with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:?There is general agreement across all interested parties that a process of working together is the best way to determine which school or educational setting is right for an individual child with autism spectrum disorder. In the UK, families and local authorities both desire a constructive working relationship and see this as the best means by which to reach an

Catherine Tissot

2011-01-01

243

Collecting and distributing wearable sensor data: An embedded personal area network to local area network gateway server.  

PubMed

The goal of the concept and of the device presented in this contribution is to be able to collect sensor data from wearable sensors directly, automatically and wirelessly and to make them available over a wired local area network. Several concepts in e-health and telemedicine make use of portable and wearable sensors to collect movement or activity data. Usually these data are either collected via a wireless personal area network or using a connection to the user's smartphone. However, users might not carry smartphones on them while inside a residential building such as a nursing home or a hospital, but also within their home. Also, in such areas the use of other wireless communication technologies might be limited. The presented system is an embedded server which can be deployed in several rooms in order to ensure live data collection in bigger buildings. Also, the collection of data batches recorded out of range, as soon as a connection is established, is also possible. Both, the system concept and the realization are presented. PMID:24110771

Neuhaeuser, Jakob; D'Angelo, Lorenzo

2013-07-01

244

A conceptual model of the role of complex science in local authority consultations about air quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists a clear imperative across the EU and within the UK towards the enhanced integration of community knowledge in environmental and health decision-making processes. The underlying social force that underpins this dynamic is the drive for a more accountable, transparent and publicly acceptable decision-making arena. However, relatively little research has been undertaken on the evaluation of local air quality

Paul Dorfman; Clare Beattie; Frank Burnet; David Gibbs; James Longhurst; Emma Weitkamp; Nurul Leksmono

2006-01-01

245

20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666.420 ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY UNDER TITLE I OF THE... Incentives and Sanctions for Local Performance § 666.420 Under what...

2013-04-01

246

Autonomous component carrier selection: interference management in local area environments for LTE-advanced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-power base stations such as femtocells are one of the candidates for high-data-rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices, and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes impractical, and

Luis G. U. Garcia; K. I. Pedersen; Preben E. Mogensen

2009-01-01

247

Process synchronization and data communication between processes in real time local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis extends the multi-computer real-time executive, MCORTEX. The multiple cluster system RTC (Real Time Cluster Star), consisting of clusters of single board computers (INTEL iSBC 86\\/12A), which are connected via an Ethernet Local Area Network, serves as a hardware basis for the implementation of extended MCORTEX. The extension upgrades MCORTEX to system-wide synchronization and general data communication between any

R. Haeger

1985-01-01

248

[Analysis of the design and renovation of mid-sized hospital's local area network].  

PubMed

To address several hospital network issues, this paper discusses the overall plan, design and renovation of hospital's Local Area Network, making full use of existing network facilities. The techniques, such as Physical Separation of Internal and External Network, HSRP, OSPF, All-Routers Networking Model, etc., create features of extensibility, manageability, high safety, stability and so on to the overall network, and provide a reliable network platform to the function of the information systems. PMID:22379781

Cao, Yang; Li, Min; Guo, Yifeng

2011-11-01

249

Flow Control in Local-Area Networks of Interconnected Token Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate flow-control issues in local-area networks consisting of multiple token rings interconnected through bridges. To achieve high throughput, bridges perform only a very simple routing and store-and-forward function, but are not involved in error- or flowcontrol. In case of congestion, bridges discard arriving frames, which will be recovered through an appropriate end-to-end protocol between the communicating stations. The end-to-end

WERNER BUX; DAVIDE GRILLO

1985-01-01

250

Performance Considerations for Efficient Multimedia Streaming in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents investigates multimedia streaming over wireless local area networks. Physical layer sigmoid analytical models are presented for 802.11a\\/g and for 2x3 MIMO 802.11n MIMO-based systems are presented. Performance results in a wireless LAN environment are presented for traffic using UDP and TCP transport mechanisms. Packet losses are observed in WLAN environments which affects the overall throughput available. Possibilities

Dilip Krishnaswamy; Robert J Stacey; Ryan van Alstine; William J Chimitt

251

Local area signal-to-noise ratio (LASNR) algorithm for image segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many automated image-based applications have need of finding small spots in a variably noisy image. For humans, it is relatively easy to distinguish objects from local surroundings no matter what else may be in the image. We attempt to capture this distinguishing capability computationally by calculating a measurement that estimates the strength of signal within an object versus the noise in its local neighborhood. First, we hypothesize various sizes for the object and corresponding background areas. Then, we compute the Local Area Signal to Noise Ratio (LASNR) at every pixel in the image, resulting in a new image with LASNR values for each pixel. All pixels exceeding a pre-selected LASNR value become seed pixels, or initiation points, and are grown to include the full area extent of the object. Since growing the seed is a separate operation from finding the seed, each object can be any size and shape. Thus, the overall process is a 2-stage segmentation method that first finds object seeds and then grows them to find the full extent of the object. This algorithm was designed, optimized and is in daily use for the accurate and rapid inspection of optics from a large laser system (National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA), which includes images with background noise, ghost reflections, different illumination and other sources of variation.

Mascio Kegelmeyer, Laura; Fong, Philip W.; Glenn, Steven M.; Liebman, Judith A.

2007-10-01

252

Performance of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) local area and wide area networks for medical imaging transmission in clinical environment.  

PubMed

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology emerges as a leading candidate for medical image transmission in both local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) applications. This paper describes the performance of an ATM LAN and WAN network at the University of California, San Francisco. The measurements were obtained using an intensive care unit (ICU) server connecting to four image workstations (WS) at four different locations of a hospital-integrated picture archiving and communication system (HI-PACS) in a daily regular clinical environment. Four types of performance were evaluated: magnetic disk-to-disk, disk-to-redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID), RAID-to-memory, and memory-to-memory. Results demonstrate that the transmission rate between two workstations can reach 5-6 Mbytes/s from RAID-to-memory, and 8-10 Mbytes/s from memory-to-memory. When the server has to send images to all four workstations simultaneously, the transmission rate to each WS is about 4 Mbytes/s. Both situations are adequate for radiologic image communications for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and teleradiology applications. PMID:9258594

Huang, H K; Wong, A W; Zhu, X

253

[On a novel Fomocaine synthesis/10th communication: on syntheses of new compounds with local anaesthetic activity (author's transl)].  

PubMed

4-[3-(4-phenoxymethyl-phenyl)-propyl]-morpholine (fomocaine, Erbocain) is a very active topical local anaesthetic with low toxicity. A new synthesis starting from 4-phenoxy-methyl-benzonitrile, via a modified Willgerodt-Kindler reaction, is reported. The yield is of the same order as with the known technical process starting from 3-phenylpropanol. The distinct advantage of the new procedure is the avoidance of the C-chloromethylation of 3-phenylpropylchloride during which process the o-chloromethyl derivative is also formed, and this cannot be separated by fractional distillation. PMID:579126

Oelschläger, H; Iglesias-Meier, J; Götze, G; Schatton, W

1977-01-01

254

Local Residents Perception of Benefits and Losses From Protected Areas in India and Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas.

Karanth, Krithi K.; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2012-02-01

255

Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

2012-01-01

256

Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

2012-01-01

257

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

SciTech Connect

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany)

1989-04-01

258

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

SciTech Connect

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany))

1989-04-01

259

The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: a model application of local public health authority in preventing gun violence.  

PubMed

In 2002, the Baltimore City Health Department, in collaboration with the Baltimore Police Department and the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, launched the Youth Ammunition Initiative. The initiative addressed Baltimore's problem of youth gun violence by targeting illegal firearm ammunition sales to the city's young people. The initiative included undercover "sting" investigations of local businesses and issuance of health department violation and abatement notices. Intermediate results included the passage of 2 Baltimore city council ordinances regulating ammunition sales and reducing the number of outlets eligible to sell ammunition. Although it is too early to assess effects on violent crime, the intervention could theoretically reduce youth violence by interrupting one source of ammunition to youths. More important, the initiative can serve as a policy model for health commissioners seeking to become more active in gun violence prevention efforts. PMID:15855448

Lewin, Nancy L; Vernick, Jon S; Beilenson, Peter L; Mair, Julie S; Lindamood, Melisa M; Teret, Stephen P; Webster, Daniel W

2005-05-01

260

The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A Model Application of Local Public Health Authority in Preventing Gun Violence  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the Baltimore City Health Department, in collaboration with the Baltimore Police Department and the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, launched the Youth Ammunition Initiative. The initiative addressed Baltimore’s problem of youth gun violence by targeting illegal firearm ammunition sales to the city’s young people. The initiative included undercover “sting” investigations of local businesses and issuance of health department violation and abatement notices. Intermediate results included the passage of 2 Baltimore city council ordinances regulating ammunition sales and reducing the number of outlets eligible to sell ammunition. Although it is too early to assess effects on violent crime, the intervention could theoretically reduce youth violence by interrupting one source of ammunition to youths. More important, the initiative can serve as a policy model for health commissioners seeking to become more active in gun violence prevention efforts.

Lewin, Nancy L.; Vernick, Jon S.; Beilenson, Peter L.; Mair, Julie S.; Lindamood, Melisa M.; Teret, Stephen P.; Webster, Daniel W.

2005-01-01

261

State and local response to damaging land subsidence in United States urban areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land subsidence caused by man-induced depressuring of underground reservoirs has occurred in at least nine urban areas in the United States. Significant efforts to control it have been made in three areas: Long Beach, California; Houston-Galveston, Texas; and Santa Clara Valley, California. In these areas coastal flooding and its control cost more than $300 million. Institutional changes were required in each area to ameliorate its subsidence problem. In Long Beach and Houston-Galveston, efforts were made to mitigate subsidence only after significant flood damage had occurred. To arrest subsidence at Long Beach, the city lobbied for a special state law, the California Subsidence Act, that required unitization and repressuring of the Wilmington oil field. In the Houston-Galveston region, the Texas State Legislature authorized formation of the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District with authority to regulate ground-water pumping by permit. This solution, which was achieved through efforts of entities affected by subsidence, was the product of a series of compromises necessitated by political fragmentation and disjointed water planning in the region. Amelioration of subsidence in the Santa Clara Valley was a collateral benefit from the effort by water users to curtail ground-water overdraft in the valley. Importation of surface water and a tax on ground-water pumpage reduced ground-water use, thereby allowing the recovery of water level and the arresting of subsidence. ?? 1989.

Holzer, T. L.

1989-01-01

262

Allocating resources to health authorities: results and policy implications of small area analysis of use of inpatient services.  

PubMed Central

A study designed to identify the principal determinants of use of inpatient facilities in NHS hospitals in England used the data and methods outlined in the previous paper. The model for the psychiatric sector contains mortality, self reported morbidity, and social variables indicating deprivation and the level of care at home. The non-acute model contains mortality and several socioeconomic variables. The models lay less weight on age than the current formula, and a national formula based on these models would, in the acute sector, redistribute resources to poorer areas compared with the current formula.

Smith, P.; Sheldon, T. A.; Carr-Hill, R. A.; Martin, S.; Peacock, S.; Hardman, G.

1994-01-01

263

Organizational Reputation as a Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Above-Normal Performance: An Empirical Test among Local Authorities in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of organizational reputation (OR) was studied as a source of sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) and superior performance, theoretically and empirically, among local authorities in Israel. Using the LISREL VIII program, we proposed a mediation model that argued for a relationship between OR and financial performance, mediated by three tests for SCA: OR-value, OR-rareness and OR-inimitability. The effects of

Abraham Carmeli; Aaron Cohen

264

20 CFR 667.645 - What procedures apply to the appeals of non-designation of local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What procedures apply to the appeals of non-designation of local areas? 667.645 Section 667.645 Employees...645 What procedures apply to the appeals of non-designation of local areas? (a) A unit or combination of...

2009-04-01

265

20 CFR 667.645 - What procedures apply to the appeals of non-designation of local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What procedures apply to the appeals of non-designation of local areas? 667.645 Section 667.645 Employees...645 What procedures apply to the appeals of non-designation of local areas? (a) A unit or combination of...

2010-04-01

266

Hyperendemicity of Onchocerciasis in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, endemicity, and symptomatic effects of the disease in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area. Methods: The prevalence of onchocerciasis was investigated in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between March 2008 and June 2009 using the standard skin-snip method. A total of 2020 subjects, who had visited various primary health centres located in each community, were enlisted using randomised sampling, and the data were analysed using the Chi-squared (?2) test and logistic regression. Results: A Of the 2020 individuals examined, 1674 (83%) harboured microfilaria in their skin tissues. On the basis of the standardised scale for microfilaria prevalence—less than 10% is considered sporadic, 10%–29% is considered hypoendemic, 30%–59% is considered mesoendemic, and 60% and above is considered hyperendemic—the prevalence (83%) reported in this study led to the disease being classified as hyperendemic. Females were more frequently infected than were males, and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Prevalence was also found to increase with age, and this correlation was significant (P < 0.001). The prevalence of the clinical features of the disease in the local government area was 87.5% for leopard skin, 84.16% for itching, and 75.42% for nodules. Conclusion: A prevalence of 83% was observed and considered hyperendemic. Female gender and age (50 years or more) were significant risk factors that affected the prevalence of onchocerciasis. The findings demonstrated the hyperendemicity of infection and the need for urgent attention with ivermectin treatment and other control measures.

Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher Ehis

2010-01-01

267

Tooth wear in the elderly population in South East Local Government area in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is the aim of this study to determine the pattern and degree of tooth wear in the elderly population in the South East Local Government Area in Ibadan. The study was carried out on 690 elderly individuals who were 65 years old and above, living in various wards in South East Local Government Area, in Ibadan. A multistage sampling technique was used to select elderly individuals for the study. Two interviewers, 2-record clerks and 2 examiners were trained for the study and the examiners were calibrated. The index of Eccles J.D was used to determine the severity of tooth wear. The results highlight the high prevalence of tooth wear, mainly attrition in the elderly in this local government area. Six hundred and forty (92.8%) of the elderly had tooth wear. Of these 58.59% were males and 41.41% females. Attrition was observed in 618 (89.6%) elderly individuals. The mandible exhibited a higher prevalence of tooth wear than the maxilla and was statistically significant. Severe tooth wear was observed in only 5.74% of the teeth whilst moderate and mild tooth wear were observed in 26.91% and 30.88% respectively. Unlike the Western European countries, attrition being the most common type of tooth wear in these elderly individuals suggests that the aetiological factors responsible for tooth wear are different. Common habits such as crushing of bones and chewing of sticks for routine oral hygiene care could be contributing factors to tooth wear in this environment. PMID:16491916

Taiwo, J O; Ogunyinka, A; Onyeaso, C O; Dosumu, O O

2005-12-01

268

Improved positioning by addition of atmospheric corrections to local area differential GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A local area differential GPS (DGPS) method applies corrections from a reference GPS receiver to improve positioning accuracy for a roaming GPS receiver. Increasing separation between reference and roaming receivers dilutes this improvement, largely because ionospheric and tropospheric effects differ between their two locations. We correct differential corrections for this difference and determine the improvement with this "atmospheric" DGPS method at roaming receiver positions that are separated from a Coast Guard reference receiver at Annapolis, Maryland, by 44, 67, and 228 km. For ionospheric corrections we use our Raytrace-Ionospheric conductivity and electron density-Bent-Gallagher ionospheric propagation model with driving parameters obtained from two-frequency data of surveyed reference GPS receivers. For tropospheric corrections we use the Hopfield model and weather station data for surface temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. Internet delivery of atmospheric differential corrections is used to avoid blockage or range cutoff of radio transmissions. Some comparisons are made with Wide Area Augmentation System GPS receiver performance.

Singh, Malkiat; Reilly, Michael H.

2006-10-01

269

Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.  

SciTech Connect

The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-09-01

270

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were

Norun Hjertager Krog; Bo Engdahl

2004-01-01

271

Status of emergency obstetric care in a local government area in south-south Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study assessed the status of the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in 12 functional public health facilities out of the existing 19 in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State in south-south Nigeria, prior to the midwives service scheme (MSS) launch in 2009. No facility qualified as basic EmOC, while one had comprehensive EmOC status. Signal functions that required supply of medical consumables were performed by more facilities than services that required special training, equipment and maintenance. Only two facilities (16.67%) had the minimum requirement of > or =4 midwives for 24-hour EmOC service; while only 2.2% of expected births occurred at the facilities. The poor state of maternal health resources in the study area requires urgent interventions by Local and State Governments for infrastructure upgrade and deployment and training of staff towards attainment of MDG-5. A follow-up evaluation would be required since the commencement of the MSS. PMID:23437510

Mezie-Okoye, Margaret M; Adeniji, Foluke O; Tobin-West, Charles I; Babatunde, Seye

2012-09-01

272

Risks of an epidemic in a two-layered railway-local area traveling network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of the huge investments into the construction of high speed rails systems in USA, Japan, and China, we present a two-layer traveling network model to study the risks that the railway network poses in case of an epidemic outbreak. The model consists of two layers with one layer representing the railway network and the other representing the local-area transportation subnetworks. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we also study a simplified model that focuses on how a major railway affects an epidemic. We assume that the individuals, when they travel, take on the shortest path to the destination and become non-travelers upon arrival. When an infection process co-evolves with the traveling dynamics, the railway serves to gather a crowd, transmit the disease, and spread infected agents to local area subnetworks. The railway leads to a faster initial increase in infected agents and a higher steady state infection, and thus poses risks; and frequent traveling leads to a more severe infection. These features revealed in simulations are in agreement with analytic results of a simplified version of the model.

Ruan, Zhongyuan; Hui, Pakming; Lin, Haiqing; Liu, Zonghua

2013-01-01

273

High-resolution local earthquake tomography of the southern Dead Sea area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local earthquake data from a dense temporary seismological network in the southern Dead Sea area have been analysed within the project DESIRE (Dead Sea Integrated Research Project). Local earthquakes are used for the first precise image of the distribution of the P-wave velocity and the vP/vS ratios. 65 stations registered 655 local events within 18 months of observation time. A subset of 530 well-locatable events with 26 730 P- and S-arrival times was used to calculate a tomographic model for the vP and vP/vS distribution. Since the study area is at first-order 2-D, a gradual approach was chosen, which compromised a 2-D inversion followed by a 3-D inversion. The sedimentary basin fill is clearly imaged through high vP/vS ratios and low vP. The basin fill shows an asymmetric structure with average depth of 7 km at the western boundary and depth between 10 and 14 km at the eastern boundary. This asymmetry is reflected by the vertical strike-slip eastern border fault, and the normal faulting at the western boundary, caused by the transtensional deformation within the last 5 Myr. Within the basin fill the Lisan salt diapir is imaged through low vP/vS ratios, reflecting its low fluid content. The extensions were determined to 12 km in E-W and 17 km in N-S direction while its depth is 5-6 km. The thickness of the pre-basin sediments below the basin fill cannot be derived from the tomography data—it is estimated to less than 3 km from former investigations. Below the basin, down to 18 km depth very low P-wave velocities and low vP/vS ratios are observed—most likely caused by fluids from the surrounding crust or the upper mantle.

Braeuer, B.; Asch, Guenter; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

2012-12-01

274

Numerical investigation of a localized extremely heavy rainfall event in complex topographic area during midsummer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations with version 3.2 of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model are performed to study a localized extremely heavy rainfall event during midsummer in central China. The event occurred in a complex topographical area on 3 July 2008. The extremely heavy rainfall was produced by a quasi-stationary back-building mesoscale convective system (MCS), which was initiated and developed in the exit region of a low-level jet (LLJ). The main mesoscale dynamical process responsible for the MCS formation was the low-level convergence directly generated by the LLJ. The gravity waves excited by the unbalanced dynamics due to the LLJ's abrupt intensification might be another dynamical factor for the MCS initiation. The LLJ was of obvious diurnal variation, which was nearly in an opposite phase with the variations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and of the surface heat and moisture fluxes. The diurnal variation of the LLJ was mainly dominated by the solar-radiation-driven evolution of the PBL height and the surface heat fluxes below the LLJ. The dynamical uplifts forced by the Wufeng mountainous area and the Wushan Mountain were favorable for the formation and development of MCS. The topographic Froude number was less than one at night due to the increase of atmospheric stability in the lower level. The LLJ was blocked mainly by the Dabashan Mountain, and partly by the Wufeng mountainous area and the Wushan Mountain, leading to the MCS in the exit region of the LLJ to remain quasi-stationary and produce the localized extremely heavy rainfall.

Zhao, Yuchun

2012-09-01

275

Topographic thresholds in gully development on the hillslopes of communal areas in Ngqushwa Local Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the spatial distribution of gully erosion and topographic thresholds in the form of slope angle, position and configuration, as well as land use change in the form of abandoned lands were examined in several affected catchments of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Land use and permanent gullies were mapped, digitized from orthophoto maps in Arc/info 3.5.2 GIS and converted to shapefiles using ArcView 3.2 GIS. Relationships between the mapped phenomena and topographic variables were sought using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS. A comparison between areas with a high potential for gullying and actual gully erosion was made using the Stream Power Index ( SPI) as a surrogate for critical flow shear stress. Field surveys were also conducted to assess the present condition of the gullied sites as well as to validate DEM derivations. Seventy five percent of the gullied area was noted to lie on abandoned lands. A predominance of gullying in concave bottom lands was also identified. The SPI values highlighted a distinct preferential topographic zone for gully location. A conceptual model depicting the interaction between land use and topographic parameters to induce gully erosion was developed. This should assist local authorities to develop a policy regarding management of abandoned lands.

Kakembo, V.; Xanga, W. W.; Rowntree, K.

2009-09-01

276

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2009-10-01

277

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2010-10-01

278

20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY UNDER TITLE I OF THE...

2013-04-01

279

Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats  

SciTech Connect

DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

1996-07-01

280

Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN) between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc) for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side) to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops) and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi) access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ) has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID), Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department. PMID:20622360

Mandal, Abhijit; Asthana, Anupam Kumar; Aggarwal, Lalit Mohan

281

Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

2006-11-01

282

Quality-of-service control in GRAMS for ATM local area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gopher-style real-time ATM multimedia services (GRAMS) is a system designed for an ATM local area network, with the server providing multimedia services to multiple users in real-time, while the network bandwidth and the host capacity are fully exploited. Therefore, a server that can determine the service rates, and successfully multiplex media transmissions according to the quality-of-service (QoS) requirement of each request is a key component of this system. Proposed in this paper is a simple yet effective way to measure QoS in the GRAMS system. Experimental results are also presented, showing the feasibility of simultaneously providing tens of video and image transfer sessions using low-cost workstation technology.

Hui, Joseph Y.; Zhang, Junbiao; Li, Jun

1995-05-01

283

Local-Area Based Traffic Splitter for Improving Performance Using Subnetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document provides an overview of LAN traffic splitter. The tool ``Local-Area based Traffic splitter'' is based on subnetting techniques. It is basically used for calculating subnets for sub-dividing the LAN. Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. There are various techniques for calculating subnets that are considered by this tool. This paper will explore the various features of this tool and will also check the effect of subnetting after implementing it on the LAN. These instructions give you basic guidelines for preparing camera-ready papers for conference proceedings.

Yadav, Meenakshi; Mittal, Mohit Kumar

2010-11-01

284

RADPLANET--A New Integrated Radiation Therapy Planning Facility Structured as a Local Area Computer Network  

PubMed Central

RADPLANET is an integrated information management and computing resource structured as a packet broadcast local area network for the Radiation Oncology Service. Computed tomography as input to the radiation treatment planning and delivery process is central to the RADPLANET system design. The initial network implementation plan has therefore been extended to include resources for the CT scanner service within its structure. The RADPLANET concept has implications extending beyond radiation therapy planning. A strong case can now be made for the idea that the future of radiology as a medical specialty will be based on the acquisition, processing, storage, transmission, retrieval, manipulation and interpretation of digital images (rather than conventional radiographs). RADPLANET design addresses the issues of a total radiology information system in the context of the rapidly emerging importance of digital radiography.

Neilsen, Ivan R.; Slater, James M.

1982-01-01

285

Indigenous knowledge and uses of medicinal plants by local communities of the Kali Gandaki Watershed Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted in the villages of Ramdi, Malunga, Balam, Beltari, Mirmi, Burgha and Ridi in the Kali Gandaki watershed, Nepal; 48 medicinal plants belonging to 31 families were reported, each with local names, traditional uses, methods of preparation and route of administration. Traditional medicine remains an integral part of the health system in these areas. Local people

Ananda R. Joshi; Kunjani Joshi

2000-01-01

286

Monitoring and Evaluation of Reef Protected Areas by Local Fishers in the Philippines: Tightening the Adaptive Management Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring by local community managers tightens the adaptive management cycle by linking management more closely with its evaluation, so management actions become more responsive to the field situation. Local community volunteers, usually fishers, managing coral reef protected areas in the Philippines used simple methods (e.g. snorkeling fish visual census) to periodically monitor and evaluate reef protection together with professional marine

Andre J. Uychiaoco; Hazel O. Arceo; Stuart J. Green; Margarita T. De La Cruz; Paulyn A. Gaite; Porfirio M. Aliño

2005-01-01

287

Assessing the health impact of local amenities: a qualitative study of contrasting experiences of local swimming pool and leisure provision in two areas of Glasgow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To assess the health impacts of local public swimming pool and leisure provision.Design: Retrospective qualitative study using focus groups. Reports from two areas with contrasting experience of provision of a public swimming pool (opening and closure) were compared within the context of general reports about health and neighbourhood.Setting: Two deprived neighbourhoods in south Glasgow.Participants: Local adult residents of

H Thomson; A Kearns; M Petticrew

2003-01-01

288

A local area network for medical research; planning, realization and experience.  

PubMed

This report focuses on the planning and realization of an interdisciplinary local area network (LAN) for medical research at the University of Heidelberg. After a detailed requirements analysis, several networks were evaluated by means of a test installation, and a cost-performance analysis was carried out. At present, the LAN connects 45 (IBM-compatible) PCs, several heterogeneous mainframes (IBM, DEC and Siemens) and provides access to the public X.25 network and to wide-area networks for research (EARN, BITNET). The network supports application software that is frequently needed in medical research (word processing, statistics, graphics, literature databases and services, etc.). Compliance with existing "official" (e.g., IEEE 802.3) and "de facto" standards (e.g., PostScript) was considered to be extremely important for the selection of both hardware and software. Customized programs were developed to improve access control, user interface and on-line help. Wide acceptance of the LAN was achieved through extensive education and maintenance facilities, e.g., teaching courses, customized manuals and a hotline service. Since requirements of clinical routine differ substantially from medical research needs, two separate networks (with a gateway in between) are proposed as a solution to optimally satisfy the users' demands. PMID:2005834

Schosser, R; Weiss, C; Messmer, K

1991-01-01

289

Design and simulation of a microwave powered microplasma system for local area materials processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microwave powered microplasma source is developed and tested for materials processing on spatially localized areas. A small diameter stream of plasma (less than 2 mm in diameter) is created by focusing microwave energy inside a discharge tube. The discharge then flows out the end of the tube onto the surface being processed delivering ions and reactive radicals. The diameter of the plasma stream from the tube to the material being processed can be controlled by an aperture mounted at the end of the tube. The spot size of the localized plasma stream ranges from 2 mm down to 10's micrometers depending on the aperture size. The discharge is created by using 2.45 GHz microwave energy that is coupled into the discharge using a small foreshortened cylindrical cavity that has a hollow inner conductor and a small capacitive gap at the end of the cavity. A processing gas mixture is fed through a 2 mm inner diameter quartz tube which is located inside the hollow inner conductor of the cavity. This tube is exposed to a high electric field at the small gap end of the cavity thus generating a surface wave plasma. The length of the surface wave discharge in the tube can be extended by increasing the microwave power to the discharge so that the plasma reaches the aperture. The operating pressures range from 0.5 Torr to 100 Torr and the microwave power utilized ranges from a few Watts to 10's Watts. Several properties of the discharge including plasma power density, electron density and electron temperature are measured. The power densities of argon and Ar/O2 plasma discharges vary from 10's to over 450 W/cm 3. The plasma density and electron temperature of argon discharges are measured using a double Langmuir probe placed in the materials processing area. The plasma densities are in the range of 1011 -- 1013 cm-3. Computational modeling of the plasma discharge and the microwave excitation of the discharge is performed using a finite element analysis. The goal of the modeling study is to complement and understand the design, development and operation of the microwave powered microplasmas. A self-consistent model of the foreshortened cylindrical cavity and plasma discharge is presented with results compared to experimental measurements. The microplasma system is incorporated into a micromanufacturing system that integrates the plasma source with an atomic force microscope for surface measurements and nanomanipulation of the surface. Selected applications of the micromachining system demonstrated include using the microplasma as a spatially localized etcher, free radical source, and ultraviolet light source. Silicon and ultrananocrystalline (UNCD) diamond etching is performed using Ar/SF6 and Ar/O2 discharges, respectively, with etching rates of 0.2 -- 2 mum/min and 0.6 -- 2 mum/hr. Localized removal of photoresist is done by using the microplasma as a free radical source and photoresist is exposed to ultraviolet light from the microplasma source to create spatially localized patterns.

Narendra, Jeffri Julliarsa

290

ROLE OF WOMEN FARMERS’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BAUCHI STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at examining the role of Women farmers’ cooperative Societies in Agricultural Production in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State Nigeria. A total of eighty (80) women farmers were randomly selected from eight Cooperative societies which represent 50% of all registered and viable Cooperative Societies in the study area. Data were collected using well-structured pre-tested interview

B. O. Emefesi; B. M. Hamidu; U. Haruna

2004-01-01

291

The German Bight (North Sea) is a nursery area for both locally and externally produced sprat juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the role of the German Bight (GB) as a nursery area for juvenile North Sea sprat Sprattus sprattus we sought to determine whether the area may receive only locally or also externally produced offspring. We sampled juveniles during 3 trawl surveys in the GB in August, September, and October 2004 and applied otolith microstructure analysis in order

Hannes Baumann; Arne M. Malzahn; Rudi Voss; Axel Temming

2009-01-01

292

Can areas of myocardial ischemia be localized by the exercise electrocardiogram. A correlative study with thallium-201 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine whether areas of ischemia identified by thallium-201 scintigraphy could be localized by exercise ECG, we studied 54 patients with stable coronary heart disease. All 54 patients had exercise-induced thallium-201 scintigraphic defects. Their exercise ECG test results were compared to their thallium-201 images and also to 14 low-risk normal subjects. Exercise data were analyzed for spatial ST vector shifts, using a computer program in order to most accurately classify ST segment depression and elevation. Thallium-201 ischemic defects detected in our patients included areas in the septum and the inferior, lateral, and anterior walls. Twenty-six of these 54 patients also had coronary angiography for classification and comparison as having either localized or generalized disease. None of the scintigraphic ischemic sites or angiographic diseased areas could be specifically identified by exercise-induced ST vector shifts. Therefore, the surface exercise ECG has limitations in localizing ischemia to specific areas of the myocardium.

Abouantoun, S.; Ahnve, S.; Savvides, M.; Witztum, K.; Jensen, D.; Froelicher, V.

1984-10-01

293

Effects Of Different Fragmentation Thresholds On Data Dropped And Retransmission Attempts In A Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

t fragmentation thresholds on data dropped and retransmission attempts in a wireless local area network. A wireless local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computer systems and devices within the same geographical area but without the use of wire. Fragmentation threshold is one of the parameters used in a wireless local area network which specifies the values to decide if the Media Access Control (MAC) Service Data Unit (MSDU) received from the higher layer network needs fragmentation before transmission. The number of fragments to be transmitted is calculated based on the size of the MSDU and the fragmentation threshold. OPNET IT guru 9.1 software was used for the analysis. Based on the

Isizoh, A. N.; Anazia, A. E.; Okide, S. O.; Okwaraoka, C. A. P.; Onyeyili, T. I.

2012-03-01

294

[Influence of local hyperthermia induced by micro-waves and X-rays on the Walker carcinoma of the rat (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The authors studied the influence on the solid Walker carcinoma in the rat exerted by a slight local hyperthermia induced by micro-waves, which was applied alone and combined with X-ray irradiations. It could be demonstrated that the tumor has the same temperature as the sub-peritoneal region. Thus the final temperature reached by the treatment with micro-waves can be exactly controlled. Heating up to 41 degrees C for 30 minutes produces an increase of the survival rate of animals with tumors of 2 to 6 grams from 17% to 27%, whereas the healing rate is 57% after an X-ray irradiation with 1130 rad and 75% after the combined treatment. Each of the three therapy methods produces a significant prolongation of the survival time of the dying animals. The disadvantages of an anisologic tumor-host system are discussed on the basis of the results achieved. PMID:760276

Brückner, V; Zywietz, F; Jung, H

1979-01-01

295

Publication criteria and recommended areas of improvement within school psychology journals as reported by editors, journal board members, and manuscript authors.  

PubMed

Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be improved. Although prior surveys have targeted these issues in general, none have been conducted in school psychology or examined differences in perspectives between those who serve in a reviewing capacity or those who have served only in an author capacity. Results identified the most important characteristics for a manuscript submitted for publication to be positively reviewed as well as identified differences in the expectations for such characteristics between novice authors (who do not contribute to the journal editorial process) and those authors who serve the journal editorial process more extensively (e.g., editors and associate editors). In addition, key areas to target for improvement (e.g., reducing potential reviewer bias) within the reviewing process were identified. PMID:22272792

Albers, Craig A; Floyd, Randy G; Fuhrmann, Melanie J; Martínez, Rebecca S

2011-11-23

296

Study of Local Seismic Events in Lithuania and Adjacent Areas Using Data from the PASSEQ Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The territory of Lithuania and adjacent areas of the East European Craton have always been considered a region of low seismicity. Two recent earthquakes with magnitudes of more than 5 in the Kaliningrad District (Russian Federation) on 21 September 2004 motivated re-evaluation of the seismic hazard in Lithuania and adjacent territories. A new opportunity to study seismicity in the region is provided by the PASSEQ (Pasive Seismic Experiment) project that aimed to study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure around the Trans-European Suture Zone. Twenty-six seismic stations of the PASSEQ temporary seismic array were installed in the territory of Lithuania. The stations recorded a number of local and regional seismic events originating from Lithuania and adjacent areas. This data can be used to answer the question of whether there exist seismically active tectonic zones in Lithuania that could be potentially hazardous for critical industrial facilities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to find any natural tectonic seismic events in Lithuania and to obtain more general view of seismicity in the region. In order to do this, we make a manual review of the continuous data recorded by the PASSEQ seismic stations in Lithuania. From the good quality data, we select and relocate 45 local seismic events using the well-known LocSAT and VELEST location algortithms. In order to discriminate between possible natural events, underwater explosions and on-shore blasts, we analyse spatial distribution of epicenters and temporal distribution of origin times and perform both visual analysis of waveforms and spectral analysis of recordings. We show that the relocated seismic events can be grouped into five clusters (groups) according to their epicenter coordinates and origin and that several seismic events might be of tectonic origin. We also show that several events from the off-shore region in the Baltic Sea (at the coasts of the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation) are non-volcanic tremors, although the origin of these tremor-type events is not clear.

Janutyte, Ilma; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Motuza, Gediminas

2013-05-01

297

Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the contractor. A decision was reached between the NTS regulator and NSTec, opting for alternative authorized limits from DOE Headquarters. In doing so, NSTec personnel performed a dose model using the DOE-approved modeling code RESRAD-BUILD v3.5 to evaluate scenarios. The parameters used in the dose model were conservative. NSTec’s Radiological Engineering Calculation, REC-2010-001, “Public Dose Estimate from the EMAD 25 Ton Locomotive,” concluded that the four scenarios evaluated were below the 25-millirem per year limit, the “likely” dose scenarios met the “few millirem in a year” criteria, and that the EMAD 25-ton locomotive met the radiological requirements to be released with residual radioactivity to the public.

Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

2010-04-08

298

Anticoagulant usage for primary stroke prevention: a general practitioner survey in local areas of metropolitan Sydney.  

PubMed

We assessed the hypothesis that having a non-English-speaking background (NESB), being very elderly, living alone, and having cognitive impairment were contributing factors to anticoagulant under-utilisation for atrial fibrillation in our local community. A questionnaire was mailed to 532 general practitioners (GPs) in three areas of metropolitan Sydney, Australia. The questionnaire included five case scenarios, regarding either an English-speaking background (ESB) patient, or an NESB patient, each characterised by potential barrier(s) for anticoagulant usage: being (1) elderly; (2) elderly with mild dementia; (3) elderly with mild dementia and living alone; (4) elderly with severe dementia; and (5) very elderly. The overall response rate was 34%. The percentage of GPs recommending anticoagulation was 57%, 50%, 6%, 25% and 23%, respectively, for the ESB scenario, and 48%, 32%, 4%, 14% and 18%, respectively, for the NESB scenario. Eighty-eight percent of GPs rated 'adherence to International Normalized Ration monitoring' as 'very important' in their decision. In conclusion, the factors proposed in our hypothesis were associated with a lower likelihood for anticoagulant prescription for atrial fibrillation. PMID:18083571

Shen, Qing; Cordato, Dennis; Ng, Jude; Hung, Wai Tak; Kokkinos, James; Karr, Margaret; Yin Chan, Daniel Kam

2008-02-01

299

Local area network for the plasma diagnostics system of MFTF-B  

SciTech Connect

The MFTF-B Plasma Diagnostics System will be implemented in stages, beginning with a start-up set of diagnostics and evolving toward a basic set. The start-up set contains 12 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 800 Kbytes of data per machine pulse; the basic set contains 23 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 8 Mbytes of data per pulse. Each diagnostic is controlled by a Foundation System consisting of a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer connected to CAMAC via a 5 Mbits/second serial fiber-optic link and connected to a supervisory computer (Perkin-Elmer 3250) via a 9600 baud RS232 link. The Foundation System is a building block used throughout MFTF-B for control and status monitoring. However, its 9600 baud link to the supervisor presents a bottleneck for the large data transfers required by diagnostics. To overcome this bottleneck the diagnostics Foundation Systems will be connected together with an additional LSI-11/23 called the master to form a Local Area Network (LAN) for data acquisition.

Lau, N.H.; Minor, E.G.

1983-01-01

300

Local-area health monitoring of aircraft via piezoelectric actuator/sensor patches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-frequency-electrical-impedance-signature-based technique for structural integrity monitoring is presented. The technique which has been under investigation at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures at Virginia Tech for the last 18 months is unique and different from conventional non-destructive damage identification and structural integrity monitoring methods. It relies on tracking the high-frequency (typically > 50 kHz) point impedance of the structure to identify damage. At such high frequencies, the technique is comparable in sensitivity to sophisticated traditional NDE techniques, such as ultrasonics, and is capable of qualitatively detecting incipient-type damage by looking at changes in structural impedance. As yet, it can be implemented in a remote sensing scenario with small non- intrusive piezoelectric (PZT) materials. The structure's high-frequency electrical impedance signature, which is functionally equivalent to its mechanical impedance signature, is obtained through a bonded PZT functioning both as actuator and sensor. A statistic algorithm based on the difference in the electrical impedance of a healthy and a damaged structure, is then applied to extract an index of the health of the structure. High-frequency excitation, which is greatly facilitated by the electrically driven low-power compact PZT patch, assures a clearly visible change in the impedance/vibration signature even for very minor damage/changes. It also limits the actuation/sensing area to a small region, `local-area', close to the PZT patch. Because of the limited actuation/sensing area, the impedance signature is affected only by changes in the structural properties close to the sensor-actuator and is insensitive to changes in far-field boundary conditions, mass loading, etc., which may be part of the normal usage of the structure. As a case study, an application to a real complex aircraft structure is presented. Experimental proof that very minor alterations in the structure are easily identified and the fact that the detection range of the bonded PZT actuator/sensor is constrained to its immediate neighborhood is presented.

Chaudhry, Zaffir A.; Joseph, T.; Sun, Fanping P.; Rogers, Craig A.

1995-05-01

301

Likelihood of Home Death Associated With Local Rates of Home Birth: Influence of Local Area Healthcare Preferences on Site of Death  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We tested whether local cultural and social values regarding the use of health care are associated with the likelihood of home death, using variation in local rates of home births as a proxy for geographic variation in these values. Methods. For each of 351110 adult decedents in Washington state who died from 1989 through 1998, we calculated the home birth rate in each zip code during the year of death and then used multivariate regression modeling to estimate the relation between the likelihood of home death and the local rate of home births. Results. Individuals residing in local areas with higher home birth rates had greater adjusted likelihood of dying at home (odds ratio [OR]=1.04 for each percentage point increase in home birth rate; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.05). Moreover, the likelihood of dying at home increased with local wealth (OR=1.04 per $10000; 95% CI=1.02, 1.06) but decreased with local hospital bed availability (OR=0.96 per 1000 beds; 95% CI=0.95, 0.97). Conclusions. The likelihood of home death is associated with local rates of home births, suggesting the influence of health care use preferences.

Silveira, Maria J.; Copeland, Laurel A.; Feudtner, Chris

2006-01-01

302

Influence of spatial heterogeneity of local surface albedo on the area-averaged surface albedo retrieved from airborne irradiance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral airborne upward and downward irradiance measurements are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo. Real surfaces are not homogeneous in their reflectivity. Therefore, this work studies the effects of the heterogeneity of surface reflectivity on the area-averaged surface albedo to quantify how well aircraft measurements can resolve the small-scale variability of the local surface albedo. For that purpose spatially heterogeneous surface albedo maps were input into a 3-dimensional (3-D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to simulate 3-D irradiance fields. The calculated up- and downward irradiances in altitudes between 0.1 and 5 km are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo using an iterative retrieval method that removes the effects due to atmospheric scattering and absorption within the layer beneath the considered level. For the case of adjacent land and sea surfaces, parametrizations are presented which quantify the horizontal distance from the coastline that is required to reduce surface heterogeneity effects on the area-averaged surface albedo to a given limit. The parametrization which is a function of altitude, aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, and the ratio of local land and sea albedo was applied for airborne spectral measurements. In addition, the deviation between area-averaged and local surface albedo is determined for more complex surface albedo maps. For moderate aerosol conditions (optical depth less than 0.4) and a wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm, the altitude and the heterogeneity of the surface albedo are the dominant factors determining the mean deviation between local and area-averaged surface albedo. A parametrization of the mean deviation is applied to an albedo map that was derived from a Landsat image of an area in East Anglia (UK). Parametrization and direct comparison of local and area-averaged surface albedo show similar mean deviations (20% vs. 25%) over land.

Jäkel, E.; Wendisch, M.; Mayer, B.

2013-03-01

303

Precise ego-localization in urban areas using Laserscanner and high accuracy feature maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust ego-localization is an essential technology for future intelligent vehicles and cooperative applications. In this paper a new localization algorithm based on IBEO AS Laserscanners and high accuracy digital maps is proposed. Algorithms to create accurate grid maps with Laserscanners and the extraction of static objects used as landmarks for ego-localization is introduced. The key problem in landmark navigation in

Thorsten Weiss; Nico Kaempchen; K. Dietmayer

2005-01-01

304

Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for “DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area” (“Property”) at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil guidelines as inputs into the code was also performed to determine the maximum (peak) dose for all receptors. This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE’s derivation of ALs for the “Property.” A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines.

A. J. Boerner, CHP, and D. G. Maldonado (IEAV) and Tom Hansen, CHP (Ameriphysics)

2012-09-01

305

Intellectual Authority and Institutional Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay examines the idea of intellectual authority as reflected in legal and literary theory and reviews empirical studies of effects of institutional authority on acceptance/rejection of papers by juried journals. It refutes ideas of Stanley Fish that an author's background (his/her "institutional authority") are relevant in evaluating the…

Collier, Charles W.

1992-01-01

306

The link between local environment and obesity: a multilevel analysis in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal.  

PubMed

Although individual factors have been shown to predict weight gain, contextual determinants have also attracted attention, with some authors stressing the role played by deprivation, urban sprawl, social capital and safety. Recent evidence has implicated environmental factors that facilitate the consumption of excess calories and/or make it more difficult to expend them in routine physical activity. The interrelationships found in some places between physical and social environments (key mediators) and body mass index (BMI), as well as the potential that exists for the development of healthier places, mean that more research is required into the contextual determinants of health. In Portugal, particularly in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), the effects of physical and social environments on physical activity and BMI have not previously been explored in any detail. This study aims to highlight the associations between residential (physical and social) environment and the risk of weight gain and obesity, over and above individual attributes, assessing which indicators are the best predictors of excess weight in the LMA. The study involved data from 7669 individuals aged 18 and over from 143 neighbourhoods. Self-reported body height and weight were used to define overweight body mass index (BMI> or =25). BMI and individual (socio-demographic and behavioural) characteristics were linked to contextual data and analysed in a multilevel framework. Our findings show that different environmental factors are significantly associated with excess weight and obesity, either directly or indirectly (e.g. health-related behaviours such as eating patterns and physical activity, which are key mediators), after adjustment for individual characteristics. The results suggest that a deeper understanding of these mechanisms is critical if we want to tackle the obesity epidemic, and that policies aimed at weight control and obesity reduction must address people and places in order to bear fruit. PMID:19135287

Santana, Paula; Santos, Rita; Nogueira, Helena

2009-01-08

307

Metropolitian area network services comprised of virtual local area networks running over hybrid fiber-coax and asynchronous transfer mode technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990 there has been a rapid increase in the demand for communication services, especially local and wide area network (LAN\\/WAN) oriented services. With the introduction of the DFB laser transmitter, hybrid-fiber-coax (HFC) cable plant designs, ATM transport technologies and rf modems, new LAN\\/WAN services can now be defined and marketed to residential and business customers over existing cable TV

William S. Biedron

1995-01-01

308

Losing areas and shared mental models: towards a definition of the cognitive obstacles to local development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In almost all the different approaches composing the eclectic literature on local development a strong emphasis is given to locally shared mental models as the basis for reaching agreement, resolve conflict and facilitate, through trust, cooperation. Nevertheless, if stability in the patterns of interactions facilitate the exploitation of recognized common-pool of resources, it lower the capability of exploring new opportunity.

Paolo Seri

2001-01-01

309

The Use of Local Parks by Older Residents of Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Local parks in five large cities (San Francisco, Houston, Atlanta, Chicago, Boston) were selected for a study of the use of urban parks by older adults (55 to 65 and over). Interviews were conducted with park users to determine: (1) meaning, motivation, and satisfactions associated with local park usage; (2) factors of usage such as time of day,…

Godbey, Geoffrey; Blazey, Michael

310

The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

2010-01-01

311

Role of Women in Agricultural Development and Their Constraints: A Case Study of Biliri Local Government Area, Gombe State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The study focused on role of women in agricultural development and their constraints in Biliri Local Government Area of Gombe State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select six villages from the LGA and 60 women farmers. Interview scheduled was used to obtain information from the women, on their socio-economic characteristics, farm activities, farm production and their

E. F. Fabiyi; B. B. Danladi; K. E. Akande; Y. Mahmood

2007-01-01

312

Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

2012-01-01

313

A Power-Saving Multi-Radio MultiChannel MAC Protocol for Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunistic spectrum access and adaptive power management are effective techniques to improve throughput, delay performance, and energy efficiency for wireless netwo rks. In this paper, we consider the joint design of opportunistic spectrum access and adaptive power management under the setting of multi-radio nodes and multi-channel wireless local area networks (WLANs) under the distributed coordination function (DCF) mode. This design

Jianfeng Wang; Yuguang Fang; Dapeng Oliver Wu

2006-01-01

314

Local and regional sources as given by aerosol measurements and biomonitoring at Sado estuary area, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gent air samplers were used for air particulate matter sampling in Sado estuary area, separating fine and coarse fractions.\\u000a Three sampling sites were chosen (Palmela, Faralhão and Tróia), inside a 15 km × 25 km area at Setúba region, 50 km south\\u000a of Lisbon, Portugal. Transplants of Parmelia sulcata Taylor were suspended in nylon bags within the same area following a 2.5 km × 2.5 km grid, during the

M. M. Farinha; T. G. Verburg; M. C. Freitas; H. Th. Wolterbeek

2009-01-01

315

The Segmentation of Local Government Areas: Creating a New Geography of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social area classifications group areas on the basis of social or socio-economic similarity into cluster units which define\\u000a their demographic and social characteristics. The methods used to create these systems combine geographic thought and theory\\u000a with statistical manipulations of multivariate data. The development and use of geodemographic systems appear to be restricted\\u000a within developing countries. Some commentators suggest that area

Adegbola A. Ojo; Daniel Vickers; Dimitris Ballas

316

Preserved local but disrupted contextual figure-ground influences in an individual with abnormal function of intermediate visual areas.  

PubMed

Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermediate visual areas (V2/V3) function abnormally. We found that contextual influences on figure-ground organization were selectively disrupted in LG, while local sources of figure-ground influences were preserved. Effects of object knowledge and familiarity on figure-ground organization were also significantly diminished. Our results suggest that the mechanisms mediating contextual and familiarity influences on figure-ground organization are dissociable from those mediating local influences on figure-ground assignment. The disruption of contextual processing in intermediate visual areas may play a role in the substantial object recognition difficulties experienced by LG. PMID:22947116

Brooks, Joseph L; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Rees, Geraint; Bentin, Shlomo; Driver, Jon

2012-03-07

317

Preserved local but disrupted contextual figure-ground influences in an individual with abnormal function of intermediate visual areas  

PubMed Central

Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermediate visual areas (V2/V3) function abnormally. We found that contextual influences on figure-ground organization were selectively disrupted in LG, while local sources of figure-ground influences were preserved. Effects of object knowledge and familiarity on figure-ground organization were also significantly diminished. Our results suggest that the mechanisms mediating contextual and familiarity influences on figure-ground organization are dissociable from those mediating local influences on figure-ground assignment. The disruption of contextual processing in intermediate visual areas may play a role in the substantial object recognition difficulties experienced by LG.

Brooks, Joseph L.; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Rees, Geraint; Bentin, Shlomo; Driver, Jon

2012-01-01

318

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State,...

2009-07-01

319

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State,...

2010-07-01

320

Recording specimen localities in New Zealand: An arbitrary system of areas and codes defined  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand is divided into 29 approximately equal?sized arbitrary areas, and their boundaries are defined and mapped. A 2?letter code is given for each area. The system is designed primarily for use on specimen labels of the New Zealand National Arthropod Collection, and introduces a more reliable basis for the sorting and documentation of specimens.

T. K. Crosby; J. S. Dugdale; J. C. Watt

1976-01-01

321

Central Authority and Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong central authorities are able to effectively manage costly defection, but are unable to adequately address lesser conflicts because of limits to their ability to monitor and enforce. We argue, counterintuitively, that these limitations build coop- eration and trust among subordinates:the limitations contribute to the production of order. First, limits to authority leave space for locally informed decentralized enforce- ment.

Emily Erikson; Joseph M. Parent

2007-01-01

322

Author! Author!”: Shakespeare and biography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, not a year has passed without the publication of at least one Shakespeare biography. Yet for many years the place of the author in the practice of understanding literary works has been problematized, and even on occasions eliminated. Criticism reads the “works”, and may or may not refer to an author whose “life” contributed to their meaning. Biography

Graham Holderness

2009-01-01

323

[Plasmodium falciparum and drepanocytic gene in Popular Republic of Congo. I. Prevalence of malaria and drepanocytic trait among school children in Brazzaville area (author's transl)].  

PubMed

From 1978 to 1979, 5 surveys, among schoolchildren, were carried out during the rainy season in the neighbourhood of Brazzaville (R.P. Congo): 3 in PK 45 village (northern part of the capital), 2 in Djoumouna village (southern part), and 1 in "Talangai" (a suburb of the capital). 868 exams (plasmodic and splenic index fitted with hemoglobin composition [Hb AA or Hb AS]) were done. It appeared that 19,6% of schoolchildren examined were heterozygous sicklers (AS). This percentage confirmed the previous results from other authors in different countries of Central Africa. On the other hand, in spite of an intense transmission, both plasmodic and splenic index were, on the average, relatively low (24,5 and 24,8% respectively). Plasmodium falciparum was largely predominant (95,3% of infections) but P. ovale and P. malariae were also found (1,9% for each species). From our study no obvious "protecting effect" can be attributed to sickle cell trait because plasmodic index of children AA and AS were similar (23,8 and 27,6% respectively). A slight decrease of splenic index was noticed in AS in regard to AA (19,4 and 26.1% respectively). It is difficult to consider this no significative regression as a definitive proof of a premunition stronger in AS than in AA. Effectively some splenic infarctus are well known to be a regular physiopathological process occurring in homozygous SS but often in heterozygous AS too. In such highly endemic and stable malaria area the problem of a suitable antimalaria strategy remains to be solved. PMID:7031402

Michel, R; Carnevale, P; Bosseno, M F; Molez, J F; Brandicourt, O; Zoulani, A; Michel, Y

324

DEVELOPMENT OF CFD SIMULATION APPLICATIONS FOR LOCAL-SCALE AREAS AND POTENTIAL INTERFACE WITH MESOSCALE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation summarizes developments of ongoing applications of fine-scale (geometry specific) CFD simulations to urban areas within atmospheric boundary layers. Enabling technology today and challenges for the future are discussed. There is a challenging need to develop a ...

325

An assessment of solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area - Implications for local utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of residential solar hot water heating in the Washington, D.C. area is presented with estimates of the total solar energy contribution per year. These estimates are examined in relation to a local utility's peak-load curves to determine the impact of a substantial increase in solar domestic hot water use over the next 20 yr in the area of utility management. The results indicate that a 10% market penetration of solar water heaters would have no detrimental effect on the utility's peak-load profile and could save several million dollars in new plant construction costs.

Stuart, M. W.

1980-04-01

326

Minimal Competency Testing: Local School Development and Implementation in Targeted Areas of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The results of a follow-up study on local school district development and implementation of minimal competency testing (MCT) programs are reported. Critical questions regarding: (1) motivation and purposes; (2) selection of tests, procedures, and standards; and (3) impact, follow-up, and change are examined. The follow-up study investigated…

Hinds, Lillian R.; Blass, Rosanne J.

327

Localization for indoor wireless networks using minimum intersection areas of iso-RSS lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for localization in wireless networks based on the measurement of the received signal strength (RSS) from multiple access points in an indoor setting. Our approach starts by learning a smoothed RSS surface for each of the access points from a set of training data. We then extract the isometric lines of the RSS surface (iso-RSS

B. Turgut; R. P. Martin

2007-01-01

328

A Low Cost Micro-Computer Based Local Area Network for Medical Office and Medical Center Automation  

PubMed Central

A Low Cost Micro-computer based Local Area Network for medical office automation is described which makes use of an array of multiple and different personal computers interconnected by a local area network. Each computer on the network functions as fully potent workstations for data entry and report generation. The network allows each workstation complete access to the entire database. Additionally, designated computers may serve as access ports for remote terminals. Through “Gateways” the network may serve as a front end for a large mainframe, or may interface with another network. The system provides for the medical office environment the expandability and flexibility of a multi-terminal mainframe system at a far lower cost without sacrifice of performance.

Epstein, Mel H.; Epstein, Lynn H.; Emerson, Ron G.

1984-01-01

329

Guaranteed quality of service for multimedia applications over a priority-oriented token-passing bus local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting multimedia applications with guaranteed quality of service over a token-passing bus local area network (LAN) is explored through extensive computer simulations. As the provision of real-time properties over a LAN is not so easy to assure, we introduce two levels of priority mechanisms to privileged stream-oriented traffic over burst traffic. One priority level is imposed over the (logical-ring) bus

M. Nofal; M. A. Ahmad

2001-01-01

330

Soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school age children in Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and their relationship to anthropometric indices of 1,351 school children from Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria were evaluated. 739 (54.70%) of the subjects were infected by soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The overall prevalences by species were Ascaris lumbricoides (48.41%), hookworms (29.76%), and Trichuris trichiura (17.39%). 174 (12.88%) were infected

O. ANDY; D. PALMER

2005-01-01

331

Valuing mangrove benefits: contribution of mangrove forests to local livelihoods in Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, East Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumptive benefits of mangrove forests to subsistence economy receive little recognition. This paper quantifies the\\u000a value of provisioning services of mangrove forests to local livelihoods in terms of forestry and fishery products. To examine\\u000a the use of mangrove products, 324 households from 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area located in East Coast\\u000a of India were surveyed using structured

Syed Ainul Hussain; Ruchi Badola

2010-01-01

332

Characterization of nanostructured GaSb: comparison between large-area optical and local direct microscopic techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low energy ion-beam sputtering of GaSb results in self-organized nanostructures, with the potential of structuring large surface areas. Characterisation of such nanostructures by optical methods is studied and compared to direct (local) microscopic methods. The samples consist of densely packed GaSb cones on bulk GaSb, approximately 30, 50 and 300 nm in height, prepared by sputtering at normal incidence. The

I. S. Nerbø; M. Kildemo; S. Le Roy; I. Simonsen; E. Søndergård; L. Holt; J. C. Walmsley

2008-01-01

333

Poverty alleviation through extension education among Fulani pastoralists in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined poverty alleviation through extension education among Fulani pastoralists in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Demographic characteristics of the pastoralists revealed that most of them (73.3%) were between the age of thirty-one and sixty years, all were males, 92.4% were married and 81.9% had no formal education. All of them were Muslims and their household

M. A. Oladoja; T. P. Olusanya; L. L. Adedeji

334

Extension Needs of Women Cassava Farmers in Igueben and Esan Northeast Local Government Areas of Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's advancement is predicated upon their educational development. But what exactly should this education focus on vis-à-vis cassava production? Answers to this question pre-suppose an understanding of their knowledge of modern cassava production-related practices. The study addresses these issues by gathering data from 120 women cassava farmers in two selected local government areas of Edo State. Results show that the

Eddy Onemolease

2002-01-01

335

Local bubble size distribution, gas–liquid interfacial areas and gas holdups in an up-flow ejector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure local bubble size distributions (BSD), gas–liquid interfacial areas and gas holdups in an up-flow ejector, based on the water–air system with different liquid and gas flow rates under the presence\\/absence of the swirl body. The results show that the bubble flow patterns are different whether to add the swirl body into the

Shi-qing Zheng; Yun Yao; Fang-fei Guo; Rong-shan Bi; Jing-ya Li

2010-01-01

336

The link between local environment and obesity: A multilevel analysis in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although individual factors have been shown to predict weight gain, contextual determinants have also attracted attention, with some authors stressing the role played by deprivation, urban sprawl, social capital and safety. Recent evidence has implicated environmental factors that facilitate the consumption of excess calories and\\/or make it more difficult to expend them in routine physical activity. The interrelationships found in

Paula Santana; Rita Santos; Helena Nogueira

2009-01-01

337

Wavelength and beam launching effects on silica optical fiber in local area networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the modal dispersion of silica graded-index optical fibers as a function of the input mode parameters and lunching conditions in local area network (LAN) context. In that, we examine the mode-depending parameters, namely, modal delay, modal attenuation and mode-coupling effects as a function of wavelength. We show that the number of excited mode groups depends strongly on the spot beam radius when the fiber is excited with an axial Gaussian beam where we find an optimal axial diameter exciting only two mode groups. We present a comparison of the number of excited mode groups, the optimal spot radius beam, the signal penalty and the 3-dB baseband bandwidth enhancement for the optimal axial launching compared with full mode excitation, offset launching and mode-field matched axial launching.KeywordsGraded-index optical fiberModal dispersionLANLaunching conditionDMDReferencesY.ZouineI.DayoubS.HaxhaJ.M.RouvaenJournal of Optics CommunicationsVol. 28120081030M.SauerA.KobyakovJ.GeorgeIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. 25No. 1120073301G.YabreIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. 182000166G.YabreIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. 182000668G.BrownK.CreathH.KogelnikM.A.KrissJ.SchmitM.J.WeberThe optics encyclopedia (Basic foundations and Practical applications)Wiley edition2004F.A.HatimF.N.HasoonS.ShaariJournal of Optical CommunicationsVol. 30No. 22009104Hai-HanLuGuan-LinChenYao-WeiChuangChia-ChinTsaiChien-PenChuangJournal of Optics CommunicationsVol. 266Issue 22006495P.PepeljugoskiS.E.GolowichA.J.RitgerP.KolesarA.RisteskiIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. 21No. 520031242M.BassE.StrylandFiber Optics Handbook (Fiber, Devices and Systems for Optical Communication)McGraw-Hill edition2002Optical Society of AmericaG.GhoshM.EndoT.IwasakiIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. 1219941338A.R.MickelsonM.EriksrudOptics LettersVol. 7No. 111982572J.YangY.JaluriaInternational Journal of Heat and Mass TransferVol. 52Issues 17-1820094108J.SaijonmaaA.B.SharmaS.J.HalmeApplied OpticsVol. 19No. 1419802442L.RaddatzI.H.WhiteD.G.CunninghamM.C.NowellIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. 16No. 31998324D.H.SimY.TakushimaY.C.ChungIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. 2720091018M.WebesterL.RaddatzI.H.WhiteD.G.CunninghamIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol.17No. 919901532M.AwadI.DayoubA.Okassa M'FoubatJ.M.RouvaenJournal of Optics CommunicationsVol. 282Issue 1920093908R.OlshanskyD.B.KeckApplied OpticsVol. 15No. 21976483R.OlshanskyD.A.NolanApplied OpticsVol. 15No. 419761045D.MarcuseApplied OpticsVol.19Issue 1019801653B.J.AinslieC.R.DayIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. LT-41986967H.MrabetI.DayoubR.AttiaS.HaxhaIEEE Journal of Lightwave TechnologyVol. 27No. 2120094744A.M'foubatI.DayoubJ.M.RouvaenW.HamoudaA.MazenIEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and NetworkingVol. 1No. 32009204Hichem Mrabet received the B.S degree in computer science from Faculty of Science of Tunis, Tunisia in 1996, the Dipl.-M.S degree from National Engineering School of Tunis, Tunisia in 2004. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in telecommunication. From 1998 to 2010, he worked as an Engineer in Ministry of Finance, Tunisia. In 2005, he joined the System and Component Electronic Research Unit at the Tunisia Polytechnic School. His main research interest include optical code division multiple access and fiber dispersion.Iyad Dayoub received the B.Sc. degree in telecommunications and electronics from Syria, the Dipl.-M.S. degree from the INPL-University of Nancy, France, in 1997, and the Dipl. of Dr.-Ing. degree in electronics from the IEMN-DOAE-University of Valenciennes, France, in 2001.From 1993 to 1995, he was an Engineer at Siemens-Damascus, Syria. From 2000 to 2002, he was a Researcher at the IEMN-DOAE, France. Currently, he is an Associate Professor at the IEMN-DOAE, France. His research interests are focused in radio over fiber communications, wireless communications, cooperative/relay networks, and wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.Rabah Attia received the Ph.D. degree in telecommunication from Universit

Mrabet, Hichem; Dayoub, Iyad; Attia, Rabah; Hamouda, Walaa

2010-11-01

338

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas and the recreationists' noise situation at home  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. Most studies concentrate on one setting of the everyday life of a noise-exposed population, which mainly has been the residential setting. This article relates annoyance with aircraft noise in outdoor recreational areas to the recreationists' noise situation at home. In conjunction with the relocation of the main airport of Norway in 1998, field studies were conducted before and after the change in one area near the old airport (1930 survey respondents), and one area near the new airport (1001 survey respondents). Multivariate linear regression analyses of the relationship between annoyance and aircraft noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events) in the recreational areas were conducted, controlled for noise annoyance at home, or aircraft noise exposure at home, the situation (before/after the change), context- and demographic variables. People more highly annoyed at home tended to be more annoyed than others while in the recreational areas. A significant effect of aircraft noise exposure at home on annoyance in the recreational setting was not found. More research is warranted regarding the relationship between noise exposure at home and outdoor recreational demands. .

Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

2005-01-01

339

Large area nanoscale patterning of silicon surfaces by parallel local oxidation.  

PubMed

The homogeneity and the reproducibility of parallel local oxidation have been improved by introducing a thin film of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) between the stamp and the silicon surface. The flexibility of the polymer film enables a homogeneous contact of the stamp with the silicon surface to be achieved. The oxides obtained yield better aspect ratios compared with the ones created with no PMMA layer. The pattern is formed when a bias voltage is applied between the stamp and the silicon surface for 1 min. The patterning can be done by a step and repeat technique and is reproducible across a centimetre length scale. Once the oxide nanostructures have been created, the polymer is removed by etching in acetone. Finally, parallel local oxidation is applied to fabricate silicon nanostructures and templates for the growth of organic molecules. PMID:19875876

Losilla, N S; Martínez, J; García, R

2009-10-29

340

Discovering Volatile Events in Your Neighborhood: Local-Area Topic Extraction from Blog Entries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for the detection of occasional or volatile local events using topic extraction technologies.\\u000a This is a new application of topic extraction technologies that has not been addressed in general location-based services.\\u000a A two-level hierarchical clustering method was applied to topics and their transitions using time-series blog entries collected\\u000a with search queries including place names. According

Masayuki Okamoto; Masaaki Kikuchi

2009-01-01

341

Papular Acantholytic Dyskeratosis Localized to the Perineal and Perianal Area in a Young Male  

PubMed Central

A case of Papular acantholytic dermatosis restricted to the perianal area is being reported in a 26 year old male without involvement of the genitalia, groin and upper thighs for the first time in English literature. The patient presented with long standing grayish white confluent papules with eroded areas in the perianal region which were asymptomatic for a long time before the area got macerated. He did not respond to many weeks of topical steroids but is now showing improvement with topical tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily. This entity appears to be very uncommon and also underreported. It is also suggested that this entity be included in the long list of non venereal anogenital lesions as it may mimic perianal warts or molluscum contagiosum.

Verma, Shyam B

2013-01-01

342

Papular acantholytic dyskeratosis localized to the perineal and perianal area in a young male.  

PubMed

A case of Papular acantholytic dermatosis restricted to the perianal area is being reported in a 26 year old male without involvement of the genitalia, groin and upper thighs for the first time in English literature. The patient presented with long standing grayish white confluent papules with eroded areas in the perianal region which were asymptomatic for a long time before the area got macerated. He did not respond to many weeks of topical steroids but is now showing improvement with topical tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily. This entity appears to be very uncommon and also underreported. It is also suggested that this entity be included in the long list of non venereal anogenital lesions as it may mimic perianal warts or molluscum contagiosum. PMID:24082188

Verma, Shyam B

2013-09-01

343

Author's Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of publication of an article in any magazine or journal can seem quite difficult for aspiring authors. If you intend getting published then you need a knowledge of the requirements of the particular magazine, its readership profile, its style and, obviously, an interesting topic. I have placed the actual content of the article last, not because the content

Mike Grace

2001-01-01

344

Author's Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author responds to a selection of the major challenges and questions raised by his colleagues in this volume: How should the limitations presented by the international arena affect one's priorities in designing foreign policy? What role can be played by nonstate actors in building basic security? What is the role of ideology in explaining violent behavior, and what is

Amitai Etzioni

2008-01-01

345

Progress with implementing local air-quality management in rural areas of England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in the UK, although vastly improved from the smogs of the 1950s, now faces a new set of challenges from a variety of sources and pollutants. Poor air quality has long been associated with urban areas, but it is becoming clear that many rural locations also have locations likely to exceed the UK Air Quality Strategy-objectives. This paper

C. Ing; C. Beattie; J. Longhurst

2001-01-01

346

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas and the recreationists' noise situation at home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. Most studies concentrate on one setting of the everyday life of a noise-exposed population, which mainly has been the residential setting. This article relates annoyance with aircraft noise in outdoor recreational areas to the recreationists' noise situation at home. In conjunction with the relocation of the main airport

Norun Hjertager Krog; Bo Engdahl

2005-01-01

347

RERANKING OF AREA SOURCES IN LIGHT OF SEASONAL/ REGIONAL EMISSION FACTORS AND STATE/LOCAL NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an effort to provide a better understanding of air pollution area sources and their emissions, to prioritize their importance as emitters of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and to identify sources for which better emission estimation methodologies a...

348

77 FR 16978 - Special Local Regulation; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display Spectator Viewing Areas; Hudson...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Viewing Areas; Hudson River; New York, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...Hudson River in the vicinity of New York, NY for the Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks...Hudson River in the vicinity of New York, NY. The fireworks display will occur...

2012-03-23

349

75 FR 38408 - Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Spectator Vessels Viewing Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Viewing Areas, Hudson River, New York, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...Hudson River in the vicinity of New York, NY, for the Macy's July 4th fireworks display...NJ, to West 70th Street, New York, NY, and north of a line drawn from the...

2010-07-02

350

Protected areas as a chance for the local development. The National Park of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent times, many countries influenced by its citizens had followed a strategy of create natural or national parks. The overriding motive appears to be the preservation of a recognisable unique area of natural wealth. Nevertheless, recent years have seen a rising demand for wildlife viewing. In this sense, the demand of outdoor recreation in general and wildlife viewing in particular

Farré Perdiguer Mariona; Enciso Rodriguez Joan Pere

2003-01-01

351

Bridging Local and Wide Area Networks for Overlay Distributed File Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In metacomputing and grid computing, a computa- tional job may execute on a node that is geographically far away from its data Þles. In such a situation, some of the issues to be resolved are: First, how can the job access its data? Second, how can the high latency and low bandwidth bottlenecks of typical wide-area networks (WANs) be tolerated?

Michael Closson; Paul Lu

352

Erythema multiforme-like eruption localized to a sun-exposed area.  

PubMed

We report on a 35-year-old woman with cutaneous lesions characterized by an erythema multiforme-like appearance localized in the photo-distributed pattern. She had no history of systemic drug ingestion, herpes simplex virus or any other infection, possible causes of erythema multiforme, before the sun exposure. She had normal tolerance to a phototest, but photoprovocation tests could not be performed because she did not agree to them. This case was diagnosed to be an erythema multiforme-like variant of a polymorphous light eruption; the differential diagnosis of target-like lesions in a photo-distributed pattern is discussed. PMID:20415743

Akarsu, Sevgi; Ilknur, Turna; Fetil, Emel; Lebe, Banu; Güne?, Ali Tahsin

2010-04-01

353

Protecting the Local Dark-Sky Areas around the International Observatories in Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers efforts by IAU Commission 50's new Working Group on Light Pollution to slow or halt the spread of incipient light pollution near the VLT, the Magellan 6.5m telescopes, Gemini South, SOAR, Blanco and many smaller telescopes in Chile. An effort has just begun to protect the ALMA site in Northern Chile from RFI. Such work includes extensive outreach programs to the local population, schools and industry as well as to local, regional and national levels of government in Chile. The group is working internationally with such organizations as the IDA; one member has recently led the production of "The first world atlas of the artificial night-sky brightness". These efforts have resulted in the first national-level environmental legislation covering dark skies as part of a government effort to protect the environment. Chilean manufacturers are now producing competitive, full-cut-off, street lighting designed specifically to comply with the new legislation. The Chilean national tourism agency is supporting "Astronomical Tourism" based on the dark, clear skies of Chile. An international conference on Controlling Light Pollution and RFI will be held in La Serena, Chile on 5-7 March, 2002, backed up by a parallel meeting of Chilean amateur astronomers. Much work remains to be done. Most of this work is supported by funding from the US National Science Foundation through CTIO, and from ESO, OCIW and CONAMA.

Smith, M. G.

2001-12-01

354

Home Ownership, Minorities, and Urban Areas: The American Dream Writ Local  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on home ownership changes since 1990, particularly by minority or low-income populations—known colloquially as the American dream. This longtime centerpiece of U.S. policy has been primarily viewed in terms of national outcomes. Here, we address differences in a spatial context, focusing on the forty-nine Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA\\/CMSAs) with greater than 1 million population in 2000. The

Lawrence A. Brown; Michael D. Webb

2011-01-01

355

Home Ownership, Minorities, and Urban Areas: The American Dream Writ Local  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on home ownership changes since 1990, particularly by minority or low-income populations—known colloquially as the American dream. This longtime centerpiece of U.S. policy has been primarily viewed in terms of national outcomes. Here, we address differences in a spatial context, focusing on the forty-nine Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA\\/CMSAs) with greater than 1 million population in 2000. The

Lawrence A. Brown; Michael D. Webb

2012-01-01

356

The linkage between stimulus frequency and covert peak areas as it relates to monaural localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head-related transfer functions for differently centered narrow noise bands were obtained on 6 subjects. Derived from these\\u000a measurements were covert peak areas (CPAs), defined as the spatial constellation of loudspeakers that generates maximal sound\\u000a pressure at the entrance of the ear canal for specific bands of frequency. On the basis of previous data, we proposed that\\u000a different frequency bands served

Megan E. Rogers; Robert A. Butler

1992-01-01

357

Experimental evaluation of infiniband transport over local- and wide-area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance file systems that span across supercomput- ers and storage systems are becoming increasingly impor- tant, as these resources are being dispersed both within the enterprise and across the wide-area. Infiniband transport has been proposed as a candidate to provide high-performance access over interconnects primarily within an enterprise. In this paper, we present an experimental study of Infiniband transport over

Steven M. Carter; Makia Minich; Nageswara S. V. Rao

2007-01-01

358

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized...promulgated statutes or regulations that are in full force and effect on the date of the certification to implement the...

2013-07-01

359

Localization of the hand motor area by arterial spin labeling and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The new clinically available arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging sequences present some advantages relatively to the commonly used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) method for functional brain studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In particular, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes are thought to be more directly related with neuronal activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the accuracy of the functional localization of the hand motor area obtained by simultaneous CBF and BOLD contrasts provided by ASL functional MRI (fMRI) and compare it with a standard BOLD fMRI protocol. For this purpose, we measured the distance between the center of gravity of the activation clusters obtained with each contrast (CBF, BOLD(ASL), and Standard BOLD) and 11 positions defined on a well-established anatomical landmark of the hand motor area (the omega in the axial plane of the precentral gyrus). We found that CBF measurements were significantly closer to the anatomical landmark than the ones obtained using either simultaneous BOLD(ASL) or standard BOLD contrasts. Moreover, we also observed reduced intersubject variability of the functional localization, as well as percent signal change, for CBF relative to both BOLD contrast measurements. In conclusion, our results add further evidence in support to the notion that CBF provides a more accurate localization of motor activation than BOLD contrast, indicating that ASL may be an appropriate technique for clinical fMRI studies. PMID:22121040

Pimentel, Marco A F; Vilela, Pedro; Sousa, Inês; Figueiredo, Patrícia

2011-11-28

360

Localization of epileptic foci using a large-area magnetometer and functional brain anatomy.  

PubMed

We used a large-area, 7-channel, first-order superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometer to preoperatively determine the sites of epileptic foci in 2 patients with intractable temporal lobe seizures. The equivalent dipoles for the epileptic spikes were located with respect to external landmarks of the skull and in relation to the generation sites of magnetic auditory evoked responses. It was also possible, for the first time, to determine the location of the equivalent source using simultaneously measured data from seven locations only. The sites of the equivalent dipoles, in the right temporal lobe, agreed with the electrocorticographic and depth electrode recordings made during the operation. PMID:2327737

Tiihonen, J; Hari, R; Kajola, M; Nousiainen, U; Vapalahti, M

1990-03-01

361

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables.  

PubMed

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were conducted before and after the relocation the main airport of Norway in 1998 in one area near each airport. The relationship between individual noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events, percentage of time aircraft were audible, and LAsel) for the aircraft events. The analyses included the "situation" in which data were collected (before or after the relocation), and variables describing the recreational context. A strong effect of the "situation" was found in both cases, but the size of the effect was influenced by the choice of exposure variable in one of the study areas. Other context variables were also influencing annoyance. The effect of the situation (before/after a change in exposure) on the dose-response relationship may be influenced by the initial noise levels, the amount of change, and the time elapsed since the change at the time of the second survey. Further research should investigate the significance of these variables. PMID:15295993

Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

2004-07-01

362

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were conducted before and after the relocation the main airport of Norway in 1998 in one area near each airport. The relationship between individual noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events, percentage of time aircraft were audible, and LAsel) for the aircraft events. The analyses included the ``situation'' in which data were collected (before or after the relocation), and variables describing the recreational context. A strong effect of the ``situation'' was found in both cases, but the size of the effect was influenced by the choice of exposure variable in one of the study areas. Other context variables were also influencing annoyance. The effect of the situation (before/after a change in exposure) on the dose-response relationship may be influenced by the initial noise levels, the amount of change, and the time elapsed since the change at the time of the second survey. Further research should investigate the significance of these variables.

Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

2004-07-01

363

Patterns of Local Circulation in the Itaipu Lake Area: Numerical Simulations of Lake Breeze.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lake-breeze circulation in the Itaipu region was investigated numerically using a nonhydrostatic version of the Topographic Vorticity Model. The area of study corresponds to a 100 km × 180 km rectangle, located on the Brazil-Paraguay border, with Itaipu Lake in its center. The characteristics of the lake breeze generated by the numerical experiments were consistent with the observations available in the area. The numerical experiments have shown that the land use effect is important in the spatial distribution of the lake-breeze circulation and that the topography contributes to modulating the breeze intensity, with the daytime valley-mountain circulation intensifying the lake breeze. However, the circulation pattern observed during daytime over the region is mainly due to the Itaipu Lake presence. The numerical results indicated that Itaipu Lake is able to generate and sustain a lake breeze, with 3.5 m s1 of maximum intensity and 1500-m depth, that propagates inland at 5.1 km h1 under typical undisturbed and calm-wind summer conditions.

Stivari, Sônia M. S.; de Oliveira, Amauri P.; Karam, Hugo A.; Soares, Jacyra

2003-01-01

364

Town and Culture: New Responses to Cultural Problems. Bremen Declaration. Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany, 25-27 May 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This declaration details the 68 motions adopted by the representatives of European towns taking part in the Conference on Town and Culture. The meeting was jointly organized by the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe and the Council for Cultural Cooperation. Recommendations focus on the following: (1) that new means of…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

365

Technical Education in Northern Ireland after Partition: A Case Study of the Work of a Newly-Formed Local Education Authority, County Down 1925-1933  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the partition of Ireland in 1921, the Northern Ireland Ministry of Education assumed control of the educational services which had been previously administered by four independent bodies in Dublin. The Education Act (Northern Ireland) 1923 created the county councils and county borough councils of the new devolved state the local education…

Beale, George

2006-01-01

366

Maize chromosomal knobs are located in gene-dense areas and suppress local recombination.  

PubMed

Knobs are conspicuous heterochromatic regions found on the chromosomes of maize and its relatives. The number, locations, and sizes of knobs vary dramatically, with most lines containing between four and eight knobs in mid-arm positions. Prior data suggest that some knobs may reduce recombination. However, comprehensive tests have not been carried out, primarily because most knobs have not been placed on the genetic map. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization and two recombinant inbred populations to map seven knobs and to accurately place three knobs from the B73 inbred on the genomic sequence assembly. The data show that knobs lie in gene-dense regions of the maize genome. Comparisons to 23 other recombinant inbred populations segregating for knobs at the same sites confirm that large knobs can locally reduce crossing over by as much as twofold on a cM/Mb scale. These effects do not extend beyond regions ~10 cM to either side of knobs and do not appear to affect linkage disequilibrium among genes within and near knob repeat regions of the B73 RefGen_v2 assembly. PMID:23223973

Ghaffari, Rashin; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Kanizay, Lisa B; Lawrence, Carolyn J; Dawe, R Kelly

2012-12-09

367

Twenty-five years of blackfly control in a localized moist forest area of Cameroon: a review.  

PubMed

The high number of blackfly bites in a moist forest area of Cameroon, around the Sanaga river, was causing considerable nuisance and had led to a local ground-based larval control campaign. We have reviewed the 25 years of almost uninterrupted weekly larvicide applications in this area and emphasized the problems related to application difficulties, environmental pollution and blackfly resistance to the insecticides. Although the number of larvicidal compounds readily available is now limited, the future of blackfly control at this site does not seem to pose real technical difficulties because of its economic importance (hydroelectric dam) and the progress made in the fields of resistance management, search for new insecticide molecules and development of new control methods. PMID:1412667

Hougard, J M; Quillévéré, D

368

FUNDAMENTAL STUDY ON REAL-TIME FLOOD FORECASTING METHOD FOR LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL IN URBAN DRAINAGE AREAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, locally heavy rainfall occurs frequently at highly urbanized area, and causes serious personal accidents, so importance of flood forecasting system is growing in order to reduce damage of inundation. However, flood forecasting that secured lead-time for evacuation is extremely difficult, because the rainfall flows out rapidly. In this study, the numerical simulation model that can finely express inundation mechanism of urban drainage areas was applied with the most recent available data and analysis tool. The influence of the factor (i.e. sewer system, overland and rainfall information) which affected inundation mechanism was evaluated through the sensibility analysis with this model, and evaluation results show some requirements of model condition and information on time and space resolution of real-time flood forecasting.

Kimura, Makoto; Kido, Yoshinobu; Nakakita, Eiichi

369

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2013-04-01

370

LAN (Local Area Network) interoperability study of protocols needed for distributed command and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examined distrubuted processing requirements for strategic and tactical C3I systems, reviewed the characteristics and architectural issues for distributed processing global operating systems, compared the DoD and ISO networking protocol architecture models, the protocols for LAN's developed by the IEEE and ANSI, reviewed and conducted performance evaluation of Ethernet, DoD's Internet Protocal and Transmission Control Protocol and reported characteristics of CSMA/CD, Token Bus and Token Ring LAN's, reviewed three alternatives to using TCP for an intra-LAN protocol and examined the methods for employing gateway elements to interconnect LAN-based system elements. A comprehensive discussion of the results is given followed by a set of concise conclusions. Ten recommendations are given, providing a roadmap to guide the Air Force in developing C3I systems and LAN-based protocols. Three major areas are identified where future work is needed. A set of protocols and design approaches for internetworking is contained in a set of appendices.

Elden, W. L.; Miller, A. L.; Morgan, S. L.; Romanzo, B. A.

1985-03-01

371

Copper content of staple seeds and grains grown in Kanam local government area, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Copper is a trace mineral that plays an important role in human metabolism, largely because it allows many critical enzymes to function properly. Little is known of copper content of Nigerian foods. In this paper, copper contents of several typical Nigerian foods were determined. The samples were collected from Kanam of Plateau State in central region of Nigeria. The samples were wet-ashed according to the protocol of Hill et al. (Anal Chem 55:2340-2342, 1986).Concentrations of copper in the samples was determined using inductively coupled-mass spectrophotometry. There is, for each crop, a wide variation in copper content. The highest copper content was found in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (16.95 ?g/g of dry weight). Lowest copper content was found in white maize and in yellow maize (Zea mays), with values 1.23 ?g/g and 1.38 ?g/g of dry weights, respectively. Other foods, such as white sorghum, red sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), and groundnuts (Arachis hypogea) had copper contents varying from 2.22 to 11.81 ?g/g. These values are well below the supplemental values of 50 mg/day that could interfere with zinc absorption. Thus, among the staple foodstuffs of the areas sampled, cowpea appears to be the richest source of dietary copper followed by groundnut while the two maize varieties are the poorest. PMID:23961432

Jaryum, Kiri Hashimu; Okoye, Zebulon Sunday Chibundo; Stoecker, Barbara

2013-08-06

372

Helpful and Unhelpful Practices in Meeting the Needs of Pupils with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A Pilot Survey of Staff Views in One Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emotional and behavioural problems experienced by pupils continue to be a key concern for educationalists. In this article, Peter Lloyd Bennett, an educational psychologist, reports on his research into the views of staff about this important area of work. Questionnaires on meeting the needs of pupils with emotional and behavioural…

Bennett, Peter Lloyd

2006-01-01

373

Structure of regional dykes and local cone sheets in the Midhyrna-Lysuskard area, Snaefellsnes Peninsula (NW Iceland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the first detailed structural description of 48 vertical dykes, 384 inclined sheets and two large intrusions and the geometry (strike, dip direction and dip) of 1116 fractures in the central area of the Snaefellsnes peninsula, NW Iceland. Our data show a more complex setting than that depicted by the WNW-ESE en-echelon trend of the volcanic structures at the surface. In the Miocene basement lavas, dykes dominantly strike N50-100°E whereas other directions are also present with a higher dispersion. Two main swarms of centrally dipping sheets have also been recognized, focussing towards two areas. Sheet dips range from 2 to 75° with the higher frequency between 10 and 45°. In section view, there is no systematic variation of sheet dip with distance from the focus area. Gabbro and granophyre laccoliths are present in the studied area but cross-cutting relations indicate that most of the inclined sheets are younger. Comparison with regional tectonics suggests that the N50-80°E-striking dykes are coherent with emplacement under the stress field of the pre-6 Ma Snaefellsnes Rift dominated by a NNW-SSE-directed least principal stress (?3). The N80-100°E dykes and the late Quaternary WNW-trending sub-aerial volcanic features are instead consistent with the development of a more recent E-W, right-lateral shear zone affecting the Snaefellsnes peninsula. Coherent sets of fractures have also been found. Within the inclined sheet swarms, the stress tensor rotated in response to an excess magma pressure linked to two underlying magma chambers of lobate shape, located at an estimated depth of about 400 and 500 m below sea level. This local magmatic stress also produced the centrally inclined fracture swarms that have been found in this area.

Tibaldi, Alessandro; Bonali, Fabio Luca; Pasquaré, Federico Aligi; Rust, Derek; Cavallo, Alessandro; D'Urso, Alessandro

2013-11-01

374

Chemical character of ground water in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight deep wells are being monitored in the Memphis, Tenn., area to detect any changes in the chemical character of water moving through the Memphis Sand towards major pumping centers. These wells are strategically located so as to intercept groundwater enroute through the Memphis Sand from the outcrop-recharge area. Although water quality analyses are available for many wells in the shallow water-table aquifer, no specific investigation has been made to characterize the quality of the water in this aquifer from which the Memphis Sand also receives part of its recharge. This investigation is to determine the chemical character of groundwater in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area. Methods used to install eight shallow wells at abandoned dump sites containing chemical and/or industrial waste are described. Water samples from the eight shallow wells and two deep wells in the Memphis Sand were collected and analyzed. Results of the analysis are presented and the locations of the wells and dumps are shown on maps. (USGS)

Parks, William Scott; Graham, D. D.; Lowery, J. F.

1981-01-01

375

National Transportation Safety Board Railroad Accident Report: Derailment of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Train near the Mt. Vernon Square Station, Washington, D.C. on January 7, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On January 7, 2007, about 3:45 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, northbound Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail train 504 derailed one car as the train traversed a crossover from track 2 to track 1. The accident occurred in an underground t...

2007-01-01

376

Evaluation of Secure 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Authentication Over 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since wireless technology has been used in Local Area Networks (LAN), our networks are easier to build and are more scalable and mobile than legacy structures. While providing these functionalities, Wireless LAN (WLAN)'s have some security vulnerabilities...

H. S. Ozturk

2003-01-01

377

Method and Case Study for Estimating the Ramping Capability of a Control Area or Balancing Authority and Implications for Moderate or High Wind Penetration: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In several regions of the United States there has been a significant increase in wind generation capability over the past several years. As the penetration rate of wind capacity increases, grid operators and planners are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability that wind contributes to the system. In this paper we examine the distinction between regulation, load following, hourly energy, and energy imbalance to understand how restructured power systems accommodate and value inter-hour ramps. We use data from two restructured markets, California and PJM, and from Western Area Power Administration's (WAPA's) Rocky Mountain control area to determine expected load-following capability in each region. Our approach is to examine the load-following capability that currently exists using data from existing generators in the region. We then examine the levels of wind penetration that can be accommodated with this capability using recently collected wind farm data. We discuss how load-following costs are captured in restructured markets, what resources are available to meet these requirements, why there are no explicit load-following tariffs, and the societal importance of being able to access generator ramping capability. Finally, the implications for wind plants and wind integration costs are examined.

Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

2005-05-01

378

Bacteriuria among primary and secondary school pupils in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Bacteriuria in urinary tract infection is severe and associated with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of bacteriuria among primary and secondary school pupils in Akure North Local Government Area. The study included subjects from the highly populated schools in this local government area. The samples analyzed were exclusively collected from volunteer pupils whose age and sex were documented by the questionnaire distributed to them. Urine samples were collected randomly under aseptic conditions from 250 pupils aged 5-20 attending primary and secondary schools. Urine samples were subjected to microbiological analysis by culturing 1 mL each on nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar, plate count agar and chocolate agar for possible isolation of any bacteria. Bacterial colonies were enumerated and identified to the species level. Analytical indices revealed bacteriuria to be more common in female (41.2%) than male (3.2%) subjects. The highest bacterial count in female urine samples was 281 x 10(3) against 149 x 10(3) in male samples. A higher infection rate was recorded in secondary school pupils aged 11-20. Escherichia coli predominated among isolated bacteria species with 48.8%. Laboratory results confirmed urinary tract infection in some of the study pupils. As only volunteer pupils submitted their samples for analysis, this small population was represented in the study, predominated by female subjects. None of the pupils showed signs of infection, therefore routine laboratory checkup is important among children in order to limit damage to some of their vital tissues. PMID:23330403

Dada, Oluyemi Ebenezer; Akharaiyi, Fred Coolborn; Lawal, Opeyemi Zaynab

2012-09-01

379

Survivable local area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced availability and survivability of communications between geographically remote locations with a minimum of redundancy of transmission facilities and media is provided by a survivable bus network capable of providing continued interprocessor or other communications in the event of multiple bus outages. It consists of multiple busses, bus isolation device (BIDs) and two types of network interface processors (NIPs). The BIDs electrically isolate bus segements on either side of a connection so that if a fault occurs only the segment containing the fault will be affected. The first type of NIP connects to one bus and performs the usual functions of providing an electrical and software interface between the network and one or more subscriber processors. The second type is a bridge which performs these same functions but connects to two busses and has the capability to transfer traffic as it appears on either bus to the other. The network provides increased survivability in the event of failed segments but does not entail the expense of a fully redundant system.

Katz, J. L.; Grund, E. C.; Cope, R. P.; Glick, A. L.

1986-03-01

380

Local area gigabit networking  

SciTech Connect

Computer networks must become faster as the equipment that is being interconnected increases in power and performance. Ethemet, with a 10 Mbit/s speed, seemed awesome a few years ago, but is beginning to show its age as more machines are tied together, and workstations attain the power of yesterdays mainframes. Networks using gigabit speeds are just starting to become available and offer a whole new set of problems and potential. This paper addresses what the higher speeds are being used for, the ''standards'' efforts specifying the higher speed channels, the network architectures being proposed, and some of the open problems requiring extensive further work. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Tolmie, D.E.

1991-01-01

381

Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-dihydrotestosterone in the preoptic area, hypothalamus, and amygdala of a male rhesus monkey  

SciTech Connect

In a preliminary study, autoradiography was used to localize target cells for /sup 3/H-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a non-aromatizable androgen, in the brain of the rhesus monkey. One castrated male was injected intravenously with 2 mCi of /sup 3/H-DHT (0.42 ..mu..g/kg), and was killed one hour later. Neurons that concentrated radioactivity in their nuclei were located in widespread areas of the brain, which included the medial and suprachiasmatic preoptic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septal nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, ventromedial, arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, ventral premammillary nucleus, and medial, cortical, basal accessory, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei. These results indicate that the topographic distribution of androgen target neurons is considerably wider than that observed in a study using /sup 3/H-testosterone (T) in the male rhesus monkey. However, further work is needed to elucidate these differences before attempting correlations between behavioral activity and androgen receptors in the brain.

Michael, R.P.; Rees, H.D.

1982-06-14

382

Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The extent and chemical characteristics of ground water affected by three local point sources--a stormwater basin, uncovered road-salt-storage piles, and an abandoned sewage-treatment plant--were delineated during a 3-year study of the chemical characteristics and migration of a body of reclaimed wastewater that was applied to the watertable aquifer during recharge experiments from October 1982 through January 1984 in East Meadow. The timing, magnitude, and chemical quality of recharge from these point sources is highly variable, and all sources have the potential to skew determinations of the quality of ambient ground-water and of the reclaimed-wastewater plume if they are not taken into account. Ground water affected by recharge from the stormwater basin is characterized by low concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (less than 5 mg/L [milligrams per liter] as N) and sulfate (less than 40 mg/L) and is almost entirely within the upper glacial aquifer. The plume derived from road-salt piles is narrow, has high concentrations of chloride (greater than 50 mg/L) and sodium (greater than 75 mg/L), and also is limited to the upper glacial aquifer. The sodium, in high concentrations, could react with aquifer material and exchange for sorbed cations such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Water affected by secondary-treated sewage from the abandoned treatment plant extends 152 feet below land surface into the upper part of the Magothy aquifer and longitudinally beyond the southern edge of the study area, 7,750 feet south of the recharge site. Ground water affected by secondary-treated sewage within the study area typically contains elevated concentrations of reactive chemical constituents, such as potassium and ammonium, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Conservative or minimally reactive constituents such as chloride and sodium have been transported out of the study area in the upper glacial aquifer and the intermediate (transitional) zone but remain in the less permeable upper part of the Magothy aquifer. Identification of the three point sources and delineation of their areas of influence improved definition of ambient ground-water quality and delineation of the reclaimed-wastewater plume.

Heisig, P. M.

1994-01-01

383

Comparison of Systemic and Local Methamphetamine Treatment on Acetylcholine and Dopamine Levels in the Ventral Tegmental Area in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important mediator of dopamine (DA) release and the behavioral reinforcing characteristics of drugs of abuse in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the interaction of DA with ACh appears to be integral in mediating motivated behaviors. However, the effects of methamphetamine on VTA ACh and DA release remain poorly characterized. The current investigation performed microdialysis to evaluate the effects of methamphetamine on extracellular levels of ACh and DA. Male C57BL/6J mice received an IP injection (saline, 2 mg/kg, or 5 mg/kg) and an intra-VTA infusion (vehicle, 100 µM or 1 mM) of methamphetamine. Locally perfused methamphetamine resulted in no change in extracellular ACh compared to vehicle, but caused a strong, immediate and dose-dependent increase in extrasynaptic DA levels (1240% and 2473% of baseline, respectively) during the 20-minute pulse perfusion. An IP injection of methamphetamine increased extrasynaptic DA to 275% and 941% of baseline (2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively). Systemic methamphetamine significantly increased ACh levels up to 275% of baseline for 40 – 60 minutes (2 mg/kg) and 397% of baseline for 40 – 160 minutes (5 mg/kg) after injection. ACh remained elevated above baseline for 2 to 3 hours post injection, depending on the methamphetamine dose. Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity was dose-dependently correlated with extrasynaptic VTA ACh, but not DA levels. These data suggest that methamphetamine acts in the VTA to induce a robust and short-lived increase in extracellular DA release but acts in an area upstream from the VTA to produce a prolonged increase in ACh release in the VTA. We conclude that methamphetamine may activate a recurrent loop in the mesocorticolimbic DA system to stimulate pontine cholinergic nuclei and produce a prolonged ACh release in the VTA.

Dobbs, Lauren K.; Mark, Gregory P.

2008-01-01

384

The prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of Onchocerca volvulus infection in Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Between January and October 1994, a study of the prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in nine communities of Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria was undertaken using the skin-snip method. Of the 1117 inhabitants examined, 188 (16.8%) were positive for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. The prevalence of onchocerciasis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among males than females, in subjects 21 years of age and above than in those in the first two decades of life, in nomads, farmers, hunters and fishermen than smiths and traders. Intensity of infection was light, not exceeding a geometric mean of 5.3 microfilaria per 2 mm skin bite. Preponderance of positive cases below 20 years presented no chronic signs. Conversely, persons above 20 years had higher microfilaria counts which coincides with the period when most clinical signs manifest. Microfilarial-rate and -density in relation to age were closely associated (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). The need for a sustained mass distribution of Mectizan in these communities is highlighted. PMID:11556150

Anosike, J C; Celestine; Onwuliri, O E; Onwuliri, V A

2001-07-01

385

Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. 1. Endemicity of human onchocerciasis in Ningi Local Government Area.  

PubMed

The endemicity of human onchocerciasis was assessed in eight rural, at-risk communities in Ningi Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Nigeria, between July 1990 and March 1991. Of the 1536 subjects skin-snipped, 334 (21.7%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae. Surprisingly, there was a significant inverse relationship between prevalence and mean microfilarial load (r = -0.608; P < 0.05). Males were more likely to be infected than females (P < 0.01) and cattle rearers (71.0% infected), farmers (49.8%) and fishermen (40.0%) had significantly higher prevalences than students/schoolchildren, housewives or traders (P < 0.001). Pruritus and itchy eyes were recorded in all age groups and appeared in much younger subjects than any other manifestations of the infection. Prevalence and onchocercal blindness were linearly related to intensity of infection. The epidemiological significance of these findings, in terms of a future community-wide programme of long-term chemoprophylaxis with Mectizan, is highlighted. PMID:7741592

Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O

1995-02-01

386

Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. II. The prevalence of human filariasis in Darazo Local Government area.  

PubMed

In an eleven months study of eleven communities of Darazo Local Government Area of Bauchi state, northern Nigeria, 293 (21.7) of 1,349 persons examined harboured various filarial parasites. Of the sampled population, 18%, 1.9%, 1.6%, 0.5% and 0.2% had microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, Mansonella perstans, M. streptocerca and Loa loa respectively. Of the 637 females examined, 90 (14.1%) were infected, while 203 (23.5%) of 712 males sampled had filarial infections. The high rate in males was significant (P < 0.001). O. volvulus mf-rate increased gradually from the first decade to the seventh decade of life but declined thereafter. Prevalence of bancroftian filariasis was consistently lower in females of reproductive age, while the distribution of various filarial parasites varied significantly among age groups and communities (P < 0.05). Fishermen (42.9%), farmers (42.4%) and cattle rearers (40.9%) were the most affected occupational categories. Control strategies are highlighted. PMID:7812311

Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O

1994-11-01

387

Regional and local increases in storm intensity in the San Francisco Bay Area, USA, between 1890 and 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of extreme precipitation have documented changes at the continental scale during the twentieth century, but few studies have quantified changes at small to regional spatial scales during the same time. We analyze historic data from over 600 precipitation stations in the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), California, to assess whether there have been statistically significant changes in extreme precipitation between 1890 and 2010. An annual exceedance probability analysis of extreme precipitation events in the SFBA, coupled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, reveals an increase in the occurrence of large events. The depth-duration-frequency characteristics of maximum annual precipitation events having durations of 1 h to 60 days indicate on average an increase in storm intensity in the last 120 years, with the intensity of the largest (least frequent) events increasing the most. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) also increased during the study period, but the relative increase in extreme event intensity exceeds that of MAP, indicating that a greater fraction of precipitation fell during large events. Analysis of data from subareas within the SFBA region indicates considerable heterogeneity in the observed nonstationarity; for example, the 5 day, 25 year event exceedance depth changed by +26%, +16%, and -1% in San Francisco, Santa Rosa, and San Jose, respectively. These results emphasize the importance of analyzing local data for accurate risk assessment, emergency planning, resource management, and climate model calibration.

Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Winslow, Dustin M.

2013-04-01

388

Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.|

Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

2011-01-01

389

Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of Local Group galaxies: detection of M 31 and search for M 33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Cosmic rays (CRs) can be studied through the galaxy-wide gamma-ray emission that they generate when propagating in the interstellar medium. The comparison of the diffuse signals from different systems may inform us about the key parameters in CR acceleration and transport. Aims: We aim to determine and compare the properties of the cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission of several Local Group galaxies. Methods: We use 2 years of nearly continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for gamma-ray emission from M 31 and M 33. We compare the results with those for the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud, the Milky Way, and the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253. Results: We detect a gamma-ray signal at 5? significance in the energy range 200 MeV-20 GeV that is consistent with originating from M 31. The integral photon flux above 100 MeV amounts to (9.1 ± 1.9stat ± 1.0sys) × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1. We find no evidence for emission from M 33 and derive an upper limit on the photon flux >100 MeV of 5.1 × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1 (2?). Comparing these results to the properties of other Local Group galaxies, we find indications of a correlation between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity that also holds for the starburst galaxies. Conclusions: The gamma-ray luminosity of M 31 is about half that of the Milky Way, which implies that the ratio between the average CR densities in M 31 and the Milky Way amounts to ? = 0.35 ± 0.25. The observed correlation between gamma-ray luminosity and star formation rate suggests that the flux of M 33 is not far below the current upper limit from the LAT observations. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. Do Couto E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Jean, P.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Martin, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pepe, M.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Strigari, L.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ziegler, M.

2010-11-01

390

Regional Mobility Authorities in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional mobility authority (RMA) is an innovative tool that brings transportation decisions to the local levels and provides local governments the opportunity to accelerate needed projects. An RMA improves mobility, enhances economic development, and provides potential revenue sources through designing, constructing, operating and maintaining tolled or non-tolled roadways, passenger and freight rail, airports, and pedestrian and bicycle facilities.

David L. Bruno; Charles R. Stevens

391

A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) Directors and Local School District Special Education Directors in Four Counties of Southern California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceived level of job satisfaction of SELPA directors with that of local school district special education directors in the counties of Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Orange of Southern California and to identify factors that contribute to their job satisfaction. Additionally, this…

Alexander, Gregory Haynes, III

2009-01-01

392

A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) Directors and Local School District Special Education Directors in Four Counties of Southern California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceived level of job satisfaction of SELPA directors with that of local school district special education directors in the counties of Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Orange of Southern California and to identify factors that contribute to their job satisfaction. Additionally, this…

Alexander, Gregory Haynes, III

2009-01-01

393

Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

2011-05-01

394

Risk management for distributed authorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed authorization takes into account several elements, includ- ing certiflcates that may be provided by non-local actors. While most trust management systems treat all assertions as equally valid up to certiflcate authentication, realistic considerations may associate risk with some of these elements, for example some actors may be less trusted than others. Furthermore, practical online authorization may require certain levels

Christian Skalka; Xiaoyang Sean Wang; Peter C. Chapin

2007-01-01

395

Computation of local curvature and area of discrete 3D objects; application to natural snow images: serial cuts and X-ray tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once fallen on the ground, snow undergoes a structure metamorphism governed by local temperature and humidity fields. Local 3D curvature is a governing parameter of metamorphism, whereas surface area denotes the ability for a given snow to evolve. We present a numerical method whose main feature is the use of the discrete distance map to locate the normal vector at each voxel of the object's surface. This allows first to find a couple of principal planes and then curvature. The method was tested on geometrical shapes, then on a 3D data file from natural snow, obtained experimentally. It can also be used to assess surface area. The surface is fist locally approximated by its discrete tangent plane. For any region of this plane, the ratio between its number of voxels and the area of its projection along the normal vector is derived from simple geometric laws. This provides the effective weighting of the elementary facet area (unity) for each voxel of the object's surface. First validations on geometrical shapes (sphere, cube) give an accuracy of ±1% on area assessment using a scanning neighborhood of size 11 voxel. Codes are being adapted to run on 600^3 voxel images of snow, recently obtained by X-ray tomography at ESRF. Concerning surface area, a joint experiment is planned with LGGE to compare values from methane adsorption isotherms and the numerical processing of tomographic images from a same snow.

Brzoska, Jean-Bruno; Lesaffre, Bernard; Coléou, Cécile

2000-03-01

396

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...moving within the spectator area must operate at speeds which will create a minimum wake. (2) Emergency signaling. A succession of sharp, short signals by whistle or horn from vessels patrolling the areas under the discretion of the...

2013-07-01

397

Federal Funding Sources Available to Local Governments for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains information on 101 federal programs that provide funding to rural projects initiated by local governments, public agencies, tribal governments, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, citizen groups, and individuals. Eligible local project categories include conservation, farm ownership and operation, housing,…

Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

398

Local Area Networking for the Small Library. A How-To-Do-It Manual. How To Do It Manuals for Librarians, Number 67. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual offers guidance for librarians on every aspect of local area networking from start-up through maintenance and trouble shooting. This second edition has been revised to include information on: definition and explication of TCP/IP; Novell 4.0; Internet connection gear; equipment capable of handling Web access; Windows NT and Windows for…

Howden, Norman

399

Remote supervision and control of measurements via the local area network at the NSHR and the SKAT spectrometers (the Info task).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main principles and implementation features of the Info task are considered. This task is dedicated to the remote supervision and control of measurements via the local area network at the NSHR and the SKAT spectrometers. This task is a part of the sof...

A. S. Kirilov

1997-01-01

400

Synoptically driven down-slope winds and their effects on local nocturnal-drainage air flow in The Geysers Geothermal Resource Area  

SciTech Connect

Some of the possible synoptic to local sale interactions are identified and discussed that may have an important influence on the development and persistence of nocturnal drainage (katabatic) winds in the eastern portion of The Geysers geothermal development area. On the basis of the July 1979 ASCOT field data at The Geysers, the interactions identified are summarized.

Orgill, M.M.; Schreck, R.I.; Whiteman, C.D.

1981-07-01

401

ENVIRONMENT CONTROL IN AN ARTIFICIAL LIGHT GROWTH CHAMBER FOR SIMULATING A SPECIFIC CLIMATE OF A LOWLAND RICE FIELD AT A LOCAL AREA IN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

WATANABE T., TOH K., OHWAKI J.. NAGAO Y., FUJIYAMA, M., TSURUNAGA A. and YOSHIDA S. Environment control in an artificial light growth chamber for simulating a specific climate of a lowland rice field at a local area in Japan. BIOTRONICS 30, 115-118, 2001. In a lowland rice field at the end of a rainy season (early summer) in Japan, it

T. WATANABE; K. TOH; J. OHWAKI; M. FUJIYAMA; A. TSURUNAGA; S. YOSHIDA

402

Design and performance analysis of authentication scheme for interworking between high-speed portable Internet (HPi) system and wireless local area networks (WLANs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the demand for Internet services through wireless medium has increased. Wireless local area network (WLAN) supports high speed data services with low cost but it does not provide mobility. In order to overcome this drawback, the high-speed portable Internet (HPi) system has been developed in Korea, which supports high speed data service and mobility, and it is expected that

Sun-Hwa Lim; Yun Won Chung; Yeong Jin Kim

2004-01-01

403

SMALL-SCALE, WOOD BASED PROCESSING ENTERPRISES; THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPACT ON PEOPLE OF AKURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted in Akure Local Government Area of Ondo State to give preliminary information on the magnitude, characteristics and contribution to rural employment of small-scale, wood-based processing enterprises through structured questionnaire. Small scale, wood based enterprise accounts for about 44% of the total rural labour force. The enterprises are characterized by very small size, heavy reliance on entrepreneur

M. O. Adedokun; A. B. Aina Oyun; O. M. Aina; A. C. Adetogun

2005-01-01

404

Local Area Network End User Satisfaction Study at the Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Health Administration's VA Puget Sound Health Care System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This non-experimental, longitudinal study examines Local Area Network (LAN) end user satisfaction (EUS) among 47 health care executives at the VA puget Sound Health Care System (VA PSHCS). The executives included in this study were using the LAN before Oc...

W. E. Hill

1998-01-01

405

A Study of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Writers on a Local-Area Network (LAN) and in Traditional Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Cantonese-speaking English as a Foreign Language (EFL) undergraduates writing on a Local Area Network (LAN) and in traditional writing classes at a Hong Kong university. Determines which context--LANs or traditional writing classes--produced better writing and more improvement in writing. Suggests that LAN classes are no more…

Braine, George

2001-01-01

406

78 FR 39588 - Special Local Regulations; Revision of 2013 America's Cup Regulated Area, San Francisco Bay; San...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...special local regulation published for the Louis Vuitton Cup challenger selection series and the America's Cup Finals Match occurring...2012 (77 FR 41902) associated with the Louis Vuitton Cup challenger selection series and the America's Cup Finals Match...

2013-07-02

407

Comparative abundance and population structure of sympatric Afrotropical tortoises in six rainforest areas: the differential effects of ``traditional veneration'' and of ``subsistence hunting'' by local people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hinge-back tortoises are actively hunted by human populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and are currently threatened in wide areas of their ranges. The wide wetlands and moist rainforests of the Niger Delta (southeastern Nigeria, west Africa) house three sympatric species of hinge-back tortoises: Kinixys erosa, K. homeana, and K. belliana nogueyi. These tortoises are subjected to strong hunting pressure for several reasons (mainly domestic consumption), but in a few places in Bayelsa and Rivers States (eastern axis of the Niger Delta), they are traditionally venerated as "holy animals" bringing happiness. These few places may represent ideal laboratories for monitoring the effects of hundreds of years of "traditional conservation" on the wild populations of a tropical reptile. Here, I compare the apparent abundance, sex ratio, body sizes, microhabitats, and seasonal occurrence of free-ranging Kinixys populations inhabiting three of these "traditional sanctuaries" with the same ecological aspects of conspecifics from three neighbouring areas where the tortoises are actively hunted. K. homeana was the most common species at all sites, followed by K. erosa, whereas K. belliana was extremely rare. Adult sex ratio did not depart significantly from equality both in K. erosa and in K. homeana, and was not influenced by locality or by type of "management" (veneration or harvesting). The frequency of juveniles of K. homeana was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas of harvesting, but the same pattern was not observed in K. erosa. There was a significant decrease in terms of the number of observed specimens between areas of traditional protection and areas of usual harvesting in all species, and this trend was more obvious in K. homeana than in K. erosa. The ratio "number of observed erosa/number of observed homeana" was not dependent on the presence of traditional veneration. Mean body sizes were not different in harvest areas and in veneration areas in K. homeana, but the same comparisons were not done for K. erosa because sample sizes were too small. Tortoises in veneration areas inhabited a wider range of microhabitats than in harvest areas, where they were found almost only in dense bushes. Specimens of both K. erosa and K. homeana were observed mainly during the wet season, and this excess of observed specimens was significantly affected both by locality and by type of management, i.e., the frequency of observed specimens of both species during the dry season was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas with local harvesting. The conservation implications of the ecological patterns observed are discussed.

Luiselli, Luca

2003-07-01

408

Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland?  

PubMed Central

It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on interactions between individual and environmental factors in shaping health and health inequalities.

Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

2008-01-01

409

Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.  

PubMed

It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on interactions between individual and environmental factors in shaping health and health inequalities. PMID:18599170

Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

2008-07-01

410

Methodology for Estimating Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) Vehicle Severity Factors and Local Condition Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) program is a methodology for estimating training and testing land carrying capacity. The methodology is used to determine land rehabilitation and maintenance costs associated with land-based tr...

P. M. Sullivan A. B. Anderson

2000-01-01

411

Fiscal Conservatism versus Local Paternalism: Divergent Experiences of Public Housing Decline in Rural Areas of England during the 1980s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the differential response of two rural districts of England (Fenland and Waveney) to changes in council house provisioning in the 1980s. It is situated in a decade when major policy shifts in social housing policy were occurring at the national level with local governments devising new social housing strategies in response.…

Long, Ian

2005-01-01

412

Local and regional contributions of fine particulate mass to urban areas in the Mid-Atlantic and Southwestern US. Report for November 1997--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

This work examined the seasonal local and regional contributions of PM2.5 to urban areas in the Mid-Atlantic States: Baltimore, MD, Washington, DC, and Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ in the Southwest. This was accomplished using two different methods. The first method estimated urban excesses by comparing seasonal PM2.5 trends at the urban monitors to nearby rural monitors. The second approach used a simple model based on the PM2.5 dependence on wind speed and wind direction to classify a site as being dominated by local or regional source contributions. The method also quantifies the regional contributions during high wind speed conditions. The wind vectors were derived from surface observations and air mass histories. All monitoring sites in the urban centers were dominated by local sources during the cold season.

Schichtel, B.A.

1999-03-29

413

Data link level interconnection of remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Networks (FDDI LANs) through the Critical Data Link (CDL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the features and performance of a network interface device to interconnect two remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Local Area Networks (LAN's) through the Critical Data Link (CDL) which is a full-duplex, jam-resistant, point-to-point microwave communications system for use in imagery and signals intelligence collection systems. In particular, OPNET, a commercially available network engineering tool is

Selcuk Karayakaylar

1994-01-01

414

Marking high-technology market evolution through the foci of market stories: the case of local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that changing consumer and producer knowledge structures play a role in market evolution and that the sociocognitive processes of product markets are revealed in the sensemaking stories of market actors that are rebroadcasted in commercial publications. In this article, the authors lend further support to the story-based nature of market sensemaking and the use of the sociocognitive

Vasilis Theoharakis; Veronica Wong

2002-01-01

415

Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of Local Group galaxies: detection of M 31 and search for M 33  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Cosmic rays (CRs) can be studied through the galaxy-wide gamma-ray emission that they generate when propagating in the interstellar medium. The comparison of the diffuse signals from different systems may inform us about the key parameters in CR acceleration and transport. Aims: We aim to determine and compare the properties of the cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission of several Local Group

A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; A. Allafort; W. B. Atwood; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; A. Bouvier; T. J. Brandt; J. Bregeon; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; R. Buehler; T. H. Burnett; S. Buson; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; A. Cannon; P. A. Caraveo; J. M. Casandjian; C. Cecchi; Ö. Çelik; E. Charles; A. Chekhtman; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; J. Conrad; C. D. Dermer; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; S. W. Digel; E. Do Couto E. Silva; P. S. Drell; A. Drlica-Wagner; R. Dubois; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; P. Fortin; M. Frailis; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; S. Germani; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; M. Giroletti; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; S. Guiriec; M. Gustafsson; D. Hadasch; A. K. Harding; K. Hayashi; M. Hayashida; E. Hays; S. E. Healey; P. Jean; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; R. P. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; S.-H. Lee; M. Lemoine-Goumard; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; P. Martin; M. N. Mazziotta; J. Mehault; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; M. Naumann-Godo; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; A. Okumura; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; M. Ozaki; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; M. Pepe; M. Persic; M. Pesce-Rollins; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainò; R. Rando; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; S. Ritz; R. W. Romani; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; P. M. Saz Parkinson; C. Sgrò; E. J. Siskind; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; M. S. Strickman; L. Strigari; A. W. Strong; D. J. Suson; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; Y. Uchiyama; T. L. Usher; J. Vandenbroucke; G. Vianello; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; P. Wang; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; Z. Yang; M. Ziegler

2010-01-01

416

Local hydrogen-clearance and 257-01257-01257-01- measurements in micro-areas of the rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé La pression partielle de l'oxygène et la «clearance» de l'hydrogène ont été mesurées dans des régions circonscrites. Les deux valeurs sont enregistrées par la même microélectrode de platine (diamètre de la pointe 10µ). Cette méthode nouvelle est appliquée dans des expériences faites sur le cerveau de Rats narcotisés et on est capable d'évaluer les inhomogénités locales de l'apport d'oxygène

J. Heidenreich; W. Erdmann; H. Metzger; G. Thews

1970-01-01

417

Simulation of local tsunami and evacuation of urban areas, informed by population exposure analysis and studies of tsunami evacuation behaviour.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a methodology for the integration of hazard, population and evacuation modelling to optimise evacuation planning. Deterministic tsunami simulations are carried out to define the spatial and temporal evolution of tsunami inundation onshore in the several hours following local-source subduction zone earthquakes. Exposure of an urban population to the hazard and options for risk mitigation (specifically through evacuation) are then assessed, demonstrating how tsunami simulation and evacuation simulations can be combined for effective tsunami evacuation planning. The east coast of New Zealand is subject to significant local tsunami hazard due to the proximity of the Hikurangi subduction margin only 100 km offshore. Seismic, geodetic and paleo-tsunami studies have shown the potential for large subduction zone earthquakes (Mw 7.0 to > Mw 9.0) to occur on this margin, though none have been experienced in New Zealand's short European-recorded history. Deterministic simulation of earthquake-generated local tsunami indicates the variability in potential inundation extent and tsunami arrival time at Napier City, an urban centre located on the east coast of New Zealand. Maximum spatial extent of inundation is used to analyse the exposed population, while temporal evolution of inundation is implemented in GIS modelling of evacuation travel time. Exposure analysis reveals the spatial distribution of the urban population, including sub-populations with varying characteristics influencing their ability to evacuate effectively in the short time-frame available for a local tsunami. These include vulnerable groups such as those who are mobility-impaired, in the care of institutions (I.e. schools, prisons) and transient populations with little knowledge of local hazard or evacuation routes. Observations of evacuation behaviour in previous tsunami and research into awareness of appropriate evacuation behaviour in the Napier community are used to calibrate and validate evacuation simulations. Population distribution also has temporal components (diurnal, weekly and seasonal), which determine location of population concentrations at the time of the earthquake; such effects are assessed through multiple evacuation scenarios for each tsunami scenario. This combined hazard, exposure and evacuation simulation enables i) identification of the hazard zone, ii) identification of the total exposed population and vulnerable sub-populations, and iii) sectors of the exposed population requiring alternative evacuation options. This process facilitates assessment and proposal of alternative evacuation routes or destinations. This may include such innovative measures as construction of vertical evacuation buildings, to reduce the evacuation distance of vulnerable populations and enhance the potential for successful evacuation.

Fraser, Stuart; Wood, Nathan; Johnston, David; Leonard, Graham

2013-04-01

418

Intersecting Global and Local: Spatial Analysis of Ethnicities of Asian Businesses in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metro Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing nature of immigration to the United States and changes in the morphology of American cities challenge traditional theories of ethnic entrepreneurship as a means of success in assimilating into American society. This study, based on data of over 800 businesses in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul area, finds that specific Asian ethnic groups demonstrate distinctive patterns, which often do not

Grace Emiko Guthe

2006-01-01

419

A METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ARMY TRAINING AND TESTING AREA CARRYING CAPACITY (ATTACC) VEHICLE SEVERITY FACTORS AND LOCAL CONDITION FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) program is a methodology for estimating training and testing land carrying capacity. The methodology is used to determine land rehabilitation and maintenance costs associated with land-based training. ATTACC is part of...

420

76 FR 3057 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races Within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the waters of Port Angeles, Dyes Inlet and...Washington. The Port Angeles hydroplane race...race areas on the waters of Dyes Inlet...distribution of power and responsibilities...proposed rule under Department of Homeland Security...races events on the waters of Dyes...

2011-01-19

421

RERANKING OF AREA SOURCES IN LIGHT OF SEASONAL/REGIONAL EMISSION FACTORS AND STAE/LOCAL NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an effort to provide a better understanding of air pollution area sources and their emissions, to prioritize their importance as emitters of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and to identify sources for which better emission estimation methodologies a...

422

Implementation of Phased Array Antenna Technology Providing a Wireless Local Area Network to Enhance Port Security and Maritime Interdiction Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis will focus on field testing to evaluate the feasibility of employing electronically steered (phased array) antennas to provide a ship- to-shore wireless network connection (802.11g) for littoral maritime assets. Specific areas being examined i...

A. P. Rivas

2009-01-01

423

Local formularies  

PubMed Central

The widespread availability of authoritative guidance on prescribing from a wide variety of international and national bodies calls into question the need for additional local formulary advice. This article describes contemporary local formulary management in the United Kingdom and discusses the areas where local decision making remains valuable. Local formularies can fulfil important roles which justify their continued existence, including ensuring local ownership and acceptance of advice, rapid dissemination of information, responsiveness to local circumstances and service design, sensitivity to local pricing arrangements and close professional links with commissioners, pharmacists and prescribers.

Reynolds, D John M; Fajemisin, Olubunmi; Wilds, Sara

2012-01-01

424

ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

1997-10-01

425

How do Local Governments in Mexico City Manage Global Warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are both significant emitters of carbon dioxide and centres of innovations that may contribute to de-carbonizing our societies. More voices claim therefore that local authorities should be included in efforts to mitigate climate change. However, few studies have analysed how local authorities manage carbon and climate in urban areas in middle- and low-income countries. Yet, the institutional settings and

Patricia Romero Lankao

2007-01-01

426

jessies author project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover authors by visiting websites. Then they will write a letter to an author. Choose five different authors and answer the questions below about each author. 1. Write the name of the author. 2. Where and when was this author born? 3. Name five books this author has written. 4. Tell one interesting thing you found on his or her website. 5. Tell one fact about ...

Meikle, Mrs.

2009-11-13

427

Allocation of authority in European health policy.  

PubMed

Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. PMID:22858423

Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

2012-07-20

428

Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

2013-04-01

429

Interactive Video Authoring Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five articles describe the following microcomputer-based interactive video authoring aids: (1) IBM's Learning System/1; (2) Video Nova Authoring System; (3) IMSATT Corporation's expert-based authoring system; (4) the System for Authoring Microtraining (SAM); and (5) Omnicom's Content Expert Interviewer and Interactive Design and Authoring System.…

Taylor, Timothy D.; And Others

1987-01-01

430

Authorize Compound Orders  

Cancer.gov

Home What's New Discovery Development Pathways Grants/Contracts Site Search Data Search NCI View Status / Authorize Orders Authorized representatives: Authorize Compound Orders If you ordered compounds from the DTP and wish to view the status of your

431

Authoring Considerations for Hypertext.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses some of the major aspects of authoring hypertext documents and databases as forms of interactive instruction. Highlights include knowledge structuring; root documents; authoring tools; screen formats; computer graphics; collaboration among authors; cognitive processes; and degree of learner control. (LRW)|

Kearsley, Greg

1988-01-01

432

The Structure of Local Public Finance and the Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in local fiscal conditions generate compensating differentials across local land and labor markets just as the authors have known amenities to do. Thus, the local fiscal climate affects the quality of life across metropolitan areas. The authors present new results showing that intercity fiscal differentials are nearly as important as amenity differentials in determining the quality of life across

Joseph Gyourko; Joseph Tracy

1991-01-01

433

Analysis of particles and carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes in an urban area: Correlation with traffic rate and local micrometeorology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Number particle concentrations and fluxes were measured, synchronously with CO 2 concentrations and fluxes, in an urban area. Measurements were taken with an eddy-correlation station located near the busiest road of the town of Lecce (Italy). Upward fluxes dominate completely over deposition and the area behaved as a source of aerosol and CO 2 with an average particle flux F N = 71,100 #/cm 2 s (median 64,000 #/cm 2 s) and an average CO 2 flux F C = 0.76 mg/m 2 s (median 0.46 mg/m 2 s). Pronounced diurnal and weekly cycles of F N and F C were observed, well correlated with measured traffic rate, T R, indicating that traffic is the main source of CO 2 and particles in the area. Biogenic cycle on CO 2 fluxes and concentrations was also distinguishable, decreasing the correlation between F N and F C. The relationships between particle and CO 2 fluxes with T R, friction velocity and atmospheric stability were analysed. Measured F N/ T R increased when friction velocity increased and, correspondingly, number concentration decreased. Particle fluxes showed a dependence on the atmospheric stability. These dependencies were used to derive an empirical parameterisation of aerosol concentration and fluxes, based on T R and micrometeorological parameters, that could be used to estimate traffic emissions, in real operating conditions, for applications in dispersion and climate modelling. Measured F C/ T R showed a limited correlation with friction velocity and stability, because of the influence of the biogenic cycle, thereby micrometeorological parameters were not used in the parameterisation of F C.

Contini, D.; Donateo, A.; Elefante, C.; Grasso, F. M.

2012-01-01

434

Health equity issues at the local level: Socio-geography, access, and health outcomes in the service area of the H?pital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti  

PubMed Central

Background Although health equity issues at regional, national and international levels are receiving increasing attention, health equity issues at the local level have been virtually overlooked. Here, we describe here a comprehensive equity assessment carried out by the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti (HAS) in 2003. HAS has been operating health and development programs in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti for 50 years. Methods We reviewed all available information arising from a comprehensive evaluation of the programs of HAS carried out in 1999 and 2000. As part of this evaluation, two demographic and health surveys were carried out. We carried out exit interviews with clients receiving primary health care, observations within health facilities, interviews with households related to quality of care, and focus group discussions with community-based health workers. A special study was carried out in 2003 to assess factors determining the use of prenatal care services. Finally, selected findings were obtained from the HAS information system. Results We found markedly reduced access to health services in the peripheral mountainous areas compared to the central plains. The quality of services was more deficient and the coverage of key services was lower in the mountains. Finally, health status, as measured by under-five mortality rates and levels of childhood malnutrition, was also worse in the mountains. Conclusion These findings indicate that local health programs need to give attention to monitoring the health status as well as the quality and coverage of basic services among marginalized groups within the program service area. Health inequities will not be overcome until such monitoring occurs and leaders of health programs ensure that inequities identified are addressed in the local programming of activities. It is quite likely that, within relatively small geographic areas in resource-poor settings around the world, similar, if not even greater, levels of health inequities exist. These inequities need to be measured and addressed in order for health programs to achieve equity and maximum improvement in health status within the population.

Perry, Henry B; King-Schultz, Leslie W; Aftab, Asma S; Bryant, John H

2007-01-01

435

Improved Programming Efficiency through Additional Boron Implantation at the Active Area Edge in 90 nm Localized Charge-Trapping Non-volatile Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the scaling-down of non-volatile memory (NVM) cells continues, the impact of shallow trench isolation (STI) on NVM cells becomes more severe. It has been observed in the 90 nm localized charge-trapping non-volatile memory (NROM™) that the programming efficiency of edge cells adjacent to STI is remarkably lower than that of other cells when channel hot electron injection is applied. Boron segregation is found to be mainly responsible for the low programming efficiency of edge cells. Meanwhile, an additional boron implantation of 10° tilt at the active area edge as a new solution to solve this problem is developed.

Xu, Yue; Yan, Feng; Chen, Dun-Jun; Shi, Yi; Wang, Yong-Gang; Li, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jos-Hua; Lin, Peter; Chang, Jian-Guang

2010-06-01

436

More than jobs and houses: mental health, quality of life and the perceptions of locality in an area undergoing urban regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Urban regeneration initiatives are considered to be one means of making a contribution to improving people’s quality of life\\u000a and mental health. This paper considers the relationship between lay perceptions of locality adversity, mental health and\\u000a social capital in an area undergoing urban regeneration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using qualitative methods as part of a larger multi-method study, perceptions of material, and non-material aspects

Anne Rogers; Peter Huxley; Sherrill Evans; Claire Gately

2008-01-01

437

Role of local circulation in the evolution of severe PM10 episode in Krakow area in winter 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality in the cities in southern Poland is often below the standards defined by the CAFÉ Directive. Most of the poor air quality episodes are due to extremely high PM10 concentrations. Episodes of poor air quality where PM10 concentrations exceeded alert threshold level (200 ?g/m3 in respect to daily average) took place over 20 days during the winter of 2010/2011 in Krakow. Hourly concentrations exceeded 800 ?g/m3 and highest observed concentration was 980 ?g/m3. High PM10 concentrations in Krakow are usually associated with temperature decrease, which indicates more intensive emission from the coal based domestic heating. Also, transport of polluted air masses from the industrial region of Silesia acts as an additional source of PM10. A high resolution GEM/LAM-AQ simulation was undertaken to evaluate severe PM10 episode over Krakow on 15-18 of December 2010. Two-step self-nesting procedure was applied. GEM-AQ simulation on a global scale with the variable grid over Europe provided boundary conditions for a regional run at 5 km resolution. Results from the regional simulation were used to drive a 1 km resolution simulation on a target grid centered over Krakow. The 1 km resolution simulation showed interesting local recirculation pattern that might explain the observed evolution of PM10 episodes. Also, we will present a comparison of the GEM/LAM-AQ model results with the available meteorological and air quality measurements..

Durka, P.; Kaminski, J. W.; Struzewska, J.

2012-04-01

438

The State of Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the results of surveys that examined how academic libraries are employing authority control, the impact of AACR2 and online catalogs on the need for authority control, and the effect of OCLC cataloging on a university library catalog established without authority control for corporate or personal names. (62 references) (Author/CLB)|

Baer, Nadine L.; Johnson, Karl E.

1988-01-01

439

Evidence of a posterior cingulate involvement (Brodmann area 31) in dyslexia: a study based on source localization algorithm of event-related potentials.  

PubMed

The study investigates the differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of P50 component of ERPs in 38 dyslexic children aged 11.47+/-2.12 years compared with their 19 healthy siblings aged 12.21+/-2.25. The dipoles were extracted by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem according to the recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm approach. For improved localization of the main dipole the solutions were optimized using genetic algorithms. The statistical analysis revealed differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of low frequency of P50. Particularly, dyslexics showed main activity being located at posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 31) while controls exhibited main activity being located at retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 30). These results may indicate a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the pre-attentive processing operation of dyslexia beyond of its traditional function in terms of spatial attention and motor intention. PMID:18180091

Stoitsis, John; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Nikita, Konstantina S; Rabavilas, Andreas; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

2007-11-23

440

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2012-10-01

441

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2012-10-01

442

A comparative study of factors influencing decisions on desired family size among married men and women in Bokkos, a rural local government area in Plateau state.  

PubMed

The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population. PMID:24069744

Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N

2013-03-01

443

Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

Stohlgren, T. J.; Chase, T. N.; Pielke, Sr. , R. A.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Baron, J. S.

1998-01-01

444

Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2004-01-01

445

Author! Author! Seymour Simon: Science Writer Extraordinaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This column presents a brief biography of author Seymour Simon, whose topics for children's photo essays include icebergs, gorillas, thunderstorms, optical illusions, snakes, air, water, planets, airplanes, volcanoes, cars, the brain, bridges, bugs, crocodiles, skyscrapers, sharks, and paper airplanes. Though he is best known in the style and an…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

446

Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 ?g/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27?±?0.32 ?g/g), Achi (2.44?±?0.22 ?g/g), and Montecristo (2.20?±?0.20 ?g/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 ?g/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R?=?0.111, P?

Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

2011-04-08

447

Sulfide-Sulfate Mineralizations in Verzino Area (Crotone Basin, Southern Italy): New insights on localized hydrothermal fluid circulations and their relationship with tectonics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this early stage of the work we present a preliminary study of hydrothermal mineralizations found in Verzino locality, Crotone Basin, Southern Appennines, (Calabria, Italy). Both geochemical and petrographic investigations were developed with the aim of understanding the genesis of the sulfide-sulfate associations present in the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" formation, deepening their relationship with fluids circulation. These mineralizations have been recognized only in two "Calanchi" morphostructures - Badlands like morphology developed by the differential erosional pattern of the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" fm. - and constituting the northwestern flank of a little valley evolved in the Miocene sedimentary sequence from "Conglomerato di S.Nicola" fm. to "Evaporiti Superiori" fm. The mineralizations are distributed along isooriented centimetric veins (with mean direction of N120) and in nodules diffused close to the veins. These hydrothermal mineralizations are constituted by an associations of Pyrite spherical nodules (millimetric to centimetric in radius with occurrences of well developed octahedral habit single crystals), sulphate crystals (Gypsum, Jarosite, NatroJarosite), Oxides (Goethite mainly), millimetric veins of Barite and micrometric Ankerite specimens. The data (mineral habits, semiquantitative compositions and x-Ray spectra), obtained by an integration of S.E.M and XRD investigations, permit us, at the current stage of the study, to hypothesize a possible hydrothermal origin (whose temperature range estimate needs further investigations) for the sulfide-sulfate mineral phases. At the moment, we exclude their primary or secondary sedimentary provenance. The comparison of our results with the previous scientific literature focused on hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate systems (Vinogradov and Stephanov, 1964; Kostov, 1968; Plummer 1971; Boles, 1978; Ferrini and Moretti 1998) allows us to propose a possible "thermal window" ranging in the interval 50°C-230°C, characterizing an exalative-ephitermal facies condition for the genesis of the here presented mineralizations. The supposed hydrothermal genesis, together with the localization and oriented distribution of the vein/nodule systems, suggest a strong control on the fluid circulation by the very local fault systems characterizing the tectonic of the investigated area. A very close relationship between faults and fluids in Calabria region has been recently claimed by Italiano et al (2010); the presence of thermal and sulphur-rich ground-waters farther south and west of the study area (Belvedere di Spinello, Verzino, Casabona and Cotronei), strongly supports our inferences. The study area (and in general the Crotone basin) has suffered two destructive earthquakes in 1638 and 1832, with an estimated magnitude of 6.5-6.8. Moreover, recent paleoseismological studies (Galli and Bosi, 2003; Galli et al., 2008) re-evaluated the seismic hazard of the area, by detecting some historical strong earthquakes along previously unknown fault systems. This work, with the reported results on mineral associations developed by important fluid/fault interactions, highlights the role and the timing of both localized stress and pore pressures cycles in an active tectonic setting, and may represent a new interpretation key and a clue reference for a deeper understanding of a not well known italian seismic area characterized, at least, by the presence of three regional active master faults: the Marchesato Fault, the Lakes fault the Cerenzia-San Nicola-Strongoli Line. Geochemical and isotopic analyses on mineralizations, host rock and spring fluids are in progress to better define and understand the local hydrothermal system and to propose a model of time and control of the tectonic on the fluid circulation.

Berardi, Gabriele; Lucci, Federico; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Pizzino, Luca; Cantucci, Barbara; Quattrocchi, Fedora

2010-05-01

448

A systematic review to identify areas of enhancements of pandemic simulation models for operational use at provincial and local levels  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, computer simulation models have supported development of pandemic influenza preparedness policies. However, U.S. policymakers have raised several concerns about the practical use of these models. In this review paper, we examine the extent to which the current literature already addresses these concerns and identify means of enhancing the current models for higher operational use. Methods We surveyed PubMed and other sources for published research literature on simulation models for influenza pandemic preparedness. We identified 23 models published between 1990 and 2010 that consider single-region (e.g., country, province, city) outbreaks and multi-pronged mitigation strategies. We developed a plan for examination of the literature based on the concerns raised by the policymakers. Results While examining the concerns about the adequacy and validity of data, we found that though the epidemiological data supporting the models appears to be adequate, it should be validated through as many updates as possible during an outbreak. Demographical data must improve its interfaces for access, retrieval, and translation into model parameters. Regarding the concern about credibility and validity of modeling assumptions, we found that the models often simplify reality to reduce computational burden. Such simplifications may be permissible if they do not interfere with the performance assessment of the mitigation strategies. We also agreed with the concern that social behavior is inadequately represented in pandemic influenza models. Our review showed that the models consider only a few social-behavioral aspects including contact rates, withdrawal from work or school due to symptoms appearance or to care for sick relatives, and compliance to social distancing, vaccination, and antiviral prophylaxis. The concern about the degree of accessibility of the models is palpable, since we found three models that are currently accessible by the public while other models are seeking public accessibility. Policymakers would prefer models scalable to any population size that can be downloadable and operable in personal computers. But scaling models to larger populations would often require computational needs that cannot be handled with personal computers and laptops. As a limitation, we state that some existing models could not be included in our review due to their limited available documentation discussing the choice of relevant parameter values. Conclusions To adequately address the concerns of the policymakers, we need continuing model enhancements in critical areas including: updating of epidemiological data during a pandemic, smooth handling of large demographical databases, incorporation of a broader spectrum of social-behavioral aspects, updating information for contact patterns, adaptation of recent methodologies for collecting human mobility data, and improvement of computational efficiency and accessibility.

2012-01-01

449

43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

2012-10-01

450

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 ...(a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation AreaâAlaska is found in §...

2012-10-01

451

Localized wedge-shaped defects of retinal nerve fiber layer and disc hemorrhage in glaucoma 1 1 The authors have no proprietary interest in any aspect of this study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate frequencies of localized wedge-shaped defects of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in eyes with and without disc hemorrhage in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This study also aims to define a topographic correlation between disc hemorrhage and localized RNFL defects in POAG.

Kazuhisa Sugiyama; Hideya Uchida; Goji Tomita; Yukihide Sato; Aiko Iwase; Yoshiaki Kitazawa

1999-01-01

452

Molecular typing of the recently expanding subtype B HIV-1 epidemic in Romania: Evidence for local spread among MSMs in Bucharest area???  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 subtype B is predominant in Europe except in some countries from Eastern Europe which are characterized by a high prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Romania is a particular case: the HIV-1 epidemic started with subtype F1 which is still the most prevalent. Previous studies have shown an increasing prevalence of subtype B which is the second most frequent one among the newly diagnosed individuals, followed by subtype C and several CRFs as well as unique recombinant forms (URFs). Our objective was to analyze in detail the characteristics (way of dispersal, association with transmission risk groups) of the subtype B infections in Romania by means of phylogenetic analysis. Among all the individuals sampled during 2003–2010, 71 out of 1127 patients (6.3%) have been identified to be infected with subtype B strains. The most frequent route of infection identified in HIV-1 subtype B patients in Romania was MSM transmission (39.6%), followed by the heterosexual route (35.2%). Many of the patients acquired the infection abroad, mainly in Western European countries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the existence of a local transmission network (monophyletic clade) including 14 patients, mainly MSM living in the Bucharest area. We estimate the origin of the local transmission network that dates at the beginning of the 90s; the introduction of the F1 and C subtypes occurred earlier. The rest of the sequences were intermixed with reference strains sampled across Europe suggesting that single infection were not followed by subsequent dispersal within the local population. Although HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in Romania is recent, there is evidence for local spread among the MSMs, in addition to multiple introductions.

Paraschiv, Simona; Otelea, Dan; Batan, Ionelia; Baicus, Cristian; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

2012-01-01

453

Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France.  

PubMed

Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities. PMID:23563257

Padilla, Cindy M; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M

2013-04-09

454

Jail Resource Issues: What Every Funding Authority Needs to Know.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of the funding authority is critical to the operations of the local jail. Funding authorities, which include county commissions, municipal councils, tribal councils, and other local governing bodies, affect the success of jail operations through-...

G. M. Bowker

2002-01-01

455

And Speaking of Authority...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over breakfast at the American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference, this author was asked, "What is authority? What does one know about the ways in which he/she determines credibility? Whom do you trust?" In this article, the author focuses on these questions in terms of administrators who have control over libraries. She provides a…

Williams, Connie

2010-01-01

456

Behaviour and variability of local and regional oxidant levels (OX = O3 + NO2) measured in a polluted area in central-southern of Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the photochemical air pollution in central-southern of the Iberian Peninsula, analysing the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX = O(3) + NO(2)), measured in a polluted area with the highest concentration of heavy industry in central Spain. A detailed air pollution database was observed from two monitoring stations. The data period used was 2008 and 2009, around 210,000 data, selected for its pollution and meteorological statistics, which are very representative of the region. Data were collected every 15 min, however hourly values were used to analyse the seasonal and daily ozone, NO, NO(2) and OX cycles. The variation of OX concentrations with NO(x) is investigated, for the first time, in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The concentration of OX was calculated using the sum of a NO(x)-independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O(3) background), and a linearly NO(x)-dependent 'local' contribution. Monthly dependence of regional and local OX concentration was observed to determine when the maximum values may be expected. The variation of OX concentrations with levels of NO(x) was also measured, in order to pinpoint the atmospheric sources of OX in the polluted areas. The ratios [NO(2)]/[OX] and [NO(2)]/[NO(x)] vs. [NO(x)] were analysed to find the fraction of OX in the form of NO(2), and the possible source of the local NO(x)-dependent contribution, respectively. The progressive increase of the ratio [NO(2)]/[OX] with [NO(x)] observed shows a greater proportion of OX in the form of NO(2) as the level of NO( x ) increases. The higher measured values in the ratio [NO(2)]/[NO(x)] should not be attributed to NO(x) emissions by vehicles; they could be explained by industrial emission, termolecular reactions or formaldehyde and HONO directly emitted by vehicles exhausts. We also estimate the rate of NO(2) photolysis, J (NO(2)) = 0.18-0.64 min(-1), a key atmospheric reaction that influence O(3) production and then the regional air quality. The first surface plot study of annual variation of the daily mean oxidant levels, obtained for this polluted area may be used to improve the atmospheric photochemical dynamic in this region of the Iberian Peninsula where there are undeniable air quality problems. PMID:22645005

Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

2012-05-29

457

Distribution of polarization-entangled photonpairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: theoretical model and experiment.  

PubMed

We present a theoretical model for the distribution of polarization-entangled photon-pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network. This model allows an entanglement distributor who plays the role of a service provider to determine the photon-pair generation rate giving highest two-photon interference fringe visibility for any pair of users, when given user-specific parameters. Usefulness of this model is illustrated in an example and confirmed in an experiment, where polarization-entangled photon-pairs are distributed over 82 km and 132 km of dispersion-managed optical fiber. Experimentally observed visibilities and entanglement fidelities are in good agreement with theoretically predicted values. PMID:18794986

Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro

2008-09-15

458

Authoring tool evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

1994-09-15

459

Collaborative Courseware Authoring Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

We refined our knowledge classification and indexing approach applied in our previously developed system AIMS (Agent-based Information Management System) by introducing ontology-oriented support for collaborative courseware authoring. In order to provide a basis for formal semantics and reasoning in performing generic authoring tasks, we add ontology-based layers in the courseware authoring architecture. Ontological structuring also opens the way for cooperative

Darina Dicheva; Lora Aroyo; Alexandra Cristea

2002-01-01

460

Involvement of local serotonin-2A but not serotonin-1B receptors in the reinforcing effects of ethanol within the posterior ventral tegmental area of female Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Previous studies indicated that ethanol could be self-infused into the posterior ventral tegmental area (p-VTA) and that activation of local serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors was involved. 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the effects of 5-HT and ethanol on VTA dopamine neurons. Objective The current study used the intracranial self-administration (ICSA) procedure to determine the involvement of local 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors in the self-infusion of ethanol into the p-VTA. Materials and methods Female Wistar rats were implanted unilaterally with a guide cannula aimed at the p-VTA. Seven days after surgery, rats were placed into the two-lever operant conditioning chambers for ICSA tests. The tests consisted of four acquisition sessions with self-infusion of 200 mg% ethanol alone, two or three sessions with co-infusion of the 5-HT1B antagonist GR 55562 (10, 100, or 200 ?M) or the 5-HT2A antagonist R-96544 (10, 100, or 200 ?M) with 200 mg% ethanol, and one final session with 200 mg% ethanol alone. Results During the acquisition sessions, all rats readily self-infused ethanol and discriminated the active from inactive lever. Co-infusion of GR 55562, at all three doses, had no effect on the self-infusion of ethanol. In contrast, co-infusion of R-96544, at the two higher doses, attenuated responding on the active lever for ethanol infusion (p<0.05). Conclusion The results suggest that the reinforcing effects of ethanol within the p-VTA are modulated, at least in part, by activation of local 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT1B, receptors.

Ding, Zheng-Ming; Toalston, Jamie E.; Oster, Scott M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

2010-01-01

461

Local sensitivity to stimulus orientation and spatial frequency within the receptive fields of neurons in visual area 2 of macaque monkeys  

PubMed Central

We used dynamic dense noise stimuli and local spectral reverse correlation methods to reveal the local sensitivities of neurons in visual area 2 (V2) of macaque monkeys to orientation and spatial frequency within their receptive fields. This minimized the potentially confounding assumptions that are inherent in stimulus selections. The majority of neurons exhibited a relatively high degree of homogeneity for the preferred orientations and spatial frequencies in the spatial matrix of facilitatory subfields. However, about 20% of all neurons showed maximum orientation differences between neighboring subfields that were greater than 25 deg. The neurons preferring horizontal or vertical orientations showed less inhomogeneity in space than the neurons preferring oblique orientations. Over 50% of all units also exhibited suppressive profiles, and those were more heterogeneous than facilitatory profiles. The preferred orientation and spatial frequency of suppressive profiles differed substantially from those of facilitatory profiles, and the neurons with suppressive subfields had greater orientation selectivity than those without suppressive subfields. The peak suppression occurred with longer delays than the peak facilitation. These results suggest that the receptive field profiles of the majority of V2 neurons reflect the orderly convergence of V1 inputs over space, but that a subset of V2 neurons exhibit more complex response profiles having both suppressive and facilitatory subfields. These V2 neurons with heterogeneous subfield profiles could play an important role in the initial processing of complex stimulus features.

Tao, X.; Zhang, B.; Smith, E. L.; Nishimoto, S.; Ohzawa, I.

2012-01-01

462

Local-circuit neurones in the medial prefrontal cortex (areas 25, 32 and 24b) in the rat: morphology and quantitative distribution.  

PubMed

This paper is a light microscopical study describing the detailed morphology and quantitative distribution of local circuit neurones in areas 25, 32, and 24b of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the rat. Cortical interneurones were identified immunocytochemically by their expression of calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV), and calbindin D-28k (CB) immunoreactivity. Neurones immunoreactive for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were also investigated, as were interneurones containing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase activity. Several distinct classes of CR+, PV+, and CB+ neurones were identified; the most frequent were: bipolar/bitufted CR+ cells in upper layer 3; multipolar PV+ neurones in layers 3 and 5; and bitufted/multipolar CB+ neurones in lower layer 3. CB+ neurones resembling Martinotti and neurogliaform cells were also present in layers 5/6. The morphologies and depth distributions of each cell type were consistent across the three areas of mPFC studied. Seven classes of diaphorase-reactive mPFC neurone are described; these cells were composed about 0.8% of the total neurone population and had a peak distribution located in mid- to lower layer 5 in each area. In areas 32 and 25, three defined bands of diffuse NADPH diaphorase staining were located in layer 2 and in upper and deep layer 5. Diaphorase reactivity was very infrequently colocalised with either CR, PV, or CB immunoreactivities. The numerical densities of neurones (N(V), number of cells per mm3) in each layer were calculated stereologically. The mean total neuronal N(V) estimate for areas 25, 32, and 24b was 51,603 +/- 3,324 (mean +/- S.D.; n = 8). Significant interareal differences were detected. From cortical thickness data and neuronal N(V) estimates, the absolute number of neurones under 1 mm2 of cortical surface (N(C)) have been derived. The mean N(C) value for areas 25, 32, and 24b was 57,328 +/- 7,505 neurones. In immunolabelled Nissl-stained sections, CR+ neurones constituted an overall 4.0%, PV+ cells 5.6%, and CB+ 3.4% of the total neurone populations in mPFC. GABA+ cells represented a mean of 16.2% (14.8-17.2%) of neurones in areas 25, 32 and 24b. The absolute numbers of CR+, PV+, CB+, and GABA+ neurones within individual layers in a column of cortex under 1 mm2 of cortical surface (N(L)) have also been derived, with significant interareal differences in N(L) values being detected. The data provide the structural basis for a qualitative and quantitative definition of local cortical circuits in the rat mPFC. PMID:9007187

Gabbott, P L; Dickie, B G; Vaid, R R; Headlam, A J; Bacon, S J

1997-01-27

463

Parental authority questionnaire.  

PubMed

A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

Buri, J R

1991-08-01

464

36 CFR 328.7 - Other authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nothing in the preceding provisions bestows authority to deviate from rules and regulations or prescribed standards of the State Aeronautical Agency, Federal Aviation Administration, Coast Guard, or other appropriate Federal, state, or local...

2011-07-01

465

36 CFR 328.7 - Other authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nothing in the preceding provisions bestows authority to deviate from rules and regulations or prescribed standards of the State Aeronautical Agency, Federal Aviation Administration, Coast Guard, or other appropriate Federal, state, or local...

2012-07-01

466

Ultrastructural Localization of High-Affinity Choline Transporter in the Rat Anteroventral Thalamus and Ventral Tegmental Area: Differences in Axon Morphology and Transporter Distribution  

PubMed Central

The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is a protein integral to the function of cholinergic neurons in the CNS. We examined the ultrastructural distribution of CHT in axonal arborizations of the mesopontine tegmental cholinergic neurons, a cell group in which CHT expression has yet to be characterized at the electron microscopic level. Using silver-enhanced immunogold detection, we compared the morphological characteristics of CHT-immunoreactive axon varicosities specifically within the anteroventral thalamus (AVN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We found that CHT-immunoreactive axon varicosities in the AVN displayed a smaller cross-sectional area and a lower frequency of synapse formation and dense-cored vesicle content than CHT-labeled profiles in the VTA. We further examined the subcellular distribution of CHT and observed that immunoreactivity for this protein was predominantly localized to synaptic vesicles and minimally to the plasma membrane of axons in both regions. This pattern is consistent with the subcellular distribution of CHT displayed in other cholinergic systems. Axons in the AVN showed significantly higher levels of CHT immunoreactivity than those in the VTA and correspondingly displayed a higher level of membrane CHT labeling. These novel findings have important implications for elucidating regional differences in cholinergic signaling within the thalamic and brainstem targets of the mesopontine cholinergic system.

Holmstrand, Ericka C.; Asafu-Adjei, Josephine; Sampson, Allan R.; Blakely, Randy D.; Sesack, Susan R.

2011-01-01

467

The Voice of Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

Wetterlund, Kris

2012-01-01

468

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

469

Informal Authority in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assert that decision rights in organizations are not contractible: the boss can always overturn a subordinate's decision, so formal authority resides only at the top. Although decision rights cannot be formally delegated, they might be informally delegated through self-enforcing relational contracts. We examine the feasibility of informal authority in two informational environments. We show that different information structures produce

George Baker; Robert Gibbons; Kevin J Murphy

1999-01-01

470

Authoring of Adaptive Hypermedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes the important topic of Authoring of Adaptive Hypermedia that is central to this Special Issue especially from the point of view of education, as well as the papers selected and the reason for this selection. The papers are based on selected, invited papers of the second Workshop on Authoring of Adaptive and Adaptable Educational Hypermedia at

Alexandra Cristea

2005-01-01

471

Strenghening Safeguards Authorities and Institutions  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system has changed in major ways from the establishment of the IAEA in 1957 until the present. Changes include strengthening the legal framework of safeguards; improvements in concepts and approaches for safeguards implementation; and significant improvements in the technical tools available to inspectors. In this paper, we explore three broad areas related to strengthening safeguards authorities and institutions: integrated safeguards and State-Level Approaches; special inspections; and NPT withdrawal and the continuation of safeguards.

Goodman,M.; Lockwood, d.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Tape, J.W.

2008-06-06

472

Authoring Newspaper Science Articles: A Rewarding Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.|

Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

2009-01-01

473

Charter School Authorizers and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we analyze the relationship between charter school authorizers and student achievement. We perform this analysis using a 10-year panel dataset from Minnesota, a state that permits four distinct types of authorizers--local school boards, postsecondary institutions, nonprofit organizations, and the Minnesota Department of Education.…

Carlson, Deven; Lavery, Lesley; Witte, John F.

2012-01-01

474

TV Station Authorization Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A list of cable television stations authorized to broadcast television station programs identified by call letters and location is given. This includes the community name, the cable television operator's legal name, and the number of subscribers for each ...

1979-01-01

475

Corporate Author Headings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This list of corporate author headings represents a coordinated effort of Government agencies to facilitate the exchange of scientific and technical cataloging information. Of particular value are the extensive cross references which indicate variant name...

1970-01-01

476

Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, Science to the Rescue (Markle 1

Porter, Diana

2009-10-01

477

Authoring systems reassessed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of authoring system technology was done to update a previous study done in 1985. While the earlier study focused on\\u000a software selection methods, the current one emphasizes trends in authoring tool characteristics, vendor approaches to the\\u000a market-place, and evaluation methods. It also raises questions about some of the often tacit assumptions underlying the technology's\\u000a development and use.

Craig Locatis; Eldon Ullmer; Victor Carr; Richard Banvard; Quang Le; Raulie Lo; Matthew Williamson

1992-01-01

478

Commentary: Obscured Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the case discussion of Heineken and the promotion girls in Cambodia we address the question to what extent Heineken is\\u000a responsible for the well-being of promotion girls in Cambodia. Heineken’s authority in Cambodia is obscured: at best it has\\u000a a shared authority, in this case with Heineken’s Asian partners, the Cambodian government and the establishment owners. In\\u000a examining Heineken’s

Raoul Wirtz; Edgar Karssing; Gemma Crijns

2011-01-01

479

Authors and publication practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although authors are usually considered to be the main perpetrators of research and publication misconduct, any person involved\\u000a in the process has the potential to offend. Editors may breach ethical standards particularly with respect to conflicts of\\u000a interest. In the same way that authors are now required to declare competing interests, notably commercial affiliations, financial\\u000a interests and personal connections, so

Michael J. G. Farthing

2006-01-01

480

The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

Background Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. Methods In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In