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1

Levels of mortality, education, and social conditions in the 107 local education authority areas of England  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between education, social conditions, and mortality. DESIGN: An ecological study relating several measures of mortality to local rates of educational attainment at age 15\\/16 years and scores on the Department of the Environment's index of local conditions. SETTING: England and its 107 local education authority areas in 1991. MAIN RESULTS: Educational attainment was closely

J N Morris; D B Blane; I R White

1996-01-01

2

Climate change performance measurement, control and accountability in English local authority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to consider how climate change performance is measured and accounted for within the performance framework for local authority areas in England adopted in 2008. It critically evaluates the design of two mitigation and one adaptation indicators that are most relevant to climate change. Further, the potential for these performance indicators to contribute to climate change

Stuart Cooper; Graham Pearce

2011-01-01

3

Community Work and Local Authority Decision Making: Potential and Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

British local authority and decision making procedures are described for community developers. Included are potential ways of influencing the authority system, and problems and areas of weakness that may be encountered in dealing with the system. (ABM)

Corina, Lewis

1976-01-01

4

Living Authors, Living Stories: Integrating Local Authors into Our Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Keeping literature classrooms vibrant, energized, and current can require supreme pedagogical effort, especially in light of students' sometimes pointed disinterest in traditional and/or canonical texts. Integrating local authors into a standard curriculum can be an effective strategy for invigorating students' interest in literature and helping…

Newman, Beatrice Mendez

2009-01-01

5

Health underachievement and overachievement in English local authorities  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify English local authorities that “overachieve” and “underachieve” in health terms, given their level of deprivation, sociodemographic context, and region. Design Cross sectional study using data from the 1991 UK census and mortality data from 2000–2. Setting England. Participants 354 local authorities (total population 49?558?000). Main outcome measures Life expectancy. Residual life expectancy after regression analysis. Results In general, the more materially deprived the population of a local authority was in 1991, the lower its life expectancy a decade later, with men being more sensitive to the effects of deprivation than women. Many local authorities, however, did not follow this general trend, and these shared common characteristics. Mining, Manufacturing and Industry, and Urban Fringe authorities collectively had lower life expectancies than predicted by their level of deprivation, as did authorities located in the north west. Outer London and Education Centres and Inner London authorities had much higher life expectancies than predicted, as did authorities located in the east, south east, and south west. Given their level of deprivation, sociodemographic context, and region, 11 local authorities significantly overachieved for male life expectancy and 10 underachieved, while 12 overachieved for female life expectancy and three underachieved. Conclusions Life expectancy in English local authorities is strongly associated not only with material deprivation, but with the local sociodemographic context and the region where the authority is located. Some authorities defy their contexts, however, and overachieve in health terms, while others, including some in affluent areas, underachieve.

Doran, Tim; Drever, Frances; Whitehead, Margaret

2006-01-01

6

Local Area Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

1991-01-01

7

Responding to Rio: a local authority approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern for sustainable development which has been accentuated by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), is now being reflected at national and local government levels. In particular, Agenda 21, which was endorsed at the conference, has led to the implementation of a Local Agenda 21 programme. In Britain, extensive guidance and support on the interpretation of

Janice Morphet; Tony Hams

1994-01-01

8

Local Authorities and the School System: The New Authority-Wide Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coalition government policies have put into question the role of local authorities in a "self-improving school system". In a number of local authorities new authority-wide partnership bodies are being set up involving all local schools, including academies, and controlled by headteachers. This article begins with an analysis of the new…

Hatcher, Richard

2014-01-01

9

25 CFR 175.4 - Authority of area director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 175.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.4 Authority of area director. The Area Director may delegate authority under...

2011-04-01

10

Transcontinental local area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has facilities at 17 different locations scattered throughout the USA. These vary in size from the major laboratories occupied by research and support staff to the ten individual antennas of the Very Long Baseline Array. As is typical in astronomy, many sites are in remote locations, which are not well served with modern communication capabilities. Until 1996, the NRAO's internal network was achieved via the Internet; most sites simply had a local port to the Internet and the traffic was routed tortuously to the other locations. The burgeoning demand for Internet bandwidth was (and still is) growing faster than the services could be enhanced, and this led to intolerably slow response times and unacceptably low achieved data rates. To solve this problem, the NRAO acquired a frame relay intranet from AT&T to connect ten of its locations. The operating cost is approximately the same as the multiple Internet connections, but with vastly improved throughput and reliability. Recently, the access to the four major sites has been upgraded to support video conferencing.

Hunt, Gareth

2000-06-01

11

Golden Years? Further Education Colleges under Local Authority Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen years ago further education (FE) colleges in England were removed from local education authority (LEA) control and re-formed as "FE corporations". Now, it is proposed that, from 2010, local authorities will become re-involved in the running of FE. Given such a prospect, this article takes the opportunity to look back at colleges under LEA…

Simmons, Robin

2008-01-01

12

Local Authority Approaches to the School Admissions Process. LG Group Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the challenges, barriers and facilitating factors connected to the various school admissions approaches used by local authorities? This report gathers the views of local authority admissions officers on the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, as well as the issues and challenges they face in this important area. It covers:…

Rudd, Peter; Gardiner, Clare; Marson-Smith, Helen

2010-01-01

13

Local Area Networks: Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

Dessy, Raymond E.

1982-01-01

14

Command Area Development Authorities for Improved Water Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Command Area Development Authorities (CADA's) are an administrative mechanism created by the Government of India at the State level to improve the lagging performance of irrigation projects by placing all irrigation-related departments under a single admi...

T. K. Jayaraman M. K. Lowdermilk W. Clyma

1982-01-01

15

Sustainable economic development and environmental auditing: a local authority perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper appraises the concept of environmental auditing in respect of the principles of sustainable economic development, and the options available to local authorities for positive action. Humberside County Council's various environmental initiatives are reviewed as a case study. Particular attention is given to progress with implementation, and the integration of economic development and environmental issues.

L. Richards; I. Biddick

1994-01-01

16

DEVELOPING LOCAL AGENDA 21: A CASE STUDY OF FIVE LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN THE UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become increasingly recognized that effective responses to the environmental challenge demand action by all sections of the community and that much of this action must occur at the local level and involve local government. Following the Earth Summit in Rio (1992), local authorities have become the focus of an attempt to create strategies for 'sustainable development' under the

D. Patton; I. Worthington

1996-01-01

17

Local Area Networks and the Learning Lab of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers educational applications of local area computer networks and discusses industry standards for design established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). A futuristic view of a learning laboratory using a local area network is presented. (Author/LRW)

Ebersole, Dennis C.

1987-01-01

18

Local Authority\\/AcademicCollaboration and Local Agenda 21 Policy Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at a recent example of local authority\\/academiccollaboration over a protracted period of time from the different perspectives of those people who were directly involved in the process as key role players. The arena within which this collaboration took place (Local Agenda 21 policy-making in Manchester) has some particular characteristics of its own which influenced this process, and

Ted Kitchen; David Whitney; Stephen Littlewood

1997-01-01

19

A Preliminary Report on San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority (SDA-ITVA) produces educational television programs that are related to the local instructional needs of 24 school districts and 10 private schools in San Diego County. The Farr-Quimby Act and assessments on the schools pay the costs of the television programs. A number of programs (28)…

San Diego Area Instructional Television Authority, CA.

20

The local business tax in Germany from the local authority point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of criticisms apply to the present local business tax in Germany: it is incompatible with a rational tax system; the definition of the tax base is inequitable; it is unstable through the economic cycle; it is very unequal between areas; it leaves local finance vulnerable to economic declines; it is not perceptible; and it has been subject

G H Milbradt

1987-01-01

21

Local area networks in radioactivity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the operation of a Local Area Network at Nuclear Chemistry Laboratory involved in surveillance of environmental radioactivity. Detailed consideration is given separately to computer and network hardware, radiation instrument interfacing, software, as well as operations. The application of a Local Area Network offers considerable improvements in the laboratory preformance, quality assurance of radioactivity analyses, and data reporting.

T. M. Semkow; C. D. Schwenker; M. E. Kitto; J. C. Daly

1994-01-01

22

Query optimization on local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local area networks are becoming widely used as the database communication framework for sophisticated information systems. Databases can be distributed among stations on a network to achieve the advantages of performance, reliability, availability, and modularity. Efficient distributed query optimization algorithms are presented here for two types of local area networks: address ring networks and broadcast networks. Optimal algorithms are designed

Alan R. Hevner; O. Qi Wu; S. Bing Yao

1985-01-01

23

Solid waste treatment opportunities in the Palestinian authority areas.  

PubMed

Municipal services in the Palestinian Authority (PA) areas, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS), are facing serious difficulties that have been intensified following the outbreak of the Palestinian uprising in late September 2000. The solid waste management services, being the most essential services provided by the municipalities and village councils, are mostly affected by the ongoing harsh situation and hence proper solutions that take into account the actual amount of generated municipal solid waste and its composition is a pre-requisite for planning proper treatment. Hence, a study was carried out to identify the actual status of solid waste in eight West Bank districts. A social survey was also conducted to collect information concerning the level of public awareness among communities surveyed to the perception of solid waste recycling and reuse. The results of the survey conducted in 2001-2002 were later reviewed during July-October 2008 to assess if the trend of domestic solid waste generation had changed. Based on the survey and post-assessment, it is found that political and economic conditions have both significantly impacted the trend of generated municipal solid waste and since no improvements in either condition are forthcoming, it is concluded that survey results could be used in a planning study. A possible handling of the generated wastes may entail transferring the recyclable waste to Israeli recycling industries, and in constructing three composting plants in different accessible locations in the West Bank. PMID:19121576

Khatib, Imad; Al-Khateeb, Nader

2009-05-01

24

Agenda 21, local authorities and tourism in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations World Congress on the Environment and Development witnessed the launch of Agenda 21, accepted by over 150 States and local governments throughout the globe. Such support is essential to the realization of this Agenda and nowhere more so than at the local level. This is explicitly recognized in the Agenda by Chapter 28 which outlines the role

David Leslie; George Hughes

1997-01-01

25

Authors  

Cancer.gov

Authors Laura Boyle, MPH, CHES Consultant, National Cancer Institute Megan Homer, MA Emerging Leader, Department of Health and Human Services Acknowledgements Lenora Johnson, MPH, National Cancer Institute; Jon Kerner, PhD, National Cancer Institute;

26

Optical fiber multichannel local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The throughput and average delay for a fiber-optic multichannel local area network (LAN) is derived. This system, which can be seen as an extension of the classical single-channel local area networks, provides fault tolerance and reliability as well as better capacity and throughput characteristics than single-channel networks. The average system delay is smaller only at high load and larger at

P. Camarda; B. Castagnolo; G. Leaci

1988-01-01

27

Determinants of voluntary Internet financial reporting by local government authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reform of public sector (local and central government) financial reporting in New Zealand in the early 1990s has aligned such reporting with reporting practices in the private sector (business enterprises). Literature examining the behaviour of managers in the public (government) sector suggests that agency relationships in the sector motivate such managers to provide information to enable the monitoring of

Fawzi Laswad; Richard Fisher; Peter Oyelere

2005-01-01

28

Local Authors in the Classroom: Bringing Readers and Writers Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students seem to believe that novels appear whole cloth; the writer just types away, channeling the muse in the attic. Poetry is pure inspiration--one has the gift or one does not. Students need to know that writing is hard work, and that the blank page stares down every good writer, even authors whose books have won critical acclaim and graced…

Moynihan, Karen E.

2009-01-01

29

Biomass analyses for four areas in the Tennessee Valley Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses for four biomass procurement areas in the Tennessee Valley are presented. The Marlow and Perryville, Tennessee, sites can provide 38,000 dry tons of industrial residue annually. Mulberry Creek, Alabama, and Watts Bar, Tennessee, can annually provide 330,000 dry tons of industrial residue and\\/or forest biomass. Methanol can be produced at the Perryville and Marlow sites and ethanol at Mulberry

1985-01-01

30

An RS232-C local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a local area network (LAN) used to link PCs to other serial devices using an RS-232-C interface. The hardware and software elements of the network controller are explained in terms of an actual implementation. The LAN design reflects a strategy of providing a transparent switching capability using only RS-232-C data transmission. The implementation involved the

S. Leonard; T. Cochran

1989-01-01

31

Interconnection of broadband local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interconnection of multiple broadband local area networks to form an integrated packet transport system presents several challenges. To take full advantage of broadband systems, assignment of nodes to channels must be dynamic, leading to the use of a flat address space. Combined with the desire to avoid reliance on a central server or complex routing in packet forwarders, this addressing

C. Sunshine; D. Kaufman; G. Ennis; K. Biba

1983-01-01

32

TORMLAN - A Multichannel Local Area Network Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multichannel local area network protocol is presented. It uses a token ring with partial register insertion as a control channel for a number of data channels. In addition to the control functions, the control channel is also used for transmission of data. The protocols allows performance comparable to an equivalent multiple-ring network. Its main advantage is simpler hardware requirements.

Lap-kong Chan; Zvonko G. Vranesic

1990-01-01

33

From environment to sustainability: Surveys and analysis of local agenda 21 process development in UK local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agenda 21 has come to be the most significant outcome of the Rio Summit for local government in the UK and Local Agenda 21 is emerging as the main driver for the development of local policies and programmes for sustainable development. In general, the work is being undertaken by those charged with the development of environmental policy in local authorities.

Ben Tuxworth

1996-01-01

34

Local authorities and the education of young people with sickle cell disorders in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local education authorities, however, have been superseded by centralised curricula on

S. M. Dyson; H. Abuateya; K. Atkin; L. A. Culley; S. E. Dyson; D. T. Rowley

2008-01-01

35

76 FR 5148 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority--Rate Order No. WAPA-155 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Transmission and Ancillary Services Formula...

2011-01-28

36

Participatory practice in the context of Local Agenda 21: a case study evaluation of experience in three English local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the different ways in which the participatory principles of Agenda 21 are being put into practice in the UK, by reference to research in three 'progressive' localities: Kirklees, Leicester and Mendip. The investigation includes an examination of the reasons why a participatory approach is being adopted, how the local authorities are engaging the public in Local Agenda

Andrew Wild; Robert Marshall

1999-01-01

37

What's in a Vision? Introducing an Organisational Learning Strategy in a Local Authority's Education Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is frequently asserted that schools and local authorities should become "learning organisations" as a pre-condition for school improvement, but there is very little evidence about the specific processes and activities involved in such a transformation. This paper analyses the initial stages of the implementation by a Scottish local authority

Reeves, Jenny; Boreham, Nick

2006-01-01

38

The Welcome Workbook: A Self Review Framework for Expanding Inclusive Provision in Your Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Welcome Workbook is a practical resource for people working in local authorities who want to see an increase in the number of children fulfilling their right to mainstream education. By providing a clear self-review framework, The Welcome Workbook enables local authorities to audit their existing processes and map a route towards more…

Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, 2009

2009-01-01

39

Local Authorities' Experiences of Improving Parental Confidence in the Special Educational Needs Process. LGA Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can we help parents to understand the special educational needs (SEN) process? What sort of information and support do they need? This report details the results of research with SEN officers (or their equivalent) in 26 local authorities, covering: (1) the referral process; (2) early identification and intervention; (3) local authority and…

White, Richard; Macleod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; Atkinson, Mary

2010-01-01

40

Local Authorities and the Education of Young People with Sickle Cell Disorders in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local

Dyson, S. M.; Abuateya, H.; Atkin, K.; Culley, L. A.; Dyson, S. E.; Rowley, D. T.

2008-01-01

41

Local Government Reform Programs and Human Resource Capacity Building in Africa: Evidence from Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Local Government Reform Program (LGRP) in Tanzania was introduced to improve the access and quality of services provided by Local Government Authorities (LGAs). The main aim of the study is to clarify the practice and impact of Human Resource Capacity Building with reference to the LGRP in Tanzania. The study adopted a three-dimensional framework involving Human Resource Development (HRD),

William Pallangyo; Christopher J. Rees

2010-01-01

42

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project  

SciTech Connect

Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.)

1991-12-01

43

Fault-Tolerant Local-Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local-area network (LAN) for computers prevents single-point failure from interrupting communication between nodes of network. Includes two complete cables, LAN 1 and LAN 2. Microprocessor-based slave switches link cables to network-node devices as work stations, print servers, and file servers. Slave switches respond to commands from master switch, connecting nodes to two cable networks or disconnecting them so they are completely isolated. System monitor and control computer (SMC) acts as gateway, allowing nodes on either cable to communicate with each other and ensuring that LAN 1 and LAN 2 are fully used when functioning properly. Network monitors and controls itself, automatically routes traffic for efficient use of resources, and isolates and corrects its own faults, with potential dramatic reduction in time out of service.

Morales, Sergio; Friedman, Gary L.

1988-01-01

44

Can Local Education Authorities Make a Difference? The Perceptions of Users and Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a study examining 17 (British) local education authorities' changing role and effectiveness, drawing on interview and survey data. Explores growing diversity among authorities, degree of effectiveness, contributions to quality and school improvement, and educational leadership. LEA Governors rated their LEA's performance more highly…

Riley, Kathryn; Docking, Jim; Rowles, David

1999-01-01

45

Special School Reorganization by a Local Unitary Authority: Some Lessons Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the process and outcomes of special school reorganization in one local authority with a particular emphasis upon the implications for those concerned with the education of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). The authors believe that reporting this experience provides pointers for others…

Ashdown, Rob; Darlington, Chris

2007-01-01

46

Public procurement and regional development: The impact of local authority expenditure on local economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial patterns of public expenditure and government procurement have a significant impact on economic and social development in localities and regions across the EU. In the UK, there has been particular attention given to variations in government spending across regions and the effects of competitive tendering processes and EU State Aid rules on regional economies (Bennet 2006; Pinch and Patterson,

Frank Peck; Ignazio Cabras

2008-01-01

47

Acid rain legislation and local areas  

SciTech Connect

This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control.

Jones, G.H.B.

1992-01-01

48

76 FR 1429 - Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-154  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority--Rate Order No. WAPA-154 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice...Western's proposal with DOE, I hereby approve Rate Order No. WAPA-154 which temporarily extends the existing LAP Transmission and...

2011-01-10

49

Evaluation of wireless Local Area Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is an in-depth evaluation of the current wireless Local Area Network (LAN) technologies. Wireless LAN's consist of three technologies: they are infrared light, microwave, and spread spectrum. When the first wireless LAN's were introduced, they were unfavorably labeled slow, expensive, and unreliable. The wireless LAN's of today are competitively priced, more secure, easier to install, and provide equal to or greater than the data throughput of unshielded twisted pair cable. Wireless LAN's are best suited for organizations that move office staff frequently, buildings that have historical significance, or buildings that have asbestos. Additionally, an organization may realize a cost savings of between $300 to $1,200 each time a node is moved. Current wireless LAN technologies have a positive effect on LAN standards being developed by the Defense Information System Agency (DISA). DoD as a whole is beginning to focus on wireless LAN's and mobile communications. If system managers want to remain successful, they need to stay abreast of this technology.

McBee, Charles L.

1993-09-01

50

76 FR 47228 - Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office Administrators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office...Assistant Secretary for the Office of Native American Programs to perform program administration...Assistant Secretary for the Office of Native American Programs to redelegate such...

2011-08-04

51

Safety Review of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Metrorail Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent series of accidents and incidents at the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) have raised concerns about the Authority's commitment to safety as its top priority. In January 1996, a train operator was killed at an end-of-the lin...

E. Gilbert S. Gilbert E. A. Boni D. R. Newman

1997-01-01

52

Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling Submission Patterns, Topic Areas, and Authors: 1999-2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 2001, an article was published in the "Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling" ("JAOC") to examine the journal's submission patterns, topic areas, and authors from 1979 through 1998. The current authors reviewed articles published in "JAOC" between 1999 and 2004 to provide an updated analysis of the types of information published…

Juhnke, Gerald A.; Bordeau, Wendy Charkow; Evanoff, James C.

2005-01-01

53

Collaborative Good Practice between Local Authorities and the Further Education Sector. LGA Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2010 planning and funding responsibilities for 16-19 year olds will be transferred from the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) back to the local authorities (LAs). LAs will have responsibility for commissioning and funding all education and training for young people up to the age of 19, making them the strategic lead for all children's services…

McCrone, Tami; Southcott, Clare; Evans, Kelly

2009-01-01

54

Local Education Authorities in England: Making a Difference through Their Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper draws on findings from three case studies on the changing role of Local Education Authorities (LEAs) in England and explores the degree of LEA effectiveness, their contribution to school improvement, and the nature of their leadership. The context for the study is one in which, over the years, the powers and responsibilities of LEAs have…

Riley, Kathryn; Docking, Jim; Rowles, David

55

Cleaner production in SMEs through a partnership with (local) authorities: successes from the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to total industrial production and their dominance in some sectors indicate that their contribution to total industrial environmental impact is considerable. This paper therefore focuses on pollution prevention by SMEs and on the ways in which local authorities can become a strategic partner in this process. The paper consists of a theoretical

Marieke Gombault; Stephan Versteege

1999-01-01

56

Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

57

Multiagency Protocols in Intellectual Disabilities Transition Partnerships: A Survey of Local Authorities in Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the findings of a study of transition protocols (for adolescents leaving school and entering the general marketplace) in place for intellectual disability partnerships in 22 local authorities in Wales. The study consisted of a survey of existing protocols and a documentary analysis of the content of the obtained protocols. The…

Kaehne, Axel

2010-01-01

58

New Relationship with Schools: Evaluation of Trial Local Authorities and Schools. RR689  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary outlines the key findings from a national evaluation of the first-year trials of the New Relationship with Schools (NRwS) carried out by a team at the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER). The trials took place in the period September 2004 to July 2005 and involved 93 schools in eight local educational authorities

Halsey, Karen; Judkins, Michelle; Atkinson, Mary; Rudd, Peter

2005-01-01

59

Staff Looking after Children in Local Authority Residential Units: The Interface with Child Mental Health Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-two members of staff working in children's residential units in a local authority were surveyed to elicit their experiences and evaluations of working with child mental health professionals. While the majority of staff held few or no formal educational qualifications, they emerged as an experienced group, with a level of confidence in…

Hatfield, B.; And Others

1996-01-01

60

Basic Mars Navigation System For Local Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: This project has been first set up as a basic solution in navigation during EVA (extra-vehicular activities) in the Mars Society Desert Research Station in the desert of Utah. The main idea is to keep the system as simple as possible so that it can be easily adaptable and portable. The purpose of such a device is to tell the astronauts in EVA where they roughly are and then letting them reaching different points in avoiding any risky way. Thus the precision needed has not to be really high: even if it is about 50m, every astronaut can then look on a map and be able to design a way to another point. This navigation system will improve the safety of the EVA as it is an added reliable orientating tool. Concept: To look at a simple way to localize oneself, one should have a look at what has been done by mankind on Earth. Today, everyone can think of the GPS because it's simple and very reliable. However the infrastructure for such a system is huge and will not be for sure available during the first missions. We can think of course of a basic GPS using the satellites being in orbit but this approach is not yet as simple as we would like. If we want to keep the sky in sight, we can use the stars and the moons of Mars. Yet this would be a good solution and we can even have a star tracker that would give a good position according to the time of the picture. This solution has to be kept in mind but a star tracker is quite big for an astronaut without any rover nearby and using the sky may not be as precise as one should expect. Another useful tool is the compass. It has been used for centuries by sailors but on Mars, without a good magnetic field for this purpose. But sailors also use lighthouses and some placemarks on the land to localize themselves. This is done with a compass, measuring the angle between a placemark and the magnetic North. With two angles, we can then have the position of the boat. The idea here is the same: measuring the angles between different placemarks so that we can compute the position. But which placemarks? We have to think about something that can be installed on Mars and is light enough to be brought there. Balloons are really light, and in order to place them, we need a gas as helium (or hydrogen) and also some rope. Hydrogen is likely to be produced in situ and rope will be useful for astronauts. So we started on a concept with some balloons around the base, with different colors or patterns. The crew in EVA can thus know where the base is every time they are in sight of a balloon and with at least three balloons; they can compute their position according to the base. Procedure of the test: During EVA, the astronauts will measure the angle between the different balloons. The balloons are high in the sky so they can be seen far from their location. This is particularly important on Mars where the horizon is nearer than on Earth. The balloons have different colors so they can be identified and we can even think of adding an autonomous colored light under so they can be observed during the night. With good quality balloons, we can keep them in the sky for a few days without maintenance. Angle measurement is done thanks to a camera. A numeric camera can have a precision of less than 0.01°/pixel, which is enough for our application. The distance between the different balloons can easily be seen in a free picture management software and a Matlab tool is under development for this. An algorithm is then run and it gives the positions that fit with the observations on a map. Simulation gave areas 20m width, which is enough for the astronaut who has a map. The exact precision will be investigated in situ, at the MDRS. For this first test bench, computations will be manually done on a computer in order to validate the concept without huge development. Afterwards, one can imagine an implementation on a PDA brought by the astronauts. This PDA would have its own camera so the process can be fully automatic. Such a system can also implement other navigation system as a Martian GPS or a radio locali

Petitfils, E.-A.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Monaghan, E.; Crews, Eurogeomars

2009-04-01

61

Acid rain legislation and local areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur

G. H. B

1992-01-01

62

Traffic management for ATM local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the first switching technology to be capable of supporting circuit switching and packet switching within a single integrated switching mechanism. This was one of the research goals that led to the development of ATM. Considerable progress has already been made in implementing constant bit-rate services, similar to conventional circuit switching, over ATM. The authors briefly

Peter Newman

1994-01-01

63

Training primary care physicians for local health authority duties in Texas.  

PubMed

Only one fourth of Texas counties have a local health authority (LHA) or health district. Primary care physicians in the remaining counties could be trained in public health basics by providing an online LHA training course and courses at annual meetings of the Texas Medical Association and the Texas Academy of Family Physicians. The Texas Department of State Health Services should develop a web portal for LHAs. The Texas Association of Local Health Officials should also provide automatic limited membership for LHAs. These initiatives would provide public health training to primary care physicians and would greatly improve availability of public health services for the citizens of Texas. PMID:22594741

Mobley, James; Zuniga, Miguel A

2012-07-01

64

Training Primary Care Physicians for Local Health Authority Duties in Texas  

PubMed Central

Only one fourth of Texas counties have a local health authority (LHA) or health district. Primary care physicians in the remaining counties could be trained in public health basics by providing an online LHA training course and courses at annual meetings of the Texas Medical Association and the Texas Academy of Family Physicians. The Texas Department of State Health Services should develop a web portal for LHAs. The Texas Association of Local Health Officials should also provide automatic limited membership for LHAs. These initiatives would provide public health training to primary care physicians and would greatly improve availability of public health services for the citizens of Texas.

Zuniga, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

65

Ranking environmental aspects in environmental management systems: a new method tested on local authorities.  

PubMed

A new method is described to determine and to rank the significance of the environmental aspects of a local authority, as a basis for the implementation of an environmental management system (EMS). The method is especially important as for the requirements of the EU "Environmental Management and Audit Scheme" (EMAS), a standard open to all sectors including public authorities. The method has been applied to the Municipalities of Faenza (a large town with 54,000 inhabitants) and of the small towns of Riolo Terme, Brisighella, Casola Valsenio (RA, Italy), which obtained or are on the way to get the EMAS certification. PMID:19959236

Marazza, Diego; Bandini, Vittoria; Contin, Andrea

2010-02-01

66

A Halifax Case Study that Offers an Alternative History of Care Provided by Local Authorities under the 1913 Mental Deficiency Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutions, and their problems, have traditionally dominated learning disability histories. We know far more about what happened in areas where councils established and/or enthusiastically used local institutions than other places. Local authorities less committed to institutional care must have relied more on family and other carers. This may…

Dale, Pamela

2014-01-01

67

Case-control study of the health of those looked after by local authorities  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To assess the health needs and provision of health care to school age children in local authority care.?METHODS—A total of 142 children aged 5 to 16 in local authority care, and 119 controls matched by age and sex were studied. Main outcome measures were routine health care, physical, emotional, and behavioural health, health threatening and antisocial behaviour, and health promotion.?RESULTS—Compared with children at home, those looked after by local authorities were significantly more likely to: experience changes in general practitioner; have incomplete immunisations; receive inadequate dental care; suffer from anxieties and difficulties in interpersonal relationships; wet the bed; smoke; use illegal drugs; and have been cautioned by police or charged with a criminal offence. They also tend to receive less health education. They were significantly more likely to have had a recent hearing or eye sight test, and reported significantly less physical ill health overall.?CONCLUSIONS—The overall health care of children who have been established in care for more than six months is significantly worse than for those living in their own homes, particularly with regard to emotional and behavioural health, and health promotion. In contrast to uncontrolled observational studies we have not found evidence of problems with the physical health of these children.??

Williams, J; Jackson, S; Maddocks, A; Cheung, W; Love, A; Hutchings, H

2001-01-01

68

75 FR 34923 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applicable on the first day of the first pay period that began on or after September...202) 606-4264; e-mail: pay-performance-policy@opm.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY...States Code, authorizes locality pay for General Schedule (GS)...

2010-06-21

69

Functional localization of the supplementary motor area.  

PubMed

The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a key structure involved in behavioral planning and execution. Although many reports have indicated that SMA is organized somatotopically, its exact organization remains still unclear. This study aimed to functionally map SMA using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and validate the fMRI-SMA by electrocortical stimulation (ECS) and postsurgical symptoms. Total 32 healthy volunteers and 24 patients participated in this study. Motor tasks were right and left finger tapping and language tasks included simple reading, lexical decision for presented words, and verb generating tasks. SPM8 was used to conduct individual and group analyses. In all subjects, the lexical decision task induced the greatest number of active fMRI pixels in SMA. fMRI during the language tasks showed anterior part of SMA compared to finger tapping tasks. We found an overlap spot with all different tasks in posterior part of SMA, which we termed SMA core. Six patients underwent awake craniotomy for ECS mapping for primary regions and SMA. During awake craniotomy, ECS to posterior part of SMA, which might involve the possible SMA core consistently, evoked both speech arrest and flaccid hemiparesis. The SMA mapping suggested posterior part of SMA might play more important roles in any executions, which might involve the SMA core. PMID:24305024

Hiroshima, Satoru; Anei, Ryogo; Murakami, Noboru; Kamada, Kyousuke

2014-07-15

70

Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

Tobagi, F. A.

1986-02-01

71

[Estimating the incidence of cancer in the VC Local Health Authority in Vercelli (Italy) from 2002 to 2005].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of tumours in a geographical area in Italy devoid of a tumour registry. A descriptive study was conducted in the territory of the VC local health authority. To estimate incidence, hospital discharge forms were analysed together with data from pathology archives. The standardized incidence rate (SIR) was calculated by using age specific rates in the VC local health authority in the years 2002-2005 and the tumour incidence in the city of Turin as the standard population. As regards low mortality tumours, an excess of bladder cancers (SIR=1,2; 1,1-1,3) and melanomas (SIR=1,3; 1,1-1,6) were found in males and of thyroid cancer (SIR=1,9; 1,6-2,2) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (SIR=1,4; 1,2-1,6) in females. In addition, an excess of rectal and colon cancers, and leukemia were observed in both genders and of central nervous system tumours in women. This preliminary study may be considered as a basis for the creation of a tumour registry which would necessarily need to integrate additional sources of information. In any case the results of this study have identified certain peculiarities regarding the epidemiology of tumours in this area, which should be further studied in terms of a Public Health problem. PMID:19629151

Salerno, Christian; Bagnasco, Gabriele; Panella, Massimiliano; Comelli, Mario

2009-01-01

72

Security Aspects of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) are increasing in number in both home and business uses due to the convenience, mobility and affordable prices for wireless devices. Wireless technology allows the mobile stations to freely move within the range of Acce...

T. Jaiaree

2003-01-01

73

New Device for Estimating Local Area Enlistment Market Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates an alternative method for estimating enlistment market potential. The method proposed is based upon survey respondents stated intentions to join the military obtained from the Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS). Local area estim...

G. D. Citizen

1985-01-01

74

75 FR 60285 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a single separate locality pay area. Since it is not feasible for BLS to conduct salary surveys using the current survey methods at current budget levels in additional locations in Alaska, Hawaii, or the U.S. territories and...

2010-09-30

75

Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has prepared this report to facilitate compliance with the requirements of Section 123 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 123 requires the Department of Energy to issue recommendations for establishing state and local incentive programs to encourage acceleration of voluntary consumer replacement of existing water closets, urinals, showerheads and faucets with water-saving products meeting EPACT standards. The authors recommend that state and local authorities working together and also with utilities: (A) investigate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary replacement of plumbing fixtures and fittings as an effective component of a water efficiency incentive program; (B) allow utilities to distribute the costs of water saving products by billing at pre-installation rates until devices have been paid for; (C) encourage decreased water usage by establishing rate structures such as increasing block rates or seasonal pricing; (D) add additional incentive to rebate programs by making the rebates untaxable income. (E) require municipalities or utilities to exhaust every reasonable method of water conservation before applying for permits to construct water supply or water treatment systems; (F) require high-efficiency toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in new construction and changing plumbing codes to incorporate different pipe sizing needs; and (G) and mandate installation of meters to correctly measure water consumption. Following the introduction, a general overview of these recommendations is presented. Each recommendation is discussed briefly. After determining the cost-effectiveness of a plumbing replacement program (or plumbing replacement aspect of a larger program) states can encourage replacement of toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in a number of ways. This report lists both legislative and economic measures that can be implemented on the state level that impact local programs.

Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.; Pickle, S.J.

1995-06-01

76

Guidelines for Securing Wireless Local Area Networks(WLANs).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a group of wireless networking devices within a limited geographic area, such as an office building, that exchange data through radio communications. WLAN technologies are based on the IEEE 802.11 standard and its a...

K. Scarfone M. Souppaya

2012-01-01

77

Evaluating Local Benefits from Conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal’s Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household’s participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2008-09-01

78

Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

2008-09-01

79

Environmental conditions and body temperatures of elderly women living alone or in local authority home.  

PubMed

The environmental and body temperatures of two groups of elderly women have been measured. One group was living in a local authority home (L.A.H.) and the others in their own homes in North London. The L.A.H. provided a constant environmental temperature which was at all times higher than that of the private houses. In the latter group the ambient temperature was higher in bed-sitting rooms than in houses with separate living rooms and bedrooms.Body temperatures in summer were similar throughout both groups. In winter the skin and mouth temperatures of the subjects living independently were lower than those in the L.A.H.Four subjects who had low mouth temperatures measured during two consecutive winters did not prove to have lowered deep body temperatures. The diet of these four subjects was similar in respect of all nutrients to that found in other groups of subjects of the same age, and in relation to published dietary standards was adequate in all respects. PMID:5134562

Salvosa, C B; Payne, P R; Wheeler, E F

1971-12-11

80

Extended producer responsibility for packaging wastes and WEEE - a comparison of implementation and the role of local authorities across Europe.  

PubMed

A comparison of the implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR) to packaging waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is presented for a representative sample of eleven European Union countries based on five indicators: stakeholders and responsibilities; compliance mechanisms; role of local authorities; financing mechanisms and merits and limitations, with four countries selected for more detailed case study analysis. Similarities, trends and differences in national systems are highlighted with particular focus on the role of local authorities and their relationship with obligated producers and the effect on the operation and success of each system. The national systems vary considerably in design, in terms of influence of pre-existing policy and systems, methods of achieving producer compliance (multiple or single collective schemes), fee structures, targets, waste stream prioritization and local authority involvement. Differing approaches are evident across all member states with respect to the role played by local authorities, responsibility apportioned to them, and the evolution of working relationships between obligated producers and municipalities. On the whole, EPR for packaging and WEEE has been successfully implemented throughout Europe in terms of Directive targets. It is, however, clear that the EPR systems currently in application across Europe differ primarily due to contrasting opinion on the legitimacy of local authorities as stakeholders and, in some cases, a fear on the part of industry of associated costs. Where local authorities have been engaged in the design and implementation of national systems, existing infrastructure used and defined roles established for producers and local authorities, results have been significantly more positive than in the cases where local authorities have had limited engagement. PMID:20705678

Cahill, Rachel; Grimes, Sue M; Wilson, David C

2011-05-01

81

Local Area Networks for K-12 Schools. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Local Area Network (LAN) allows computing equipment to share information from any device on a network with other devices on the same network. Uses for LANs in schools include sharing printers and programs, centralized file sharing, access to library databases and catalog, cost-effective connection to external networks, electronic mail, school…

Lederman, Tim

82

Applications of Local Area Networks of Microcomputers in Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Important features of local area networks (LAN) are reviewed, and several microcomputer LANs are described (ARCnet, Hinet, ShareNet, Ethernet, Omninet, PLAN 4000). Results of survey of 10 libraries using or planning to use a microcomputer LAN and considerations in choosing a LAN are reported. Forty-one references are cited. (EJS)

Levert, Virginia M.

1985-01-01

83

Acquisition of CD-ROM Databases for Local Area Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the acquisition of CD-ROM products for local area networks based on experiences at the Ohio State University libraries. Topics addressed include the historical development of CD-ROM acquisitions; database selection, including pricing and subscription options; the ordering process; and network licensing issues. (six references) (LRW)

Davis, Trisha L.

1993-01-01

84

Myrinet: A Gigabit-per-Second Local Area Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrinet local area network employs the same technology used for packet communication and switching within massively parallel processors. In realizing this distributed MPP network, we developed specialized communication channels, cut-through switches,host interfaces, and software. To our knowledge, Myrinet demonstrates the highest performance per unit cost of any current LAN.

N. J. Boden; Daniel I. A. Cohen; Robert E. Felderman; Alan E. Kulawik; Charles L. Seitz; Jakov N. Seizovic; Wen-king Su

1995-01-01

85

Passive optical star systems for fiber optic local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive star topology and fiber-optic passive star systems are described. Technologies for passive star local area network (LAN) systems and their installation are discussed. It is contended that passive optical star systems represent an attractive and versatile architecture for implementation of many fiber-optic LANs, and that passive star topology best achieves the system goals of versatility, reliability, noise immunity, and

FREDERICK W. SCHOLL; MICHAEL H. CODEN

1988-01-01

86

STATE AND LOCAL AREA INTEGRATED TELEPHONE SURVEY (SLAITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) is a telephone interview mechanism that employs the sampling frame of the National Immunization Survey. The purpose of SLAITS is to provide high quality health and welfare-related data on individuals and families at th...

87

Project Universe - Local area networks and satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed digital communications system is discussed in which a satellite is used to link a number of local area networks which interconnect a variety of computer facilities. The advantages of satellite communications compared with terrestrial links are described, together with a historical survey of the use of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) for data experiments. A description of Project

B. R. Ackroyd

1983-01-01

88

Localized Sensor Area Coverage with Low Communication Overhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose several localized sensor area coverage pro- tocols, for arbitrary ratio of sensing and transmission rad ii. Sensors are assumed to be time synchronized, and active sensors are determined at the beginning of each round. The approach has a very small communication overhead since prior knowledge about neighbor existence is not required. Each node selects a random timeout and

Antoine Gallais; Jean Carle; David Simplot-ryl; Ivan Stojmenovic

2006-01-01

89

Systems Politics as an Arbiter of Planned Change: The Case of the Deputy in English Local Education Authorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The organization of local government in England underwent significant structural revision during the 1970s, creating centralized authorities focused on objectives and service delivery systems rather than on organizational structures and the separate services delivered. As the most autonomous local agency prior to reorganization, education was the…

Jennings, Robert E.

90

[Health care for undocumented migrants - a quantitative study on the role of local health authorities in Germany].  

PubMed

Public welfare on a municipal level for groups with special health risks has been an important topic of public health service for more than a century. This notion has been taken up by the German "Protection against Infection Act" (IfSG) in § 19 IfSG. Local health service authorities may provide out-patient treatment in addition to counselling and diagnosis for patients with sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis, which is covered by public resources in cases of apparent need. Due to altered legislation and increased global mobility, this may become important for migrants without access to regular health care.Aims of this study were recording, counselling, diagnosis and out-patient treatment of migrants without legal residence status under the German Protection against Infection Act in the public health care system.An electronic mail survey of all local health authorities (n=384) by means of a standardised questionnaire was undertaken. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. In the annex of the questionnaire the participants were asked to describe a case study.139 of 384 local health authorities completed the questionnaire (36.2%) of whom approximately a quarter (24.6%) described contacts to "illegal" migrants. Contacts to migrants without legal residence status are more frequent in cities with more than 100?000 inhabitants than in ismaller cities (p<0.05). 22.6% of all local health authorities make an effort to reach undocumented migrants for counseling and diagnosis. 25 of the local health authorities (18.4%) indicated the capability to provide treatment in accordance with § 19 IfSG. A majority of these local health authorities also have contacts to undocumented migrants (75%). 16 local health authorities (13.3%) provide out-patient treatment for diseases not listed in Protection against Infection Act. 56 authorities (46.7%) refer patients to aid organisations or to resident doctors.Only a small number of local health authorities have contacts to migrants without health insurance. The option-al out-patient treatment is provided by few local health authorities especially in cases of sexual transmitted diseases except for HIV/AIDS. In most cases undocumented migrants are only one group among others. The large number of cases in cities with more than 500?000 inhabitants shows the massive requirements. PMID:24671893

Mylius, M; Frewer, A

2014-07-01

91

FlooDSuM - a decision support methodology for assisting local authorities in flood situations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision making in flood situations is a difficult task, especially in small to medium-sized mountain catchments (30 - 500 km2) which are usually characterized by complex topography, high drainage density and quick runoff response to rainfall events. Operating hydrological models driven by numerical weather prediction systems, which have a lead-time of several hours up to few even days, would be beneficial in this case as time for prevention could be gained. However, the spatial and quantitative accuracy of such meteorological forecasts usually decrease with increasing lead-time. In addition, the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff models to inaccuracies in estimations of areal rainfall increases with decreasing catchment size. Accordingly, decisions on flood alerts should ideally be based on areal rainfall from high resolution and short-term numerical weather prediction, nowcasts or even real-time measurements, which is transformed into runoff by a hydrological model. In order to benefit from the best possible rainfall data while retaining enough time for alerting and for prevention, the hydrological model should be fast and easily applicable by decision makers within local authorities themselves. The proposed decision support methodology FlooDSuM (Flood Decision Support Methodology) aims to meet those requirements. Applying FlooDSuM, a few successive binary decisions of increasing complexity have to be processed following a flow-chart-like structure. Prepared data and straightforwardly applicable tools are provided for each of these decisions. Maps showing the current flood disposition are used for the first step. While danger of flooding cannot be excluded more and more complex and time consuming methods will be applied. For the final decision, a set of scatter-plots relating areal precipitation to peak flow is provided. These plots take also further decisive parameters into account such as storm duration, distribution of rainfall intensity in time as well as the catchment's antecedent moisture conditions. The proposed approach is currently tested in two catchments in the Swiss Pre-Alps and Alps. We will show the general setup and selected results. The findings of those case studies will lead to further improvements of the proposed approach.

Schwanbeck, Jan; Weingartner, Rolf

2014-05-01

92

IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The draft IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) specification is approaching completion. In this article, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is explained, with particular emphasis on the medium access control sublayer. Performance results are provided for packetized data and a combination of packetized data and voice over the WLAN. Our performance investigation reveals that an IEEE 802.11 network may be

Brian P. Crow; I. Widjaja; L. G. Kim; P. T. Sakai

1997-01-01

93

H.323: the multimedia communications standard for local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of ITU-T Recommendation H.323, “Visual telephone systems and equipment for local area networks which provide a non-guaranteed quality of service.” This recommendation applies to multimedia communications over packet-switched networks, such as Ethernet, which run TCP\\/IP, IXP\\/SPX, or other related protocols. In addition to the multimedia terminal, other H.323 components are defined which provide for conference

G. A. Thom

1996-01-01

94

Analysis of a local-area wireless network  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand better how users take advantage of wireless networks, we examine a twelve-week trace of a building-wide local-area wireless network. We analyze the network for overall user behavior (when and how intensively people use the network and how much they move around), overall network traffic and load characteristics (observed throughput and symmetry of incoming and outgoing traffic), and traffic

Diane Tang; Mary Baker

2000-01-01

95

Municipal Solid Waste Costs: A Comparative Analysis of Local Authority Policies in Attica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results from a comparative study of solid waste costs of the municipal authorities in Attica. At first, it attempts to estimate the economic cost of solid waste for a number of municipal authorities of the Attica region. The solid waste costs are determined by a number of factors, including the quantity and composition of the solid

Antonis Rovolis; Katia Lazaridi; Margarita Kehagioglou

2006-01-01

96

Multiple nuclear localization signals mediate nuclear localization of the GATA transcription factor AreA.  

PubMed

The Aspergillus nidulans GATA transcription factor AreA activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. Sequence analysis of AreA revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs), five putative classical NLSs conserved in fungal AreA orthologs but not in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs Gln3p and Gat1p, and one putative noncanonical RRX33RXR bipartite NLS within the DNA-binding domain. In order to identify the functional NLSs in AreA, we constructed areA mutants with mutations in individual putative NLSs or combinations of putative NLSs and strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AreA NLS fusion genes. Deletion of all five classical NLSs individually or collectively did not affect utilization of nitrogen sources or AreA-dependent gene expression and did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of the bipartite NLS conferred the inability to utilize alternative nitrogen sources and abolished AreA-dependent gene expression likely due to effects on DNA binding but did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of all six NLSs simultaneously prevented AreA nuclear accumulation. The bipartite NLS alone strongly directed GFP to the nucleus, whereas the classical NLSs collaborated to direct GFP to the nucleus. Therefore, AreA contains multiple conserved NLSs, which show redundancy and together function to mediate nuclear import. The noncanonical bipartite NLS is conserved in GATA factors from Aspergillus, yeast, and mammals, indicating an ancient origin. PMID:24562911

Hunter, Cameron C; Siebert, Kendra S; Downes, Damien J; Wong, Koon Ho; Kreutzberger, Sara D; Fraser, James A; Clarke, David F; Hynes, Michael J; Davis, Meryl A; Todd, Richard B

2014-04-01

97

Damping Local and InterArea Oscillations with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Power System Stabilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors report on the design, simulation and validation of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based power system stabilizer (PSS) for a single-machine-infinite-bus (SMIB) and a multi-machine power system and investigate its performance in damping low frequency local and inter-area oscillations. The design employs a first order Sugeno fuzzy model, whose parameters are tuned off-line through

P. Mitra; S. Chowdhury; S. K. Pal; Y. H. Song; G. A. Taylor

2006-01-01

98

THE CENTRE FOR SUBTROPICAL DESIGN - A COLLABORATION BETWEEN A LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY AND A UNIVERSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brisbane City Council (BCC), in South East Queensland Australia, was concerned for some time about the need to 'raise the bar' on the quality of design and development in the local environment. Traditionally, Brisbane's urban fabric had been enriched by typologies empathetic of subtropical design concepts. However, in a context of rapid development, this fabric is giving way to buildings

Rosemary KENNEDY; Helen CASWELL

99

Autonomy and Governance in Local Authority Provision for Children and Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of local government in addressing issues of social equity is undergoing significant reconstruction in current educational policy reforms in England. The current conceptualisation of social provision places individual rights at the centre of policy, and social responsibility is represented as the work of individuals. Drawing upon a…

Boyask, Ruth; Donkin, Arnet; Waite, Sue; Lawson, Hazel

2013-01-01

100

Development and emancipation : The information society and decision support systems in local authorities in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emancipatory promises and realities of information and communication technology (ICT) in Egypt. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The combination of Habermasian and Foucauldian ideas implemented by a critical discourse analysis of the Egyptian Information Society Policy and interviews with employees of local decision support systems employees. Promises and rhetoric are contrasted with

Bernd Carsten Stahl; Neil McBride; Ibrahim Elbeltagi

2010-01-01

101

A Better Answer for Education: Reviving State and Local Policymaking Authority. Heritage Lectures. No. 994  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the fifth anniversary of No Child Left Behind, Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Jim DeMint (R-SC) outline their alternative for restoring state and local ownership of education policymaking while ensuring transparency about results and accountability to parents and taxpayers. The A-PLUS Act of 2007 (Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success) will…

Cornyn, John; DeMint, Jim

2007-01-01

102

Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Primary School Children in an Inner-City Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…

Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

2010-01-01

103

Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

Ascher, Jacques

2013-01-01

104

A local area computer network expert system framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past years an expert system called LANES designed to detect and isolate faults in the Goddard-wide Hybrid Local Area Computer Network (LACN) was developed. As a result, the need for developing a more generic LACN fault isolation expert system has become apparent. An object oriented approach was explored to create a set of generic classes, objects, rules, and methods that would be necessary to meet this need. The object classes provide a convenient mechanism for separating high level information from low level network specific information. This approach yeilds a framework which can be applied to different network configurations and be easily expanded to meet new needs.

Dominy, Robert

1987-01-01

105

Wireless Local Area Networks with Multiple-Packet Reception Capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to its simplicity and cost efficiency, wireless local area network\\u000a(WLAN) enjoys unique advantages in providing high-speed and low-cost wireless\\u000aservices in hot spots and indoor environments. Traditional WLAN\\u000amedium-access-control (MAC) protocols assume that only one station can transmit\\u000aat a time: simultaneous transmissions of more than one station causes the\\u000adestruction of all packets involved. By exploiting recent

Ying Jun Zhang; Peng Xuan Zheng; Soung Chang Liew

2007-01-01

106

Local Education Authorities' Approaches to Provision for Children with Specific Speech and Language Difficulties in England and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLD) pose a challenge to the education system as a result of their language needs and associated educational and social-behavioural difficulties. Local education authorities (LEAs) in England and Wales have developed language units to meet their needs but previous research has indicated…

Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E.; Mackie, Clare; Letchford, Becky

2005-01-01

107

Safe Physical Activity Environments--To What Extent Are Local Government Authorities Auditing the Safety of Grassed Sporting Grounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical activity (PA) participation is influenced by the safety of the settings in which it is undertaken. This study describes the grounds assessment practices of Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia to ensure the safety of grassed sporting grounds. It also makes recommendations for improving these practices to maximise the…

Otago, Leonie; Swan, Peter; Donaldson, Alex; Payne, Warren; Finch, Caroline

2009-01-01

108

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access Military Training (FL Reg 350-30) DEH or Corps of Engineers Real... Hunting, fishing and trapping (FL Reg 215-1) Dog training (not allowed 1 April through 31 July in selected...

2013-07-01

109

Referrals for cataract surgery: variations between different geographic areas within a Welsh Health Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The aim of the study was to identify variations in cataract presentation within three different eye units in a single health authority and to identify any correlation between cataract presentation and social deprivation indices. We also compared our patient profile and results with the UK National Cataract Audit statistics.Methods It was a prospective multicentre questionnaire-based project involving three hospitals:

R Goyal; J Shankar; S Sullivan

2004-01-01

110

Reducing the barriers against analytical epidemiological studies in investigations of local foodborne disease outbreaks in Germany - a starter kit for local health authorities.  

PubMed

Thousands of infectious food-borne disease outbreaks (FBDO) are reported annually to the European Food Safety Authority within the framework of the zoonoses Directive (2003/99/EC). Most recognised FBDO occur locally following point source exposure, but only few are investigated using analytical epidemiological studies. In Germany, and probably also in other countries of the European Union, this seems to be particularly true for those investigated by local health authorities. Analytical studies, usually cohort studies or case–control studies, are a powerful tool to identify suspect food vehicles. Therefore, from a public health and food safety perspective, their more frequent usage is highly desirable. We have developed a small toolbox consisting of a strategic concept and a simple software tool for data entry and analysis, with the objective to increase the use of analytical studies in the investigation of local point source FBDO in Germany. PMID:24602279

Werber, D; Bernard, H

2014-01-01

111

Local markets and systems: hospital consolidations in metropolitan areas.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study examines the formation of local hospital systems (LHSs) in urban markets by the end of 1992. We argue that a primary reason why hospitals join LHSs is to achieve improved positions of market power relative to threatening rivals. DATA SOURCES/DATA COLLECTION. The study draws from a unique database of LHSs located in and around metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Data were obtained from the 1991 AHA Annual Hospital Survey, updated to the year 1992 using information obtained from multiple sources (telephone contacts of systems, systems lists of hospitals, published changes in ownership, etc.). Other measures were obtained from a variety of sources, principally the 1989 Area Resources File. STUDY DESIGN. The study presents cross-sectional analyses of rival threats and other factors bearing on LHS formation. Three characteristics of LHS formation are examined: LHS penetration of urban areas, LHS size, and number of LHS members located just outside the urban boundaries. LHS penetration is analyzed across urban markets, and LHS size and rural partners are examined across the LHSs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Major hypothesized findings are: (1) with the exception of the number of rural partners, all dependent variables are positively associated with the number of hospitals in the markets; the rural partner measure is negatively associated with the number of hospitals; (2) the number of doctors per capita is positively associated with all but the rural penetration measure; and (3) the percentage of the population in HMOs is positively associated with local cluster penetration and negatively associated with rural system partners. Other findings: (1) average income in the markets is negatively associated with all but the rural penetration measure; (2) LHS size and rural partners are both positively associated with nonprofit system ownership; and (3) they are also both negatively associated with the degree to which their multihospital systems are geographically concentrated in a single state. CONCLUSIONS. The findings generally support the argument that LHS formation is the product of hospital providers attempting to improve positions of power in their local markets.

Luke, R D; Ozcan, Y A; Olden, P C

1995-01-01

112

Local earthquake tomography model for the southern Dead Sea area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local earthquake data from a dense temporary seismological network in the southern Dead Sea area have been analyzed within the project DESIRE (Dead Sea Integrated Research Project). Local earthquakes are used for the first precise image of the distribution of the P velocity and the vp/vs ratios. 65 stations registered 655 local events within 18 months of observation time. A subset of 530 well locatable events with 26,730 P- and S-arrival times was used to calculate a tomographic model for the vp and vp/vs distribution. Since the study area is at first order two-dimensional, a gradual approach was chosen, which compromised a 2-D inversion followed by a 3-D inversion. The sedimentary basin fill, clearly imaged through high vp/vs ratios and low vp, shows an asymmetric structure with a vertical eastern boundary and an inclined western boundary. Within the basin fill the Lisan salt diapir is imaged through low vp/vs ratios. Below the basin fill the pre-basin sediments and the reworked crust, indicated by low P velocities and low vp/vs ratios, form a 10 km wide body between 12 and 18 km depth with vertical boundaries. No indications are found for a significant change of the P velocity structure in NS direction. Meanwhile, the change of the vp/vs ratios from high to low values varies in NS direction. This change, interpreted as the lower boundary of the basin fill, is reached already at 10 km depth in the area of the Boqeq fault, but not until 14 km depth below the Lisan peninsula. This difference is most likely related to different amounts of faulting at the transverse normal faults. North of the Boqeq fault the seismic activity between 3 and 15 km depth is mostly related to the fluid containing basin sediments. South of the Boqeq fault the seismic events occur between 12 and 18 km depth, and thus within the pre-basin sediments and the underlying crust.

Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

2012-04-01

113

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

1991-12-01

114

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

115

Project Universe - Local area networks and satellite communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-speed digital communications system is discussed in which a satellite is used to link a number of local area networks which interconnect a variety of computer facilities. The advantages of satellite communications compared with terrestrial links are described, together with a historical survey of the use of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) for data experiments. A description of Project Universe is given and the purpose of the project is described along with a more detailed description of the elements that make up the network such as satellite earth terminals, communication rings and terrestrial links. Future developments of such systems and their use as a means of business communication are considered, in particular, the factors affecting their growth, emphasis being placed on the specification and cost of equipment.

Ackroyd, B. R.

1983-07-01

116

Contribution of tourism development to protected area management: local stakeholder perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism in protected areas plays an important role in establishing mutually beneficial relationships among local people, the protected area, and tourism that are essential in protected area management. However, to properly manage protected areas, local people should be major stakeholders in order to maximize local economic benefits and obtain support for conservation efforts. This study assesses the current status of

Jianying Xu; Yihe Lü; Liding Chen; Yang Liu

2009-01-01

117

Local area networking in a radio quiet environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.

2002-11-01

118

Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment  

PubMed Central

Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER). The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management.

Chen, Dongquan; Soong, Seng-jaw; Grimes, Gary J; Orthner, Helmuth F

2004-01-01

119

A local area network diagnostic assistant expert system  

SciTech Connect

We are currently developing a stand-alone Local Area Network (LAN) Diagnostic Assistant expert system to assist system managers in diagnosing network-related hardware and software malfunctions. The goal of this system is to aid in identifying malfunctions associated with a single workstation, a group of workstations, communications between workstations, and general statements of the ''Ethernet not working'' type of problems. The system consists of a geographical editor for data entry and modification of LAN information and a diagnostic environment for solving problems. Much work has been done in laying the initial framework for the system in the areas of LAN representation, the problem-solving strategy, and the user interface. We used a hierarchical frame-based representation for the LAN. Information for the strategy mechanism was gathered through case studies and background information. Ideas from heuristic classification were incorporated into the strategy mechanism. As in any system development, a majority of the time was spent developing a good user interface. We used graphics renditions wherever natural and minimized keyboard input by using mouse-selectable buttons and menus. Currently, a prototype version of the system is available that assists with some single-workstation problems. 7 refs., 10 figs.

Mniszewski, S.M.; Peter, E.A.; Lloyd, S.C.

1988-01-01

120

Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas  

PubMed Central

Matching functional brain regions across individuals is a challenging task, largely due to the variability in their location and extent. It is particularly difficult, but highly relevant, for patients with pathologies such as brain tumors, which can cause substantial reorganization of functional systems. In such cases spatial registration based on anatomical data is only of limited value if the goal is to establish correspondences of functional areas among different individuals, or to localize potentially displaced active regions. Rather than rely on spatial alignment, we propose to perform registration in an alternative space whose geometry is governed by the functional interaction patterns in the brain. We first embed each brain into a functional map that reflects connectivity patterns during a fMRI experiment. The resulting functional maps are then registered, and the obtained correspondences are propagated back to the two brains. In application to a language fMRI experiment, our preliminary results suggest that the proposed method yields improved functional correspondences across subjects. This advantage is pronounced for subjects with tumors that affect the language areas and thus cause spatial reorganization of the functional regions.

Langs, Georg; Golland, Polina; Tie, Yanmei; Rigolo, Laura; Golby, Alexandra J.

2011-01-01

121

Bohlabela District Municipality: Water Services Provider Options Study for Maruleng Local Municipal Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study area is that of the Maruleng Local Municipality. There are two distinct service areas in the study area which have to be supplied with municipal water services, Hoedspruit including Kampersrus and the Sekororo - Letsoalo - Mametja area, referred...

2003-01-01

122

Local Area Network Implementation at the 4950th Test Wing: A Study of the Relationship between Individual Factors and the Effectiveness of a Local Area Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated the individual factors which directly impacted the effectiveness of the 4950th Test Wing local area network (LAN). Areas of interest included the relationships between demographic and user attitude factors and LAN effectiveness....

D. F. Cone D. J. Donahoo

1993-01-01

123

47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Local Area emergency. 11.55 Section 11.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.55 EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency....

2012-10-01

124

20 CFR 663.585 - May individuals choose training providers located outside of the local area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false May individuals choose training providers located outside of the local area? ...WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Eligible Training Providers § 663.585 May individuals choose training providers located outside of the local area?...

2013-04-01

125

76 FR 81984 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Local Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program ACTION: Notice...is submitting the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) sponsored information collection...titled, ``Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program,'' to the Office of...

2011-12-29

126

47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Local Area emergency. 11.55 Section 11.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.55 EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency....

2013-10-01

127

[Model for evaluating plans for health service waste management (MPHSW) for use by local health and environmental protection authorities].  

PubMed

The inadequate management of the waste the health services are producing day by day and the considerable increase in quantity of this waste are increasingly posing hazards to the health of the population. Thus, the managers in charge of establishments that originate this waste should adopt a Management Plan for Health Service Waste - MPHSW. The main responsibility of guiding and monitoring the construction and implementation of the waste management plan falls on the local health and environmental protection authorities. This paper presents a model for a questionnaire to be used by the local authorities for analyzing the MPHSW of the health services in their respective jurisdictions. The result of this analysis (including graphs and tables with the percentages of questions fitting into each criterion set in advance) will be returned to the health institution with precise instructions for improving the quality of the plan. The necessary software is easily available and allows adapting the questionnaire to the conditions and needs of each municipality. The model provides parameters enabling the involved authorities to direct their capacity-building actions, allows quick evaluation of the MPHSWs and is easily updated. PMID:18833372

Zamoner, Maristela

2008-01-01

128

MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

Weiner, M. J.

1994-01-01

129

Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.  

PubMed

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

2010-02-01

130

Integrated navigation systems by means of wireless local area networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explains the methodology used in the design of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) and puts forward one particular configuration suitable for Integrated Navigation Systems (INSs). The choice of the Extremely High Frequency band (EHF) is based on two fundamental reasons. Firstly, EHF waves range from 30 to 300 GHz, which makes possible high data transmission rates (up to 155 Mbps). Secondly, EHF waves suffer both high attenuation and low diffraction when they are propagating through indoor channels, which provides a good isolation and allows using narrow aperture angles, respectively. Both special modulation and spatial diversity techniques are needed to cancel the multipath effects mainly due to wave reflections as the wave is propagating through the indoor channel. A typical configuration for this kind of systems consists of a set of base stations, uniformly distributed through the ship, installed on the ceiling. Each base station defines a picocell through several data terminals are linked by radiowaves. The design of INSs based on WLANs is proposed as a novel research field whose results can reduce the installation and maintenance costs of these systems aboard ship. Experimental results and empirical models must be previously obtained.

Mariscal Rico, Luis Antonio

2001-07-01

131

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

132

A method to evaluate the generation area of local wave climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of wave conditions at a local scale is of paramount importance for off-shore and coastal engineering applications (maritime works, ship design and route definition, offshore structures design, harbours operability). However, wave characteristics at a specific location cannot be fully understood studying only information of such location. They are the integrated result of the dynamics of the ocean surface over an area of influence. The goal of this work is to provide a methodology to easily characterize the area of influence of any particular ocean location in the world. The method is based on a global scale analysis using both geographic and oceanographic criteria. The geographic criterion relies on the realistic assumption that deep water waves travel along great circle paths, taking into account the spherical shape of the Earth. This allows limiting the study area by neglecting energy that cannot reach a target point, as its path is blocked by land. The oceanographic criterion is applied to global wave reanalysis data (Reguero et al., 2012), considering different spectral parameters such as mean direction, directional spread, wave energy period and energy flux, and taking into account in its specific location, the fraction of energy of the directional sector that travels towards the target point. A better understanding of the spatial generation and propagation area and an estimation of the time span the waves take to arrive to the target point is obtained. We have applied the methodology worldwide to obtain detailed maps of the relative importance of different oceanic areas to the climate of any location. Results show important spatial patterns that cannot be inferred from local parameters and validation with different climate analysis of other authors (Izaguirre et al., 2012; Alves et al., 2006) confirm the robustness of the method. This methodology facilitates enormously the study of wave generation area that induces local wave climate.

Perez, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando; Menendez, Melisa

2013-04-01

133

Centralized Power: An Examination of the Effects of Centralized and Decentralized Electric Generating Systems of the Political Authorities of Local Governments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report has two objectives: to determine whether centralization would lead to a shift of authority away from local or state government to regional or federal governments, and conversely, if decentralization would enhance the political authority of loca...

M. Messing H. P. Friesema D. Morell

1979-01-01

134

HUBNET: Wide Area Network utilization of Local Area Network medical reference and communication resources.  

PubMed Central

The State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and its associated teaching sites have developed and partially implemented a regional Wide Area Network (WAN) in Buffalo and Western New York. The school wishes to use this WAN to deliver reference and communication resources to students, residents and faculty. The richest pool of easy to use reference and communication resources are PC software programs that are intended for individual workstations or at best, client-server, Local Area Network (LAN) implementation. HUBNET (Hospitals and University at Buffalo Library Resource Network), a project of the School of Medicine and the Library Consortium of Health Institutions in Buffalo offers integrated presentation of many such LAN resources over this regional WAN. The system crosses many institutional boundaries and reaches physically remote sites in a complex mix of information systems environments with few issues related to performance. The system design provides a level of ease of use that has brought many new users into active computer use while addressing integration into diverse information systems settings and networking environments.

Loonsk, J. W.; Schweigel, J. E.; Carr, D.

1994-01-01

135

Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ? = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of the expert pathologist is not affected by our CAD system which is what we want to prove. However, the usage of our CAD system substantially account for the reduced inter- and intra- proliferation rate estimation variability and especially for less-experienced pathologists.

Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

2012-02-01

136

CRISM MTRDR Applications - Hyperspectral Targeted Observation Local Area Mosaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been in operation since late 2006 and has acquired over 22,000 hyperspectral targeted observations (~400 - 4000 nm, 6.55 nm sampling, ~20 m/pxl Full Resolution Targeted [FRT]). The MRO spacecraft capabilities and operational profile have supported the acquisition of numerous spatially overlapping targeted observation sets covering sites of high scientific interest. The CRISM Science Operations Center (SOC) has developed software procedures, specifications, and definitions for a new high level analysis and visualization data product suite - the Map Projected Targeted Reduced Data Record (MTRDR) product family. The MTRDRs are derived from CRISM TRR3 (Targeted Reduced Data Record version 3 - the latest radiometric calibration including noise remediation) hyperspectral targeted observations with the image cubes processed through a series of standard and empirical spectral corrections, spatial transforms, parameter calculations, and renderings. The primary MTRDR data product is a full spectral range (VNIR and IR) co-registered, map projected hyperspectral image cube that has been corrected for illumination geometry and atmospheric gas absorptions, normalized to the nearest-nadir sampled geometry to correct atmospheric aerosol and path length effects, with minor radiometric residuals mitigated and bad data bands removed. Additional products in the MTRDR family include spectral summary parameter maps that encode mineralogically indicative or diagnostic spectral structure, and browse product renderings that combine thematically related spectral parameters (Fe mineral signatures, phyllosilicate mineral signatures, etc.) into readily interpretable RGB composites. The MTRDR product suite represents a major advance in the accessibility of CRISM-derived spectral information and is expected to become the preferred entry point into the CRISM targeted observation data set for the majority of the Mars science community. For sites where multiple overlapping high quality CRISM targeted observations are available, the MTRDR data processing also allows for the generation of scientifically compelling mosaic products. The first such product set was generated for the Gale Crater MSL landing ellipse and field site and was made available to the MSL team prior to landing. The CRISM Gale Crater mosaic product set illustrates local area VNIR and IR surface spectral variability and the distribution of ferric and mafic minerals, hydrated phases, and phyllosilicates. The Gale Crater product set and targeted observations mosaics for additional sites of particular scientific interest will be presented in detail, highlighting the integrated utility of the end-to-end CRISM hyperspectral targeted observation data processing pipeline and mosaicking procedures.

Seelos, F. P.; Seelos, K. D.; Viviano, C. E.; Morgan, F.; Humm, D. C.; Murchie, S. L.

2012-12-01

137

[Ecology of Culex pipiens fatigans larvae in an area of high endemicity of Bancroftian filariasis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Culex pipiens fatigans in the main vector of bancroftian filariasis in the Mayotte island (Comores) where it imposes an important health problem. The breeding-sites of C. p. fatigans are either man-made (latrines, cesspools, various containers), or natural (polluted water of estuaries of some rivers). The man-made breeding-sites are not similarly distributed in the different localities of the island. Their distribution varies according to the customs of the inhabitants, size and site of the community. They are mainly represented by latrines, where Anjouan ethnic group is predominent; by cesspools in localities inhabited by Sakalava (a Malagasian ethnic group) and by other latrines and cesspools in mahoraises (inhabitants of Mayotte) and cosmopolitan localities. In rural areas, the percentage of habitations with cesspools usually increases with the size of the villages. The various breeding-sites are primarily productive when they are built on a ground with poor permeability. The importance of the present information is further discussed with relation to the population dynamics of C.p. fatigans and to the measures which may be useful for a control program of this mosquito. PMID:1096384

Subra, R; Hebrard, G

1975-03-01

138

48 CFR 26.202 - Local area preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disaster or Emergency Assistance Activities...contracts during the term of a major disaster or emergency declaration by the...authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...

2013-10-01

139

Securing institutional legitimacy or organizational effectiveness? : A case examining the impact of public sector reform initiatives in an Australian local authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider the impact of a major initiative (the National Competition Policy) and pieces of legislation (the Local Government Act and the Local Government Finance Standards) on the internal practices of a large Australian local authority. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A theoretical framework is developed using new public management (NPM) and neo-institutional theory literatures

Zahirul Hoque

2005-01-01

140

The 1983 Mental Health Act in five local authorities: a study of the practice of approved social workers.  

PubMed

This paper represents the first report of an ongoing collaborative project and charts the activities of social workers undertaking their duties within the framework of the 1983 Mental Health Act in five English Local Authorities for one year. Social workers are involved in a range of duties under the Act, but most commonly they are involved in assessments with a view to compulsory detention. The characteristics of people assessed are examined, and a profile emerges of vulnerable subgroups, typically younger men, older women, and people living in socially impoverished situations. Considerable variation between Authorities is found in terms of numbers of assessments, and in numbers of detentions. Low levels of 'diversion' into alternative care are identified. Comparisons are made with a major national study which took place four years earlier. Higher rates of detention are found on average, but lower rates of use of emergency provision (Section 4). An examination of the organisational context within which Approved Social Workers (ASWs) practice reveals a great deal of variation between authorities in terms of the ongoing experience of assessments available to ASWs. Social workers based in Emergency Duty Teams and Hospital Teams are compared, and a distinctive profile of their work emerges, the hospital-based ASWs being more likely to be assessing 'known' people, often already in hospital, and referred for assessment by consultants. The implications of these findings for the management and deployment of Approved Social Workers are briefly discussed. The emphasis is upon the role of the ASW in terms of balancing the rights and needs of people assessed under the Act. PMID:1428663

Hatfield, B; Mohamad, H; Huxley, P

1992-01-01

141

Evaluation of Existing Structure and Civil Protection Management Framework in Greek Local Authorities: A Questionnaire Survey Demonstrates Why Prevention Fails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of a growing number of natural disasters and the increasing costs associated with them, Europe and Greece in particular, have devoted significant efforts and resources in natural hazards mitigation during the last decades. Despite the significant legislative efforts (e.g. 1998/22/EC, 2001/792/EC, 2007/60/EC Directives, 3013/2002 Act) and even though a number of steps has been taken towards improving civil protection, recent catastrophic events have illustrated the weaknesses of current approaches. In particular, in Greece, events such as the 1999 Athens earthquake, the 2007 and 2009 wildfires have shown the inadequacy of prevention and mitigation practices. Given the enhanced civil protection responsibilities, given by the Greek national law (Acts 3013/2002, 3852/2010) to local authorities in Greece, this work analyses and evaluates the existing structure and current management framework under which local authorities function and examines their risk mitigation practices. We conducted the largest questionnaire survey regarding Civil Protections issues, among the municipalities of Greece. To this aim, this work used a innovative online tool to assess current framework. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform that acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). Through this network, municipal civil protection officials completed surveys designed to obtain and quantify information on several aspects of civil protection practices and infrastructure. In particular, the examined factors included: (i) personnel and equipment, (ii) inter-agency cooperation, (iii) training, (iv) compliance with existing regulations and (v) persistent problems encountered by civil protection departments, that prevent the effectiveness of current practices. Responses showed that civil protection personnel lack adequate training and expertise, many are overstretched with several duties, while several prevention actions are carried out by seasonal or voluntary staff. Approximately half of the heads of civil protection offices do not hold a university degree, only 27% have a relevant scientific background (geoscientists or engineers) and more than half of them are elected members and not permanent staff, implying that no continuity is secured. Inter-agency cooperation is shown to be poor and organizational learning from international practices not adequate. Half of the municipalities report that the authorization processes are too slow so that prevention actions particularly regarding forest fires are severely delayed. Existing regulations are not followed by a significant portion of municipalities since 19% have not established a civil protection office and 23% have not compiled an action plan yet. Existing action plans lack important information, present no spatial data and are predominantly catalogues and tables of information regarding authorised personnel and equipment. Overall, underfunding, poor coordination of the different actors involved, lack of training and understaffing, lack of proper equipment and several other issues are held responsible by officials for preventing effectiveness of current practices. Finally, the EU emergency number 112 is widely unknown (87%). This work was held under the LIFE+ project "Local Authorities Alliance for Forest Fire Prevention - LIFE08/ENV/GR/000553" which is implemented with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community.

Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

2013-04-01

142

Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers in localized culling areas.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease that can have serious consequences for cattle farming and, potentially, for public health. In Britain, failure to control bovine TB has been linked to persistent infection of European badger (Meles meles) populations. However, culling of badgers in the vicinity of recent TB outbreaks in cattle has failed to reduce the overall incidence of cattle TB. Using data from a large-scale study conducted in 1998-2005, we show that badgers collected on such localized culls had elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine TB, suggesting that infections in cattle and badgers were indeed associated. Moreover, there was a high degree of similarity in the M. bovis strain types isolated from cattle and associated badgers. This similarity between strain types appeared to be unaffected by time lags between the detection of infection in cattle and culling of badgers, or by the presence of purchased cattle that might have acquired infection elsewhere. However, localized culling appeared to prompt an increase in the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers, probably by disrupting ranging and territorial behavior and hence increasing intraspecific transmission rates. This elevated prevalence among badgers could offset the benefits, for cattle, of reduced badger densities and may help to explain the failure of localized culling to reduce cattle TB incidence. PMID:19204342

Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Cox, D R; Gilks, Peter; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; Le Fevre, Andrea M; Bourne, F John; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Gettinby, George; Hewinson, R Glyn; McInerney, John P; Mitchell, A P; Morrison, W Ivan; Watkins, Gavin H

2009-01-01

143

Children's Living and Play Areas in the Local Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents results of a three-year study of children's living and play areas in three cities (one large, one medium, and one small) in Yugoslavia. A total of 1,200 families living in 240 buildings in six developments built between 1961 and 1971 were included in the study. A variety of facilities were evaluated for both formal and informal…

Kara-Pesic, Zivojin; And Others

144

LOCAL ECONOMY RESEARCHES. CAZASU RURAL AREA – NORTH BRAILA TERRACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to assess the competitiveness of the SIRIUS1 Irrigation Project in the Cazasu Rural Area – North Braila Terrace. SIRIUS aims to establish innovative and new service capacities for the irrigation water management user community with the vision of bridging and integrating sustainable food production with fair economic competitiveness, and within wise water governance

Violeta Florian; Elisabeta Rosu; Monica Tudor

2011-01-01

145

AAPS: Local Attendance Area Planning for Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by a planning team representing 10 schools in the Portland, Oregon area, the program assessment and planning guide is intended to be an instrument for planning and measuring the achievement of career education programs for grades K-12. Its format is designed to separate problems into a priority ranking and list them by the year to help…

Portland Public Schools, OR.

146

Periodontal health of the elderly people in South East local government area in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Health problems involving physical and mental conditions directly or indirectly affect the oral health of the elderly. Other ways in which physical and mental health conditions influence their health result from the various drug prescriptions given for these ailments. Periodontal health is the most affected. Various studies have demonstrated that the elderly have the highest rate of gingival bleeding, calculus deposits and periodontal pocketing. It is the aim of this study to determine the health of the supporting tissues of the teeth using periodontal indices such as the C.PI.T.N and mobility index. The study was carried out on 690 elderly individuals (403 males and 287 females) who were 65 years and above living in various wards in the South East Local Government Area of Ibadan (S.E.L.G.A). A multistage sampling technique was used to select elderly individuals for the study. Two interviewers, 2 record clerks and 2 examiners were trained and the examiners were calibrated. The elderly individuals were interviewed and examined concurrently. The results highlighted the high prevalence of periodontal disease in the elderly in this local government area. Only 5.2% were free from periodontal disease. 94.8% had one or another stage of periodontal disease. It also demonstrated the poor oral cleanliness among these elderly. More than 42% had gross accumulation of calculus. Among the elderly in this local government area, 21.6% and 28.8% had shallow and deep pockets, respectively whilst 39.3% had one or more mobile teeth. Pockets and excessive mobility of the teeth represent advance stages of periodontitis. Majority (70.4%) of the elderly in the study claimed they use chewing sticks to maintain oral hygiene. The pattern of deposit of calculus along the interdental surfaces, mesio and distobuccal surfaces as well as lingual surfaces, question the effectiveness of the chewing stick in cleaning these surfaces. This study confirms findings of other authors, on oral hygiene in Nigeria. There is an urgent need to establish a community based outreach programme to prevent and treat periodontal disease among the elderly in this local government area. PMID:15977433

Taiwo, J O; Jeboda, S O; Motayo, T O; Obiechina, A E

2004-12-01

147

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning Program: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning (LAP) Program is a community-based approach to developing comprehensive neighbourhood plans. In order to achieve sustainable and implementable Local Area Plans (LAPs), the City of Saskatoon has been using innovative methods of collaborative decision-making to engage citizens. The program has been…

Kellett, Livia; Peter, Lyla; Moore, Kelley

2008-01-01

148

Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

149

[Impact and state of the art of regional healthcare planning and management guidelines in a local health authority of the Lazio region (Italy)].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of health care planning and management guidelines, elaborated by the Lazio regional healthcare authority, on the organizational structure and operational processes of local health authorities and, more specifically, of the Roma C local health authority. The guidelines are made up of three volumes and mainly describe an operational model, rather than being a set of standard references aimed at standardizing the quality of information low systems in local healthcare authorities. The guidelines are essentially a didactic text, and were elaborated by a consulting firm, Engineering Management Consulting, on behalf of the Lazio regional authority. In the first section, the main concepts are defined, while in subsequent sections, detailed models regarding the specific subject matter are described. Although the guidelines represent a useful tool in the process of converting local health authorities of the Lazio region into "business" organizations, so far they have been of use only in the first phase of assessment of different organizational models for healthcare planning and management. There is still a long way ahead towards defining standard procedures and references for describing activities and costs. This is what should hopefully be achieved briefly and which will necessarily require the introduction of a data warehouse and business intelligence software that will allow monitoring of activities and making short term predictions through the use balanced scorecards and data mining. PMID:18084348

Priori, Maria Rosaria; Barbato, Angelo

2007-01-01

150

THE ROLE OF PROTECTED AREAS IN CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINING LOCAL LIVELIHOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The world’s system of protected areas has grown,exponentially over the past 25 years, particularly in developing countries where biodiversity is greatest. Con- currently, the mission of protected areas has expanded from biodiversity conservation to improving,human,welfare. The result is a shift in favor of protected areas allowing local resource use. Given the multiple purposes of many protected areas, measuring

Lisa Naughton-Treves; Margaret Buck Holland; Katrina Brandon

2005-01-01

151

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area...the PEP to each station in the plan. If a state's emergency alert system is capable of initiating EAS messages formatted...

2012-10-01

152

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...

2010-10-01

153

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...

2011-10-01

154

75 FR 38408 - Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Spectator Vessels Viewing Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Spectator Vessels Viewing Areas, Hudson River, New York, NY AGENCY: Coast...special local regulation on the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York, NY...from designated portions of the Hudson River during the fireworks event....

2010-07-02

155

Damping of inter-area and local modes by use of controllable components  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with damping of inter-area and local electromechanical oscillation modes using controllable series capacitor (CSC) and controllable shunt capacitor (SVC). The impacts of SVC and CSC on the structure of the system closed loop matrix are investigated. By analyzing the sensitivities of the system inter-area and local modes to the control action of the controllable devices, some general conclusions concerning the damping of inter-area and local modes are made. A numerical example is provided to support the analytical findings. This paper provides an insight and understanding in the basic characteristics of damping effects of the studied devices. The insight is obtained by the study of a simple power system which exhibits both inter-area and local power swings. The understandings and findings could form the basis in analysis of realistic and more complex systems.

Noroozian, M.; Andersson, G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)] [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-10-01

156

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area...the PEP to each station in the plan. If a state's emergency alert system is capable of initiating EAS messages formatted...

2013-10-01

157

CATLAC: Calibration and Validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage for the SeaWifs Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calibration and validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage (CATLAC) is an analysis package for selecting and graphically displaying Earth and space targets for calibration and validation activities on a polar orbiting satellite. The package is writte...

R. H. Woodward W. W. Gregg F. S. Patt

1994-01-01

158

Columbus Crew Communication Subsystem and the on Board Local Area Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Columbus local area network (LAN) and crew communication system is described. The architecture of the system consists of several independant network assemblies (including the onboard LAN, audio network, and video network) each dedicated to a particula...

A. Morando A. Francia M. Masci G. Montalto

1988-01-01

159

Author! Author! Beverly Cleary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief biography of author Beverly Cleary. Born on April 12, 1916 in McMinnville, Oregon (Yamhill County), Beverly Cleary celebrated her eighty-ninth birthday in 2005. Cleary is probably best known for creating "Ramona" and the other children's book characters who live on Klickitat Street in Portland, Oregon. A selective…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

160

Local area augmentation of GPS for the precision approach of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is investigating the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS), together with local augmentation as the primary navigation system for the Category II and III precision approach of aircraft. This augmented system would be known as a local area augmentation system (LAAS) because it would place subsystems on the ground at or near an

PER ENGE

1999-01-01

161

The probability of finding a localized area with elevated contamination by using a mobile detector.  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the probability that a localized area with elevated contamination can be found by using a mobile detector. In the case studied, the area of elevated contamination has an elliptical shape and the detector has a circular field of view. The probability of finding the contaminated area is a function of factors related to both the contaminated area and the detector. The paper examines the dependence of the probability on a number of these factors. The results presented are applicable to any characteristic that can be detected with a scanning system that provides complete coverage of an area. They can be used as the basis for designs or evaluations that involve determining whether localized areas of contamination are present in an area of interest.

Davis, M. J.; Environmental Assessment

2002-10-01

162

Rapid orbital characterization of local area space objects utilizing image-differencing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellites have limited awareness of nearby objects that might pose a collision hazard. Small, relatively inexpensive onboard optical local area sensors have been proposed as a means of providing additional awareness. However, such sensors often have limited performance. Proposed are methods to increase the Local Area Awareness provided by such sensors by means of classical and novel image processing techniques. The local area of the sensor platform is defined, for our purposes, as a sphere of radius 500 km surrounding the sensor platform, or observing satellite. This analysis utilizes image differencing-based techniques, in the development of a detection algorithm and proposes a novel objectvelocity classifier. This classifier may provide a means of rapidly distinguishing local area objects that pose a possible collision hazard when an orbital two-line element set is not available. Derivation of a novel classifier is based on the speed of the projected object moving across the focal plane array of the detector. This technique relies on the assumption that detection from the sensor platform allows for tracking of the object over all times the object is within the local area of the sensor platform. This alternative to intensity-based, signalto- noise ratio detection methods is performed by exploiting the stellar background as a reference from a space-based observing satellite. Results presented in this paper further demonstrate the ability of the proposed classifier to provide a means of rapidly distinguishing objects that pose a possible hazard within the local area of the sensor platform. These preliminary results act to substantiate this claim and therefore lay out a pathway for relevant and meaningful future work in the area of Local Area Awareness for satellites.

McCall, Paul D.; Naudeau, Madeleine L.; Sorge, Marlon E.; Farrell, Thomas; Adjouadi, Malek

2013-05-01

163

Local measurement of interfacial area, interfacial velocity and liquid turbulence in two-phase flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double sensor probe and hotfilm anemometry methods were developed for measuring local flow characteristics in bubbly flow. The formulation for the interfacial area concentration measurement was obtained by improving the formulation derived by Kataoka and Ishii. The assumptions used in the derivation of the equation were verified experimentally. The interfacial area concentration measured by the double sensor probe agreed well

T. Hibiki; S. Hogsett; M. Ishii

1998-01-01

164

Local attitudes on protected areas: Evidence from three Natura 2000 wetland sites in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental policies aimed at the conservation of protected areas are significantly influenced by social factors revealing the importance of investigating local knowledge and perceptions during their planning and implementation. The present article aims to explore perceptions and awareness of citizens in three protected areas of Greece: The National Park of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, the Wetland of Kalloni, and Lake

Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos; Nikoleta Jones; Theodoros Iosifides; Ioanna Florokapi; Ourania Lasda; Foivos Paliouras; Konstantinos I. Evangelinos

2010-01-01

165

SocioEconomics Factors Affecting Poultry Farmers in Ejigbo Local Government Area of Osun State  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Poultry. Productivity. Constraints. Household Food. Socio-economics ABSTRACT The study investigated factors affecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were used in interviewing 80 poultry farmers randomly selected in the study area. Frequency distribution and Pearson correlation technique were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that a national support to strengthen

O. O. Adebayo; R. G. Adeola

166

Inner Circles and Outer Reaches: Local and Global Information-Seeking Habits of Authors in Acknowledgment Paratext  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This research investigates paratextual acknowledgements in published codices in order to study how relationships inform the information-seeking habits of authors, an understudied group in library and information science. Method: A purposive sample consisting of the books from the 2010 nominations list of the Canadian Governor…

Desrochers, Nadine; Pecoskie, Jen

2014-01-01

167

76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in effect. Regulation And Frequency Response Service Effective...Applicable Regulation and Frequency Response Service (Regulation...maintaining scheduled interconnection frequency at 60 cycles per second (60...lies with the Western Area Lower Colorado (WALC)...

2011-09-27

168

A Survey into Mainstream Teachers' Attitudes Towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs in the Ordinary School in one Local Education Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes of mainstream teachers towards the inclusion of children with special needs in the ordinary school were surveyed soon after the release of the Green Paper. The survey was carried out in one Local Education Authority in the south-west of England and the sample comprised of 81 primary and secondary teachers. The analysis revealed that teachers who have been implementing

Elias Avramidis; Phil Bayliss; Robert Burden

2000-01-01

169

Local Education Authorities and the Regulation of Educational Markets: Four Case Studies. Measuring Markets: The Case of the ERA 1988. Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents four case studies that are part of a larger study on admissions arrangements and impacts on school admissions for all local education authorities (LEAs) in England and Wales. It examines factors influencing the social composition of schools. A total of 23 LEAs completed interviews about their secondary school admissions…

Fitz, John; Taylor, Chris; Gorard, Stephen; White, Patrick

170

System for Analysis of LANDSAT Agricultural Data: Automatic Computer-Assisted Proportion Estimation of Local Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A conceptual man machine system framework was created for a large scale agricultural remote sensing system. The system is based on and can grow out of the local recognition mode of LACIE, throug...

R. F. Nalepka R. J. Kauth G. S. Thomas

1976-01-01

171

SAR in children from exposure to wireless local area networks (WLAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed at 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz using a voxel model of a sitting 10 year old child to investigate human exposure to the electromagnetic fields in schools produced by wireless local area networks (WLAN). This study presents whole-body and peak localized specific energy absorption rates (SAR) in the model resulting from both plane

R P Findlay; P J Dimbylow

2012-01-01

172

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing with Large Area of Gold Nanoholes Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has been extensively studied as potential chemical and biological sensing platform\\u000a due to its high sensitivity to local refractive index change induced by molecule adsorbate. Previous experiments have demonstrated\\u000a the LSPR generated by gold nanoholes and its biosensing. Here, we realize large uniform area of nanoholes on scale of cm2 on glass substrate by nanosphere

Gansheng XiangNan; Nan Zhang; Xiaodong Zhou

2010-01-01

173

[Is bone scan useful in patients with breast cancer localized on the basis of clinical examination. 143 cases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The authors present 143 cases of breast carcinoma T1 and T2, N0, N1, N2 and N3 without clinical signs of bone metastasis. They study the value of bone scintigraphy with technetium 99m labelled diphosphonates. One hundred and twelve patients had normal bone scans; 31 patiets showed abnormal fixation sites: in 23 (16%) benign bone lesions explained the increase of the bone radioactivity, in 8 cases, scintigraphy was considered to be consistent with diagnosis of bone metastasis. Metastasis has been proved in only 3 cases within a period of 2 years. The detection rate cannot be better than 5,6 per cent. Considering 50 per cent at least of these patients will eventually develop bone metastasis, the false negative rate will be about 45 per cent. Routine bone scan does not seem to be useful for patients with T1 and T2 breast cancer. PMID:7407430

Stines, J; Stalars, J; Dartois, D; Chardot, C

1980-01-01

174

Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

2013-04-01

175

Area laws in a many-body localized state and its implications for topological order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question whether Anderson insulators can persist to finite-strength interactions—a scenario dubbed many-body localization—has recently received a great deal of interest. The origin of such a many-body localized phase has been described as localization in Fock space, a picture we examine numerically. We then formulate a precise sense in which a single energy eigenstate of a Hamiltonian can be adiabatically connected to a state of a non-interacting Anderson insulator. We call such a state a many-body localized state and define a many-body localized phase as one in which almost all states are many-body localized states. We explore the possible consequences of this; the most striking is an area law for the entanglement entropy of almost all excited states in a many-body localized phase. We present the results of numerical calculations for a one-dimensional system of spinless fermions. Our results are consistent with an area law and, by implication, many-body localization for almost all states and almost all regions for weak enough interactions and strong disorder. However, there are rare regions and rare states with much larger entanglement entropies. Furthermore, we study the implications that many-body localization may have for topological phases and self-correcting quantum memories. We find that there are scenarios in which many-body localization can help to stabilize topological order at non-zero energy density, and we propose potentially useful criteria to confirm these scenarios.

Bauer, Bela; Nayak, Chetan

2013-09-01

176

Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25?000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1?year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25?000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25?000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance.

Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

2013-01-01

177

Organizational Reputation as a Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Above-Normal Performance: An Empirical Test among Local Authorities in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of organizational reputation (OR) was studied as a source of sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) and superior performance, theoretically and empirically, among local authorities in Israel. Using the LISREL VIII program, we proposed a mediation model that argued for a relationship between OR and financial performance, mediated by three tests for SCA: OR-value, OR-rareness and OR-inimitability. The effects of

Abraham Carmeli; Aaron Cohen

178

The effect of experience on detectability in local area anatomical noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate if the ability to detect clinically relevant signals, within local area clinically relevant texture, is related to experience. A two alternative forced choice interleaved staircase experiment was conducted on 101 observers split into three groups; group 1 with diagnostic experience, group 2 with experience of imaging but not of making a diagnosis

D S Brettle; E Berry; M A Smith

2007-01-01

179

Installing a CD-ROM Local Area Network in a Science and Engineering Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on local area network (LAN) installation and describes the installation of a CD-ROM LAN at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia). Server evaluation and installation, access menu, user training, LAN licensing, campus-wide networking, the impact of networking, and future projects planned are…

Siddiqui, Moid Ahmad

1996-01-01

180

An implementation of access control in public wireless local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

As wireless is more and more popular in this world, wireless local area network (WLAN) based on IEEE802.11 has been achieving great development. This paper introduces a method to design and implement access control system on Linux operating system. The Access Control (AC) system allows the user access Internet if he or she has passed authentication and monitors the user's

Fang Zhu; Jiantao Zhou; Wenjiang Pei; Taijun Wang

2003-01-01

181

Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations.

Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

1983-03-01

182

Local area network terminal management in support of Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the questions of user requirements, design considerations, and network environment for a local area network Terminal Management function in support of the Naval Supply Systems Command's Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE). Criteria are developed from this examination. These include process-process communication, virtual terminal, and user defined screen capabilities as well as a negotiated virtual terminal

J. D. Barnes

1982-01-01

183

Utilization of Buffers for Performance Evaluation of Local Area Network Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the performance of traffic flow over Local Area Networks (LAN) utilizing buffers to avoid any irrelevant traffic that clusters the network using sniffer pro. The study applies buffer technology to filter out unnecessary information so the system captures only required information packets. Buffers that capture the protocols are identified. These are: Address Resolution Protocols (ARP), Internet Control

Sarhan M. Musa; Emmanuel Uzoma Opara; Cajetan M. Akujuobi

2006-01-01

184

Local area navigation using sonar feature extraction and model based predictive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a method to navigate an autonomous underwater vehicle in a local area using an acoustic sensor for position information derived from feature detection. A dynamic model of the vehicle response is used for control between location updates. Favorable results have been found using this approach, and precision positioning of the vehicle to centimeters has been accomplished. Another

D. B. Marco; A. J. Healey

1996-01-01

185

Analysis and Optimisation of IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years, IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANS) have increasingly been deployed in a variety of situations, such as homes, business enterprises, academic campuses, and public places such as airports, hotels, and shopping centers. It has therefore become very important to understand the performance of such networks as well the effective network design, deployment and management. In

Anurag Kumar

2005-01-01

186

System for analysis of LANDSAT agricultural data: Automatic computer-assisted proportion estimation of local areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A conceptual man machine system framework was created for a large scale agricultural remote sensing system. The system is based on and can grow out of the local recognition mode of LACIE, through a gradual transition wherein computer support functions supplement and replace AI functions. Local proportion estimation functions are broken into two broad classes: (1) organization of the data within the sample segment; and (2) identification of the fields or groups of fields in the sample segment.

Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Kauth, R. J.; Thomas, G. S.

1976-01-01

187

Laminar analysis of excitatory local circuits in vibrissal motor and sensory cortical areas.  

PubMed

Rodents move their whiskers to locate and identify objects. Cortical areas involved in vibrissal somatosensation and sensorimotor integration include the vibrissal area of the primary motor cortex (vM1), primary somatosensory cortex (vS1; barrel cortex), and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). We mapped local excitatory pathways in each area across all cortical layers using glutamate uncaging and laser scanning photostimulation. We analyzed these maps to derive laminar connectivity matrices describing the average strengths of pathways between individual neurons in different layers and between entire cortical layers. In vM1, the strongest projection was L2/3?L5. In vS1, strong projections were L2/3?L5 and L4?L3. L6 input and output were weak in both areas. In S2, L2/3?L5 exceeded the strength of the ascending L4?L3 projection, and local input to L6 was prominent. The most conserved pathways were L2/3?L5, and the most variable were L4?L2/3 and pathways involving L6. Local excitatory circuits in different cortical areas are organized around a prominent descending pathway from L2/3?L5, suggesting that sensory cortices are elaborations on a basic motor cortex-like plan. PMID:21245906

Hooks, B M; Hires, S Andrew; Zhang, Ying-Xin; Huber, Daniel; Petreanu, Leopoldo; Svoboda, Karel; Shepherd, Gordon M G

2011-01-01

188

Local-Area Age Structure and Population Composition: Implications for Elderly Health in Japan  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines relationships between local-area age structure and health at older ages. Method We estimate random intercept models for two disability measures using four-waves of data from a national panel study of 3,580 Japanese older adults. Results Elderly living in relatively older areas reported more difficulties with activities of daily living compared to those living in an “average” age structure. Controlling for individual characteristics and time did little to change this relationship; while a similar relationship between older age structure and functional limitations emerged. Discussion Residents of relatively older are as tended to have lower socioeconomic status, but this “disadvantage” was offset by their higher rates of employment and marriage. These compositional differences highlight the role of local-area age structure in identifying and understanding elderly health variation between places.

Vogelsang, Eric M.; Raymo, James M.

2014-01-01

189

The Role of Information Technology in Local Government Administration in Delta State Nigeria: A Case Study of Aniocha North and Aniocha South Local Government Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The study aims to examine the role of information technology in Local Government Administration in Delta State, using Aniocha North and Aniocha South Local Government Areas as the case study. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey approach was used to learn what was actually happening in local government practices. Findings – IT contributes enormous value to the workings and operations

Stephen Osahon Uwaifo; Anthonia Chukwudumebi Kabadi

2006-01-01

190

Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice.

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

2014-01-01

191

The Evolving Marriage of a Local Area Network (LAN) and a Hospital Information System (HIS)  

PubMed Central

Over the last eight years, a teleprocessing/database Hospital Information System (HIS) for the Medical College of Georgia hospital and clinics has evolved to include approximately 200 terminal functions, 100 cathode ray terminals (CRT's) and 25 printers running on an IBM 4341. Concurrent with this development, several specialized standalone departmental minicomputer systems have evolved in response to specific requirements. In early 1981, a networking concept was proposed whereby the various information management systems within the hospital and clinics could communicate with each other. This concept has been successfully applied to several systems including a Local Area Network (LAN) of 24 processors and 45 workstations. This paper will outline the evolution from a single host processor multiple terminal oriented HIS, to a communications network of computers, to the integration of the host terminal network and a flexible Local Area Network.

Harrison, Eugene T.; Pickren, John D.; Mangum, Patricia; Tomlins, Helen F.; Pickren, Ann S.

1983-01-01

192

Communications protocols for a fault tolerant, integrated local area network for Space Station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolutionary growth of the Space Station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated,local area networks capable of supporting data, voice and video communications. In addition, fault tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard Space Station of day-to-day data system repair tasks. An experimental, local area network is being developed which will serve as a testbed for investigating candidate algorithms and technologies for a fault tolerant, integrated network. The establishment of a set of rules or protocols which govern communications on the net is essential to obtain orderly and reliable operation. A hierarchy of protocols for the experimental network is presented and procedures for data and control communications are described.

Meredith, B. D.

1984-01-01

193

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing with Large Area of Gold Nanoholes Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography  

PubMed Central

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has been extensively studied as potential chemical and biological sensing platform due to its high sensitivity to local refractive index change induced by molecule adsorbate. Previous experiments have demonstrated the LSPR generated by gold nanoholes and its biosensing. Here, we realize large uniform area of nanoholes on scale of cm2 on glass substrate by nanosphere lithography which is essential for mass production. The morphology of the nanoholes is characterized using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The LSPR sensitivity of the nanoholes to local refractive index is measured to be 36 nm/RIU. However, the chip has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in biosensing: bovine serum albumin adsorption is detected with LSPR peak redshift of 27 nm, and biotin-streptavidin immunoassay renders a LSPR redshift of 11 nm. This work forms a foundation toward the cost-effective, high-throughput, reliable and robust chip-based LSPR biosensor.

2010-01-01

194

Static footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios for three type 7 aircraft tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

1991-01-01

195

Stacked Square Fractal Antenna with Improved Bandwidth for Wireless Local Area Network Access Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless local area network (WLAN) system of IEEE 802.11a standard can offer data rate up to 54 Mbps. It uses the 5 GHz band, which is of less interference compared to its predecessor for 2.4 GHz band operation. However, the higher frequency also restricts its use to almost line-of-sight due to limited penetration ability. Thus, more access points are needed

Mohd Fairus Mohd Yusof; Ikhwan Peranggi Pohan; Mazlina Esa; Noor Asniza Murad; Yap Eng Chuan

2006-01-01

196

Local Area Network Traffic Characteristics, with Implications for Broadband Network Congestion Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the phenomenon of congestion in order to better understand the congestion management techniques that will be needed in high-speed, cell-based networks. The first step of this study is to use high time-resolution local area network (LAN) traffic data to explore the nature of LAN traffic variability. Then, we use the data for a trace-driven simulation of a

Henry J. Fowler; Will E. Leland

1991-01-01

197

How habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant assemblages in isolated closed depressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifying species by shared life-history traits is important if common ecological response groups are to be identified among different species. We investigated how habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant communities in small isolated closed depressions, and how the species richness is related to the interplay between environmental factors and specific life-history trait combinations. In Central-Western Europe, 169 closed

Bruno Herault; Daniel Thoen

2009-01-01

198

Autonomous component carrier selection: interference management in local area environments for LTE-advanced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-power base stations such as femtocells are one of the candidates for high-data-rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices, and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes impractical, and

Luis G. U. Garcia; K. I. Pedersen; Preben E. Mogensen

2009-01-01

199

A wireless broadband ad-hoc ATM local-area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, the exact method by which the look-up table is generated is not important.In this section we are interested in the updates to the routing tables at each PBS in theK. Y. Eng et al. \\/ A Wireless Broadband Ad-Hoc ATM Local-Area Network 17case of a failure. A tree and a routing table is shown in Fig. 13.First, we

Kai Y. Eng; Mark J. Karol; Malathi Veeraraghavan; Ender Ayanoglu; C. B. Woodworth; Pramod Pancha; Reinaldo A. Valenzuela

1995-01-01

200

Inventory management plan for a research and development local area network  

SciTech Connect

An inventory management plan is presented for the local area network (LAN) for the Security Aspects of Database Management Systems, a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project examining computer and network security in a data management environment. The inventory management plan establishes procedures to ensure that changes in system hardware and software are identified and controlled. Management tools are described, and the roles of the project manager, inventory control manager, and research team members in the implementation of inventory management are defined.

Strickler, D.; Chester, R.; Ingle, K.; Payne, P.; Rome, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Kertis, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US)

1993-08-01

201

Authoring Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph provides background information about authoring technology and assesses its current status. Part 1 provides basic information about authoring systems and compares them to other authoring approaches. Part 2 examines assumptions made about the...

C. Locatis E. Ullmer V. Carr R. Banvard R. Lo

1992-01-01

202

Spatial distribution of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrients within a local coastal area.  

PubMed

To understand the local-scale distribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and dissolved nutrients, a multiple-detector (222)Rn monitoring survey was undertaken along the Mt. Chokai volcanic coast in northern Japan. The surveys revealed that the highest SGD (calculated to be 6.2 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1), within an area of 2 × 10(4) m(2)) with the greatest nutrient fluxes (sum of NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), and NH(4)(+) (DIN): 9.2 × 10(2) mol d(-1); PO(4)(3-) (DIP): 56 mol d(-1)) is present at the edge of the youngest volcanic lava flow in the area. Recharged groundwater transports nutrients through porous volcanic flows and discharges as SGD near shore. Our results demonstrate that the spatial distribution of SGD in the study area is closely regulated by the local geology and topography. Furthermore, we show that continuous (222)Rn monitoring with a multidetector system at boat speeds of 1-2 knots provides details at a scale one order of magnitude greater than has been reported previously. In addition, the results of our study suggest that SGD-borne DIP may play an important role in the important local oyster production. PMID:22502591

Hosono, Takahiro; Ono, Masahiko; Burnett, William C; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Akimichi, Tomoya

2012-05-15

203

Local Area Signal-to-Noise Ratio (LASNR) algorithm for Image Segmentation  

SciTech Connect

Many automated image-based applications have need of finding small spots in a variably noisy image. For humans, it is relatively easy to distinguish objects from local surroundings no matter what else may be in the image. We attempt to capture this distinguishing capability computationally by calculating a measurement that estimates the strength of signal within an object versus the noise in its local neighborhood. First, we hypothesize various sizes for the object and corresponding background areas. Then, we compute the Local Area Signal to Noise Ratio (LASNR) at every pixel in the image, resulting in a new image with LASNR values for each pixel. All pixels exceeding a pre-selected LASNR value become seed pixels, or initiation points, and are grown to include the full area extent of the object. Since growing the seed is a separate operation from finding the seed, each object can be any size and shape. Thus, the overall process is a 2-stage segmentation method that first finds object seeds and then grows them to find the full extent of the object. This algorithm was designed, optimized and is in daily use for the accurate and rapid inspection of optics from a large laser system (National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA), which includes images with background noise, ghost reflections, different illumination and other sources of variation.

Kegelmeyer, L; Fong, P; Glenn, S; Liebman, J

2007-07-03

204

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

2013-10-01

205

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

SciTech Connect

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany))

1989-04-01

206

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

SciTech Connect

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany)

1989-04-01

207

Local Extinction in the Bird Assemblage in the Greater Beijing Area from 1877 to 2006  

PubMed Central

Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China’s natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877–1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004–2006. Birds recorded as ‘rare’ in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife.

Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

2012-01-01

208

Intellectual Authority and Institutional Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay examines the idea of intellectual authority as reflected in legal and literary theory and reviews empirical studies of effects of institutional authority on acceptance/rejection of papers by juried journals. It refutes ideas of Stanley Fish that an author's background (his/her "institutional authority") are relevant in evaluating the…

Collier, Charles W.

1992-01-01

209

Neural mechanisms of auditory categorization: from across brain areas to within local microcircuits  

PubMed Central

Categorization enables listeners to efficiently encode and respond to auditory stimuli. Behavioral evidence for auditory categorization has been well documented across a broad range of human and non-human animal species. Moreover, neural correlates of auditory categorization have been documented in a variety of different brain regions in the ventral auditory pathway, which is thought to underlie auditory-object processing and auditory perception. Here, we review and discuss how neural representations of auditory categories are transformed across different scales of neural organization in the ventral auditory pathway: from across different brain areas to within local microcircuits. We propose different neural transformations across different scales of neural organization in auditory categorization. Along the ascending auditory system in the ventral pathway, there is a progression in the encoding of categories from simple acoustic categories to categories for abstract information. On the other hand, in local microcircuits, different classes of neurons differentially compute categorical information.

Tsunada, Joji; Cohen, Yale E.

2014-01-01

210

Neural mechanisms of auditory categorization: from across brain areas to within local microcircuits.  

PubMed

Categorization enables listeners to efficiently encode and respond to auditory stimuli. Behavioral evidence for auditory categorization has been well documented across a broad range of human and non-human animal species. Moreover, neural correlates of auditory categorization have been documented in a variety of different brain regions in the ventral auditory pathway, which is thought to underlie auditory-object processing and auditory perception. Here, we review and discuss how neural representations of auditory categories are transformed across different scales of neural organization in the ventral auditory pathway: from across different brain areas to within local microcircuits. We propose different neural transformations across different scales of neural organization in auditory categorization. Along the ascending auditory system in the ventral pathway, there is a progression in the encoding of categories from simple acoustic categories to categories for abstract information. On the other hand, in local microcircuits, different classes of neurons differentially compute categorical information. PMID:24987324

Tsunada, Joji; Cohen, Yale E

2014-01-01

211

A synchronous fiber optic ring local area network for multigigabit/s mixed-traffic communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synchronous-ring fiber optic local area network is reported that facilitates the simultaneous transmission of packet and real-time traffic at gigabit/s rates, minimizes the amount of high-speed logic, and simplifies the user interface to the network. The novelty of the technique is based on (1) suspending in transit around the ring's circumference an integral number of data frames and (2) achieving this condition by skewing the frame clock rate a small amount. Rather than use the whole data frame as one packet destined to a specific user, many individual channels are instead time-multiplexed into the data frame. This technique only becomes feasible for local networks as data rates approach the Gbit/s range. This departure from other synchronous rings results in several advantages both in terms of system performance and hardware simplicity.

Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.

1985-01-01

212

Use of positron emission tomography for presurgical localization of eloquent brain areas in children with seizures.  

PubMed

Successful surgical management of a neoplastic or nonneoplastic seizure focus in close proximity to or within eloquent brain areas relies on precise delineation of the relationship between the lesion and functional brain areas. The aim of this series was to validate the usefulness and test the efficacy of noninvasive presurgical PET mapping of eloquent brain areas to predict surgical morbidity and outcome in children with seizures. To identify eloquent brain areas in 15 children (6 female and 9 male; mean age 11 years) with epileptogenic lesions PET images of regional cerebral blood flow were performed following the administration of [(15)O]water during motor, visual, articulation, and receptive language tasks. These images with coregistered magnetic resonance (MR) images were then used to delineate the anatomic relationship of a seizure focus to eloquent brain areas. Additional PET images using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and [11C]methionine (CMET) were acquired to help localize the seizure focus, as well as characterize the lesion. Patient surgical management decisions were based on PET mapping in combination with coregistered MR images, PET-FDG findings, and the anatomic characteristics of the lesion. At follow-up 1-26 months after surgery, all patients that underwent temporal lobectomy (9 patients) and extratemporal resection (4 patients) for a neoplastic or nonneoplastic seizure focus are seizure-free with minimal postoperative morbidity. Of prime importance, no child sustained a postoperative speech or language deficit. PET imaging was also well tolerated without procedural complications. Based on PET mapping, a nonoperative approach was used for 2 children and a biopsy only was used in one child. When cortical injury involved prenatally determined eloquent cortex, PET demonstrated reorganization of language areas to new adjacent areas or even to the contralateral hemisphere. Integration of anatomical and functional data enhanced the surgical safety, defined optimal surgical approach, delineated the seizure focus from eloquent brain areas, facilitated maximum resection and optimized the timing of surgery, thereby minimizing surgical morbidity while maximizing surgical goals. PET measurements of FDG and CMET uptake were also helpful in localizing the seizure focus and grading the tumors. PET used for brain mapping in children provides the surgeon with strategic preoperative information not readily attainable with traditional invasive Wada testing or intraoperative cortical stimulation. PET mapping may also improve the outcome of extratemporal resections by allowing aggressive seizure focus resection. In addition, serial brain maps may optimize timing for surgical intervention by demonstrating reorganization of eloquent cortex often seen in younger children after cortical injury. Our results suggest that noninvasive presurgical brain mapping has the potential to reduce risk and improve neurologic outcome. PMID:9419031

Duncan, J D; Moss, S D; Bandy, D J; Manwaring, K; Kaplan, A M; Reiman, E M; Chen, K; Lawson, M A; Wodrich, D L

1997-03-01

213

Localization of Broca's area using verb generation tasks in the MEG: Validation against fMRI  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) is routinely used to non-invasively localize language areas. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is being explored as an alternative technique. MEG tasks to localize receptive language are well established although there are no standardized tasks to localize expressive language areas. We developed two expressive language tasks for MEG and validated their localizations against fMRI data. Ten right-handed adolescents (?=17.5 years) were tested with fMRI and MEG on two tasks: verb generation to pictures and verb generation to words. MEG and fMRI data were normalized and overlaid. The number of overlapping voxels activated in fMRI and MEG were counted for each subject, for each task, at different thresholding levels. For picture verb generation, there was 100% concordance between MEG and fMRI lateralization, and for word verb generation, there was 75% concordance. A count showed 79.6% overlap of voxels activated by both MEG and fMRI for picture verb generation and 50.2% overlap for word verb generation. The percentage overlap decreased with increasingly stringent activation thresholds. Our novel MEG expressive language tasks successfully identified neural regions involved in language production and showed high concordance with fMRI laterality. Percentage overlap of activated voxels was also high when validated against fMRI, but showed task-specific and threshold-related effects. The high concordance and high percentage overlap between fMRI and MEG activations confirm the validity of our new MEG task. Furthermore, the higher concordance from the picture verb generation task suggests that this is a promising task for use in the young clinical population.

Pang, Elizabeth W.; Wang, Frank; Malone, Marion; Kadis, Darren S.; Donner, Elizabeth J.

2011-01-01

214

Development of Science and Mathematics Education System Including Teaching Experience of Students in Local Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New reformation project on engineering education, which is supported from 2005 to 2008FY by Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in Kyushu Institute of Technology. In this project, teaching experience of students is introduced into the curriculum of Faculty of Engineering. In the curriculum students try to prepare teaching materials and to teach local school pupils with them by themselves. Teaching experience is remarkably effective for them to strengthen their self-dependence and learning motivation. Science Education Center, Science Laboratory and Super Teachers College were also organized to promote the area cooperation on the education of science and mathematics.

Kage, Hiroyuki

215

Quantum key distribution over an installed multimode optical fiber local area network.  

PubMed

We have investigated the possibility of a multimode fiber link for a quantum channel. Transmission of light in an extremely underfilled mode distribution promises a single-mode-like behavior in the multimode fiber. To demonstrate the performance of the fiber link we performed quantum key distribution, on the basis of the BB84 four-state protocol, over 550 m of an installed multimode optical fiber local area network, and the quantum-bit-error rate of 1.09 percent was achieved. PMID:19503207

Namekata, Naoto; Mori, Shigehiko; Inoue, Shuichiro

2005-12-12

216

Local area network terminal management in support of Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines the questions of user requirements, design considerations, and network environment for a local area network Terminal Management function in support of the Naval Supply Systems Command's Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE). Criteria are developed from this examination. These include process-process communication, virtual terminal, and user defined screen capabilities as well as a negotiated virtual terminal protocol based upon a network virtual terminal concept. Recommended generic and specific of the Terminal Management function applying these criteria are then presented.

Barnes, J. D.

1982-12-01

217

Electromagnetic interference of wireless local area network on electrocardiogram monitoring system: a case report.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect various medical devices. Herein, we report the case of EMI from wireless local area network (WLAN) on an electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. A patient who had a prior myocardial infarction participated in the cardiac rehabilitation program in the sports medicine center of our hospital under the wireless ECG monitoring system. After WLAN was installed, wireless ECG monitoring system failed to show a proper ECG signal. ECG signal was distorted when WLAN was turned on, but it was normalized after turning off the WLAN. PMID:23613696

Chung, Seungmin; Yi, Joohee; Park, Seung Woo

2013-03-01

218

Electromagnetic Interference of Wireless Local Area Network on Electrocardiogram Monitoring System: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect various medical devices. Herein, we report the case of EMI from wireless local area network (WLAN) on an electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. A patient who had a prior myocardial infarction participated in the cardiac rehabilitation program in the sports medicine center of our hospital under the wireless ECG monitoring system. After WLAN was installed, wireless ECG monitoring system failed to show a proper ECG signal. ECG signal was distorted when WLAN was turned on, but it was normalized after turning off the WLAN.

Chung, Seungmin; Yi, Joohee

2013-01-01

219

Locally adaptive unmixing method for lake-water area extraction based on MODIS 250 m bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes in semi-arid and arid regions serve an important function in maintaining regional ecological balance. Thus, the change in lake-water area should be monitored by using remotely sensed images. However, most high-spatial-resolution satellite sensors cannot provide frequent observation data because of the long revisiting cycle and cloud effects. The 250 m MODIS images, as well as red and near-infrared bands, are currently the best monitoring data because of their frequent revisit and medium spatial resolution. Spectral unmixing is commonly used to extract information from coarse-resolution images at the subpixel level. However, in conventional unmixing, endmember selection is problematic, and a sufficient number of bands are necessary to solve the decomposition equations. In this study, we developed a locally adaptive unmixing (LAU) method to extract lake-water area using 250 m MODIS images. In this method, pixels mixed with water and land are initially extracted. Then, two classes of endmembers of each mixed pixel are determined by referring to the reflectivity of the neighboring pixels with different weights. Water abundance in each mixed pixel could be calculated using a single-band image. Owing to the overestimation in the NIR band and the underestimation in the red band, the average of the results from the two bands was set as the ultimate lake-water area to minimize error. This method is not only locally adaptive for endmember selection, but is also independent of the number of bands. This approach would be useful for the frequent monitoring of lake area by using 250 m MODIS images.

Ma, Baodong; Wu, Lixin; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Li, Xingchun; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shenglei

2014-12-01

220

Integrity of local ecosystems and storm water management in residential areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors designed an ecological storm water system in a residential area to replace the conventional underground channels for the collection of storm water so as to reduce the nutrients and sediments discharged. This system contains natural sub-creeks as drainage channels discharging overflow to nearby creeks, an open green trench, a storage pond, and natural sub-creeks. The sub-creeks were designed to be integrated into community landscape, which not only increases the efficiency of water usage, but also improves the aesthetic qualities of the community residence area as required by Agenda 21. This research proved the feasibility of an open storm water collection and utilization system for the design of a community water system.

Wang, Lin; Wang, Weida; Gong, Zhaoguo

2006-10-01

221

Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the contractor. A decision was reached between the NTS regulator and NSTec, opting for alternative authorized limits from DOE Headquarters. In doing so, NSTec personnel performed a dose model using the DOE-approved modeling code RESRAD-BUILD v3.5 to evaluate scenarios. The parameters used in the dose model were conservative. NSTec’s Radiological Engineering Calculation, REC-2010-001, “Public Dose Estimate from the EMAD 25 Ton Locomotive,” concluded that the four scenarios evaluated were below the 25-millirem per year limit, the “likely” dose scenarios met the “few millirem in a year” criteria, and that the EMAD 25-ton locomotive met the radiological requirements to be released with residual radioactivity to the public.

Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

2010-04-08

222

The effect of experience on detectability in local area anatomical noise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate if the ability to detect clinically relevant signals, within local area clinically relevant texture, is related to experience. A two alternative forced choice interleaved staircase experiment was conducted on 101 observers split into three groups; group 1 with diagnostic experience, group 2 with experience of imaging but not of making a diagnosis and group 3 with no experience of imaging. Thresholds of detection within synthesized, clinically representative textures were measured for a 15 mm simulated lesion within an MR T1 weighted brain texture and a 2.5 mm diameter simulated lesion embedded within X-ray trabecular bone texture. The results showed that there was a significant difference in threshold detectability between the groups for the brain texture at the 95% significance level but not for the bone texture. The experienced group did not demonstrate a correlation between their bone and brain results. However, the inexperienced group had a significant correlation between the bone and brain results. There was a significant correlation between increasing experience and detectability but this was dependent on the composition of the local area anatomical noise. PMID:16916803

Brettle, D S; Berry, E; Smith, M A

2007-03-01

223

Risks of an epidemic in a two-layered railway-local area traveling network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of the huge investments into the construction of high speed rails systems in USA, Japan, and China, we present a two-layer traveling network model to study the risks that the railway network poses in case of an epidemic outbreak. The model consists of two layers with one layer representing the railway network and the other representing the local-area transportation subnetworks. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we also study a simplified model that focuses on how a major railway affects an epidemic. We assume that the individuals, when they travel, take on the shortest path to the destination and become non-travelers upon arrival. When an infection process co-evolves with the traveling dynamics, the railway serves to gather a crowd, transmit the disease, and spread infected agents to local area subnetworks. The railway leads to a faster initial increase in infected agents and a higher steady state infection, and thus poses risks; and frequent traveling leads to a more severe infection. These features revealed in simulations are in agreement with analytic results of a simplified version of the model.

Ruan, Zhongyuan; Hui, Pakming; Lin, Haiqing; Liu, Zonghua

2013-01-01

224

Assessing the health impact of local amenities: a qualitative study of contrasting experiences of local swimming pool and leisure provision in two areas of Glasgow  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To assess the health impacts of local public swimming pool and leisure provision. Design: Retrospective qualitative study using focus groups. Reports from two areas with contrasting experience of provision of a public swimming pool (opening and closure) were compared within the context of general reports about health and neighbourhood. Setting: Two deprived neighbourhoods in south Glasgow. Participants: Local adult residents of mixed ages, accessed through local community groups. Main results: In both areas the swimming pool was reported as an important amenity that was linked to health and wellbeing. However, few residents reported regular use of the pool for physical activity. Use of the pool facility for social contact was directly linked to reports of relief of stress and isolation, and improved mental health. Pool closure was one in a series of amenity closures and area decline and was used to represent other area changes. Health impacts were strongly linked to the pool closure. The pool opening was associated with local area regeneration, similar but less prominent links between swimming pool provision and health were reported. Health benefits of social contact were diffuse and linked to other local amenities as well as the new pool facility. Conclusions: Although theoretically linked to increased physical activity, the health benefits conveyed by the swimming pool may be more closely linked to the facilitation of social contact, and a supervised facility for young children. The use of qualitative work to investigate area based change provides rich contextual data to strengthen and explain the reported health impacts.

Thomson, H; Kearns, A; Petticrew, M

2003-01-01

225

Authoring Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

Treviranus, Jutta

226

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2009-10-01

227

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2010-10-01

228

PLAN FOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST AREA. VOLUME V. LOCAL VIEWPOINTS ON RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A public meeting was held in Houston to solicit information and viewpoints on air pollution problems in the Houston area and related research needs. This volume presents the testimonies given by local technical experts, representatives of industrial organizations, educational ins...

229

Modeling of localized reflow in solder/magnetic nanocomposites for area-array packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have modeled the reflow process of FeCo magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based solder composites with eddy current power loss of substrate and magnetic power losses of solder bumps. For an area array package without MNPs when subjected to 300 kHz ac magnetic field, the eddy current power loss can result in excessive temperatures that can cause substrate damage. Temperature profiles with different MNP concentration were simulated and the results showed localized reflow of solders to enable low-temperature assembly. The temperatures at different times and positions in solder composites were analyzed. We also modeled thermal profiles for solder composites with 0.2 wt. % MNP in 1 MHz and 3 MHz magnetic field. Such high field frequency generated larger power losses in MNPs and is shown to increase the heating efficiency.

Xu, Siyang; Pickel, Andrea D.; Prasitthipayong, Anya; Habib, Ashfaque H.; McHenry, Michael E.

2013-05-01

230

A mixed-modem approach to data isolation on a broadband local area network  

SciTech Connect

Data isolation is required to broadband networks to prevent unauthorized access to the sensitive data of other users. Isolation can be obtained by using equipment from more than one manufacturer to introduce incompatibility between nonassociated users. This paper develops the basis for isolation and postulates that four layers of isolation will exist when the proper equipment is chosen. An experimental broadband local area network (LAN) was constructed to verify isolation. This independent network allowed variations in operating conditions without causing interference in normal broadband operations. The measured results indicate that a broadband LAN can transmit data of varying sensitivity levels without compromising data security. When combined with certain administrative restrictions, the mixed-modem technique provides a cost-effective method of sharing a broadband network while maintaining isolation of data having different sensitivities. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Crutcher, R.I.; Ewing, P.D.

1988-01-01

231

An ethnographic study of acute respiratory infections in four local government areas of Nigeria.  

PubMed

An ethnographic study was conducted in four local government areas of Nigeria. The techniques of informal unstructured interviews and participant observation were used. A total of 104 focus group discussions with 53 groups of mothers, 21 groups of grandmothers, and 30 groups of fathers were conducted. Perception of causes of ARI ranged from cold water, to heredity, poor hygiene, exposure to smoke and dust and the supernatural forces. Preventive measures described were related to the perceived causes. For those groups that discussed home remedies to the treatment of ARI, the remedies described for cough included herbal drinks (39% of groups); honey with lemon (19.5%); eating specific vegetables believed to relieve cough (8.4%); and preparations containing palm oil (21.7%). Remedies described for measles included herbal drinks (62%); local tropical creams (24%); and palm wine (13.7%). Those for ear infections included drops of herbal mixtures in the ear (29.4%); putting various type of oil in the ear (38%); plugging the ear with cotton wool previously dipped in honey, or alcohol (17%). The findings of this study have implications for the Health Education Component of the National ARI Control Programm which Nigeria recently embarked upon. There is also the need for research on the efficacy and any possible adverse effects of identified home remedies. PMID:7495206

Oyejide, C O; Oke, E A

1995-03-01

232

Local geoid determination combining gravity disturbances and GPS\\/levelling: a case study in the Lake Nasser area, Aswan, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The use of GPS for height control in an area with existing levelling data requires the determination of a local geoid and\\u000a the bias between the local levelling datum and the one implicitly defined when computing the local geoid. If only scarse gravity\\u000a data are available, the heights of new data may be collected rapidly by determining the ellipsoidal height

C. C. Tscherning; Awar Radwan; A. A. Tealeb; S. M. Mahmoud; M. Abd El-Monum; Ramdan Hassan; I. El-Syaed; K. Saker

2001-01-01

233

Communication with the public in the health-care system: a descriptive study of the use of social media in Local Health Authorities and public hospitals in Italy.  

PubMed

Introduction. In 2010 the Italian Ministry of Health set out recommendations for the use of social technology and Web 2.0, inviting organisations within the Italian national health service (Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, SSN) to equip themselves with instruments. Objectives. 1. to ascertain how many local health authorities (Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ASL) and public hospitals have a presence on the most widely used social media websites in Italy: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube; 2. to find out how well the Facebook, Twitter and YouTube pages of ASLs and public hospitals are known among the general population; 3. to find out how ASLs and public hospitals engage with the general public on social media sites. Materials and methods. The websites of all ASLs and public hospitals across the country were visited to look for the icons of the social media sites under examination. The data considered were publicly available upon access. Results. A total of 245 websites were analysed. 7.34% ASLs and hospitals had social media accounts. 8 organisations had an account on all three of the social media sites considered in the study. Conclusions. The results show a low presence of ASLs and hospitals on social media. Other studies are needed in this field. PMID:24968916

Vanzetta, Marina; Vellone, Ercole; Dal Molin, Alberto; Rocco, Gennaro; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Rosaria, Alvaro

2014-01-01

234

Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar—Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is an X-band weather radar developed to meet the needs of high resolution rainfall data for hydrological applications. The LAWR system and data processing methods are reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part of the paper focuses on calibration. The data processing for handling the partial beam filling issue was found to be essential to the calibration. LAWR uses a different calibration process compared to conventional weather radars, which use a power-law relationship between reflectivity and rainfall rate. Instead LAWR uses a linear relationship of reflectivity and rainfall rate as result of the log transformation carried out by the logarithmic receiver as opposed to the linear receiver of conventional weather radars. Based on rain gauge data for a five month period from a dense network of nine gauges within a 500 × 500 m area and data from a nearby LAWR, the existing calibration method was tested and two new methods were developed. The three calibration methods were verified with three external gauges placed in different locations. It can be concluded that the LAWR calibration uncertainties can be reduced by 50% in two out of three cases when the calibration is based on a factorized 3 parameter linear model instead of a single parameter linear model.

Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik

2010-07-01

235

Utah Authors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A smattering of Utah's talented children's book authors. The Girls: Shannon Hale Jessica Day George One of her books: Dragon Slippers Lisa Mangum The Boys: Brandon Mull His New York Times Bestselling series: Fablehaven James Dashner s Blog One of his books: The 13th Reality ...

Brittani

2009-06-25

236

Military Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

2001-01-01

237

P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ???10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Moran, S. C.; Lees, J. M.; Malone, S. D.

1999-01-01

238

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State,...

2013-07-01

239

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State,...

2010-07-01

240

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State,...

2009-07-01

241

Visiting Author  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

1999-01-01

242

COCA: A secure distributed online certification authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

COCA is a fault-tolerant and secure online certification authority that has been built and deployed both in a local area network and in the Internet. Extremely weak assumptions characterize environments in which COCA's protocols execute correctly: no assumption is made about execution speed and message delivery delays; channels are expected to exhibit only intermittent reliability; and with 3 may be

Lidong Zhou; Fred B. Schneider; Robbert Van Renesse

2002-01-01

243

A simple and versatile decentralized control for slotted ALOHA, reservation ALOHA, and local area networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, decentralized control for reducing the delays and stabilizing random-access channels is presented. The control, which is based on a computationally efficient recursive implementation of the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) predictor of the channel backlog, applies to slotted ALOHA, to reservation ALOHA, and to local area networks (LANs) with carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA) or CSMA with collision detection (CSMA/CD) protocols. The MMSE predictor controller (MMSE-PC) can stabilize the slotted ALOHA for all traffic rates not exceeding e exp -1, and it can achieve stable throughput arbitrarily close to one with finite delays in the reservation ALOHA and in LANs. Extensive simulation has shown that the MMSE-PC performs extremely well in all three random-access environments. For the implementation of the MMSE-PC in LANs, synchronization of transmissions is not required but it is required in slotted ALOHA and reservation ALOHA. The MMSE-PC has been implemented in hardware and tested in asynchronous LANs.

Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

1988-06-01

244

A study of topologies and protocols for fiber optic local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.

Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.

1985-01-01

245

Local area network for the plasma diagnostics system of MFTF-B  

SciTech Connect

The MFTF-B Plasma Diagnostics System will be implemented in stages, beginning with a start-up set of diagnostics and evolving toward a basic set. The start-up set contains 12 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 800 Kbytes of data per machine pulse; the basic set contains 23 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 8 Mbytes of data per pulse. Each diagnostic is controlled by a Foundation System consisting of a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer connected to CAMAC via a 5 Mbits/second serial fiber-optic link and connected to a supervisory computer (Perkin-Elmer 3250) via a 9600 baud RS232 link. The Foundation System is a building block used throughout MFTF-B for control and status monitoring. However, its 9600 baud link to the supervisor presents a bottleneck for the large data transfers required by diagnostics. To overcome this bottleneck the diagnostics Foundation Systems will be connected together with an additional LSI-11/23 called the master to form a Local Area Network (LAN) for data acquisition.

Lau, N.H.; Minor, E.G.

1983-01-01

246

Unavailability of Essential Obstetric Care Services in a Local Government Area of South-West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the findings at baseline in a multi-phase project that aimed at reducing maternal mortality in a local government area (LGA) of South-West Nigeria. The objectives were to determine the availability of essential obstetric care (EOC) services in the LGA and to assess the quality of existing services. The first phase of this interventional study, which is the focus of this paper, consisted of a baseline health facility and needs assessment survey using instruments adapted from the United Nations guidelines. Twenty-one of 26 health facilities surveyed were public facilities, and five were privately owned. None of the facilities met the criteria for a basic EOC facility, while only one private facility met the criteria for a comprehensive EOC facility. Three facilities employed a nurse and/or a midwife, while unskilled health attendants manned 46% of the facilities. No health worker in the LGA had ever been trained in lifesaving skills. There was a widespread lack of basic EOC equipment and supplies. The study concluded that there were major deficiencies in the supply side of obstetric care services in the LGA, and EOC was almost non-existent. This result has implications for interventions for the reduction of maternal mortality in the LGA and in Nigeria.

Fatusi, Adesegun O.; Orji, Ernest O.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Owolabi, Olabimpe O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Omideyi, Adekunbi K.; Adewuyi, Alfred A.

2007-01-01

247

Wireless body area network node localization using small-scale spatial information.  

PubMed

We present a new scheme to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Instantaneous atmospheric air pressure readings are compared to map nodes in physical space. This enhancement enables unassisted sensor node placement, providing a practical solution to obtain and continuously monitor node locations without anchor nodes or beacons. To validate this localization scheme, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the performance and limitations. Based on a 60 cm separation between nodes, indicative of the expected separation between limbs and placement positions along a patient's body, the measurements consistently exceeded p -value reliability within a 95% confidence interval. We also present and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement aiming to reduce false-positive (Type I) errors in conventional accelerometer-based on-body fall detection schemes. Our statistical analysis has shown that by continuously monitoring the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate “fall-like” motions from actual falls. PMID:24592472

Lo, Geoffrey; Gonzalez-Valenzuela, Sergio; Leung, Victor C M

2013-05-01

248

Local-area health monitoring of aircraft via piezoelectric actuator/sensor patches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-frequency-electrical-impedance-signature-based technique for structural integrity monitoring is presented. The technique which has been under investigation at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures at Virginia Tech for the last 18 months is unique and different from conventional non-destructive damage identification and structural integrity monitoring methods. It relies on tracking the high-frequency (typically > 50 kHz) point impedance of the structure to identify damage. At such high frequencies, the technique is comparable in sensitivity to sophisticated traditional NDE techniques, such as ultrasonics, and is capable of qualitatively detecting incipient-type damage by looking at changes in structural impedance. As yet, it can be implemented in a remote sensing scenario with small non- intrusive piezoelectric (PZT) materials. The structure's high-frequency electrical impedance signature, which is functionally equivalent to its mechanical impedance signature, is obtained through a bonded PZT functioning both as actuator and sensor. A statistic algorithm based on the difference in the electrical impedance of a healthy and a damaged structure, is then applied to extract an index of the health of the structure. High-frequency excitation, which is greatly facilitated by the electrically driven low-power compact PZT patch, assures a clearly visible change in the impedance/vibration signature even for very minor damage/changes. It also limits the actuation/sensing area to a small region, `local-area', close to the PZT patch. Because of the limited actuation/sensing area, the impedance signature is affected only by changes in the structural properties close to the sensor-actuator and is insensitive to changes in far-field boundary conditions, mass loading, etc., which may be part of the normal usage of the structure. As a case study, an application to a real complex aircraft structure is presented. Experimental proof that very minor alterations in the structure are easily identified and the fact that the detection range of the bonded PZT actuator/sensor is constrained to its immediate neighborhood is presented.

Chaudhry, Zaffir A.; Joseph, T.; Sun, Fanping P.; Rogers, Craig A.

1995-05-01

249

Evidential Authorization*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider interaction of principals where each principal has its own policy and different principals may not trust each other. In one scenario the principals could be pharmaceutical companies, hospitals, biomedical labs and health related government institutions. In another scenario principals could be navy fleets of different and not necessarily friendly nations. In spite of the complexity of interaction, one may want to ensure that certain properties remain invariant. For example, in the navy scenario, each fleet should have enough information from other fleets to avoid unfortunate incidents. Furthermore, one wants to use automated provers to prove invariance. A natural approach to this and many other important problems is to provide a high-level logic-based language for the principals to communicate. We do just that. Three years ago two of us presented the first incarnation of Distributed Knowledge Authorization Language (DKAL). Here we present a new and much different incarnation of DKAL that we call Evidential DKAL. Statements communicated in Evidential DKAL are supposed to be accompanied with sufficient justifications. In general, we construe the term “authorization” in the acronym “DKAL” rather liberally; DKAL is essentially a general policy language. There is a wide spectrum of potential applications of KAL. One ambitious goal is to provide a framework for establishing and maintaining invariants.

Blass, Andreas; Gurevich, Yuri; Moskal, Micha?; Neeman, Itay

250

Precise ego-localization in urban areas using Laserscanner and high accuracy feature maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust ego-localization is an essential technology for future intelligent vehicles and cooperative applications. In this paper a new localization algorithm based on IBEO AS Laserscanners and high accuracy digital maps is proposed. Algorithms to create accurate grid maps with Laserscanners and the extraction of static objects used as landmarks for ego-localization is introduced. The key problem in landmark navigation in

Thorsten Weiss; Nico Kaempchen; K. Dietmayer

2005-01-01

251

Immunohistochemical localization of apoprotein B in aortas from hyperlipemic swine. Preferential accumulation in lesion-prone areas.  

PubMed

In hyperlipemic swine, areas of the aortic arch that accumulate intravenously injected Evans blue dye (blue areas) appear to be more susceptible to early atherogenesis than adjacent areas that are devoid of dye uptake (white areas). We used immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the localization of apoprotein-B (apoB) in these blue and white areas, and in intimal cell masses (ICMs) of the abdominal aortas obtained from hyperlipemic and normolipemic swine. The results showed that before aortic lesions were visible grossly or microscopically, extracellular accumulations of apoB occurred preferentially in the thickened intima of blue areas and in ICMs of the abdominal aorta. Normal white areas in the aortic arch and abdominal aortas, and in the aortas obtained from control swine showed negligible immunoreactivity. Thus, the accumulation of apoB at anatomic sites predilected to early atherogenesis lends further evidence linking these lipoproteins with atherogenesis. PMID:6383260

Feldman, D L; Hoff, H F; Gerrity, R G

1984-10-01

252

Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models. Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. Methods A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI), issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA) from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data. The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia. Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. Results The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001). An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007) provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR) of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]). The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately predicted. The error parameters have shown the smallest values for a monthly model of environmental changes. Conclusion Remote-sensed data were coupled with field study data in order to drive a malaria transmission model. Several studies have shown that the NDVI presents significant correlations with climate variables, such as precipitations particularly in Sudanese savannah environments. Non-linear model combining environmental variables, predisposition factors and transmission pattern can be used for community level risk evaluation.

Gaudart, Jean; Toure, Ousmane; Dessay, Nadine; Dicko, A lassane; Ranque, Stephane; Forest, Loic; Demongeot, Jacques; Doumbo, Ogobara K

2009-01-01

253

Most likely locations of large earthquakes in the Kanto and Tokai areas, Japan, based on the local recurrence times  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the hypothesis that minima in local recurrence time, TL, or equivalently maxima in local probability, PL, may map asperities in the Kanto and Tokai areas of Japan, where the earthquake catalog of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) is complete at the M=1.5 (M1.5) level. We mapped TL (PL) based on the a-

Max Wyss; Shozo Matsumura

2002-01-01

254

Endemic goitre prevalence in Ifedapo Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

As part of efforts aimed at providing an adequate data base for the control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in Nigeria, we undertook an extensive goitre survey of Ifedapo Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, which lies within the goitre-belt of South-western Nigeria. Primary school pupils aged between six and twelve years were the subjects of the survey. From each of ten health districts of the LGA, one primary school was included in the survey. For each school, the entire school population was assessed for goitre by palpation and goitre graded according to WHO/ICCIDD criteria. The survey included 3599 pupils (1889 males and 1710 females). The total goitre rate (TGR) for the LGA was 23.4% while the visible goitre rate (VGR) was 6.4%. The highest goitre rate was recorded in District I (Sango, Saki) TGR = 39.5%; VGR = 17.3%), while the lowest rate was seen in District 4 (Wasengare) TGR = 5.2%; VGR = 0.7%). Females had higher goitre rates than males (TGR: 25.7% vs 21.3%; VGR: 7.5% vs 5.5%). Most of the goitres were Grades IA (36.7%) or IB (35.7%). Goitre grades 2 and 3 accounted for only 27.3% and 0.2%, respectively. These results show that there is a mild to moderate IDD problem in Ifedapo LGA. The implications of this finding, in view of the known deleterious consequences of IDD, are discussed and the need for correction highlighted. PMID:10456136

Ojule, A C; Abbiyesuku, F M; Osotimehin, B O

1998-01-01

255

Assessment of primary factors causing positive or negative local perceptions on protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of natural resources by strict rules at various legal statuses can generally cause damnification for the local people who are the users of this resource. In case the benefit loss that happens by reason of the prohibitions and limitations that are brought related to the usage of the resource is not corrected and local awareness is not created;

Hasan Alkan; Mehmet Korkmaz; Ahmet Tolunay

2009-01-01

256

Use of Positron Emission Tomography for Presurgical Localization of Eloquent Brain Areas in Children with Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful surgical management of a neoplastic or nonneoplastic seizure focus in close proximity to or within eloquent brain areas relies on precise delineation of the relationship between the lesion and functional brain areas. The aim of this series was to validate the usefulness and test the efficacy of noninvasive presurgical PET mapping of eloquent brain areas to predict surgical morbidity

Johnny D. Duncan; David Moss; Daniel J. Bandy; Kim Manwaring; Allen M. Kaplan; Eric M. Reiman; Kewei Chen; Michael A. Lawson; David L. Wodrich

1997-01-01

257

Local polynomial inference for small area statistics: estimation, validation and prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small area statistics has received considerable attention in the last two decades from both public and private sectors. More recently, semiparametric mixed-effects models have been proposed for a more flexible modelling. Surprisingly, although model specification testing is of particular importance in small area statistics, this has been less explored. Its importance is based on the fact that small area statistics

Stefan Sperlich; María José Lombardía

2010-01-01

258

PENTANET--A Report of the United States Air Force Technical Panel for a Pentagon-Wide Local Area Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In November 1981, the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force directed Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) Headquarters to provide an individual to serve as chairman of the Air Force Local Area Communication Network Panel. The Panel was established to...

R. A. Creamer C. E. Dolberg

1983-01-01

259

Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

2012-01-01

260

Fabrication of large-area metal nanoparticle arrays by nanosphere lithography for localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon that is characteristic of gold and silver nanoparticles has applications in areas such as portable and remote chemical and biological sensing. However, fabrication of metal nanoparticle arrays with high uniformity and repeatability, at a reasonable cost, is difficult. Nanosphere lithography (NSL) has been used to produce inexpensive nanoparticle arrays, through the use of

R. C. Denomme; K. Iyer; M. Kreder; B. Smith; P. M. Nieva

2011-01-01

261

Estimation of the paleopole positions from potential field anomalies of a local area in northern central Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies of a local area in northern central Turkey obtained from the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey (MTA) used to estimate the source body magnetization, which can also reveal the remanent magnetization component. Rocks collected from the outcrops suggest a mafic origin for the gravity and magnetic anomalies. Possible paleopole positions of latitude

F. Bilim; A. Ates

2004-01-01

262

A reasoning engine for intruders' localization in wide open areas using a network of cameras and RFIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide open areas represent challenging scenarios for surveillance systems, since sensory data can be affected by noise, uncertainty, and distractors. Therefore, the tasks of localizing and identifying targets (e.g., people) in such environments suggest to go beyond the use of camera-only deployments. In this paper, we propose an innovative system relying on the joint use of cameras and RFIDs, allowing

Rita Cucchiara; Michele Fornaciari; Razia Haider; Federica Mandreoli; Riccardo Martoglia; Andrea Prati; Simona Sassatelli

2011-01-01

263

Local area mask patterning of extreme ultraviolet lithography reticles for native defect analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the nature and behavior of native defects on EUV reticles, particularly their printability, is of critical importance to the successful implementation of EUV lithography for high volume manufacturing, as will be demonstrated in the upcoming chapters. Previous defect characterization work has focused on the examination of programmed defects, native defects on blank reticles, and unaligned native defects on patterned reticles. Each of these approaches has drawbacks, which will be discussed in detail, and the aim of this research is to address these deficiencies by developing a method to pattern features of interest over native defects, enabling the direct observation of their effect on lithography. The development of this Local Area Mask Patterning, or LAMP process, posed significant challenges, each of which are discussed in detail in the following chapters. Chapter 1 describes the history of semiconductor lithography and how EUV lithography came to be the leading candidate for the manufacture of future technology nodes. Chapter 2 describes EUV technology in more detail, presenting some of the major challenges facing its implementation, and how the LAMP project can contribute to their solution. Since electron beam lithography is used to create reticles for the LAMP project, an overview of this technology is provided in Chapter 3 below. After the reticle has been patterned using EBL, the pattern must be transferred to the absorber layer, and Chapter 4 describes a method developed for absorber patterning using a bench-top lift-off lithography technique. The major disadvantage of using lift-off lithography is the tendency of the process to re-deposit absorber particles across the reticle surface, and there is no tool available at CNSE to perform patterned reticle defect inspection. To address this need the functionality of the VB300 was extended to allow the inspection of the patterned reticle using the VB300 backscatter electron SEM imaging capability. The development of this functionality and an analysis of its effectiveness are detailed in Chapter 5. If the effect of the targeted defect on lithography is to be accurately gauged then the line-width of the pattern must be well controlled. To this end proximity effect correction (PEC) parameters for the EUV reticles were determined using a method described in Chapter 6. Each of the challenges of lithography, lift-off process development, defect inspection and PEC were successfully overcome in the course of this study, and Chapter 7 presents the results of exposures on the AIT and MET showing aligned-to-defect EUV lithography.

Lyons, Adam

264

Bandwidth characteristics of multimedia data traffic on a local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited spacecraft communication links call for users to investigate the potential use of video compression and multimedia technologies to optimize bandwidth allocations. The objective was to determine the transmission characteristics of multimedia data - motion video, text or bitmap graphics, and files transmitted independently and simultaneously over an ethernet local area network. Commercial desktop video teleconferencing hardware and software and Intel's proprietary Digital Video Interactive (DVI) video compression algorithm were used, and typical task scenarios were selected. The transmission time, packet size, number of packets, and network utilization of the data were recorded. Each data type - compressed motion video, text and/or bitmapped graphics, and a compressed image file - was first transmitted independently and its characteristics recorded. The results showed that an average bandwidth of 7.4 kilobits per second (kbps) was used to transmit graphics; an average bandwidth of 86.8 kbps was used to transmit an 18.9-kilobyte (kB) image file; a bandwidth of 728.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 15 frames per second (fps); and a bandwidth of 75.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 1.5 fps. Average packet sizes were 933 bytes for graphics, 498.5 bytes for the image file, 345.8 bytes for motion video at 15 fps, and 341.9 bytes for motion video at 1.5 fps. Simultaneous transmission of multimedia data types was also characterized. The multimedia packets used transmission bandwidths of 341.4 kbps and 105.8kbps. Bandwidth utilization varied according to the frame rate (frames per second) setting for the transmission of motion video. Packet size did not vary significantly between the data types. When these characteristics are applied to Space Station Freedom (SSF), the packet sizes fall within the maximum specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The uplink of imagery to SSF may be performed at minimal frame rates and/or within seconds of delay, depending on the user's allocated bandwidth. Further research to identify the acceptable delay interval and its impact on human performance is required. Additional studies in network performance using various video compression algorithms and integrated multimedia techniques are needed to determine the optimal design approach for utilizing SSF's data communications system.

Chuang, Shery L.; Doubek, Sharon; Haines, Richard F.

1993-01-01

265

Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1997 all current local geodynamic studies in the area of the Polish and Czech parts of the Sudeten and the Sudetic Foreland have been associated with annual periodic GPS campaigns, epoch measurements. The most epochs consisted of more than twelve observation hours and some of them kept on two or three 24-hour observations. Experience collected by international research teams carrying out geodynamic researches with the GPS technique in seismically active areas (USA, Japan) proved that more information can give permanent measurements. However, the Sudeten area, regarded as an area of the weak tectonic activity, can be hardly covered with the dense network of GNSS stations from economic reasons. Hence rational using of existing permanent GPS stations located in studied area and in its vicinity detects the coordinate changes that cannot be appointed from periodic campaign data and that, on the other hand, have rather regional than local character. Creating the spatial models of irregularities of the continuous signals should improve results of the epoch measurements. From this viewpoint, in this project authors used measurement data of chosen permanent GPS stations located in the area: the EPN stations, ASG-EUPOS stations, GEONAS stations and all epoch observations. These data were gained as part of research projects carried out within 1997-2009 period, as well as during new supplementing campaigns realized in the frame of the project N526278940 in the 2011 and 2012 years. Reprocessing of all the permanent and epoch data performed by the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software (V5.2) was performed using EPN guidelines for the processing, reference frame realization and the usage of physical models (atmosphere, Earth rotation, etc.). Standardized results of processing the aggregated GPS network, including permanent stations and all local networks on the area of research, serve for conducting new geodynamic interpretation. Further parameters that estimate the linear model of position changes of test point coordinates based on results of the permanent and epoch observations had been performed. Then, applying linear site velocities, the surface deformation model for the Sudeten area was compiled. Results of this research constitute the base both for recognizing tectonic impacts to the area and for potential hazard assessments. This research had been granted by the Polish National Science Centre, project No. N526 278940, and accomplished in cooperation of specialists from the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague and the Polish State Geological Institute, Lower Silesia Branch in Wroclaw.

Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

2014-05-01

266

Local housing price index analysis in wind-disaster-prone areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of severe wind events on the mean and variance of housing price indices of six metropolitan\\u000a statistical areas (MSA) that are vulnerable to hurricanes and\\/or tornadoes. The research focuses on three areas that experienced\\u000a significant tornado activity (Fort Worth-Arlington, Nashville, and Oklahoma City) and three hurricane-prone areas (Corpus\\u000a Christi, Miami, and Wilmington, NC). An econometric

Bradley T. Ewing; Jamie B. Kruse; Yongsheng Wang

2007-01-01

267

Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. DESIGN:: A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:: The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. RESULTS:: Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). CONCLUSIONS:: Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance. PMID:23760310

Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

2013-06-11

268

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2013-04-01

269

Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada ...

D. Frenette J. Gwin

2010-01-01

270

Town and Culture: New Responses to Cultural Problems. Bremen Declaration. Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany, 25-27 May 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This declaration details the 68 motions adopted by the representatives of European towns taking part in the Conference on Town and Culture. The meeting was jointly organized by the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe and the Council for Cultural Cooperation. Recommendations focus on the following: (1) that new means of…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

271

Impact of short interval SMS digital data on wind vector determination for a severe local storms area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of 5 minute interval SMS-2 visible digital image data in analyzing severe local storms is examined using wind vectors derived from cloud tracking on time lapsed sequence of geosynchronous satellite images. The cloud tracking areas are located in the Central Plains, where on 6 May 1975, hail-producing thunderstorms occurred ahead of a well defined dry line. The results demonstrate that satellite-derived wind vectors and their associated divergence fields complement conventional meteorological analyses in describing the conditions preceding severe local storm development.

Peslen, C. A.

1979-01-01

272

77 FR 16978 - Special Local Regulation; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display Spectator Viewing Areas; Hudson...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Display Spectator Viewing Areas; Hudson River; New York, NY AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York, NY...certain vessels from portions of the Hudson River before, during, and...

2012-03-23

273

DEVELOPMENT OF CFD SIMULATION APPLICATIONS FOR LOCAL-SCALE AREAS AND POTENTIAL INTERFACE WITH MESOSCALE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation summarizes developments of ongoing applications of fine-scale (geometry specific) CFD simulations to urban areas within atmospheric boundary layers. Enabling technology today and challenges for the future are discussed. There is a challenging need to develop a ...

274

High Binaural Coherence Determines Successful Sound Localization and Increased Activity in Posterior Auditory Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Our brain continuously receives complex combina- tions of sounds originating from different sources and relating to different events in the external world. Timing differences between the two ears can be used to localize sounds in space, but only when the inputs to the two ears have similar spectrotemporal profiles (high binaural coherence). We used fMRI to investi- gate any

U. Zimmer; E. Macaluso

2005-01-01

275

Tuberculosis in an Urban Area in China: Differences between Urban Migrants and Local Residents  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006–2008, among whom 440 (32.6%) were local residents and 908 (67.4%) were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population) had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population), and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk?=?0.92, 95% CI: 0.91–0.94, p<0.001), poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR?=?4.12, 95% CI: 2.65–5.72, p<0.001), and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR?=?0.20, 95% CI: 0.13–0.26, p?=?0.013) were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants). Conclusions/Significance A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006–2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT).

Shen, Xin; Xia, Zhen; Li, Xiangqun; Wu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yuan; Guo, Juntao; Chen, Jing; Hong, Jianjun; Yuan, Zheng'an; Pan, Qichao; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Sun, Guomei; Gao, Qian; Mei, Jian

2012-01-01

276

Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

1990-01-01

277

Measurements for enhanced bandwidth performance over 62.5-?m multimode fiber in short-wavelength local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) FO-2.2.1 Working Group on the modal dependence of bandwidth has conducted industrywide interlaboratory comparisons on measurements aimed at improving the bandwidth performance of short-wavelength, laser-based, multimode-fiber local area networks (LANs). Measurements of both transceiver encircled flux and fiber restricted-mode-launch bandwidth can together successfully predict an enhanced system performance, provided that the proper limiting criteria are

J. B. Schlager; Michael J. Hackert; Petar Pepeljugoski; J. Gwinn

2003-01-01

278

Autonet: A High-Speed, Self-Configuring Local Area Network Using Point-to-Point Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonet is a self-configuring local area network composed of switches interconnectedby 100 Mbit\\/second, full-duplex, point-to-point links. The switches contain 12 ports thatare internally connected by a full crossbar. Switches use cut-through to achieve a packetforwarding latency as low as 2 microseconds per switch. Any switch port can be cabled toany other switch port or to a host network controller.

Michael D. Schroeder; Andrew D. Birrell; Michael Burrows; Hal Murray; Roger M. Needham; Thomas L. Rodeheffer; Edwin H. Satterthwaite; Charles P. Thacker

1991-01-01

279

Large area nanoscale patterning of silicon surfaces by parallel local oxidation.  

PubMed

The homogeneity and the reproducibility of parallel local oxidation have been improved by introducing a thin film of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) between the stamp and the silicon surface. The flexibility of the polymer film enables a homogeneous contact of the stamp with the silicon surface to be achieved. The oxides obtained yield better aspect ratios compared with the ones created with no PMMA layer. The pattern is formed when a bias voltage is applied between the stamp and the silicon surface for 1 min. The patterning can be done by a step and repeat technique and is reproducible across a centimetre length scale. Once the oxide nanostructures have been created, the polymer is removed by etching in acetone. Finally, parallel local oxidation is applied to fabricate silicon nanostructures and templates for the growth of organic molecules. PMID:19875876

Losilla, N S; Martínez, J; García, R

2009-11-25

280

Cervical cancer screening in less-developed areas should be tailored to local conditions  

Cancer.gov

The best approach to detecting cervical cancer in HIV-positive women living in research limited countries such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa combines commonly used testing methods tailored to local levels of development and medical infrastructure, according to a study by researchers from and the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa and the University of North Carolina, home of the UNC Lineberger Cancer Center.

281

Returns to Local-Area Healthcare Spending: Evidence from Health Shocks to Patients Far From Home  

PubMed Central

Healthcare spending varies widely across markets, and previous empirical studies find little evidence that higher spending translates into better health outcomes. The main innovation in this paper exploits this cross-sectional variation in hospital spending in a new way by considering patients who are exposed to healthcare systems not designed for them: patients far from home when a health emergency strikes. Visitors to Florida who become ill in high-spending areas have significantly lower mortality rates compared to visitors in lower-spending areas. The results are robust within groups of similar visitors and within groups of destinations that appear to be close demand substitutes—areas that likely attract similar visitors.

Doyle, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

282

Herpetic imprint on privileged areas of its target organs: local latency and reactivation in herpetic keratitis.  

PubMed

Herpetic ocular disease is still one of the major causes of corneal blindness. Due to its unique morphological structure, the eye is one of the most studied organs--in both clinical and experimental models of herpetic infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can react with human host cells to produce cytocidal infection, persistent infection, or latent infection. Whilst the establishment of viral latency in the sensory ganglia was demonstrated and extensively studied, recent evidences based on: (a) demonstration of viral particles by electron microscopy and of HSV positive antigen cells in human corneae with inactive stromal keratitis; (b) experimental animal and in vitro studies with the use of organ cultures, co-cultivation methods and molecular biology techniques; suggest the possibility of local latency in non-neural tissues as an additional source of dormant viruses that could reactivate and lead to local reinfection of the affected target organ. Reactivation of a herpetic infection may therefore require both the existence of a dormant herpetic reservoir in the ganglia, and a predilected target organ with possible independent mechanisms of local latency and reactivation. Possible mechanisms of triggers for reactivation of herpetic ocular disease are discussed. PMID:2855657

Gamus, D; Romano, A

1988-01-01

283

Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket;

Douglas Frenette Jeremy Gwin

2010-01-01

284

Regionalization in local public health systems: public health preparedness in the Washington metropolitan area.  

PubMed

The Washington metropolitan area was closely examined to understand how these regional preparedness structures have been organized, implemented, and governed, as well as to assess the likely impact of such regional structures on public health preparedness and public health systems more generally. It was found that no single formal regional structure for the public health system exists in the Washington metropolitan area, although the region is designated by the Department of Homeland Security as the National Capital Region (NCR). In fact, the vast majority of preparedness planning and response activities in this area are the result of voluntary self-organization through both governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Some interviewed felt that this was an optimal arrangement, as personal relationships prove crucial in responding to a public health emergency and an informal response is often more timely than a formal response. The biggest challenge for public health preparedness in the NCR is incorporating all federal government agencies in the area in NCR preparedness planning. PMID:18763408

Stoto, Michael A; Morse, Lindsey

2008-01-01

285

Plants used for female reproductive health care in Oredo local government area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of maternal health in Nigeria is poor and can be attributed to inadequate access to reproduce- tive health services, poverty and in some areas cultural resistance. Consequently, many rural people in Nigeria turn to ethno-medicinal health care systems due to accessibility, affordability, availability and an inherent trust in this method. These systems are threatened by erosion of plant

Folu M. Dania Ogbe; L. Eruogun; Marilyn Uwagboe

2009-01-01

286

Localization of the motor hand area to a knob on the precentral gyrus. A new landmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we reliable landmark for identifying the precentral gyrus directly. We therefore conclude that neural elements involved in motor have evaluated the anatomical location of the motor hand area. The segment of the precentral gyrus that most often hand function are located in a characteristic 'precentral knob' which is a reliable landmark for identifying

T. A. Yousry; U. D. Schmid; H. Alkadhi; D. Schmidt; A. Peraud; A. Buettner; P. Winkler

1997-01-01

287

TCP\\/IP Throughput Performance Evaluation for ATM Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TCP\\/IP Internet protocol suite constitutes one of the most widely used protocol suites in the computer communication area. Since a large number of different workstations, hosts and even PCs are interconnected using TCP\\/IP, ATM-based networks must also be capable of carrying and supporting these protocols. Although TCP\\/IP has been designed for use over connectionless networks, it can also be

I. Andrikopoulos; T. Örs; M. Matijasevic; H. Leitold; S. P. W. Jones; R. Posch

1996-01-01

288

Localization of the motor hand area using transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The anatomical location of the motor area of the hand may be revealed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The motor cortex representation of the intrinsic hand muscles consists of a knob-like structure. This is omega- or epsilon-shaped in the axial plane and hook-shaped in the sagittal plane. As this knob lies on the surface of the brain, it

B Boroojerdi; H Foltys; T Krings; U Spetzger; A Thron; R Töpper

1999-01-01

289

A computer program for the localization of small areas in roentgenological images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and associated algorithm are presented which allow a simple and accurate determination to be made of the location of small symmetric areas presented in roentgenological images. The method utilizes an operator to visually spot object positions but eliminates the need for critical positioning accuracy on the operator's part. The rapidity of measurement allows results to be evaluated on-line. Parameters associated with the algorithm have been analyzed, and methods to facilitate an optimum choice for any particular experimental setup are presented.

Keller, R. A.; Baily, N. A.

1976-01-01

290

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were conducted before and after the relocation the main airport of Norway in 1998 in one area near each airport. The relationship between individual noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events, percentage of time aircraft were audible, and LAsel) for the aircraft events. The analyses included the ``situation'' in which data were collected (before or after the relocation), and variables describing the recreational context. A strong effect of the ``situation'' was found in both cases, but the size of the effect was influenced by the choice of exposure variable in one of the study areas. Other context variables were also influencing annoyance. The effect of the situation (before/after a change in exposure) on the dose-response relationship may be influenced by the initial noise levels, the amount of change, and the time elapsed since the change at the time of the second survey. Further research should investigate the significance of these variables.

Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

2004-07-01

291

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables.  

PubMed

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were conducted before and after the relocation the main airport of Norway in 1998 in one area near each airport. The relationship between individual noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events, percentage of time aircraft were audible, and LAsel) for the aircraft events. The analyses included the "situation" in which data were collected (before or after the relocation), and variables describing the recreational context. A strong effect of the "situation" was found in both cases, but the size of the effect was influenced by the choice of exposure variable in one of the study areas. Other context variables were also influencing annoyance. The effect of the situation (before/after a change in exposure) on the dose-response relationship may be influenced by the initial noise levels, the amount of change, and the time elapsed since the change at the time of the second survey. Further research should investigate the significance of these variables. PMID:15295993

Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

2004-07-01

292

Radon concentration in soil gas around local disjunctive tectonic zones in the Krakow area.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate radon in the vicinity of geologic fault zones within the Krakow region of Poland, and to determine the influence of such formations on enhanced radon concentrations in soil. Radon ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) concentration measurements in soil gas (using ionization chamber AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO and diffusion chambers with CR-39 detectors), as well as radioactive natural isotopes of radium, thorium and potassium in soil samples (using gamma ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors), were performed. Site selection was based on a geological map of Krakow. Geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar and shallow acoustic seismic) were applied to recognize the geological structure of the area and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and thoron in soil gas were found in the study area when compared with those observed in an earlier survey covering Krakow agglomeration. For (222)Rn, the arithmetic mean of registered concentration values was 39 kBq/m(3) (median: 35.5 kBq/m(3)). For (220)Rn, the arithmetic mean was 10.8 kBq/m(3) and median 11.8 kBq/m(3). PMID:15511556

Swako?, J; Kozak, K; Paszkowski, M; Gradzi?ski, R; ?oskiewicz, J; Mazur, J; Janik, M; Bogacz, J; Horwacik, T; Olko, P

2005-01-01

293

Injection of plasmin in local area: a new treatment option for nasal polypsis.  

PubMed

Nasal polypsis(NP), is one of the most difficult challenges in otorhinolaryngology, as the aetiology and pathophysiology are largely unknown unfortunately, medical treatment is unsatisfactory, and, because of frequent recurrences, repeated surgical interventions are often necessary. Now in clinic, the therapy for NP involves a combination of observation, medical, and surgical treatments. But with both treatments of medical and surgical, recurrences are still common. In nasal polypsis, although fibrotic changes do not dominate, myofibroblasts are significantly more abundant in the pedicle where the polyps can be thought to "grow" than in the central or tip areas. But in the "health" nasal mucosa, myofibroblasts can not been observed. Under normal conditions, when the injury is recovery, myofibroblats subsequent disappear from the injured site due to apoptosis. It is very interesting that myofibroblasts can survival in nasal polyps. We hypothesize here that, in nasal polyps, myofibroblasts adopt strategies to avoid apoptosis and consequent clearance by the immune system. In the "grow" area where the conditions are unchecked, deranged or repeated tissue repair, myofibroblasts, as the key factors, push about the formation or growth of the nasal polyps. So we try injecting plasmin in the pedicle of nasal polypsis to promote myofibroblast apoptosis, which may lead to a new treatment option for this incapacitating disease. PMID:19450934

Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shixi

2009-11-01

294

XAFS imaging of Tsukuba gabbroic rocks: area analysis of chemical composition and local structure.  

PubMed

Gabbroic rocks were collected at Mount Tsukuba in Japan, and their XAFS images were studied using a projection-type X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscope, which is a powerful new tool recently developed for extremely rapid imaging. The instrument employs a grazing-incidence arrangement in order that primary X-rays illuminate the whole sample surface, as well as parallel-beam optics and an extremely close geometry in order to detect XRF by a high-performance X-ray CCD system with 1024 x 1024 pixels. The XRF image indicated that black amphibole and white feldspar, both of which are typical mineral textures of the rock, contain iron. The origin has been suggested to be several small yellowish-brown minerals contained there. The XAFS imaging has been carried out by repeating the exposure of XRF images during the energy scan of the primary X-rays. It has been found that the structure is qualitatively close to that of olivine, and the main differences found in both areas can be explained as a difference in iron and magnesium concentration, i.e. the mixed ratio of forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) and fayalite (Fe(2)SiO(4)). The feasibility of the present XAFS imaging method has been demonstrated for realistic inhomogeneous minerals. PMID:14960788

Mizusawa, Mari; Sakurai, Kenji

2004-03-01

295

Localizing interference during naming: Convergent neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for the function of Broca's area  

PubMed Central

To produce a word, the intended word must be selected from a competing set of other words. In other domains where competition affects the selection process, the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) responds to competition among incompatible representations. The aim of this study was to test whether the LIFG is necessary for resolution of competition in word production. Using a methodological approach applying the same rigorous analytic methods to neuropsychological data as is done with neuroimaging data, we compared brain activation patterns in normal speakers (using fMRI) with the results of lesion-deficit correlations in aphasic speakers who performed the same word production task designed to elicit competition during lexical selection. The degree of activation of the LIFG in normal speakers and damage to the LIFG in aphasic speakers was associated with performance on the production task. These convergent findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that the region of cortex commonly known as Broca's area (i.e., the posterior LIFG) serves to bias competitive interactions during language production.

Schnur, Tatiana T.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Hirshorn, Elizabeth; Coslett, H. Branch; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

296

Copper content of staple seeds and grains grown in Kanam local government area, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Copper is a trace mineral that plays an important role in human metabolism, largely because it allows many critical enzymes to function properly. Little is known of copper content of Nigerian foods. In this paper, copper contents of several typical Nigerian foods were determined. The samples were collected from Kanam of Plateau State in central region of Nigeria. The samples were wet-ashed according to the protocol of Hill et al. (Anal Chem 55:2340-2342, 1986).Concentrations of copper in the samples was determined using inductively coupled-mass spectrophotometry. There is, for each crop, a wide variation in copper content. The highest copper content was found in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (16.95 ?g/g of dry weight). Lowest copper content was found in white maize and in yellow maize (Zea mays), with values 1.23 ?g/g and 1.38 ?g/g of dry weights, respectively. Other foods, such as white sorghum, red sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), and groundnuts (Arachis hypogea) had copper contents varying from 2.22 to 11.81 ?g/g. These values are well below the supplemental values of 50 mg/day that could interfere with zinc absorption. Thus, among the staple foodstuffs of the areas sampled, cowpea appears to be the richest source of dietary copper followed by groundnut while the two maize varieties are the poorest. PMID:23961432

Jaryum, Kiri Hashimu; Okoye, Zebulon Sunday Chibundo; Stoecker, Barbara

2013-01-01

297

Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

2009-01-01

298

Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

2011-01-01

299

CATLAC: Calibration and validation analysis tool of local area coverage for the SeaWiFS mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration and validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage (CATLAC) is an analysis package for selecting and graphically displaying Earth and space targets for calibration and validation activities on a polar orbiting satellite. The package is written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and includes a graphical user interface. Although it is designed specifically for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, the package can be used for analysis on other Earth-viewing missions. An individual can use text or graphical methods in CATLAC to select Earth targets to be scanned by a satellite. Additional onboard calibration activities (such as observations of the moon, or solar irradiance from a solar diffuser), which use data recorder time, can also be specified. All information pertinent to the creation of a command schedule can be written to a file which is read by a command scheduler. The scheduler can be invoked and the Local Area Coverage (LAC) recording periods can be visually verified using CATLAC. The schedule can also be verified by examining record and error files written by the scheduler.

Woodward, Robert H.; Gregg, Watson W.; Patt, Frederick S.

1994-01-01

300

Structure of regional dykes and local cone sheets in the Midhyrna-Lysuskard area, Snaefellsnes Peninsula (NW Iceland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the first detailed structural description of 48 vertical dykes, 384 inclined sheets and two large intrusions and the geometry (strike, dip direction and dip) of 1116 fractures in the central area of the Snaefellsnes peninsula, NW Iceland. Our data show a more complex setting than that depicted by the WNW-ESE en-echelon trend of the volcanic structures at the surface. In the Miocene basement lavas, dykes dominantly strike N50-100°E whereas other directions are also present with a higher dispersion. Two main swarms of centrally dipping sheets have also been recognized, focussing towards two areas. Sheet dips range from 2 to 75° with the higher frequency between 10 and 45°. In section view, there is no systematic variation of sheet dip with distance from the focus area. Gabbro and granophyre laccoliths are present in the studied area but cross-cutting relations indicate that most of the inclined sheets are younger. Comparison with regional tectonics suggests that the N50-80°E-striking dykes are coherent with emplacement under the stress field of the pre-6 Ma Snaefellsnes Rift dominated by a NNW-SSE-directed least principal stress (?3). The N80-100°E dykes and the late Quaternary WNW-trending sub-aerial volcanic features are instead consistent with the development of a more recent E-W, right-lateral shear zone affecting the Snaefellsnes peninsula. Coherent sets of fractures have also been found. Within the inclined sheet swarms, the stress tensor rotated in response to an excess magma pressure linked to two underlying magma chambers of lobate shape, located at an estimated depth of about 400 and 500 m below sea level. This local magmatic stress also produced the centrally inclined fracture swarms that have been found in this area.

Tibaldi, Alessandro; Bonali, Fabio Luca; Pasquaré, Federico Aligi; Rust, Derek; Cavallo, Alessandro; D'Urso, Alessandro

2013-11-01

301

Chemical character of ground water in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight deep wells are being monitored in the Memphis, Tenn., area to detect any changes in the chemical character of water moving through the Memphis Sand towards major pumping centers. These wells are strategically located so as to intercept groundwater enroute through the Memphis Sand from the outcrop-recharge area. Although water quality analyses are available for many wells in the shallow water-table aquifer, no specific investigation has been made to characterize the quality of the water in this aquifer from which the Memphis Sand also receives part of its recharge. This investigation is to determine the chemical character of groundwater in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area. Methods used to install eight shallow wells at abandoned dump sites containing chemical and/or industrial waste are described. Water samples from the eight shallow wells and two deep wells in the Memphis Sand were collected and analyzed. Results of the analysis are presented and the locations of the wells and dumps are shown on maps. (USGS)

Parks, William Scott; Graham, D. D.; Lowery, J. F.

1981-01-01

302

Survey of Current Business, Volume 77, Number 9, September 1997 (in This Issue: Comprehensive Revision of Local Area Personal Income, 1969-95).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents; Comprehensive Revision of Local Area Personal Income, 1969-95; Business Situation; Customer Satisfaction Report; Updated Summary NIPA Methodologies; Annual NIPA Revision; Newly Available Tables; Fixed Reproducible Tangile Wreath in the United St...

D. R. Fox

1997-01-01

303

Evaluation of Secure 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Authentication Over 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since wireless technology has been used in Local Area Networks (LAN), our networks are easier to build and are more scalable and mobile than legacy structures. While providing these functionalities, Wireless LAN (WLAN)'s have some security vulnerabilities...

H. S. Ozturk

2003-01-01

304

Local area gigabit networking  

SciTech Connect

Computer networks must become faster as the equipment that is being interconnected increases in power and performance. Ethemet, with a 10 Mbit/s speed, seemed awesome a few years ago, but is beginning to show its age as more machines are tied together, and workstations attain the power of yesterdays mainframes. Networks using gigabit speeds are just starting to become available and offer a whole new set of problems and potential. This paper addresses what the higher speeds are being used for, the ''standards'' efforts specifying the higher speed channels, the network architectures being proposed, and some of the open problems requiring extensive further work. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Tolmie, D.E.

1991-01-01

305

Political Asylum Applicants. Financial Effect on Local Services in the Miami Area. Fact Sheet for the Honorable Bob Graham and the Honorable Connie Mack, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet discusses the effect of Nicaraguan immigrants entering the country at Brownsville (Texas) on local service providers in Miami (Florida). During individual meetings held on February 1, 1989 with Miami area officials, concerns were expressed over the immigrants' general welfare and the financial strain on local organizations…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

306

Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-dihydrotestosterone in the preoptic area, hypothalamus, and amygdala of a male rhesus monkey  

SciTech Connect

In a preliminary study, autoradiography was used to localize target cells for /sup 3/H-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a non-aromatizable androgen, in the brain of the rhesus monkey. One castrated male was injected intravenously with 2 mCi of /sup 3/H-DHT (0.42 ..mu..g/kg), and was killed one hour later. Neurons that concentrated radioactivity in their nuclei were located in widespread areas of the brain, which included the medial and suprachiasmatic preoptic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septal nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, ventromedial, arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, ventral premammillary nucleus, and medial, cortical, basal accessory, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei. These results indicate that the topographic distribution of androgen target neurons is considerably wider than that observed in a study using /sup 3/H-testosterone (T) in the male rhesus monkey. However, further work is needed to elucidate these differences before attempting correlations between behavioral activity and androgen receptors in the brain.

Michael, R.P.; Rees, H.D.

1982-06-14

307

Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

2014-05-01

308

Global Moho Estimate from Goce Space-Wise Solution and a Local Application in the Mediterranean Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to estimate a global Moho depth using the GOCE global gravity model GO_CONS_GFC_2_SPW_R2. A simple two-layers model, with known density contrast, has been considered and a linearized relationship between the spherical harmonic coefficient of the anomalous potential Tnm and those of the Moho depth has been derived. In this way, a simple and straightforward formula can be established to get the spherical harmonic expansion of the Moho depth with respect to its mean depth estimated from previous models (e.g. CRUST 2.0). Moreover, in the same framework, a collocation solution to estimate the Moho by merging gravity and direct Moho depth information (coming from e.g. seismic) has been derived. In this way, collocation can be used as a physical interpolation method (based on gravity) to merge seismic derived Moho profiles. In order to be as close as possible to the two layers model, reductions for the gravity signal related to topography/bathymetry have been applied. Furthermore, the impact of sediments, at global scale, has been evaluated. The information on the sediments have been derived from the CRUST2.0 model and their effect on the Moho estimate has been discussed. The obtained global Moho is in substantial agreement with its main known features at low frequencies. Possible improvements with respect to previous estimates are mainly due to the homogeneous data and model used to get it. This estimate can be usefully applied to reduce the Moho gravity signal in local areas. In fact, by analyzing the residuals after regional signal reduction, high frequency details of the Moho can be derived and investigated by applying standard inversion methods. To prove the reliability and the effectiveness of the estimated global Moho model in local analyses, a test has been performed in the Mediterranean area. This test showed that high frequency components of the Moho structure can be more properly defined, particularly in complex areas such those in the Alpine region.

Sampietro, D.; Barzaghi, R.; Borghi, A.; Reguzzoni, M.

2011-12-01

309

Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

2009-01-01

310

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 Authority. (a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation AreaâAlaska is found...

2013-10-01

311

Comparison of Systemic and Local Methamphetamine Treatment on Acetylcholine and Dopamine Levels in the Ventral Tegmental Area in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important mediator of dopamine (DA) release and the behavioral reinforcing characteristics of drugs of abuse in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the interaction of DA with ACh appears to be integral in mediating motivated behaviors. However, the effects of methamphetamine on VTA ACh and DA release remain poorly characterized. The current investigation performed microdialysis to evaluate the effects of methamphetamine on extracellular levels of ACh and DA. Male C57BL/6J mice received an IP injection (saline, 2 mg/kg, or 5 mg/kg) and an intra-VTA infusion (vehicle, 100 µM or 1 mM) of methamphetamine. Locally perfused methamphetamine resulted in no change in extracellular ACh compared to vehicle, but caused a strong, immediate and dose-dependent increase in extrasynaptic DA levels (1240% and 2473% of baseline, respectively) during the 20-minute pulse perfusion. An IP injection of methamphetamine increased extrasynaptic DA to 275% and 941% of baseline (2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively). Systemic methamphetamine significantly increased ACh levels up to 275% of baseline for 40 – 60 minutes (2 mg/kg) and 397% of baseline for 40 – 160 minutes (5 mg/kg) after injection. ACh remained elevated above baseline for 2 to 3 hours post injection, depending on the methamphetamine dose. Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity was dose-dependently correlated with extrasynaptic VTA ACh, but not DA levels. These data suggest that methamphetamine acts in the VTA to induce a robust and short-lived increase in extracellular DA release but acts in an area upstream from the VTA to produce a prolonged increase in ACh release in the VTA. We conclude that methamphetamine may activate a recurrent loop in the mesocorticolimbic DA system to stimulate pontine cholinergic nuclei and produce a prolonged ACh release in the VTA.

Dobbs, Lauren K.; Mark, Gregory P.

2008-01-01

312

Reinstatement of cocaine-seeking by hypocretin (orexin) in the ventral tegmental area: Independence from the local CRF network  

PubMed Central

Background Hypocretin (Hcrt), an arousal- and feeding-associated peptide is expressed in lateral hypothalamic neurons that project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Intra-VTA Hcrt reinstates morphine-conditioned place preferences, and intracerebroventricular and intra-VTA corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) reinstate cocaine-seeking. Each is presumed to act at least in part through actions local to the VTA. Here we examined the possibility that VTA perfusion of Hcrt reinstates cocaine-seeking and, if so, whether it does so through the VTA mechanism that is implicated in reinstatement by CRF. Methods Rats were trained to lever-press for intravenous cocaine (2 weeks) and then underwent extinction training (saline substituted for cocaine: 3 weeks). Reinstatement behavior was tested and VTA dialysates were collected and assayed for glutamate or dopamine following footshock or perfusion of Hcrt or CRF, with or without Hcrt or CRF antagonists, into the VTA. Results VTA perfusion of Hcrt-1 or footshock stress reinstated cocaine-seeking and caused release of VTA glutamate and dopamine. The effects of Hcrt-1 were blocked by a selective Hcrt-1 antagonist but not a CRF antagonist, and were not mimicked by Hcrt-2. The Hcrt-1 antagonist did not block CRF-dependent footshock-induced reinstatement or glutamate or dopamine release. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of Hcrt-1 were attenuated but not blocked by kynurenic acid, an ionotropic glutamate antagonist that blocks footshock-induced reinstatement and glutamate release. Conclusions While Hcrt and CRF are known to interact in some area of the brain, in the VTA proper they appear to have largely independent actions on the mesolimbic dopamine mechanisms of cocaine-seeking.

Wang, Bin; You, Zhi-Bing; Wise, Roy A

2009-01-01

313

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Tr?s-os-Montes, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs.

2011-01-01

314

Evolution of a Patient Information Management System in a Local Area Network Environment at Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center  

PubMed Central

The Department of Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC) of Chicago has implemented a local area network (LAN) based Patient Information Management System (PIMS) as part of its integrated departmental database management system. PIMS consists of related database applications encompassing demographic information, current medications, problem lists, clinical data, prior events, and on-line procedure results. Integration into the existing departmental database system permits PIMS to capture and manipulate data in other departmental applications. Standardization of clinical data is accomplished through three data tables that verify diagnosis codes, procedures codes and a standardized set of clinical data elements. The modularity of the system, coupled with standardized data formats, allowed the development of a Patient Information Protocol System (PIPS). PIPS, a userdefinable protocol processor, provides physicians with individualized data entry or review screens customized for their specific research protocols or practice habits. Physician feedback indicates that the PIMS/PIPS combination enhances their ability to collect and review specific patient information by filtering large amount of clinical data.

Price, Ronald N; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J; Tamirisa, Balaji

1990-01-01

315

Local exposure of brain central areas to a pulsed ELF magnetic field for a purposeful change in EEG.  

PubMed

This study examines the simultaneous exposure of 2 brain areas in the location of central electrodes (C3 and C4) to a weak and pulsed extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on the electroencephalogram (EEG). The intent is to change the EEG for a therapeutic application, such as neurofeedback, by inducing the "resonance effect." A total of 10 healthy women received 9 minutes of ELF-MF (intensity 200 ?T) and sham in a counterbalanced design. ELF-MF exposure frequencies were 10, 14, and 18 Hz. The paired t test revealed that local pulsed ELF-MF significantly decreases beta (15-25 Hz), sensorimotor rhythm (13-15 Hz), and theta (4-8 Hz) powers at a frequency of 10 Hz in C3 and C4 regions (12.0%-26.6%) after exposure, in comparison with that achieved during the exposure (P < .05). Variations during the exposure were transient and different from those after. The resonance effect was observed nowhere around the regions. The study suggests that this technique may be applied in the treatment of anxiety; however, further investigation is needed. PMID:23467798

Amirifalah, Zeinab; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad P; Shafiei, S Ali

2013-01-01

316

Identifying barriers and sustainable solution to childhood immunization in Khana local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to uncover barriers to childhood immunization in order to make recommendations that will address the problem in Rivers State and Nigeria. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in September 2008, among mothers and caregivers of children aged 0-5 years, to examine the various barriers to childhood immunization in the Khana Local Government Area of the State. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6.4d software. A total of 1560 mothers and caregivers were interviewed. Their knowledge about immunization was low. Only 15.2% was able to define immunization and mention six vaccine preventable diseases. Most children (46.8%) did not complete their immunization schedule because of frequent shortage of vaccines in the health facilities. Long-term and advance commitment by the government to vaccine manufacturers to purchase vaccines and engaging communities in dialogue over benefits of immunization is advocated to improve immunization in the State. PMID:23000461

Tobin-West, C I; Alex-Hart, B A

317

Author to Author: Extending Literacy through Letters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that writing to published authors deepens students' understanding of children's literature and gives them a greater awareness of writing techniques. Suggests that when letter writing takes place within the context of a writing workshop, it is an effective strategy for literacy growth. Outlines how to choose authors, find addresses, and…

Vos, Miriam

2003-01-01

318

Exploring the landscape of wind farm developments; local area characteristics and planning process outcomes in rural England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite broad public support for wind energy in principle, windfarm developments are often met with local opposition. There is theoretical, case-based and anecdotal evidence to suggest that ‘the local’ is relevant for planning process outcomes, but the nature and extent of this relevance is not so clear. We embark on an initial exploration of local factors that, on aggregate, may

Dan van der Horst; David Toke

2010-01-01

319

jessies author project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover authors by visiting websites. Then they will write a letter to an author. Choose five different authors and answer the questions below about each author. 1. Write the name of the author. 2. Where and when was this author born? 3. Name five books this author has written. 4. Tell one interesting thing you found on his or her website. 5. Tell one fact about ...

Meikle, Mrs.

2009-11-13

320

Revenue Alternatives for State and Local Governments: Crisis-Ridden Areas and Those Seeking Fiscal Equity and Stability Offered New Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes "Financing and Managing State and Local Governments," by Richard W. Lindholm and Hartojo Wignjowijoto, which discusses public fiscal administration, land value taxes, and land use control. Availabilty: Office of Publication, 5 East 44th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017. (Author/RW)

Hansen, Reed R.

1981-01-01

321

On the relationship between citations of publication output and Hirsch index h of authors: conceptualization of tapered Hirsch index h(T), circular citation area radius R and citation acceleration a.  

PubMed

The nature of the empirical proportionality constant A in the relation L = Ah(2) between total number of citations L of the publication output of an author and his/her Hirsch index h is analyzed using data of the publication output and citations for six scientists elected to the membership of the Royal Society in 2006 and 199 professors working in different institutions in Poland. The main problem with the h index of different authors calculated by using the above relation is that it underestimates the ranking of scientists publishing papers receiving very high citations and results in high values of A. It was found that the value of the Hirsch constant A for different scientists is associated with the discreteness of h and is related to the tapered Hirsch index h(T) by A(1/2) ? 1.21h(T). To overcome the drawback of a wide range of A associated with the discreteness of h for different authors, a simple index, the radius R of circular citation area, defined as R = (L/?)(1/2) ? h, is suggested. This circular citation area radius R is easy to calculate and improves the ranking of scientists publishing high-impact papers. Finally, after introducing the concept of citation acceleration a = L/t(2) = ?(R/t)(2) (t is publication duration of a scientist), some general features of citations of publication output of Polish professors are described in terms of their citability. Analysis of the data of Polish professors in terms of citation acceleration a shows that: (1) the citability of the papers of a majority of physics and chemistry professors is much higher than that of technical sciences professors, and (2) increasing fraction of conference papers as well as non-English papers and engagement in administrative functions of professors result in decreasing citability of their overall publication output. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0805-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23162174

Sangwal, Keshra

2012-12-01

322

49 CFR 260.1 - Program authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...loan guarantees to State and local governments, government sponsored authorities and corporations, railroads, and joint ventures that include at least one railroad. The Secretary's authority has been delegated to the Administrator of the...

2010-10-01

323

A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) Directors and Local School District Special Education Directors in Four Counties of Southern California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceived level of job satisfaction of SELPA directors with that of local school district special education directors in the counties of Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Orange of Southern California and to identify factors that contribute to their job satisfaction. Additionally, this…

Alexander, Gregory Haynes, III

2009-01-01

324

Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

2011-05-01

325

Communicating a marine protected area through the local press: the case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece.  

PubMed

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy. PMID:21424571

Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

2011-05-01

326

Allocation of authority in European health policy.  

PubMed

Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. PMID:22858423

Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

2012-11-01

327

Authoring and GTE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines GTE (Generic Tutoring Environment) from an authoring perspective, describes how GTE may be used to create courseware, and reviews potential difficulties that authors face when using such a tool. Summarizes two studies that investigated how authors used GTE and concludes that GTE designs are difficult for authors to test and evaluate.…

Johnson, Robin; Sime, Julie-Ann

1998-01-01

328

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility. 100.1308 Section 100.1308...Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility. (a) Location. The...

2013-07-01

329

Local perceptions of jaguars ( Panthera onca) and pumas ( Puma concolor) in the Iguaçu National Park area, south Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaguars (Panthera onca) have been killed by local residents within the boundaries and lands surrounding Iguaçu National Park (INP), Brazil. Both jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) occur in the region, however, livestock predation by pumas has rarely been reported. Our objective was to assess the local perceptions about jaguars and pumas. We identified two major factors that distinguished the perceptions

Valéria Amorim Conforti; Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo

2003-01-01

330

Local perceptions of jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) in the Iguacu National Park area, south Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaguars (Panthera onca) have been killed by local residents within the boundaries and lands surrounding Iguacu National Park (INP), Brazil. Both jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) occur in the region, however, livestock predation by pumas has rarely been reported. Our objective was to assess the local perceptions about jaguars and pumas. We identified two major factors that dis- tinguished the

Fernando Cesar

331

The Vigilance Promoting Drug Modafinil Increases Extracellular Glutamate Levels in the Medial Preoptic Area and the Posterior Hypothalamus of the Conscious Rat: Prevention by Local GABAA Receptor Blockade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of modafinil on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH), are analysed. Modafinil (30–300 mg\\/kg) increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in the MPA and PH. Local perfusion with the GABAA agonist muscimol (10 ?M), reduced, while the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1 ?M and 10 ?M) increased glutamate levels. The

Luca Ferraro; Tiziana Antonelli; Sergio Tanganelli; William T O'Connor; Miguel Perez de la Mora; Jesus Mendez-Franco; Francis A Rambert; Kjell Fuxe

1999-01-01

332

Summary report for the viability of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) in local area network (LAN) environments Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the activities of a Lab Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project to investigate the viability of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching technology in the local area network (LAN) environment. A number of ATM based LANs were constructed and their performance capabilities were measured. The summary report notes the measurements and lessons learned from the two-year effort.

S. A. Gossage; J. H. Naegle; N. Testi; T. D. Tarman

1995-01-01

333

Local Area Networking for the Small Library. A How-To-Do-It Manual. How To Do It Manuals for Librarians, Number 67. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual offers guidance for librarians on every aspect of local area networking from start-up through maintenance and trouble shooting. This second edition has been revised to include information on: definition and explication of TCP/IP; Novell 4.0; Internet connection gear; equipment capable of handling Web access; Windows NT and Windows for…

Howden, Norman

334

Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2004-01-01

335

Author! Author! Seymour Simon: Science Writer Extraordinaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column presents a brief biography of author Seymour Simon, whose topics for children's photo essays include icebergs, gorillas, thunderstorms, optical illusions, snakes, air, water, planets, airplanes, volcanoes, cars, the brain, bridges, bugs, crocodiles, skyscrapers, sharks, and paper airplanes. Though he is best known in the style and an…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

336

Local seismicity in the area of Tornio River (northern Fennoscandia) revealed by analysis of local events registered by the POLENET/LAPNET array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region of Tornio river (22-26 deg E and 66.5-69 deg N) is very interesting for seismological studies because it is crossed by systems of tectonic faults spreading in two different directions. 56 local earthquakes originated from this region were recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET temporary array from May, 2007 to May, 2009. Hypocenter depths of earthquakes are in the range of 1-35 km and their magnitudes vary from 0.8 to 2.2. For events detection we used the bulletin of the Institute of Seismology (Helsinki university) and Norway Global Beam Forming bulletin, compiled on the base of automatic detection of events, using the data of Noress, Arcess, Finess, SPA, HFS, APA arrays. In addition to local earthquakes, the array recorded 364 blasts from this region during the POLENET/LAPNET observation period. The events were relocated using manually measured travel times of refracted P waves from events at local distances (less than 200 km) and the 1-D velocity model along the wide-angle reflection and refraction HUKKA profile. The epicenters of relocated events show good correlation with known faults in the region. For each earthquake we constructed travel-time curves with reduction velocity of 8 km/s and compared them with the theoretical travel-time curves, in order to avoid phase misinterpretation. We found out that the largest reduction of travel time residuals during relocation was reached for deep earthquakes, due to more precise depth determination. The other aim of our study was to estimate what part of travel time residuals is not connected with the reference 1D velocity model and accuracy of location, but is rather due to 3-D heterogeneities in the crust. We also analyzed the amplitude characteristics of P-wave arrivals from different layers in the crust and upper mantle and also compared spectrograms of deep earthquakes, shallow earthquakes and blasts.

Kozlovskaya, E.; Usoltseva, O.; Konstantinovskaya, N.

2012-04-01

337

An assessment of local risk. [to area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A status report is presented on the assessment of the risk at Washington National Airport and the surrounding Washington, D.C. area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite in their structures. The presentation is outlined as follows: (1) overall strategy; (2) need for individual airport results; (3) airport-metro area model - submodels, method, assumptions and data; and (4) preliminary results for National Airport - D.C. area.

Pocinki, L. S.

1979-01-01

338

Editors, Authors, and Audiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an author's frustrations with poor editing in the form of advice from an editor who has been edited. Discusses deciding what to change, grammar and style, and knowing the audience and the author. (RS)

Wieringa, Douglas

1995-01-01

339

Nurses' and Physicians' Perceptions of Nursing Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings in the Authority in Nursing Roles Inventory support the premise that in spite of expanded nursing roles emphasizing nursing authority, there are disagreements between nurses' and physicians' perceptions of the authority of nurses as well as areas of dissatisfaction within each professional group. (Author/MLW)

Katzman, Elaine Menter

1989-01-01

340

Instructions to Authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heading - abstract) The abstract should summarise the contents of the paper in between 40 and 100 words. Note that paper title, author's name(s) and author's affiliation(s) should be centred. The paper title should be in 12-point, Times New Roman bold. Author's name and affiliation should be in 10 point Times Roman plain. The abstract should be in 10 point

Osam Sato

2004-01-01

341

Structured multimedia authoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the user interface to the CMIF authoring environment for constructing and playing multimedia presentations. The CMIF authoring environment supports a rich hypermedia document model allowing structure-based composition of multimedia presentations and the specification of synchronizati on constraints between constituent media items. An author constructs a multimedia presentation in terms of its structure and additional synchronization constraints, from which

Lynda Hardman; Guido van Rossum; Dick C. A. Bulterman

1993-01-01

342

Instructions for authors revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Instructions for Authors of ‘‘Accreditation and Quality Assurance’’ provide guidance when composing a manuscript and submitting it to the journal. To facilitate the publishing process and make it more transparent to our authors, these instructions have now been substantially revised and updated. This revision takes into account many questions over the years by our authors and requirements for standardization

Paul De Bièvre; Ernst-Heiner Korte

2008-01-01

343

And Speaking of Authority...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over breakfast at the American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference, this author was asked, "What is authority? What does one know about the ways in which he/she determines credibility? Whom do you trust?" In this article, the author focuses on these questions in terms of administrators who have control over libraries. She provides a…

Williams, Connie

2010-01-01

344

Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.  

PubMed

It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on interactions between individual and environmental factors in shaping health and health inequalities. PMID:18599170

Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

2008-09-01

345

Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland?  

PubMed Central

It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on interactions between individual and environmental factors in shaping health and health inequalities.

Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

2008-01-01

346

Semantics in Multi-Facet Hypermedia Authoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presentation generation area of hypermedia authoring contains different approaches to address the challenge of the presentation creation process. This paper presents the approach in which the author creates a presentation following the five stages pro...

K. I. Falkovych F. M. Nack J. R. van Ossenbruggen L. W. Rutledge

2003-01-01

347

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2013-10-01

348

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2013-10-01

349

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2011-10-01

350

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2010-10-01

351

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2012-10-01

352

76 FR 3057 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races Within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Races Within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...taking place on various dates within Puget Sound, WA. This supplemental notice of proposed...within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound area of responsibility. When this...

2011-01-19

353

COCA: A Secure Distributed On-line Certification Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract COCA is a fault-tolerant and secure on-line certification authority that has been built and deployed both in a local area network and in the Internet. Extremely weak assumptions characterize environments in which COCA’s protocols execute correctly: no assumption is made about execution speed and message delivery delays; channels are expected to exhibit only inter- mittent reliability; and with 3t

Lidong Zhou; Fred B. Schneider; Robbert van Renesse

2000-01-01

354

Turbulent Heat Fluxes in Urban Areas: Observations and a Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linked set of simple equations specifically designed to calculate heat fluxes for the urban environment is presented. This local-scale urban meteorological parameterization scheme (LUMPS), which has similarities to the hybrid plume dispersion model (HPDM) scheme, requires only standard meteorological observations and basic knowledge of surface cover. LUMPS is driven by net all-wave radiation. Heat storage by the urban fabric

C. S. B. Grimmond; T. R. Oke

2002-01-01

355

Three dimensional images of geothermal systems: local earthquake P-wave velocity tomography at the Hengill and Krafla geothermal areas, Iceland, and The Geysers, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Local earthquake tomography - the use of earthquake signals to form a 3-dimensional structural image - is now a mature geophysical analysis method, particularly suited to the study of geothermal reservoirs, which are often seismically active and severely laterally inhomogeneous. Studies have been conducted of the Hengill (Iceland), Krafla (Iceland) and The Geysers (California) geothermal areas. All three systems are exploited for electricity and/or heat production, and all are highly seismically active. Tomographic studies of volumes a few km in dimension were conducted for each area using the method of Thurber (1983).

Julian, B. R.; Prisk, A.; Foulger, G. R.; Evans, J. R.

1993-01-01

356

Usage of a Dense GPS Network to Analyze Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Water Vapor during Local Downpours in the Seoul Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the local downpour occurs frequently in South Korea due to the global climate change. Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) have used radiosondes and microwave radiometers to observe atmospheric water vapor. However, the observation network is not dense enough to analyze the rapid change in under-synoptic scale atmosphere. The network of Global Positioning System (GPS) is dense enough in Korea, and it can be an alternative to other upper air observation equipments. In this study, we analyzed spatio-temporal characteristics of atmospheric water vapor changes by calculating GPS precipitable water vapor (PWV) during locally severe weather periods. Fifteen GPS stations in the metropolitan Seoul area were used and the data was processed with GIPSY 5.0. We evaluated the GPS's ability as upper air observation system by comparing GPS estimates with measurement from radiosonde and radiometers. Also, we established the water vapor observation system by using GPS network in the Seoul metropolitan area.

Kim, D.; Won, J.; Park, K.

2011-12-01

357

Authoring Issues beyond Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authoring is still considered a bottleneck in successful Interactive Storytelling and Drama. The claim for intuitive authoring\\u000a tools is high, especially for tools that allow storytellers and artists to define dynamic content that can be run with an\\u000a AI-based story engine. We explored two concrete authoring processes in depth, using various Interactive Storytelling prototypes,\\u000a and have provided feedback from the

Ulrike Spierling; Nicolas Szilas

2009-01-01

358

Instructions to Authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heading - abstract) The abstract should summarise the contents of the paper in between 40 and 150 words. Note that paper title, author's name(s) and author's affiliation(s) should be centred. All papers will undergo a double-blind review and preparations for that process are given. The paper title should be in 14 point, Arial bold. Author's name and affiliation should be

Aileen-Cater Steel; Mark Toleman; Joe Bloggs

2001-01-01

359

Collaborative Courseware Authoring Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

We refined our knowledge classification and indexing approach applied in our previously developed system AIMS (Agent-based Information Management System) by introducing ontology-oriented support for collaborative courseware authoring. In order to provide a basis for formal semantics and reasoning in performing generic authoring tasks, we add ontology-based layers in the courseware authoring architecture. Ontological structuring also opens the way for cooperative

Darina Dicheva; Lora Aroyo; Alexandra Cristea

2002-01-01

360

Authoring tool evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

1994-09-15

361

Partitioning, sources and variability of regional and local oxidant (OX?=?O3?+?NO 2) in a coastal rural area in the southwest of Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to investigate the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX?=?NO2?+?O3), for the first time, in a rural coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, affected by several air masses types. Detailed database (built-up over the years 2008 to 2011, and containing around 500,000 data) from the Atmospheric Sounding Station "El Arenosillo" was used. The observed daily cycles of NO x and OX were influenced by air masses coming from industrial and urban area. It can be seen that the concentration of OX is made up of a NO x -independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O3 background), and a linearly NO x -dependent 'local' contribution from primary emissions, such as traffic. The local emission is very low in this area. Also, the regional contribution is similar to unpolluted sites and presents seasonal variation, being higher in May. However, our measurements showed that the proportion of OX in the form of NO2 increases with the increase in NO x concentration during the day. The higher proportion of NO2 observed at night must be due to the conversion of NO to NO2 by the NO?+?O3 reaction. With regards to the source of the local NO x -dependent contribution, it may be attributed to industrial emission, or the termolecular reaction 2NO?+?O2?=?2NO2, at high-NO x levels and stagnant air during several days. Finally, we estimated the photolysis rate of NO2, J NO2, an important key atmospheric reaction coupled with ozone. We also present surface plots of annual variation of the daily mean NO x and OX levels, which indicate that oxidants come from transport processes instead of local emissions associated as local photochemistry. PMID:23529402

Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

2013-09-01

362

Local and regional contributions of fine particulate mass to urban areas in the Mid-Atlantic and Southwestern US. Report for November 1997--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

This work examined the seasonal local and regional contributions of PM2.5 to urban areas in the Mid-Atlantic States: Baltimore, MD, Washington, DC, and Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ in the Southwest. This was accomplished using two different methods. The first method estimated urban excesses by comparing seasonal PM2.5 trends at the urban monitors to nearby rural monitors. The second approach used a simple model based on the PM2.5 dependence on wind speed and wind direction to classify a site as being dominated by local or regional source contributions. The method also quantifies the regional contributions during high wind speed conditions. The wind vectors were derived from surface observations and air mass histories. All monitoring sites in the urban centers were dominated by local sources during the cold season.

Schichtel, B.A.

1999-03-29

363

Authoring Issues beyond Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authoring is still considered a bottleneck in successful Interactive Storytelling and Drama. The claim for intuitive authoring tools is high, especially for tools that allow storytellers and artists to define dynamic content that can be run with an AI-based story engine. We explored two concrete authoring processes in depth, using various Interactive Storytelling prototypes, and have provided feedback from the practical steps. The result is a presentation of general issues in authoring Interactive Storytelling, rather than of particular problems with a specific system that could be overcome by 'simply' designing the right interface. Priorities for future developments are also outlined.

Spierling, Ulrike; Szilas, Nicolas

364

A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming.  

PubMed

Movements of water that transport pathogens mean that in net-pen aquaculture diseases are often most effectively managed collaboratively among neighbours. Such area management is widely and explicitly applied for pathogen management in marine salmon farms. Effective area management requires the active support of farm managers and a simple game-theory based framework was developed to identify the conditions required under which collaboration is perceived to be in their own best interest. The model applied is based on area management as practiced for Scottish salmon farms, but its simplicity allows it to be generalised to other area-managed net-pen aquaculture systems. In this model managers choose between purchasing tested pathogen-free fish or cheaper, untested fish that might carry pathogens. Perceived pay-off depends on degree of confidence that neighbours will not buy untested fish, risking input of pathogens that spread between farms. For a given level of risk, confidence in neighbours is most important in control of moderate-impact moderate-probability diseases. Common low-impact diseases require high confidence since there is a high probability a neighbour will import, while testing for rare high-impact diseases may be cost-effective regardless of neighbours actions. In some cases testing may be beneficial at an area level, even if all individual farms are better off not testing. Higher confidence is required for areas with many farms and so focusing management on smaller, epidemiologically imperfect, areas may be more effective. The confidence required for collaboration can be enhanced by the development of formal agreements and the involvement of outside disinterested parties such as trade bodies or government. PMID:24767813

Murray, Alexander G

2014-08-01

365

33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Point Molate restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly...supervision of the local military or naval authority or...shall not enter this area except by specific permission...42696, Oct. 22, 1985; 51 FR 25198, July 11,...

2013-07-01

366

Boerhaave: Author and Editor *  

PubMed Central

The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images

Lindeboom, G. A.

1974-01-01

367

Authoring of Adaptive Hypermedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes the important topic of Authoring of Adaptive Hypermedia that is central to this Special Issue especially from the point of view of education, as well as the papers selected and the reason for this selection. The papers are based on selected, invited papers of the second Workshop on Authoring of Adaptive and Adaptable Educational Hypermedia at

Alexandra Cristea

2005-01-01

368

Freedom, Coercion, Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite much talk about balancing freedom and responsibility in higher education, a more appropriate pairing is of freedom with authority. The concept of responsibility has become problematic, and educators have lost the ability to speak with authority. Although we have come to identify freedom with the free market, it is the bottom line which has…

Bellah, Robert N.

1999-01-01

369

The Authors Reply  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the authors' reply to Rod Ellis's comments on their study on motivated classroom behavior. As Ellis correctly summarizes, the three student variables selected for investigation in the authors' study were attention, participation, and volunteering for teacher-fronted activity. These three components were then summed up in a…

Guilloteaux, Marie J.; Dornyei, Zoltan

2009-01-01

370

Bringing Authors to Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional story times begin with "The author of this book is..." and "The illustrator of this book is...". Although library media specialists emphasize the role of an author and an illustrator in creating a book, students often have difficulty making the connection between the name and a real person. Learning involves making connections and…

Harvey, Carl A., II

2005-01-01

371

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

372

On an authorization mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Griffiths and Wade (ACM Trans. Database Syst. 1,3, (Sept. 1976), 242-255) have defined a dynamic authorization mechanism that goes beyond the traditional password approach. A database user can grant or revoke privileges (such as to read, insert, or delete) on a file that he has created. Furthermore, he can authorize others to grant these same privileges. The database management system

Ronald Fagin

1978-01-01

373

Talking Back to Authors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students will see writing as a powerful act when they learn to analyze a published author's writing style and send a written critique straight to the source. The author critiques help students to analyze their own writing and the Sentence Opening Sheet is an excellent device for this purpose as it reformats the text so that students can see their…

Lewin, Larry

2004-01-01

374

The Authors Reply  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the authors' reply to Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen's comments on their recent article published in "TESOL Quarterly." Mason and Krashen have provided an interesting reinterpretation of the authors' results and have also brought up several valid points regarding the efficiency of vocabulary learning from instruction,…

File, Kieran A.; Adams, Rebecca

2010-01-01

375

The Voice of Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

Wetterlund, Kris

2012-01-01

376

1. Thesis Title: Poverty and Local Environment Nexus: Evidence From Two Slum Communities in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh 2. Name of the Author: Md. Jahan Boksh Moral 3. Name of Adviser and Committee Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this study has been to know the relationship between poverty and local environmental degradation while examining the present involvement of the government in improving poverty and environment condition. To avoid the hypothetical discover, the study analyze the UNDP\\/GOB project activities. The UNDP\\/GOB project entitled 'Local Partnerships for Urban Poverty Alleviation' is one of the biggest projects

Vilas Nitivattananon

377

Simulation of local tsunami and evacuation of urban areas, informed by population exposure analysis and studies of tsunami evacuation behaviour.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a methodology for the integration of hazard, population and evacuation modelling to optimise evacuation planning. Deterministic tsunami simulations are carried out to define the spatial and temporal evolution of tsunami inundation onshore in the several hours following local-source subduction zone earthquakes. Exposure of an urban population to the hazard and options for risk mitigation (specifically through evacuation) are then assessed, demonstrating how tsunami simulation and evacuation simulations can be combined for effective tsunami evacuation planning. The east coast of New Zealand is subject to significant local tsunami hazard due to the proximity of the Hikurangi subduction margin only 100 km offshore. Seismic, geodetic and paleo-tsunami studies have shown the potential for large subduction zone earthquakes (Mw 7.0 to > Mw 9.0) to occur on this margin, though none have been experienced in New Zealand's short European-recorded history. Deterministic simulation of earthquake-generated local tsunami indicates the variability in potential inundation extent and tsunami arrival time at Napier City, an urban centre located on the east coast of New Zealand. Maximum spatial extent of inundation is used to analyse the exposed population, while temporal evolution of inundation is implemented in GIS modelling of evacuation travel time. Exposure analysis reveals the spatial distribution of the urban population, including sub-populations with varying characteristics influencing their ability to evacuate effectively in the short time-frame available for a local tsunami. These include vulnerable groups such as those who are mobility-impaired, in the care of institutions (I.e. schools, prisons) and transient populations with little knowledge of local hazard or evacuation routes. Observations of evacuation behaviour in previous tsunami and research into awareness of appropriate evacuation behaviour in the Napier community are used to calibrate and validate evacuation simulations. Population distribution also has temporal components (diurnal, weekly and seasonal), which determine location of population concentrations at the time of the earthquake; such effects are assessed through multiple evacuation scenarios for each tsunami scenario. This combined hazard, exposure and evacuation simulation enables i) identification of the hazard zone, ii) identification of the total exposed population and vulnerable sub-populations, and iii) sectors of the exposed population requiring alternative evacuation options. This process facilitates assessment and proposal of alternative evacuation routes or destinations. This may include such innovative measures as construction of vertical evacuation buildings, to reduce the evacuation distance of vulnerable populations and enhance the potential for successful evacuation.

Fraser, Stuart; Wood, Nathan; Johnston, David; Leonard, Graham

2013-04-01

378

ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

1997-10-01

379

Library of Congress Authorities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A handy tool for librarians, Library of Congress (LC) Authorities is a new feature that allows users the opportunity to better access LC authority data via the Internet. Downloadable in MARC format, users can browse authority headings by subject, name, title, or name/ title indexes. In order to ensure optimum system performance for public users and staff, LC has limited external simultaneous access to the database between the hours of 10 AM and 2 PM (ET), Monday through Friday. However, they are working to improve their system in order to increase the number of simultaneous users. Currently, this service is being offered on a trial basis in order to assess its usefulness.

2002-01-01

380

Strenghening Safeguards Authorities and Institutions  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system has changed in major ways from the establishment of the IAEA in 1957 until the present. Changes include strengthening the legal framework of safeguards; improvements in concepts and approaches for safeguards implementation; and significant improvements in the technical tools available to inspectors. In this paper, we explore three broad areas related to strengthening safeguards authorities and institutions: integrated safeguards and State-Level Approaches; special inspections; and NPT withdrawal and the continuation of safeguards.

Goodman,M.; Lockwood, d.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Tape, J.W.

2008-06-06

381

Direct modification of colloidal hole-masks for locally ordered hetero-assemblies of nanostructures over large areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a direct mask modification method applicable in hole-mask nanostructure fabrication. It is demonstrated that by using this technique the size, material, relative location and ordering of individual subunits can be controlled and varied independently to generate hetero-assemblies of nanostructures including chiral structures over large areas.We have developed a direct mask modification method applicable in hole-mask nanostructure fabrication. It is demonstrated that by using this technique the size, material, relative location and ordering of individual subunits can be controlled and varied independently to generate hetero-assemblies of nanostructures including chiral structures over large areas. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials used, detailed fabrication and characterisation description, schematic representation of the fabrication steps for all structures presented in this work, graph of disk diameters versus modification thickness and investigation of optical properties of Au disks on silica supports. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03871h

Frederiksen, Maj; Sutherland, Duncan S.

2013-12-01

382

Authorizing Online Learning. Viewpoint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

processing to personalized learning. There will also be a slow enrollment shift from traditional district-operated schools to schools and programs operated by organizations authorized under contracts or…

Patrick, Susan; Vander Ark, Tom

2011-01-01

383

Making Authority Relationships Reciprocal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers guidelines for a situational and reciprocal approach to authority relationships. Compares the following leadership styles: accommodating (military, helper, diplomat, partisan), autonomous (independent, counselor), and adversarial (gamesperson, rebel, whistleblower). (JOW)

Boccialetti, Gene

1996-01-01

384

CAL Authoring Aids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In their eight years of involvement in Computer Assisted Learning, the Division of Education Research Services has assisted many authors in developing their courseware. Whether the courseware has been a short half hour module or a large course involving o...

N. P. McGinnis

1976-01-01

385

Editorial: Instructions for Authors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this editorial is to assist authors in preparing papers to be submitted to our journal. Papers should be prepared in LaTeX by using Serbian Astronomical Journal style file which has some predefined fields in the preamble and some additional or slightly modified commands for the main text. The authors are welcome to use this document as the sample paper and/or template.

Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Knezevic, Z.

2011-12-01

386

Local variability of winds in the complex terrain of the Bergen area during the great windstorms of November and December 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major windstorms hit W-Norway in November and December 2011 causing property damage, flooding and even casualties along the Western coast of Norway. Bergen is a city that lies protected in a valley surrounded by steep mountain slopes that range up to 300 to 600 meters on both sides, and open areas in the southeast and in the northwest. The complex topography and variability in surface roughness affects the winds in a multitude of ways, causing different local effects. The spatial and temporal variability of the winds in these windstorms is explored with a network of automatic weather stations in the Bergen area. The observations reveal periods of sustained winds of more than 30 m/s while at nearby locations the winds are typically less than 5 m/s. The variability is mapped and is, as expected, very dependent upon wind direction. The locally calm winds during the windstorms can be attributed to both wake and blocking effects of the surrounding mountains. Results from the observations are compared to high-resolution WRF simulations that look at the connection between a synoptic scale flow and the local effects of the terrain. A study of these windstorms will be presented at the conference.

Valved, A.; Reuder, J.; Jonassen, M. O.; Olafsson, H.

2012-04-01

387

43 CFR 1882.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.0-3 Authority...and their political subdivisions to relieve social or economic impacts resulting from the development of Federal minerals leased under the...

2013-10-01

388

40 CFR 35.6000 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions General § 35.6000 Authority. This subpart is issued under section...

2013-07-01

389

The Structure of Local Public Finance and the Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in local fiscal conditions generate compensating differentials across local land and labor markets just as the authors have known amenities to do. Thus, the local fiscal climate affects the quality of life across metropolitan areas. The authors present new results showing that intercity fiscal differentials are nearly as important as amenity differentials in determining the quality of life across

Joseph Gyourko; Joseph Tracy

1991-01-01

390

Application of Resistivity Sounding In Groundwater Investigation: A Case Study of Rimin Gado and Tofa Local Government Areas of Kano State, Nigeria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over thirty Vertical Electrical Sounding survey were carried out in Tofa and Rimin Gado local government areas of Kano state. Dynamic water level from open wells was also collected and was used as a guide for the selection of the electrode spread. The schlumberger array with a maximum electrode spread of 100 m was employed in all the points. Results from the sounding data indicates that the area is generally underlain by five geoelectric or geologic section which include Lateritic top soil or Lateritic sand, Silty sand or Sandy clay, Weathered basement or Clayey sand, Fractured basement and Fresh basement. Based on the result obtained the weathered as well as the fractured basements forms the aquiferous zone within the study area, with the weathered being more promising. The resistivity of these zones varies from 9 to 1640 ?m with an average value 255 ?m, while the thickness varies from a value of 1.66 to 28 m with an average value of 10.67 m. Depth to this zone varies from 5 to 31 m with an average value of 8.1 m. The study also shows that the Rimin Gado area appears to have more potential for groundwater development as compared with the Tofa area.

Yola, Auwalu Lawan

2012-06-01

391

Michigan State Housing Development Authority  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states have a housing development authority; Michiganâ≢s SHDA is well known for its work in encouraging downtown redevelopment projects and a range of creative solutions to providing long-term housing solutions for the state's residents. On the homepage, visitors can look over the Spotlight area to learn about the long-term projects that the SHDA is working on. On the left hand side of the page, visitors can look over fifteen different thematic areas, including Historic Preservation, Homeownership, and Property Managers. Contractors and other groups may want to pay close attention to the RFP's and Grants area, which includes information about applying for statewide housing grants and information on key statewide programs, such as the Housing and Community Development Fund. Visitors can also set up email alerts to learn when new material is added to the site.

2013-01-01

392

Ectoparasitic insects and mites on Yunnan red-backed voles (Eothenomys miletus) from a localized area in southwest China.  

PubMed

Ectoparasitic insects and mites on Yunnan red-backed voles (Eothenomys miletus) in Dali prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwest China, were studied between 2003 and 2004. In total, 34,389 individuals of 86 species of ectoparasitic insects (seven species of fleas and five species of sucking lice) and mites (23 species of gamasid mites and 51 species of chigger mites) were collected from 916 individual hosts. The diversity of ectoparasites on this single rodent species in such a small area was much higher than in previous reports, which concerned more host species and greater geographical areas. The majority of the ectoparasites were chigger mites, which accounted for 59.3% of the parasite species and 87.4% of the individual parasites. Most voles harbored parasites with an overall prevalence (P) of 82.5% and mean abundance (MA) of 37.5 parasites per host. The dispersion coefficient (C) and patchiness index (m*/m) were used to study the spatial patterns of the seven dominant parasite species, and all seven had aggregated distributions. The species abundance distribution of the ectoparasites on the vole was fitted by Preston's lognormal distribution (R (2) = 0.82), and the total expected parasite species was estimated from this plot as 167 species. Yunnan red-backed voles harbor many ectoparasites as revealed by examination of a large host population. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations. PMID:23907632

Guo, Xian-Guo; Speakman, John R; Dong, Wen-Ge; Men, Xing-Yuan; Qian, Ti-Jun; Wu, Dian; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen-Yu

2013-10-01

393

Localization, Localization, Localization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Localization of the two Mars Exploration Rovers involved three independent approaches to place the landers with respect to the surface of Mars and to refine the location of those points on the surface with the Mars control net: 1) Track the spacecraft through entry, descent, and landing, then refine the final roll stop position by radio tracking and comparison to images taken during descent; 2) Locate features on the horizon imaged by the two rovers and compare them to the MOC and THEMIS VIS images, and the DIMES images on the two MER landers; and 3) 'Check' and refine locations by acquisition of MOC 1.5 meter and 50 cm/pixel images.

Parker, T.; Malin, M.; Golombek, M.; Duxbury, T.; Johnson, A.; Guinn, J.; McElrath, T.; Kirk, R.; Archinal, B.; Soderblom, L.

2004-01-01

394

36 CFR 28.22 - Condemnation authority of the Secretary.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal...22 Condemnation authority of the Secretary...the ordinance of the zoning authority has been revoked...the appropriate local zoning authority does not have an...

2010-07-01

395

36 CFR 28.22 - Condemnation authority of the Secretary.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal...22 Condemnation authority of the Secretary...the ordinance of the zoning authority has been revoked...the appropriate local zoning authority does not have an...

2009-07-01

396

More than jobs and houses: mental health, quality of life and the perceptions of locality in an area undergoing urban regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Urban regeneration initiatives are considered to be one means of making a contribution to improving people’s quality of life\\u000a and mental health. This paper considers the relationship between lay perceptions of locality adversity, mental health and\\u000a social capital in an area undergoing urban regeneration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using qualitative methods as part of a larger multi-method study, perceptions of material, and non-material aspects

Anne Rogers; Peter Huxley; Sherrill Evans; Claire Gately

2008-01-01

397

Proceedings Instructions for Authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instructions for preparing papers for the 5th SEACOMP are presented. They are intended to guide the authors in preparing the electronic version of their paper. Only papers prepared according to these instructions will be published in the Proceedings. Provide an abstract of your paper no longer than 400 words.

A. B. Authorsurname; C. Coauthorsurname

398

Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

Porter, Diana

2009-01-01

399

ARPA Authoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work during this reporting period has concentrated on preparations for a full-scale test of the ARPA Authoring System in FY 78. A five-stage procedure has been developed for management of task-oriented lesson development in the on-the-job environment....

W. P. Harris

1977-01-01

400

Author Identification Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many efforts are currently underway to disambiguate author names and assign unique identification numbers so that publications by a given scholar can be reliably grouped together. This paper reviews a number of operational and in-development services. Some systems like ResearcherId.Com depend on self-registration and self-identification of a…

Wagner, A. Ben

2009-01-01

401

Mexican-American Authors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen selections by 12 Mexican American authors are given in this book containing selected pieces of Mexican American literature written (in English) over the past half century. The selections include legends, songs, adventure stories, poems, and a play (with accompanying topics for discussion provided with each selection). Various viewpoints…

Paredes, Americo; Paredes, Raymund

402

[Meckel syndrome (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Authors study four cases, two siblings in two different families, with several anomalies allowing to consider them as examples of the Meckel-Grüber syndrome. A review of the recent literature about this entity is made, as well as a comparative study of the anomalie present in the published cases. PMID:464411

Alonso, J A; Gómez Castillo, E; Arribas, M; Luque, R; Rubio, C

1979-05-01

403

Authoring Newspaper Science Articles: A Rewarding Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.

Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

2009-01-01

404

Charter School Authorizers and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we analyze the relationship between charter school authorizers and student achievement. We perform this analysis using a 10-year panel dataset from Minnesota, a state that permits four distinct types of authorizers--local school boards, postsecondary institutions, nonprofit organizations, and the Minnesota Department of Education.…

Carlson, Deven; Lavery, Lesley; Witte, John F.

2012-01-01

405

Do you think that your local area is a good place for young people to grow up? The effects of traffic and car parking on young people's views.  

PubMed

The damaging effects on well-being of the increasing number of motor vehicles on the roads, accidents and emissions aside, are often overlooked. Among 11-16 year olds in Wales, those who reported living with busy traffic and car parking were found to be less likely to have positive perceptions of the safety, friendliness, appearance, play facilities and helpfulness of the people in their local area. This was independent of the effect of socio-economic circumstance. Results are discussed in terms of the potential negative effect on sense of community identity, health and well-being, and the need for good environmental design and development of more pedestrian-friendly living areas. PMID:14499219

Mullan, Elaine

2003-12-01

406

National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years - United States, 2013.  

PubMed

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive 1 dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 2 doses of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.* ACIP also recommends administration of "catch-up"† vaccinations, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, and varicella, and, for all persons aged ?6 months, an annual influenza vaccination. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).§ This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which show that from 2012 to 2013, coverage increased for each of the vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents: from 84.6% to 86.0% for ?1 Tdap dose; from 74.0% to 77.8% for ?1 MenACWY dose; from 53.8% to 57.3% for ?1 HPV dose among females, and from 20.8% to 34.6% for ?1 HPV dose among males. Coverage varied by state and local jurisdictions and by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region. Healthy People 2020 vaccination targets for adolescents aged 13-15 years were reached in 42 states for ?1 Tdap dose, 18 for ?1 MenACWY dose, and 11 for ?2 varicella doses. No state met the target for ?3 HPV doses.¶ Use of patient reminder and recall systems, immunization information systems, coverage assessment and feedback to clinicians, clinician reminders, standing orders, and other interventions can help make use of every health care visit to ensure that adolescents are fully protected from vaccine-preventable infections and cancers (5), especially when such interventions are coupled with clinicians' vaccination recommendations. PMID:25055186

Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Singleton, James A; Curtis, Robinette C; MacNeil, Jessica; Hariri, Susan

2014-07-25

407

3D structure effects on local and near-regional seismic wave propagation in the San Francisco Bay Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed 3D waveform modeling of 10 small to moderate events (Mw 4.1-5.0) in the San Francisco Bay Area using the USGS SF06 3D velocity model (Brocher et al., 2005; Jachens et al., 2005). In the simulations we assumed the source parameters reported in the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) Moment Tensor Catalog. Broadband seismic data from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN), and strong motion data from the USGS and the California Geologic Survey California strong motion arrays were used in the analysis. We analyzed and modeled the data in three frequency bands, namely 0.03-0.15 Hz, 0.1-0.25 Hz, and 0.1-0.5Hz. Preliminary waveform modeling shows that the USGS SF06 model predicts many important features of observed seismograms including bodywave arrival times, and peak ground velocity. On the other hand, as reported by Rodgers et al. (2007), the model produces late arriving surface waves. While peak ground velocity is generally well modeled there are paths that have significant amplitude mismatches and also poor waveform fit to sedimentary basin generated surface waves. We are identifying which paths need additional waveform modeling in order to further calibrate the 3D structure. We will present the bodywave and surface wave arrival time, and peak ground velocity correlations as well as forward modeling results for the problematic paths. References Brocher, T. M., (2005). Emprical relations between elastic wave speeds and density in the Earth's crust, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 95 No. 6, 2081-2092. Jachens, R., R. Simpson, R. Graymer, C. Wentworth, T. Brocher (2006). Three-dimensional geologic map of northern and central California: A basic model for supporting ground motion simulation and other predictive modeling, 2006 SSA meeting abstract, Seism. Res. Lett., 77, No.2, p 270. Rodgers, A., A. Petersson, S. Nilsson, B Sjogreen, K. McCandless (2007). Broadband waveform modeling of moderate earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area and preliminary assessment of the USGS 3D seismic velocity model, submitted Bull. Seism. Soc. Am.

Kim, A.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.

2007-12-01

408

Surficial geophysical deduction of the geomaterial and aquifer distributions at Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty seven vertical electrical sounding (VES) profiles surrounding four known traverses were obtained in Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo state to examine the subsurface geomaterials and the associated groundwater potential. The VES data, constrained by borehole data, provided useful information about the subsurface hydrogeologic and lithologic conditions. From the validated interpretation, the area assessed has loamy soil, medium grained sands, well-sorted medium-grained/gravelly sands and river sand as the lithologic succession from top to the bottom of the depth penetrated. The aquifers in the area were found in the medium-grained sands and well-sorted medium-coarse-grained sands. The aquifer depth for all-season groundwater that would be devoid of draw-down can be found at a depth range of 42-50 m. The resistivity maps of selected depths exhibit sharp resistivity changes at depth due mainly to undulating subsurface topography. A map of the distribution of the k ?-values shows that good quality groundwater can be found in most parts of the area.

Victor, Obianwu I.; Innocent, Chimezie C.; Anthony, Akpan E.; Jimmy, George N.

2011-12-01

409

FFTF Authorization Agreement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Work must be accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public, and complying with applicable contractual and regulatory requirements. It is the intent of this Agreement to address those items of significant importance in establishing and supporting the FFTF Authorization Envelope, but this Agreement in no way alters the terms and conditions of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), Contract Number DE-AC06-96RL13200.

DAUTEL, W.A.

2000-09-25

410

The surrogate's authority.  

PubMed

The authority of surrogates-often close family members-to make treatment decisions for previously capacitated patients is said to come from their knowledge of the patient, which they are to draw on as they exercise substituted judgment on the patient's behalf. However, proxy accuracy studies call this authority into question, hence the Patient Preference Predictor (PPP). We identify two problems with contemporary understandings of the surrogate's role. The first is with the assumption that knowledge of the patient entails knowledge of what the patient's choice of treatment would be. The second is with the assumption that a good decision reproduces the content of that choice. If we are right, then the PPP, helpful though it might be in guiding surrogates' decisions, nevertheless would hold them to the wrong standards and in that way could add to, rather than relieve, the stress they experience as they try to do their job. PMID:24554776

Lindemann, Hilde; Nelson, James Lindemann

2014-04-01

411

The contribution of permanent GPS station PW data on heavy local rainfall events in the Greek area.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two decades GPS has demonstrated its ability to estimate and monitor the magnitude of atmospheric water vapor with good time resolution and under all meteorological conditions. In this study, the precipitable water (pw) values estimated over specific permanent GPS stations of various Greek networks are analyzed by using different processing options dealing with the selection of different mapping functions for the computation of troposheric delay. Another, basic topic of this study is the combination of pw values with ground meteorological data and more specifically with precipitation values, recorded few days before and after the heavy rainfall events. These events occurred within the year 2013 at various locations of the Greek territory like, Epirus, Central Macedonia, the city of Athens and Rhodes island, and included various rainfall kinds like the flash flood type. For example, the amount of precipitation in the case of Rhodes over passed the 100 mm within few hours. In order to account for the tropospheric delay gradients and for the estimation of precipitable water GPS data were processed with high precision software such as GAMIT of MIT. Pw values were estimated for all GPS permanent stations around and inside of each test area. The estimated values which derived are discussed through the comparison and statistical analysis between various parameters, like the pw precipitation, rate of time changing and tropospheric delay gradients time series. The main analysis applied indicates the complexity of the phenomena close to rainfall zone at time of precipitation in order to provide a clear precursor of the torrential rainfall events. For this type of successful scenarios more kind of atmospheric data may be needed. However, some peculiar conclusions through the monitoring process can be highlighted.

Pikridas, Christos; Katsougiannopoulos, Symeon; Bitharis, Stylianos; Chatzinikos, Miltiadis; Zinas, Nikolaos; Kouroudi, Aikaterini; Argyris, Ilias

2014-05-01

412

Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of acquisition, a dramatic increase of persistent scatter density in urban areas, and improved measurement of very small displacements (Crosetto et al., 2010). We compare the L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period, to determine the influence of different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Our applications goal is to demonstrate a technique to inform targeted ground surveys, identify areas of persistent subsidence, and improve overall monitoring and planning in flood risk areas. Dokka, 2011, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi: J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008. Jones, C. E., G. Bawden, S. Deverel, J. Dudas, S. Hensley, Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument, Proc. SPIE 8536, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XII, 85360E (November 21, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.976885. Crosetto, M., Monserrat, O., Iglesias, R., & Crippa, B. (2010). Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Potential, limits and initial C-and X-band comparison. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 76(9), 1061-1069. Acknowledgments: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

2014-05-01

413

Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

2014-05-01

414

Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France  

PubMed Central

Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities.

Padilla, Cindy M.; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Veronica M.

2014-01-01

415

43 CFR 3584.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Reserved Minerals in Lands Patented to the State of California for Park or Other Public Purposes... Authority for leasing reserved minerals in certain lands patented to the State of California for park or other purposes is...

2010-10-01

416

Behaviour and variability of local and regional oxidant levels (OX = O3 + NO2) measured in a polluted area in central-southern of Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the photochemical air pollution in central-southern of the Iberian Peninsula, analysing the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX = O(3) + NO(2)), measured in a polluted area with the highest concentration of heavy industry in central Spain. A detailed air pollution database was observed from two monitoring stations. The data period used was 2008 and 2009, around 210,000 data, selected for its pollution and meteorological statistics, which are very representative of the region. Data were collected every 15 min, however hourly values were used to analyse the seasonal and daily ozone, NO, NO(2) and OX cycles. The variation of OX concentrations with NO(x) is investigated, for the first time, in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The concentration of OX was calculated using the sum of a NO(x)-independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O(3) background), and a linearly NO(x)-dependent 'local' contribution. Monthly dependence of regional and local OX concentration was observed to determine when the maximum values may be expected. The variation of OX concentrations with levels of NO(x) was also measured, in order to pinpoint the atmospheric sources of OX in the polluted areas. The ratios [NO(2)]/[OX] and [NO(2)]/[NO(x)] vs. [NO(x)] were analysed to find the fraction of OX in the form of NO(2), and the possible source of the local NO(x)-dependent contribution, respectively. The progressive increase of the ratio [NO(2)]/[OX] with [NO(x)] observed shows a greater proportion of OX in the form of NO(2) as the level of NO( x ) increases. The higher measured values in the ratio [NO(2)]/[NO(x)] should not be attributed to NO(x) emissions by vehicles; they could be explained by industrial emission, termolecular reactions or formaldehyde and HONO directly emitted by vehicles exhausts. We also estimate the rate of NO(2) photolysis, J (NO(2)) = 0.18-0.64 min(-1), a key atmospheric reaction that influence O(3) production and then the regional air quality. The first surface plot study of annual variation of the daily mean oxidant levels, obtained for this polluted area may be used to improve the atmospheric photochemical dynamic in this region of the Iberian Peninsula where there are undeniable air quality problems. PMID:22645005

Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

2013-01-01

417

Modeling and simulation of a Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Network (FDDI LAN) using OPNET (tm) for interfacing through the Common Data Link (CDL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET) is a commercially available communications network simulation package. This thesis involves the modification of OPNET's Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Network (FDDI LAN) model in order to enhance its usefulness as an aid in the development of recommendations for the characteristics and metrics to be eventually included in the Defense Service Project Office's (DSPO) Common Data Link (CDL) project. This work includes a step-by-step guide for FDDI simulation in OPNET, and a discussion of the changes made to the original model to enhance its performance and data display characteristics. Simple tests are provided to verify the completed model's performance and usefulness as a working tool for further development.

Nix, Ernest E., Jr.

1994-06-01

418

Data link level interconnection of remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface Local Area Networks (FDDI LANs) through the Critical Data Link (CDL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis deals with the features and performance of a network interface device to interconnect two remote Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Local Area Networks (LAN's) through the Critical Data Link (CDL) which is a full-duplex, jam-resistant, point-to-point microwave communications system for use in imagery and signals intelligence collection systems. In particular, OPNET, a commercially available network engineering tool is used to model a medium access level remote bridge interface connecting two LAN's. The effectiveness of two different load balancing techniques used to distribute traffic over the multiple channels of the CDL has been studied. Also, the effect of different jamming patterns on the bit error rate seen by the users has been studied.

Karayakaylar, Selcuk

1994-06-01

419

Medial canthal area reconstruction with horizontal advancement flap.  

PubMed

The medial canthal area is a common site for the development of skin cancer, the reconstruction of this area can be challenging for the dermatologic surgeon. The author describes the reconstruction of a defect measured about 1.5 × 1.5 cm, localized on the inner canthal area of the left eye with a horizontal advancement flap. PMID:23082757

Goulão, João

2014-10-01

420

Involvement of local serotonin-2A but not serotonin-1B receptors in the reinforcing effects of ethanol within the posterior ventral tegmental area of female Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Previous studies indicated that ethanol could be self-infused into the posterior ventral tegmental area (p-VTA) and that activation of local serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors was involved. 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the effects of 5-HT and ethanol on VTA dopamine neurons. Objective The current study used the intracranial self-administration (ICSA) procedure to determine the involvement of local 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors in the self-infusion of ethanol into the p-VTA. Materials and methods Female Wistar rats were implanted unilaterally with a guide cannula aimed at the p-VTA. Seven days after surgery, rats were placed into the two-lever operant conditioning chambers for ICSA tests. The tests consisted of four acquisition sessions with self-infusion of 200 mg% ethanol alone, two or three sessions with co-infusion of the 5-HT1B antagonist GR 55562 (10, 100, or 200 ?M) or the 5-HT2A antagonist R-96544 (10, 100, or 200 ?M) with 200 mg% ethanol, and one final session with 200 mg% ethanol alone. Results During the acquisition sessions, all rats readily self-infused ethanol and discriminated the active from inactive lever. Co-infusion of GR 55562, at all three doses, had no effect on the self-infusion of ethanol. In contrast, co-infusion of R-96544, at the two higher doses, attenuated responding on the active lever for ethanol infusion (p<0.05). Conclusion The results suggest that the reinforcing effects of ethanol within the p-VTA are modulated, at least in part, by activation of local 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT1B, receptors.

Ding, Zheng-Ming; Toalston, Jamie E.; Oster, Scott M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

2010-01-01

421

Chlorofluorocarbon and Tritium Concentration in Springs in the Norris Geyser Basin Area: Constraining Circulation Rate, Mixing Processes, and Ground-Water Evolution of Locally Derived Ground-Water in Yellowstone National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium concentrations were measured in cool to warm springs in the Norris area of Yellowstone National Park to constrain the scale and rate of circulation within the shallow, local ground-water system and investigate interactions between locally derived water and the geothermal system. Water from more than 65 springs in and surrounding the Norris Geyser Basin, varying in

P. Gardner; D. Susong; K. Solomon; H. Heasler

2007-01-01

422

Listing of data systems elements authorities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA personnel have a need to be aware of and to interact with key technical experts in all areas of data systems. This report presents a partial listing (names, addresses and telephone numbers) of individuals known to be authorities in selected areas of data systems of interest to NASA. The listings are based primarily on recent publications by the named individuals.

1977-01-01

423

Awareness of antimalarial policy and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment in communities of two selected local government areas of ogun state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

With limited data on the awareness of changes in the use of antimalaria drugs and availability and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the context of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program, we conducted this descriptive cross-sectional study of 262 registered women attending antenatal clinics and 233 mothers of under-five children. We used a questionnaire to assess the awareness, availability and use of ACT in Ijebu North and Yewa North Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ogun State. Malaria is holo-endemic in these areas, and the RBM program has been implemented for years prior to the 2010 RBM deadline. Data were also collected through focus group discussions, along with secondary data from hospital records. Hospital stock records showed inadequate and inconsistent supplies of ACT drugs in hospitals surveyed. Only 23.0% of respondents knew about ACT drugs. About 48% preferred analgesics over ACT drugs (0.6%) for malaria treatment. Lack of awareness was the major reason for non-use of ACT drugs (86.1%). Communities in Yewa North had more supplies of ACT drugs and knew more about ACT than those in Ijebu North. Adequate information on ACT needs to be made available and accessible under a public-private partnership if 2010 RBM targets (now past) and the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (ongoing) for malaria are to be realized in the study communities and Ogun State in general. PMID:24702765

Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Jegede, Ayodele S; Mafe, Margaret A; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa E

2014-01-01

424

How do health workers and community members perceive and practice community participation in the Bamako Initiative programme in Nigeria? A case study of Oji River local government area.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions and practices of health workers and households in relation to community participation in the Bamako Initiative programme (BI). The study was conducted in Oji River local government area of South-East Nigeria where the BI program has been operational since 1993. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from 20 health workers charged with operating the BI in 20 health centres. In addition, focus group discussions were conducted with members of the district and village health committees. Community participation from both health worker and community perspectives seem to have been enhanced by the introduction of BI, despite some constraints. However, the communities were not involved in core areas of community participation, and the health workers seem to be resisting their participation fully. It is concluded the community participation in BI could be improved if expectations were made explicit. This improvement should take into consideration the desires and priorities of the communities and issues impeding participation should be addressed. PMID:15087151

Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C; Akpala, Cyril O; Onwujekwe, Obinna E

2004-07-01

425

The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

Background Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. Methods In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to contextualize aspects of organizational response and performance, we recruited two types of key informants: public health professionals who were involved with the epidemiology and surveillance response for each jurisdiction, as well as the health officer or his/her designee responsible for H1N1 response activities. Information about the organization, data sources for situation awareness, decision-making, and issues related to surge capacity, continuity of operations, and sustainability were collected during the key informant interviews. Content and interpretive analyses were conducted using ATLAS.ti software. Results The study found that disease investigations were important in the first months of the pandemic, often requiring additional staff support and sometimes forcing other public health activities to be put on hold. We also found that while the Incident Command System (ICS) was used by all participating agencies to manage the response, the manner in which it was implemented and utilized varied. Each local health department (LHD) in the study collected epidemiologic data from a variety of sources, but only case reports (including hospitalized and fatal cases) and laboratory testing data were used by all organizations. While almost every LHD attempted to collect school absenteeism data, many respondents reported problems in collecting and analyzing these data. Laboratory capacity to test influenza specimens often aided an LHD’s ability to conduct disease investigations and implement control measures, but the ability to test specimens varied across the region and even well-equipped laboratories exceeded their capacity. As a whole, the health jurisdictions in the region communicated regularly about key decision-making (continued on next page) (continued from previous page) related to the response, and prior regional collaboration on pandemic influenza planning helped to prepare the region for the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. The study did find, however, that many respondents (including the majority of epidemiologists interviewed) desired an increase in regional communication about epidemiology and surveillance issues. Conclusion The study collected information about the epidemiology and surveillance response among LHDs in the San Francisco Bay Area that has implications for public health preparedness and emergency response training, public health best practices, regional public health collaboration, and a perceived need for information sharing.

2013-01-01

426

[Demonstration of an acute myocardial infarction by nuclear magnetic resonance: comparison with 2-dimensional echocardiography in localization of the necrotic area].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in man, we studied 15 normal volunteers and 22 patients with a recent AMI (13.5 +/- 7.7 days, range 4-28). To establish the ability of MRI in localizing the site of infarction we also performed a comparison between the segments of the left ventricle showing evidence of AMI by MRI and those presenting wall motion abnormalities by 2-dimensional echocardiography. By using strict criteria and 2 imaging planes MRI proved to be a reliable technique for the detection of AMI. MRI correctly identified AMI in 20 out of 22 subjects (90.9%). The site of AMI appeared as an area of increased signal intensity on spin echo images, particularly evident on late echoes: 15 patients had MRI findings compatible with transmural AMI and 5 patients with non-transmural AMI. The site of AMI as detected by MRI closely correlated with that indicated by 2-dimensional echocardiography, thus showing that MRI is a reliable tool for AMI localization. We also observed that the number of left ventricular segments judged as infarcted by MRI was significantly higher than that showing wall motion abnormalities. As MRI correctly identified the presence of 2 subendocardial lesions, not detected by echocardiography, it is suggested that MRI may be superior to echocardiography in detecting non-transmural lesions and the lateral extension of a transmural infarct. Our data show that MRI is a reliable tool for the detection and location of recent AMI in man. In particular MRI can locate AMI with a precision similar to that offered by 2-dimensional echocardiography. PMID:2743364

Casolo, G C; Buonafede, N; Bertini, G; Gensini, G F; Petacchi, D; Bartolozzi, C

1989-03-01

427

Automatic authoring in the LAOS AHS authoring model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we extend the automatic authoring techniques that can be built based on the LAOS model, a five-layer AHS authoring model. As the LAOS model itself is fairly complex, although information-rich, an adaptive hypermedia author needs a lot of system support to be able to populate all its levels with the corresponding information. Therefore, such automatic authoring techniques,

Alexandra I. Cristea

2003-01-01

428

Becoming Co-Authors: Toward Sharing Authority in Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…

Kim, Hyun-Sook

2009-01-01

429

Writing AFFTC Technical Reports: An Author's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook was written to provide AFFTC authors with guidelines which would not only help them meet the requirements of MIL-STD-847A, but also facilitate the technical report writing process. This handbook addresses local application of higher headquart...

T. D. Laquidera

1974-01-01

430

Writing AFFTC Technical Reports. An Author's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook was written to provide AFFTC authors with guidelines which would not only help them meet the requirements of MIL-STD-847A, but also facilitate the technical report writing process. This handbook addresses local application of higher headquar...

T. D. Laquidara J. G. Parke

1978-01-01

431

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nuristan mineral district in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nuristan mineral district, which has gem, lithium, and cesium deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

432

Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for each of the 24 mineral project areas (referred to herein as areas of interest), whose locality names, locations, and main mineral occurrences are shown on the index map of Afghanistan (fig. 1). ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. PRISM image orthorectification for one-half of the target areas was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchro

Compiled by Davis, Philip A.

2012-01-01

433

Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) Local Area Network (LAN) performance evaluation model: An analytic model for assessing the impact of changing LAN hardware and software configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a performance evaluation model to analyze the impact of changing hardware and software configurations on a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) based on local area network (LAN). The analysis focuses on the specific network software and computing equipment used on the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) LAN. The analysis was accomplished in two parts. First, a functional model of the network was prepared using available technical documentation and by consulting with system experts. The second part of the process was performance modeling. Individual traffic loading models were developed for each device to be connected to the AFIT LAN. Packet sizes characteristic of the networking software and access method were then specified for each device, and an aggregate data rate for each device was computed. Three performance measures: maximum channel efficiency, throughput, and minimum average delay were then selected to evaluate overall network performance. A standard spreadsheet program was used to construct the model. The results of the modeling analysis indicate the AFIT LAN will meet the school's expanding networking requirements.

Tucker, Alan B., Jr.

1987-09-01

434

What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6. The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation research, therefore, contributes to the environmental sociology, gen

Tribbia, John Luke

435

Instructional Design and Authoring Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores instructional design aspects of authoring software used to develop computer-assisted instruction; discusses nature of authoring languages and systems; describes instructional design implications and practical considerations in using authoring systems; and outlines needed developments in authoring software including intelligent tutoring…

Kearsley, Greg

1984-01-01

436

Author  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution problem is a major concern in many large cities and becomes increasingly critical in this present-day in developed or developing countries around the world. Mapping of urban air pollution dispersion is very complex as it depends upon various factors including weather conditions, urban structural features and their topologies. Air pollution dispersion distribution can be mapped by using mathematical

Salah A. H. Saleh

2011-01-01

437

40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Preparedness and Prevention...type of waste handled at his facility and the potential need for the...emergency response teams with the layout of the facility, properties of hazardous...

2013-07-01

438

40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Preparedness and Prevention...type of waste handled at his facility and the potential need for the...emergency response teams with the layout of the facility, properties of hazardous...

2013-07-01

439

THE ALFALFA H I ABSORPTION PILOT SURVEY: A WIDE-AREA BLIND DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM SURVEY OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (H I) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area 'blind' search for H I absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km s{sup -1} < cz < 17, 500 km s{sup -1} and covering 517.0 deg{sup 2} (7% of the full ALFALFA survey). The survey is sensitive to H I absorption lines stronger than 7.7 mJy (8983 radio sources) and is 90% complete for lines stronger than 11.0 mJy (7296 sources). The total redshift interval sensitive to all damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}) is {Delta}z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T{sub s} = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}) it is {Delta}z = 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic H I absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N{sub H{sub i}},X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10{sup 19} (T{sub s} /100 K) (1/f) cm{sup -2}local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line search of the complete ALFALFA survey-or any higher redshift, larger bandwidth, or more sensitive survey, such as those planned for Square Kilometer Array pathfinders or a low-frequency lunar array-will either make numerous detections or will set a strong statistical lower limit on the typical spin temperature of neutral hydrogen gas.

Darling, Jeremy; Macdonald, Erin P. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo, E-mail: jdarling@colorado.edu, E-mail: e.macdonald@physics.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2011-11-20

440

Basic Programs in Local Educational Agencies. State Educational Agency Allocation of Title I Funds to Local Educational Agencies for School Year 1997-98. Local Educational Agency Identification and Selection of School Attendance Areas and Allocation of Title I Funds to Those Areas or Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revisions in this document address how state education agencies (SEAs) allocate Title I, Part A funds to local education agencies (LEAs) for school year 1997-98. The changes reflect requirements in the Title I statute and regulations published in the "Federal Register" on July 3, 1995, that take effect for the first time in 1997-98. Guidance…

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

441

The Allure of Authors: Author Studies in the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that readers of all ages seek out favorite authors, this book offers a model that encourages readers to respond aesthetically, biographically, and critically to an author's literature. At the heart of the book are four author studies that were implemented with children at various grade levels. These studies span the genres of picture…

Jenkins, Carol Brennan

442

WMATA's (Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority's) Rapid Rail Transit System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

WMATA's rapid rail transit system consists of 97.7 miles serving the District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince George's Counties in Maryland, and Arlington and Fairfax Counties, and the cities of Alexandria, Falls Church and Fairfax in Virginia. Environ...

1973-01-01

443

Author Name Disambiguation in MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Background We recently described “Author-ity,” a model for estimating the probability that two articles in MEDLINE, sharing the same author name, were written by the same individual. Features include shared title words, journal name, coauthors, medical subject headings, language, affiliations, and author name features (middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in MEDLINE). Here we test the hypothesis that the Author-ity model will suffice to disambiguate author names for the vast majority of articles in MEDLINE. Methods Enhancements include: (a) incorporating first names and their variants, email addresses, and correlations between specific last names and affiliation words; (b) new methods of generating large unbiased training sets; (c) new methods for estimating the prior probability; (d) a weighted least squares algorithm for correcting transitivity violations; and (e) a maximum likelihood based agglomerative algorithm for computing clusters of articles that represent inferred author-individuals. Results Pairwise comparisons were computed for all author names on all 15.3 million articles in MEDLINE (2006 baseline), that share last name and first initial, to create Author-ity 2006, a database that has each name on each article assigned to one of 6.7 million inferred author-individual clusters. Recall is estimated at ~98.8%. Lumping (putting two different individuals into the same cluster) affects ~0.5% of clusters, whereas splitting (assigning articles written by the same individual to >1 cluster) affects ~2% of articles. Impact The Author-ity model can be applied generally to other bibliographic databases. Author name disambiguation allows information retrieval and data integration to become person-centered, not just document-centered, setting the stage for new data mining and social network tools that will facilitate the analysis of scholarly publishing and collaboration behavior. Availability The Author-ity 2006 database is available for nonprofit academic research, and can be freely queried via http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu.

TORVIK, VETLE I.; SMALHEISER, NEIL R.

2009-01-01

444

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Bamyan mineral district, which has areas with a spectral reflectance anomaly that require field investigation. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution o

Davis, Philip A.

2013-01-01

445

Instructional design and authoring software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the instructional design aspects of authoring software used to develop Computer Based Instruction (CBI)\\u000a programs. The significance of following good design principles for interactive instruction is emphasized. The nature of authoring\\u000a languages and authoring systems is discussed. A series of practical considerations in using authoring software and implications\\u000a for instructional design are described. Finally, needed developments in

Greg Kearsley

1984-01-01

446

Orchestrating a Young Authors' Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes preparation for a one-day Young Authors' Conference. Discusses how the organizers set up a date and facilities for the event, enlisted the services of an author/illustrator, recruited team leaders and facilitators from the organization, and explored funding. Describes children sharing, writing journal/bookmarks, and author's sharing from…

Cass, John

2002-01-01

447

43 CFR 3825.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Tohono O'Odham (Formerly Papago) Indian Reservation, Arizona § 3825.0-3 Authority. (a) The Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984; 25 U.S.C. 461-479), as...

2013-10-01

448

Guide to Foreign Student Authorizations for Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for those who work with foreign students attending Canadian universities and colleges and students who intend to study at Canadian educational institutions, the guide outlines the provisions of the 1978 Canadian Immigration Act. The introductory section covers such areas as definitions of visas and student authorizations, the general…

Canadian Bureau for International Education, Ottawa (Ontario).

449

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ahankashan mineral district in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ahankashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008, 2009, 2010),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then incr

Davis, Philip A.

2013-01-01

450

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to tha

Davis, Philip A.

2013-01-01