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1

Climate change performance measurement, control and accountability in English local authority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to consider how climate change performance is measured and accounted for within the performance framework for local authority areas in England adopted in 2008. It critically evaluates the design of two mitigation and one adaptation indicators that are most relevant to climate change. Further, the potential for these performance indicators to contribute to climate change

Stuart Cooper; Graham Pearce

2011-01-01

2

Hydrometric Area Local Authority Associated surface water bodies Associated terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topography This groundwater body is elongate in plan view, and includes several different topographic areas. In the south the Barrow River flows down the centre of the body from New Ross to Borris. Here the river has upland areas on both sides, the Blackstairs Mountains to the east and Brandon Hill at 575m OD to the west. North of Borris

Corballis Hill

3

Advanced local area network concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a good model of the data traffic requirements for Local Area Networks (LANs) onboard the Space Station is the driving problem in this work. A parameterized workload model is under development. An analysis contract has been started specifically to capture the distributed processing requirements for the Space Station and then to develop a top level model to simulate how various processing scenarios can handle the workload and what data communication patterns result. A summary of the Local Area Network Extendsible Simulator 2 Requirements Specification and excerpts from a grant report on the topological design of fiber optic local area networks with application to Expressnet are given.

Grant, Terry

1985-01-01

4

Local-Area-Network Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) computer program provides method for simulating performance of high-speed local-area-network (LAN) technology. Developed as design and analysis software tool for networking computers on board proposed Space Station. Load, network, link, and physical layers of layered network architecture all modeled. Mathematically models according to different lower-layer protocols: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Star*Bus. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Gibson, Jim; Jordan, Joe; Grant, Terry

1990-01-01

5

Local Area Networks: Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

Dessy, Raymond E.

1982-01-01

6

Wireless local area network security.  

PubMed

Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are increasingly popular in clinical settings because they facilitate the use of wireless PDAs, laptops, and other pervasive computing devices at the point of care. However, because of the relative immaturity of wireless network technology and evolving standards, WLANs, if improperly configured, can present significant security risks. Understanding the security limitations of the technology and available fixes can help minimize the risks of clinical data loss and maintain compliance with HIPAA guidelines. PMID:15672902

Bergeron, Bryan P

2004-01-01

7

Waterford Area Local History Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located west of Racine and southwest of Milwaukee, the town of Waterford, Wisconsin sits along the Fox River. In addition to its scenic location, Waterford also happens to have a vibrant public library that has worked with other local organizations to create this elaborate digital local history archive. Working in partnership with the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections, they have created this digital home for an array of maps, photographs, books, manuscripts, and other printed ephemera. The thematic headings include "community", "maps", and "people and portraits" As the town served as a popular resort for decades, visitors will be delighted to learn that the archive has several dozen photographs of the various leisure pursuits that were popular throughout the town and its outlying areas.

8

Local Area Networks and the Learning Lab of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers educational applications of local area computer networks and discusses industry standards for design established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). A futuristic view of a learning laboratory using a local area network is presented. (Author/LRW)

Ebersole, Dennis C.

1987-01-01

9

Rail transport policy-making in UK Passenger Transport Authority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the findings of a research project which analysed the impact of local administrative geography on the development of local rail transport policies in Merseyside and Strathclyde, two of the UK’s Passenger Transport Authority (PTA) areas, between 1986 and 1996. The ways in which statutory local authorities and other public, private and voluntary sector organisations engaged in the

Iain Docherty

2000-01-01

10

A Quantitative Survey of Local Adaptation and Fitness TradeOffs. Author(s): Joe Hereford  

E-print Network

A Quantitative Survey of Local Adaptation and Fitness TradeOffs. Author(s): Joe Hereford Source naturalist may 2009 A Quantitative Survey of Local Adaptation and Fitness Trade-Offs Joe Hereford* National

Nuismer, Scott L.

11

Local Authority Approaches to the School Admissions Process. LG Group Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the challenges, barriers and facilitating factors connected to the various school admissions approaches used by local authorities? This report gathers the views of local authority admissions officers on the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, as well as the issues and challenges they face in this important area. It covers:…

Rudd, Peter; Gardiner, Clare; Marson-Smith, Helen

2010-01-01

12

Golden Years? Further Education Colleges under Local Authority Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen years ago further education (FE) colleges in England were removed from local education authority (LEA) control and re-formed as "FE corporations". Now, it is proposed that, from 2010, local authorities will become re-involved in the running of FE. Given such a prospect, this article takes the opportunity to look back at colleges under LEA…

Simmons, Robin

2008-01-01

13

40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangements with local authorities. 264.37...Preparedness and Prevention § 264.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...operator must attempt to make the following arrangements, as appropriate for the type...

2010-07-01

14

40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangements with local authorities. 265.37...Preparedness and Prevention § 265.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...operator must attempt to make the following arrangements, as appropriate for the type...

2010-07-01

15

Does judicial review influence the quality of Local Authority Services?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper raises some of the key issues that have emerged from our study of the impact of judicial review litigation on the quality of local government services in England and Wales. Judicial Review is the High Court procedure by which those with a sufficient interest can challenge decisions of public authorities on the grounds that authorities have failed to

Kerman Calvo; Lucinda Platt; Maurice Sunkin

2007-01-01

16

Local Area Networks - Applications to Energy Management  

E-print Network

systems. The idea of the Local Area Network is described, and it is compared to the distributed processing technique, one that is more commonly used in energy management systems. The two techniques are compared by applying each to common examples, and pros...

Bakken, B. M.

1984-01-01

17

Local Area Networks: Reaping the Benefits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of the planning and implementation of a microcomputer-based local area network in the Northbrook (Illinois) Public Library highlights: (1) applying for a grant; (2) network design; (3) the bidding process; (4) installation; (5) implementing the network; and (6) problems and cautions. (MES)

Raymond, Chadwick; Anderson, Charles

1987-01-01

18

Analysing Deprivation and Local Authority Performance: The Implications for CPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses regression analysis to explore the statistical relationship between deprivation and the performance indicators used for the first round of Comprehensive Performance Assessments (CPAs) for English local authorities. The statistical significance of the results is described and analysed in light of the Audit Commission's decision to exclude deprivation from the CPA framework. For over one third of the

Rhys Andrews

2004-01-01

19

75 FR 34923 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Force Base, NJ, and Fort Dix, NJ, Philadelphia locality pay area portions of the new...McGuire- Dix-Lakehurst, from the Philadelphia locality pay area to the New York locality...corresponding note to the definition of the Philadelphia locality pay area to clarify that...

2010-06-21

20

18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

2011-04-01

21

18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

2010-04-01

22

18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

2014-04-01

23

18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

2012-04-01

24

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project  

SciTech Connect

Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.)

1991-12-01

25

LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two programs, a simulation program and a user-interface program. The simulation program requires the SLAM II simulation library from Pritsker and Associates, W. Lafayette IN; the user interface is implemented using the Ingres database manager from Relational Technology, Inc. Information about running the simulation program without the user-interface program is contained in the documentation. The memory requirement is 129,024 bytes. LANES was developed in 1988.

Gibson, J.

1994-01-01

26

47 CFR 101.61 - Certain modifications not requiring prior authorization in the Local Multipoint Distribution...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorization in the Local Multipoint Distribution Service and 24 GHz Service...authorization in the Local Multipoint Distribution Service and 24 GHz Service In the Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)...

2010-10-01

27

Local control of area-preserving maps  

E-print Network

We present a method of control of chaos in area-preserving maps. This method gives an explicit expression of a control term which is added to a given area-preserving map. The resulting controlled map which is a small and suitable modification of the original map, is again area-preserving and has an invariant curve whose equation is explicitly known.

Cristel Chandre; Michel Vittot; Guido Ciraolo

2008-09-01

28

Basic Mars Navigation System For Local Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: This project has been first set up as a basic solution in navigation during EVA (extra-vehicular activities) in the Mars Society Desert Research Station in the desert of Utah. The main idea is to keep the system as simple as possible so that it can be easily adaptable and portable. The purpose of such a device is to tell the astronauts in EVA where they roughly are and then letting them reaching different points in avoiding any risky way. Thus the precision needed has not to be really high: even if it is about 50m, every astronaut can then look on a map and be able to design a way to another point. This navigation system will improve the safety of the EVA as it is an added reliable orientating tool. Concept: To look at a simple way to localize oneself, one should have a look at what has been done by mankind on Earth. Today, everyone can think of the GPS because it's simple and very reliable. However the infrastructure for such a system is huge and will not be for sure available during the first missions. We can think of course of a basic GPS using the satellites being in orbit but this approach is not yet as simple as we would like. If we want to keep the sky in sight, we can use the stars and the moons of Mars. Yet this would be a good solution and we can even have a star tracker that would give a good position according to the time of the picture. This solution has to be kept in mind but a star tracker is quite big for an astronaut without any rover nearby and using the sky may not be as precise as one should expect. Another useful tool is the compass. It has been used for centuries by sailors but on Mars, without a good magnetic field for this purpose. But sailors also use lighthouses and some placemarks on the land to localize themselves. This is done with a compass, measuring the angle between a placemark and the magnetic North. With two angles, we can then have the position of the boat. The idea here is the same: measuring the angles between different placemarks so that we can compute the position. But which placemarks? We have to think about something that can be installed on Mars and is light enough to be brought there. Balloons are really light, and in order to place them, we need a gas as helium (or hydrogen) and also some rope. Hydrogen is likely to be produced in situ and rope will be useful for astronauts. So we started on a concept with some balloons around the base, with different colors or patterns. The crew in EVA can thus know where the base is every time they are in sight of a balloon and with at least three balloons; they can compute their position according to the base. Procedure of the test: During EVA, the astronauts will measure the angle between the different balloons. The balloons are high in the sky so they can be seen far from their location. This is particularly important on Mars where the horizon is nearer than on Earth. The balloons have different colors so they can be identified and we can even think of adding an autonomous colored light under so they can be observed during the night. With good quality balloons, we can keep them in the sky for a few days without maintenance. Angle measurement is done thanks to a camera. A numeric camera can have a precision of less than 0.01°/pixel, which is enough for our application. The distance between the different balloons can easily be seen in a free picture management software and a Matlab tool is under development for this. An algorithm is then run and it gives the positions that fit with the observations on a map. Simulation gave areas 20m width, which is enough for the astronaut who has a map. The exact precision will be investigated in situ, at the MDRS. For this first test bench, computations will be manually done on a computer in order to validate the concept without huge development. Afterwards, one can imagine an implementation on a PDA brought by the astronauts. This PDA would have its own camera so the process can be fully automatic. Such a system can also implement other navigation system as a Martian GPS or a radio locali

Petitfils, E.-A.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Monaghan, E.; Crews, Eurogeomars

2009-04-01

29

Traffic management for ATM local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the first switching technology to be capable of supporting circuit switching and packet switching within a single integrated switching mechanism. This was one of the research goals that led to the development of ATM. Considerable progress has already been made in implementing constant bit-rate services, similar to conventional circuit switching, over ATM. The authors briefly

Peter Newman

1994-01-01

30

Solid waste treatment opportunities in the Palestinian authority areas.  

PubMed

Municipal services in the Palestinian Authority (PA) areas, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS), are facing serious difficulties that have been intensified following the outbreak of the Palestinian uprising in late September 2000. The solid waste management services, being the most essential services provided by the municipalities and village councils, are mostly affected by the ongoing harsh situation and hence proper solutions that take into account the actual amount of generated municipal solid waste and its composition is a pre-requisite for planning proper treatment. Hence, a study was carried out to identify the actual status of solid waste in eight West Bank districts. A social survey was also conducted to collect information concerning the level of public awareness among communities surveyed to the perception of solid waste recycling and reuse. The results of the survey conducted in 2001-2002 were later reviewed during July-October 2008 to assess if the trend of domestic solid waste generation had changed. Based on the survey and post-assessment, it is found that political and economic conditions have both significantly impacted the trend of generated municipal solid waste and since no improvements in either condition are forthcoming, it is concluded that survey results could be used in a planning study. A possible handling of the generated wastes may entail transferring the recyclable waste to Israeli recycling industries, and in constructing three composting plants in different accessible locations in the West Bank. PMID:19121576

Khatib, Imad; Al-Khateeb, Nader

2009-05-01

31

The rhetoric and realities of integrating air quality into the local transport planning process in English local authorities.  

PubMed

Regardless of its intent and purposes, the first decade of the Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) framework had little or no effect in reducing traffic-related air pollution in the UK. Apart from the impact of increased traffic volumes, the major factor attributed to this failure is that of policy disconnect between the process of diagnosing air pollution and its management, thereby limiting the capability of local authorities to control traffic-related sources of air pollution. Integrating air quality management into the Local Transport Plan (LTP) process therefore presents opportunities for enabling political will, funding and joined-up policy approach to reduce this limitation. However, despite the increased access to resources for air quality measures within the LTP process, there are local institutional, political and funding constraints which reduce the impact of these policy interventions on air quality management. This paper illustrate the policy implementation gaps between central government policy intentions and the local government process by providing evidence of the deprioritisation of air quality management compared to the other shared priorities in the LTP process. We draw conclusions on the policy and practice of integrating air quality management into transport planning. The evidence thereby indicate the need for a policy shift from a solely localised hotspot management approach, in which the LAQM framework operates, to a more holistic management of vehicular emissions within wider spatial administrative areas. PMID:22387327

Olowoporoku, Dotun; Hayes, Enda; Longhurst, James; Parkhurst, Graham

2012-06-30

32

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74.325 Section 102-74.325...designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? No, unless specifically established by an agency head as provided by §...

2012-01-01

33

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74.325 Section 102-74.325...designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? No, unless specifically established by an agency head as provided by §...

2014-01-01

34

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74.325 Section 102-74.325...designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? No, unless specifically established by an agency head as provided by §...

2011-01-01

35

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74.325 Section 102-74.325...designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? No, unless specifically established by an agency head as provided by §...

2013-07-01

36

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management...smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74.325 Section 102-74.325 Public Contracts and Property Management...smoking areas authorized in interior space? No, unless...

2010-07-01

37

Functional localization of the supplementary motor area.  

PubMed

The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a key structure involved in behavioral planning and execution. Although many reports have indicated that SMA is organized somatotopically, its exact organization remains still unclear. This study aimed to functionally map SMA using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and validate the fMRI-SMA by electrocortical stimulation (ECS) and postsurgical symptoms. Total 32 healthy volunteers and 24 patients participated in this study. Motor tasks were right and left finger tapping and language tasks included simple reading, lexical decision for presented words, and verb generating tasks. SPM8 was used to conduct individual and group analyses. In all subjects, the lexical decision task induced the greatest number of active fMRI pixels in SMA. fMRI during the language tasks showed anterior part of SMA compared to finger tapping tasks. We found an overlap spot with all different tasks in posterior part of SMA, which we termed SMA core. Six patients underwent awake craniotomy for ECS mapping for primary regions and SMA. During awake craniotomy, ECS to posterior part of SMA, which might involve the possible SMA core consistently, evoked both speech arrest and flaccid hemiparesis. The SMA mapping suggested posterior part of SMA might play more important roles in any executions, which might involve the SMA core. PMID:24305024

Hiroshima, Satoru; Anei, Ryogo; Murakami, Noboru; Kamada, Kyousuke

2014-01-01

38

75 FR 60285 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...a single separate locality pay area. Since it is not feasible for BLS to conduct salary surveys using the current survey methods at current budget levels in additional locations in Alaska, Hawaii, or the U.S. territories and...

2010-09-30

39

Priority and fair scheduling in wireless local area networks  

E-print Network

In recent years, fair scheduling and quality of service (QoS) in Wireless Local Area Networks have received significant attention from the networking research community. This thesis presents a distributed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol...

Dugar, Anurag

2001-01-01

40

Districts, Local Education Authorities, and the Context of Policy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the author's commentary on the special issue of "Journal of Educational Administration" entitled "Systemwide Reform: Examining Districts under Pressure". Design/methodology/approach: The author gives her personal opinions, draws upon her recent experiences in the national…

Louis, Karen Seashore

2013-01-01

41

From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a democratic…

Moss, Peter

2011-01-01

42

Local decentralization and local economic growth: A cross-sectional examination of US metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the growing empirical literature that explores the relationship between government structure and economic growth. It uses a new data set of 314 US metropolitan areas to examine the relationship between local decentralization and local economic growth. The results indicate a negative relationship between the central-city share of metro area population and economic growth and a positive

Dean Stansel

2005-01-01

43

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...22.503 Section 22.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC...Adjacent geographic area coordination required. Before constructing a facility for which the interfering...

2013-10-01

44

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...22.503 Section 22.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC...Adjacent geographic area coordination required. Before constructing a facility for which the interfering...

2012-10-01

45

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...22.503 Section 22.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC...Adjacent geographic area coordination required. Before constructing a facility for which the interfering...

2014-10-01

46

29 CFR 1601.5 - District; area; supervisor authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...include the Director of the Washington Field Office. The term “field” shall mean that part of the United States within...the Commission's chief officer in each field. The term “area” shall mean that part of the United States within...

2010-07-01

47

29 CFR 1601.5 - District; area; supervisor authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...include the Director of the Washington Field Office. The term “field” shall mean that part of the United States within...the Commission's chief officer in each field. The term “area” shall mean that part of the United States within...

2011-07-01

48

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...local authorities for emergencies? (a) You must...fire departments, and emergency response teams with...facility, and possible evacuation routes. (2) Agreements designating primary emergency authority to a...

2011-07-01

49

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...local authorities for emergencies? (a) You must...fire departments, and emergency response teams with...facility, and possible evacuation routes. (2) Agreements designating primary emergency authority to a...

2014-07-01

50

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...local authorities for emergencies? (a) You must...fire departments, and emergency response teams with...facility, and possible evacuation routes. (2) Agreements designating primary emergency authority to a...

2012-07-01

51

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...local authorities for emergencies? (a) You must...fire departments, and emergency response teams with...facility, and possible evacuation routes. (2) Agreements designating primary emergency authority to a...

2013-07-01

52

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The 51 MEAs are composed of one or more EAs as defined in the following table: MEAs EAs 1 (Boston... 80-85. 28 (Little Rock) 90-92, 95. 29 (Kansas... 144-147, 168. 42 (Salt Lake City) 148-150, 152...applications may be accepted. (e) One grant per geographic area. The FCC may grant one and only one...

2010-10-01

53

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The 51 MEAs are composed of one or more EAs as defined in the following table: MEAs EAs 1 (Boston... 80-85. 28 (Little Rock) 90-92, 95. 29 (Kansas... 144-147, 168. 42 (Salt Lake City) 148-150, 152...applications may be accepted. (e) One grant per geographic area. The FCC may grant one and only one...

2011-10-01

54

Evaluating Local Benefits from Conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal’s Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household’s participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2008-09-01

55

Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

2008-09-01

56

Local authorities and sustainable development: Turning policies into practical action through performance review—a case study of the London borough of hackney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local authorities are increasingly undertaking policy initiatives which aim to achieve local sustainability. Indeed, the rapid development in this area since its first tentative steps in the late 1980s is very impressive. However, it is legitimate to question whether any real progress has been made in improving local environmental conditions. This is almost impossible to determine as very few have

Tony Jones

1996-01-01

57

Case–control study of the health of those looked after by local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo assess the health needs and provision of health care to school age children in local authority care.METHODSA total of 142 children aged 5 to 16 in local authority care, and 119 controls matched by age and sex were studied. Main outcome measures were routine health care, physical, emotional, and behavioural health, health threatening and antisocial behaviour, and health promotion.RESULTSCompared

J Williams; S Jackson; A Maddocks; W-Y Cheung; A Love; H Hutchings

2001-01-01

58

Local Authorities and the Education of Young People with Sickle Cell Disorders in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local…

Dyson, S. M.; Abuateya, H.; Atkin, K.; Culley, L. A.; Dyson, S. E.; Rowley, D. T.

2008-01-01

59

Scenarios of London Local Authorities' Engagement with Evidence Bases for Education Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the use of research and evidence in the formation of education policy within London local authorities. In particular it explores the policy processes in three local authorities, and observes the role of research and the interplay between research and policy within each. We begin the paper with a general overview of policy…

Al Hallami, Mariam; Brown, Chris

2014-01-01

60

What's in a Vision? Introducing an Organisational Learning Strategy in a Local Authority's Education Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is frequently asserted that schools and local authorities should become "learning organisations" as a pre-condition for school improvement, but there is very little evidence about the specific processes and activities involved in such a transformation. This paper analyses the initial stages of the implementation by a Scottish local authority…

Reeves, Jenny; Boreham, Nick

2006-01-01

61

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What arrangements must I make with local authorities...and Prevention § 267.36 What arrangements must I make with local authorities...You must attempt to make the following arrangements, as appropriate, for the type...

2010-07-01

62

Community Management of Local Authority Woodlands in England 1 Shared Assets, December 2013  

E-print Network

.3 Workshop 10 3.4 Data quality 10 Box 1 ­ Summary of community management caseCommunity Management of Local Authority Woodlands in England 1 Shared Assets, December 2013 Community Management of Local Authority Woodlands in England A report to Forest Research

63

Is food poisoning a clinical or a laboratory diagnosis? A survey of local authority practices in the south Thames region.  

PubMed

An audit of South Thames infectious disease surveillance systems in 1995 revealed large inconsistencies between the numbers of food poisoning records held on local databases and the numbers of food poisoning notifications reported to the Office for National Statistics (ONS), then called the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. In March 1996 a questionnaire sent to each local authority in South Thames asked what action was usually taken when a laboratory report of cryptosporidium, campylobacter, salmonella, or giardia was received unsupported by a notification of food poisoning. All 51 local authorities responded to the questionnaire. Forty-eight reported salmonella to ONS, 38 reported cryptosporidium, 38 campylobacter, and 37 giardia. Some local authorities considered whether a food or water source was evident or suspected before reporting. Patterns of notification varied between geographical areas. Differences between local authorities' interpretations of the requirement to report to ONS the isolations of food poisoning organisms from patients make it difficult to analyse food poisoning statistics. We would recommend the adoption of a simple approach, in which laboratory reports and notifications are reconciled locally. A case should be reported to ONS only if the doctor who notified or arranged for an examination of stool suspected food or waterborne transmission initially. PMID:9782629

Atkinson, P; Maguire, H

1998-09-01

64

Local Government Reform Programs and Human Resource Capacity Building in Africa: Evidence from Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Local Government Reform Program (LGRP) in Tanzania was introduced to improve the access and quality of services provided by Local Government Authorities (LGAs). The main aim of the study is to clarify the practice and impact of Human Resource Capacity Building with reference to the LGRP in Tanzania. The study adopted a three-dimensional framework involving Human Resource Development (HRD),

William Pallangyo; Christopher J. Rees

2010-01-01

65

Theme: Local Government: Concepts and Indicators of Local Authority Performance: An Evaluation of the Statutory Frameworks in England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework for evaluating statutory performance indicators for local authorities is developed. The framework, which contains 14 dimensions of organizational performance, is then applied to the indicators set for local government from 1993\\/94 to 2001\\/02. The results show that the validity and comparability of the indicators has improved substantially over time. However, a critical weakness that remains is the

George A. Boyne

2002-01-01

66

5 CFR 334.103 - Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of State and local governments and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of State and local...103 Requirements for approval of instrumentalities or authorities of State and local governments...in the IPA mobility program as an instrumentality or authority of a State or...

2010-01-01

67

Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas  

E-print Network

Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas Georg Langs, Polina Golland Computer@bwh.harvard.edu, lrigolo@bwh.harvard.edu agolby@bwh.harvard.edu Abstract Matching functional brain regions across. It is particularly difficult, but highly relevant, for patients with pathologies such as brain tumors, which can

Golland, Polina

68

Intelligent Dynamic Radio Tracking in Indoor Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor positioning is an enabling technology for delivery of location-based services in mobile computing environments. This paper proposes a positioning solution using received signal strength in indoor wireless local area networks. In this application, an explicit measurement equation and the corresponding noise statistics are unknown because of the complexity of the indoor propagation channel. To address these challenges, we introduce

Azadeh Kushki; Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

2010-01-01

69

Project Universe - Local area networks and satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed digital communications system is discussed in which a satellite is used to link a number of local area networks which interconnect a variety of computer facilities. The advantages of satellite communications compared with terrestrial links are described, together with a historical survey of the use of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) for data experiments. A description of Project

B. R. Ackroyd

1983-01-01

70

HIGH SPEED WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKING FOR FARM APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high-speed wireless local area network (WLAN) was designed and implemented on a commercial farm in Macon County, MS, to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing such a network and to provide the basis for continuing development of software and hardware for farm applications. Since the farm was...

71

STATE AND LOCAL AREA INTEGRATED TELEPHONE SURVEY (SLAITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) is a telephone interview mechanism that employs the sampling frame of the National Immunization Survey. The purpose of SLAITS is to provide high quality health and welfare-related data on individuals and families at th...

72

Myrinet: A Gigabit-per-Second Local Area Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Myrinet local area network employs the same technology used for packet communication and switching within massively parallel processors. In realizing this distributed MPP network, we developed specialized communication channels, cut-through switches,host interfaces, and software. To our knowledge, Myrinet demonstrates the highest performance per unit cost of any current LAN.

N. J. Boden; Daniel I. A. Cohen; Robert E. Felderman; Alan E. Kulawik; Charles L. Seitz; Jakov N. Seizovic; Wen-king Su

1995-01-01

73

A Geac Local Area Network for the Bobst Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides detailed description of New York University's (NYU) Bobst Library Local Area Network (LAN), which was designed and implemented by Geac Computers International technical personnel and NYU library systems staff. Definitions of terminology, why the library installed a LAN, planning, network installation, and the LAN configuration and…

Persky, Gail; And Others

1984-01-01

74

Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature Points and Spatial Voting  

E-print Network

government agencies and urban region planners in updating land maps and forming long term plans accordingly1 Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature Points and Spatial Voting Beril Sirmac¸ek, Student Member, IEEE, Cem ¨Unsalan, Member, IEEE, Abstract--Automatically detecting and monitoring urban re

Ã?nsalan, Cem

75

47 CFR 90.739 - Number of systems authorized in a geographical area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of systems authorized in a geographical area. 90.739 Section 90.739 ...220-222 MHz Band § 90.739 Number of systems authorized in a geographical area. There is no limit on the...

2010-10-01

76

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense...Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access Military Training (FL Reg 350-30)...

2010-07-01

77

Distributed job scheduling in SCI Local Area MultiProcessors  

SciTech Connect

Local Area MultiProcessors (LAMP) is a network of personal workstations with distributed shared physical memory provided by high performance technologies such as SCI. LAMP is more tightly coupled than the traditional local area networks (LAN) but is more loosely coupled than the bus based multiprocessors. This paper presents a distributed scheduling algorithm which exploits the distributed shared memory in SCI-LAMP to schedule the idle remote processors among the requesting workstations. It considers fairness by allocating remote processing capacity to the requesting workstations based on their priorities according to the decay-usage scheduling approach. The performance of the algorithm in scheduling both sequential and parallel jobs is evaluated by simulation. It is found that the higher priority nodes achieve faster job response times and higher speedups than that of the lower priority nodes. Lower scheduling overhead allows finer granularity of remote processors sharing than in LAN.

Agasaveeran, S. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Li, Qiang [Santa Clara Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

78

RELATING TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT; ENACTING THE RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICT ACT; AUTHORIZING MUNICIPALITIES AND  

E-print Network

OF THE STATE OF NEW MEXICO: Section 1. SHORT TITLE.--This act may be cited as the "Renewable Energy Financing TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT; ENACTING THE RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICT ACT; AUTHORIZING MUNICIPALITIES AND COUNTIES TO CREATE RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICTS; AUTHORIZING THE IMPOSITION OF SPECIAL ASSESSMENTS

Kammen, Daniel M.

79

Cell Cycle . Author manuscript Localization of aurora A and aurora B kinases during interphase: role of  

E-print Network

Cell Cycle . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Localization of aurora A and aurora B kinases during Abstract Aurora kinases possess a conserved catalytic domain (CD-terminal domain of AuroraA (AurA) participates in the localization of the kinase to the centrosome in interphase

Boyer, Edmond

80

76 FR 47228 - Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office Administrators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office...Assistant Secretary for the Office of Native American Programs to perform program administration...Assistant Secretary for the Office of Native American Programs to redelegate such...

2011-08-04

81

Multiple Nuclear Localization Signals Mediate Nuclear Localization of the GATA Transcription Factor AreA  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus nidulans GATA transcription factor AreA activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. Sequence analysis of AreA revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs), five putative classical NLSs conserved in fungal AreA orthologs but not in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs Gln3p and Gat1p, and one putative noncanonical RRX33RXR bipartite NLS within the DNA-binding domain. In order to identify the functional NLSs in AreA, we constructed areA mutants with mutations in individual putative NLSs or combinations of putative NLSs and strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AreA NLS fusion genes. Deletion of all five classical NLSs individually or collectively did not affect utilization of nitrogen sources or AreA-dependent gene expression and did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of the bipartite NLS conferred the inability to utilize alternative nitrogen sources and abolished AreA-dependent gene expression likely due to effects on DNA binding but did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of all six NLSs simultaneously prevented AreA nuclear accumulation. The bipartite NLS alone strongly directed GFP to the nucleus, whereas the classical NLSs collaborated to direct GFP to the nucleus. Therefore, AreA contains multiple conserved NLSs, which show redundancy and together function to mediate nuclear import. The noncanonical bipartite NLS is conserved in GATA factors from Aspergillus, yeast, and mammals, indicating an ancient origin. PMID:24562911

Hunter, Cameron C.; Siebert, Kendra S.; Downes, Damien J.; Wong, Koon Ho; Kreutzberger, Sara D.; Fraser, James A.; Clarke, David F.; Hynes, Michael J.; Davis, Meryl A.

2014-01-01

82

30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION...or control), the land, subsurface, or coal...prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local...strip-mined areas, the land shall be owned...

2013-07-01

83

30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION...or control), the land, subsurface, or coal...prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local...strip-mined areas, the land shall be owned...

2012-07-01

84

30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION...or control), the land, subsurface, or coal...prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local...strip-mined areas, the land shall be owned...

2011-07-01

85

30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION...or control), the land, subsurface, or coal...prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local...strip-mined areas, the land shall be owned...

2010-07-01

86

30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION...or control), the land, subsurface, or coal...prevent or alleviate subsidence, the State or local...strip-mined areas, the land shall be owned...

2014-07-01

87

Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Ecosystem Restoration, LA Six Conditionally Authorized Projects  

E-print Network

Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Ecosystem Restoration, LA Six Conditionally Authorized Projects 27 August 2010 Abstract: In 2004, USACE completed the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Near-Term Report-term solutions for preserving and restoring Louisiana coastal ecosystems. While large- scale systemic restoration

US Army Corps of Engineers

88

Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

Neville, Julia

2012-01-01

89

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

1991-12-01

90

Large area photonic crystal cavities: a local density approach.  

PubMed

Large area photonic crystal cavities are devices of interest for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, and solid-state lighting. However, depending on their dimensions they pose a large computational challenge. Here, we use a local density approach to avoid direct simulation of the device. We capture the effect of both ideal and distorted photonic crystals in an effective mass and an effective potential. We use these to map the problem of calculating the electromagnetic field modes to solving a simple time-independent Schrödinger equation. We show that, in the case that the hole radius varies quadratically as a function of position, the eigenmodes of the photonic crystals can be described by the corresponding eigenmodes of the quantum harmonic oscillator with typical agreements well above 90%. PMID:25837088

Dobbelaar, M C F; Greveling, S; van Oosten, D

2015-03-23

91

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

92

Project Universe - Local area networks and satellite communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-speed digital communications system is discussed in which a satellite is used to link a number of local area networks which interconnect a variety of computer facilities. The advantages of satellite communications compared with terrestrial links are described, together with a historical survey of the use of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) for data experiments. A description of Project Universe is given and the purpose of the project is described along with a more detailed description of the elements that make up the network such as satellite earth terminals, communication rings and terrestrial links. Future developments of such systems and their use as a means of business communication are considered, in particular, the factors affecting their growth, emphasis being placed on the specification and cost of equipment.

Ackroyd, B. R.

1983-07-01

93

Local area networking in a radio quiet environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.

2002-11-01

94

Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment  

PubMed Central

Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER). The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management. PMID:15339336

Chen, Dongquan; Soong, Seng-jaw; Grimes, Gary J; Orthner, Helmuth F

2004-01-01

95

Gearing up for Lifelong Learning. An Adequacy Manual for Local Authorities and Their Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended primarily to support policymakers and managers in local education authorities (LEAs) in carrying out their duties under Britain's Further and Higher Education Act 1992 in the new context of collaborative planning as set out in the 1998 Green Paper, "Learning Is for Everyone." Section 1 provides a summary of the legislative…

National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

96

Multiagency Protocols in Intellectual Disabilities Transition Partnerships: A Survey of Local Authorities in Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the findings of a study of transition protocols (for adolescents leaving school and entering the general marketplace) in place for intellectual disability partnerships in 22 local authorities in Wales. The study consisted of a survey of existing protocols and a documentary analysis of the content of the obtained protocols. The…

Kaehne, Axel

2010-01-01

97

TweetLocalize: Inferring Author Location in Social Media Evan Sparks  

E-print Network

TweetLocalize: Inferring Author Location in Social Media Evan Sparks Electrical Engineering. INTRODUCTION The rise of mobile Social Media has lead to vast amounts of content associated with geographic features to train a prediction model. We pose the geolocation inference problem as a multi- class

California at Irvine, University of

98

Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

99

Nuanced Understandings of Privatization in Local Authorities' Services to Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon findings from the New Relations between Local Authorities (LAs) and Schools project to identify ideological and value-based differences between the models of service to schools adopted within four case study LAs. While each of the LAs has developed a privatized model of service, there are subtle differences between the…

Boyask, Ruth

2015-01-01

100

ASSISTANCE FROM LOCAL AUTHORITIES VERSUS SURVIVORS' NEEDS FOR SUPPORT AFTER SUICIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger study, this article describes the local authorities in Norway as providers of help and survivors as recipients of help after the suicide of a young person (<30 years) in 83 families. A questionnaire developed for this study maps the extent of professional community support as reported by parent survivors (N ¼ 128). Additionally, 41 survivors

Kari Dyregrov

2002-01-01

101

Building the Capacity of Local Education Authorities in Wales: Context, Processes and Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent policy developments are requiring local education authorities (LEAs) in Wales to undertake a more significant role in improving the Welsh education service. This article reports some of the outcomes of a Welsh Assembly government-funded initiative that addressed aspects of the development of the capacity of LEAs in Wales to fulfil this…

Avery, Graham; Colebourne, David; James, Chris; Florek, Anton

2004-01-01

102

Further Education outside the Jurisdiction of Local Education Authorities in Post-War England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article revisits the three decades following the end of World War Two--a time when, following the 1944 Education Act, local education authorities (LEAs) were the key agencies responsible for running the education system across England. For the first time, there was a statutory requirement for LEAs to secure adequate facilities for further…

Simmons, Robin

2014-01-01

103

76 FR 81984 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Local Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comment Request; Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program ACTION: Notice...is submitting the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) sponsored information collection...titled, ``Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program,'' to the Office of...

2011-12-29

104

Using area-based presentations and metrics for localization systems in wireless LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show the utility of WLAN localization using areas and volumes as the fundamental localization unit. We demonstrate that area-based algorithms have a critical advantage over point-based approaches because they are better able to describe localization uncertainty, which is a common theme across WLAN based localization systems. Next, we present two novel area-based algorithms. To evaluate area-based approaches, we introduce

Eiman Elnahrawy; Xiaoyan Li; Richard P. Martin

2004-01-01

105

Authors  

Cancer.gov

Authors Laura Boyle, MPH, CHES Consultant, National Cancer Institute Megan Homer, MA Emerging Leader, Department of Health and Human Services Acknowledgements Lenora Johnson, MPH, National Cancer Institute; Jon Kerner, PhD, National Cancer Institute;

106

Does Monitoring Matter? A Quantitative Assessment of Management Decisions from Locally-based Monitoring of Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity monitoring is criticized for being insufficiently relevant to the needs of managers and ineffective in integrating information into decision-making. We examined conservation management interventions resulting from 2½ years of monitoring by 97 rangers and 350 community volunteers over 1 million hectares of Philippine protected areas. Before this monitoring scheme was established, there was little collaboration between local people and park authorities,

Finn Danielsen; Arne E. Jensen; Phillip A. Alviola; Danilo S. Balete; Marlynn Mendoza; Anson Tagtag; Carlo Custodio; Martin Enghoff

2005-01-01

107

Training Primary Care Physicians for Local Health Authority Duties in Texas  

PubMed Central

Only one fourth of Texas counties have a local health authority (LHA) or health district. Primary care physicians in the remaining counties could be trained in public health basics by providing an online LHA training course and courses at annual meetings of the Texas Medical Association and the Texas Academy of Family Physicians. The Texas Department of State Health Services should develop a web portal for LHAs. The Texas Association of Local Health Officials should also provide automatic limited membership for LHAs. These initiatives would provide public health training to primary care physicians and would greatly improve availability of public health services for the citizens of Texas. PMID:22594741

Zuniga, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

108

Methodology For Assessing Local Seismic Hazard Maps For Urban Areas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a methodology for assessing local seismic hazard maps for urban areas (L.S.H.M.U.A) The necessity derive from the accelerated economical and social de- velopment as well as from the urge of the technical settlement reconsideration in the field of building, the development of the territory and urbanism, as it results from last decade researches in the related scientifically and technical domains. The complexity of this elaboration results from the large volume of knowledge involved from subdo- mains of Geoscience, mostly from Solid Earth Physics as a part of Geophysics, from which Seismology, Tectonophysics, Gravimetry, Geomagnetism and Geochronology belong. In order to elaborate the hazard maps, not only information furnished by seis- mological researches are sufficient, but also the analysis and interpretation of all re- sults of the complex seismotectonical and geological researches, making use of the re- lations between physical measurement that express properties of the rocks, the dynam- ics of tectonically structures and the geological characteristics allowing the knowledge of laws that govern the seismogenesis process.

Pantea, A.; Constantin, A.; Moldovan, I.

109

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

110

Local wind forcing of the Monterey Bay area inner shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wind forcing and the seasonal cycles of temperature and currents were investigated on the inner shelf of the Monterey Bay area of the California coast for 460 days, from June 2001 to September 2002. Temperature measurements spanned an approximate 100 km stretch of coastline from a bluff just north of Monterey Bay south to Point Sur. Inner shelf currents were measured at two sites near the bay's northern shore. Seasonal temperature variations were consistent with previous observations from the central California shelf. During the spring, summer and fall, a seasonal mean alongshore current was observed flowing northwestward in the northern bay, in direct opposition to a southeastward wind stress. A barotropic alongshore pressure gradient, potentially driving the northwestward flow, was needed to balance the alongshore momentum equation. With the exception of the winter season, vertical profiles of mean cross-shore currents were consistent with two-dimensional upwelling and existing observations from upwelling regions with poleward subsurface flow. At periods of 15-60 days, temperature fluctuations were coherent both throughout the domain and with the regional wind field. Remote wind forcing was minimal. During the spring upwelling season, alongshore currents and temperatures in the northern bay were most coherent with winds measured at a nearby land meteorological station. This wind site showed relatively low correlations to offshore buoy wind stations, indicating localized wind effects are important to the circulation along this stretch of Monterey Bay's inner shelf. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Drake, P.T.; McManus, M.A.; Storlazzi, C.D.

2005-01-01

111

Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

Meike, Roger

1988-01-01

112

Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?  

PubMed

State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities. PMID:24588100

Davis, Charles

2014-08-01

113

32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state. 884.7 Section 884.7 National Defense...Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state. (a) The Air Force normally...

2010-07-01

114

Are the ‘Poor’ Different? The Internal Characteristics of Local Authorities in the Five Comprehensive Performance Assessment Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of careers, morale, financial assistance and future freedoms depend on English local councils' places in Comprehensive Performance Assessment (CPA) groups. This article explains why the organizational attributes of local authorities are weak predictors of CPA outcomes. The authors' conclusions sit uncomfortably with the overall aims of CPA and raise important questions about the relationship between performance ratings and

George Boyne; Gareth Enticott

2004-01-01

115

CRISM MTRDR Applications - Hyperspectral Targeted Observation Local Area Mosaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been in operation since late 2006 and has acquired over 22,000 hyperspectral targeted observations (~400 - 4000 nm, 6.55 nm sampling, ~20 m/pxl Full Resolution Targeted [FRT]). The MRO spacecraft capabilities and operational profile have supported the acquisition of numerous spatially overlapping targeted observation sets covering sites of high scientific interest. The CRISM Science Operations Center (SOC) has developed software procedures, specifications, and definitions for a new high level analysis and visualization data product suite - the Map Projected Targeted Reduced Data Record (MTRDR) product family. The MTRDRs are derived from CRISM TRR3 (Targeted Reduced Data Record version 3 - the latest radiometric calibration including noise remediation) hyperspectral targeted observations with the image cubes processed through a series of standard and empirical spectral corrections, spatial transforms, parameter calculations, and renderings. The primary MTRDR data product is a full spectral range (VNIR and IR) co-registered, map projected hyperspectral image cube that has been corrected for illumination geometry and atmospheric gas absorptions, normalized to the nearest-nadir sampled geometry to correct atmospheric aerosol and path length effects, with minor radiometric residuals mitigated and bad data bands removed. Additional products in the MTRDR family include spectral summary parameter maps that encode mineralogically indicative or diagnostic spectral structure, and browse product renderings that combine thematically related spectral parameters (Fe mineral signatures, phyllosilicate mineral signatures, etc.) into readily interpretable RGB composites. The MTRDR product suite represents a major advance in the accessibility of CRISM-derived spectral information and is expected to become the preferred entry point into the CRISM targeted observation data set for the majority of the Mars science community. For sites where multiple overlapping high quality CRISM targeted observations are available, the MTRDR data processing also allows for the generation of scientifically compelling mosaic products. The first such product set was generated for the Gale Crater MSL landing ellipse and field site and was made available to the MSL team prior to landing. The CRISM Gale Crater mosaic product set illustrates local area VNIR and IR surface spectral variability and the distribution of ferric and mafic minerals, hydrated phases, and phyllosilicates. The Gale Crater product set and targeted observations mosaics for additional sites of particular scientific interest will be presented in detail, highlighting the integrated utility of the end-to-end CRISM hyperspectral targeted observation data processing pipeline and mosaicking procedures.

Seelos, F. P.; Seelos, K. D.; Viviano, C. E.; Morgan, F.; Humm, D. C.; Murchie, S. L.

2012-12-01

116

76 FR 32859 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...one of many factors affecting pay levels in a location...results. Other relevant factors affecting labor costs include...and a host of other factors. The locality pay statute...pay on out-migration patterns or racial,...

2011-06-07

117

Is comprehensive education really free?: a case-study of the effects of secondary school admissions policies on house prices in one local area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on a study that tests the anecdotal hypothesis that parents are willing to pay a premium to secure places for their children in popular and oversubscribed comprehensive schools. Since many local education authorities use admissions policies that are based on catchment areas and places in popular schools are very difficult to obtain from outside these areas-but very

Dennis Leech; Erick Campos

2003-01-01

118

Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has prepared this report to facilitate compliance with the requirements of Section 123 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 123 requires the Department of Energy to issue recommendations for establishing state and local incentive programs to encourage acceleration of voluntary consumer replacement of existing water closets, urinals, showerheads and faucets with water-saving products meeting EPACT standards. The authors recommend that state and local authorities working together and also with utilities: (A) investigate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary replacement of plumbing fixtures and fittings as an effective component of a water efficiency incentive program; (B) allow utilities to distribute the costs of water saving products by billing at pre-installation rates until devices have been paid for; (C) encourage decreased water usage by establishing rate structures such as increasing block rates or seasonal pricing; (D) add additional incentive to rebate programs by making the rebates untaxable income. (E) require municipalities or utilities to exhaust every reasonable method of water conservation before applying for permits to construct water supply or water treatment systems; (F) require high-efficiency toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in new construction and changing plumbing codes to incorporate different pipe sizing needs; and (G) and mandate installation of meters to correctly measure water consumption. Following the introduction, a general overview of these recommendations is presented. Each recommendation is discussed briefly. After determining the cost-effectiveness of a plumbing replacement program (or plumbing replacement aspect of a larger program) states can encourage replacement of toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in a number of ways. This report lists both legislative and economic measures that can be implemented on the state level that impact local programs.

Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.; Pickle, S.J.

1995-06-01

119

Networking CD-ROMs: The Decision Maker's Guide to Local Area Network Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era when patrons want access to CD-ROM resources but few libraries can afford to buy multiple copies, CD-ROM local area networks (LANs) are emerging as a cost-effective way to provide shared access. To help librarians make informed decisions, this manual offers information on: (1) the basics of LANs, a "local area network primer"; (2) the…

Elshami, Ahmed M.

120

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning Program: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning (LAP) Program is a community-based approach to developing comprehensive neighbourhood plans. In order to achieve sustainable and implementable Local Area Plans (LAPs), the City of Saskatoon has been using innovative methods of collaborative decision-making to engage citizens. The program has been…

Kellett, Livia; Peter, Lyla; Moore, Kelley

2008-01-01

121

Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

122

Avoiding pitfalls when implementing local area networks in hospital environments.  

PubMed

This paper is intended to outline some of the most commonly encountered, but yet still underestimated pitfalls during the implementation of computer systems networks in hospitals and health care institutions and to give information technology planners and responsibles some practical hints for avoiding them. Pitfalls encountered during the difficult process of achieving consensus among all groups concerned on the necessity for electronic data processing in health care institutions will not be addressed here [1], though the authors believe that some major risks for project failure stem from shortcomings in this field. Instead, those pitfalls encountered during project initialization and project realization with the phases of analysis, design, contracting, installation, and maintenance will be discussed. The paper concludes with the authors' opinion that only the application of industry-proven project management and realization techniques will allow health care administrators to cope with the steadily increasing risks for failure of information technology projects in health care. PMID:8591225

Kaudewitz, G; Schulte, A

1995-01-01

123

Indoor wireless source localization based on area constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with indoor source localization using multiple receivers. Unlike outdoor environment, indoor sources have restricted motion and move in partially or fully known indoor settings, including rooms and hallways. The source could be a robot or unmanned ground vehicle. The source could emit a wireless transmission of thermal, chemical or biological hazard event. In this paper, inequality geometric constraints are developed and applied to help improve localization estimates based on Trilateration for indoor environments. The constraints, which can be applied to outdoor environments as well, restrict the source position estimate from existing in certain regions that are labeled invalid and consistent with the building layout and blue prints. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the advantage of subjecting the optimization problem to the developed constraints, which is particularly notable as the range error variance increases.

Shoeb, Mohamed; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness

2006-05-01

124

Children's Living and Play Areas in the Local Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents results of a three-year study of children's living and play areas in three cities (one large, one medium, and one small) in Yugoslavia. A total of 1,200 families living in 240 buildings in six developments built between 1961 and 1971 were included in the study. A variety of facilities were evaluated for both formal and informal…

Kara-Pesic, Zivojin; And Others

125

Impacts of Community-based Conservation on Local Communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

2006-01-01

126

76 FR 1429 - Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-154  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Balancing Authority Ancillary Services Formula Rates...Authority (WACM) Ancillary Services Formula Rates through February 28, 2013. The existing transmission and ancillary services formula rates will expire February 28,...

2011-01-10

127

What is family support work? : a case study within the context of one local authority in Scotland   

E-print Network

The thesis investigates the development of family support within one local authority in Scotland and shows that it has emerged from a complex interplay of governmental, philosophical, policy and practice change.

Smith, Mary

2009-01-01

128

The management of local government modernisation : Area decentralisation and pragmatic localism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Seeks to analyse the complexity of current practices surrounding the management and governance of urban regeneration activities in the UK. In particular, aims to focus on the potential of initiatives decentralised to the sub-local level that have been designed both to effectively manage public service provision and to improve citizen participation in local government management decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Jon Coaffee; Lorraine Johnston

2005-01-01

129

20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Each local workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators described...

2010-04-01

130

24 CFR 1000.325 - How is the need component adjusted for local area costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.325 How is the need component adjusted for local area costs? The need component is adjusted by the...

2011-04-01

131

24 CFR 1000.325 - How is the need component adjusted for local area costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.325 How is the need component adjusted for local area costs? The need component is adjusted by the...

2012-04-01

132

24 CFR 1000.325 - How is the need component adjusted for local area costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.325 How is the need component adjusted for local area costs? The need component is adjusted by the...

2010-04-01

133

24 CFR 1000.325 - How is the need component adjusted for local area costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.325 How is the need component adjusted for local area costs? The need component is adjusted by the...

2013-04-01

134

24 CFR 1000.325 - How is the need component adjusted for local area costs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.325 How is the need component adjusted for local area costs? The need component is adjusted by the...

2014-04-01

135

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...

2010-10-01

136

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area...the PEP to each station in the plan. If a state's emergency alert system is capable of initiating EAS messages formatted...

2013-10-01

137

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area...the PEP to each station in the plan. If a state's emergency alert system is capable of initiating EAS messages formatted...

2012-10-01

138

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area...the PEP to each station in the plan. If a state's emergency alert system is capable of initiating EAS messages formatted...

2014-10-01

139

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...

2011-10-01

140

[Distribution of association fibers impinging upon the middle suprasylvian sulcus area (MSs area) in the cat (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Following lesions of various cortical areas of altogether 13 adult cats, the distribution of degenerating fibers in the cortical area surrounding the middle suprasylvian sulcus (MSs area) has been studied with the method of Fink and Heimer. Association fibers from the visual cortex mostly end in the vicinity of fundus of the medial wall of the MSs area and a fair number of fibers do in the fundus area of the posterior portion of its lateral wall. Most of the fibers terminate in layers III-V. Fibers from the auditory cortex terminante in the lip of the lateral wall, while few fibers end in the fundus and the medial wall. The fibers from the somatosensory cortex chiefly end in the vicinity of the fundus terminate in layers III-V. The "association cortex" sends a good amount of fibers to the lip region and the upper area of the media wall and lesser amount to the posterior part of the lateral wall of the MSs. The fibers terminant in layer III. From the present and the previous findings, it has become evident that inputs of different kinds of sensory modalities converge upon th elayers III-IV of the MSs area from the various cortical functional areas, and that the MSs area also sends fibers back to the sensory cortical areas. In addition, it has reciprocal connections with some thalamic nuclear groups, e.g., the "pulvinar posterior" system. Based upon the findings of neuronal connections, it can be suggested that the MSs area may play an important role with regard to the "integration of sensory inputs" in the cat cerebral cortex. PMID:637952

Naito, J

1978-01-01

141

Health and safety inspection of hairdressing and nail salons by local authority environmental health practitioners.  

PubMed

The objective of the study described in this article was to provide environmental health practitioners (EHPs) with an evaluation of the levels of understanding of, and compliance with, health and safety legislation in hairdressing and nail salons. EHPs carried out a series of inspections of 205 salons in a large British city, consisting of a site assessment and an assessment of employee knowledge of relevant regulations, including those relating to control of exposure to hazardous substances. Two-fifths of senior salon employees understood Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) assessments and could provide evidence of their completion. Most employees had been trained and made aware of the health hazards associated with carrying out their work and took suitable precautions to protect themselves and their clients. The results suggest that senior employees within the salons sampled, have knowledge of the risks to health and have been taking measures to control these risks. Initiatives such as the Health and Safety Executive's (in collaboration with local authorities and the hairdressing industry) "Bad Hand Day?" campaign and sector-specific COSHH essentials guidance help raise awareness levels and aim to support good control practice in salons. PMID:23397656

Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Bowen, Jo; Sumner, Jade; Fishwick, David

2013-01-01

142

Ampelographic and DNA characterization of local grapevine accessions of the Tuscia area (Latium,Italy)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of local vines in the Tuscia area (Latium region, Italy) was documented by historical sources. Ampelographic and molecular characterization (35 morphological descriptors and 16 microsatellite loci) was carried out on accessions belonging to the most frequently mentioned local vines. S...

143

76 FR 61183 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...LAP: Loveland Area Projects. LAP Transmission System...by, the Loveland Area Projects. LAP Transmission System...but unloaded, by quick start generation, or by interruptible...rates and schedules. The steps Western took to involve...of this Rate Order. Project Descriptions The...

2011-10-03

144

76 FR 56433 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Loveland Area Projects. LAP Transmission System...by, the Loveland Area Projects. LAP Transmission System...but unloaded, by quick start generation, or by interruptible...rates and schedules. The steps Western took to involve...of this Rate Order. Project Descriptions The...

2011-09-13

145

Rapid orbital characterization of local area space objects utilizing image-differencing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellites have limited awareness of nearby objects that might pose a collision hazard. Small, relatively inexpensive onboard optical local area sensors have been proposed as a means of providing additional awareness. However, such sensors often have limited performance. Proposed are methods to increase the Local Area Awareness provided by such sensors by means of classical and novel image processing techniques. The local area of the sensor platform is defined, for our purposes, as a sphere of radius 500 km surrounding the sensor platform, or observing satellite. This analysis utilizes image differencing-based techniques, in the development of a detection algorithm and proposes a novel objectvelocity classifier. This classifier may provide a means of rapidly distinguishing local area objects that pose a possible collision hazard when an orbital two-line element set is not available. Derivation of a novel classifier is based on the speed of the projected object moving across the focal plane array of the detector. This technique relies on the assumption that detection from the sensor platform allows for tracking of the object over all times the object is within the local area of the sensor platform. This alternative to intensity-based, signalto- noise ratio detection methods is performed by exploiting the stellar background as a reference from a space-based observing satellite. Results presented in this paper further demonstrate the ability of the proposed classifier to provide a means of rapidly distinguishing objects that pose a possible hazard within the local area of the sensor platform. These preliminary results act to substantiate this claim and therefore lay out a pathway for relevant and meaningful future work in the area of Local Area Awareness for satellites.

McCall, Paul D.; Naudeau, Madeleine L.; Sorge, Marlon E.; Farrell, Thomas; Adjouadi, Malek

2013-05-01

146

20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas? 667.130 Section 667...PROVISIONS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Funding § 667.130 How are...formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas? (a) General....

2010-04-01

147

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... The following areas are designated race areas for the purpose of reoccurring...

2011-07-01

148

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... The following areas are designated race areas for the purpose of reoccurring...

2012-07-01

149

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... The following areas are designated race areas for the purpose of reoccurring...

2013-07-01

150

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... The following areas are designated race areas for the purpose of reoccurring...

2014-07-01

151

Area laws in a many-body localized state and its implications for topological order  

E-print Network

The question whether Anderson insulators can persist to finite-strength interactions - a scenario dubbed many-body localization - has recently received a great deal of interest. The origin of such a many-body localized phase has been described as localization in Fock space, a picture we examine numerically. We then formulate a precise sense in which a single energy eigenstate of a Hamiltonian can be adiabatically connected to a state of a non-interacting Anderson insulator. We call such a state a many-body localized state and define a many-body localized phase as one in which almost all states are many-body localized states. We explore the possible consequences of this; the most striking is an area law for the entanglement entropy of almost all excited states in a many-body localized phase. We present the results of numerical calculations for a one-dimensional system of spinless fermions. Our results are consistent with an area law and, by implication, many-body localization for almost all states and almost all regions for weak enough interactions and strong disorder. However, there are rare regions and rare states with much larger entanglement entropies. Furthermore, we study the implications that many-body localization may have for topological phases and self-correcting quantum memories. We find that there are scenarios in which many-body localization can help to stabilize topological order at non-zero energy density, and we propose potentially useful criteria to confirm these scenarios.

Bela Bauer; Chetan Nayak

2013-06-30

152

DFMAC: DTN-friendly medium access control for wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a wireless communication network for both low-speed mobile nodes in densely populated hotspots and high-speed mobile nodes roaming in a large area. Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are deployed in the hotspots, while a delay\\/disruption tolerant network (DTN) provides services to roaming nodes in the large area with low node density. We investigate radio resource

Hao Liang; Weihua Zhuang

2009-01-01

153

Local Area Water Removal Analysis of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell under Gas Purge Conditions  

PubMed Central

In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold. PMID:22368495

Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

2012-01-01

154

Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.  

PubMed

In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold. PMID:22368495

Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

2012-01-01

155

Reducing the barriers against analytical epidemiological studies in investigations of local foodborne disease outbreaks in Germany - a starter kit for local health authorities.  

PubMed

Thousands of infectious food-borne disease outbreaks (FBDO) are reported annually to the European Food Safety Authority within the framework of the zoonoses Directive (2003/99/EC). Most recognised FBDO occur locally following point source exposure, but only few are investigated using analytical epidemiological studies. In Germany, and probably also in other countries of the European Union, this seems to be particularly true for those investigated by local health authorities. Analytical studies, usually cohort studies or case–control studies, are a powerful tool to identify suspect food vehicles. Therefore, from a public health and food safety perspective, their more frequent usage is highly desirable. We have developed a small toolbox consisting of a strategic concept and a simple software tool for data entry and analysis, with the objective to increase the use of analytical studies in the investigation of local point source FBDO in Germany. PMID:24602279

Werber, D; Bernard, H

2014-01-01

156

Developing Policy and Practice for Dyslexia across a Local Authority: A Case Study of Educational Psychology Practice at Organisational Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper two premises are set out: first, that within Children's Services educational psychologists (EPs) have a distinctive contribution to make towards policy and practice in relation to "dyslexia"; second, that they may be well placed to lead development work at an organisational level within a local authority. Building on…

Woods, Kevin; Stothard, Jan; Lydon, Jackie; Reason, Rea

2013-01-01

157

287(g) and the Politics of Interior Immigration Control in the United States: Explaining Local Cooperation with Federal Immigration Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to improve our understanding of emerging patterns of interior immigration control in the United States by examining local law enforcement cooperation with federal immigration authorities under the 287(g) Program. While several recent studies have drawn attention to the shifting terrain of immigration enforcement away from borders into the interior, few have attempted to systematically explain reasons for

Tom K. Wong

2012-01-01

158

Does a new philosophy change the structures? Compulsory Competitive Tendering and local authority leisure services in Midland England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT) in the UK separated the delivery of leisure services from management and strategy. This has led to changes in staffing, conditions of employment, and a rethink about objectives. Mintzberg (1981) argued that there were five basic configurations of organizations. Local authorities are a hybrid of his machine and professional bureaucracies. CCT decentralizes some of the decision-making,

M. F. Collins

1997-01-01

159

Scoring Opportunity or Hospital Pass? The Changing Role of Local Authorities in 14-19 Education and Training in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, the UK Labour government unveiled plans to abolish the Learning and Skills Council and transfer funding for the education and training of 16-19-year-olds in England to local authorities (LAs). The transfer of 16-19 funding complements the responsibilities that LAs have already acquired in relation to the raising of the education and…

Payne, Jonathan

2010-01-01

160

FlooDSuM - a decision support methodology for assisting local authorities in flood situations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision making in flood situations is a difficult task, especially in small to medium-sized mountain catchments (30 - 500 km2) which are usually characterized by complex topography, high drainage density and quick runoff response to rainfall events. Operating hydrological models driven by numerical weather prediction systems, which have a lead-time of several hours up to few even days, would be beneficial in this case as time for prevention could be gained. However, the spatial and quantitative accuracy of such meteorological forecasts usually decrease with increasing lead-time. In addition, the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff models to inaccuracies in estimations of areal rainfall increases with decreasing catchment size. Accordingly, decisions on flood alerts should ideally be based on areal rainfall from high resolution and short-term numerical weather prediction, nowcasts or even real-time measurements, which is transformed into runoff by a hydrological model. In order to benefit from the best possible rainfall data while retaining enough time for alerting and for prevention, the hydrological model should be fast and easily applicable by decision makers within local authorities themselves. The proposed decision support methodology FlooDSuM (Flood Decision Support Methodology) aims to meet those requirements. Applying FlooDSuM, a few successive binary decisions of increasing complexity have to be processed following a flow-chart-like structure. Prepared data and straightforwardly applicable tools are provided for each of these decisions. Maps showing the current flood disposition are used for the first step. While danger of flooding cannot be excluded more and more complex and time consuming methods will be applied. For the final decision, a set of scatter-plots relating areal precipitation to peak flow is provided. These plots take also further decisive parameters into account such as storm duration, distribution of rainfall intensity in time as well as the catchment's antecedent moisture conditions. The proposed approach is currently tested in two catchments in the Swiss Pre-Alps and Alps. We will show the general setup and selected results. The findings of those case studies will lead to further improvements of the proposed approach.

Schwanbeck, Jan; Weingartner, Rolf

2014-05-01

161

Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

2013-04-01

162

Distribution of energy storage rate in area of strain localization during tension of austenitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is devoted to experimental determination of the energy storage rate in the area of strain localization. The experimental procedure involves two complementary techniques: i.e. infrared thermography (IRT) and visible light imaging. The results of experiments have shown that during the evolution of plastic strain localization the energy storage rate in some areas of the deformed specimen drops to zero. To interpret the decrease of the energy storage rate in terms of micro-mechanisms, microstructural observations using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSC) were performed.

Oliferuk, W.; Maj, M.; Zembrzycki, K.

2015-01-01

163

Isolated hand palsy due to cortical infarction: localization of the motor hand area.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the lesions and symptoms of five patients who presented with monoparesis of an upper limb due to cortical infarction. The location of the cortical motor hand area seems to be in the middle to lower portion of the anterior wall of the central sulcus. Severity of finger paralysis associated with impairment of this area varied in different fingers and occurred in two patterns: one variant predominantly affected the radial side, and the other predominantly affected the ulnar side. PMID:12011293

Takahashi, N; Kawamura, M; Araki, S

2002-05-14

164

In these tighter economic times the University needs to look at all areas where costs can be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This  

E-print Network

be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This includes activities such as the printing of emails, printing of documents and draft documents, all of which are areas which could be reduced to provide savings. Another area is how you specify your print work to Printing Services there are many areas

Schnaufer, Achim

165

CMU-ITC-86-046 Monitoring Local Area Networks at  

E-print Network

, after two benefactors of C-MU; Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon. Since the fall of 1985 the InformationCMU-ITC-86-046 Monitoring Local Area Networks at Carnegie-IVlellon University: Tools for Network Planning Bryan Striemer Mark Lorence Information Technology Center Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh

166

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Water Management in the San Francisco Bay Area  

E-print Network

in water scarcity (costs of water use reduction). The modeling also demonstrates the importance of wateri Climate Change Adaptation for Local Water Management in the San Francisco Bay Area By WILLIAM will affect the reliability of water supplies and operations of California's water supply system. To meet

Lund, Jay R.

167

Towards a Unified Local Area Network Architecture for the United States Air Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of a comnunications system currently being specified by the Air Force's Unified Local Area Network Architecture program (ULANA). The UIANA network, in conjunction with the DoD long haul Defense Data Network (DDN), aims to integrate the Air Force's current mix of heterogeneous computers, communications and operating systems and applications packages into a flexible, survivable, and

Jonathan S. Katz; Lev G. Feldkhun; Fred S. Teeboom

1985-01-01

168

How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn`t as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group`s patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

Hayhoe, G.F.

1991-12-31

169

How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn't as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group's patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

Hayhoe, G.F.

1991-01-01

170

Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) using Double Weight (DW) codes for local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the performance evaluation of the Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) technique using Double Weight (DW) Code. This technique was implemented in local area environment which is applied in ring network and the performance analysis was carried out using optical communication simulation software. Details of the simulation result on OCDMA in terms of bit error rate (BER),

H. K. Dayang; S. A. Aljunid

2010-01-01

171

Using the Small Area Estimation Methods for the Local Unemployment Rates Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The ar? cle presents the results from the experimental es? ma? on of municipali? unemployment rates in Bulgaria, using the small area es? ma? on methods. The need for this kind of es? mates is based on the real needs for highly territorially disaggregated data in order to provide informa? on for the correctly localized policies. The basic concepts

Alexandar Naidenov

172

IMPLEMENTATION OF A WIRELESS HIGH-SPEED LOCAL AREA NETWORK FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A demonstration project implementing a wireless local area network(WLAN)which connected the farm stead with tractors, cotton pickers, combines, and spray equipment along with consultant's vehicle and hand-help personal digital assistants (PDAs) via 802.11 or popularly called WI-FI radios will be pre...

173

On the packet delay in wireless local area networks with access port diversity and power control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless local area networks have attracted considerable interest. To enhance the user capacity of such wireless packet communication systems, an architecture where terminals share a common radio channel and several access ports has been proposed in the literature. In this paper we will investigate the performance of such systems, considering several scenarios. Firstly access ports may only receive packets from

C. Roobol

1995-01-01

174

Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spread spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) allows asynchronous multiple access to a local area network (LAN) with no waiting. The additional bandwidth required by spread spectrum can be accommodated by using a fiber-optic channel and incoherent optical signal processing. New CDMA sequences are designed specifically for optical processing. It is shown that increasing the number of chips per bit,

PAUL R. PRUCNAL; MARIO A. SANTORO; TING RUI FAN

1986-01-01

175

A New Medium Access Control Protocol for TDD Mode Wideband CDMA Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that TDD mode wideband CDMA is particularly suited for wireless local area networks (LANs). In this paper a medium access control (MAC) protocol is proposed for wireless multimedia LANs that are based on TDD mode wideband CDMA. In order to minimize interference experienced by a packet and to satisfy bit error rates (BERs) of multimedia traffic,

Ian F. Akyildiz; Xudong Wang

176

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas  

E-print Network

tested. In Colombia, drinking water and sewage are provided by public or private companies, under alternative, and contribute to reach a better local development based on access to drinking water and sewage operators. Nevertheless, the situation in rural areas are critical, because the drinking water coverage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

A Secure M-Commerce Model Based On Wireless Local Area Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is on a secure mobile commerce model based on wireless local area network (WLAN). The model is investigated through the accessing procedure, the roaming management procedure, and the electronic trade procedure. To solve the security problem in the WLAN, a novel authentication method is proposed, in which the mobile node (MN) is validated twice by

Xiaohui Li; Weidong Kou

2004-01-01

178

Local banking markets and the relation between structure, prices, and nonprices in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have investigated the relationship between market structure and the prices of bank services, most have been concerned with metropolitan areas. These studies generally have used bank balance sheet and income statement ratios as bank conduct proxies. Moreover, prior studies have approximated local banking markets with county or SMSA boundaries. ; This study develops a methodology for delineating

Richard W. Stolz

1975-01-01

179

System for analysis of LANDSAT agricultural data: Automatic computer-assisted proportion estimation of local areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A conceptual man machine system framework was created for a large scale agricultural remote sensing system. The system is based on and can grow out of the local recognition mode of LACIE, through a gradual transition wherein computer support functions supplement and replace AI functions. Local proportion estimation functions are broken into two broad classes: (1) organization of the data within the sample segment; and (2) identification of the fields or groups of fields in the sample segment.

Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Kauth, R. J.; Thomas, G. S.

1976-01-01

180

30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the location of the project and the location of water, sewer, and power lines within the project area, and maps or plats showing...

2014-07-01

181

30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the location of the project and the location of water, sewer, and power lines within the project area, and maps or plats showing...

2013-07-01

182

30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the location of the project and the location of water, sewer, and power lines within the project area, and maps or plats showing...

2010-07-01

183

30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the location of the project and the location of water, sewer, and power lines within the project area, and maps or plats showing...

2012-07-01

184

30 CFR 880.15 - Assistance by States or Indian tribes, local authorities, and private parties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...project; (b) Furnish best available information, data, and maps on the location of the project and the location of water, sewer, and power lines within the project area, and maps or plats showing...

2011-07-01

185

Training Transfer: A Suggested Course of Action for Local Authorities to Leverage Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximization of training influence on individual performance through changes in employee knowledge, skills, and abilities is a paramount concern of organizations. However, training without implementation in a work setting cannot achieve its goals. In this article, the author maps the primary factors that influence transfer of what is learned in…

Ascher, Jacques

2013-01-01

186

A Better Answer for Education: Reviving State and Local Policymaking Authority. Heritage Lectures. No. 994  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the fifth anniversary of No Child Left Behind, Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Jim DeMint (R-SC) outline their alternative for restoring state and local ownership of education policymaking while ensuring transparency about results and accountability to parents and taxpayers. The A-PLUS Act of 2007 (Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success) will…

Cornyn, John; DeMint, Jim

2007-01-01

187

Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Primary School Children in an Inner-City Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…

Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

2010-01-01

188

Autonomy and Governance in Local Authority Provision for Children and Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of local government in addressing issues of social equity is undergoing significant reconstruction in current educational policy reforms in England. The current conceptualisation of social provision places individual rights at the centre of policy, and social responsibility is represented as the work of individuals. Drawing upon a…

Boyask, Ruth; Donkin, Arnet; Waite, Sue; Lawson, Hazel

2013-01-01

189

The response of a local health authority to reported cases of salmonellosis in a Portuguese municipality, 2007 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Human salmonelloses are statutorily reportable infectious diseases (SRID) in Portugal. Data derived from SRID surveillance systems have been used in international comparisons as well as in studies assessing the sources and modes of transmission of Salmonella infections in humans. Methods We evaluated a salmonellosis (statutorily reportable) surveillance system in a Portuguese local health authority, consulting routine data available. The main objectives were describing procedures used to investigate and respond to reported cases, and identifying the sources of infection and modes of transmission. Results In the five year period from 2007 to 2011, medical doctors reported 58 cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis to the local health authority. Fifty four reported cases were in hospitalized children (age range 1 – 19 years) and 44 were associated with drinking water from private wells or eating raw egg products, which is consistent with other studies. Conclusions This local surveillance system was useful for detecting both isolated cases and outbreaks of salmonellosis and for identifying modes of transmission and sources of infection. It stimulated community health educational activities to prevent future cases. However, further evaluation including economic analysis and an impact assessment is required at both local and national levels. PMID:24642182

2014-01-01

190

Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

2014-01-01

191

Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region's locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P

2014-01-01

192

How habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant assemblages in isolated closed depressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classifying species by shared life-history traits is important if common ecological response groups are to be identified among different species. We investigated how habitat area, local and regional factors shape plant communities in small isolated closed depressions, and how the species richness is related to the interplay between environmental factors and specific life-history trait combinations. In Central-Western Europe, 169 closed depressions were completely surveyed for plant presence in two highly contrasted landscapes (forested and open landscapes). All species were clustered into 9 Emergent Groups based on 10 life-history traits related to plant dispersal, establishment and persistence. Habitat areas were related to species presence using logistic regressions. Most Emergent Groups were more area-dependent in open than in forested landscapes, owing to heterogeneous light levels in forest weakening the species-area relationship. In open landscapes, Floating Hydrophytes were severely underrepresented in very small depressions, owing to the absence of waterfowl population. Local environmental and regional factors were related to species richness using Generalized Linear Models. In open landscapes, local environmental factors such as water conductivity or soil productivity are respectively the main predictors. In forested landscapes, the abundance of most Emergent Groups was better predicted by regional factors, i.e., habitat connectivity and distance to the forest edge. Forested landscapes strongly impeded the closed depressions' colonization by the less mobile Emergent Groups such as Large-seeded Perennials.

Herault, Bruno; Thoen, Daniel

2009-05-01

193

78 FR 39588 - Special Local Regulations; Revision of 2013 America's Cup Regulated Area, San Francisco Bay; San...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Special Local Regulations; Revision of 2013 America's Cup Regulated Area, San Francisco...revising the regulated area for the 2013 America's Cup sailing events. Previously...Louis Vuitton Cup,'' ``Red Bull Youth America's Cup,'' and ``America's...

2013-07-02

194

Detection and quantification of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in Spanish authorized shellfish harvesting areas.  

PubMed

An 18-month survey was conducted in ten class "B" harvesting areas from two Galician Rias (NW of Spain), the most important bivalve production area in Europe, to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (NoV), including genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). Quantification was performed by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), according to the recently developed standard method ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. Four bivalve species were studied, including wild and cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), clams (Venerupis philippinarum and Venerupis decussata) and cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Overall, 55.4% of samples were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses, being detected the simultaneous presence of two or three viruses in 11.3% of the cases. NoV GI was the most prevalent virus (32.1%), followed by NoV GII (25.6%) and HAV (10.1%). Cultured mussels showed the highest percentage of positive samples (61.4%), followed by cockles (59.4%), wild mussels (54.3%) and clams (38.7%). Viral contamination levels for most of the positive samples ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) RNA copies/g of digestive tissue (RNAc/g DT). The presence of viral contamination was statistically higher (P<0.0001) in warm months (April to September) than in cold months (October to March). The data presented here may contribute to the development of more representative sampling strategies, in monitoring and management of shellfish growing areas as well as being useful in a future scenario in which viral critical values are adopted in legislation. PMID:25462922

Polo, David; Varela, Miguel F; Romalde, Jesús L

2015-01-16

195

MAP Fault Localization Based on Wide Area Synchronous Phasor Measurement Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the research of complicated electrical engineering, the emergence of phasor measurement units (PMU) is a landmark event. The establishment and application of wide area measurement system (WAMS) in power system has made widespread and profound influence on the safe and stable operation of complicated power system. In this paper, taking full advantage of wide area synchronous phasor measurement information provided by PMUs, we have carried out precise fault localization based on the principles of maximum posteriori probability (MAP). Large numbers of simulation experiments have confirmed that the results of MAP fault localization are accurate and reliable. Even if there are interferences from white Gaussian stochastic noise, the results from MAP classification are also identical to the actual real situation.

Zhang, Yagang; Wang, Zengping

2015-02-01

196

Communications protocols for a fault tolerant, integrated local area network for Space Station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolutionary growth of the Space Station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated,local area networks capable of supporting data, voice and video communications. In addition, fault tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard Space Station of day-to-day data system repair tasks. An experimental, local area network is being developed which will serve as a testbed for investigating candidate algorithms and technologies for a fault tolerant, integrated network. The establishment of a set of rules or protocols which govern communications on the net is essential to obtain orderly and reliable operation. A hierarchy of protocols for the experimental network is presented and procedures for data and control communications are described.

Meredith, B. D.

1984-01-01

197

Local Area Network Traffic Characteristics, with Implications for Broadband Network Congestion Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the phenomenon of congestion in order to better understand the congestion management techniques that will be needed in high-speed, cell-based networks. The first step of this study is to use high time-resolution local area network (LAN) traffic data to explore the nature of LAN traffic variability. Then, we use the data for a trace-driven simulation of a

Henry J. Fowler; Will E. Leland

1991-01-01

198

Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

1991-01-01

199

Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

2012-01-01

200

VIDEO STREAMING TO MULTIPLE CLIENTS OVER WIRELESS LOCAL AREA Hulya Seferoglu*, Ozgur Gurbuz*, Ozgur Ercetin*, Yucel Altunbasak  

E-print Network

VIDEO STREAMING TO MULTIPLE CLIENTS OVER WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS Hulya Seferoglu*, Ozgur@ece.gatech.edu ABSTRACT This paper considers the problem of multiple video streaming over wireless local area networks. In particular, we propose video streaming techniques to improve the quality of video streams over the link from

Markopoulou, Athina

201

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

SciTech Connect

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany)

1989-04-01

202

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

SciTech Connect

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany))

1989-04-01

203

Local status and power in area-based health improvement partnerships.  

PubMed

Area-based initiatives have formed an important part of public policy towards more socio-economically deprived areas in many countries. Co-ordinating service provision within and across sectors has been a common feature of these initiatives. Despite sustained policy interest in area-based initiatives, little empirical work has explored relations between area-based initiative providers, and partnership development within this context remains under-theorised. This article addresses both of these gaps by exploring partnerships as a social and developmental process, drawing on concepts from figurational sociology to explain how provider relations develop within an area-based initiative. Qualitative methods were used to explore, prospectively, the development of an area-based initiative targeted at a town in the north west of England. A central finding was that although effective delivery of area-based initiatives is premised on a high level of co-ordination between service providers, the pattern of interdependencies between providers limits the frequency and effectiveness of co-operation. In particular, the interdependency of area-based initiative providers with others in their organisation (what is termed here as 'organisational pull') constrained the ways in which they worked with providers outside of their own organisations. 'Local' status, which could be earned over time, enabled some providers to exert greater control over the way in which provider relations developed during the course of the initiative. These findings demonstrate how historically constituted social networks, within which all providers are embedded, shape partnership development. The theoretical insight developed here suggests a need for more realistic expectations among policymakers about how and to what extent provider partnerships can be managed. PMID:24695385

Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel

2014-11-01

204

The G4R GMES Academy - linking research, academia, service providers and local authorities.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related research projects in the EU EDUCATION - a compendium of courses offered by universities in the field of GMES LECTURES - G4R offers to arrange lectures on GMES at interested universities and institutions The initiative by G4R invites collaboration to strengthen the role of research and education for the evolution of GMES services.

Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio

2013-04-01

205

Local Extinction in the Bird Assemblage in the Greater Beijing Area from 1877 to 2006  

PubMed Central

Recent growth in industrialization and the modernization of agricultural activities, combined with human population growth, has greatly modified China’s natural environment, particularly in the vicinity of large cities. We compared avifauna checklists made between 1877 and 1938 with current checklists to determine the extent of local bird extinctions during the last century in the greater Beijing area. Our study shows that of the 411 bird species recorded from 1877–1938, 45 (10.9%) were no longer recorded from 2004–2006. Birds recorded as ‘rare’ in 1938 were more likely to have disappeared in subsequent years. Migrant status also influenced the probability of local bird extinction with winter migrants being the most affected class. Moreover, larger birds were more likely to have disappeared than smaller ones, potentially explained by differential ecological requirements and anthropogenic exploitation. Although our habitat descriptions and diet classification were not predictors of local bird extinction, the ecological processes driving local bird extinction are discussed in the light of historical changes that have impacted this region since the end of the 1930 s. Our results are of importance to the broader conservation of bird wildlife. PMID:22768146

Chouteau, Philippe; Jiang, Zhigang; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Cai, Jing; Li, Zhongqiu; Pedrono, Miguel; Pays, Olivier

2012-01-01

206

Neural mechanisms of auditory categorization: from across brain areas to within local microcircuits  

PubMed Central

Categorization enables listeners to efficiently encode and respond to auditory stimuli. Behavioral evidence for auditory categorization has been well documented across a broad range of human and non-human animal species. Moreover, neural correlates of auditory categorization have been documented in a variety of different brain regions in the ventral auditory pathway, which is thought to underlie auditory-object processing and auditory perception. Here, we review and discuss how neural representations of auditory categories are transformed across different scales of neural organization in the ventral auditory pathway: from across different brain areas to within local microcircuits. We propose different neural transformations across different scales of neural organization in auditory categorization. Along the ascending auditory system in the ventral pathway, there is a progression in the encoding of categories from simple acoustic categories to categories for abstract information. On the other hand, in local microcircuits, different classes of neurons differentially compute categorical information. PMID:24987324

Tsunada, Joji; Cohen, Yale E.

2014-01-01

207

Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spread spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) allows asynchronous multiple access to a local area network (LAN) with no waiting. The additional bandwidth required by spread spectrum can be accommodated by using a fiber-optic channel and incoherent optical signal processing. New CDMA sequences are designed specifically for optical processing. It is shown that increasing the number of chips per bit, by using optical processing, allows an increase in capacity of a CDMA LAN. An experiment is performed demonstrating the performance of an optical CDMA LAN, operating at 100 Mbd with three users.

Prucnal, P. R.; Santoro, M. A.; Fan, T. R.

1986-01-01

208

Development of Science and Mathematics Education System Including Teaching Experience of Students in Local Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New reformation project on engineering education, which is supported from 2005 to 2008FY by Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in Kyushu Institute of Technology. In this project, teaching experience of students is introduced into the curriculum of Faculty of Engineering. In the curriculum students try to prepare teaching materials and to teach local school pupils with them by themselves. Teaching experience is remarkably effective for them to strengthen their self-dependence and learning motivation. Science Education Center, Science Laboratory and Super Teachers College were also organized to promote the area cooperation on the education of science and mathematics.

Kage, Hiroyuki

209

Local area analysis of high-degree solar oscillations: New ring fitting procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The local area analysis of five-minute solar oscillations using ring diagrams to determine subphotospheric velocity flows is a tool for convection zone dynamics. In relation to the problem of the large computational task of fitting the rings, a faster method is presented that carries out the ring fitting using data obtained with a high l helioseismometer. Noise sources are eliminated, and a perturbation approach is used to fit the azimuthally averaged spectrum. The parameters determined in this way are held constant while the ring diagram is fitted. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

Haber, Deborah A.; Toomre, Juri; Hill, Frank; Gough, Douglas O.

1995-01-01

210

Integrity of local ecosystems and storm water management in residential areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors designed an ecological storm water system in a residential area to replace the conventional underground channels for the collection of storm water so as to reduce the nutrients and sediments discharged. This system contains natural sub-creeks as drainage channels discharging overflow to nearby creeks, an open green trench, a storage pond, and natural sub-creeks. The sub-creeks were designed to be integrated into community landscape, which not only increases the efficiency of water usage, but also improves the aesthetic qualities of the community residence area as required by Agenda 21. This research proved the feasibility of an open storm water collection and utilization system for the design of a community water system.

Wang, Lin; Wang, Weida; Gong, Zhaoguo

2006-10-01

211

Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.  

SciTech Connect

The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-09-01

212

Area and volume changes from Greenland's longest-observed local glacier, Mittivakkat Gletscher, and surrounding glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers and ice caps are indicators of ongoing climate changes. Warming in the Arctic during the past several decades has caused local glaciers and ice caps to thin and retreat. Few mass-balance observations are available in Greenland to quantify area and volume losses and determine the extent to which these glaciers and ice caps are out of equilibrium with present-day climate. Here, we present mass balance records since 1995 and volume observations for the Mittivakkat Gletscher (17.6 km2; 65°41 N, 37°48 W), Southeast Greenland: the only local glacier in Greenland for which there exists long-term observations of both surface mass balance and glacier front fluctuations. Front observations were first made in 1931, taken by the British Arctic Air Route Expedition, 1930-1931, indicating continuous glacier recession since 1931 of about 1300 meters. Since 1995, mean values of observed net balance was -0.97 m w.e. The measurements show that 14 out of 16 balance years have a negative balance, and two balance years have a slightly positive balance. The cumulative mass balance since 1995 is -15.0 m w.e., corresponding to a volume loss of about 13% of the total glacier ice volume determined in 1994. Also, the Mittivakkat Gletscher (26.3 km2 in 2011) area extent has diminished about 22% since 1986 - close to the mean area exposure of 27±24% for glaciers and ice caps in Southeast Greenland. Since 1986, five GIC melted away in the Ammassalik area, and one would therefore expect that GIC might melt substantially within the 21st century under ongoing climate warming.

Mernild, S. H.; Knudsen, N. T.; Yde, J. C.

2012-04-01

213

Examining marginalized communities and local conservation institutions: the case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system. PMID:24271617

Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K; Schuett, Michael A

2014-01-01

214

Examining Marginalized Communities and Local Conservation Institutions: The Case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system.

Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K.; Schuett, Michael A.

2014-01-01

215

Local-area damage detection in composite structures using piezoelectric transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated and automated smart structures approach for structural health monitoring applications is presented. This approach, called Active Damage Interrogation (ADI), utilizes an array of piezoelectric transducers attached to or embedded within the structure for both actuation and sensing. The ADI system actively interrogates the structure via broadband excitation of multiple actuators across a desired frequency range. The structure's vibration signature is the characterized by computing the transfer functions between each actuator/sensor pair, and compared to the baseline signature. Statistical analysis of the transfer function deviations from the baseline is used to detect, localize, and assess the severity of damage in the structure. Experimental results of applying the ADI system for local area damage detection in a MD Explorer rotorcraft composite flexbeam are presented. The performance of the system in detecting and localizing internal delaminations created by low velocity impacts is quantified. The results obtained thus far indicate considerable promise for integrated structural health monitoring of aerospace vehicles, leading to the practice of condition-based maintenance and consequent reduction in vehicle life cycle costs.

Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; Sofge, Donald A.

1998-06-01

216

Binaural localization: influence of stimulus frequency and the linkage to covert peak areas.  

PubMed

The influence of selectively filtering a broadband stimulus on binaural localization was investigated. First, head-related-transfer-functions were obtained by placing a miniature microphone at the entrance of the ear canal and presenting broadband noise bursts from each of 104 loudspeakers arrayed in the listener's left hemifield. The microphone's output was transformed into frequency spectra using a Fast Fourier Transform. The microphone and loudspeaker characteristics were accounted for by repeating the procedure with the microphone suspended in space. The in-ear data were divided by the in-space data thereby providing an account of the pinna's interaction with the incident sound wave. Extracted from these data were the covert peak areas (CPAs) associated with different frequency segments. A CPA was defined as the spatial location of those loudspeakers, which when generating the stimulus, produced a sound pressure level at the ear canal entrance within 1 dB of the maximum level recorded for a particular frequency segment. A series of localization tests was conducted using a bandstop stimulus--one in which differently-centered 2.0-kHz wide frequency segments were filtered from a broadband noise. We predicted that when a given frequency segment was filtered, binaural listeners would less often report a sound as originating from the CPA associated with that segment compared to their performances when the sound was unfiltered. This prediction was substantiated by the data (P < 0.0001). While localization accuracy was decreased for the filtered stimuli, the decrement was significantly greater (p < 0.01) for sounds originating in the CPA. We interpreted the results to mean that monaural spectral cues contribute significantly to the accuracy of binaural localization and that the basis of the contribution is the spatial referents of stimulus frequencies. PMID:8340275

Butler, R A; Musicant, A D

1993-05-01

217

PLAN FOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST AREA. VOLUME V. LOCAL VIEWPOINTS ON RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A public meeting was held in Houston to solicit information and viewpoints on air pollution problems in the Houston area and related research needs. This volume presents the testimonies given by local technical experts, representatives of industrial organizations, educational ins...

218

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2013-10-01

219

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... true Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2012-10-01

220

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2014-10-01

221

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2010-10-01

222

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2011-10-01

223

Evaluation of Existing Structure and Civil Protection Management Framework in Greek Local Authorities: A Questionnaire Survey Demonstrates Why Prevention Fails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of a growing number of natural disasters and the increasing costs associated with them, Europe and Greece in particular, have devoted significant efforts and resources in natural hazards mitigation during the last decades. Despite the significant legislative efforts (e.g. 1998/22/EC, 2001/792/EC, 2007/60/EC Directives, 3013/2002 Act) and even though a number of steps has been taken towards improving civil protection, recent catastrophic events have illustrated the weaknesses of current approaches. In particular, in Greece, events such as the 1999 Athens earthquake, the 2007 and 2009 wildfires have shown the inadequacy of prevention and mitigation practices. Given the enhanced civil protection responsibilities, given by the Greek national law (Acts 3013/2002, 3852/2010) to local authorities in Greece, this work analyses and evaluates the existing structure and current management framework under which local authorities function and examines their risk mitigation practices. We conducted the largest questionnaire survey regarding Civil Protections issues, among the municipalities of Greece. To this aim, this work used a innovative online tool to assess current framework. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform that acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). Through this network, municipal civil protection officials completed surveys designed to obtain and quantify information on several aspects of civil protection practices and infrastructure. In particular, the examined factors included: (i) personnel and equipment, (ii) inter-agency cooperation, (iii) training, (iv) compliance with existing regulations and (v) persistent problems encountered by civil protection departments, that prevent the effectiveness of current practices. Responses showed that civil protection personnel lack adequate training and expertise, many are overstretched with several duties, while several prevention actions are carried out by seasonal or voluntary staff. Approximately half of the heads of civil protection offices do not hold a university degree, only 27% have a relevant scientific background (geoscientists or engineers) and more than half of them are elected members and not permanent staff, implying that no continuity is secured. Inter-agency cooperation is shown to be poor and organizational learning from international practices not adequate. Half of the municipalities report that the authorization processes are too slow so that prevention actions particularly regarding forest fires are severely delayed. Existing regulations are not followed by a significant portion of municipalities since 19% have not established a civil protection office and 23% have not compiled an action plan yet. Existing action plans lack important information, present no spatial data and are predominantly catalogues and tables of information regarding authorised personnel and equipment. Overall, underfunding, poor coordination of the different actors involved, lack of training and understaffing, lack of proper equipment and several other issues are held responsible by officials for preventing effectiveness of current practices. Finally, the EU emergency number 112 is widely unknown (87%). This work was held under the LIFE+ project "Local Authorities Alliance for Forest Fire Prevention - LIFE08/ENV/GR/000553" which is implemented with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community.

Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

2013-04-01

224

Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

2006-11-01

225

Design of physical layer management module of optical wireless local-area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As infrared transmission has the advantages of wide bandwidth, immunity to radio interference, high security and license-free, it is an attractive alternative to radio for wireless local area networks LAN. The design of an interface between the high-speed optical wireless transceiver (>20Mbps) and the optical wireless LAN is presented in this paper. We transplant the IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) layer protocol to our system, define and implement a new physical (PHY) layer management module. This management module can also provide us an experimental platform to analyze the performance of the modulation schemes, such as L-PPM, PIM, DH-PIM, etc. Due to its characteristics of flexibility, simplicity and low cost, the management module is a good choice for the indoor optical wireless LANs.

Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Haitao; Gong, Mali; Yan, Ping; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Kai; Jin, Wei

2002-08-01

226

Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats  

SciTech Connect

DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

1996-07-01

227

Indoor positioning in wireless local area networks with online path-loss parameter estimation.  

PubMed

Location based services are gathering an even wider interest also in indoor environments and urban canyons, where satellite systems like GPS are no longer accurate. A much addressed solution for estimating the user position exploits the received signal strengths (RSS) in wireless local area networks (WLANs), which are very common nowadays. However, the performances of RSS based location systems are still unsatisfactory for many applications, due to the difficult modeling of the propagation channel, whose features are affected by severe changes. In this paper we propose a localization algorithm which takes into account the nonstationarity of the working conditions by estimating and tracking the key parameters of RSS propagation. It is based on a Sequential Monte Carlo realization of the optimal Bayesian estimation scheme, whose functioning is improved by exploiting the Rao-Blackwellization rationale. Two key statistical models for RSS characterization are deeply analyzed, by presenting effective implementations of the proposed scheme and by assessing the positioning accuracy by extensive computer experiments. Many different working conditions are analyzed by simulated data and corroborated through the validation in a real world scenario. PMID:25165755

Bruno, Luigi; Addesso, Paolo; Restaino, Rocco

2014-01-01

228

Sensor model for space-based local area sensing of debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is being developed to evaluate the capabilities of various LWIR sensors and combinations of sensors to provide Local Area Awareness for satellites in low-Earth and geostationary orbit. The model being developed will be used to evaluate the system performance of LWIR detectors mounted at various locations on the satellite against multiple observation scenarios with multiple debris configurations. LWIR sensors have been chosen as the detector technology for the initial phase of research because of their ability to operate with the sun in their field of view (FOV) while imaging nearby debris in the long-wave infrared band without the need for additive components such as baffles or solar occluders. This report describes progress on the development of this model. Preliminary results demonstrate the modeling of debris and its LWIR signature for each simulated orbital path. Results are presented in terms of radiant flux of the tracked debris. Radiant flux results are shown for all times the observed debris can be seen by the observing satellite or sensor platform. These results are evaluated for each face, or side, of the observed debris, as well as a composite of all faces. It is shown that intensity-based detection and characterization techniques may be quantified from this research, based on the different emissivities and temperatures of certain space debris materials. The results presented in this report are of simulated debris in the local are of a GEO based sensing platform.

McCall, Paul D.; Naudeau, Madeleine L.; Farrell, Thomas; Sorge, Marlon E.; Adjouadi, Malek

2013-06-01

229

Indoor Positioning in Wireless Local Area Networks with Online Path-Loss Parameter Estimation  

PubMed Central

Location based services are gathering an even wider interest also in indoor environments and urban canyons, where satellite systems like GPS are no longer accurate. A much addressed solution for estimating the user position exploits the received signal strengths (RSS) in wireless local area networks (WLANs), which are very common nowadays. However, the performances of RSS based location systems are still unsatisfactory for many applications, due to the difficult modeling of the propagation channel, whose features are affected by severe changes. In this paper we propose a localization algorithm which takes into account the nonstationarity of the working conditions by estimating and tracking the key parameters of RSS propagation. It is based on a Sequential Monte Carlo realization of the optimal Bayesian estimation scheme, whose functioning is improved by exploiting the Rao-Blackwellization rationale. Two key statistical models for RSS characterization are deeply analyzed, by presenting effective implementations of the proposed scheme and by assessing the positioning accuracy by extensive computer experiments. Many different working conditions are analyzed by simulated data and corroborated through the validation in a real world scenario. PMID:25165755

Bruno, Luigi

2014-01-01

230

Community change within a Caribbean coral reef Marine Protected Area following two decades of local management.  

PubMed

Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. PMID:23342078

Noble, Mae M; van Laake, Gregoor; Berumen, Michael L; Fulton, Christopher J

2013-01-01

231

Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management  

PubMed Central

Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. PMID:23342078

Noble, Mae M.; van Laake, Gregoor; Berumen, Michael L.; Fulton, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

232

ROLE OF WOMEN FARMERS’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BAUCHI STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at examining the role of Women farmers’ cooperative Societies in Agricultural Production in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State Nigeria. A total of eighty (80) women farmers were randomly selected from eight Cooperative societies which represent 50% of all registered and viable Cooperative Societies in the study area. Data were collected using well-structured pre-tested interview

B. O. Emefesi; B. M. Hamidu; U. Haruna

2004-01-01

233

76 FR 17339 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races Within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...local regulation is activated, and thus subject...Management, Sector Puget Sound, Coast Guard...the Port, Puget Sound Area of Responsibility...Standards The National Technology Transfer and Advancement...of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility...regulation will be activated and thus...

2011-03-29

234

76 FR 3057 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races Within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility...action because it will be activated and thus subject to...Standards The National Technology Transfer and Advancement...Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility...local regulation will be activated and thus subject...

2011-01-19

235

Can areas of myocardial ischemia be localized by the exercise electrocardiogram. A correlative study with thallium-201 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine whether areas of ischemia identified by thallium-201 scintigraphy could be localized by exercise ECG, we studied 54 patients with stable coronary heart disease. All 54 patients had exercise-induced thallium-201 scintigraphic defects. Their exercise ECG test results were compared to their thallium-201 images and also to 14 low-risk normal subjects. Exercise data were analyzed for spatial ST vector shifts, using a computer program in order to most accurately classify ST segment depression and elevation. Thallium-201 ischemic defects detected in our patients included areas in the septum and the inferior, lateral, and anterior walls. Twenty-six of these 54 patients also had coronary angiography for classification and comparison as having either localized or generalized disease. None of the scintigraphic ischemic sites or angiographic diseased areas could be specifically identified by exercise-induced ST vector shifts. Therefore, the surface exercise ECG has limitations in localizing ischemia to specific areas of the myocardium.

Abouantoun, S.; Ahnve, S.; Savvides, M.; Witztum, K.; Jensen, D.; Froelicher, V.

1984-10-01

236

Funding Immigrant Organizations: Suburban Free Riding and Local Civic Presence Author(s): Els de Graauw, Shannon Gleeson, and Irene Bloemraad  

E-print Network

nonprofit organizations and com- AJS Volume 119 Number 1 (July 2013): 75­130 75 1 We are indebted and devolution of pub- lic services in the 1970s and 1980s led local nonprofits to become key players in serviceSmith and Lipsky 1993; Salamon 1999; Allard 2009�. Today various scholars argue that nonprofits, due

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

237

A comparison of the provision of green spaces between urbanized areas in two European localities, and the effects of Local Agenda 21 on their respective planning strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the provision of green spaces in two urbanized areas in two European localities, Salford and St Ouen. Salford forms part of the Greater Manchester conurbation in the North West of England, St Ouen, a dormitory town situated three miles north of Paris, is one of Salford's twinning counterparts, in France. The case study analysis explores the differences

Maggie Jones; Terry Stokes

1998-01-01

238

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

2011-01-01

239

Dense distributed temperature sensing to infer local seepage fluxes in coastal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many deltas, land surfaces are largely below sea level, and consequently suffering from saline groundwater seepage. This phenomenon affects the fresh water supply for, for example, agriculture and drinking water production. In many of those deltas, sea level rise and land subsidence enhance these problems. Depending on the geology, the seepage fluxes can occur both distributed and locally. Local seepage occurs through ancient channels that were filled with higher-conductive material at later times, but also works its way up via small vents through the soil. The latter is called boil seepage and usually is the most saline of the mentioned seepage types. Boils commonly appear in ditches and canals, since the pressure gradient is most of the time larger compared to the surrounding area. Although boils appear only as local point inflows, their high discharge and consequent salt flux can make them contribute for over 70% of the salt flux into lowland water systems (de Louw et al., 2010). Seepage measurement methods include the application of so-called seepage meters and tracers like temperature. Conventional methods using temperature differences between groundwater and surface water require drilling temperature sensors into the soil. Because the locations of boils are sensitive to disturbances of the soil, we measure the seepage flux by measuring a 3D temperature profile in the surface water above the boil instead. The seepage flux is inferred from a numerical surface water model that includes salt and temperature transport. Laboratory and field results show the onset of stratification because of the denser groundwater. In the winter situation, the temperature of the groundwater is relatively high, and double diffusive processes may play a role, mainly because there is negligible lateral flow most of the time, when the downstream pumping station is not active. Therefore, a model is set up that is well able to represent these double diffusive processes. References De Louw, P.G.B., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Stuyfzand, P.J., and van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M.: Upward groundwater flow in boils as the dominant mechanism of salinization in deep polders, The Netherlands, Journal of Hydrology, 394, 494-506, 2010.

Hilgersom, Koen; van de Giesen, Nick

2014-05-01

240

An evaluation of a surgical telepresence system for an intrahospital local area network.  

PubMed

We evaluated a digital telepresence system in an operating theatre (OR) environment which enabled a consultant to join the surgical team from a remote site by audiovisual communication. The system is based on video transmission using a streaming technique, with a server and a client connected via a local area network (LAN). Two cameras can be remotely controlled: one camera is built into the OR lamp and a second, laparoscopic camera is mounted on a robotic arm. Another feature of the system is teledemonstration, which permits the remote consultant to demonstrate points of particular interest. We evaluated the system clinically in 237 cases. In 28 cases (12%), telepresence could not be established for various reasons, mainly human failure. In 42 cases (18%), the full potential of telepresence was used. Technical evaluation showed that a data rate of 2 Mbit/s provides sufficient audio and video quality, as well as reliable teledemonstration. The data transmission delay was acceptable for clinical purposes (video 0.92 s, audio 0.6 s from OR to client, audio 0.7 s from client to OR). The study showed that telepresence is a promising means of providing highly specialized expertise within the OR. PMID:16356315

Schneider, A; Wilhelm, D; Bohn, U; Wichert, A; Feussner, H

2005-01-01

241

A study of topologies and protocols for fiber optic local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.

Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.

1985-01-01

242

Implementation of local area network extension for instrumentation standard trigger capabilities in advanced data acquisition platforms.  

PubMed

Synchronization mechanisms are an essential part of the real-time distributed data acquisition systems (DASs) used in fusion experiments. Traditionally, they have been based on the use of digital signals. The approach known as local area network extension for instrumentation (LXI) provides a set of very powerful synchronization and trigger mechanisms. The Intelligent Test Measurement System (ITMS) is a new platform designed to implement distributed data acquisition and fast data processing for fusion experiments. It is based on COMPATPCI technology and its extension to instrumentation (PXI). Hardware and software elements have been developed to include LXI trigger and synchronization mechanisms in this platform in order to obtain a class A LXI instrument. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, involving the following components: commercial hardware running a Linux operating system; a real-time extension to an operating system and network (RTAI and RTNET), which implements a software precision time protocol (PTP) using IEEE1588; an ad hoc PXI module to support hardware implementation of PTP-IEEE 1588; and the multipoint, low-voltage differential signaling hardware LXI trigger bus. PMID:19044643

López, J M; Ruiz, M; Barrera, E; de Arcas, G; Vega, J

2008-10-01

243

Wireless body area network node localization using small-scale spatial information.  

PubMed

We present a new scheme to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Instantaneous atmospheric air pressure readings are compared to map nodes in physical space. This enhancement enables unassisted sensor node placement, providing a practical solution to obtain and continuously monitor node locations without anchor nodes or beacons. To validate this localization scheme, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the performance and limitations. Based on a 60 cm separation between nodes, indicative of the expected separation between limbs and placement positions along a patient's body, the measurements consistently exceeded p -value reliability within a 95% confidence interval. We also present and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement aiming to reduce false-positive (Type I) errors in conventional accelerometer-based on-body fall detection schemes. Our statistical analysis has shown that by continuously monitoring the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate “fall-like” motions from actual falls. PMID:24592472

Lo, Geoffrey; Gonzalez-Valenzuela, Sergio; Leung, Victor C M

2013-05-01

244

Numerical simulation of local atmospheric circulations in the pre-Alpine area between Lake Garda and Verona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre-Alpine area between Lake Garda and Verona displays a very complex and heterogeneous territory, allowing the development of several interacting systems of thermally driven local winds, the major being the lake\\/land breeze system on the coasts of Lake Garda and the up\\/down-valley wind system between the plain and the river Adige Valley. In order to investigate the local wind

L. Laiti; S. Serafin; D. Zardi

2010-01-01

245

Judicial review litigation as an incentive to change in local authority public services in England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the relationship between levels of judicial review litigation and the quality of local government services. The findings indicate that judicial review may be making a positive contribution to local government in England and Wales. The paper also considers the way local government officials perceive judicial review and argues that reactions cannot be wholly understood in

Lucinda Platt; Maurice Sunkin; Kerman Calvo

2009-01-01

246

Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

2013-12-01

247

Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1997 all current local geodynamic studies in the area of the Polish and Czech parts of the Sudeten and the Sudetic Foreland have been associated with annual periodic GPS campaigns, epoch measurements. The most epochs consisted of more than twelve observation hours and some of them kept on two or three 24-hour observations. Experience collected by international research teams carrying out geodynamic researches with the GPS technique in seismically active areas (USA, Japan) proved that more information can give permanent measurements. However, the Sudeten area, regarded as an area of the weak tectonic activity, can be hardly covered with the dense network of GNSS stations from economic reasons. Hence rational using of existing permanent GPS stations located in studied area and in its vicinity detects the coordinate changes that cannot be appointed from periodic campaign data and that, on the other hand, have rather regional than local character. Creating the spatial models of irregularities of the continuous signals should improve results of the epoch measurements. From this viewpoint, in this project authors used measurement data of chosen permanent GPS stations located in the area: the EPN stations, ASG-EUPOS stations, GEONAS stations and all epoch observations. These data were gained as part of research projects carried out within 1997-2009 period, as well as during new supplementing campaigns realized in the frame of the project N526278940 in the 2011 and 2012 years. Reprocessing of all the permanent and epoch data performed by the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software (V5.2) was performed using EPN guidelines for the processing, reference frame realization and the usage of physical models (atmosphere, Earth rotation, etc.). Standardized results of processing the aggregated GPS network, including permanent stations and all local networks on the area of research, serve for conducting new geodynamic interpretation. Further parameters that estimate the linear model of position changes of test point coordinates based on results of the permanent and epoch observations had been performed. Then, applying linear site velocities, the surface deformation model for the Sudeten area was compiled. Results of this research constitute the base both for recognizing tectonic impacts to the area and for potential hazard assessments. This research had been granted by the Polish National Science Centre, project No. N526 278940, and accomplished in cooperation of specialists from the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague and the Polish State Geological Institute, Lower Silesia Branch in Wroclaw.

Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

2014-05-01

248

Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence farming and illegal logging. This intensification of activities has mostly affected land on slopes in an area where over 40 % of the area is subject to landslides. Relatively, the prevailing land use/cover change process in both areas, as usually in most European mountain areas, is reforestation. Small-scale changes however were most important in terms of negative consequences. Therefore we think it is necessary to focus on the local scale when identifying possible future negative consequences of land use/cover change. Acknowledgement This work is a part of the CHANGES project (Changing hydro-meteorological risks - as Analysed by a New Generation of European Scientists), a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, funded by the European Community's 7'th Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under Grant Agreement No. 263953.

Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

249

Using SMS Texting to Encourage Democratic Participation by Youth Citizens: a Case Study of a Project in an English Local Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public administrations across Europe take the view that using digital media for consultation with citizens will help to increase their democratic participation. In the UK, the Government has encouraged local authorities to experiment with new electronic communication channels for this purpose. This paper presents a case study in which one such medium, the mobile phone, is being used in an

David Griffin; Philippa Trevorrow; Edward Halpin

250

Distributing College Budgets: A Study of Local Education Authority (LEA) Planning and Formulae-Funding Mechanisms in England. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Reform Act 1988 provides for the reform of the funding and governance of colleges of further education in England and Wales, comprising about 400 colleges (equivalent to community colleges and vocational schools) across 104 local education authorities (LEAs). The process and formula for budget-setting is described, and a number of…

Birch, Derek W.; Spencer, Anne C.

251

Recognising the Person within the Developing Professional: Tracking the Early Careers of Newly Qualified Child Care Social Workers in Three Local Authorities in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study follows the progress of newly qualified social workers (NQSWs) through their first year in employment. Questionnaire and interview data were gathered from NQSWs and line managers working in children and families teams in three local authorities in the south west of England during 2007. Although all of the NQSWs started their first jobs with optimism and confidence, a

Gordon Jack; Helen Donnellan

2010-01-01

252

Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government  

PubMed Central

Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

2014-01-01

253

A reasoning engine for intruders' localization in wide open areas using a network of cameras and RFIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide open areas represent challenging scenarios for surveillance systems, since sensory data can be affected by noise, uncertainty, and distractors. Therefore, the tasks of localizing and identifying targets (e.g., people) in such environments suggest to go beyond the use of camera-only deployments. In this paper, we propose an innovative system relying on the joint use of cameras and RFIDs, allowing

Rita Cucchiara; Michele Fornaciari; Razia Haider; Federica Mandreoli; Riccardo Martoglia; Andrea Prati; Simona Sassatelli

2011-01-01

254

Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

2012-01-01

255

75 FR 38408 - Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Spectator Vessels Viewing Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...5) a ``spectator area'' designated ECHO in which access is limited to vessels less...point of origin.(NAD 83). (5) Area ECHO: All navigable waters of the Hudson River...meters (65.6ft) in length. (v) Area ECHO access is limited to vessels less...

2010-07-02

256

78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard), Winston-Salem...the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., within Site 28, in Winston-Salem,...

2013-07-26

257

Modelling the Demand for Higher Education by Local Authority Area in England Using Academic, Economic and Social Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing the demand for higher education has been a major concern of successive UK governments over the last 30 years. While initially they sought to increase demand, latterly the emphasis has been on widening participation to include demographic groups among which it has traditionally been low. There had long been an academic and policy interest…

Harrison, Neil

2013-01-01

258

Bandwidth characteristics of multimedia data traffic on a local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited spacecraft communication links call for users to investigate the potential use of video compression and multimedia technologies to optimize bandwidth allocations. The objective was to determine the transmission characteristics of multimedia data - motion video, text or bitmap graphics, and files transmitted independently and simultaneously over an ethernet local area network. Commercial desktop video teleconferencing hardware and software and Intel's proprietary Digital Video Interactive (DVI) video compression algorithm were used, and typical task scenarios were selected. The transmission time, packet size, number of packets, and network utilization of the data were recorded. Each data type - compressed motion video, text and/or bitmapped graphics, and a compressed image file - was first transmitted independently and its characteristics recorded. The results showed that an average bandwidth of 7.4 kilobits per second (kbps) was used to transmit graphics; an average bandwidth of 86.8 kbps was used to transmit an 18.9-kilobyte (kB) image file; a bandwidth of 728.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 15 frames per second (fps); and a bandwidth of 75.9 kbps was used to transmit compressed motion video at 1.5 fps. Average packet sizes were 933 bytes for graphics, 498.5 bytes for the image file, 345.8 bytes for motion video at 15 fps, and 341.9 bytes for motion video at 1.5 fps. Simultaneous transmission of multimedia data types was also characterized. The multimedia packets used transmission bandwidths of 341.4 kbps and 105.8kbps. Bandwidth utilization varied according to the frame rate (frames per second) setting for the transmission of motion video. Packet size did not vary significantly between the data types. When these characteristics are applied to Space Station Freedom (SSF), the packet sizes fall within the maximum specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The uplink of imagery to SSF may be performed at minimal frame rates and/or within seconds of delay, depending on the user's allocated bandwidth. Further research to identify the acceptable delay interval and its impact on human performance is required. Additional studies in network performance using various video compression algorithms and integrated multimedia techniques are needed to determine the optimal design approach for utilizing SSF's data communications system.

Chuang, Shery L.; Doubek, Sharon; Haines, Richard F.

1993-01-01

259

Local area network with fault-checking, priorities, and redundant backup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a redundant error detecting and correcting local area networked computer system having a plurality of nodes each including a network connector board within the node for connecting to an interfacing transceiver operably attached to a network cable. There is a first network cable disposed along a path to interconnect the nodes. The first network cable includes a plurality of first interfacing transceivers attached thereto. A second network cable is disposed in parallel with the first cable and, in like manner, includes a plurality of second interfacing transceivers attached thereto. There are a plurality of three position switches each having a signal input, three outputs for individual selective connection to the input, and a control input for receiving signals designating which of the outputs is to be connected to the signal input. Each of the switches includes means for designating a response address for responding to addressed signals appearing at the control input and each of the switches further has its signal input connected to a respective one of the input/output lines from the nodes. Also, one of the three outputs is connected to a repective one of the plurality of first interfacing transceivers. There is master switch control means having an output connected to the control inputs of the plurality of three position switches and an input for receiving directive signals for outputting addressed switch position signals to the three position switches as well as monitor and control computer means having a pair of network connector boards therein connected to respective ones of one of the first interfacing transceivers and one of the second interfacing transceivers and an output connected to the input of the master switch means for monitoring the status of the networked computer system by sending messages to the nodes and receiving and verifying messages therefrom and for sending control signals to the master switch to cause the master switch to cause respective ones of the nodes to use a desired one of the first and second cables for transmitting and receiving messages and for disconnecting desired ones of the nodes from both cables.

Morales, Sergio (inventor); Friedman, Gary L. (inventor)

1989-01-01

260

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized...individual uniquely entitled to use the device and his or her relation to any entity for which he or she will sign electronic...

2010-07-01

261

Local housing price index analysis in wind-disaster-prone areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of severe wind events on the mean and variance of housing price indices of six metropolitan\\u000a statistical areas (MSA) that are vulnerable to hurricanes and\\/or tornadoes. The research focuses on three areas that experienced\\u000a significant tornado activity (Fort Worth-Arlington, Nashville, and Oklahoma City) and three hurricane-prone areas (Corpus\\u000a Christi, Miami, and Wilmington, NC). An econometric

Bradley T. Ewing; Jamie B. Kruse; Yongsheng Wang

2007-01-01

262

ESTELA: a method for evaluating the source and travel time of the wave energy reaching a local area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of wave climate at a local scale is of paramount importance for offshore and coastal engineering applications. Conditions influencing wave characteristics at a specific location cannot, however, be fully understood by studying only local information. It is necessary to take into account the dynamics of the ocean surface over a large `upstream' wave generation area. The goal of this work is to provide a methodology to easily characterize the area of influence of any particular ocean location worldwide. Moreover, the developed method is able to characterize the wave energy and travel time in that area. The method is based on a global scale analysis using both geographically and physically based criteria. The geographic criteria rely on the assumption that deep water waves travel along great circle paths. This limits the area of influence by neglecting energy that cannot reach a target point, as its path is blocked by land. The individual spectral partitions from a global wave reanalysis are used to reconstruct the spectral information and apply the physically based criteria. The criteria are based on the selection of the fraction of energy that travels towards the target point for each analysed grid point. The method has been tested on several locations worldwide. Results provide maps that inform about the relative importance of different oceanic areas to the local wave climate at any target point. This information cannot be inferred from local parameters and agrees with information from other approaches. The methodology may be useful in a number of applications, such as statistical downscaling, storm tracking and grid definition in numerical modelling.

Pérez, Jorge; Méndez, Fernando J.; Menéndez, Melisa; Losada, Inigo J.

2014-08-01

263

Recording specimen localities in New Zealand: An arbitrary system of areas and codes defined  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand is divided into 29 approximately equal?sized arbitrary areas, and their boundaries are defined and mapped. A 2?letter code is given for each area. The system is designed primarily for use on specimen labels of the New Zealand National Arthropod Collection, and introduces a more reliable basis for the sorting and documentation of specimens.

T. K. Crosby; J. S. Dugdale; J. C. Watt

1976-01-01

264

The local costs of establishing protected areas in low-income nations: Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20 years, governments and influential donor organizations have come to realize that the long-term integrity of protected areas in low-income nations depends critically upon the support of rural communities that live adjacent to them. Despite the recognized need for understanding the opportunity costs of conservation borne by rural communities adjacent to protected areas, there exist few quantitative

Paul J. Ferraro

2002-01-01

265

Study of organic photovoltaics by localized concentrated sunlight: Towards optimization of charge collection in large-area solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-area organic solar cells are known to suffer from a major efficiency decrease which originates from the combination of a voltage drop across the front electrode and the voltage-dependent photocurrent. In this letter, we demonstrate this efficiency loss on large area, indium tin oxide free cells with a hexagonal current collecting front grid, by measurements of light intensity dependence of the cell performance. The results show a major difference in the cell performance measured under localized and uniform illuminations. Subsequently, we demonstrate ways in which the current collecting efficiency could be raised.

Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A.; Andriessen, Ronn; Galagan, Yulia

2011-10-01

266

Green grabbing and the dynamics of local-level engagement with neoliberalization in Tanzania’s wildlife management areas  

E-print Network

with neoliberalization in Tanzania's wildlife management areas Kathryn E. Green & William M. Adams Published online: 03 Nov 2014. To cite this article: Kathryn E. Green & William M. Adams (2015) Green grabbing and the dynamics of local-level engagement... with neoliberalization in Tanzania's wildlife management areas, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 42:1, 97-117, DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2014.967686 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2014.967686 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Taylor & Francis makes...

Green, Kathryn E.; Adams, William M.

2014-11-03

267

Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

1990-01-01

268

Slotted Aloha and reservation Aloha protocols for very high-speed optical fiber local area networks using passive star topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of cases of slotted Aloha protocols for high-speed optical fiber local area networks (LANs) are presented and analyzed. The results are compared to the cases of Slotted Aloha\\/Aloha schemes presented by I.M.I. Habab et al., (1987) and N. Mehravori (1990). The proposed schemes were found to offer better throughput and delay characteristics. These cases are also compared with

Ganti N. M. Sudhakar; Nicolas D. Georganas; Mohsen Kavehrad

1991-01-01

269

Autonet: A High-Speed, Self-Configuring Local Area Network Using Point-to-Point Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonet is a self-configuring local area network composed of switches interconnectedby 100 Mbit\\/second, full-duplex, point-to-point links. The switches contain 12 ports thatare internally connected by a full crossbar. Switches use cut-through to achieve a packetforwarding latency as low as 2 microseconds per switch. Any switch port can be cabled toany other switch port or to a host network controller.

Michael D. Schroeder; Andrew D. Birrell; Michael Burrows; Hal Murray; Roger M. Needham; Thomas L. Rodeheffer; Edwin H. Satterthwaite; Charles P. Thacker

1991-01-01

270

The Impact of National Agenda on a Local Education Authority's Website: A Visual Semiotic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an analysis of the website of an education authority in the state of Queensland, Australia during the changeover from a state-based curriculum to a national curriculum. The paper's value lies in the capture of an exact moment of change. Kress and van Leeuwen's grammar of visual design is employed to analyse the changes…

Garrick, Barbara Gail; Pendergast, Donna

2014-01-01

271

Evaluating the extent of inter-organizational learning and change in local authorities through the english beacon council scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the English Beacon Council Scheme, established by central government to reward excellence in service delivery and to disseminate good practice across local government. Using data from a national survey (N?=?314) and seventy-two interviews from twelve case studies, this article examines three research questions. First, how much learning takes place at or through Beacon Council events? Second, to

James Downe; Jean Hartley; Lyndsay Rashman

2004-01-01

272

DEVELOPMENT OF CFD SIMULATION APPLICATIONS FOR LOCAL-SCALE AREAS AND POTENTIAL INTERFACE WITH MESOSCALE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation summarizes developments of ongoing applications of fine-scale (geometry specific) CFD simulations to urban areas within atmospheric boundary layers. Enabling technology today and challenges for the future are discussed. There is a challenging need to develop a ...

273

A stated preference experiment to value access to quiet areas and other local environmental factors  

E-print Network

-tipping; litter; fly-posting; graffiti; dog- fouling; discarded chewing gum; trees; light pollution (obscuring areas; fly-tipping; litter; fly-posting; graffiti; dog-fouling; discarded chewing gum; trees; light

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resource’s worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2011-05-24

275

Area Health Education Center of the Navajo Health Authority to Establish the Navajo Center for Health Professions Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Area Health Education Center (AHEC) is designed to provide educational opportunities in health and allied fields and to improve health care for the Navajo people and other Indians in the region that includes and immediately surrounds the Navajo Indian Reservation. As prime contractor, the University of New Meixco School of Medicine will…

Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

276

76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...through September 30, 2013, under Rate Order...through September 30, 2013. 76 FR 28767, May...Western Area Lower Colorado Ancillary Services...section 5 of the Flood Control Act of 1944...power plant on the Colorado River. Network Integration...through September 30, 2013. The formula...

2011-09-27

277

LOCALIZATION, PHARMACOLOGY, AND ORGANIZATION OF BRAIN LOCOMOTOR AREAS IN LARVAL LAMPREY  

PubMed Central

In larval lamprey, spinal locomotor activity can be initiated by pharmacological microstimulation from the following higher order brain locomotor areas (Paggett et al., 2004; Jackson et al., 2007): rostrolateral rhombencephalon (RLR); ventromedial diencephalon (VMD); or dorsolateral mesencephalon (DLM). In the present study, pharmacological microstimulation with excitatory amino acids (EAAs) or their agonists in the brains of in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations was used to determine the sizes, pharmacology, and organization of these locomotor areas. First, the RLR, DLM and VMD locomotor areas were confined to relatively small areas of the brain, and stimulation as little as 50 ?m outside these areas was ineffective or elicited tonic or uncoordinated motor activity. Second, pharmacological stimulation with NMDA, kainate, or AMPA in the VMD or DLM reliably initiated well-coordinated spinal locomotor activity. In the RLR, stimulation with all three ionotropic EAA receptor agonists could initiate spinal locomotor activity, but NMDA or AMPA was more reliable than kainate. Third, with synaptic transmission blocked only in the brain, stimulation in the RLR, VMD, or DLM no longer initiated spinal locomotor activity, suggesting that these locomotor areas do not directly activate spinal locomotor networks. Fourth, following a complete transection at the mesencephalon-rhombencephalon border, stimulation in the RLR no longer initiated spinal motor activity. Thus, the RLR locomotor area does not appear able to initiate spinal locomotor activity by neural circuits confined entirely within the rhombencephalon but requires more rostral neural centers, such as those in the VMD and DLM, as previously proposed (Paggett et al., 2004). PMID:21081157

Jackson, Adam W.; McClellan, Andrew D.

2010-01-01

278

Papular acantholytic dyskeratosis localized to the perineal and perianal area in a young male.  

PubMed

A case of Papular acantholytic dermatosis restricted to the perianal area is being reported in a 26 year old male without involvement of the genitalia, groin and upper thighs for the first time in English literature. The patient presented with long standing grayish white confluent papules with eroded areas in the perianal region which were asymptomatic for a long time before the area got macerated. He did not respond to many weeks of topical steroids but is now showing improvement with topical tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily. This entity appears to be very uncommon and also underreported. It is also suggested that this entity be included in the long list of non venereal anogenital lesions as it may mimic perianal warts or molluscum contagiosum. PMID:24082188

Verma, Shyam B

2013-09-01

279

Papular Acantholytic Dyskeratosis Localized to the Perineal and Perianal Area in a Young Male  

PubMed Central

A case of Papular acantholytic dermatosis restricted to the perianal area is being reported in a 26 year old male without involvement of the genitalia, groin and upper thighs for the first time in English literature. The patient presented with long standing grayish white confluent papules with eroded areas in the perianal region which were asymptomatic for a long time before the area got macerated. He did not respond to many weeks of topical steroids but is now showing improvement with topical tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily. This entity appears to be very uncommon and also underreported. It is also suggested that this entity be included in the long list of non venereal anogenital lesions as it may mimic perianal warts or molluscum contagiosum. PMID:24082188

Verma, Shyam B

2013-01-01

280

Localization of human cortical areas activated on perception of ordered and chaotic images.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to identify the locations of areas in the human cortex responsible for describing fragmented test images of different degrees of ordering and to identify the areas taking decisions regarding stimuli of this type. The locations of higher visual functions were determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a scanner fitted with a superconducting magnet and a field strength of 1.5 T. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) method was based on measurements of the level of hemoglobin oxygenation in the blood supplied to the brain. This level was taken to be proportional to the extent of neuron activation in the corresponding part of the gray matter. Stimuli were matrixes consisting of Gabor elements of different orientations. The measure of matrix ordering was the ratio of the number of Gabor elements with identical orientations to the total number of elements in the image. Brain neurons were activated by simultaneous changes in the orientations of all the elements, leading to substitution of one matrix by another. Substitution of the orientation was perceived by observers as rotation of the elements in the matrix. Stimulation by matrixes with a high level of ordering was found to activate the occipital areas of the cortex, V1 and V2 (BA17-BA18), while presentation of matrixes with random element orientations also activated the parietal-temporal cortex, V3, V4, V5 (BA19), and the parietal area (BA7). Brain zones responsible for taking decisions regarding the level of order or chaos in the organization of the stimuli are located in different but close areas of the prefrontal and frontal cortex of the brain, including BA6, BA9, and BA10. The results are assessed in terms of concepts of the roles and interactions of different areas of the human brain during recognition of fragmented images of different degrees of complexity. PMID:18720013

Fokin, V A; Shelepin, Yu E; Kharauzov, A K; Trufanov, G E; Sevost'yanov, A V; Pronin, S V; Koskin, S A

2008-09-01

281

Large area nanoscale patterning of silicon surfaces by parallel local oxidation.  

PubMed

The homogeneity and the reproducibility of parallel local oxidation have been improved by introducing a thin film of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) between the stamp and the silicon surface. The flexibility of the polymer film enables a homogeneous contact of the stamp with the silicon surface to be achieved. The oxides obtained yield better aspect ratios compared with the ones created with no PMMA layer. The pattern is formed when a bias voltage is applied between the stamp and the silicon surface for 1 min. The patterning can be done by a step and repeat technique and is reproducible across a centimetre length scale. Once the oxide nanostructures have been created, the polymer is removed by etching in acetone. Finally, parallel local oxidation is applied to fabricate silicon nanostructures and templates for the growth of organic molecules. PMID:19875876

Losilla, N S; Martínez, J; García, R

2009-11-25

282

Cervical cancer screening in less-developed areas should be tailored to local conditions  

Cancer.gov

The best approach to detecting cervical cancer in HIV-positive women living in research limited countries such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa combines commonly used testing methods tailored to local levels of development and medical infrastructure, according to a study by researchers from and the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa and the University of North Carolina, home of the UNC Lineberger Cancer Center.

283

Local Area Mobile Computing on Stock Hardware and Mostly Stock Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Fall of 1992, the graduate Operating Systems class at Carnegie Mellon Universityimplemented the necessary components to provide applications with a programmableinterface to a mobile palmtop computer. The goal of the project was toexpose project members to the area of mobile computing through "shock immersion."Over the course of two months, students designed and implemented the infrastructurefor a simple mobile

Terri Watson; Brian N. Bershad

1993-01-01

284

Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto Geothermal Area, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the US Geological Survey in 1977-78 to measure both types of movement

Massey

1978-01-01

285

Plants used for female reproductive health care in Oredo local government area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of maternal health in Nigeria is poor and can be attributed to inadequate access to reproduce- tive health services, poverty and in some areas cultural resistance. Consequently, many rural people in Nigeria turn to ethno-medicinal health care systems due to accessibility, affordability, availability and an inherent trust in this method. These systems are threatened by erosion of plant

Folu M. Dania Ogbe; L. Eruogun; Marilyn Uwagboe

2009-01-01

286

RERANKING OF AREA SOURCES IN LIGHT OF SEASONAL/ REGIONAL EMISSION FACTORS AND STATE/LOCAL NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an effort to provide a better understanding of air pollution area sources and their emissions, to prioritize their importance as emitters of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and to identify sources for which better emission estimation methodologies a...

287

[Carboyydrates localization on ultrathin sections of "Brucella" and "Escherichia" cells in smooth (S) and rough (R) phase (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Carbohydrates localization on ultrathin sections of Brucella abortus, melitensis and Excherichia coli cells has been studied by the periodic acid thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PATAg) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) methods. Carbohydrates are mainly localized on the cell envelope of Brucella and Escherichia but there are several differences between these two bacteria. The differences are discussed and a Brucella polysaccharide envelope model is proposed. The PATAg method gives the same silver grain deposits on Brucella S and R and Escherichia S and R. The phosphotungstic acid method differenciates Brucella S and R cells by lack of contrast on the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of the latter, but does not differenciate E. coli S or R cells. The Brucella outer membrane contains less polysaccharides than that of E. coli. There is a seemingly symetric distribution of polysaccharide in the Brucella outer membrane as compared to an asymetric distribution in E. coli. The peptidoglycan of Brucella reacts strongly as compared with that of E. coli. The polysaccharides present a dispersed pattern in Brucella cytoplasm, whereas in E. coli they appear as dense, strongly reactive clusters very close to the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:187096

Dubray, G

1976-01-01

288

Human filariasis in Dass local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dass area of Bauchi state Northern Nigeria we studied the infection rates, intensity and clinical manifestations of human filarial infections. After an initial census, 1,638 persons who presented themselves were physically examined from a total population of 53.213. Two hundred and fifteen (20.3%) of 1059 males and 99 (19.1%) of 569 females examined had fi- larial infections. Overall, 314

J. C. ANOSIKE; C. O. E. ONWULIRI; V. A. ONWULIRI

289

Local tests of global entanglement and a counterexample to the generalized area law  

E-print Network

We introduce a technique for applying quantum expanders in a distributed fashion, and use it to solve two basic questions: testing whether a bipartite quantum state shared by two parties is the maximally entangled state and disproving a generalized area law. In the process these two questions which appear completely unrelated turn out to be two sides of the same coin. Strikingly in both cases a constant amount of resources are used to verify a global property.

Dorit Aharonov; Aram W. Harrow; Zeph Landau; Daniel Nagaj; Mario Szegedy; Umesh Vazirani

2014-10-03

290

Pregnancy-associated outcomes in women who spent some of their childhood looked after by local authorities: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives There has been very little description of the health and social outcomes at pregnancy and early motherhood of girls who were previously looked after by local authorities. The objectives of this study were to compare the sociodemographic and health profiles of mothers who had spent time in a children's home or with foster parents as a child to mothers who had not. In particular, to examine associations between being looked after and the likelihood of smoking during pregnancy, birth weight, the presence of symptoms of maternal depression and the initiation of breastfeeding. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study using the baseline questionnaire of the Millennium Cohort Study. Setting The UK. Participants A nationally representative study of 18?492 mothers of babies born in the UK during 2000–2002. Exposure A history of spending time in a children's home or with foster parents. Outcome measures (1) Smoking during pregnancy; (2) low birth weight; (3) symptoms of maternal depression and (4) initiation of breastfeeding. Results In univariable analyses, women who had been looked after by local authorities were significantly less likely to be of a higher social class, live in a high-income household or have achieved a high level of education. They were more likely to have a low-birthweight baby and be a single parent. In multivariable analyses, women who had been looked after by local authorities were more likely to smoke during pregnancy (adjusted OR 3.0 95% CI 2.14 to 4.3) and were more likely to have symptoms of depression (adjusted OR 1.98 95% CI 1.4 to 2.7) compared with women who had not been looked after. Conclusions Our results suggest that these women carry social disadvantage into motherhood, with the potential of continuing the cycle of deprivation. There is a case for increasing our attention on this group, which can be readily accessed by maternity and early years’ services. PMID:25510884

Botchway, Stella K; Quigley, Maria A; Gray, Ron

2014-01-01

291

Extrinsic and local glutamatergic inputs of the rat hippocampal CA1 area differentially innervate pyramidal cells and interneurons.  

PubMed

The two main glutamatergic pathways to the CA1 area, the Schaffer collateral/commissural input and the entorhinal fibers, as well as the local axons of CA1 pyramidal cells innervate both pyramidal cells and interneurons. To determine whether these inputs differ in their weights of activating GABAergic circuits, we have studied the relative proportion of pyramidal cells and interneurons among their postsynaptic targets in serial electron microscopic sections. Local axons of CA1 pyramidal cells, intracellularly labeled in vitro or in vivo, innervated a relatively high proportion of interneuronal postsynaptic targets (65.9 and 53.8%, in vitro and in vivo, respectively) in stratum (str.) oriens and alveus. In contrast, axons of in vitro labeled CA3 pyramidal cells in str. oriens and str. radiatum of the CA1 area made synaptic junctions predominantly with pyramidal cell spines (92.9%). The postsynaptic targets of anterogradely labeled medial entorhinal cortical boutons in CA1 str. lacunosum-moleculare were primarily pyramidal neuron dendritic spines and shafts (90.8%). The alvear group of the entorhinal afferents, traversing str. oriens, str. pyramidale, and str. radiatum showed a higher preference for innervating GABAergic cells (21.3%), particularly in str. oriens/alveus. These data demonstrate that different glutamatergic pathways innervate CA1 GABAergic cells to different extents. The results suggest that the numerically smaller CA1 local axonal inputs together with the alvear part of the entorhinal input preferentially act on GABAergic interneurons in contrast to the CA3, or the entorhinal input in str. lacunosum-moleculare. The results highlight differences in the postsynaptic target selection of the feed-forward versus recurrent glutamatergic inputs to the CA1 and CA3 areas. PMID:21956752

Takács, Virág T; Klausberger, Thomas; Somogyi, Peter; Freund, Tamás F; Gulyás, Attila I

2012-06-01

292

Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas – A localized spatiotemporal environmental inequality analysis  

PubMed Central

Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French Metropolitan Areas (Lille in the north, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the south, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (µg/m3) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities may not properly characterize situations where people of higher social status find the benefits of living in a specific city outweigh the detriment of higher pollution. PMID:25199972

Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica. M; Rosselo, Philippe; LeNir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

2015-01-01

293

Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

Muhs, Eric C.

2006-12-01

294

Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large area (>10 cm2) and low-power (0.1-10 Hz AC voltage, ˜10's ?W/cm2) dielectrowetting optical shutter requiring no pixelation is demonstrated. The device consists of 40 ?m interdigitated electrodes covered by fluid splitting features and a hydrophobic fluoropolymer. When voltage is removed, the fluid splitting features initiate breakup of the fluid film into small droplets resulting in ˜80% transmission. Both the dielectrowetting and fluid splitting follow theory, allowing prediction of alternate designs and further improved performance. Advantages include scalability, optical polarization independence, high contrast ratio, fast response, and simple construction, which could be of use in switchable windows or transparent digital signage.

Zhao, R.; Cumby, B.; Russell, A.; Heikenfeld, J.

2013-11-01

295

A computer program for the localization of small areas in roentgenological images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and associated algorithm are presented which allow a simple and accurate determination to be made of the location of small symmetric areas presented in roentgenological images. The method utilizes an operator to visually spot object positions but eliminates the need for critical positioning accuracy on the operator's part. The rapidity of measurement allows results to be evaluated on-line. Parameters associated with the algorithm have been analyzed, and methods to facilitate an optimum choice for any particular experimental setup are presented.

Keller, R. A.; Baily, N. A.

1976-01-01

296

Evolution of strain localization autowaves in a zirconium alloy and evaluation of plasticity margin in a rolling area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stress-strain state of a zirconium alloy in a cold rolling area is studied by considering the evolution of strain localization autowaves and changes in the ultrasound velocity. It is found that in the region of transition from the upsetting zone to the reduction zone, there is a significant exhaustion of the plasticity reserve of the material, so that fracture is most likely in exactly this region. It is shown that the traditional methods of estimating the plasticity margin from mechanical characteristics cannot reveal this region; an integrated analysis of plastic deformation macrolocalization patterns and acoustic measurement results is required.

Ploskov, N. A.; Danilov, V. I.; Zuev, L. B.; Zavodchikov, A. S.; Bolotina, I. O.; Orlova, D. V.

2012-07-01

297

Local and regional governments and age-friendly communities: a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which cities, county departments of adult and aging services, county transportation authorities, and public transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area have in place age-friendly policies, programs, and infrastructure in the areas of community design, housing, transportation, health care and supportive services, and opportunities for community engagement. The most common age-friendly features include those that target alternative forms of mobility (for example, incentives for mixed-use neighborhoods and changes to improve the accessibility of public transit), while the least common policies and programs are those that aim to help older adults continue driving, such as driver education programs, driver assessment programs, and slow-moving vehicle ordinances. The article concludes with policy and research implications of these findings. PMID:24266586

Lehning, Amanda J

2014-01-01

298

Radon concentration in soil gas around local disjunctive tectonic zones in the Krakow area.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate radon in the vicinity of geologic fault zones within the Krakow region of Poland, and to determine the influence of such formations on enhanced radon concentrations in soil. Radon ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) concentration measurements in soil gas (using ionization chamber AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO and diffusion chambers with CR-39 detectors), as well as radioactive natural isotopes of radium, thorium and potassium in soil samples (using gamma ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors), were performed. Site selection was based on a geological map of Krakow. Geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar and shallow acoustic seismic) were applied to recognize the geological structure of the area and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and thoron in soil gas were found in the study area when compared with those observed in an earlier survey covering Krakow agglomeration. For (222)Rn, the arithmetic mean of registered concentration values was 39 kBq/m(3) (median: 35.5 kBq/m(3)). For (220)Rn, the arithmetic mean was 10.8 kBq/m(3) and median 11.8 kBq/m(3). PMID:15511556

Swako?, J; Kozak, K; Paszkowski, M; Gradzi?ski, R; ?oskiewicz, J; Mazur, J; Janik, M; Bogacz, J; Horwacik, T; Olko, P

2005-01-01

299

Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

2009-01-01

300

Encoding of point of view during action observation in the local field potentials of macaque area F5.  

PubMed

The discovery of mirror neurons compellingly shows that the monkey premotor area F5 is active not only during the execution but also during the observation of goal-directed motor acts. Previous studies have addressed the functioning of the mirror-neuron system at the single-unit level. Here, we tackled this research question at the network level by analysing local field potentials in area F5 while the monkey was presented with goal-directed actions executed by a human or monkey actor and observed either from a first-person or third-person perspective. Our analysis showed that rhythmic responses are not only present in area F5 during action observation, but are also modulated by the point of view. Observing an action from a subjective point of view produced significantly higher power in the low-frequency band (2-10 Hz) than observing the same action from a frontal view. Interestingly, an increase in power in the 2-10 Hz band was also produced by the execution of goal-directed motor acts. Independently of the point of view, action observation also produced a significant decrease in power in the 15-40 Hz band and an increase in the 60-100 Hz band. These results suggest that, depending on the point of view, action observation might activate different processes in area F5. Furthermore, they may provide information about the functional architecture of action perception in primates. PMID:25442357

Caggiano, Vittorio; Giese, Martin; Thier, Peter; Casile, Antonino

2015-02-01

301

Local Scale Comparisons of Biodiversity as a Test for Global Protected Area Ecological Performance: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Terrestrial protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of global biodiversity conservation. Their efficacy in terms of maintaining biodiversity is, however, much debated. Studies to date have been unable to provide a general answer as to PA conservation efficacy because of their typically restricted geographic and/or taxonomic focus, or qualitative approaches focusing on proxies for biodiversity, such as deforestation. Given the rarity of historical data to enable comparisons of biodiversity before/after PA establishment, many smaller scale studies over the past 30 years have directly compared biodiversity inside PAs to that of surrounding areas, which provides one measure of PA ecological performance. Here we use a meta-analysis of such studies (N?=?86) to test if PAs contain higher biodiversity values than surrounding areas, and so assess their contribution to determining PA efficacy. We find that PAs generally have higher abundances of individual species, higher assemblage abundances, and higher species richness values compared with alternative land uses. Local scale studies in combination thus show that PAs retain more biodiversity than alternative land use areas. Nonetheless, much variation is present in the effect sizes, which underscores the context-specificity of PA efficacy. PMID:25162620

Coetzee, Bernard W. T.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Chown, Steven L.

2014-01-01

302

A novel method for improvement of visualization of power spectra for sorting cryo-electron micrographs and their local areas.  

PubMed

In a context of automation of cryo-electron microscopy, we developed a novel method for improving visibility of diffraction rings in the power spectra of cryo-electron micrographs of vitreous ice (without carbon film or high concentration of diffracting material). We used these enhanced spectra to semi-automatically detect and remove micrographs and/or local areas introducing errors in the global 3D map (drifted and charged areas) or those unable to increase global signal-to-noise ratio (non-diffracting areas). Our strategy also allows a detection of micrographs/areas with a strong astigmatism. These images should be removed when using algorithms that do not correct astigmatism. Our sorting method is simple and fast since it uses the normalized cross-correlation between enhanced spectra and their copies rotated by 90 degrees. It owes its success mainly to the novel pre-processing of power spectra. The improved visibility also allows an easier visual check of accuracy of sorting. We show that our algorithm can even improve the visibility of diffraction rings of cryo-electron micrographs of pure water. Moreover, we show that this visibility depends strongly on ice thickness. This algorithm is implemented in the Xmipp (open-source image processing package) and is freely available for implementation in any other software package. PMID:16987671

Joni?, S; Sorzano, C O S; Cottevieille, M; Larquet, E; Boisset, N

2007-01-01

303

CATLAC: Calibration and validation analysis tool of local area coverage for the SeaWiFS mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration and validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage (CATLAC) is an analysis package for selecting and graphically displaying Earth and space targets for calibration and validation activities on a polar orbiting satellite. The package is written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and includes a graphical user interface. Although it is designed specifically for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, the package can be used for analysis on other Earth-viewing missions. An individual can use text or graphical methods in CATLAC to select Earth targets to be scanned by a satellite. Additional onboard calibration activities (such as observations of the moon, or solar irradiance from a solar diffuser), which use data recorder time, can also be specified. All information pertinent to the creation of a command schedule can be written to a file which is read by a command scheduler. The scheduler can be invoked and the Local Area Coverage (LAC) recording periods can be visually verified using CATLAC. The schedule can also be verified by examining record and error files written by the scheduler.

Woodward, Robert H.; Gregg, Watson W.; Patt, Frederick S.

1994-01-01

304

Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.  

PubMed

The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease. PMID:11456007

Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

2001-01-01

305

Fog events and local atmospheric features simulated by regional climate model for the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to evaluate the impact of the horizontal resolution of a RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model version 3) in order to reproduce local features of climate, particularly fog, in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil. RegCM3 simulations with horizontal resolutions of 50 km (R50) and 20 km (R20) are conducted for 2003 and 2004 austral winters, June to September (JJAS). Simulations are compared with both gridded analysis and station observations. An objective criterion, is used in the simulations (applied at 09 and 21 local time) to search fog events based on relative humidity and precipitation thresholds in order to identify mainly radiation fog formation. The overall result shows improvements in order to reproduce the local climate using the finest resolution simulation, since R20 simulates better the observed spatial patterns. The evaluations of the daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, and pressure show that both R50 and R20 simulate mean values comparable to the local observations of MASP. Firstly, there is high time correlation and small root mean square error for air temperature (mean, maximum and minimum) using R20 simulation. Additionally, R20 reduces the rainfall overestimation of R50 due to the more realistic representation of topography and coastlines. Both R20 and R50 are able to simulate the fog event frequency similar to the observed ones during 2003 and 2004 JJAS periods, with overestimation below 10%. Local observation and simulations (R50 and R20) present a higher frequency of fog in 2003 than 2004. Regarding fog characteristic, it is found that: (1) stations located in the valleys as well as coastal areas have different patterns with the first ones presenting higher frequency of fog events; (2) the atmospheric variable errors during fog events are clearly smaller than for the whole JJAS period; (3) it is simulated properly for the relative humidity increase, temperature decrease and small specific humidity increase during fog events; and (4) the synoptic pattern during fog event can be clearly characterized by R20 simulation. Therefore, R20 and R50 indicate the modeling ability in order to characterize fog events over MASP.

da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Gonçalves, Fábio L. T.; Segalin, Bruna

2015-01-01

306

Automatic localization of backscattering events due to particulate in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM), emitted by vehicles in urban traffic, can greatly affect environment air quality and have direct implications on both human health and infrastructure integrity. The consequences for society are relevant and can impact also on national health. Limits and thresholds of pollutants emitted by vehicles are typically regulated by government agencies. In the last few years, the interest in PM emissions has grown substantially due to both air quality issues and global warming. Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a costeffective alternative to monitor large regions of the atmosphere. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements and to guarantee reliable, automatic monitoring of large areas, new data analysis techniques are required. In this paper, an original tool, the Universal Multi-Event Locator (UMEL), is applied to the problem of automatically indentifying the time location of peaks in Lidar measurements for the detection of particulate matter emitted by anthropogenic sources like vehicles. The method developed is based on Support Vector Regression and presents various advantages with respect to more traditional techniques. In particular, UMEL is based on the morphological properties of the signals and therefore the method is insensitive to the details of the noise present in the detection system. The approach is also fully general, purely software and can therefore be applied to a large variety of problems without any additional cost. The potential of the proposed technique is exemplified with the help of data acquired during an experimental campaign in the field in Rome.

Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, Andrea; Parracino, Stefano; Richetta, M.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

2014-10-01

307

77 FR 25075 - Special Local Regulation; Galveston Bay, Kemah, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...swimmers entering the water from a vessel and...local regulation in Galveston Bay. The area regulated...safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and...LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS 0 1. The authority...Local Regulation; Galveston Bay, Kemah, TX...

2012-04-27

308

Chemical character of ground water in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight deep wells are being monitored in the Memphis, Tenn., area to detect any changes in the chemical character of water moving through the Memphis Sand towards major pumping centers. These wells are strategically located so as to intercept groundwater enroute through the Memphis Sand from the outcrop-recharge area. Although water quality analyses are available for many wells in the shallow water-table aquifer, no specific investigation has been made to characterize the quality of the water in this aquifer from which the Memphis Sand also receives part of its recharge. This investigation is to determine the chemical character of groundwater in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area. Methods used to install eight shallow wells at abandoned dump sites containing chemical and/or industrial waste are described. Water samples from the eight shallow wells and two deep wells in the Memphis Sand were collected and analyzed. Results of the analysis are presented and the locations of the wells and dumps are shown on maps. (USGS)

Parks, William Scott; Graham, D.D.; Lowery, J.F.

1981-01-01

309

Detailed crustal structure in the area of the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border from local earthquake tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new seismic velocity model for the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border region with the aim to better define the crustal structures at the northern edge of the Ionian subduction zone. This sector also includes the Pollino Mts. area, where a seismic sequence of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes has been recorded between spring 2010 and 2013. In this sector a seismic gap was previously hypothesized by paleoseismological evidences associated with the lack of major earthquakes in historical catalogs. To perform the tomographic inversion we selected ca. 3600 earthquakes that have occurred in the last thirty years and recorded by permanent and temporary networks managed by INGV and Calabria University. Using for the first time the Local Tomography Software for passive tomography inversion (LOTOS hereinafter) to crustal analysis in southern Italy, we have computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. The obtained velocity model, jointly evaluated with results of synthetic modeling, as well as with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, gives us new constraints on the geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. The comparison between the shallow tomography sections and surface geology shows good correlation between velocity patterns and the main geological features of the study area. In the upper crust a low-velocity anomaly of P- and S-waves is detectable beneath the Pollino Mts. area and seems to separate the Calabrian and southern Apennines domains, characterized by higher velocities. The distributions of high Vp/Vs ratio, representing strongly fractured rocks with likely high fluid content, clearly correlate with areas of significant seismicity. In the lower crust we detect a clear transition from high to low seismic velocities in correspondence with the Tyrrhenian coast of the study area, which may represent the transition from the thinner Tyrrhenian crust to the thicker one beneath Calabria. In this area, also characterized by a progressive detachment of a retreating lithospheric slab, the generation of a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault zone, that laterally decouples subducting lithosphere from non-subducting lithosphere in a scissor type of fashion, may have taken place. These conditions imply the existence of a kinematic decoupling which allows for differential movement between the Calabrian Arc and the southern Apennine chain. The low velocity anomaly separating the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc domain may be related to fluid upwelling occurring in correspondence with the northern edge of the Calabrian subducting slab.

Totaro, C.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.

2014-12-01

310

Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the contractor. A decision was reached between the NTS regulator and NSTec, opting for alternative authorized limits from DOE Headquarters. In doing so, NSTec personnel performed a dose model using the DOE-approved modeling code RESRAD-BUILD v3.5 to evaluate scenarios. The parameters used in the dose model were conservative. NSTec’s Radiological Engineering Calculation, REC-2010-001, “Public Dose Estimate from the EMAD 25 Ton Locomotive,” concluded that the four scenarios evaluated were below the 25-millirem per year limit, the “likely” dose scenarios met the “few millirem in a year” criteria, and that the EMAD 25-ton locomotive met the radiological requirements to be released with residual radioactivity to the public.

Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

2010-04-08

311

Observations Indicate Regional and Local Increases in Storm Intensity in the San Francisco Bay Area, USA, Between 1890 and 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed historic observational data from >1000 precipitation stations in the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), California (a region of 31,000 km2), to assess whether there have been statistically significant changes in extreme precipitation between 1890 and 2010. We performed an exceedence probability (depth-duration-frequency, DDF) analysis for 17 storm durations ranging from 1 hour to 60 days, calculating the depths of extreme precipitation events having recurrence intervals (RI) of 2 to 100 years. We split the data set into two time periods, 1890 to 1955 ("early period") and 1956 to 2010 ("late period"), and used Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to determine if significant changes in extreme storm intensity have occurred over time. Our study reveals statistically significant differences between early and late periods in the intensity of extreme precipitation in the SFBA. Extreme storm intensity is greater during the late period than during the early period, for all duration-RI pairs, with the greatest increase in the least frequent (largest) events. The differences in DDF characteristics are greater than can be explained by changes in annual total precipitation alone, indicating that a greater fraction of annual precipitation fell during large storms in the late period as compared to the early period. There is considerable heterogeneity, at a length scale of tens of kilometers, in the observed nonstationarity in the DDF characteristics of extreme precipitation in the SFBA. We also found that urban areas show disproportionate increases in storm intensity relative to rural areas. Greater intensity in extreme precipitation and an associated increase in runoff (particularly in urbanized areas) are likely to contribute to more frequent and extensive flooding, erosion, sediment transport, and other geomorphologic changes. These results emphasize the importance of analyzing local and regional precipitation data for accurate risk assessment, emergency planning, and resource management.

Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Winslow, D. M.

2012-12-01

312

The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Survey: A Wide-Area Blind Damped Lyman Alpha System Survey of the Local Universe  

E-print Network

We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area "blind" search for HI absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km/s = 2x10^20 cm^-2) is Delta z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T_s = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N_HI >= 2x10^21 cm^-2) it is Delta z= 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N_HI,X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10^19 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2 < N_HI < 10^23 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2, that is consistent with previous redshifted optical damped Ly alpha surveys and the aggregate HI 21 cm emission in the local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line sear...

Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

2011-01-01

313

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-02-01

314

Determination of the lithospheric structure in the South-Eastern Carpathians Arc bend area using local earthquake data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this study is to investigate the lithospheric structure beneath Vrancea seismic area using local earthquakes. Vrancea area, located at the South-Eastern Carpathians Arc bend, is characterized by strong earthquakes generated at intermediate depths (60 - 170 km) in a complex geotectonic system. The tomography image obtained using teleseismic data (Martin et al., 2005; 2006) reveals a high-velocity body that extends significantly in depth, as well as laterally. The high-velocity region goes down to about 400 km depth or even more, well beyond the seismically active zone. In the present study we consider an updated and revised catalog with well-located events, occurred between 1982 and 2008 in Vrancea and nearby regions. The earthquakes were recorded by the National Seismic Network of Romania and during campaigns of intense observation by a denser temporary network. By inverting the P- and S-wave arrival time data using the tomography approach of Koulakov et al., 2007 we obtained a notable increase of resolution compared with previous tomography results. The high-velocity body revealed in this study is strongly reduced in extension and practically mimics the distribution of hypocenters.

Zaharia, B.; Enescu, B.; Radulian, M.; Popa, M.; Koulakov, I.; Parolai, S.

2009-04-01

315

Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

2014-05-01

316

A taxonomic revision of two local endemic Radix spp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from Khodutka geothermal area, Kamchatka, Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Khodutka geothermal area is located near Khodutka and Priemysh volcanoes and is one of the largest geothermal areas of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Vakin (2003) described geological, geochemical and geothermic conditions of this geothermal area in detail. The main thermal water sources have temperatures up to 87°C and a discharge of approximately 150 l×sec.-1 are flows out into the warm lake with dimensions of ca. 250 m length and 80 m width. This warm river is ca. 20 m in width beginning from the lake and flows to the Bolshaya Khodutka River basin. Two local endemic Radix species were described from this geothermal area, especially Lymnaea (Radix) hadutkae Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 and L. (R.) thermokamtschatica Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Kruglov 2005). These species were separated using proportions of shell and reproductive system (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Starobogatov et al. 2004). According to the diagnosis, L. (R.) hadutkae differs in the ear-shape shell, a form of the provaginal duct with cylindrical distal part and conical proximal part, and larger value of the index of the copulatory apparatus (ICA: proportion of the preputium to phallotheca is 1.27) from other species within the section Thermoradix Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989. The last whorl is large, 0.86-0.89 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.15-0.16 of the aperture height. L. (R.) thermokamtschatica has the cylindrical provaginal duct, relatively short bursa duct (1.5X longer than the bursa copulatrix diameter) and very long phallotheca (ICA is 0.77). The last whorl is large, 0.85-0.87 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.2-0.25 of the aperture height. In accordance with an identification key (Starobogatov et al. 2004), the main diagnostic feature is an excess of the last whorl over the shell aperture, which has ?0.78 and ?0.80 of the penultimate whorl width in the first and second species, respectively. In the present paper, we revised these taxa using newly collected topotypes and additional Radix spp. specimens from other areas of the Russian Far East.  PMID:25283942

Bolotov, Ivan; Bespalaya, Yulia; Aksenova, Olga; Aksenov, Andrey; Bolotov, Nikita; Gofarov, Mikhail; Kondakov, Alexander; Paltser, Inga; Vikhrev, Ilya

2014-01-01

317

Global Moho Estimate from Goce Space-Wise Solution and a Local Application in the Mediterranean Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to estimate a global Moho depth using the GOCE global gravity model GO_CONS_GFC_2_SPW_R2. A simple two-layers model, with known density contrast, has been considered and a linearized relationship between the spherical harmonic coefficient of the anomalous potential Tnm and those of the Moho depth has been derived. In this way, a simple and straightforward formula can be established to get the spherical harmonic expansion of the Moho depth with respect to its mean depth estimated from previous models (e.g. CRUST 2.0). Moreover, in the same framework, a collocation solution to estimate the Moho by merging gravity and direct Moho depth information (coming from e.g. seismic) has been derived. In this way, collocation can be used as a physical interpolation method (based on gravity) to merge seismic derived Moho profiles. In order to be as close as possible to the two layers model, reductions for the gravity signal related to topography/bathymetry have been applied. Furthermore, the impact of sediments, at global scale, has been evaluated. The information on the sediments have been derived from the CRUST2.0 model and their effect on the Moho estimate has been discussed. The obtained global Moho is in substantial agreement with its main known features at low frequencies. Possible improvements with respect to previous estimates are mainly due to the homogeneous data and model used to get it. This estimate can be usefully applied to reduce the Moho gravity signal in local areas. In fact, by analyzing the residuals after regional signal reduction, high frequency details of the Moho can be derived and investigated by applying standard inversion methods. To prove the reliability and the effectiveness of the estimated global Moho model in local analyses, a test has been performed in the Mediterranean area. This test showed that high frequency components of the Moho structure can be more properly defined, particularly in complex areas such those in the Alpine region.

Sampietro, D.; Barzaghi, R.; Borghi, A.; Reguzzoni, M.

2011-12-01

318

Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil guidelines as inputs into the code was also performed to determine the maximum (peak) dose for all receptors. This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of ALs for the 'Property.' A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines.

Boerner, A. J. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Maldonado, D. G. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

2012-09-01

319

Local area gigabit networking  

SciTech Connect

Computer networks must become faster as the equipment that is being interconnected increases in power and performance. Ethemet, with a 10 Mbit/s speed, seemed awesome a few years ago, but is beginning to show its age as more machines are tied together, and workstations attain the power of yesterdays mainframes. Networks using gigabit speeds are just starting to become available and offer a whole new set of problems and potential. This paper addresses what the higher speeds are being used for, the ''standards'' efforts specifying the higher speed channels, the network architectures being proposed, and some of the open problems requiring extensive further work. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Tolmie, D.E.

1991-01-01

320

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos potenciales de los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) y áreas protegidas (APs) sobre los resultados ambientales y las subsistencias locales en los países en desarrollo son polémicos y se han debatido ampliamente. La evidencia disponible es escasa; ha habido pocas evaluaciones rigurosas de los impactos ambientales y sociales de las APs y particularmente los PSA. Medimos el impacto sobre los bosques y el bienestar humano en tres diferentes programas de PSA que se llevan a cabo dentro de dos APs en el norte de Camboya usando un panel de aldeas de intervención y controles emparejados. Tanto los PSA como las APs brindaron resultados ambientales adicionales en relación a los contrafácticos, esto quiere decir que redujeron las tasas de deforestación significativamente en relación a los controles. Las áreas protegidas incrementaron el acceso seguro a los recursos del suelo y el bosque para las viviendas locales, beneficiando a los usuarios de los recursos del bosque pero restringiendo la habilidad de las viviendas para expandirse y diversificar su agricultura. Los impactos de los pagos por servicios ambientales sobre el bienestar de las viviendas estuvieron relacionados con la magnitud de los pagos proporcionados. Los dos programas de PSA de mayor paga y con conexión al mercado tuvieron impactos positivos significativos, mientras que un programa de menor paga con el objetivo de proteger a la biodiversidad no tuvo un efecto detectable sobre las viviendas, a pesar de sus resultados ambientales positivos. Las viviendas que se inscribieron a los programas de PSA con mayor paga, sin embargo, necesitaban típicamente más bienes capitales, por lo que eran menos pobres y tenían mayor seguridad alimentaria que otros aldeanos. Por esto, mientras los impactos de las APs sobre el bienestar de las viviendas fueron limitados en general y variaron dependiendo de las estrategias de subsistencia, los programas de PSA tuvieron impactos positivos significativos sobre las viviendas para aquellos que podían co

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-01-01

321

Effects of a wireless local area network (LAN) system, a telemetry system, and electrosurgical devices on medical devices in a hospital environment.  

PubMed

Concerns have been raised about interference of wireless local area network (LAN) systems and telemetry systems with medical devices in hospitals. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of 65 electromedical devices to a wireless LAN system and a telemetry system in preselected areas of a hospital. Testing was based on the American National Standards Institute Standard C63.18. The wireless LAN system operated at 2.42 GHz with an output power of 100 mW. The telemetry system operated at 466 MHz with an output power of 4 mW. Of the 65 devices tested, only two hand-held Doppler units, a Mini Doppler Model D900 (Huntleigh Healthcare Ltd) and a Ultrasonic Doppler Model 811 (Parks Medical Electronics, Inc.), were affected by the LAN system. Placed within 10 cm of the LAN system in standby mode, both units emitted periodic high-pitched beating sounds, which could be misinterpreted as normal beating sounds from the patient. These changed to random static noise during data transmission by the LAN. Under normal conditions of use, a LAN system would never be placed this close to a medical device. The quality of data transmission from the LAN system changed from "good" to "acceptable" in the colonoscopy room. This deterioration in transmission quality could have been caused by the lead shielding in the room. Electrosurgical devices operating at 0.5 to 1 MHz did not affect the LAN system at distances up to 3 m. None of the devices was affected by the telemetry system. These findings suggest that wireless LAN systems and telemetry systems can be acceptable for use in hospitals. Nevertheless, other systems should be tested on potentially susceptible devices by the hospital before use. PMID:10820639

Tan, K S; Hinberg, I

2000-01-01

322

Numerical simulation of local atmospheric circulations in the pre-Alpine area between Lake Garda and Verona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pre-Alpine area between Lake Garda and Verona displays a very complex and heterogeneous territory, allowing the development of several interacting systems of thermally driven local winds, the major being the lake/land breeze system on the coasts of Lake Garda and the up/down-valley wind system between the plain and the river Adige Valley. In order to investigate the local wind patterns, a series of nested numerical simulations with a horizontal resolution of 500 m were carried out using the ARPS 5.2.9 model (Xue et al. 2000, 2001), considering a fair weather day suitable for a clear development of the expected circulations (15th July 2003). The simulated wind speed and direction, pressure, temperature and water vapour mixing ratio were compared to synoptic scale meteorological charts, to vertical profiles from radiosoundings taken at the major sounding stations of the alpine region and to local scale measurements performed at the surface station of Dolcè (at the inlet of the Adige Valley). Numerical results at all scales were found to be in very good agreement with the available sets of meteorological observations. The analysis of the diurnal evolution of the 3D fields of temperature, moisture content, wind and turbulent kinetic energy allowed the identification of a very shallow and clearly defined breeze front of cold and humid air moving from off-shore towards the Lake Garda coast, from the late morning (10:00 LST) until the evening (20:00 LST). The diurnal up-valley breeze was also well reproduced: the valley atmosphere displays a thick mixed layer dominated by shallow turbulent convection between 11:00 LST and 21:00 LST. Lateral slope winds were also recognized, as they created cross-valley convective cells. While no clear evidence of a nocturnal land breeze was found in the simulations, the nocturnal down-valley wind in the Adige Valley was clearly reproduced. Finally, a scalar transport equation was added to the ARPS model in order to simulate transport and diffusion processes for a passive tracer (ideally, a non-reactive pollutant). The cold and stable lake and down-valley breeze corps were found to act like pollutant concentrators at ground level, while the diurnal up-valley wind favours an almost homogenous dispersion of the tracer through the entire Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) thickness. The upper entrainment layer is found to effectively confine the ground-emitted pollutant inside the CBL, except for some occasional plumes that are first conveyed up-slope and then to the centre of the valley above the CBL by cross-valley circulation cells.

Laiti, L.; Serafin, S.; Zardi, D.

2010-09-01

323

Regional and local increases in storm intensity in the San Francisco Bay Area, USA, between 1890 and 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of extreme precipitation have documented changes at the continental scale during the twentieth century, but few studies have quantified changes at small to regional spatial scales during the same time. We analyze historic data from over 600 precipitation stations in the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), California, to assess whether there have been statistically significant changes in extreme precipitation between 1890 and 2010. An annual exceedance probability analysis of extreme precipitation events in the SFBA, coupled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, reveals an increase in the occurrence of large events. The depth-duration-frequency characteristics of maximum annual precipitation events having durations of 1 h to 60 days indicate on average an increase in storm intensity in the last 120 years, with the intensity of the largest (least frequent) events increasing the most. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) also increased during the study period, but the relative increase in extreme event intensity exceeds that of MAP, indicating that a greater fraction of precipitation fell during large events. Analysis of data from subareas within the SFBA region indicates considerable heterogeneity in the observed nonstationarity; for example, the 5 day, 25 year event exceedance depth changed by +26%, +16%, and -1% in San Francisco, Santa Rosa, and San Jose, respectively. These results emphasize the importance of analyzing local data for accurate risk assessment, emergency planning, resource management, and climate model calibration.

Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Winslow, Dustin M.

2013-04-01

324

Local exposure of brain central areas to a pulsed ELF magnetic field for a purposeful change in EEG.  

PubMed

This study examines the simultaneous exposure of 2 brain areas in the location of central electrodes (C3 and C4) to a weak and pulsed extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on the electroencephalogram (EEG). The intent is to change the EEG for a therapeutic application, such as neurofeedback, by inducing the "resonance effect." A total of 10 healthy women received 9 minutes of ELF-MF (intensity 200 ?T) and sham in a counterbalanced design. ELF-MF exposure frequencies were 10, 14, and 18 Hz. The paired t test revealed that local pulsed ELF-MF significantly decreases beta (15-25 Hz), sensorimotor rhythm (13-15 Hz), and theta (4-8 Hz) powers at a frequency of 10 Hz in C3 and C4 regions (12.0%-26.6%) after exposure, in comparison with that achieved during the exposure (P < .05). Variations during the exposure were transient and different from those after. The resonance effect was observed nowhere around the regions. The study suggests that this technique may be applied in the treatment of anxiety; however, further investigation is needed. PMID:23467798

Amirifalah, Zeinab; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad P; Shafiei, S Ali

2013-01-01

325

Evolution of a Patient Information Management System in a Local Area Network Environment at Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center  

PubMed Central

The Department of Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC) of Chicago has implemented a local area network (LAN) based Patient Information Management System (PIMS) as part of its integrated departmental database management system. PIMS consists of related database applications encompassing demographic information, current medications, problem lists, clinical data, prior events, and on-line procedure results. Integration into the existing departmental database system permits PIMS to capture and manipulate data in other departmental applications. Standardization of clinical data is accomplished through three data tables that verify diagnosis codes, procedures codes and a standardized set of clinical data elements. The modularity of the system, coupled with standardized data formats, allowed the development of a Patient Information Protocol System (PIPS). PIPS, a userdefinable protocol processor, provides physicians with individualized data entry or review screens customized for their specific research protocols or practice habits. Physician feedback indicates that the PIMS/PIPS combination enhances their ability to collect and review specific patient information by filtering large amount of clinical data.

Price, Ronald N; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J; Tamirisa, Balaji

1990-01-01

326

Localization of osteoblast inflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and VEGF to the matrix of the trabecula of the femur, a target area for metastatic breast cancer cell colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone likely provides a hospitable environment for cancer cells as suggested by their preferential localization to the skeleton.\\u000a Previous work has shown that osteoblast-derived cytokines increased in the presence of metastatic breast cancer cells. Thus,\\u000a we hypothesized that osteoblast-derived cytokines, in particular IL-6, MCP-1, and VEGF, would be localized to the bone metaphyses,\\u000a an area to which breast cancer cells

Karen M. Bussard; Noriaki Okita; Neil Sharkey; Thomas Neuberger; Andrew Webb; Andrea M. Mastro

2010-01-01

327

7 CFR 7.9 - Election of community committee members, delegates to local administrative area and county...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of community committee members, delegates to local...STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.9 Election of community committee members, delegates to local...

2010-01-01

328

10YEAR GRAZING AUTHORIZATION RENEWAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT EA# OR115-05-01 Proposed Action :? Bureau of Land Management, Medford District Office, Butte Falls Resource Area, proposes to re-issue 10-year grazing authorizations on the Flat Creek and Summit Prairie allotments  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several authorities1 that mandate or allow BLM to authorize livestock grazing on public lands as part of multiple-use management of natural resources. As a consequence, all Land Use Plans (LUP's) for BLM have established grazing allotments and grazing allocation decisions, or reference those that do. Pertinent decisions guiding livestock grazing on the Butte Falls Resource Area and which

Bob Budesa

329

Communicating a marine protected area through the local press: the case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece.  

PubMed

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy. PMID:21424571

Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

2011-05-01

330

Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

2011-05-01

331

Turbulent Heat Fluxes in Urban Areas: Observations and a Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linked set of simple equations specifically designed to calculate heat fluxes for the urban environment is presented. This local-scale urban meteorological parameterization scheme (LUMPS), which has similarities to the hybrid plume dispersion model (HPDM) scheme, requires only standard meteorological observations and basic knowledge of surface cover. LUMPS is driven by net all-wave radiation. Heat storage by the urban fabric is parameterized from net all-wave radiation and surface cover information using the objective hysteresis model (OHM). The turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are calculated using the available energy and are partitioned using the approach of de Bruin and Holtslag, and Holtslag and van Ulden. A new scheme to define the Holtslag and van Ulden and parameters for urban environments is presented; is empirically related to the plan fraction of the surface that is vegetated or irrigated, and a new urban value of captures the observed delay in reversal of the sign of the sensible heat flux in the evening. LUMPS is evaluated using field observations collected in seven North American cities (Mexico City, Mexico; Miami, Florida; Tucson, Arizona; Los Angeles and Sacramento, California; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and Chicago, Illinois). Performance is shown to be better than that for the standard HPDM preprocessor scheme. Most improvement derives from the inclusion of the OHM for the storage heat flux and the revised coefficient. The scheme is expected to have broad utility in models used to calculate air pollution dispersion and the mixing depths of urban areas or to provide surface forcing for mesoscale models of urban regions.

Grimmond, C. S. B.; Oke, T. R.

2002-07-01

332

A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) Directors and Local School District Special Education Directors in Four Counties of Southern California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceived level of job satisfaction of SELPA directors with that of local school district special education directors in the counties of Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Orange of Southern California and to identify factors that contribute to their job satisfaction. Additionally, this…

Alexander, Gregory Haynes, III

2009-01-01

333

A Comparison of Wireless Local Loop Technologies with Reference to their Application in Rural Areas of Pakistan  

E-print Network

Areas of Pakistan Muhammad Usman Ilyas Department of Computer Science, School of Arts & Sciences, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. muilyas@lums.edu.pk Abstract: In this paper LMDS in rural areas of Pakistan. The low population density and great distances in Pakistan's rural areas make

Radha, Hayder

334

Local perceptions of jaguars ( Panthera onca) and pumas ( Puma concolor) in the Iguaçu National Park area, south Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaguars (Panthera onca) have been killed by local residents within the boundaries and lands surrounding Iguaçu National Park (INP), Brazil. Both jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) occur in the region, however, livestock predation by pumas has rarely been reported. Our objective was to assess the local perceptions about jaguars and pumas. We identified two major factors that distinguished the perceptions

Valéria Amorim Conforti; Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo

2003-01-01

335

National, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2013.  

PubMed

In the United States, among children born during 1994-2013, vaccination will prevent an estimated 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations, and 732,000 deaths during their lifetimes. Since 1994, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. This report describes national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born January 2010-May 2012, based on results from the 2013 NIS. In 2013, vaccination coverage achieved the 90% national Healthy People 2020 target for ? 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.9%); ? 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90.8%); ? 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); and ? 1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.2%). Coverage was below the Healthy People 2020 targets for ? 4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (83.1%; target 90%); ? 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (82.0%; target 90%); the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib) (82.0%; target 90%); ? 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) (54.7%; target 85%); rotavirus vaccine (72.6%; target 80%); and the HepB birth dose (74.2%; target 85%). Coverage remained stable relative to 2012 for all of the vaccinations with Healthy People 2020 objectives except for increases in the HepB birth dose (by 2.6 percentage points) and rotavirus vaccination (by 4.0 percentage points). The percentage of children who received no vaccinations remained below 1.0% (0.7%). Children living below the federal poverty level had lower vaccination coverage compared with children living at or above the poverty level for many vaccines, with the largest disparities for ? 4 doses of DTaP (by 8.2 percentage points), full series of Hib (by 9.5 percentage points), ? 4 doses of PCV (by 11.6 percentage points), and rotavirus (by 12.6 percentage points). MMR coverage was below 90% for 17 states. Reaching and maintaining high coverage across states and socioeconomic groups is needed to prevent resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25166924

Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

2014-08-29

336

Comparative abundance and population structure of sympatric Afrotropical tortoises in six rainforest areas: the differential effects of ``traditional veneration'' and of ``subsistence hunting'' by local people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hinge-back tortoises are actively hunted by human populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and are currently threatened in wide areas of their ranges. The wide wetlands and moist rainforests of the Niger Delta (southeastern Nigeria, west Africa) house three sympatric species of hinge-back tortoises: Kinixys erosa, K. homeana, and K. belliana nogueyi. These tortoises are subjected to strong hunting pressure for several reasons (mainly domestic consumption), but in a few places in Bayelsa and Rivers States (eastern axis of the Niger Delta), they are traditionally venerated as "holy animals" bringing happiness. These few places may represent ideal laboratories for monitoring the effects of hundreds of years of "traditional conservation" on the wild populations of a tropical reptile. Here, I compare the apparent abundance, sex ratio, body sizes, microhabitats, and seasonal occurrence of free-ranging Kinixys populations inhabiting three of these "traditional sanctuaries" with the same ecological aspects of conspecifics from three neighbouring areas where the tortoises are actively hunted. K. homeana was the most common species at all sites, followed by K. erosa, whereas K. belliana was extremely rare. Adult sex ratio did not depart significantly from equality both in K. erosa and in K. homeana, and was not influenced by locality or by type of "management" (veneration or harvesting). The frequency of juveniles of K. homeana was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas of harvesting, but the same pattern was not observed in K. erosa. There was a significant decrease in terms of the number of observed specimens between areas of traditional protection and areas of usual harvesting in all species, and this trend was more obvious in K. homeana than in K. erosa. The ratio "number of observed erosa/number of observed homeana" was not dependent on the presence of traditional veneration. Mean body sizes were not different in harvest areas and in veneration areas in K. homeana, but the same comparisons were not done for K. erosa because sample sizes were too small. Tortoises in veneration areas inhabited a wider range of microhabitats than in harvest areas, where they were found almost only in dense bushes. Specimens of both K. erosa and K. homeana were observed mainly during the wet season, and this excess of observed specimens was significantly affected both by locality and by type of management, i.e., the frequency of observed specimens of both species during the dry season was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas with local harvesting. The conservation implications of the ecological patterns observed are discussed.

Luiselli, Luca

2003-07-01

337

Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of

Sally Macintyre; Laura Macdonald; Anne Ellaway

2008-01-01

338

Town and Culture: New Responses to Cultural Problems. Bremen Declaration. Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany, 25-27 May 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This declaration details the 68 motions adopted by the representatives of European towns taking part in the Conference on Town and Culture. The meeting was jointly organized by the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe and the Council for Cultural Cooperation. Recommendations focus on the following: (1) that new means of…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

339

7 CFR 7.29 - Delegation of authority to Deputy Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...executive director, the Deputy Administrator shall have authority to suspend and/or remove or disqualify for future service or employment, any county committee member, community committee member, delegate to the local administrative area...

2010-01-01

340

An assessment of local risk. [to area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A status report is presented on the assessment of the risk at Washington National Airport and the surrounding Washington, D.C. area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite in their structures. The presentation is outlined as follows: (1) overall strategy; (2) need for individual airport results; (3) airport-metro area model - submodels, method, assumptions and data; and (4) preliminary results for National Airport - D.C. area.

Pocinki, L. S.

1979-01-01

341

The Structure of Local Public Finance and the Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in local fiscal conditions generate compensating differentials across local land and labor markets just as the authors have known amenities to do. Thus, the local fiscal climate affects the quality of life across metropolitan areas. The authors present new results showing that intercity fiscal differentials are nearly as important as amenity differentials in determining the quality of life across

Joseph Gyourko; Joseph Tracy

1991-01-01

342

20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Councils § 664.110 Who...conducting oversight of local youth programs operated under the Act, to ensure both fiscal...

2013-04-01

343

20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Councils § 664.110 Who...conducting oversight of local youth programs operated under the Act, to ensure both fiscal...

2014-04-01

344

20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Councils § 664.110 Who...conducting oversight of local youth programs operated under the Act, to ensure both fiscal...

2011-04-01

345

20 CFR 664.110 - Who is responsible for oversight of youth programs in the local area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Councils § 664.110 Who...conducting oversight of local youth programs operated under the Act, to ensure both fiscal...

2012-04-01

346

Reranking of area sources in light of seasonal/regional emission factors and state/local needs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report gives results of a study of air-pollution area sources and their emissions, their importance as emitters of volatile organic compounds, and sources for which better emission-estimation methodologies are needed. Area sources in general and area-source solvent categories were prioritized based on annual and seasonal emissions and EPA Regional emission dependencies (i.e., certain categories, such as forest wildfires, were identified as categories in which activity occurs significantly more in one region that in others and therefore show regional emission dependencies). Factors affecting the variability of each area-source category were also identified. Inventory assumptions and seasonal/regional factors were documented and discussed.

Kersteter, S.L.

1989-08-01

347

Study of organic photovoltaics by localized concentrated sunlight: Towards optimization of charge collection in large-area solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-area organic solar cells are known to suffer from a major efficiency decrease which originates from the combination of a voltage drop across the front electrode and the voltage-dependent photocurrent. In this letter, we demonstrate this efficiency loss on large area, indium tin oxide free cells with a hexagonal current collecting front grid, by measurements of light intensity dependence of

Assaf Manor; Eugene A. Katz; Ronn Andriessen; Yulia Galagan

2011-01-01

348

146 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 7, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 Urban Area Detection Using Local Feature  

E-print Network

146 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 7, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 Urban Area Detection, Member, IEEE Abstract--Automatically detecting and monitoring urban re- gions is an important problem these very large images. There may be some errors in the operation. Second, the urban area is dynamic

Mignotte, Max

349

Copyright 2011 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. German, L., G. C. Schoneveld, and P. Pacheco. 2011. Local social and environmental impacts of biofuels  

E-print Network

, Brazil, and other countries favoring the use of biofuels in the transport sector to enhance energy Union, USA, Brazil, and other countries favoring the use of biofuels in the transport sector to enhance, L., G. C. Schoneveld, and P. Pacheco. 2011. Local social and environmental impacts of biofuels

350

Three dimensional images of geothermal systems: local earthquake P-wave velocity tomography at the Hengill and Krafla geothermal areas, Iceland, and The Geysers, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Local earthquake tomography - the use of earthquake signals to form a 3-dimensional structural image - is now a mature geophysical analysis method, particularly suited to the study of geothermal reservoirs, which are often seismically active and severely laterally inhomogeneous. Studies have been conducted of the Hengill (Iceland), Krafla (Iceland) and The Geysers (California) geothermal areas. All three systems are exploited for electricity and/or heat production, and all are highly seismically active. Tomographic studies of volumes a few km in dimension were conducted for each area using the method of Thurber (1983).

Julian, B.R.; Prisk, A.; Foulger, G.R.; Evans, J.R.

1993-01-01

351

Copyright 2003 by the author(s). Published here under licence by The Resilience Alliance. Ricketts, T. and M. Imhoff. 2003. Biodiversity, urban areas, and agriculture: locating priority ecoregions  

E-print Network

for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal taxa for conservation. Conservation Ecology 8(2): 1. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol8/iss2/art1 Report Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation Taylor Ricketts1

Vermont, University of

352

Local and regional contributions of fine particulate mass to urban areas in the Mid-Atlantic and Southwestern US. Report for November 1997--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

This work examined the seasonal local and regional contributions of PM2.5 to urban areas in the Mid-Atlantic States: Baltimore, MD, Washington, DC, and Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ in the Southwest. This was accomplished using two different methods. The first method estimated urban excesses by comparing seasonal PM2.5 trends at the urban monitors to nearby rural monitors. The second approach used a simple model based on the PM2.5 dependence on wind speed and wind direction to classify a site as being dominated by local or regional source contributions. The method also quantifies the regional contributions during high wind speed conditions. The wind vectors were derived from surface observations and air mass histories. All monitoring sites in the urban centers were dominated by local sources during the cold season.

Schichtel, B.A.

1999-03-29

353

A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming.  

PubMed

Movements of water that transport pathogens mean that in net-pen aquaculture diseases are often most effectively managed collaboratively among neighbours. Such area management is widely and explicitly applied for pathogen management in marine salmon farms. Effective area management requires the active support of farm managers and a simple game-theory based framework was developed to identify the conditions required under which collaboration is perceived to be in their own best interest. The model applied is based on area management as practiced for Scottish salmon farms, but its simplicity allows it to be generalised to other area-managed net-pen aquaculture systems. In this model managers choose between purchasing tested pathogen-free fish or cheaper, untested fish that might carry pathogens. Perceived pay-off depends on degree of confidence that neighbours will not buy untested fish, risking input of pathogens that spread between farms. For a given level of risk, confidence in neighbours is most important in control of moderate-impact moderate-probability diseases. Common low-impact diseases require high confidence since there is a high probability a neighbour will import, while testing for rare high-impact diseases may be cost-effective regardless of neighbours actions. In some cases testing may be beneficial at an area level, even if all individual farms are better off not testing. Higher confidence is required for areas with many farms and so focusing management on smaller, epidemiologically imperfect, areas may be more effective. The confidence required for collaboration can be enhanced by the development of formal agreements and the involvement of outside disinterested parties such as trade bodies or government. PMID:24767813

Murray, Alexander G

2014-08-01

354

Heat transfer under heating of a local region of a large production area by gas infrared radiators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a computational modeling of the processes of heat transfer in a region having the size of a local working zone and heated due to the energy input from gas infrared radiators. The regimes of turbulent natural conjugate convection with one boundary open for air have been investigated. The plane nonstationary problem has been solved from the viewpoint of the Navier-Stokes model for the gas and the heat conduction for solid walls.

Kuznetsov, G. V.; Kurilenko, N. I.; Maksimov, V. I.; Mamontov, G. Ya.; Nagornova, T. A.

2013-05-01

355

Simulation of local tsunami and evacuation of urban areas, informed by population exposure analysis and studies of tsunami evacuation behaviour.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a methodology for the integration of hazard, population and evacuation modelling to optimise evacuation planning. Deterministic tsunami simulations are carried out to define the spatial and temporal evolution of tsunami inundation onshore in the several hours following local-source subduction zone earthquakes. Exposure of an urban population to the hazard and options for risk mitigation (specifically through evacuation) are then assessed, demonstrating how tsunami simulation and evacuation simulations can be combined for effective tsunami evacuation planning. The east coast of New Zealand is subject to significant local tsunami hazard due to the proximity of the Hikurangi subduction margin only 100 km offshore. Seismic, geodetic and paleo-tsunami studies have shown the potential for large subduction zone earthquakes (Mw 7.0 to > Mw 9.0) to occur on this margin, though none have been experienced in New Zealand's short European-recorded history. Deterministic simulation of earthquake-generated local tsunami indicates the variability in potential inundation extent and tsunami arrival time at Napier City, an urban centre located on the east coast of New Zealand. Maximum spatial extent of inundation is used to analyse the exposed population, while temporal evolution of inundation is implemented in GIS modelling of evacuation travel time. Exposure analysis reveals the spatial distribution of the urban population, including sub-populations with varying characteristics influencing their ability to evacuate effectively in the short time-frame available for a local tsunami. These include vulnerable groups such as those who are mobility-impaired, in the care of institutions (I.e. schools, prisons) and transient populations with little knowledge of local hazard or evacuation routes. Observations of evacuation behaviour in previous tsunami and research into awareness of appropriate evacuation behaviour in the Napier community are used to calibrate and validate evacuation simulations. Population distribution also has temporal components (diurnal, weekly and seasonal), which determine location of population concentrations at the time of the earthquake; such effects are assessed through multiple evacuation scenarios for each tsunami scenario. This combined hazard, exposure and evacuation simulation enables i) identification of the hazard zone, ii) identification of the total exposed population and vulnerable sub-populations, and iii) sectors of the exposed population requiring alternative evacuation options. This process facilitates assessment and proposal of alternative evacuation routes or destinations. This may include such innovative measures as construction of vertical evacuation buildings, to reduce the evacuation distance of vulnerable populations and enhance the potential for successful evacuation.

Fraser, Stuart; Wood, Nathan; Johnston, David; Leonard, Graham

2013-04-01

356

International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Budapest, Hungary, August 2001. 1 A Local-Area GPS Pseudolite-Based  

E-print Network

to a full GPS satellite constellation. This concept is illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1: Mars SCPA One-Area GPS Pseudolite-Based Mars Navigation System Edward A. LeMaster and Stephen M. Rock Stanford University Durand Bldg. Rm. 250, Stanford, CA 94305 Abstract Tasks envisioned for future generation Mars rovers

Stanford University

357

Analysis of Local and Wide-Field Movements in the Superior Temporal Visual Areas of the Macaque Monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) areas of the macaque cortex have many cells that respond to straight movements in the frontoparallel plane with directional selectivity (D ceils). We examined their responses to movements of a bar, of a wide dot pattern, and to combined movements of the two in anesthetized and immobilized animals. D cells in

Keiji Tanaka; Kazuo Hikosaka; Hide-aki Saito; Masao Yukie; Yoshiro Fukada

1986-01-01

358

A METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ARMY TRAINING AND TESTING AREA CARRYING CAPACITY (ATTACC) VEHICLE SEVERITY FACTORS AND LOCAL CONDITION FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) program is a methodology for estimating training and testing land carrying capacity. The methodology is used to determine land rehabilitation and maintenance costs associated with land-based training. ATTACC is part of...

359

RERANKING OF AREA SOURCES IN LIGHT OF SEASONAL/REGIONAL EMISSION FACTORS AND STAE/LOCAL NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an effort to provide a better understanding of air pollution area sources and their emissions, to prioritize their importance as emitters of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and to identify sources for which better emission estimation methodologies a...

360

IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS, VOL. 00, NO. 00, 2012 1 Wireless Body Area Network Node Localization  

E-print Network

to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area net- work (WBAN, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate "fall-like" motions from actual

Leung, Victor C.M.

361

Evaluation and comparison of satellite precipitation estimates with reference to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation is one of the major variables for many applications and disciplines related to water resources and the geophysical Earth system. Satellite retrieval systems, rain-gauge networks, and radar systems are complementary to each other in terms of their coverage and capability of monitoring precipitation. Satellite-rainfall estimate systems produce data with global coverage that can provide information in areas for which data from other sources are unavailable. Without referring to ground measurements, satellite-based estimates can be biased and, although some gauge-adjusted satellite-precipitation products have been already developed, an effective way of integrating multi-sources of precipitation information is still a challenge. In this study, a specific area, the Sicilia Island (Italy), has been selected for the evaluation of satellite-precipitation products based on rain-gauge data. This island is located in the Mediterranean Sea, with a particular climatology and morphology, which can be considered an interesting test site for satellite-precipitation products in the European mid-latitude area. Four satellite products (CMORPH, PERSIANN, PERSIANN-CCS, and TMPA-RT) and two GPCP-adjusted products (TMPA and PERSIANN Adjusted) have been selected. Evaluation and comparison of selected products is performed with reference to data provided by the rain-gauge network of the Island Sicilia and by using statistical and graphical tools. Particular attention is paid to bias issues shown both by only-satellite and adjusted products. In order to investigate the current and potential possibilities of improving estimates by means of adjustment procedures using GPCC ground precipitation, the data have been retrieved separately and compared directly with the reference rain-gauge network data set of the study area. Results show that bias is still considerable for all satellite products, then some considerations about larger area climatology, PMW-retrieval algorithms, and GPCC data are discussed to address this issue, along with the spatial and seasonal characterization of results.

Lo Conti, Francesco; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Sorooshian, Soroosh

2014-03-01

362

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2014-04-01

363

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2013-04-01

364

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2011-04-01

365

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2012-04-01

366

Technical Education in Northern Ireland after Partition: A Case Study of the Work of a Newly-Formed Local Education Authority, County Down 1925-1933  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the partition of Ireland in 1921, the Northern Ireland Ministry of Education assumed control of the educational services which had been previously administered by four independent bodies in Dublin. The Education Act (Northern Ireland) 1923 created the county councils and county borough councils of the new devolved state the local education…

Beale, George

2006-01-01

367

[Phytoplankton distribution in the upwelling areas of the Moroccan Atlantic coast localized between 32°30'N and 24°N].  

PubMed

Marine phytoplankton was studied in January and July 2002 along of four transects: 32°30'N, 29°N, 24°30'N and 24°N. A total of 142 taxa were recorded in this area. The maximal specific richness, both in summer and in winter, was registered around Dakhla (24°N). The global spatiotemporal variability of species richness and specific diversity showed that the most structured and species-rich populations are situated in the coastal areas. The vertical variation of the two parameters showed homogeneity between depth levels. The maximal phytoplanktonic densities are recorded in the southern transects due to the permanent upwelling activity in the southern Atlantic coast. The bathymetric distribution of densities was more heterogeneous during summer, characterized by a high intensity of upwelling. The species Thalassionema nitzschioides, Asterionellopsis glacialis, Melosira, Chaetoceros and Leptocylindrus minimus are indicators of upwelling. PMID:22938921

Elghrib, Hasna; Somoue, Laila; Elkhiati, Najat; Berraho, Amina; Makaoui, Ahmed; Bourhim, Noureddine; Salah, Siham; Ettahiri, Omar

2012-08-01

368

Yam Farmers' Access to Production Resources in Kabba\\/Bunu Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuber crops in developing countries-especially yam and cassava-are major staple foods. But the accessibility of producers to production resources has been one of the major problems to increase production. Therefore, the study assessed the accessibility of yam farmers to production resources in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 150 respondents for the study. Majority of

J. O. Oladeji; O. B. Oyesola

2007-01-01

369

Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

2013-04-01

370

Comparison of Brans Promethee multicriteria decision method and Promethee modified by authors for the optimization of an erosion control integral plan in Chaco area in Salta province (Argentine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaco area is situated in the Province of Salta at North West of Argentine. The desertification is a big problem. In order to mitigate the problem it is necessary to take into account not only pedologic criteria but the economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies. Eight criteria and six alternatives have

J. B. Grau; J. M. Anton; F. Colombo; L. de los Rios; J. M. Cisneros; A. Tarquis

2009-01-01

371

Helpful and Unhelpful Practices in Meeting the Needs of Pupils with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A Pilot Survey of Staff Views in One Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emotional and behavioural problems experienced by pupils continue to be a key concern for educationalists. In this article, Peter Lloyd Bennett, an educational psychologist, reports on his research into the views of staff about this important area of work. Questionnaires on meeting the needs of pupils with emotional and behavioural…

Bennett, Peter Lloyd

2006-01-01

372

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 Authority. (a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found...

2013-10-01

373

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 Authority. (a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found...

2011-10-01

374

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 Authority. (a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found...

2014-10-01

375

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 Authority. (a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found...

2012-10-01

376

Surficial geophysical deduction of the geomaterial and aquifer distributions at Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty seven vertical electrical sounding (VES) profiles surrounding four known traverses were obtained in Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo state to examine the subsurface geomaterials and the associated groundwater potential. The VES data, constrained by borehole data, provided useful information about the subsurface hydrogeologic and lithologic conditions. From the validated interpretation, the area assessed has loamy soil, medium grained sands, well-sorted medium-grained/gravelly sands and river sand as the lithologic succession from top to the bottom of the depth penetrated. The aquifers in the area were found in the medium-grained sands and well-sorted medium-coarse-grained sands. The aquifer depth for all-season groundwater that would be devoid of draw-down can be found at a depth range of 42-50 m. The resistivity maps of selected depths exhibit sharp resistivity changes at depth due mainly to undulating subsurface topography. A map of the distribution of the k?-values shows that good quality groundwater can be found in most parts of the area.

Victor, Obianwu; Innocent, Chimezie; Anthony, Akpan; Jimmy, George

2011-12-01

377

Surficial geophysical deduction of the geomaterial and aquifer distributions at Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty seven vertical electrical sounding (VES) profiles surrounding four known traverses were obtained in Ngor-Okpala local government area of Imo state to examine the subsurface geomaterials and the associated groundwater potential. The VES data, constrained by borehole data, provided useful information about the subsurface hydrogeologic and lithologic conditions. From the validated interpretation, the area assessed has loamy soil, medium grained sands, well-sorted medium-grained/gravelly sands and river sand as the lithologic succession from top to the bottom of the depth penetrated. The aquifers in the area were found in the medium-grained sands and well-sorted medium-coarse-grained sands. The aquifer depth for all-season groundwater that would be devoid of draw-down can be found at a depth range of 42-50 m. The resistivity maps of selected depths exhibit sharp resistivity changes at depth due mainly to undulating subsurface topography. A map of the distribution of the k ?-values shows that good quality groundwater can be found in most parts of the area.

Victor, Obianwu I.; Innocent, Chimezie C.; Anthony, Akpan E.; Jimmy, George N.

2011-12-01

378

RA/DA cumulative curve analysis of local and diffuse neuroretinal rim area damage in glaucoma patients  

PubMed Central

AIM—To evaluate the validity of cumulative rim/disc area (RA/DA) curve analysis as a clinical tool for the identification of glaucoma induced optic disc pathology.?METHODS—71 normal and 83 glaucomatous eyes were evaluated from a series of 154 subjects recruited for this study. For each eye, the cumulative distribution of RA/DA was calculated from 36 equally spaced rim sectors of each optic disc obtained by the automatic evaluation of simultaneous videographics (Image-net X Rev.3/51b). To increase the sensitivity of this analysis in early glaucoma and in normal eyes, these cumulative curves were subsequently divided into two equal segments and the slopes of their respective regression lines compared.?RESULTS—The median RA/DA value obtained from the 36 sectors was significantly different in glaucomatous eyes compared with normals (p <0.001). Nevertheless, the curves (5th-95th percentile of the cumulative curves distribution) of early glaucomatous eyes fell within the normal range. When the cumulative curve of these marginal cases was then divided into two equal segments, the comparison of the slopes of the regression lines showed a significant difference (p <0.05) in 100% of early glaucomatous eyes. Furthermore, normal eyes were shown to be true negatives in 93% of the cases in which no significant difference between the two slopes was observed.?CONCLUSION—Analysis of the RA/DA cumulative curve from 36 sectors of the optic disc was a valid method for the identification of glaucomatous disc pathology; however, a further calculation of the slopes of the two RA/DA regression lines was needed to identify early glaucomatous damage. ?? Keywords: glaucoma; optic disc morphometry; rim/disc area cumulative curves PMID:9924369

Rolando, M.; Macri, A.; Iester, M.; Altieri, M.; Calabria, G.

1998-01-01

379

[Thoughts and suggestions of pharmacists who participated in a home medical care training workshop in a local area].  

PubMed

We organized a home medical care training workshop to offer community pharmacists an opportunity to advance home medical care by allowing pharmacists in regional medicine to collaborate with local pharmacist groups. A questionnaire was administered to all participants after the workshop. On average, participants rated the overall quality of the workshop as 8.46 out of 10. Our results revealed that 72.5% of participating pharmacists were experienced in home medical care, with the majority having between 5 and 10 years of experience. Participants suggested that the qualities necessary for effective home medical care were knowledge of home-based care, positive attitude, and coordination with different home medical care staff members. Participants also made suggestions for lectures in future workshops (e.g., upskilling to improve home medical care expertise). In conclusion, participants in a home medical care training workshop primarily desired to learn skills for home medical care. To this end, consecutively holding the workshop and a cooperation support system with other medical and care professionals would be indispensable. PMID:25595081

Hirotani, Yoshihiko; Makimoto, Wakako; Urashima, Yoko; Myotoku, Michiaki

2014-12-01

380

Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of acquisition, a dramatic increase of persistent scatter density in urban areas, and improved measurement of very small displacements (Crosetto et al., 2010). We compare the L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period, to determine the influence of different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Our applications goal is to demonstrate a technique to inform targeted ground surveys, identify areas of persistent subsidence, and improve overall monitoring and planning in flood risk areas. Dokka, 2011, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi: J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008. Jones, C. E., G. Bawden, S. Deverel, J. Dudas, S. Hensley, Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument, Proc. SPIE 8536, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XII, 85360E (November 21, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.976885. Crosetto, M., Monserrat, O., Iglesias, R., & Crippa, B. (2010). Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Potential, limits and initial C-and X-band comparison. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 76(9), 1061-1069. Acknowledgments: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

2014-05-01

381

3D structure effects on local and near-regional seismic wave propagation in the San Francisco Bay Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed 3D waveform modeling of 10 small to moderate events (Mw 4.1-5.0) in the San Francisco Bay Area using the USGS SF06 3D velocity model (Brocher et al., 2005; Jachens et al., 2005). In the simulations we assumed the source parameters reported in the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) Moment Tensor Catalog. Broadband seismic data from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN), and strong motion data from the USGS and the California Geologic Survey California strong motion arrays were used in the analysis. We analyzed and modeled the data in three frequency bands, namely 0.03-0.15 Hz, 0.1-0.25 Hz, and 0.1-0.5Hz. Preliminary waveform modeling shows that the USGS SF06 model predicts many important features of observed seismograms including bodywave arrival times, and peak ground velocity. On the other hand, as reported by Rodgers et al. (2007), the model produces late arriving surface waves. While peak ground velocity is generally well modeled there are paths that have significant amplitude mismatches and also poor waveform fit to sedimentary basin generated surface waves. We are identifying which paths need additional waveform modeling in order to further calibrate the 3D structure. We will present the bodywave and surface wave arrival time, and peak ground velocity correlations as well as forward modeling results for the problematic paths. References Brocher, T. M., (2005). Emprical relations between elastic wave speeds and density in the Earth's crust, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 95 No. 6, 2081-2092. Jachens, R., R. Simpson, R. Graymer, C. Wentworth, T. Brocher (2006). Three-dimensional geologic map of northern and central California: A basic model for supporting ground motion simulation and other predictive modeling, 2006 SSA meeting abstract, Seism. Res. Lett., 77, No.2, p 270. Rodgers, A., A. Petersson, S. Nilsson, B Sjogreen, K. McCandless (2007). Broadband waveform modeling of moderate earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area and preliminary assessment of the USGS 3D seismic velocity model, submitted Bull. Seism. Soc. Am.

Kim, A.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.

2007-12-01

382

National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2013.  

PubMed

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive 1 dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 2 doses of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.* ACIP also recommends administration of "catch-up"† vaccinations, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, and varicella, and, for all persons aged ?6 months, an annual influenza vaccination. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).§ This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which show that from 2012 to 2013, coverage increased for each of the vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents: from 84.6% to 86.0% for ?1 Tdap dose; from 74.0% to 77.8% for ?1 MenACWY dose; from 53.8% to 57.3% for ?1 HPV dose among females, and from 20.8% to 34.6% for ?1 HPV dose among males. Coverage varied by state and local jurisdictions and by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region. Healthy People 2020 vaccination targets for adolescents aged 13-15 years were reached in 42 states for ?1 Tdap dose, 18 for ?1 MenACWY dose, and 11 for ?2 varicella doses. No state met the target for ?3 HPV doses.¶ Use of patient reminder and recall systems, immunization information systems, coverage assessment and feedback to clinicians, clinician reminders, standing orders, and other interventions can help make use of every health care visit to ensure that adolescents are fully protected from vaccine-preventable infections and cancers (5), especially when such interventions are coupled with clinicians' vaccination recommendations. PMID:25055186

Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Singleton, James A; Curtis, Robinette C; MacNeil, Jessica; Hariri, Susan

2014-07-25

383

Experimental study and mathematical simulation of the mixed convection in a rectangular area with a local heat source and the heat sink at the external boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the experimental determination of temperatures and numerical simulation of temperature fields in a mixed convection in a rectangular area with a heat-conducting walls at a local energy source on the bottom are presented. For the experimental determination of temperature fields in a mixed convection method of thermocouple measurements was used. Studies were conducted at Reynolds numbers 10 ?Re ? 1500 and Rayleigh 103 ?Ra ? 105. For the verification of obtained experimental data mathematical simulation of mixed convection in the region with the use of a software package Comsol Multiphysics is carried out. A good agreement between the results of experimental determination of the local characteristics of mixed convection in a rectangular volume with a local source of energy and heat-conducting walls with theoretical consequences obtained in the simulation of convective flows using a mathematical package is established. It makes it possible to make a conclusion about the possibility of application for the analysis of flow conditions of viscous heat-conducting gas of experimental procedure based on methods of thermocouple measurements. At the same time the developed approach to the experimental study of mixed convection is applicable in a wide enough range of the main flow parameters and the experimental conditions.

Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornov, Dmitriy A.

2014-08-01

384

Sulfide-Sulfate Mineralizations in Verzino Area (Crotone Basin, Southern Italy): New insights on localized hydrothermal fluid circulations and their relationship with tectonics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this early stage of the work we present a preliminary study of hydrothermal mineralizations found in Verzino locality, Crotone Basin, Southern Appennines, (Calabria, Italy). Both geochemical and petrographic investigations were developed with the aim of understanding the genesis of the sulfide-sulfate associations present in the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" formation, deepening their relationship with fluids circulation. These mineralizations have been recognized only in two "Calanchi" morphostructures - Badlands like morphology developed by the differential erosional pattern of the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" fm. - and constituting the northwestern flank of a little valley evolved in the Miocene sedimentary sequence from "Conglomerato di S.Nicola" fm. to "Evaporiti Superiori" fm. The mineralizations are distributed along isooriented centimetric veins (with mean direction of N120) and in nodules diffused close to the veins. These hydrothermal mineralizations are constituted by an associations of Pyrite spherical nodules (millimetric to centimetric in radius with occurrences of well developed octahedral habit single crystals), sulphate crystals (Gypsum, Jarosite, NatroJarosite), Oxides (Goethite mainly), millimetric veins of Barite and micrometric Ankerite specimens. The data (mineral habits, semiquantitative compositions and x-Ray spectra), obtained by an integration of S.E.M and XRD investigations, permit us, at the current stage of the study, to hypothesize a possible hydrothermal origin (whose temperature range estimate needs further investigations) for the sulfide-sulfate mineral phases. At the moment, we exclude their primary or secondary sedimentary provenance. The comparison of our results with the previous scientific literature focused on hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate systems (Vinogradov and Stephanov, 1964; Kostov, 1968; Plummer 1971; Boles, 1978; Ferrini and Moretti 1998) allows us to propose a possible "thermal window" ranging in the interval 50°C-230°C, characterizing an exalative-ephitermal facies condition for the genesis of the here presented mineralizations. The supposed hydrothermal genesis, together with the localization and oriented distribution of the vein/nodule systems, suggest a strong control on the fluid circulation by the very local fault systems characterizing the tectonic of the investigated area. A very close relationship between faults and fluids in Calabria region has been recently claimed by Italiano et al (2010); the presence of thermal and sulphur-rich ground-waters farther south and west of the study area (Belvedere di Spinello, Verzino, Casabona and Cotronei), strongly supports our inferences. The study area (and in general the Crotone basin) has suffered two destructive earthquakes in 1638 and 1832, with an estimated magnitude of 6.5-6.8. Moreover, recent paleoseismological studies (Galli and Bosi, 2003; Galli et al., 2008) re-evaluated the seismic hazard of the area, by detecting some historical strong earthquakes along previously unknown fault systems. This work, with the reported results on mineral associations developed by important fluid/fault interactions, highlights the role and the timing of both localized stress and pore pressures cycles in an active tectonic setting, and may represent a new interpretation key and a clue reference for a deeper understanding of a not well known italian seismic area characterized, at least, by the presence of three regional active master faults: the Marchesato Fault, the Lakes fault the Cerenzia-San Nicola-Strongoli Line. Geochemical and isotopic analyses on mineralizations, host rock and spring fluids are in progress to better define and understand the local hydrothermal system and to propose a model of time and control of the tectonic on the fluid circulation.

Berardi, Gabriele; Lucci, Federico; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Pizzino, Luca; Cantucci, Barbara; Quattrocchi, Fedora

2010-05-01

385

Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

1998-01-01

386

Hinterland strategies of port authorities: A case study of the port of Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Port authorities generally focus on the development of the local port area and play a minor role in the development of port hinterlands, whereas shippers, forwarders, barge and rail operators have always been involved in the port-hinterland connection. The increasing importance of intermodal hinterland networks for the competitive position of ports has urged port authorities to become active in the

Roy Van den Berg; Peter W. De Langen

2011-01-01

387

Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. Methods The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer; etiology, early warning signs, treatment modes and early detection measures; was assessed among women in two randomly selected health districts in Akinyele Local Government in Ibadan. The assessment was performed with the use of a self-structured validated questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 420 women randomly selected from the two health districts. The various aspects of facts about breast cancer were scored and added together to determine respondents' level of knowledge Results The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer was 55.4 SD 5.4 (range of scores obtainable was 26–78), while the mean score for knowledge of early detection of breast cancer was 24.8 SD 2.3 (range of scores obtainable was 12–36). The leading source of information about breast cancer was "elders, neighbors and friends" and 63(15.4%) acknowledged this source, while only 18 (4.4%) respondents acknowledged health workers as source. Only 54 (13.3%) claimed to have heard about breast self- examination (BSE) however, and the leading source of information about BSE were health workers. Nine (2.2%) of respondents claimed this source. Conclusion This study revealed that respondents lacked knowledge of vital issues about breast cancer and early detection measures. It also revealed that health workers were not forthcoming with information to the public thereby constituting a challenge to community health nurses and other health workers, to provide vital information to the public. PMID:17125524

Oluwatosin, O Abimbola; Oladepo, Oladimeji

2006-01-01

388

Seismic imaging of the geothermal area in Tarutung (Sumatra, Indonesia): Comparison of local earthquake and ambient noise tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint German-Indonesian research initiative is conducted to support the geothermal energy development in Indonesia, where one important aspect is exploration technology. An almost unexplored region located in northern Sumatra (Indonesia) was chosen to develop and demonstrate an integrated exploration strategy which includes structural geology, active seismics, passive seismology, and magnetotelluric investigations. The geothermal potential at this site is mainly determined by the Sumatran fault system and its interplay with young volcanism associated with subduction zone processes. Within the passive seismology study, a temporary network of 42 stations was installed around the city of Tarutung running over a period of 10 month from May 2011 until February 2012. The Sumatran fault was covered at the center of the network, and stations were distributed within a radius of 20 km with spacings of about 5 km on average. The collected data allow for the 3D imaging of seismic velocities and intrinsic attenuation, high resolution relocalisation of seismicity, determination of fault plane solutions, and analysis of ambient noise generated surface waves. The general objective is to integrate the final results with other geoscientific data and interpretations and to develop a conceptual model for the geothermal system of the target region. In the presentation we will focuss on a comparison of local earthquake tomography and ambient noise surface wave inversion. We applied HYPO71 to locate events and found 2,586 events within the network and relocate 809 events having gap angle less than 180 degrees by using VELEST and determined the 1D Vp and Vp/Vs models forming the starting models of the subsequent 3D inversion. SIMUL2000 code was used to invert for Vp and Vp/Vs as well as the intrinsic attenuation for P waves (Qp). For the ambient noise tomography we cross-correlated the daily vertical component recordings for all available station pairs in the 40 station array. Surface wave travel times were picked and inverted using the Fast Marching Surface-wave Tomography (FMST) method. The Vp structure images the geometry of the basins while high Vp/Vs and low Qp are associated with hot fluid pathway originated below the Sumatran fault. We examine the comparison of the results of the Vp/Vs and Qp with the ambient noise tomography to investigate the potential for combining both approach to study geothermal systems.

Muksin, Muksin; Bauer, Klaus; Haberland, Christian; Ryberg, Trond

2013-04-01

389

Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France  

PubMed Central

Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities. PMID:23563257

Padilla, Cindy M.; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M.

2014-01-01

390

The contribution of permanent GPS station PW data on heavy local rainfall events in the Greek area.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two decades GPS has demonstrated its ability to estimate and monitor the magnitude of atmospheric water vapor with good time resolution and under all meteorological conditions. In this study, the precipitable water (pw) values estimated over specific permanent GPS stations of various Greek networks are analyzed by using different processing options dealing with the selection of different mapping functions for the computation of troposheric delay. Another, basic topic of this study is the combination of pw values with ground meteorological data and more specifically with precipitation values, recorded few days before and after the heavy rainfall events. These events occurred within the year 2013 at various locations of the Greek territory like, Epirus, Central Macedonia, the city of Athens and Rhodes island, and included various rainfall kinds like the flash flood type. For example, the amount of precipitation in the case of Rhodes over passed the 100 mm within few hours. In order to account for the tropospheric delay gradients and for the estimation of precipitable water GPS data were processed with high precision software such as GAMIT of MIT. Pw values were estimated for all GPS permanent stations around and inside of each test area. The estimated values which derived are discussed through the comparison and statistical analysis between various parameters, like the pw precipitation, rate of time changing and tropospheric delay gradients time series. The main analysis applied indicates the complexity of the phenomena close to rainfall zone at time of precipitation in order to provide a clear precursor of the torrential rainfall events. For this type of successful scenarios more kind of atmospheric data may be needed. However, some peculiar conclusions through the monitoring process can be highlighted.

Pikridas, Christos; Katsougiannopoulos, Symeon; Bitharis, Stylianos; Chatzinikos, Miltiadis; Zinas, Nikolaos; Kouroudi, Aikaterini; Argyris, Ilias

2014-05-01

391

Molecular typing of the recently expanding subtype B HIV-1 epidemic in Romania: Evidence for local spread among MSMs in Bucharest area???  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 subtype B is predominant in Europe except in some countries from Eastern Europe which are characterized by a high prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Romania is a particular case: the HIV-1 epidemic started with subtype F1 which is still the most prevalent. Previous studies have shown an increasing prevalence of subtype B which is the second most frequent one among the newly diagnosed individuals, followed by subtype C and several CRFs as well as unique recombinant forms (URFs). Our objective was to analyze in detail the characteristics (way of dispersal, association with transmission risk groups) of the subtype B infections in Romania by means of phylogenetic analysis. Among all the individuals sampled during 2003–2010, 71 out of 1127 patients (6.3%) have been identified to be infected with subtype B strains. The most frequent route of infection identified in HIV-1 subtype B patients in Romania was MSM transmission (39.6%), followed by the heterosexual route (35.2%). Many of the patients acquired the infection abroad, mainly in Western European countries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the existence of a local transmission network (monophyletic clade) including 14 patients, mainly MSM living in the Bucharest area. We estimate the origin of the local transmission network that dates at the beginning of the 90s; the introduction of the F1 and C subtypes occurred earlier. The rest of the sequences were intermixed with reference strains sampled across Europe suggesting that single infection were not followed by subsequent dispersal within the local population. Although HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in Romania is recent, there is evidence for local spread among the MSMs, in addition to multiple introductions. PMID:22430050

Paraschiv, Simona; Otelea, Dan; Batan, Ionelia; Baicus, Cristian; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

2012-01-01

392

A systematic review to identify areas of enhancements of pandemic simulation models for operational use at provincial and local levels  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, computer simulation models have supported development of pandemic influenza preparedness policies. However, U.S. policymakers have raised several concerns about the practical use of these models. In this review paper, we examine the extent to which the current literature already addresses these concerns and identify means of enhancing the current models for higher operational use. Methods We surveyed PubMed and other sources for published research literature on simulation models for influenza pandemic preparedness. We identified 23 models published between 1990 and 2010 that consider single-region (e.g., country, province, city) outbreaks and multi-pronged mitigation strategies. We developed a plan for examination of the literature based on the concerns raised by the policymakers. Results While examining the concerns about the adequacy and validity of data, we found that though the epidemiological data supporting the models appears to be adequate, it should be validated through as many updates as possible during an outbreak. Demographical data must improve its interfaces for access, retrieval, and translation into model parameters. Regarding the concern about credibility and validity of modeling assumptions, we found that the models often simplify reality to reduce computational burden. Such simplifications may be permissible if they do not interfere with the performance assessment of the mitigation strategies. We also agreed with the concern that social behavior is inadequately represented in pandemic influenza models. Our review showed that the models consider only a few social-behavioral aspects including contact rates, withdrawal from work or school due to symptoms appearance or to care for sick relatives, and compliance to social distancing, vaccination, and antiviral prophylaxis. The concern about the degree of accessibility of the models is palpable, since we found three models that are currently accessible by the public while other models are seeking public accessibility. Policymakers would prefer models scalable to any population size that can be downloadable and operable in personal computers. But scaling models to larger populations would often require computational needs that cannot be handled with personal computers and laptops. As a limitation, we state that some existing models could not be included in our review due to their limited available documentation discussing the choice of relevant parameter values. Conclusions To adequately address the concerns of the policymakers, we need continuing model enhancements in critical areas including: updating of epidemiological data during a pandemic, smooth handling of large demographical databases, incorporation of a broader spectrum of social-behavioral aspects, updating information for contact patterns, adaptation of recent methodologies for collecting human mobility data, and improvement of computational efficiency and accessibility. PMID:22463370

2012-01-01

393

Health equity issues at the local level: Socio-geography, access, and health outcomes in the service area of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti  

PubMed Central

Background Although health equity issues at regional, national and international levels are receiving increasing attention, health equity issues at the local level have been virtually overlooked. Here, we describe here a comprehensive equity assessment carried out by the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer-Haiti (HAS) in 2003. HAS has been operating health and development programs in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti for 50 years. Methods We reviewed all available information arising from a comprehensive evaluation of the programs of HAS carried out in 1999 and 2000. As part of this evaluation, two demographic and health surveys were carried out. We carried out exit interviews with clients receiving primary health care, observations within health facilities, interviews with households related to quality of care, and focus group discussions with community-based health workers. A special study was carried out in 2003 to assess factors determining the use of prenatal care services. Finally, selected findings were obtained from the HAS information system. Results We found markedly reduced access to health services in the peripheral mountainous areas compared to the central plains. The quality of services was more deficient and the coverage of key services was lower in the mountains. Finally, health status, as measured by under-five mortality rates and levels of childhood malnutrition, was also worse in the mountains. Conclusion These findings indicate that local health programs need to give attention to monitoring the health status as well as the quality and coverage of basic services among marginalized groups within the program service area. Health inequities will not be overcome until such monitoring occurs and leaders of health programs ensure that inequities identified are addressed in the local programming of activities. It is quite likely that, within relatively small geographic areas in resource-poor settings around the world, similar, if not even greater, levels of health inequities exist. These inequities need to be measured and addressed in order for health programs to achieve equity and maximum improvement in health status within the population. PMID:17678540

Perry, Henry B; King-Schultz, Leslie W; Aftab, Asma S; Bryant, John H

2007-01-01

394

Behaviour and variability of local and regional oxidant levels (OX = O3 + NO2) measured in a polluted area in central-southern of Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the photochemical air pollution in central-southern of the Iberian Peninsula, analysing the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX = O(3) + NO(2)), measured in a polluted area with the highest concentration of heavy industry in central Spain. A detailed air pollution database was observed from two monitoring stations. The data period used was 2008 and 2009, around 210,000 data, selected for its pollution and meteorological statistics, which are very representative of the region. Data were collected every 15 min, however hourly values were used to analyse the seasonal and daily ozone, NO, NO(2) and OX cycles. The variation of OX concentrations with NO(x) is investigated, for the first time, in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The concentration of OX was calculated using the sum of a NO(x)-independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O(3) background), and a linearly NO(x)-dependent 'local' contribution. Monthly dependence of regional and local OX concentration was observed to determine when the maximum values may be expected. The variation of OX concentrations with levels of NO(x) was also measured, in order to pinpoint the atmospheric sources of OX in the polluted areas. The ratios [NO(2)]/[OX] and [NO(2)]/[NO(x)] vs. [NO(x)] were analysed to find the fraction of OX in the form of NO(2), and the possible source of the local NO(x)-dependent contribution, respectively. The progressive increase of the ratio [NO(2)]/[OX] with [NO(x)] observed shows a greater proportion of OX in the form of NO(2) as the level of NO( x ) increases. The higher measured values in the ratio [NO(2)]/[NO(x)] should not be attributed to NO(x) emissions by vehicles; they could be explained by industrial emission, termolecular reactions or formaldehyde and HONO directly emitted by vehicles exhausts. We also estimate the rate of NO(2) photolysis, J (NO(2)) = 0.18-0.64 min(-1), a key atmospheric reaction that influence O(3) production and then the regional air quality. The first surface plot study of annual variation of the daily mean oxidant levels, obtained for this polluted area may be used to improve the atmospheric photochemical dynamic in this region of the Iberian Peninsula where there are undeniable air quality problems. PMID:22645005

Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

2013-01-01

395

*Corresponding author. Also corresponding author.  

E-print Network

. Frei , V. Granata, E. Grigoriev , F. Hauler , S. Heising , S. Janos , L. Jungermann , Z. Li, C. Lourenc*Corresponding author. Also corresponding author. E-mail address: paula.collins@cern.ch (P. Collins detectors P. Collins *, I.B.M. Barnett , P. Bartalini , W. Bell , P. Berglund , W. de Boer , S. Buontempo

Zavrtanik, Marko

396

Thinking globally and acting locally in Mindanao: Supporting the delicate balance of future sustainability in South-East Asian wilderness as well as rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although models of future sustainability often talk about effectively balancing economic, social and environmental imperatives or factors, in practice this typically remains an elusive ideal. This paper explores the exemplary possibilities but also dilemmas of a proposed initiative in the resource-rich but under-developed Filippino island province of Mindanao to achieve such a delicate balance in practice. This initiative by Raintrust Sustainable Ventures' proposes to link foreign investment in agricultural development to both the social advancement of local tribal peoples and the protection of large amounts of remaining wilderness areas. Such a case study provides an exemplary basis for discussing the challenge of achieving social and environmental as well as economic domains of 'future sustainability'. The crucial supporting role of information and geospatial technologies in the Raintrust plan will also be discussed.

Richards, C.

2014-02-01

397

Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and substance P in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis: Effects of vagal stimulation on GAD immunoreactivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by means of its biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the neuropeptide substance P in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and gelatinous nucleus (GEL). In addition, electrical stimulation was applied to the night vagus nerve at the cervical level to assess the effects on GAD-immunoreactivity (GAR-IR). GAD-IR terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. They showed pronounced density at the level of the ASP and gradual decrease towards the solitary complex. Nerve cells were not labelled in our preparations. Ultrastructural studies showed symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contracts between labelled terminals and non-immunoreactive dendrites, axons, or neurons. Some of the labelled terminals contained both clear- and dense-core vesicles. Our preliminary findings, after electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, revealed a bilateral decrease of GAD-IR that was particularly evident at the level of the ASP. SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed varying densities in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. In our preparations, the lateral sub-division of the NTS showed the greatest accumulation. The ASP showed medium density of immunoreactive varicosities and terminals and the AP and GEL displayed scattered varicose axon terminals. The electron microscopy revealed that all immunoreactive terminals contained clear-core vesicles which make symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contact with unlabelled dendrites. It is suggested that the GABAergic terminals might correspond to vagal afferent projections and that GAD/GABA and substance P might be co-localized in the same terminal allowing the possibility of a regulated release of the transmitters in relation to demands.

Damelio, F.; Gibbs, M. A.; Mehler, W. R.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

1991-01-01

398

Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

2014-01-01

399

Evidence for Stopping Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Some, But Not All Local Government Areas of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

An average of six annual rounds of ivermectin and albendazole were distributed in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. From 2007 to 2008, population-based surveys were implemented in all 30 local government areas (LGAs) of the two states to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia to assess which LGA mass drug administration (MDA) could be halted. In total, 36,681 persons from 7,819 households were examined for filarial antigen as determined by immunochromatographic card tests. Overall antigen prevalence was 3.05% (exact upper 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.41%) with an upper 95% CI range by LGA of 0.50–19.3%. Among 3,233 children 6–7 years of age, overall antigen prevalence was 1.71% (exact upper 95% CI = 2.19%), too high to recommend generally halting MDA in the two-state area. However, based on criteria of < 2% antigenemia among persons > 2 years of age, stopping MDA was recommended for 10 LGAs. PMID:22855758

King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Jip, Nimzing; Miri, Emmanuel; Jiya, Jonathan; Alphonsus, Kal M.; Sambo, Yohanna; Graves, Patricia; Richards, Frank

2012-01-01

400

Age and proximity to local ore-smelters as determinants of tissue metal levels in beaver (Castor canadensis) of the sudbury (Ontario) area.  

PubMed

An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area beaver (Castor canadensis) revealed that animals in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Ni and Pb in the liver and kidneys. Tissue concentrations averaged 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting through food chain contamination. Tissue levels of Cu, Cd and Zn did not vary in relation to distance from source. Tissue Cd levels were uniformly elevated throughout the four populations examined and are believed to reflect an enhanced level of food chain transfer occurring on the poorly buffered, acid-sensitive soils of the area. Burden: body weight correlations indicated that tissue concentrations of Cd increased whereas Cu levels decreased as a function of animal age. Most striking among these age-related trends was the disproportionate uptake of Cd by renal tissues, resulting in 10-fold higher burdens than those present within the liver. PMID:15091874

Hillis, T L; Parker, G H

1993-01-01

401

An assessment of the microseismic activity and focal mechanisms of the Izmir (Smyrna) area from a new local network (IzmirNET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Izmir metropolitan area is one of the biggest cities of Turkey in terms of population and industrial density. Amount of recordings and quality of located events increased since the new local seismic array, IzmirNET, was installed in 2008. Present study addresses to elucidate seismotectonics of Izmir vicinity by a new data set and reveal first results of seismological analysis obtained for 4.5 years. 930 small earthquakes are well located within less than 1.0 km horizontal error (RMS ? 0.15 s) over a total of 1421 recorded events. Data were processed by using SEISAN Earthquake Analysis Software implemented at SeismoLab of Dokuz Eylul University. The Orhanli-Tuzla Fault Zone and Izmir faults are capable of producing a destructive earthquake. Events show clear clusters around the Outer Bay of Izmir Gulf and Sigacik Bay. We also detected some dense clusters Sigacik Bay to the South, and in the outer bay of Izmir Gulf along NW-SE direction. We investigated kinematics of active faults around the Izmir and Foca areas by using 41 focal mechanism solutions from different algorithms. Foca is located 60 km in the NW direction of Izmir. Mechanisms generally resulted in pure normal or dominant normal faulting with minor strike-slip components in agreement with the kinematics of the other fault zones in Western Turkey. A stress tensor study using selected fault plane solution indicates that the study area is under extension regime in an N-S direction with 71° plunge for maximum compressive principal stress axis (S1), and closer to horizontals for intermediate (S2) and minimum compressive principal stress axis (S3).

Gok, Elcin; Polat, Orhan

2014-11-01

402

Utah Authors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A smattering of Utah's talented children's book authors. The Girls: Shannon Hale Jessica Day George One of her books: Dragon Slippers Lisa Mangum The Boys: Brandon Mull His New York Times Bestselling series: Fablehaven James Dashner s Blog One of his books: The 13th Reality ...

Brittani

2009-06-25

403

Visiting Author  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

1999-01-01

404

What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6. The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation research, therefore, contributes to the environmental sociology, gen

Tribbia, John Luke

405

Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%). Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p?local and regional health authorities led by a NCM (GoHeart) improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up. PMID:25396055

Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

2014-01-01

406

Vegetation Cover and Habitat Heterogeneity derived from QuickBird data as proxies of Local Plant Species Richness in recently burned areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fire-prone ecosystems, it is very common that, following fire, plant species richness increases very markedly, mainly due to an explosion of annuals, following a rapid change during the first few years after the blaze. Herbs play a major role in the system, among other, by fixing nutrients that might be lost, or by changing competitive interactions with shrubs or tree seedlings. But assessing species richness, particularly, herbaceous one, in space and at large scale is very costly. Furthermore, the scale of measurement is also important. In this work we attempted to asses plant species richness during the first year after fire in an abandoned dehesa (open parkland) at three scales (1 m2, 25 m2 and 100 m2) using QuickBird images. The study area was located in Central Spain (Anchuras, Ciudad Real), and was affected by a large summer fire (ca. 2000 ha). Before the fire the system was composed of a shrubland intermixed with trees and open spaces. Two 90x180 m plots were selected and field species richness measures were made at the three scales, using a nested design. Field-based data were related to remotely sensed data using Regression Trees (RT) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling. Explanatory spectral and textural remotely sensed data were ecologically interpreted based on vegetation cover ground-based data. We found that areas with low spectral contrast and high reflectivity were dominated by herbaceous species, and had greater species richness than those characterized by low contrast and medium-low reflectivity, which were dominated by shrubs and trees. The highest species richness was found in the areas characterized by high contrast and medium-high reflectivity, which had a mix of herbs and woody layers. Variance explained varied depending on the modelling approach and the scale, from 21% and 50% for 1 m2 using RT and BRT, respectively; to 65% and 79% for 100 m2. The contribution of different life forms in model fitting was scale-dependent. At smaller scales, herbaceous layer explained the greatest variability of species richness; whereas at higher scales, shrubs and trees increased their contribution in fitting plant species richness. Model's predictions and Moran's Index on residuals indicated that the best sampling scale to predict species richness from QuickBird data was at 100 m2. The high variance explained in most cases indicates that species richness in space can be well predicted by QuickBird derived data. Keywords: plant species richness, local nested scales, vegetation cover, spatial heterogeneity, texture, reflectivity, QuickBird.

Viedma, Olga; Torres, Ivan; Moreno, Jose Manuel

2010-05-01

407

Community attitude towards the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, the Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic remains a major public health problem. In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS has already reversed the post-independence developmental gains. Purpose This study assessed community attitudes regarding the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Design and methods In a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study, the sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 67% of the target population has a negative attitude regarding the reproductive rights of PLWHA; a confidence interval (CI) of 95% was used. A minimum sample size of 340 was obtained using the formula n = Z2pq/d2. An anticipated 10% nonresponse rate was added to obtain a sample size of 374; a multistage sampling technique was utilized to select a total of 450 respondents. Data collected through a semistructured standardized and pretested questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 15. Results The study revealed that 283 (66.6%) and 142 (33.4%) of respondents were urban and rural dwellers, respectively. Mean age of respondents was 28.7 years ± 2.2 years. Four hundred and two (94.6%) respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 88.7% had knowledge of at least six different modes of HIV/AIDS transmission. About 30.7% of respondents had discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLWHA, and 50.9% and 44.8% had negative attitudes towards their sexual and reproductive rights, respectively. There were significant associations between gender, marital status, educational status, occupation, and residential area of respondents and their attitude towards the reproductive and sexual right of PLWHA (P < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation Discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes to PLWHA found among respondents translated into a negative attitude regarding the reproductive and sexual rights of PLWHA. There is an urgent need to institute programs for raising community awareness about the rights of PLWHA, especially in rural areas, and to strengthen legislative provisions for protecting and preserving the reproductive rights of PLWHA. PMID:23807862

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Adebimpe, WO; Olugbenga-Bello, AI

2013-01-01

408

Evidential Authorization*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider interaction of principals where each principal has its own policy and different principals may not trust each other. In one scenario the principals could be pharmaceutical companies, hospitals, biomedical labs and health related government institutions. In another scenario principals could be navy fleets of different and not necessarily friendly nations. In spite of the complexity of interaction, one may want to ensure that certain properties remain invariant. For example, in the navy scenario, each fleet should have enough information from other fleets to avoid unfortunate incidents. Furthermore, one wants to use automated provers to prove invariance. A natural approach to this and many other important problems is to provide a high-level logic-based language for the principals to communicate. We do just that. Three years ago two of us presented the first incarnation of Distributed Knowledge Authorization Language (DKAL). Here we present a new and much different incarnation of DKAL that we call Evidential DKAL. Statements communicated in Evidential DKAL are supposed to be accompanied with sufficient justifications. In general, we construe the term “authorization” in the acronym “DKAL” rather liberally; DKAL is essentially a general policy language. There is a wide spectrum of potential applications of KAL. One ambitious goal is to provide a framework for establishing and maintaining invariants.

Blass, Andreas; Gurevich, Yuri; Moskal, Micha?; Neeman, Itay

409

THE ALFALFA H I ABSORPTION PILOT SURVEY: A WIDE-AREA BLIND DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM SURVEY OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (H I) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area 'blind' search for H I absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km s{sup -1} < cz < 17, 500 km s{sup -1} and covering 517.0 deg{sup 2} (7% of the full ALFALFA survey). The survey is sensitive to H I absorption lines stronger than 7.7 mJy (8983 radio sources) and is 90% complete for lines stronger than 11.0 mJy (7296 sources). The total redshift interval sensitive to all damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}) is {Delta}z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T{sub s} = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}) it is {Delta}z = 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic H I absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N{sub H{sub i}},X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10{sup 19} (T{sub s} /100 K) (1/f) cm{sup -2}local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line search of the complete ALFALFA survey-or any higher redshift, larger bandwidth, or more sensitive survey, such as those planned for Square Kilometer Array pathfinders or a low-frequency lunar array-will either make numerous detections or will set a strong statistical lower limit on the typical spin temperature of neutral hydrogen gas.

Darling, Jeremy; Macdonald, Erin P. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo, E-mail: jdarling@colorado.edu, E-mail: e.macdonald@physics.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2011-11-20

410

A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

2013-12-01

411

A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance ( S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens ( S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

Ibuot, J. C.; Akpabio, G. T.; George, N. J.

2013-12-01

412

Bursitis, adventitious bursa, localized soft-tissue inflammation, and bone marrow edema in tibial stumps: the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging to the diagnosis and management of mechanical stress complications 1 1 No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the author(s) or upon any organization with which the author(s) is\\/are associated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foisneau-Lottin A, Martinet N, Henrot P, Paysant J, Blum A, André J-M. Bursitis, adventitious bursa, localized soft-tissue inflammation, and bone marrow edema in tibial stumps: the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging to the diagnosis and management of mechanical stress complications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:770-7

Anne Foisneau-Lottin; Noël Martinet; Philippe Henrot; Jean Paysant; Alain Blum; Jean-Marie André

2003-01-01

413

When does this cortical area drop off? Principal component structuring of the EEG spectrum yields yes-or-no criteria of local sleep onset.  

PubMed

The traditional sleep scoring approach has been invented long before the recognition of strictly local nature of the sleep process. It considers sleep as a whole-organism behavior state, and, thus, it cannot be used for identification of sleep onset in a separate brain region. Therefore, this paper was aimed on testing whether the practically useful, simple and reliable yes-or-no criterion of sleep onset in a particular cortical region might be developed through applying principal component analysis to the electroencephalographic (EEG) spectra. The resting EEG was recorded with 2-hour intervals throughout 43-61-hour prolongation of wakefulness, and during 12 20-minute attempts to nap in the course of 24-hour wakefulness (15 and 18 adults, respectively). The EEG power spectra were averaged on 1-min intervals of each resting EEG record and on 1-min intervals of each napping attempt, respectively. Since we earlier demonstrated that scores on the first and second principal components of the EEG spectrum exhibit dramatic changes during the sleep onset period, a zero-crossing buildup of the first score and a zero-crossing decline of the second score were examined as possible yes-or-no markers of regional sleep onsets. The results suggest that, irrespective of electrode location, sleep onset criterion and duration of preceding wakefulness, a highly significant zero-crossing decline of the second principal component score always occurred within 1-minute interval of transition from wakefulness to sleep. Therefore, it was concluded that such zero-crossing decline can serve as a reliable, simple, and practically useful yes-or-no marker of drop off event in a given cortical area. PMID:24878318

Putilov, Arcady A

2014-06-22

414

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Bamyan mineral district, which has areas with a spectral reflectance anomaly that require field investigation. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution o

Davis, Philip A.

2013-01-01

415

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2010-07-01

416

Federal Labor Relations Authority  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA) is an independent agency that is responsible for administering the labor-management relations program for close to 2 million federal employees across the world. As noted on the Web site, their mission is "to promote stable and constructive labor-management relations that contribute to an efficient and effective government." To achieve that end, the FLRA's site provides a host of information about recent cases decided by the Authority, along with information about its activities and current staff roster. Visitors to the site will want to take a look at the FLRA strategic plan for the period from 2002-2005, and review previous annual reports filed by the Authority, which are located in the News and Publications area of the site.

417

Local Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four local projects which are intended to serve as sources of ideas for professional group action are described in this pamphlet. The projects are reported within the framework of four areas of improving teaching. Under "professional development" projects are portrayed concerning the use of student tutors and the improvement of…

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Association of Classroom Teachers.

418

Government Regulations and Housing Markets: An Index to Characterize Local Land Use Regulatory Environments for Residential Markets in the Houston - Galveston Area  

E-print Network

Cluster Analysis FA Factor Analysis ETJ Extra Territorial Jurisdiction EW Equal Weighting GA Geometric Aggregation H-GA Houston Galveston Area H-GAC Houston Galveston Area Council KMO Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure LURE Land Use Regulatory... .................................................................................................. 12? 2.4. Literature on related LUREs indices and inventories ........................................ 16? 3. AREA OF STUDY ....................................................................................................... 27 4. METHODOLOGY...

Estevez Jimenez, Luis

2012-07-16

419

Evaluation of HACCP Plans of Food Industries: Case Study Conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy  

PubMed Central

With respect to food safety, many works have studied the effectiveness of self-monitoring plans of food companies, designed using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) method. On the other hand, in-depth research has not been made concerning the adherence of the plans to HACCP standards. During our research, we evaluated 116 self-monitoring plans adopted by food companies located in the territory of the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Foggia, Italy. The general errors (terminology, philosophy and redundancy) and the specific errors (transversal plan, critical limits, hazard specificity, and lack of procedures) were standardized. Concerning the general errors, terminological errors pertain to half the plans examined, 47% include superfluous elements and 60% have repetitive subjects. With regards to the specific errors, 77% of the plans examined contained specific errors. The evaluation has pointed out the lack of comprehension of the HACCP system by the food companies and has allowed the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service), in its capacity as a control body, to intervene with the companies in order to improve designing HACCP plans. PMID:17911662

Panunzio, Michele F.; Antoniciello, Antonietta; Pisano, Alessandra; Rosa, Giovanna

2007-01-01

420

20 CFR 662.220 - What entity serves as the One-Stop partner for a particular program in the local area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...program, are required One-Stop partners. Local Boards must include them in the One-Stop delivery system where they...and Local Boards should take steps to ensure that customer groups...to services through the One-Stop delivery...

2010-04-01

421

Allocation of authority in European health policy.  

PubMed

Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. PMID:22858423

Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

2012-11-01

422

A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR programs, in France, UK and Spain (Alvarez, 2007; Kemp, 2007). The emissions were then estimated using an adjusted tier 3 method. For aviation emissions a tier three method was also used. The findings of this research are mixed. HSR would emit 66% less GHG emissions using today's energy mixes for California and Nevada. Using California's 2020 target energy mix HSR would emit 80% less GHG emissions. However, using today's energy mix HSR would cause 33% more LAP than air travel. Using California's 2020 mix the HSR would cause 22% less LAP the air travel. However this 20% improvement would likely be eroded by aircraft emissions improvement between now and 2020. To conclude, this research found that HSR does offer significant GHG emission reductions, when compared to air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. However is less clear regarding LAP, though HSR has the potential to create savings here in the future as well. For other corridors around the U.S.A., earmarked for HSR, similar studies should be carried out to examine the benefits of such mode transfer.

Mullins, Damien

423

SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey local areas in and near the western edge of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, Nevada have probable resource potential for silver and small amounts of associated lead, zinc, and gold.

McKee, Edwin H.; Schmauch, Steven W.

1984-01-01

424

20 CFR 664.710 - Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Services to Youth § 664.710 Do Local...under the Wagner-Peyser Act may be provided to any...

2011-04-01

425

Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the Pacific Island Region: meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Pacific has experienced a remarkable proliferation of Marine Managed Areas in the last decade. These protected areas, implemented by over 500 communities spanning 15 independent countries and territories represent a unique global achievement. The approaches being developed at national levels are built on a unique feature of the region, customary tenure and resource access, and make use of,

Hugh Govan

2009-01-01

426

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Tourmaline mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter J in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Tourmaline mineral district, which has tin deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. For this particular area, PRISM image orthorectification was performed by the Alaska Satellite Facility, applying its photogrammetric software to PRISM stereo images with vertical control points obtained from the digital elevation database produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (Farr and others, 2007) and horizontal adjustments based on a controlled Landsat image base (Davis, 2006). The 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery was then coregistered to the orthorectified PRISM images and individual multispectral and panchromatic images were mosaicked into single images of the entire area of interest. The image coregistration was facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by de

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

427

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2013-10-01

428

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2012-10-01

429

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2014-10-01

430

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2011-10-01

431

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2012-10-01

432

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2011-10-01

433

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2013-10-01

434

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2014-10-01

435

Pre-School Educational Provision in Rural Areas. Interchange 69.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Scottish Executive Education Department has pledged to achieve universal provision of preschool education for 3- and 4-year-olds, whose parents want it, by 2002. The particular factors affecting delivery of preschool education in rural areas were examined through telephone interviews with local education authorities and voluntary preschool…

Copus, Andrew; Petrie, Scott; Shucksmith, Janet; Shucksmith, Mark; Still, Margaret; Watt, Joyce

436

Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.  

PubMed

The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:22927655

Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

2012-11-01

437

Boston Redevelopment Authority  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) "plans Boston's future while respecting its past.â? Working with the private sector, the BRA helps guide physical, social, and economic change in Boston's neighborhoods and its downtown. The agencyâ??s homepage features an interactive map of the city that allows visitors to view current and future development projects. Additionally, users can search via parcel ID or address. In the Neighborhoods area, visitors can browse around the officially identified list of neighborhoods to see what's on the docket. Clicking on Business Development is a great way to learn about long-term business opportunities, including the Boston Business Hub and various initiatives designed to encourage the growth of certain value added businesses. Moving on, the Research & Maps area contains rich data sets, interactive maps, and a raft of research papers, including "Boston in Context: Neighborhoods" and "Grocery Stores in Boston.â?

438

Youth and the Local Employment Agenda. An Analysis of Prime Sponsor Experience Implementing the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act. Overview and Area Summaries. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a case study approach, an eighteen-month review assessed the implementation of the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act (YEDPA) in thirty-seven prime sponsorships in twelve states. Most states showed progress in establishing a role for local educational agencies in the prime sponsor employment and training service matrix. But too…

Wurzburg, Gregory

439

Manuscript title: Evaluating the two-source energy balance model using local thermal and surface flux observations in a strongly advective irrigated agricultural area  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Application and validation of many thermal remote sensing-based energy balance models involve the use of local meteorological inputs of incoming solar radiation, wind speed and air temperature as well as accurate land surface temperature (LST), vegetation cover and surface flux measurements. For ...

440

Immimohistochemical localization of corticotropin-releasing factor in selected brain areas of the European starling ( Sturnus vulgaris ) and the song sparrow ( Melospiza melodia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was localized in the brains of two passerine species, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia), by means of immunohistochemistry. The hypothalamic distribution of this peptide in these species includes a complex of immunoreactive perikarya observed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), in both its medial and lateral divisions. Nerve fibers were also seen

Gregory F. Ball; Patricia L. Fans; John C. Wingfield

1989-01-01

441

Local agency, adaptation and the shadow system: The institutional architecture of social learning in rural areas of the UK and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural communities across the world face at times a range of environmental , social and economic pressures that threaten their viability in their current form. The ability of local actors to exercise agency in response to potential and emerging threats is of key interest in understanding their capacity to adapt. This paper argues that top-down narratives which focus on canonical

Mark Pelling; S. Rengasamy

442

TO APPEAR IN IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS (SPECIAL ISSUE ON ULTRA WIDEBAND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS) 1 Secure Localization and Authentication in  

E-print Network

of unique merits such as low probability of interception and detection, resilience to multi-path fading, it is finding ever-increasing uses in wireless communications, networking, radar imaging, and localization and often hostile settings such as tactical military operations and homeland security monitoring. Under

Wu, Dapeng Oliver

443

32 CFR 776.88 - Report to licensing authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Report to licensing authorities. 776.88 Section 776...Processing Procedures § 776.88 Report to licensing authorities. Upon determination...Federal, State, or local bar or other licensing authority of the covered...

2010-07-01

444

43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

2014-10-01

445

43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

2011-10-01

446

43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

2012-10-01

447

43 CFR 3141.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-3 Authority. The regulations in this subpart are issued under the...

2013-10-01

448

Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.  

PubMed

Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

2015-01-01

449

MODFLOW-2005, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - Documentation of the Multiple-Refined-Areas Capability of Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the addition of the multiple-refined-areas capability to shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package of MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR now provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow by using one or more block-shaped, higher resolution local grids (child model) within a coarser grid (parent model). LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundaries. The ability to have multiple, nonoverlapping areas of refinement is important in situations where there is more than one area of concern within a regional model. In this circumstance, LGR can be used to simulate these distinct areas with higher resolution grids. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. The BFH Package can be used to simulate these situations by using either the parent or child models independently.

Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

2007-01-01

450

A summary of niobium and rare earth localities from Ha'il and other areas in western Saudi Arabia: a preliminary study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations in 1965 located veins containing radioactive material in the Halaban Group on the east side of a granite pluton at Jabal Aja near Ha'il. Later study extended the known area of radioactivity to a total length of about 30 km. Mineralogic studies indicated that the samples were low in uranium and that the radioactivity was due principally to thorium in niobium-bearing minerals. Two samples were reexamined to identify the sources of radioactivity, but X-ray and alpha plate studies did not reveal the radioactive minerals, even though uranium mineralization was indicated by the alpha plates. Further sampling is suggested to isolate the sources of radioactivity. This study indicates that niobium occurrences are related to alkaline intrusives in many areas of western Saudi Arabia. These areas should be investigated for their possible niobium and rare earth contents; their uranium content is apparently too low to be of economic interest.

Matzko, John J.; Naqvi, Mohammed Ibne

1978-01-01

451

Strengthening Political Leadership in UK Local Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many councillors and officers in local government have begun to question long-established approaches to local authority leadership and management. This article shows that there is growing interest in developing new ways of revitalizing local democracy and projecting the value of local government. It examines some of the models of local authority management found in other countries, including the directly elected

Robin Hambleton

1998-01-01

452

Evaluation of the hydrologic measure quality of the Saint Nizier weather radar data on the local urban area of Greater Lyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meteorological radar of Saint Nizier d'Azergues, part of Meteo France network Aramis, is situated at only 40 km from the urban community of Greater Lyon, in the north of the Rhône valley, south-east of France. This area gathers many human, environmental and materials stakes and vulnerability. From an operational use, an assessment based on a simulation and analysis of

F. Renard; D. Faure; J. Comby

2009-01-01

453

Areas, Volumes, Surface Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).

2010-07-28

454

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Panjsher Valley mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter M in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Panjsher Valley mineral district, which has emerald and silver-iron deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2009, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

2013-01-01

455

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Farah mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter FF in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Farah mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of copper, zinc, lead, silver, and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2007, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolutio

Davis, Philip A.

2014-01-01

456

Mercury pollution in two typical areas in Guizhou province, China and its neurotoxic effects in the brains of rats fed with local polluted rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guizhou province, which located in southwestern of China, is an important mercury (Hg) production center. This study was to\\u000a investigate the environmental levels and ecological effects of mercury in two typical Hg polluted areas in Guizhou province.\\u000a In addition, to improve the understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Hg, a rats based laboratory study was also carried\\u000a out in this

Jinping Cheng; Tao Yuan; Wenhua Wang; Jinping Jia; Xueyu Lin; Liya Qu; Zhenhua Ding

2006-01-01

457

Psychological Science The Author(s) 2013  

E-print Network

Psychological Science XX(X) 1­8 © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub that when people do not engage in transformation of motivation because they are under time pressure or low Corresponding Author: Francesca Righetti, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands E

Reber, Paul J.

458

Modeling the local biodiversity impacts of agricultural water use: case study of a wetland in the coastal arid area of Peru.  

PubMed

Global water use is dominated by agriculture and has considerable influence on people's livelihood and ecosystems, especially in semiarid and arid regions. Methods to address the impacts of water withdrawal and consumption on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems within life cycle assessment are still sparse and very generic. Regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for a groundwater-fed wetland at the arid coast of Peru are developed for groundwater and surface water withdrawal and consumption in order to address the spatial dependency of water use related impacts. Several agricultural scenarios for 2020 were developed in a workshop with local stakeholders and used for calculating total biodiversity impacts. In contrast to assumptions used in top-down approaches (e.g., Pfister et al. Environ. Sci Technol. 2009, 43, 4098 ), irrigation with surface water leads in this specific region to benefits for the groundwater-fed wetland, due to additional groundwater recharge from surplus irrigation water. However, irrigation with groundwater leads to ecological damage to the wetland. The CFs derived from the different scenarios are similar and c