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1

Local Area Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

1991-01-01

2

Health underachievement and overachievement in English local authorities  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify English local authorities that “overachieve” and “underachieve” in health terms, given their level of deprivation, sociodemographic context, and region. Design Cross sectional study using data from the 1991 UK census and mortality data from 2000–2. Setting England. Participants 354 local authorities (total population 49?558?000). Main outcome measures Life expectancy. Residual life expectancy after regression analysis. Results In general, the more materially deprived the population of a local authority was in 1991, the lower its life expectancy a decade later, with men being more sensitive to the effects of deprivation than women. Many local authorities, however, did not follow this general trend, and these shared common characteristics. Mining, Manufacturing and Industry, and Urban Fringe authorities collectively had lower life expectancies than predicted by their level of deprivation, as did authorities located in the north west. Outer London and Education Centres and Inner London authorities had much higher life expectancies than predicted, as did authorities located in the east, south east, and south west. Given their level of deprivation, sociodemographic context, and region, 11 local authorities significantly overachieved for male life expectancy and 10 underachieved, while 12 overachieved for female life expectancy and three underachieved. Conclusions Life expectancy in English local authorities is strongly associated not only with material deprivation, but with the local sociodemographic context and the region where the authority is located. Some authorities defy their contexts, however, and overachieve in health terms, while others, including some in affluent areas, underachieve. PMID:16840758

Doran, Tim; Drever, Frances; Whitehead, Margaret

2006-01-01

3

Local Area Networks (The Printout).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

1989-01-01

4

Local Area Networks: Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

Dessy, Raymond E.

1982-01-01

5

40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...264.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2011-07-01

6

40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...265.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2011-07-01

7

40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...265.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2012-07-01

8

40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...265.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2013-07-01

9

40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...264.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2013-07-01

10

40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

...265.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2014-07-01

11

40 CFR 265.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...265.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2010-07-01

12

40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

...264.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2014-07-01

13

40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...264.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2012-07-01

14

40 CFR 264.37 - Arrangements with local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...264.37 Arrangements with local authorities. (a) The...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter...the owner or operator must document the refusal in the...

2010-07-01

15

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Paging geographic area authorizations. The FCC considers applications for and issues...this section. (a) Channels. The FCC may issue a paging geographic area authorization...Department of Commerce's 172 EAs, the FCC shall separately license Guam and the...

2012-10-01

16

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Paging geographic area authorizations. The FCC considers applications for and issues...this section. (a) Channels. The FCC may issue a paging geographic area authorization...Department of Commerce's 172 EAs, the FCC shall separately license Guam and the...

2011-10-01

17

Local Authorities and the School System: The New Authority-Wide Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coalition government policies have put into question the role of local authorities in a "self-improving school system". In a number of local authorities new authority-wide partnership bodies are being set up involving all local schools, including academies, and controlled by headteachers. This article begins with an analysis of the new…

Hatcher, Richard

2014-01-01

18

An introduction to local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a restricted area such as a single building, or a small cluster of buildings, high-speed (greater than 1 Mbit\\/s) data transmission is available at a small fraction of the cost of obtaining comparable longhaul service from a tariffed common carrier. Local area networks use this low-east, high-speed transmission capabality as the basis for a general-purpose data transfer network. There

DAVID D. CLARK; KENNETH T. POGRAN; D. P. Reed

1978-01-01

19

Amphibious assault ship local area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amphibious Assault Ship, USS Makin Island (LHD 8) encompasses multiple systems to support the Navy's missions. The USS Makin Island systems include ballast, steering, propulsion, fresh water, power distribution as well as many damage control systems. The systems utilize various signal types to operate the systems while receiving signals to monitor the system components via the Machinery Control System (MCS). Many input/output (I/O) signals exchange information between the MCS and the various systems' equipment. The MCS monitors and controls the system components using a Human Machine Interface (HMI). The user-friendly HMI permits authorized operators to perform many daily operations remotely allowing operators to address system issues from multiple MCS units located throughout the ship. The MCS utilizes a fiber optic network that serves as the backbone connecting the Local Area Network (LAN) switches via blown optical fiber. Each MCS unit is intricately connected to the LAN switches for maximum redundancy via fiber optic connections to non-adjacent LAN switches to ensure system communications continuity. The LAN switches are connected in a star configuration for added system survivability. The backbone's blown fiber is designed and installed with a sufficient percentage of spare blowing tubes to ensure the potential of future growth. Conventional optical fiber is used to interconnect the MCS consoles, workstations, and Data Acquisition Units (DAU) to each other and the LAN switches. The conventional fiber also contains sufficient spare conductors in a combination of eight and four conductor optical fiber. The network backbone is redundantly connected allowing for continuous transmission of information throughout the ship.

Goff, Jonathan S.; Million, Troy P.

2010-08-01

20

Local Area Networks in the School Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines local area networks (LANs); describes basic components and configurations of LANs; and discusses LANs benefits (reduced costs, better management of computer resources, enhanced communications) and pitfalls (hidden costs, time delays, network maintenance, lack of standardization, network security breaches, lack of network compatible…

Bluhm, Harry P.

1986-01-01

21

Localizing Persons using Body Area Sensor Network  

E-print Network

) for better health supervision. In this chapter we first introduce many localization methods and algorithms estimation using signal strength is one of the foremost. In indoor environments, we found that the signal in hospital, home or in public area, locations of the patience have to be known so that first-aid can

Langendoen, Koen

22

Local Area Networks - Applications to Energy Management  

E-print Network

systems. The idea of the Local Area Network is described, and it is compared to the distributed processing technique, one that is more commonly used in energy management systems. The two techniques are compared by applying each to common examples, and pros...

Bakken, B. M.

1984-01-01

23

The Savannah River Site local area network  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of thirteen separate operating or administrative facilities, or areas, spread out over 300 square miles of federal reservation. A facility of this size presents rather unique difficulties to anyone attempting to provide a comprehensive and high performance computer network, or local area network (LAN). Figure 1 is a diagram of the SRS and indicates the approximate number of ''knowledge workers'' (i.e., managerial, professional, and clerical staff) which are located in each site area. The goal of the SRS LAN project is to have each of these workers connected to and using the computer network by the end of 1990. By mid 1989 SRS is three quarters of the way to completing this goal. The fundamental LAN strategy for Savannah River is the integration of personal computers with mid size ''departmental'' computers located within each site area with links to the site's mainframe computer systems and offsite databases for information access. This integration is being provided by baseband local area networks in each of the site areas adjoined together via a broadband and digital telephone communications system to form one sitewide internetwork. The site internetwork is used to connect the departmental and mainframe computers together as well as provide workstation to computer access between site areas. 6 figs.

Johnson, A.J.

1989-01-01

24

Local-Area Subnetworks: A Performance Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative evaluation of the performance of ring and bus systems constituting subnetworks of local-area networks. Performance is measured in terms of the delaythroughput characteristics. Systems investigated include token-controlled and slotted rings as well as random-access buses (CSMA with collision detection) and ordered-access buses. The investigation is based on analytic models which describe the various topologies and

WERNER BUX

1981-01-01

25

Author's personal copy Prioritizing areas for conservation and vegetation restoration  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Prioritizing areas for conservation and vegetation restoration in post and Biocultural Conservation Laboratory, Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX if they are allowed to regenerate. We develop a framework for incorporating abandoned agricultural fields

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

26

Applying Psychology in Local Authority Emergency Planning Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the work of two EPs involved in a multi-agency project to produce Local Authority (LA) guidelines on psycho/social support following critical incidents and disasters. EPs were involved as participant observers during a simulation of setting up and running a LA reception centre for evacuees. A questionnaire was then…

Posada, Susan E.

2006-01-01

27

Race Equality and Leisure Policy Discourses in Scottish Local Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents and discusses the findings of a survey designed to assess two issues. First, it considers the extent to which Scottish local authorities have sought to discover and provide for the specific needs of their black and minority ethnic (BME) populations. Second, it provides preliminary reflections on the impact of political, organisational and legislative change upon the policy

Ann Swinney; John Horne

2005-01-01

28

Local authority performance indicators: Dousing the fire of campaigning consumers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much criticism has been levelled at the reliability of the Audit Commission's measures of local authority performance, but less attention has been paid to the reality of their empowering effect on consumer groups. This article reports on the impact of the policy on one consumer group, ALL MOD CONS, a national charity which campaigns for more and better public toilets.

Julia Edwards

1998-01-01

29

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project  

SciTech Connect

Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.)

1991-12-01

30

77 FR 70381 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: On behalf of the President's Pay Agent, the Office of Personnel Management is issuing proposed regulations to tie the metropolitan area portion of locality pay area boundaries to the geographic scope of Metropolitan Statistical Area and...

2012-11-26

31

The prevalence of pressure sores within an area health authority.  

PubMed

A point prevalence survey carried out to determine the number of pressure sores within the Nottingham Health Authority revealed that 5.3% patients were affected (132 patients out of 2513). The majority of patients were elderly (80.3% aged over 65), female (76.5%), and either categorized as immobile or having very limited mobility (77.2%). There were 233 pressure sores, 54.9% of which were on the buttocks or sacrum, and 24.9% of which were on or near the heels and ankles. Nine different cleansing agents were in use, 31 different preparations were applied to the sores and nine types of dressings were employed, with little standardization of use. The most popular aids used for the relief of pressure areas included synthetic sheepskin pads (supplied to 46.2% of the affected patients) and ripple mattresses (supplied to 28.8% of the affected patients). The prevalence of pressure sores within the health authority is indicated. These findings are similar to those of a previous study and may be applicable to other health areas. PMID:3646269

Nyquist, R; Hawthorn, P J

1987-03-01

32

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) If State or local authorities decline to enter into such arrangements, you must document the refusal in the...

2011-07-01

33

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) If State or local authorities decline to enter into such arrangements, you must document the refusal in the...

2012-07-01

34

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) If State or local authorities decline to enter into such arrangements, you must document the refusal in the...

2010-07-01

35

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

...arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) If State or local authorities decline to enter into such arrangements, you must document the refusal in the...

2014-07-01

36

40 CFR 267.36 - What arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...arrangements must I make with local authorities for emergencies...Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties...facility. (b) If State or local authorities decline to enter into such arrangements, you must document the refusal in the...

2013-07-01

37

Basic Mars Navigation System For Local Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: This project has been first set up as a basic solution in navigation during EVA (extra-vehicular activities) in the Mars Society Desert Research Station in the desert of Utah. The main idea is to keep the system as simple as possible so that it can be easily adaptable and portable. The purpose of such a device is to tell the astronauts in EVA where they roughly are and then letting them reaching different points in avoiding any risky way. Thus the precision needed has not to be really high: even if it is about 50m, every astronaut can then look on a map and be able to design a way to another point. This navigation system will improve the safety of the EVA as it is an added reliable orientating tool. Concept: To look at a simple way to localize oneself, one should have a look at what has been done by mankind on Earth. Today, everyone can think of the GPS because it's simple and very reliable. However the infrastructure for such a system is huge and will not be for sure available during the first missions. We can think of course of a basic GPS using the satellites being in orbit but this approach is not yet as simple as we would like. If we want to keep the sky in sight, we can use the stars and the moons of Mars. Yet this would be a good solution and we can even have a star tracker that would give a good position according to the time of the picture. This solution has to be kept in mind but a star tracker is quite big for an astronaut without any rover nearby and using the sky may not be as precise as one should expect. Another useful tool is the compass. It has been used for centuries by sailors but on Mars, without a good magnetic field for this purpose. But sailors also use lighthouses and some placemarks on the land to localize themselves. This is done with a compass, measuring the angle between a placemark and the magnetic North. With two angles, we can then have the position of the boat. The idea here is the same: measuring the angles between different placemarks so that we can compute the position. But which placemarks? We have to think about something that can be installed on Mars and is light enough to be brought there. Balloons are really light, and in order to place them, we need a gas as helium (or hydrogen) and also some rope. Hydrogen is likely to be produced in situ and rope will be useful for astronauts. So we started on a concept with some balloons around the base, with different colors or patterns. The crew in EVA can thus know where the base is every time they are in sight of a balloon and with at least three balloons; they can compute their position according to the base. Procedure of the test: During EVA, the astronauts will measure the angle between the different balloons. The balloons are high in the sky so they can be seen far from their location. This is particularly important on Mars where the horizon is nearer than on Earth. The balloons have different colors so they can be identified and we can even think of adding an autonomous colored light under so they can be observed during the night. With good quality balloons, we can keep them in the sky for a few days without maintenance. Angle measurement is done thanks to a camera. A numeric camera can have a precision of less than 0.01°/pixel, which is enough for our application. The distance between the different balloons can easily be seen in a free picture management software and a Matlab tool is under development for this. An algorithm is then run and it gives the positions that fit with the observations on a map. Simulation gave areas 20m width, which is enough for the astronaut who has a map. The exact precision will be investigated in situ, at the MDRS. For this first test bench, computations will be manually done on a computer in order to validate the concept without huge development. Afterwards, one can imagine an implementation on a PDA brought by the astronauts. This PDA would have its own camera so the process can be fully automatic. Such a system can also implement other navigation system as a Martian GPS or a radio locali

Petitfils, E.-A.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Monaghan, E.; Crews, Eurogeomars

2009-04-01

38

Wide area localization on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fast and memory efficient method for localizing a mobile user's 6DOF pose from a single camera image. Our approach registers a view with respect to a sparse 3D point reconstruction. The 3D point dataset is partitioned into pieces based on visibility constraints and occlusion culling, making it scalable and efficient to handle. Starting with a coarse guess,

Clemens Arth; Daniel Wagner; Manfred Klopschitz; Arnold Irschara; Dieter Schmalstieg

2009-01-01

39

30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.  

...or controlled by the State or local authorities, if required by...request of OSM, the State or local authority shall furnish and...to the protection which the documents conveying the various rights...g) If necessary, State and local authorities shall procure...

2014-07-01

40

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?...

2011-01-01

41

41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space? 102-74...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?...

2010-07-01

42

5 CFR 531.603 - Locality pay areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The following are locality pay areas for the purpose of this subpart: (1) Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville, GA-AL—consisting of the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville, GA-AL CSA; (2) Boston-Worcester-Manchester,...

2010-01-01

43

Study of distributed Fair Scheduling in wireless local area networks  

E-print Network

A Fair Scheduling policy is required to support differentiated QoS requirements of contending flows in a wireless channel. This thesis presents a study of the Distributed Fair Scheduling (DFS) algorithm proposed for wireless Local Area Networks...

Gupta, Seema

2012-06-07

44

Districts, Local Education Authorities, and the Context of Policy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the author's commentary on the special issue of "Journal of Educational Administration" entitled "Systemwide Reform: Examining Districts under Pressure". Design/methodology/approach: The author gives her personal opinions, draws upon her recent experiences in the national…

Louis, Karen Seashore

2013-01-01

45

From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a democratic…

Moss, Peter

2011-01-01

46

Local Authors in the Classroom: Bringing Readers and Writers Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students seem to believe that novels appear whole cloth; the writer just types away, channeling the muse in the attic. Poetry is pure inspiration--one has the gift or one does not. Students need to know that writing is hard work, and that the blank page stares down every good writer, even authors whose books have won critical acclaim and graced…

Moynihan, Karen E.

2009-01-01

47

Local area network for space-based instrument control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and development of a local area network for space-based instrument control is presented. The instrument LAN and associated hardware and software can be used to emulate a space-based system such as a spacecraft or a terrestrial-based system such as rovers for aerospace engine and vehicle inspections. In either case, the LAN is designed using controller area network technology

Eric J. Knoblock; Vijay K. Konangi; Kul B. Bhasin

2002-01-01

48

Case–control study of the health of those looked after by local authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo assess the health needs and provision of health care to school age children in local authority care.METHODSA total of 142 children aged 5 to 16 in local authority care, and 119 controls matched by age and sex were studied. Main outcome measures were routine health care, physical, emotional, and behavioural health, health threatening and antisocial behaviour, and health promotion.RESULTSCompared

J Williams; S Jackson; A Maddocks; W-Y Cheung; A Love; H Hutchings

2001-01-01

49

Local Authorities and the Education of Young People with Sickle Cell Disorders in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The successful inclusion of minority ethnic pupils with sickle cell disorders (SCD) raises a number of challenges for educational systems. In England, local education authorities were important drivers for innovative responses to complex needs and the former Inner London Education Authority produced guidance in 1989 on SCD in schools. Local…

Dyson, S. M.; Abuateya, H.; Atkin, K.; Culley, L. A.; Dyson, S. E.; Rowley, D. T.

2008-01-01

50

Scenarios of London Local Authorities' Engagement with Evidence Bases for Education Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the use of research and evidence in the formation of education policy within London local authorities. In particular it explores the policy processes in three local authorities, and observes the role of research and the interplay between research and policy within each. We begin the paper with a general overview of policy…

Al Hallami, Mariam; Brown, Chris

2014-01-01

51

The Long Goodbye: How Local Authorities Lost Control of Further Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act, local education authorities (LEAs) lost control of further education in England. Now, after spending almost two decades out in the cold, from 2010, local authorities are set to become re-involved in the further education system. Given this, this paper takes the opportunity to look back on the…

Simmons, Robin

2009-01-01

52

Delay based packet size control in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces control systems, which regulate tranceivers' packet sizes for prevailing network conditions to achieve maximum throughput and minimum delay for real-time traffic in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). Delay and throughput are very much dependent on the packet size and the connection density. Therefore, the selected input parameters for the controllers are one-way delay and change of delay.

Tapio Frantti; Mikko Majanen; Timo Sukuvaara

2010-01-01

53

Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission

Dongquan Chen; Seng-jaw Soong; Gary J Grimes; Helmuth F Orthner

2004-01-01

54

Project Universe - Local area networks and satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed digital communications system is discussed in which a satellite is used to link a number of local area networks which interconnect a variety of computer facilities. The advantages of satellite communications compared with terrestrial links are described, together with a historical survey of the use of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) for data experiments. A description of Project

B. R. Ackroyd

1983-01-01

55

Wireless Local Area Networks: The Next Evolutionary Step.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers recently approved a high-speed wireless standard that enables devices from different manufacturers to communicate through a common backbone, making wireless local area networks more feasible in schools. Schools can now use wireless access points and network cards to provide flexible…

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

56

Use of Local Area Networks in Schools. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current status and apparent trends of local area networks (LANs) in school districts are explored in this short report. Results of a 1987-88 Quality Education Data survey are cited, indicating that 64% of 173 of the largest school districts in the country were already networking and 36% intended to be networking by 1990. The advantages of…

Reinhold, Fran

57

Using Linda for supercomputing on a local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed parallel processing system based on the LINDA programming constructs has been implemented on a local area network of computers. This system allows a single application program to utilize many machines on the network simultaneously. Several applications have been implemented on the network at Sandia National Laboratories and have achieved performances considerably faster than that of a Cray-1S. Several

Robert A. Whiteside; Jerrold S. Leichter

1988-01-01

58

Applications of Local Area Networks of Microcomputers in Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Important features of local area networks (LAN) are reviewed, and several microcomputer LANs are described (ARCnet, Hinet, ShareNet, Ethernet, Omninet, PLAN 4000). Results of survey of 10 libraries using or planning to use a microcomputer LAN and considerations in choosing a LAN are reported. Forty-one references are cited. (EJS)

Levert, Virginia M.

1985-01-01

59

Local Area Networks for K-12 Schools. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Local Area Network (LAN) allows computing equipment to share information from any device on a network with other devices on the same network. Uses for LANs in schools include sharing printers and programs, centralized file sharing, access to library databases and catalog, cost-effective connection to external networks, electronic mail, school…

Lederman, Tim

60

Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas  

E-print Network

Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas Georg Langs, Polina Golland Computer@bwh.harvard.edu, lrigolo@bwh.harvard.edu agolby@bwh.harvard.edu Abstract Matching functional brain regions across. It is particularly difficult, but highly relevant, for patients with pathologies such as brain tumors, which can

Golland, Polina

61

STATE AND LOCAL AREA INTEGRATED TELEPHONE SURVEY (SLAITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) is a telephone interview mechanism that employs the sampling frame of the National Immunization Survey. The purpose of SLAITS is to provide high quality health and welfare-related data on individuals and families at th...

62

Evaluation of retransmission strategies in a local area network environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an evaluation of retransmission strategies over local area networks. Expressions are derived for the expectation and the variance of the transmission time of the go-back-n and the selective repeat protocols in the presence of errors. These are compared to the expressions for blast with full retransmission on error (BFRE) derived by Zwaenepoel [Zwa 85]. We conclude that go-back-n

A. Mukherjee; Lawrence H. Landweber; John C. Strikwerda

1989-01-01

63

Analysis of a local-area wireless network  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand better how users take advantage of wireless networks, we examine a twelve-week trace of a building-wide local-area wireless network. We analyze the network for overall user behavior (when and how intensively people use the network and how much they move around), overall network traffic and load characteristics (observed throughput and symmetry of incoming and outgoing traffic), and traffic

Diane Tang; Mary Baker

2000-01-01

64

Program For Local-Area-Network Electronic Mail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MailRoom is computer program for local-area network (LAN) electronic mail. Enables users of LAN to exchange electronically notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computers. Links all users of LAN into communication circle in which messages created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through series of menu-driven screens. Includes feature that enables users to determine whether messages sent have been read by receivers. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

Weiner, Michael J.

1989-01-01

65

77 FR 16978 - Special Local Regulation; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display Spectator Viewing Areas; Hudson...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...boundaries of the special local regulation. Access to these areas will be restricted to...the fireworks display area. The temporary special local regulation will only...expenditure by a State, local, or tribal government, in the...

2012-03-23

66

Moving Towards Sustainable Development? Integrating Economic Development and the Environment in Local Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent growth of interest in sustainable development has led to the incorporation of the concept into policy making at a variety of scales. In all cases particular emphasis is placed upon the local scale as the focus for the implementationof policy and initiatives and especially upon local authorities as the major contributor to this process. There has been little

David Gibbs

1996-01-01

67

Understanding the mental health needs of primary school children in an inner?city local authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school children in one inner city local authority were

Latha Hackett; Louise Theodosiou; Caroline Bond; Clare Blackburn; Freya Spicer; Rachel Lever

2010-01-01

68

Cell Cycle . Author manuscript Localization of aurora A and aurora B kinases during interphase: role of  

E-print Network

Cell Cycle . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Localization of aurora A and aurora B kinases during Abstract Aurora kinases possess a conserved catalytic domain (CD-terminal domain of AuroraA (AurA) participates in the localization of the kinase to the centrosome in interphase

Boyer, Edmond

69

NOTE: Check Local Areas for Specific Controlled Areas and RCA Boundaries Controlled Areas  

E-print Network

20 North Adit North Damping Ring Radioactive Material Storage Yard (RAMSY) Radioactive Waste Storage A (includes fenced RAM storage area) End Station B Heavy Fabrication Building Klystron Gallery KlystronTest Laboratory (high bay) LCLS BTH LCLS BTH Undulator Hall LCLS Electron Dump Room LCLS FEE LCLS Injector, Sector

Wechsler, Risa H.

70

Multiple nuclear localization signals mediate nuclear localization of the GATA transcription factor AreA.  

PubMed

The Aspergillus nidulans GATA transcription factor AreA activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. Sequence analysis of AreA revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs), five putative classical NLSs conserved in fungal AreA orthologs but not in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs Gln3p and Gat1p, and one putative noncanonical RRX33RXR bipartite NLS within the DNA-binding domain. In order to identify the functional NLSs in AreA, we constructed areA mutants with mutations in individual putative NLSs or combinations of putative NLSs and strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AreA NLS fusion genes. Deletion of all five classical NLSs individually or collectively did not affect utilization of nitrogen sources or AreA-dependent gene expression and did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of the bipartite NLS conferred the inability to utilize alternative nitrogen sources and abolished AreA-dependent gene expression likely due to effects on DNA binding but did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of all six NLSs simultaneously prevented AreA nuclear accumulation. The bipartite NLS alone strongly directed GFP to the nucleus, whereas the classical NLSs collaborated to direct GFP to the nucleus. Therefore, AreA contains multiple conserved NLSs, which show redundancy and together function to mediate nuclear import. The noncanonical bipartite NLS is conserved in GATA factors from Aspergillus, yeast, and mammals, indicating an ancient origin. PMID:24562911

Hunter, Cameron C; Siebert, Kendra S; Downes, Damien J; Wong, Koon Ho; Kreutzberger, Sara D; Fraser, James A; Clarke, David F; Hynes, Michael J; Davis, Meryl A; Todd, Richard B

2014-04-01

71

Multiple Nuclear Localization Signals Mediate Nuclear Localization of the GATA Transcription Factor AreA  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus nidulans GATA transcription factor AreA activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. Sequence analysis of AreA revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs), five putative classical NLSs conserved in fungal AreA orthologs but not in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs Gln3p and Gat1p, and one putative noncanonical RRX33RXR bipartite NLS within the DNA-binding domain. In order to identify the functional NLSs in AreA, we constructed areA mutants with mutations in individual putative NLSs or combinations of putative NLSs and strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AreA NLS fusion genes. Deletion of all five classical NLSs individually or collectively did not affect utilization of nitrogen sources or AreA-dependent gene expression and did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of the bipartite NLS conferred the inability to utilize alternative nitrogen sources and abolished AreA-dependent gene expression likely due to effects on DNA binding but did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of all six NLSs simultaneously prevented AreA nuclear accumulation. The bipartite NLS alone strongly directed GFP to the nucleus, whereas the classical NLSs collaborated to direct GFP to the nucleus. Therefore, AreA contains multiple conserved NLSs, which show redundancy and together function to mediate nuclear import. The noncanonical bipartite NLS is conserved in GATA factors from Aspergillus, yeast, and mammals, indicating an ancient origin. PMID:24562911

Hunter, Cameron C.; Siebert, Kendra S.; Downes, Damien J.; Wong, Koon Ho; Kreutzberger, Sara D.; Fraser, James A.; Clarke, David F.; Hynes, Michael J.; Davis, Meryl A.

2014-01-01

72

20 CFR 661.250 - What are the requirements for designation of local workforce investment areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...making designations of local areas. Such designation must...designation as a workforce investment area from any unit of general local government, including a combination of...State Board determines that the area meets the requirements of...

2010-04-01

73

One Year's Experience with the CORVUS™ Omninet Local Area Network  

PubMed Central

Local Area Network [LAN] technology as an approach to office automation is well recognized. In May 1983, we installed the first components of Corvus Systems Omninet™ in the Gastroenterology division at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The intent of the project was to determine whether a micro-computer based LAN could provide both the office support functions and the biomedical research support functions needed by our division at a cost affordable to an eight member division. Now, after one year of experience with Omninet, we are reporting the systems hardware, software, the costs, benefits and drawbacks.

Johannes, R. S.

1984-01-01

74

A local area computer network expert system framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past years an expert system called LANES designed to detect and isolate faults in the Goddard-wide Hybrid Local Area Computer Network (LACN) was developed. As a result, the need for developing a more generic LACN fault isolation expert system has become apparent. An object oriented approach was explored to create a set of generic classes, objects, rules, and methods that would be necessary to meet this need. The object classes provide a convenient mechanism for separating high level information from low level network specific information. This approach yeilds a framework which can be applied to different network configurations and be easily expanded to meet new needs.

Dominy, Robert

1987-01-01

75

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

1991-12-01

76

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

77

Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment  

PubMed Central

Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER). The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management. PMID:15339336

Chen, Dongquan; Soong, Seng-jaw; Grimes, Gary J; Orthner, Helmuth F

2004-01-01

78

76 FR 81984 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Local Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program ACTION: Notice...is submitting the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) sponsored information collection...titled, ``Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program,'' to the Office of...

2011-12-29

79

A local area network diagnostic assistant expert system  

SciTech Connect

We are currently developing a stand-alone Local Area Network (LAN) Diagnostic Assistant expert system to assist system managers in diagnosing network-related hardware and software malfunctions. The goal of this system is to aid in identifying malfunctions associated with a single workstation, a group of workstations, communications between workstations, and general statements of the ''Ethernet not working'' type of problems. The system consists of a geographical editor for data entry and modification of LAN information and a diagnostic environment for solving problems. Much work has been done in laying the initial framework for the system in the areas of LAN representation, the problem-solving strategy, and the user interface. We used a hierarchical frame-based representation for the LAN. Information for the strategy mechanism was gathered through case studies and background information. Ideas from heuristic classification were incorporated into the strategy mechanism. As in any system development, a majority of the time was spent developing a good user interface. We used graphics renditions wherever natural and minimized keyboard input by using mouse-selectable buttons and menus. Currently, a prototype version of the system is available that assists with some single-workstation problems. 7 refs., 10 figs.

Mniszewski, S.M.; Peter, E.A.; Lloyd, S.C.

1988-01-01

80

Authors  

Cancer.gov

Authors Laura Boyle, MPH, CHES Consultant, National Cancer Institute Megan Homer, MA Emerging Leader, Department of Health and Human Services Acknowledgements Lenora Johnson, MPH, National Cancer Institute; Jon Kerner, PhD, National Cancer Institute;

81

Cleaner production in SMEs through a partnership with (local) authorities: successes from the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to total industrial production and their dominance in some sectors indicate that their contribution to total industrial environmental impact is considerable. This paper therefore focuses on pollution prevention by SMEs and on the ways in which local authorities can become a strategic partner in this process. The paper consists of a theoretical

Marieke Gombault; Stephan Versteege

1999-01-01

82

Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

83

Investigating the importance of factors influencing integration technologies adoption in local government authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The application of enterprise application integration (EAI) technologies in integrating heterogeneous information systems (IS) has been pursued by several private and public organisations. However, where EAI has added effectiveness and strengthened the information technology infrastructures in the private domain, local government authorities (LGAs) have been slow in adopting cost-effective EAI solutions to significantly expand the capabilities of their

Muhammad Mustafa Kamal; Mohamed Alsudairi

2009-01-01

84

New Relationship with Schools: Evaluation of Trial Local Authorities and Schools. RR689  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary outlines the key findings from a national evaluation of the first-year trials of the New Relationship with Schools (NRwS) carried out by a team at the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER). The trials took place in the period September 2004 to July 2005 and involved 93 schools in eight local educational authorities…

Halsey, Karen; Judkins, Michelle; Atkinson, Mary; Rudd, Peter

2005-01-01

85

Multiagency Protocols in Intellectual Disabilities Transition Partnerships: A Survey of Local Authorities in Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the findings of a study of transition protocols (for adolescents leaving school and entering the general marketplace) in place for intellectual disability partnerships in 22 local authorities in Wales. The study consisted of a survey of existing protocols and a documentary analysis of the content of the obtained protocols. The…

Kaehne, Axel

2010-01-01

86

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2010-01-01

87

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2013-01-01

88

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2012-01-01

89

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2014-01-01

90

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2011-01-01

91

75 FR 38408 - Special Local Regulations; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Spectator Vessels Viewing Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...boundaries of the special local regulation. Access to these areas will be restricted to...effect on State or local governments and would either preempt...expenditure by a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate,...

2010-07-02

92

[Local health policies and health planning from the viewpoint of the decision-makers of the local authorities].  

PubMed

In 1997 the new law about Public Health Service (OGDG) in Northrhine-Westfalia was put into operation. It included two new sets of compulsory tasks: local health reporting (GBE) and local health conferences (KGK). These new tasks are installed as planning and steering instruments aiming for a better health-care on the local level. The central object is the knowledge-based formation of local health policies. Thereby, local representatives concerned with health and social services should participate as well as administrators and politicians. Since the middle of the 1990 s both new tasks have been established by the public health department of the county of Heinsberg in Northrhine-Westfalia. The experience of this department over almost ten years is the background for the empirical research project that is described in this paper. The study investigates the vocational practices, the decision-making and the health-related attitudes of the relevant local administrative and political representatives. The impulse for the start of the study was given by the constant reluctance of political and administrative top managers to make use of these new planning instruments in agenda setting and decision making. 44 high-ranking staff members and politicians (mayors, party chairmen, heads of departments far beyond the health office) were personally interviewed. Although they are not part of the health administration they claim to be occupied with quite a few health-related tasks. The overlapping of their set of tasks with the local health policies is evident for the interviewed managers. How-ever, this does not cause them to use the two new planning instruments. In particular, they do not participate in the local health conferences. They rather prefer the traditional path of policy making (parties, committees, fractions) even if these paths are less efficient than the new ones. The health conference is much more used by health-service providers as a platform for setting priorities and organising their implementation effectively. So far, the inclusion of the other local representatives (administrative managers, etc.) although they are concerned with health issues has not been achieved. This is also true for local politicians who are responsible for health-care policies. The authors of the paper see it to be the task of the local public health department to convince all these players that the health conference is a productive tool and a useful platform for the discussion of the health problems in the county and the coordination of necessary actions to be taken. The most important focus point is seen in the intersection of health policies with other local policies. PMID:18040960

Ziemer, B; Grunow-Lutter, V

2007-10-01

93

Local wind forcing of the Monterey Bay area inner shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wind forcing and the seasonal cycles of temperature and currents were investigated on the inner shelf of the Monterey Bay area of the California coast for 460 days, from June 2001 to September 2002. Temperature measurements spanned an approximate 100 km stretch of coastline from a bluff just north of Monterey Bay south to Point Sur. Inner shelf currents were measured at two sites near the bay's northern shore. Seasonal temperature variations were consistent with previous observations from the central California shelf. During the spring, summer and fall, a seasonal mean alongshore current was observed flowing northwestward in the northern bay, in direct opposition to a southeastward wind stress. A barotropic alongshore pressure gradient, potentially driving the northwestward flow, was needed to balance the alongshore momentum equation. With the exception of the winter season, vertical profiles of mean cross-shore currents were consistent with two-dimensional upwelling and existing observations from upwelling regions with poleward subsurface flow. At periods of 15-60 days, temperature fluctuations were coherent both throughout the domain and with the regional wind field. Remote wind forcing was minimal. During the spring upwelling season, alongshore currents and temperatures in the northern bay were most coherent with winds measured at a nearby land meteorological station. This wind site showed relatively low correlations to offshore buoy wind stations, indicating localized wind effects are important to the circulation along this stretch of Monterey Bay's inner shelf. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Drake, P.T.; McManus, M.A.; Storlazzi, C.D.

2005-01-01

94

Testbed for a Scalable Terabit Optical Local Area Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a fiber-optic local area network (LAN) demonstration system is described. A complete LAN system would consist of an array of 16 personal computers (PC s), where each PC has a network interface card (NIC) with a parallel fiber-optic datalink to a centralized optoelectronic switch core. The centralized core switches the data generated by 16 NIC s, up to 128 Gbit s of bandwidth. The demonstrator is designed to scale to terabits of bandwidth by use of an emerging optoelectronic technology, i.e., integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) substrates with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and photodetector optical input and output. A subset of the complete system was constructed and is operational. A prototype NIC card, with Motorola Optobus VCSEL transceivers for the optical datalinks, was constructed and is described. A prototype high-speed bipolar switch core, with statically configurable electrical positive-emitter coupled-logic 16 16 crossbar switches, CMOS field-programmable gate arrays, and Motorola Optobus transceivers, was constructed and is described. We successfully demonstrated the transmission of high-speed packetized data from one NIC card, through 10 m of parallel fiber ribbon and the centralized switch core, and back to the NIC. We summarize our experiences on the design and testing of our first demonstration system and our development toward a terabit switch core.

Au, Albert; Supmonchai, Boonchuay; Szymanski, Ted H.

2000-08-01

95

MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

Weiner, M. J.

1994-01-01

96

Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

Meike, Roger

1988-01-01

97

Training Primary Care Physicians for Local Health Authority Duties in Texas  

PubMed Central

Only one fourth of Texas counties have a local health authority (LHA) or health district. Primary care physicians in the remaining counties could be trained in public health basics by providing an online LHA training course and courses at annual meetings of the Texas Medical Association and the Texas Academy of Family Physicians. The Texas Department of State Health Services should develop a web portal for LHAs. The Texas Association of Local Health Officials should also provide automatic limited membership for LHAs. These initiatives would provide public health training to primary care physicians and would greatly improve availability of public health services for the citizens of Texas. PMID:22594741

Zuniga, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

98

Educational Psychology in Scotland: Making a Difference. An Aspect Report on the Findings of Inspections of Local Authority Educational Psychology Services 2006-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides, for the first time, an overview based on inspections of all 32 local authority educational psychology services. The picture it presents is broadly a very positive one although it also points to areas in which there is certainly scope for further improvement. The report shows that services are making a positive difference to…

Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

99

64 FR 17128 - Powers of the Attorney General to Authorize State or Local Law Enforcement Officers To Enforce...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authorize State or local law enforcement officers...contain precise activation procedures. (3) Written agreements...requirements: (i) The powers, privileges, or duties that State or local law enforcement officers...in accordance with the procedures set forth in...

1999-04-08

100

Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?  

PubMed

State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities. PMID:24588100

Davis, Charles

2014-08-01

101

20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (A) Excess youth poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...unemployment above the State average in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...to: (A) Excess poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas;...

2013-04-01

102

20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (A) Excess youth poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...unemployment above the State average in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...to: (A) Excess poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas;...

2012-04-01

103

20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (A) Excess youth poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...unemployment above the State average in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...to: (A) Excess poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas;...

2011-04-01

104

20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (A) Excess youth poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...unemployment above the State average in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...to: (A) Excess poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas;...

2010-04-01

105

20 CFR 667.130 - How are WIA title I formula funds allocated to local workforce investment areas?  

... (A) Excess youth poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...unemployment above the State average in urban, rural and suburban local areas; and...to: (A) Excess poverty in urban, rural and suburban local areas;...

2014-04-01

106

What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.  

PubMed

Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services. PMID:25024121

van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

2014-09-01

107

Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ? = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of the expert pathologist is not affected by our CAD system which is what we want to prove. However, the usage of our CAD system substantially account for the reduced inter- and intra- proliferation rate estimation variability and especially for less-experienced pathologists.

Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

2012-03-01

108

SHIPNET: a real-time local area network for ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a real-time messaging system for token ring networks. The system is currently operational in a shipboard environment. The system conforms to the IEEE 802.2 LLC and 802.5 token-ring standards and is consistent with the Navy's emerging SAFENET specification. The authors provide a library of `C' routines which establish and manage sockets, transmit and receive messages, and

R. Simoncic; A. C. Weaver; B. G. Cain; M. A. Colvin

1988-01-01

109

The Unique Authority of State and Local Health Departments to Address Obesity  

PubMed Central

The United States has 51 state health departments and thousands of local health agencies. Their size, structure, and authority differ, but they all possess unique abilities to address obesity. Because they are responsible for public health, they can take various steps themselves and can coordinate efforts with other agencies to further health in all policy domains. I describe the value of health agencies' rule-making authority and clarify this process through 2 case studies involving menu-labeling regulations. I detail rule-making procedures and examine the legal and practical limitations on agency activity. Health departments have many options to effect change in the incidence of obesity but need the support of other government entities and officials. PMID:21566027

2011-01-01

110

Corresponding author : Shiqi Zhou , Email address: chixiayzsq@yahoo.com Local Structure and Thermodynamics of a Core-Softened  

E-print Network

Corresponding author : Shiqi Zhou , Email address: chixiayzsq@yahoo.com 1 Local Structure;Corresponding author : Shiqi Zhou , Email address: chixiayzsq@yahoo.com 2 simulation Phase behavior of particles interacting via #12;Corresponding author : Shiqi Zhou , Email address: chixiayzsq@yahoo.com 3 core

Buldyrev, Sergey

111

75 FR 34923 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12748, 56 FR 4521, 3 CFR, 1991 Comp., p. 316; Subpart B also...58 FR 63281, 3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 682; and E.O. 13106, 63 FR 68151, 3 CFR, 1998 Comp., p. 224. Subpart F--Locality-Based...County, NJ, and all of Joint Base...

2010-06-21

112

Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has prepared this report to facilitate compliance with the requirements of Section 123 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 123 requires the Department of Energy to issue recommendations for establishing state and local incentive programs to encourage acceleration of voluntary consumer replacement of existing water closets, urinals, showerheads and faucets with water-saving products meeting EPACT standards. The authors recommend that state and local authorities working together and also with utilities: (A) investigate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary replacement of plumbing fixtures and fittings as an effective component of a water efficiency incentive program; (B) allow utilities to distribute the costs of water saving products by billing at pre-installation rates until devices have been paid for; (C) encourage decreased water usage by establishing rate structures such as increasing block rates or seasonal pricing; (D) add additional incentive to rebate programs by making the rebates untaxable income. (E) require municipalities or utilities to exhaust every reasonable method of water conservation before applying for permits to construct water supply or water treatment systems; (F) require high-efficiency toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in new construction and changing plumbing codes to incorporate different pipe sizing needs; and (G) and mandate installation of meters to correctly measure water consumption. Following the introduction, a general overview of these recommendations is presented. Each recommendation is discussed briefly. After determining the cost-effectiveness of a plumbing replacement program (or plumbing replacement aspect of a larger program) states can encourage replacement of toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in a number of ways. This report lists both legislative and economic measures that can be implemented on the state level that impact local programs.

Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.; Pickle, S.J.

1995-06-01

113

Integration of wireless sensor networks, wireless local area networks and the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future wireless networks are envisioned to be pervasive and ubiquitous. The integration of wireless sensor networks with wireless local area networks and the Internet is an important issue of future wireless networks. This paper has identified three challenges in the integration of wireless sensor networks with wireless local area networks and the Internet: (i) reliable communication issue among sensors, actuators,

Liang Cheng; Yuecheng Zhang; Tian Lin; Qing Ye

2004-01-01

114

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning Program: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning (LAP) Program is a community-based approach to developing comprehensive neighbourhood plans. In order to achieve sustainable and implementable Local Area Plans (LAPs), the City of Saskatoon has been using innovative methods of collaborative decision-making to engage citizens. The program has been…

Kellett, Livia; Peter, Lyla; Moore, Kelley

2008-01-01

115

Flight Test Evaluation of a Prototype Local Area Augmentation System Architecture  

E-print Network

Airplane Group [3], are based on derived Instrument Landing System specifications [4]. At StanfordFlight Test Evaluation of a Prototype Local Area Augmentation System Architecture Boris Pervan HEPL/Gravity Probe B, Stanford, CA, 94305-4085, USA ABSTRACT A Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS

Stanford University

116

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 ...11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...they are consistent with national plans, FCC regulations, and EAS...

2011-10-01

117

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 ...11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...they are consistent with national plans, FCC regulations, and EAS...

2013-10-01

118

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

... false State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 ...11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...they are consistent with national plans, FCC regulations, and EAS...

2014-10-01

119

47 CFR 11.21 - State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. 11.21 Section 11.21 ...11.21 State and Local Area plans and FCC Mapbook. EAS plans contain...they are consistent with national plans, FCC regulations, and EAS...

2012-10-01

120

The Local Area Map Building for Mobile Robot Navigation Using Ultrasound and Infrared Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was devoted to improvement of existing and development of the new method for local area map building of mobile robot using sensor fusion techniques. The unstructured environment for navigation of mobile robots is the reason of such task. The offered method provides the local area map building using polar coordinate system and bases on the applications of artificial

Vasyl Koval; Oleh Adamiv; Viktor Kapura

2007-01-01

121

Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

122

20 CFR 667.645 - What procedures apply to the appeals of non-designation of local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appeals of non-designation of local areas? (a) A unit or combination of units of general local government or rural concentrated employment...subsequent designation as a local workforce investment area to the State Board has...

2010-04-01

123

Introduction to Local Area Networks for Microcomputers — Characteristics, Costs, Implementation Considerations  

PubMed Central

The essence of a local area network (LAN) is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. A local area network can save in hardware costs when expensive peripherals are shared; it can save time when large blocks of data are rapidly exchanged among users. The need for more cost-effective and capable communications has inspired the emergence of rapidly developing markets and technologies for local area networks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the characteristics, components, costs, and implementation considerations of local area networks. The paper does not compare or define specific vendor offerings; however, recent IBM announcements regarding local area networks are summarized in the last section of the paper.

Haney, James P.

1984-01-01

124

What is family support work? : a case study within the context of one local authority in Scotland   

E-print Network

The thesis investigates the development of family support within one local authority in Scotland and shows that it has emerged from a complex interplay of governmental, philosophical, policy and practice change.

Smith, Mary

2009-01-01

125

Investigation of local area networks for an obiting space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation and test of various equipment was conducted to determine its state of repair and suitability for use in a test-bed computer network (to be used to simulate a space station configuration of computers for control and monitoring). A research study was also made of various network types, including the IEEE network standards: (1) Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. (2) Token Passing Bus (3) Token Passing Ring, and (4) the draft ANSI standard for a High Speed Local Network, CSMA with Collision Avoidance. No firm conclusions are possible at this time as to which would be most suitable. An evaluation of the user interface of a space station database program, FREDSS (Formatted Retrieval and Entry of Data for Space Station, preliminary version), was also conducted and recommendations were made for possible improvements.

Deacetis, L. A.

1986-01-01

126

Localization of a pontine vocalization-controlling area.  

PubMed

To find out whether there exist additional regions in the pontine brainstem, apart from the phonatory motoneuron pools involved in vocal motor control, the effects of a localized blockade of excitatory neurotransmission in the pons were studied on squirrel monkey vocalization. Vocalization was elicited by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray of the midbrain. Blockade was carried out by stereotaxic injections of kynurenic acid, a nonspecific glutamate antagonist. It was found that injections made into the ventrolateral pons around the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and superior olive could block periaqueductally elicited vocalization. Injections were only effective ipsilaterally, not contralaterally to the stimulation site. The blockade was limited to one particular class of calls, all of which had in common a characteristic stereotyped frequency modulation over several kHz. It is concluded that critical processing steps of vocal motor control take place in the periolivary region. PMID:11051465

Jürgens, U

2000-10-01

127

78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard...activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., within Site 28, in...

2013-07-26

128

Quality Assurance: A Case Study of the Work of Local Education Authority Inspectors and Advisers in England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the current national policy situation regarding quality assurance in the United Kingdom, as revealed through the work of the Audit Commission and the local education authorities' early responses to that work. Describes current quality assurance practices in Barset as perceived by various authority respondents, comparing it to Dorset's…

Coleman, Peter

1992-01-01

129

[Micro-wave local area network for radiological image transmission].  

PubMed

Shinshu University consists of five campuses in different locations, a situation that presents some problems in communication. To solve this problem, the Shinshu University Video and Data Network System (SUNS), which includes a high-speed audio-visual transfer function, has been developed and utilized for pre- and postgraduate education, administrative teleconferences, and local telephone (PBX) and Fax services. In 1988, a cooperative group for the study of radiographic image processing was organized, consisting of staff members of Shinshu University Hospital in Matsumoto, the Faculty of Engineering in Nagano (75 km from Matsumoto) and the Faculty of Textile Science and Technology in Ueda (45 km from Matsumoto). The system has been developed with a pair of personal computer (PC)-based interactive image workstations and high-speed digital telecommunication interfaces to the SUNS. A transmission time of 878 kbps has been attained, including the time needed for read/write onto the PC hard disk. Image data thus transferred from the hospital have been utilized for the study of image processing by researchers in the Faculty of Engineering, and the processed images have been sent back to the hospital for evaluation of clinical efficacy of the processing by diagnostic radiologists. This kind of microwave network is a promising alternative for high-speed data transmission for radiological images and their processing. PMID:9261195

Takizawa, M; Sone, S; Kasuga, T; Oguchi, K; Kondo, S; Fuwa, Y; Yamaura, I; Wako, T; Okazaki, Y; Maruyama, Y

1994-10-25

130

20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a) Each local workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators described...

2012-04-01

131

20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Each local workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators described...

2010-04-01

132

20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) Each local workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators described...

2011-04-01

133

20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?  

...a) Each local workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators described...

2014-04-01

134

20 CFR 666.300 - What performance indicators apply to local areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Each local workforce investment area in a State is subject to the same core indicators of performance and the customer satisfaction indicators that apply to the State under § 666.100(a). (b) In addition to the indicators described...

2013-04-01

135

Damping of inter-area and local modes by use of controllable components  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with damping of inter-area and local electromechanical oscillation modes using controllable series capacitor (CSC) and controllable shunt capacitor (SVC). The impacts of SVC and CSC on the structure of the system closed loop matrix are investigated. By analyzing the sensitivities of the system inter-area and local modes to the control action of the controllable devices, some general conclusions concerning the damping of inter-area and local modes are made. A numerical example is provided to support the analytical findings. This paper provides an insight and understanding in the basic characteristics of damping effects of the studied devices. The insight is obtained by the study of a simple power system which exhibits both inter-area and local power swings. The understandings and findings could form the basis in analysis of realistic and more complex systems.

Noroozian, M.; Andersson, G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)] [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-10-01

136

Long Term Monitoring of Ionospheric Anomalies to Support the Local Area  

E-print Network

[1]. This model was used for safety assessment and System Design Approval (SDA) of the Honeywell SLS The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) was developed to support aircraft precision approach and landing

Stanford University

137

Optimization of Bandwidth and Energy Consumption in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years the proliferation of portable computers, handheld digital devices, and PDAs has led to a rapid growth\\u000a in the use of wireless technologies for the Local Area Network (LAN) environment. Beyond supporting wireless connectivity\\u000a for fixed, portable and moving stations within a local area, the wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies can provide a mobile and\\u000a ubiquitous connection to

Marco Conti; Enrico Gregori

2002-01-01

138

[Digestive localization of generalized amyloidosis: attempt of differentiation of "primary" and "secondary" amyloidosis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to precise topography of amyloid deposits in the alimentary tract and to differenciate the primary or secondary nature of amyloid substance according to these topographical data and with the help of the Wright's technic. The material of this study consists in nine necropsies and seventeen digestive biopsies, concerning patients with generalized amyloidosis. Immunoglobulinic amyloidoses (so-called "primary") contain predominating deposits in the muscularis propria which remain after Wright's technic. On the other hand, in the non-immunoglobulinic amyloidoses (so-called "secondary"), deposits are essentially localized in the mucosa and disappear (more than 80%) after Wright's technic. Moreover, some special cases, as Portugese amyloidosis and amyloidosis in the course of Crohn's disease, are studied. In the first case, the immunoglobulinic nature of amyloidosis seems to be very likely. In Crohn's disease, in one case, the classical notion of non-immunoglobulinic amyloidosis is confirmed, while, in another one, the amyloidosis is much likely an immunoglobulinic one, and that is a new fact. The authors insist on the practical aspect of this study: it is usually possible to precise the nature of the amyloid deposit on digestive biopsy and so, to give indications to the clinicians about an etiological group. PMID:6248992

Lavergne, A; Galian, A

139

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas  

E-print Network

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas based on co-management for small water in peripheral urban and rural lands, mostly found in slum areas. According to the Rural Sanitary Inventory and sanitary of the Colombian peri-urban and rural population, and its also the way to empower communities

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... The following areas are designated race areas for the purpose of reoccurring...

2011-07-01

141

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... The following areas are designated race areas for the purpose of reoccurring...

2014-07-01

142

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... The following areas are designated race areas for the purpose of reoccurring...

2012-07-01

143

33 CFR 100.1308 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound... The following areas are designated race areas for the purpose of reoccurring...

2013-07-01

144

76 FR 17339 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races Within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designated hydroplane race areas during permitted hydroplane...will enforce the special local regulation for Lake Washington...designated hydroplane race areas while enforced on the...direct effect on State or local governments and would either...

2011-03-29

145

Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease virus in local chickens in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, South East Nigeria.  

PubMed

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) poses a great global threat to the poultry industry. Knowledge of the occurrence of the disease is important in the design and implementation of a control program, therefore this study determines the seroprevalence of IBDV in local chickens in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. 250 chickens were bled by exsanguination and sera obtained were screened using Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The seropositivity was 51.6%, which is indicates endemicity of the disease. Biosecurity and good sanitary measures are recommended. Molecular characterization of the strains should be carried out for inclusion in generic vaccines. PMID:25331185

Abraham-Oyiguh, J; Adewumi, M O; Onoja, A B; Suleiman, I; Sulaiman, L K; Ahmed, S J; Jagboro, S T

2015-01-01

146

78 FR 39588 - Special Local Regulations; Revision of 2013 America's Cup Regulated Area, San Francisco Bay; San...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...revising the Primary Regulated Area associated with the special local regulation published for...direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt...expenditure by a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate,...

2013-07-02

147

76 FR 3057 - Special Local Regulation; Hydroplane Races Within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Port, Puget Sound Area of Responsibility. This special local regulation is necessary...direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt...expenditure by a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate,...

2011-01-19

148

Developing Policy and Practice for Dyslexia across a Local Authority: A Case Study of Educational Psychology Practice at Organisational Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper two premises are set out: first, that within Children's Services educational psychologists (EPs) have a distinctive contribution to make towards policy and practice in relation to "dyslexia"; second, that they may be well placed to lead development work at an organisational level within a local authority. Building on…

Woods, Kevin; Stothard, Jan; Lydon, Jackie; Reason, Rea

2013-01-01

149

Safe Physical Activity Environments--To What Extent Are Local Government Authorities Auditing the Safety of Grassed Sporting Grounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical activity (PA) participation is influenced by the safety of the settings in which it is undertaken. This study describes the grounds assessment practices of Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia to ensure the safety of grassed sporting grounds. It also makes recommendations for improving these practices to maximise the…

Otago, Leonie; Swan, Peter; Donaldson, Alex; Payne, Warren; Finch, Caroline

2009-01-01

150

A method for estimating the chronic mentally ill population in state and local areas.  

PubMed

A practical method for estimating the size of the noninstitutionalized chronic mentally ill population in state and local areas, including those not currently receiving services, has been developed. The method relies on national and state counts by zip code area of persons receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) because of mental illness, and on full or sample counts by SSI and SSDI status of chronic mentally ill persons in publicly funded community mental health programs. PMID:3873391

Ashbaugh, J W; Manderscheid, R W

1985-04-01

151

Gex-Model Using Local Area Fraction for Binary Electrolyte Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation and prediction of phase equilibria of electrolyte systems are essential in the design and operation of many industrial processes such as downstream processing in biotechnology, desalination, hydrometallurgy, etc. In this research, the local composition non-random two liquid-nonrandom factor (NRTL-NRF) model of Haghtalab and Vera was extended for uni-univalent aqueous electrolyte solutions. Based on the assumptions of the NRTL-NRF model, excess Gibbs free energy ( g E) functions were derived for binary electrolyte systems. In this work, the local area fraction was applied and the modified model of NRTL-NRF was developed with either an equal or unequal surface area of an anion to the surface area of a cation. The modified NRTL-NRF models consist of two contributions, one due to long-range forces represented by the Debye-Hückel theory, and the other due to short-range forces, represented by local area fractions of species through nonrandom factors. Each model contains only two adjustable parameters per electrolyte. In addition, the model with unequal surface area of ionic species gives better results in comparison with the second new model with equal surface area of ions. The results for the mean activity coefficients for aqueous solutions of uni-univalent electrolytes at 298.15 K showed that the present model is more accurate than the original NRTL-NRF model.

Haghtalab, Ali; Joda, Marzieh

2007-06-01

152

In these tighter economic times the University needs to look at all areas where costs can be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This  

E-print Network

be reduced. One of these areas is that of `local printing'. This includes activities such as the printing of emails, printing of documents and draft documents, all of which are areas which could be reduced to provide savings. Another area is how you specify your print work to Printing Services there are many areas

Schnaufer, Achim

153

30 CFR 881.10 - Obligations of States or local authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...required to own (or control), the land, subsurface, or coal seams in instances such as...authority shall have or acquire such subsurface and underground rights or interests...ownership shall comprise such mineral, subsurface and underground rights and...

2010-07-01

154

Packet Scheduling for Link-Sharing and Quality of Service Support in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing deployment of wireless local area networks (WLANs) in corporate envi- ronments, the increasing number of wireless Internet service providers and demand for quality of service support create a need for controlled sharing of wireless bandwidth. In this technical report a method for using long-term channel-state information in order to control the sharing of wireless bandwidth is studied. The

Lars Wischhof; John W. Lockwood

2001-01-01

155

TUTMAC: a medium access control protocol for a new multimedia wireless local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a medium access control (MAC) protocol called TUTMAC for a new wireless local area network (TUTWLAN). The design objective has been to develop a simple, multimedia service capable protocol that provides sufficient medium utilisation efficiency and guarantees QoS (quality of service) parameters. The developed system utilises a centralised (base station controlled) network architecture. A limited number of

M. Hannikainen; J. Knuutila; A. Letonsaari; T. Hamalainen; J. Jokela; J. Ala-Laurila; J. Saarinen

1998-01-01

156

Fuzzy logic congestion control in IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks: A performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 802.11 wireless local area networks, the wired and the wireless interfaces of the access point are characterized by the disparity in channel capacity. This presents a significant bottleneck for traffic flowing from the wired network to the wireless network. Therefore, the implementation of a congestion control mechanism in access points promises to be a suitable solution. Recently, a particle

Clement N. Nyirenda; Dawoud S. Dawoud

2007-01-01

157

An Enhanced Autorate Algorithm for Wireless Local Area Networks Employing Loss Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel conditions in wireless local area networks (WLANs) are variable due to mobility and interference. Autorate algorithms are commonly used in WLANs to maximize the data rate over the variable physical channel. However, the widely used automatic rate fallback (ARF) algorithm does not work properly in the presence of multiaccess collisions due to its inability to differentiate frame losses caused

Qixiang Pang; Victor C. M. Leung; Soung Chang Liew

2008-01-01

158

Adaptive reservation-assisted collision resolution protocol for wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional IEEE 802.11 medium access control protocol, the distributed coordination function is designed for the wireless stations (WSs) to perform channel contention within the wireless local area networks (WLANs). Packet collision is considered one of the major issues within this type of contention-based scheme, which can severely degrade the network performance for the WLANs. Research work has been conducted

Jia-Shi Lin; Chien-Hua Chen; Kai-Ten Feng

2009-01-01

159

Token enabled multiple access (TEMA) for packet transmission in high bit rate wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We illustrate a novel wireless local area network multiple access control (WLAN MAC) protocol whose allocation policy adopts a strategy similar to the token ring: the mobile stations access the channel upon receiving the token and release the channel by passing the token to the next user. The traffic is divided in two classes: guaranteed bandwidth (GB) and best effort

Saeid Akhavan Taheri; Anna Scaglione

2002-01-01

160

Physical Layer Design Alternatives for High Speed Outdoor Packet Radio Local and Medium Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, the development of wireless local area networks (WLANs) has become a major goal in the field of computer and wireless communications. The Network Technologies Research group at the Communications Research Center in Canada has been working on a project to develop a high speed outdoor WLAN. In contrast to many existing WLANs, the new WLAN

Chokri Trabelsi; Erdal Torun

1999-01-01

161

Local area navigation using sonar feature extraction and model-based predictive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a method to navigate an autonomous underwater vehicle in a local area using an acoustic sensor for position information derived from feature detection. A dynamic model of the vehicle response is used for control between location updates. Favorable results have been found using this approach, and precision positioning of the vehicle to centimeters has been accomplished. Another

D. B. Marco; A. J. Healey

1998-01-01

162

Local area navigation using sonar feature extraction and model based predictive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a method to navigate an autonomous underwater vehicle in a local area using an acoustic sensor for position information derived from feature detection. A dynamic model of the vehicle response is used for control between location updates. Favorable results have been found using this approach, and precision positioning of the vehicle to centimeters has been accomplished. Another

D. B. Marco; A. J. Healey

1996-01-01

163

How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn't as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group's patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

Hayhoe, G.F.

1991-01-01

164

How to become a publishing groupie: Establishing a successful local area network for your publications organization  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a successful local area network for a publications work-group isn`t as simple as the scarcity of information on the subject would suggest. Making a network work for your requires careful planning, developing and acquiring network expertise, transforming your group`s patterns of working together, and carefully managing the human and technological resources.

Hayhoe, G.F.

1991-12-31

165

CMU-ITC-86-046 Monitoring Local Area Networks at  

E-print Network

, after two benefactors of C-MU; Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon. Since the fall of 1985 the InformationCMU-ITC-86-046 Monitoring Local Area Networks at Carnegie-IVlellon University: Tools for Network Planning Bryan Striemer Mark Lorence Information Technology Center Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh

166

IMPLEMENTATION OF A WIRELESS HIGH-SPEED LOCAL AREA NETWORK FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A demonstration project implementing a wireless local area network(WLAN)which connected the farm stead with tractors, cotton pickers, combines, and spray equipment along with consultant's vehicle and hand-help personal digital assistants (PDAs) via 802.11 or popularly called WI-FI radios will be pre...

167

Competing technologies and market dominance: standard “battles” in the Local Area Networking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of Fast Ethernet as the dominant standard for high-speed connection in the Local Area Networking industry is chosen to study the interaction between increasing returns to adoption and technical change in innovation diffusion. Contrary to most of the empirical papers on diffusion with increasing returns, which study competition between an “entrenched” technology and a new competitor, the focus

Roberto Fontana

2008-01-01

168

A measurement study of two local area network data link level protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two protocols for the data-link level of local area networks, namely, the original Ethernet protocol and the EnetII protocol, are compared under varying load conditions. The two protocols were implemented on a testbed network. The protocols were found to have similar throughput and delay characteristics under normal network conditions, while Enet III achieved higher throughput and greater stability under extreme

Michael K. Molloy

1988-01-01

169

INDEX TERMS: Local Area Networks, Ethernet, collision protocols, two-cable Ethernet, segmented channels,  

E-print Network

INDEX TERMS: Local Area Networks, Ethernet, collision protocols, two-cable Ethernet, segmented the unfairness of a bus protocol in which stations can transmit spontaneously. #12;On Two Modified Ethernets Page notion of time at particular stations. #12;8 One can think of some modifications to the SCS protocol

Gburzynski, Pawel

170

New Multichannel Ethernet Protocol for Passive Optical Star Local Area Networks Using Coherent Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optical local area network that combines dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) techniques and coherent transmission4,5 benefits is presented. A new multichannel protocol is specified based on Ethernet 1, using WDM to carry multi- ple channels on a single fiber. The protocol is simulated to evaluate the performance under congestion conditions and to com- pare it with other protocols

Daniel Rodellar; C. Bungarzeanu; H. Garcia; Caroline Brisson; Alain Kueng; Philippe-Alain Robert

1998-01-01

171

A Study of the Environmental Impact of Wired and Wireless Local Area Network Access  

E-print Network

consumed and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of Ethernet switches and WiFi access points, educational and public places. Among the various available technologies, Ethernet (or IEEE 802.3) and WiFi (or and popularity of these two local area network access protocols, it is of interest and importance to evaluate

Sikdar, Biplab

172

Local Restaurants Cambridge Cuisine Type Description Location by Neighborhood/Area  

E-print Network

http://www.classicirish.com/ Irish classic Irish pub Central Square Asmara Ethiopian 739Local Restaurants Cambridge Cuisine Type Description Location by Neighborhood/Area 1369 Coffee://www.gardenatthecellar.com/ Gastropub "A gastropub is a British term for a public house, "pub", which specializes in high quality

de Weck, Olivier L.

173

Assessment of local thin areas in a marine pipeline by using the FITNET FFS corrosion module  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the structural integrity of the marine stretch of a pipeline which is placed over a natural bay. The pipeline is part of a 30-year-old installation used for the provision of petrochemical products to a nearby chemical plant. Although there have been no relevant leaks in the past, both the visual inspections performed (revealing numerous local thin areas)

S. Cicero; R. Lacalle; R. Cicero; D. Ferreño

2009-01-01

174

Channel Assignment in Wireless Local Area Networks Alan A. Bertossi 1  

E-print Network

Channel Assignment in Wireless Local Area Networks Alan A. Bertossi 1 M. Cristina Pinotti 2 1 at least reduced) by means of suitable channel assignment techniques. Indeed, co-channel interferences in the wireless networks. The purpose of channel assignment algorithms is to make use of radio propagation loss

Pinotti, Maria Cristina

175

Improved positioning by addition of atmospheric corrections to local area differential GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A local area differential GPS (DGPS) method applies corrections from a reference GPS receiver to improve positioning accuracy for a roaming GPS receiver. Increasing separation between reference and roaming receivers dilutes this improvement, largely because ionospheric and tropospheric effects differ between their two locations. We correct differential corrections for this difference and determine the improvement with this ``atmospheric'' DGPS method

Malkiat Singh; Michael H. Reilly

2006-01-01

176

Improved positioning by addition of atmospheric corrections to local area differential GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A local area differential GPS (DGPS) method applies corrections from a reference GPS receiver to improve positioning accuracy for a roaming GPS receiver. Increasing separation between reference and roaming receivers dilutes this improvement, largely because ionospheric and tropospheric effects differ between their two locations. We correct differential corrections for this difference and determine the improvement with this “atmospheric” DGPS method

Malkiat Singh; Michael H. Reilly

2006-01-01

177

System for analysis of LANDSAT agricultural data: Automatic computer-assisted proportion estimation of local areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A conceptual man machine system framework was created for a large scale agricultural remote sensing system. The system is based on and can grow out of the local recognition mode of LACIE, through a gradual transition wherein computer support functions supplement and replace AI functions. Local proportion estimation functions are broken into two broad classes: (1) organization of the data within the sample segment; and (2) identification of the fields or groups of fields in the sample segment.

Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Kauth, R. J.; Thomas, G. S.

1976-01-01

178

Local-Area Age Structure and Population Composition: Implications for Elderly Health in Japan  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines relationships between local-area age structure and health at older ages. Method We estimate random intercept models for two disability measures using four-waves of data from a national panel study of 3,580 Japanese older adults. Results Elderly living in relatively older areas reported more difficulties with activities of daily living compared to those living in an “average” age structure. Controlling for individual characteristics and time did little to change this relationship; while a similar relationship between older age structure and functional limitations emerged. Discussion Residents of relatively older are as tended to have lower socioeconomic status, but this “disadvantage” was offset by their higher rates of employment and marriage. These compositional differences highlight the role of local-area age structure in identifying and understanding elderly health variation between places. PMID:24084525

Vogelsang, Eric M.; Raymo, James M.

2014-01-01

179

Electromagneto-optical effects on local areas of a ferrite-garnet film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagneto-optical (EMO) effect from separate magnetic domains in the epitaxial films of yttrium-ferrite-garnet is investigated simultaneously with visual control of the film’s domain structure. The local EMO effect, both from single domain sites and from the sites with a domain wall is measured. These local effects are different from the EMO from the multidomain area of a film. It was revealed unexpectedly that a local value of the EMO effect for the domain magnetized along the applied magnetic field decreased drastically in the magnetization stage connected with vanishing of the domains with opposite sign of magnetization. In the homogeneously magnetized film, the EMO effect is practically absent. It is concluded that the electric field practically does not modify the film magnetization and the local EMO effect is connected with the influence of the electric field on the magnetic anisotropy parameter of the studied film.

Koronovskyy, V. E.; Ryabchenko, S. M.; Kovalenko, V. F.

2005-05-01

180

Scoring opportunity or hospital pass? The changing role of local authorities in 14–19 education and training in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, the UK Labour government unveiled plans to abolish the Learning and Skills Council and transfer funding for the education and training of 16–19?year?olds in England to local authorities (LAs). The transfer of 16–19 funding complements the responsibilities that LAs have already acquired in relation to the raising of the education and training ‘participation age’ and ensuring that all

Jonathan Payne

2010-01-01

181

Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Primary School Children in an Inner-City Local Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…

Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

2010-01-01

182

A partial solution: a local mental health authority for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: the structural problems of the mental health system in the UK have been analyzed by a number of authors over the past several years as the 'reforms' of the health and social service systems have continued (Kavanagh and Knapp, 1995; Mechanic, 1995). In a recent article, Hadley and Goldman (1995) suggest that one possible solution to some of these

Trevor R. Hadley; Howard H. Goldman

1998-01-01

183

Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

2014-01-01

184

The response of a local health authority to reported cases of salmonellosis in a Portuguese municipality, 2007 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Human salmonelloses are statutorily reportable infectious diseases (SRID) in Portugal. Data derived from SRID surveillance systems have been used in international comparisons as well as in studies assessing the sources and modes of transmission of Salmonella infections in humans. Methods We evaluated a salmonellosis (statutorily reportable) surveillance system in a Portuguese local health authority, consulting routine data available. The main objectives were describing procedures used to investigate and respond to reported cases, and identifying the sources of infection and modes of transmission. Results In the five year period from 2007 to 2011, medical doctors reported 58 cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis to the local health authority. Fifty four reported cases were in hospitalized children (age range 1 – 19 years) and 44 were associated with drinking water from private wells or eating raw egg products, which is consistent with other studies. Conclusions This local surveillance system was useful for detecting both isolated cases and outbreaks of salmonellosis and for identifying modes of transmission and sources of infection. It stimulated community health educational activities to prevent future cases. However, further evaluation including economic analysis and an impact assessment is required at both local and national levels. PMID:24642182

2014-01-01

185

Detection and quantification of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in Spanish authorized shellfish harvesting areas.  

PubMed

An 18-month survey was conducted in ten class "B" harvesting areas from two Galician Rias (NW of Spain), the most important bivalve production area in Europe, to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (NoV), including genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). Quantification was performed by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), according to the recently developed standard method ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. Four bivalve species were studied, including wild and cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), clams (Venerupis philippinarum and Venerupis decussata) and cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Overall, 55.4% of samples were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses, being detected the simultaneous presence of two or three viruses in 11.3% of the cases. NoV GI was the most prevalent virus (32.1%), followed by NoV GII (25.6%) and HAV (10.1%). Cultured mussels showed the highest percentage of positive samples (61.4%), followed by cockles (59.4%), wild mussels (54.3%) and clams (38.7%). Viral contamination levels for most of the positive samples ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) RNA copies/g of digestive tissue (RNAc/g DT). The presence of viral contamination was statistically higher (P<0.0001) in warm months (April to September) than in cold months (October to March). The data presented here may contribute to the development of more representative sampling strategies, in monitoring and management of shellfish growing areas as well as being useful in a future scenario in which viral critical values are adopted in legislation. PMID:25462922

Polo, David; Varela, Miguel F; Romalde, Jesús L

2015-01-16

186

[Safety and health aspects in urbanised areas of different density (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Germans like to live in one-family houses. This way of living prevails more and more during recent years. However, the increase of one-family housing implies a high state of car dependence. Especially for children, youths, aged and disadvantaged people living in a car oriented city becomes difficult. Also a higher use of cars implies more air pollution and waste of energy. And additionaly, the increasing travel distances cause higher rates of traffic accidents. To avoid these disadvantages the alternative must be the high density development comprising both, high density-low-rise buildings and especially high rise buildings. By abandoning all one-family homes and using only tall buildings for dwelling and other purposes (stores, offices, schools etc.) the area of a city could be reduced to about one tenth of that what is urbanized today. Because of the short distances in such a city most of the trips could be made by walking or by using lifts. Accordingly traffic accidents could be reduced to one tenth of today's figures too. Despite of the many advantages the high density city has with respect to safety and health of its population such a city will be rarely realized because it does not meet the ideas and imaginations of many people. Nevertheless it seems to be advisable to promote high density residential areas for all those people who are willing to accept it or who prefer this way of living. This minority, however, should not be irritated by unqualified generalizing negative reports in the media. PMID:716696

Boeddinghaus, G

1978-08-01

187

32 CFR 761.10 - Persons: Group authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disembark at a port contiguous to or within the areas covered in this part. Application for authorization...on nonpublic aircraft authorized to enter areas covered by this part. Such persons are subject to local regulations governing entry...

2010-07-01

188

32 CFR 761.10 - Persons: Group authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...disembark at a port contiguous to or within the areas covered in this part. Application for authorization...on nonpublic aircraft authorized to enter areas covered by this part. Such persons are subject to local regulations governing entry...

2012-07-01

189

32 CFR 761.10 - Persons: Group authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disembark at a port contiguous to or within the areas covered in this part. Application for authorization...on nonpublic aircraft authorized to enter areas covered by this part. Such persons are subject to local regulations governing entry...

2013-07-01

190

32 CFR 761.10 - Persons: Group authorizations.  

...disembark at a port contiguous to or within the areas covered in this part. Application for authorization...on nonpublic aircraft authorized to enter areas covered by this part. Such persons are subject to local regulations governing entry...

2014-07-01

191

32 CFR 761.10 - Persons: Group authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disembark at a port contiguous to or within the areas covered in this part. Application for authorization...on nonpublic aircraft authorized to enter areas covered by this part. Such persons are subject to local regulations governing entry...

2011-07-01

192

Development of a GIS method to localize critical source areas of diffuse nitrate pollution.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at developing a universal method for the localization of critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse nitrate (NO3-) pollution in rural catchments with low data availability. Based on existing methods, land use, soil, slope, riparian buffer strips and distance to surface waters were identified as the most relevant indicator parameters for diffuse agricultural NO3- pollution. The five parameters were averaged in a GIS-overlay to localize areas with low, medium and high risk of NO3- pollution. A first application of the GIS approach to the Ic catchment in France, showed that identified CSAs were in good agreement with results from river monitoring and numerical modelling. Additionally, the GIS approach showed low sensitivity to single parameters, which makes it robust to varying data availability. As a result, the tested GIS-approach provides a promising, easy-to-use CSA identification concept, applicable for a wide range of rural catchments. PMID:22097076

Orlikowski, D; Bugey, A; Périllon, C; Julich, S; Guégain, C; Soyeux, E; Matzinger, A

2011-01-01

193

Cluster detection diagnostics for small area health data: with reference to evaluation of local likelihood models.  

PubMed

The focus of this paper is the development of a range of cluster detection diagnostics that can be used to assess the degree to which a clustering method recovers the true clustering behaviour of small area data. The diagnostics proposed range from individual region specific diagnostics to neighbourhood diagnostics, and assume either individual region risk as focus, or concern areas of maps defined to be clustered and the recovery ability of methods. A simulation-based comparison is made between a small set of count data models: local likelihood, BYM and Lawson and Clark. It is found that local likelihood has good performance across a range of criteria when a CAR prior is assumed for the lasso parameter. PMID:16453370

Hossain, Monir Md; Lawson, Andrew B

2006-03-15

194

Design and performance evaluation of a MAC protocol for wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and analyze, from a performance viewpoint, a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Local Area Networks\\u000a (WLANs). The protocol, named Prioritized-Access with Centralized-Control (PACC), supports integrated traffics by guaranteeing\\u000a an almost complete utilization of network resources. The proposed protocol combines random access for signalling, with collision-free\\u000a access to the transmission channel. The transmission channel is assumed to

Marco Conti; Claudio Demaria; Lorenzo Donatiello

1997-01-01

195

Adaptive medium access mechanisms for quality of service support over wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation investigates adaptive medium access mechanisms to provide Quality of Service (QoS) over Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) thereby enabling end-to-end QoS over current heterogeneous Internet. Our main purpose is to study the impact and benefit of introducing adaptive mechanisms into wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols. Our work is based on previous efforts of QoS enhancing mechanisms for

Liqiang Zhang

2005-01-01

196

A cellular wireless local area network with QoS guarantees for heterogeneous traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wireless local area network (WLAN) or a cell with quality-of-service (QoS) guarantees for various types of traffic is considered.\\u000a A centralized (i.e., star) network is adopted as the topology of a cell which consists of a base station and a number of mobile\\u000a clients. Dynamic Time Division Duplexed (TDD) transmission is used, and hence, the same frequency channel is

Sunghyun Choi; Kang G. Shin

1998-01-01

197

A Cellular Wireless Local Area Network with QoS Guarantees for Heterogeneous Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wireless local area network (WLAN) or a cell with quality-of-service (QoS) guarantees for various types of traffic is considered. A centralized (i.e., star) network is adopted as the topology of a cell which consists of a base station and a number of mobile clients. Dynamic Time Division Duplexed (TDD) transmission is used, and hence, the same frequency channel is

Sunghyun Choi; Kang G. Shin

1998-01-01

198

A novel technique for quantitative performance evaluation of wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network performances of two commercial wireless local area networks are measured using a novel technique. Current methods of evaluating the performance of WLANs are largely based on file transfer operations using benchmark tests such as Novell's PERFORM3, AT&T's Read\\/Write, PC Magazine's Lab Series, Smart LAN Performance Test and others. Measurements obtained from these tests must specify the processor type,

Benny Bing; Regu Subramanian

1997-01-01

199

Flow Control in Local-Area Networks of Interconnected Token Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate flow-control issues in local-area networks consisting of multiple token rings interconnected through bridges. To achieve high throughput, bridges perform only a very simple routing and store-and-forward function, but are not involved in error- or flowcontrol. In case of congestion, bridges discard arriving frames, which will be recovered through an appropriate end-to-end protocol between the communicating stations. The end-to-end

WERNER BUX; DAVIDE GRILLO

1985-01-01

200

Low-cost multimode WDM for local area networks up to 10 Gb\\/s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current local area network (LAN) bandwidth demands of >1 Gb\\/s are pushing the limit of the bandwidth-distance product of multimode fiber, the predominant fiber in LAN backbones. In order to overcome these limitations, a low-cost and compact wavelength division multiplexing scheme is demonstrated. Aggregate bit rates of 5 and 10 Gb\\/s are achieved through 300 and 100 m of 62.5\\/125-?m

Lewis B. Aronson; Brian E. Lemoff; Lisa A. Buckman; David W. Dolfi

1998-01-01

201

Inventory management plan for a research and development local area network  

SciTech Connect

An inventory management plan is presented for the local area network (LAN) for the Security Aspects of Database Management Systems, a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project examining computer and network security in a data management environment. The inventory management plan establishes procedures to ensure that changes in system hardware and software are identified and controlled. Management tools are described, and the roles of the project manager, inventory control manager, and research team members in the implementation of inventory management are defined.

Strickler, D.; Chester, R.; Ingle, K.; Payne, P.; Rome, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Kertis, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US)

1993-08-01

202

Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

1991-01-01

203

Local Area Signal-to-Noise Ratio (LASNR) algorithm for Image Segmentation  

SciTech Connect

Many automated image-based applications have need of finding small spots in a variably noisy image. For humans, it is relatively easy to distinguish objects from local surroundings no matter what else may be in the image. We attempt to capture this distinguishing capability computationally by calculating a measurement that estimates the strength of signal within an object versus the noise in its local neighborhood. First, we hypothesize various sizes for the object and corresponding background areas. Then, we compute the Local Area Signal to Noise Ratio (LASNR) at every pixel in the image, resulting in a new image with LASNR values for each pixel. All pixels exceeding a pre-selected LASNR value become seed pixels, or initiation points, and are grown to include the full area extent of the object. Since growing the seed is a separate operation from finding the seed, each object can be any size and shape. Thus, the overall process is a 2-stage segmentation method that first finds object seeds and then grows them to find the full extent of the object. This algorithm was designed, optimized and is in daily use for the accurate and rapid inspection of optics from a large laser system (National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA), which includes images with background noise, ghost reflections, different illumination and other sources of variation.

Kegelmeyer, L; Fong, P; Glenn, S; Liebman, J

2007-07-03

204

Testing scale variance in species–area and abundance–area relationships in a local assemblage: an example from a subtropical boulder shore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constancy or scale variance of species–area and abundance–area relationships has rarely been considered within relatively\\u000a small spatial domains of a local assemblage. Patterns of species\\/abundance–area relationships were experimentally investigated\\u000a in a stone-associated molluscan community on a subtropical boulder shore. In order to systematically examine the effects of\\u000a variation in habitat area while maintaining other habitat characteristics constant through time, naturally

Edgardo Londoño-Cruz; Mutsunori Tokeshi

2007-01-01

205

Local residents perception of benefits and losses from protected areas in India and Nepal.  

PubMed

High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas. PMID:22080427

Karanth, Krithi K; Nepal, Sanjay K

2012-02-01

206

Local seismic events in area of Poland based on data from PASSEQ 2006-2008 experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PASSEQ 2006-2008 (Passive Seismic Experiment in TESZ; Wilde-Piórko et al, 2008) was the biggest so far passive seismic experiment in the area of Central Europe (Poland, Germany, Czech Republic and Lithuania). 196 seismic stations (including 49 broadband seismometers) worked simultaneously for over two years. During experiment multiple types of data recorders and seismometers were used making analysis more complex and time consuming. Dataset was unified and repaired to start the detection of local seismic events. Two different approaches for detection were applied for stations located in Poland. One used standard STA/LTA triggers (Carl Johnson's STA/LTA algorithm) and grid search to classify and locate events. Result was manually verified. Other approach used Real Time Recurrent Network (RTRN) detection (Wiszniowski et al, 2014). Both methods gave similar results showing four previously unknown seismic events located in area of Gulf Of Gda?sk in southern Baltic Sea. The investigation of local seismicity is a good opportunity for verification of new seismic models of lithosphere in the area. In this paper we discuss both detection methods with their pros and cons (accuracy, efficiency, manual work required, scalability). We also show details of all detected and previously unknown events in discussed area. This work was partially supported by NCN grant UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/06653.

Polkowski, Marcin; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan; Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Passeq Working Group

2014-05-01

207

VIDEO STREAMING TO MULTIPLE CLIENTS OVER WIRELESS LOCAL AREA Hulya Seferoglu*, Ozgur Gurbuz*, Ozgur Ercetin*, Yucel Altunbasak  

E-print Network

VIDEO STREAMING TO MULTIPLE CLIENTS OVER WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS Hulya Seferoglu*, Ozgur@ece.gatech.edu ABSTRACT This paper considers the problem of multiple video streaming over wireless local area networks. In particular, we propose video streaming techniques to improve the quality of video streams over the link from

Markopoulou, Athina

208

The burden of chronic illness in local authority residential homes for the elderly.  

PubMed

A survey of all Part III residential homes in the Central and Southern area of Liverpool Health District examined the diagnoses and medication of 331 residents. A heavy burden of chronic illness was observed with cardio-vascular, psychiatric and orthopaedic problems being the most prevalent. Of the top 10 diagnoses, accounting for over half of all conditions, all disease instances required monitoring of their response to treatment. At least two thirds of these diseases were likely to progress, and the usual treatment of three quarters of the sample was associated with possible side-effects. This heavy burden of chronic illness in Part III residential homes implies a major need for both anticipatory and event-related medical care. These needs are unlikely to be met, given that the subtle, but significant, deterioration in the health of residents has been shown to go undetected. PMID:10110544

Gosney, M; Tallis, R; Edmond, E

209

Local status and power in area-based health improvement partnerships.  

PubMed

Area-based initiatives have formed an important part of public policy towards more socio-economically deprived areas in many countries. Co-ordinating service provision within and across sectors has been a common feature of these initiatives. Despite sustained policy interest in area-based initiatives, little empirical work has explored relations between area-based initiative providers, and partnership development within this context remains under-theorised. This article addresses both of these gaps by exploring partnerships as a social and developmental process, drawing on concepts from figurational sociology to explain how provider relations develop within an area-based initiative. Qualitative methods were used to explore, prospectively, the development of an area-based initiative targeted at a town in the north west of England. A central finding was that although effective delivery of area-based initiatives is premised on a high level of co-ordination between service providers, the pattern of interdependencies between providers limits the frequency and effectiveness of co-operation. In particular, the interdependency of area-based initiative providers with others in their organisation (what is termed here as 'organisational pull') constrained the ways in which they worked with providers outside of their own organisations. 'Local' status, which could be earned over time, enabled some providers to exert greater control over the way in which provider relations developed during the course of the initiative. These findings demonstrate how historically constituted social networks, within which all providers are embedded, shape partnership development. The theoretical insight developed here suggests a need for more realistic expectations among policymakers about how and to what extent provider partnerships can be managed. PMID:24695385

Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel

2014-11-01

210

Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

Massey, B.L.

1979-01-01

211

The G4R GMES Academy - linking research, academia, service providers and local authorities.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related research projects in the EU EDUCATION - a compendium of courses offered by universities in the field of GMES LECTURES - G4R offers to arrange lectures on GMES at interested universities and institutions The initiative by G4R invites collaboration to strengthen the role of research and education for the evolution of GMES services.

Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio

2013-04-01

212

Performance Evolution of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wireless network can be employed to connect wired network to the wireless network. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) are more bandwidth limited as compared to the wired networks because they rely on an inexpensive, but error prone, physical medium (air). Hence it is important to evaluate their performance. This paper presents a study of IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN). The performance evaluation has been presented via a series of test with different parameters such as data rate, different number of nodes and physical characteristics. The different qualities of service parameter are chosen to be throughput, media access delay and dropped data packets. The simulation results show that an IEEE 802.11b WLAN can support up to 60 clients with modest throughput. Finally the results are compared to evaluate the performance of wireless local networks.

Malik, Deepak; Singhal, Ankur

2011-12-01

213

A hardware-based approach to adaptive load-sharing on a local area network  

E-print Network

Vlajor Subject: ElectrRal Enf?nearing ABSTRACT A Hardware-Based Approach to Adaptive I. oad-Sharing on a Local Area Network. (May 1994) Harikrishna M. Reddy, B. E. , Osmania University Co ? Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amsra Dr. Don... HDL, and Hspice. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to gratefully thank the co-chairs of my advisory committee, Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara, and Dr. Don E. Ross, for their contributions by way of time, effort, patience and guidance to this thesis, my first...

Reddy, Harikrishna M

1994-01-01

214

Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spread spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) allows asynchronous multiple access to a local area network (LAN) with no waiting. The additional bandwidth required by spread spectrum can be accommodated by using a fiber-optic channel and incoherent optical signal processing. New CDMA sequences are designed specifically for optical processing. It is shown that increasing the number of chips per bit, by using optical processing, allows an increase in capacity of a CDMA LAN. An experiment is performed demonstrating the performance of an optical CDMA LAN, operating at 100 Mbd with three users.

Prucnal, P. R.; Santoro, M. A.; Fan, T. R.

1986-01-01

215

vol. 168, no. 2 the american naturalist august 2006 Integration of Local and Regional Species-Area Relationships  

E-print Network

, as exemplified by species-area curves, differs on local and regional scales. This decoupling of scales may province. Keywords: species-area curve, species-time curve, Preston, species richness, scale dependence long been fascinated with species- area curves and have documented how species richness accumulates

Fridley, Jason D.

216

Improved positioning by addition of atmospheric corrections to local area differential GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A local area differential GPS (DGPS) method applies corrections from a reference GPS receiver to improve positioning accuracy for a roaming GPS receiver. Increasing separation between reference and roaming receivers dilutes this improvement, largely because ionospheric and tropospheric effects differ between their two locations. We correct differential corrections for this difference and determine the improvement with this "atmospheric" DGPS method at roaming receiver positions that are separated from a Coast Guard reference receiver at Annapolis, Maryland, by 44, 67, and 228 km. For ionospheric corrections we use our Raytrace-Ionospheric conductivity and electron density-Bent-Gallagher ionospheric propagation model with driving parameters obtained from two-frequency data of surveyed reference GPS receivers. For tropospheric corrections we use the Hopfield model and weather station data for surface temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. Internet delivery of atmospheric differential corrections is used to avoid blockage or range cutoff of radio transmissions. Some comparisons are made with Wide Area Augmentation System GPS receiver performance.

Singh, Malkiat; Reilly, Michael H.

2006-10-01

217

76 FR 36311 - Special Local Regulation; Extreme Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, MA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...anchoring within the special local regulation area is prohibited unless authorized...race area within the Special Local Regulation area can be quickly collapsed at...substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt...

2011-06-22

218

Correlation between forward voltage drop and local carrier lifetime for a large area segmented thyristor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forward voltage drop for individual segments of a large area thyristor has been correlated to the local, bulk carrier lifetime by lifetime mapping of the wafer after final device processing. The lifetime mapping was performed under high injection conditions using an all-optical technique where carriers were generated by a short YAG laser pulse and the subsequent carrier decay was monitored by an IR laser beam using free carrier absorption. The lateral resolution was approximately 100 micron. The lifetime map revealed heavily contaminated areas where the lifetime was reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The forward voltage drop for corresponding thyristor segments was high and, for some areas, no stable turn-on could be achieved. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy characterization of contaminated areas confirmed the lifetime measurement results and suggest that the contamination is most likely due to metal impurities introduced in the first extended-time/high-temperature drive-in of the p-base. Device simulations showed qualitative agreement between the bulk carrier lifetime and the corresponding voltage drop.

Linnros, Jan; Revsater, Roland; Heijkenskjold, Lars; Norlin, Peter

1995-06-01

219

Short-interval SMS wind vector determinations for a severe local storms area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short-interval SMS-2 visible digital image data are used to derive wind vectors from cloud tracking on time-lapsed sequences of geosynchronous satellite images. The cloud tracking areas are located in the Central Plains, where on May 6, 1975 hail-producing thunderstorms occurred ahead of a well defined dry line. Cloud tracking is performed on the Goddard Space Flight Center Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System. Lower tropospheric cumulus tracers are selected with the assistance of a cloud-top height algorithm. Divergence is derived from the cloud motions using a modified Cressman (1959) objective analysis technique which is designed to organize irregularly spaced wind vectors into uniformly gridded wind fields. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite-derived wind vectors and their associated divergence fields in describing the conditions preceding severe local storm development. For this case, an area of convergence appeared ahead of the dry line and coincided with the developing area of severe weather. The magnitude of the maximum convergence varied between -10 to the -5th and -10 to the -14th per sec. The number of satellite-derived wind vectors which were required to describe conditions of the low-level atmosphere was adequate before numerous cumulonimbus cells formed. This technique is limited in areas of advanced convection.

Peslen, C. A.

1980-01-01

220

Examining Marginalized Communities and Local Conservation Institutions: The Case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system.

Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K.; Schuett, Michael A.

2014-01-01

221

Examining marginalized communities and local conservation institutions: the case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system. PMID:24271617

Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K; Schuett, Michael A

2014-01-01

222

Risks of an epidemic in a two-layered railway-local area traveling network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of the huge investments into the construction of high speed rails systems in USA, Japan, and China, we present a two-layer traveling network model to study the risks that the railway network poses in case of an epidemic outbreak. The model consists of two layers with one layer representing the railway network and the other representing the local-area transportation subnetworks. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we also study a simplified model that focuses on how a major railway affects an epidemic. We assume that the individuals, when they travel, take on the shortest path to the destination and become non-travelers upon arrival. When an infection process co-evolves with the traveling dynamics, the railway serves to gather a crowd, transmit the disease, and spread infected agents to local area subnetworks. The railway leads to a faster initial increase in infected agents and a higher steady state infection, and thus poses risks; and frequent traveling leads to a more severe infection. These features revealed in simulations are in agreement with analytic results of a simplified version of the model.

Ruan, Zhongyuan; Hui, Pakming; Lin, Haiqing; Liu, Zonghua

2013-01-01

223

PLAN FOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST AREA. VOLUME V. LOCAL VIEWPOINTS ON RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A public meeting was held in Houston to solicit information and viewpoints on air pollution problems in the Houston area and related research needs. This volume presents the testimonies given by local technical experts, representatives of industrial organizations, educational ins...

224

"A Fiberoptic Local-Area-Network Solution For Tactical Command And Control Systems"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines key network requirements for the elements of distributed tactical command and control system. System concepts are evolved that support implementation solutions with emphasis on advanced technologies. Mobile command and control elements of ground and air forces are becoming more vulnerable in an ever increasing threat environment. This vulnerability is caused by the employment of these elements in a manner characterized by functional and physical centralization. A command and control unit typically consists of a centralized operations center surrounded by closely clustered communications and surveillance equipments. Because these elements have different deployment and employment requirements, the command and control unit is not optimized in terms of survivability, mobility, effectiveness, and operational flexibility. In recent years, convincing arguments have been put forth to the effect that distributed operations centers, redundantly structured communication functions, and netted surveillance systems can provide the necessary attributes to be effective in the advanced threat environment. Current technology does not meet the requirements of such a system. A local area network provides a power interconnection mechanism for the distributed elements of the command and control system. The requirements are for a rapid, efficient, and reliable means of transferring voice and data communications between elements. The topology of such a network must primarily consider survivability and reliability of communications interchanges with special emphasis on continued operations under degraded conditions. When such conditions occur, e.g., the result of combat attrition, a complete command and control capability should remain even though it may be at somewhat of a reduced capacity. The interconnection medium for the local area network should be immune to external disruptions, e.g., EMI, EMP, or C3CM, and should have a wide transmission bandwidth with a minimum propagation delay. This logically suggests a fiber optics medium. A universal fiber optics interface device is, therefore, required to provide access to a wide variety of users. Such a device must feature a number of advanced fiber optic technologies to make possible a flexible, survivable, high speed bus medium. (This bus is envisioned to be a synchronous time division multiplexed bus.) Based on tradeoffs between the operational and network requirements, the performance of the fiber optical local area network can be assessed.

Vlasak, Weldon; Pfister, Gerhard

1983-11-01

225

High-Performance Local Area Communication With Fast Steven H. Rodrigues Thomas E. Anderson David E. Culler  

E-print Network

1993], Myrinet [Seitz 1994], and switched high- speed Ethernet has the potential to dramatically imHigh-Performance Local Area Communication With Fast Sockets Steven H. Rodrigues Thomas E. Anderson with large packets; most network traffic is small. We have devel- oped Fast Sockets, a local

Culler, David E.

226

Spring 2005 CS575A Advanced Local Area Networks T. Borick Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise LAN Network  

E-print Network

________________________________________________________________ Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise LAN Network Tom Borick Rivier College CS575A Advanced Local Area Networks (LANs) Dr. Vladimir V. Riabov Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise LAN Network Tuesday, April 26, 2005 Secure Wi-Fi Technologies for Enterprise Network 1 #12;Spring 2005 CS575A Advanced Local

Riabov, Vladimir V.

227

Evaluation of Existing Structure and Civil Protection Management Framework in Greek Local Authorities: A Questionnaire Survey Demonstrates Why Prevention Fails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of a growing number of natural disasters and the increasing costs associated with them, Europe and Greece in particular, have devoted significant efforts and resources in natural hazards mitigation during the last decades. Despite the significant legislative efforts (e.g. 1998/22/EC, 2001/792/EC, 2007/60/EC Directives, 3013/2002 Act) and even though a number of steps has been taken towards improving civil protection, recent catastrophic events have illustrated the weaknesses of current approaches. In particular, in Greece, events such as the 1999 Athens earthquake, the 2007 and 2009 wildfires have shown the inadequacy of prevention and mitigation practices. Given the enhanced civil protection responsibilities, given by the Greek national law (Acts 3013/2002, 3852/2010) to local authorities in Greece, this work analyses and evaluates the existing structure and current management framework under which local authorities function and examines their risk mitigation practices. We conducted the largest questionnaire survey regarding Civil Protections issues, among the municipalities of Greece. To this aim, this work used a innovative online tool to assess current framework. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform that acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). Through this network, municipal civil protection officials completed surveys designed to obtain and quantify information on several aspects of civil protection practices and infrastructure. In particular, the examined factors included: (i) personnel and equipment, (ii) inter-agency cooperation, (iii) training, (iv) compliance with existing regulations and (v) persistent problems encountered by civil protection departments, that prevent the effectiveness of current practices. Responses showed that civil protection personnel lack adequate training and expertise, many are overstretched with several duties, while several prevention actions are carried out by seasonal or voluntary staff. Approximately half of the heads of civil protection offices do not hold a university degree, only 27% have a relevant scientific background (geoscientists or engineers) and more than half of them are elected members and not permanent staff, implying that no continuity is secured. Inter-agency cooperation is shown to be poor and organizational learning from international practices not adequate. Half of the municipalities report that the authorization processes are too slow so that prevention actions particularly regarding forest fires are severely delayed. Existing regulations are not followed by a significant portion of municipalities since 19% have not established a civil protection office and 23% have not compiled an action plan yet. Existing action plans lack important information, present no spatial data and are predominantly catalogues and tables of information regarding authorised personnel and equipment. Overall, underfunding, poor coordination of the different actors involved, lack of training and understaffing, lack of proper equipment and several other issues are held responsible by officials for preventing effectiveness of current practices. Finally, the EU emergency number 112 is widely unknown (87%). This work was held under the LIFE+ project "Local Authorities Alliance for Forest Fire Prevention - LIFE08/ENV/GR/000553" which is implemented with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Community.

Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

2013-04-01

228

Autoradiographic localization of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors within the ventral tegmental area.  

PubMed

Destruction of intrinsic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) with the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid produced a significant decrease (80%) in [3H]muscimol binding to GABAA receptors within the parabrachial pigmented and paranigral nuclei of the VTA. Selective destruction of the dopaminergic neurons with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) did not reduce [3H]muscimol binding within the VTA. However, the destruction of dopaminergic neurons did produce an increase (20%) in [3H]muscimol binding contralateral to the lesion, suggesting a reduction in the GABAergic innervation to this region. Additionally, destruction of the VTA afferents with quinolinic acid injections in the medial accumbens failed to produce alterations in [3H]muscimol binding within the VTA. These results are consistent with the predominant localization of GABAA receptors to non-dopaminergic neurons intrinsic to the VTA. PMID:1311431

Churchill, L; Dilts, R P; Kalivas, P W

1992-01-01

229

A mixed-modem approach to data isolation on a broadband local area network  

SciTech Connect

Data isolation is required to broadband networks to prevent unauthorized access to the sensitive data of other users. Isolation can be obtained by using equipment from more than one manufacturer to introduce incompatibility between nonassociated users. This paper develops the basis for isolation and postulates that four layers of isolation will exist when the proper equipment is chosen. An experimental broadband local area network (LAN) was constructed to verify isolation. This independent network allowed variations in operating conditions without causing interference in normal broadband operations. The measured results indicate that a broadband LAN can transmit data of varying sensitivity levels without compromising data security. When combined with certain administrative restrictions, the mixed-modem technique provides a cost-effective method of sharing a broadband network while maintaining isolation of data having different sensitivities. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Crutcher, R.I.; Ewing, P.D.

1988-01-01

230

Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

2006-11-01

231

Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats  

SciTech Connect

DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

1996-07-01

232

Quality-of-service control in GRAMS for ATM local area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gopher-style real-time ATM multimedia services (GRAMS) is a system designed for an ATM local area network, with the server providing multimedia services to multiple users in real-time, while the network bandwidth and the host capacity are fully exploited. Therefore, a server that can determine the service rates, and successfully multiplex media transmissions according to the quality-of-service (QoS) requirement of each request is a key component of this system. Proposed in this paper is a simple yet effective way to measure QoS in the GRAMS system. Experimental results are also presented, showing the feasibility of simultaneously providing tens of video and image transfer sessions using low-cost workstation technology.

Hui, Joseph Y.; Zhang, Junbiao; Li, Jun

1995-05-01

233

Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN) between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc) for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side) to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops) and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi) access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ) has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID), Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department. PMID:20622360

Mandal, Abhijit; Asthana, Anupam Kumar; Aggarwal, Lalit Mohan

2010-01-01

234

Indoor Positioning in Wireless Local Area Networks with Online Path-Loss Parameter Estimation  

PubMed Central

Location based services are gathering an even wider interest also in indoor environments and urban canyons, where satellite systems like GPS are no longer accurate. A much addressed solution for estimating the user position exploits the received signal strengths (RSS) in wireless local area networks (WLANs), which are very common nowadays. However, the performances of RSS based location systems are still unsatisfactory for many applications, due to the difficult modeling of the propagation channel, whose features are affected by severe changes. In this paper we propose a localization algorithm which takes into account the nonstationarity of the working conditions by estimating and tracking the key parameters of RSS propagation. It is based on a Sequential Monte Carlo realization of the optimal Bayesian estimation scheme, whose functioning is improved by exploiting the Rao-Blackwellization rationale. Two key statistical models for RSS characterization are deeply analyzed, by presenting effective implementations of the proposed scheme and by assessing the positioning accuracy by extensive computer experiments. Many different working conditions are analyzed by simulated data and corroborated through the validation in a real world scenario. PMID:25165755

Bruno, Luigi

2014-01-01

235

Indoor positioning in wireless local area networks with online path-loss parameter estimation.  

PubMed

Location based services are gathering an even wider interest also in indoor environments and urban canyons, where satellite systems like GPS are no longer accurate. A much addressed solution for estimating the user position exploits the received signal strengths (RSS) in wireless local area networks (WLANs), which are very common nowadays. However, the performances of RSS based location systems are still unsatisfactory for many applications, due to the difficult modeling of the propagation channel, whose features are affected by severe changes. In this paper we propose a localization algorithm which takes into account the nonstationarity of the working conditions by estimating and tracking the key parameters of RSS propagation. It is based on a Sequential Monte Carlo realization of the optimal Bayesian estimation scheme, whose functioning is improved by exploiting the Rao-Blackwellization rationale. Two key statistical models for RSS characterization are deeply analyzed, by presenting effective implementations of the proposed scheme and by assessing the positioning accuracy by extensive computer experiments. Many different working conditions are analyzed by simulated data and corroborated through the validation in a real world scenario. PMID:25165755

Bruno, Luigi; Addesso, Paolo; Restaino, Rocco

2014-01-01

236

Effects of local anesthetics on somatosensory function in the temporomandibular joint area.  

PubMed

There is a need for systematic studies regarding the pathophysiology and pain mechanisms of somatosensory function in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). So far, the effects on somatosensory functions of local anesthetics (LA) applied to the auriculotemporal (AT) nerve or intraarticularly (IA) into the TMJ have not been studied systemically. This study aimed to examine in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner the effects of LA on mechanical and thermal sensitivity in the TMJ area. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (27.4 +/- 6.2 years) without temporomandibular disorders (TMD) participated. The subjects received an AT nerve block (n = 14) or an IA injection (n = 14) with LA (Bupivacaine, 2.5 mg/ml) on one side, and a placebo injection (isotonic saline) on the contralateral side. Mechanical (tactile and pin-prick) and thermal sensitivity (40 and 5 degrees C) were assessed at 11 standardized points in the TMJ area before injections (baseline) as well as 30 min, 1 and 2 h after injections. All stimuli were rated by the subjects on a 0-100 numerical rating scale (NRS). TMJ pressure pain threshold (PPT) and pressure pain tolerance (PPTOL) were assessed laterally over both TMJs using an algometer. IA injections with LA were not associated with any changes in sensitivity of the TMJ or surrounding area. In contrast, AT nerve blocks with LA caused a decrease over time in the pin-prick sensitivity (P = 0.016), which however, did not differ significantly from saline, and an increase of the PPTs 30 min (P = 0.010) and PPTOLs 30 min, 1 h and 2 h (P < 0.05) after LA injections in comparison to saline. No other measures showed a significant change after the injections. Our results showed that IA bupivacaine injection in healthy subjects has no effect on the sensitivity of the TMJ or surrounding area, while AT nerve block has a more pronounced effect on deep mechanical, but not on superficial mechanical or thermal sensitivity. Further research to investigate the effect of LA on somatosensory functions in TMJ patients in comparison with this study results will give valuable information about the sensitivity in the TMJ area. PMID:17588187

Ayesh, Emad E; Ernberg, Malin; Svensson, Peter

2007-07-01

237

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

2011-01-01

238

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal.  

PubMed

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered.Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

Carvalho, Ana Maria; Frazão-Moreira, Amélia

2011-01-01

239

Real-Time Counting People in Crowded Areas by Using Local Empirical Templates and Density Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a fast and automated method of counting pedestrians in crowded areas is proposed along with three contributions. We firstly propose Local Empirical Templates (LET), which are able to outline the foregrounds, typically made by single pedestrians in a scene. LET are extracted by clustering foregrounds of single pedestrians with similar features in silhouettes. This process is done automatically for unknown scenes. Secondly, comparing the size of group foreground made by a group of pedestrians to that of appropriate LET captured in the same image patch with the group foreground produces the density ratio. Because of the local scale normalization between sizes, the density ratio appears to have a bound closely related to the number of pedestrians who induce the group foreground. Finally, to extract the bounds of density ratios for groups of different number of pedestrians, we propose a 3D human models based simulation in which camera viewpoints and pedestrians' proximity are easily manipulated. We collect hundreds of typical occluded-people patterns with distinct degrees of human proximity and under a variety of camera viewpoints. Distributions of density ratios with respect to the number of pedestrians are built based on the computed density ratios of these patterns for extracting density ratio bounds. The simulation is performed in the offline learning phase to extract the bounds from the distributions, which are used to count pedestrians in online settings. We reveal that the bounds seem to be invariant to camera viewpoints and humans' proximity. The performance of our proposed method is evaluated with our collected videos and PETS 2009's datasets. For our collected videos with the resolution of 320x240, our method runs in real-time with good accuracy and frame rate of around 30 fps, and consumes a small amount of computing resources. For PETS 2009's datasets, our proposed method achieves competitive results with other methods tested on the same datasets [1], [2].

Hung, Dao-Huu; Hsu, Gee-Sern; Chung, Sheng-Luen; Saito, Hideo

240

Ranging airport pseudolite for local area augmentation using the global positioning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is being developed to support precision approach and landing operations in and about the local area surrounding an airport. The LAAS Program is currently under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for the LAAS being developed by RTCA, Incorporated. The LAAS uses differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and includes one or more airport pseudolites (APL) to increase the availability for certain installations. This dissertation addresses the addition of a differentially corrected, ranging APL into a LAAS. Prior to this work, no ranging APL has been integrated into a prototype LAAS and demonstrated in a real-time flight environment showing that an increase in LAAS availability is feasible. The APL requirements resulted in a prototype APL transmitting and receiving subsystem with a coarse-acquisition (C/A) code format that could be operated at any frequency within the L1± 10.0 MHz band. To investigate the major APL error the developmental approach was performed in two phases. Phase I implemented an APL operating at a center frequency off-L1 and concentrated on multipath limiting. The Phase II on-L1 APL architecture implemented a unique pulsing, automatic gain control (AGC) and GPS Blanker technique in the common reception path to maximize APL signal tracking and minimize electromagnetic interference to DGPS. To minimize ground multipath for the APL geometry, which is more severe than for GPS, a multipath limiting antenna (MLA) was designed, fabricated, and tested within a 4-month period. The implementation of this MLA concept was a first for APL applications and also contributed to the successful multipath limiting of ground multipath at the DGPS LAAS Ground Station. This effort successfully demonstrated that ground multipath can be limited (with low variance and no long-term bias) for the APL geometry and that suitable precision approach performance can be achieved. For this effort a total of 11 flight tests with three test aircraft (Piper Saratoga, FAA Boeing 727, and Ohio University DC-3) and 14 distinct laboratory tests were conducted to produce the APL Subsystem Architecture, data, and system performance documented in this document.

Bartone, Chris Gregory

241

Dense distributed temperature sensing to infer local seepage fluxes in coastal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many deltas, land surfaces are largely below sea level, and consequently suffering from saline groundwater seepage. This phenomenon affects the fresh water supply for, for example, agriculture and drinking water production. In many of those deltas, sea level rise and land subsidence enhance these problems. Depending on the geology, the seepage fluxes can occur both distributed and locally. Local seepage occurs through ancient channels that were filled with higher-conductive material at later times, but also works its way up via small vents through the soil. The latter is called boil seepage and usually is the most saline of the mentioned seepage types. Boils commonly appear in ditches and canals, since the pressure gradient is most of the time larger compared to the surrounding area. Although boils appear only as local point inflows, their high discharge and consequent salt flux can make them contribute for over 70% of the salt flux into lowland water systems (de Louw et al., 2010). Seepage measurement methods include the application of so-called seepage meters and tracers like temperature. Conventional methods using temperature differences between groundwater and surface water require drilling temperature sensors into the soil. Because the locations of boils are sensitive to disturbances of the soil, we measure the seepage flux by measuring a 3D temperature profile in the surface water above the boil instead. The seepage flux is inferred from a numerical surface water model that includes salt and temperature transport. Laboratory and field results show the onset of stratification because of the denser groundwater. In the winter situation, the temperature of the groundwater is relatively high, and double diffusive processes may play a role, mainly because there is negligible lateral flow most of the time, when the downstream pumping station is not active. Therefore, a model is set up that is well able to represent these double diffusive processes. References De Louw, P.G.B., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Stuyfzand, P.J., and van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M.: Upward groundwater flow in boils as the dominant mechanism of salinization in deep polders, The Netherlands, Journal of Hydrology, 394, 494-506, 2010.

Hilgersom, Koen; van de Giesen, Nick

2014-05-01

242

76 FR 82234 - Amendments to Delegation of Authority Provisions in the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...tribes for their attainment areas. The regulations already authorize...the PSD program to states and local governments for their attainment areas. The EPA is proposing to delete...tribes, along with state and locals, in another section to...

2011-12-30

243

Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities: Finite-field, intensity, and area corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components and for other charge transport quantities. Both resistive and Hall sensitivities, for a van der Pauw specimen in a finite magnetic field, are a superposition of the zero-field sensitivities to both sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance. Strong perturbations produce a nonlinear correction term that depends on the strength of the inhomogeneity. Solution of the specific case of a finite-sized circular inhomogeneity coaxial with a circular specimen suggests a first-order correction for the general case. Our results are confirmed by computer simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Náhlík et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc.

Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole

2014-10-01

244

A study of topologies and protocols for fiber optic local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.

Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.

1985-01-01

245

Protection Switching and Local Area Network Emulation in Passive Optical Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates an automatic-protection-switching (APS) mechanism against distribution fiber breaks in passive optical networks (PONs). The protection of optical-network units (ONUs) that are located at the customer premises is carried out by monitoring the distribution fiber using the traffic that is transported among the customers in the PON. This configuration emulates a local area network (LAN) over the existing PON while facilitating the switching of signal transmissions to a predetermined protection path in an event of a distribution fiber break. As failure detection and APS are performed independently by each ONU in a distributed manner, the processing complexities and delays are reduced at the central office (CO). The restoration of the traffic transported between the CO and an ONU in the event of the distribution fiber break is performed by interconnecting adjacent ONUs and carrying out signal transmissions via an independent but interconnected ONU. Such a protection mechanism enables multiple adjacent ONUs to be simultaneously protected by a single ONU utilizing its maximum available bandwidth. This paper experimentally verifies the feasibility of the proposed protection mechanism in conjunction with two different LAN-emulation schemes with a 1.25-Gb/s upstream baseband transmission to the CO and a 155-Mb/s LAN data transmission on a radio-frequency carrier. The experimental results obtained from both schemes are compared, and the power budgets are calculated to analyze the scalability of each scheme.

Nadarajah, Nishaanthan; Wong, Elaine; Attygalle, Manik; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai Thas

2006-05-01

246

Implementation of local area network extension for instrumentation standard trigger capabilities in advanced data acquisition platformsa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronization mechanisms are an essential part of the real-time distributed data acquisition systems (DASs) used in fusion experiments. Traditionally, they have been based on the use of digital signals. The approach known as local area network extension for instrumentation (LXI) provides a set of very powerful synchronization and trigger mechanisms. The Intelligent Test Measurement System (ITMS) is a new platform designed to implement distributed data acquisition and fast data processing for fusion experiments. It is based on COMPATPCI technology and its extension to instrumentation (PXI). Hardware and software elements have been developed to include LXI trigger and synchronization mechanisms in this platform in order to obtain a class A LXI instrument. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, involving the following components: commercial hardware running a Linux operating system; a real-time extension to an operating system and network (RTAI and RTNET), which implements a software precision time protocol (PTP) using IEEE1588; an ad hoc PXI module to support hardware implementation of PTP-IEEE 1588; and the multipoint, low-voltage differential signaling hardware LXI trigger bus.

López, J. M.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; de Arcas, G.; Vega, J.

2008-10-01

247

67 FR 48354 - Powers of the Attorney General to Authorize State or Local Law Enforcement Officers To Exercise...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State or local law enforcement...immigration law enforcement powers would be less...efficient than the procedures already established...precise activation procedures. (3) Written...statement of the powers, privileges...State or local law...

2002-07-24

248

24 CFR 599.505 - Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designation, the State and local governments in which the area is located must submit to...authority to achieve the State and local government commitments made at the time...maximize the Federal, State and local benefits made available in...

2010-04-01

249

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...state, tribe, and local programs' reporting...receive electronic documents in lieu of paper...Where an electronic document submitted to satisfy a state, tribe, or local reporting requirement...with an electronic document submitted to satisfy a state, tribe, or local reporting...

2012-07-01

250

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...state, tribe, and local programs' reporting...receive electronic documents in lieu of paper...Where an electronic document submitted to satisfy a state, tribe, or local reporting requirement...with an electronic document submitted to satisfy a state, tribe, or local reporting...

2013-07-01

251

40 CFR 3.2000 - What are the requirements authorized state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet?  

...state, tribe, and local programs' reporting...receive electronic documents in lieu of paper...Where an electronic document submitted to satisfy a state, tribe, or local reporting requirement...with an electronic document submitted to satisfy a state, tribe, or local reporting...

2014-07-01

252

Seismic structure of the geothermal area in Tarutung (North Sumatra, Indonesia) derived from local earthquake tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time in Indonesia, a high resolution local earthquake tomography is applied for geothermal exploration. Starting in May 2011, a passive seismic experiment with 42 short-period stations was setup for 10 months covering the seismically active Tarutung (northern part of the region) and Sarulla (southern part of the region) basins in North Sumatra. The objective of the project is to understand the structure of the geothermal systems based on the analysis of the Vp and Vp/Vs anomalies and the distribution of seismicity. We recorded 2,856 local earthquakes by at least 8 stations along the basins. Among these numbers of events we used events having gap angle less than 180 degrees resulting in 14,033 P- and 6,256 S-picks. The initial hypocentres were calculated using simultaneous inversion for hypocentres and 1D velocity structure, followed by a 3D simultaneous inversion. We applied furthermore clustering techniques using self-organizing maps to reveal distinct features with characteristic Vp and Vp/Vs values. The results show the low Vp structure along the fault which is consistent with the geometry of the Tarutung and Sarulla basins associated with unconsolidated materials. The geometry of the structure, the hypocenter distribution, and the clustering analysis indicate the difference in the tectonic setting between the Tarutung and Sarulla basins. The asymmetric structure around Tarutung indicates the pull-apart basin while in Sarulla the structure is symmetric. The hypocenters are distributed wider and asymmetric in Tarutung and narrowed to the south towards the Sarulla graben. The low Vp/Vs and low Vp along the Tarutung basin could be associated with high gas content of material in the region as most bubbling low temperature fluid discharges found in the region. High Vp/Vs structure within the low Vp region around Panabungan (northeast Tarutung) is associated with high fluid content in accordance with high flow-rate of fluid discharge in the area. The prominent high Vp/Vs structure along the Sarulla basin could be related with an over-pressured high temperature reservoir caused by magmatic activity, which is also responsible for the weakening of the fault.

Muksin, M.; Bauer, K.; Haberland, C. A.

2012-12-01

253

Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence farming and illegal logging. This intensification of activities has mostly affected land on slopes in an area where over 40 % of the area is subject to landslides. Relatively, the prevailing land use/cover change process in both areas, as usually in most European mountain areas, is reforestation. Small-scale changes however were most important in terms of negative consequences. Therefore we think it is necessary to focus on the local scale when identifying possible future negative consequences of land use/cover change. Acknowledgement This work is a part of the CHANGES project (Changing hydro-meteorological risks - as Analysed by a New Generation of European Scientists), a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, funded by the European Community's 7'th Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under Grant Agreement No. 263953.

Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

254

Opting Out of Local Authority Control ?Using the Education Reform Act to Defend the Comprehensive Ideal: a case study in educational policy implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on an insider account of the process by which a secondary school, Stantonbury Campus, Milton Keynes, England, used the 1988 Education Reform Act to opt out of local authority control in order to preserve its egalitarian comprehensive character. Using the legislation in this way effectively reversed many of the assumptions surrounding the notion of Grant Maintained

Rosemary Deem; Michael Davies

1991-01-01

255

Working together? Parent and local authority views on the process of obtaining appropriate educational provision for children with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:?There is general agreement across all interested parties that a process of working together is the best way to determine which school or educational setting is right for an individual child with autism spectrum disorder. In the UK, families and local authorities both desire a constructive working relationship and see this as the best means by which to reach an

Catherine Tissot

2011-01-01

256

A Survey into Mainstream Teachers' Attitudes Towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs in the Ordinary School in one Local Education Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes of mainstream teachers towards the inclusion of children with special needs in the ordinary school were surveyed soon after the release of the Green Paper. The survey was carried out in one Local Education Authority in the south-west of England and the sample comprised of 81 primary and secondary teachers. The analysis revealed that teachers who have been implementing

Elias Avramidis; Phil Bayliss; Robert Burden

2000-01-01

257

Using SMS Texting to Encourage Democratic Participation by Youth Citizens: a Case Study of a Project in an English Local Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public administrations across Europe take the view that using digital media for consultation with citizens will help to increase their democratic participation. In the UK, the Government has encouraged local authorities to experiment with new electronic communication channels for this purpose. This paper presents a case study in which one such medium, the mobile phone, is being used in an

David Griffin; Philippa Trevorrow; Edward Halpin

258

Distributing College Budgets: A Study of Local Education Authority (LEA) Planning and Formulae-Funding Mechanisms in England. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Reform Act 1988 provides for the reform of the funding and governance of colleges of further education in England and Wales, comprising about 400 colleges (equivalent to community colleges and vocational schools) across 104 local education authorities (LEAs). The process and formula for budget-setting is described, and a number of…

Birch, Derek W.; Spencer, Anne C.

259

QoS-Based Adaptive Contention\\/Reservation Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the conventional IEEE 802.11 medium access control protocol, the distributed coordination function is designed for the wireless stations (WSs) to perform channel contention within the wireless local area networks (WLANs). Research work has been conducted to modify the random backoff mechanism in order to alleviate the packet collision problem while the WSs are contending for channel access. However, most

Jia-Shi Lin; Kai-Ten Feng

2011-01-01

260

Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions

Fouad A. Tobagi; Ismail Dalgic; Joseph Pang

1990-01-01

261

The Neural Bases of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Are Not Localized in Real Color-Sensitive Areas  

E-print Network

The Neural Bases of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Are Not Localized in Real Color- Sensitive Areas to as « synesthesia », or union of the senses, since the end of the XIXth century (Supplementary Text S1). Here, we focus on much studied grapheme-color synesthesia, which concerns 1-5 people in 100 (Suarez de Mendoza

262

Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

2012-01-01

263

The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

2010-01-01

264

Modelling the Demand for Higher Education by Local Authority Area in England Using Academic, Economic and Social Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing the demand for higher education has been a major concern of successive UK governments over the last 30 years. While initially they sought to increase demand, latterly the emphasis has been on widening participation to include demographic groups among which it has traditionally been low. There had long been an academic and policy interest…

Harrison, Neil

2013-01-01

265

The Use of Local Parks by Older Residents of Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local parks in five large cities (San Francisco, Houston, Atlanta, Chicago, Boston) were selected for a study of the use of urban parks by older adults (55 to 65 and over). Interviews were conducted with park users to determine: (1) meaning, motivation, and satisfactions associated with local park usage; (2) factors of usage such as time of day,…

Godbey, Geoffrey; Blazey, Michael

266

Preserved local but disrupted contextual figure-ground influences in an individual with abnormal function of intermediate visual areas.  

PubMed

Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermediate visual areas (V2/V3) function abnormally. We found that contextual influences on figure-ground organization were selectively disrupted in LG, while local sources of figure-ground influences were preserved. Effects of object knowledge and familiarity on figure-ground organization were also significantly diminished. Our results suggest that the mechanisms mediating contextual and familiarity influences on figure-ground organization are dissociable from those mediating local influences on figure-ground assignment. The disruption of contextual processing in intermediate visual areas may play a role in the substantial object recognition difficulties experienced by LG. PMID:22947116

Brooks, Joseph L; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Rees, Geraint; Bentin, Shlomo; Driver, Jon

2012-06-01

267

ESTELA: a method for evaluating the source and travel time of the wave energy reaching a local area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of wave climate at a local scale is of paramount importance for offshore and coastal engineering applications. Conditions influencing wave characteristics at a specific location cannot, however, be fully understood by studying only local information. It is necessary to take into account the dynamics of the ocean surface over a large `upstream' wave generation area. The goal of this work is to provide a methodology to easily characterize the area of influence of any particular ocean location worldwide. Moreover, the developed method is able to characterize the wave energy and travel time in that area. The method is based on a global scale analysis using both geographically and physically based criteria. The geographic criteria rely on the assumption that deep water waves travel along great circle paths. This limits the area of influence by neglecting energy that cannot reach a target point, as its path is blocked by land. The individual spectral partitions from a global wave reanalysis are used to reconstruct the spectral information and apply the physically based criteria. The criteria are based on the selection of the fraction of energy that travels towards the target point for each analysed grid point. The method has been tested on several locations worldwide. Results provide maps that inform about the relative importance of different oceanic areas to the local wave climate at any target point. This information cannot be inferred from local parameters and agrees with information from other approaches. The methodology may be useful in a number of applications, such as statistical downscaling, storm tracking and grid definition in numerical modelling.

Pérez, Jorge; Méndez, Fernando J.; Menéndez, Melisa; Losada, Inigo J.

2014-08-01

268

Impact of Short Interval SMS Digital Data on Wind Vector Determination for a Severe Local Storms Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of 5 minute interval SMS-2 visible digital image data in analyzing severe local storms is examined using wind vectors derived from cloud tracking on time lapsed sequence of geosynchronous satellite images. The cloud tracking areas are located in the Central Plains, where on 6 May 1975, hail-producing thunderstorms occurred ahead of a well defined dry line. The results demonstrate that satellite-derived wind vectors and their associated divergence fields complement conventional meteorological analyses in describing the conditions preceding severe local storm development.

Peslen, C. A.

1979-01-01

269

Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. DESIGN:: A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:: The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. RESULTS:: Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). CONCLUSIONS:: Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance. PMID:23760310

Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

2013-06-11

270

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

271

Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% in Broca's area and 66.6% and 85.2% in Wernicke's area, respectively. These experimental findings indicate that functional MRI is an accurate, reliable technique with which to identify the location of Wernicke's area or Broca's area in patients with brain tumors.

Xia, Hechun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Liang; Ma, Hui; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xuexin; Sun, Shengyu; Jia, Xiaoxiong

2012-01-01

272

Autonet: A High-Speed, Self-Configuring Local Area Network Using Point-to-Point Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonet is a self-configuring local area network composed of switches interconnectedby 100 Mbit\\/second, full-duplex, point-to-point links. The switches contain 12 ports thatare internally connected by a full crossbar. Switches use cut-through to achieve a packetforwarding latency as low as 2 microseconds per switch. Any switch port can be cabled toany other switch port or to a host network controller.

Michael D. Schroeder; Andrew D. Birrell; Michael Burrows; Hal Murray; Roger M. Needham; Thomas L. Rodeheffer; Edwin H. Satterthwaite; Charles P. Thacker

1991-01-01

273

Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

1990-01-01

274

Slotted Aloha and reservation Aloha protocols for very high-speed optical fiber local area networks using passive star topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of cases of slotted Aloha protocols for high-speed optical fiber local area networks (LANs) are presented and analyzed. The results are compared to the cases of Slotted Aloha\\/Aloha schemes presented by I.M.I. Habab et al., (1987) and N. Mehravori (1990). The proposed schemes were found to offer better throughput and delay characteristics. These cases are also compared with

Ganti N. M. Sudhakar; Nicolas D. Georganas; Mohsen Kavehrad

1991-01-01

275

Inner Circles and Outer Reaches: Local and Global Information-Seeking Habits of Authors in Acknowledgment Paratext  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This research investigates paratextual acknowledgements in published codices in order to study how relationships inform the information-seeking habits of authors, an understudied group in library and information science. Method: A purposive sample consisting of the books from the 2010 nominations list of the Canadian Governor…

Desrochers, Nadine; Pecoskie, Jen

2014-01-01

276

Outdoor Recreation in a Protected Area in Southern Durango, Mexico: Analysis of Local Residents' Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated perceptions of local residents from three communities in southern Durango, Mexico, toward planning outdoor recreation in the Michilía Biosphere Reserve (MBR). We used personal interviews to gather information about the barriers that keep people from participating in recreation activities and concerns about potential impacts of increasing recreation in the MBR. Sixty-five percent of the survey participants had

GUSTAVO PEREZ-VERDIN; MARTHA E. LEE; DEBORAH J. CHAVEZ

2004-01-01

277

Local Restaurants -Cambridge Cuisine Type Description Location by Neighborhood/Area  

E-print Network

Bottle 196 Massachusetts Avenue 617-225-0040 www.centralbottle.com Wine and provisions shop Specializes in small production wine + beer, handcrafted local cheese and homemade provisions MIT - Mass. Ave://www.cloverfoodlab.com Vegetarian and vegan food "Our food philosophy is driven by simplicity. I'd rather have you shocked by how

de Weck, Olivier L.

278

Selection of Electrode Area for Electrochemical Noise Measurements to Monitor Localized CO2 Corrosion  

E-print Network

Corrosion Xiu Jianga,b , Srdjan Nesia* , François Huetc , Brian Kinsellaa , Bruce Browna , David Younga a Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Ohio electrodes were recorded using a ZRA (Zero Resistance Ammeter) to monitor localized CO2 corrosion in CO2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

A stated preference experiment to value access to quiet areas and other local environmental factors  

E-print Network

-tipping; litter; fly-posting; graffiti; dog- fouling; discarded chewing gum; trees; light pollution (obscuring pollution (obscuring the stars); light intrusion (into the home) and odour The emphasis was on local], while [2] estimate the cost of light pollution in the US to be $7 billion per annum in terms of wasted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

A lightweight transfer protocol for the US Navy SAFENET local area network standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes lightweight express transfer protocol (XTP) which has been proposed for the US Navy survivable adaptable fiber optic embedded network (SAFENET) standard. XTP provides the functionality of the IOS\\/OSI transport and network layer protocols, which have been unified into a single transfer-layer protocol. Unlike conventional transport and network layer protocols, which are implemented in software, the XTP has

M. Cohn

1988-01-01

281

Tuberculosis in an Urban Area in China: Differences between Urban Migrants and Local Residents  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006–2008, among whom 440 (32.6%) were local residents and 908 (67.4%) were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population) had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population), and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk?=?0.92, 95% CI: 0.91–0.94, p<0.001), poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR?=?4.12, 95% CI: 2.65–5.72, p<0.001), and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR?=?0.20, 95% CI: 0.13–0.26, p?=?0.013) were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants). Conclusions/Significance A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006–2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT). PMID:23226479

Shen, Xin; Xia, Zhen; Li, Xiangqun; Wu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yuan; Guo, Juntao; Chen, Jing; Hong, Jianjun; Yuan, Zheng’an; Pan, Qichao; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Sun, Guomei; Gao, Qian; Mei, Jian

2012-01-01

282

Soil arsenic surveys of New Orleans: localized hazards in children's play areas.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) ranks first on the 2005 and 2007 hazardous substances priority lists compiled for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study describes two New Orleans soil As surveys: (1) a survey of composite soil samples from 286 census tracts and (2) a field survey of soil As at 38 play areas associated with the presence of chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA)-treated wood on residential and public properties. The survey of metropolitan New Orleans soils revealed a median As content of 1.5 mg/kg (range <0.2-16.4) and no distinctive differences between the soils of the city core and outlying areas. Play area accessible soils associated with CCA-treated wood (N = 32) had a median As of 57 mg/kg and 78% of the samples were ?12 mg/kg, the Louisiana soil As standard. The field survey of play areas for CCA-treated wood (N = 132 samples at 38 sites) was conducted with a portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer. Seventy-five of 132 wood samples (56.8%) were deemed CCA-treated wood. Of the 38 play areas surveyed, 14 (36.8%) had CCA-treated wood. A significant association (Fisher's exact p-value = 0.348 × 10(-6)) was found between CCA-treated wood and soil As (N = 75). At one elementary school CCA-treated woodchips (As range 813-1,654 mg As/kg) covered the playgrounds. The situation in New Orleans probably exists in play areas across the nation. These findings support a precautionary program for testing soils and wood for hazardous substances at all play areas intended for children. PMID:20143132

Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Chris R; Cahn, Elise; Brumfield, Jessica; Powell, Eric T; Mielke, Paul W

2010-10-01

283

Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas and the recreationists' noise situation at home  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. Most studies concentrate on one setting of the everyday life of a noise-exposed population, which mainly has been the residential setting. This article relates annoyance with aircraft noise in outdoor recreational areas to the recreationists' noise situation at home. In conjunction with the relocation of the main airport of Norway in 1998, field studies were conducted before and after the change in one area near the old airport (1930 survey respondents), and one area near the new airport (1001 survey respondents). Multivariate linear regression analyses of the relationship between annoyance and aircraft noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events) in the recreational areas were conducted, controlled for noise annoyance at home, or aircraft noise exposure at home, the situation (before/after the change), context- and demographic variables. People more highly annoyed at home tended to be more annoyed than others while in the recreational areas. A significant effect of aircraft noise exposure at home on annoyance in the recreational setting was not found. More research is warranted regarding the relationship between noise exposure at home and outdoor recreational demands. .

Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo

2005-01-01

284

Low-emission vehicle adoption in a UK local authority fleet: economic barriers and air quality benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local air quality was one of the main stimulants for low carbon vehicle development during the 1990s. Issues of national fuel security and global air quality (climate change) have added pressure for their development, stimulating schemes to facilitate their deployment in the UK. In this case study, Coventry City Council aimed to adopt an in-house fleet of electric and hybrid-electric

Samantha Cruickshank; Michaela Kendall

2011-01-01

285

Local richness-species pool ratio: A consequence of the species-area relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constant ratio between species richness estimated at the local and regional scale is interpreted as a proof of quasi-neutral\\u000a unsaturated communities. Based on Zobel’s model of plant community (Zobel,Folia Geobot. 36: 3–8, 2001) we tested the methodology of the species-pool concept by comparing the saturated and unsaturated communities\\u000a generated by spatially-explicit mechanistic simulations with known assembly rules. Tests show

Sándor Bartha; Péter Ittzés

2001-01-01

286

Local Anesthesia at ST36 to Reveal Responding Brain Areas to deqi  

PubMed Central

Background. Development of non-deqi control is still a challenge. This study aims to set up a potential approach to non-deqi control by using lidocaine anesthesia at ST36. Methods. Forty healthy volunteers were recruited and they received two fMRI scans. One was accompanied with manual acupuncture at ST36 (DQ group), and another was associated with both local anesthesia and manual acupuncture at the same acupoint (LA group). Results. Comparing to DQ group, more than 90 percent deqi sensations were reduced by local anesthesia in LA group. The mainly activated regions in DQ group were bilateral IFG, S1, primary motor cortex, IPL, thalamus, insula, claustrum, cingulate gyrus, putamen, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum. Surprisingly only cerebellum showed significant activation in LA group. Compared to the two groups, bilateral S1, insula, ipsilateral IFG, IPL, claustrum, and contralateral ACC were remarkably activated. Conclusions. Local anesthesia at ST36 is able to block most of the deqi feelings and inhibit brain responses to deqi, which would be developed into a potential approach for non-deqi control. Bilateral S1, insula, ipsilateral IFG, IPL, claustrum, and contralateral ACC might be the key brain regions responding to deqi. PMID:24550995

Jin, Ling-min; Qin, Cai-juan; Lan, Lei; Sun, Jin-bo; Zeng, Fang; Zhu, Yuan-qiang; Yu, Shu-guang; Yin, Hai-yan; Tang, Yong

2014-01-01

287

Localization of the motor hand area to a knob on the precentral gyrus. A new landmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we reliable landmark for identifying the precentral gyrus directly. We therefore conclude that neural elements involved in motor have evaluated the anatomical location of the motor hand area. The segment of the precentral gyrus that most often hand function are located in a characteristic 'precentral knob' which is a reliable landmark for identifying

T. A. Yousry; U. D. Schmid; H. Alkadhi; D. Schmidt; A. Peraud; A. Buettner; P. Winkler

1997-01-01

288

Using distributed processing on a local area network to increase available computing power  

SciTech Connect

The migration from central computers to desktop computers distributed the total computing horsepower of a system over many different machines. A typical engineering office may have several networked desktop computers that are sometimes idle, especially after work hours and when people are absent. Users would benefit if applications were able to use these networked computers collectively. This paper describes a method of distributing the workload of an application on one desktop system to otherwise idle systems on the network. The authors present this discussion from a developer`s viewpoint, because the developer must modify an application before the user can realize any benefit of distributed computing on available systems.

Capps, K.S.; Sherry, K.J.

1996-06-01

289

Human filariasis in Dass local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dass area of Bauchi state Northern Nigeria we studied the infection rates, intensity and clinical manifestations of human filarial infections. After an initial census, 1,638 persons who presented themselves were physically examined from a total population of 53.213. Two hundred and fifteen (20.3%) of 1059 males and 99 (19.1%) of 569 females examined had fi- larial infections. Overall, 314

J. C. ANOSIKE; C. O. E. ONWULIRI; V. A. ONWULIRI

290

Local tests of global entanglement and a counterexample to the generalized area law  

E-print Network

We introduce a technique for applying quantum expanders in a distributed fashion, and use it to solve two basic questions: testing whether a bipartite quantum state shared by two parties is the maximally entangled state and disproving a generalized area law. In the process these two questions which appear completely unrelated turn out to be two sides of the same coin. Strikingly in both cases a constant amount of resources are used to verify a global property.

Dorit Aharonov; Aram W. Harrow; Zeph Landau; Daniel Nagaj; Mario Szegedy; Umesh Vazirani

2014-10-03

291

Local Tests for Identifying Anisotropic Diffusion Areas in Human Brain with DTI  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) plays a key role in analyzing the physical structures of biological tissues, particularly in reconstructing fiber tracts of the human brain in vivo. On the one hand, eigenvalues of diffusion tensors (DTs) estimated from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) data usually contain systematic bias, which subsequently biases the diffusivity measurements popularly adopted in fiber tracking algorithms. On the other hand, correctly accounting for the spatial information is important in the construction of these diffusivity measurements since the fiber tracts are typically spatially structured. This paper aims to establish test-based approaches to identify anisotropic water diffusion areas in the human brain. These areas in turn indicate the areas passed by fiber tracts. Our proposed test statistic not only takes into account the bias components in eigenvalue estimates, but also incorporates the spatial information of neighboring voxels. Under mild regularity conditions, we demonstrate that the proposed test statistic asymptotically follows a ?2 distribution under the null hypothesis. Simulation and real DTI data examples are provided to illustrate the efficacy of our proposed methods.

Yu, Tao; Zhang, Chunming; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

292

[The electroencephalographic correlates of a disorder in higher cortical functions in local lesions of the hypothalamic area].  

PubMed

In order to reveal correlations between disturbances in higher cortical functions and characteristics of electrical activity 70 patients with pathological foci in the hypothalamic regions were examined using computer data processing. Destruction of the normal intercentral relations between EEG rhythms develops under the influence of the hypothalamic focus. The process builds up with the aggravation of cortical disorders (mnestic, emotional-affective, consciousness oppression with sleep inversion). General decrease of EEG coherence is observed with the highest destruction of correlations in the frontal cortical areas. The structure of high-frequency alpha-rhythm becomes deranged even in slight cortical disorders, its coherence decreases predominantly in the frontal cortical areas. With intensification of the pathological process in the focus, the stage of delta-rhythm coherence increase is observed and at the background of general destruction of correlations new, pathological intercentral relations develop. Using a BRAINLOC computer technique "sources" of the delta- and theta-activity have been localized in the medio-basal brain regions. The area of localization is specific for hypothalamic lesions. The "source" is mostly expressed in the slightest pathology of higher cortical functions. With aggravation of the process in the hypothalamic pathological focus and further derangement in the cortical functions expression of the "sources" reduces up to their complete disintegration in coma. PMID:8585300

Grindel', O M; Bragina, N N; Voronina, I A; Masherov, E L; Koptelo, Iu M; Voronov, V G; Skoriatina, I G

1995-01-01

293

Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas – A localized spatiotemporal environmental inequality analysis  

PubMed Central

Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French Metropolitan Areas (Lille in the north, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the south, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (µg/m3) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities may not properly characterize situations where people of higher social status find the benefits of living in a specific city outweigh the detriment of higher pollution. PMID:25199972

Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica. M; Rosselo, Philippe; LeNir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

2015-01-01

294

A computer program for the localization of small areas in roentgenological images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and associated algorithm are presented which allow a simple and accurate determination to be made of the location of small symmetric areas presented in roentgenological images. The method utilizes an operator to visually spot object positions but eliminates the need for critical positioning accuracy on the operator's part. The rapidity of measurement allows results to be evaluated on-line. Parameters associated with the algorithm have been analyzed, and methods to facilitate an optimum choice for any particular experimental setup are presented.

Keller, R. A.; Baily, N. A.

1976-01-01

295

A satellite interpretation of the dynamics of a severe local storms area using 5 minute interval SMS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind fields derived from cloud-tracking on the visible digital data of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite-2 are used to study the onset of local severe storms. The study is based on an assessment of several dynamic parameters of lower tropospheric wind fields, including the divergence, relative vorticity, and deformation. The automated cloud-tracking proves capable of detecting a preferred area of flow convergence located ahead of a dry line; the detection of this convergence aids in monitoring the onset of a hail-producing thunderstorm.

Peslen, C. A.

1977-01-01

296

-Patch dynamics and local succession in a sandstone area with frequent disturbance -533 Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 533-544, 2001  

E-print Network

- Patch dynamics and local succession in a sandstone area with frequent disturbance - 533 Journal succession in a sandstone area with frequent disturbance Gutzerová, Nadzda1 & Herben, Tomás2* 1 Sv. Cecha 389@site.cas.cz Abstract. A system of sand talus cones in a small forested rocky sandstone area was investigated

Herben, Tomas

297

Localization of extrastriate body area using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and 3D digitizer.  

PubMed

The extrastriate body area (EBA) is a brain region that responds selectively to visual stimuli of human bodies or body parts. Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that EBA occupies a relatively small region and varied across subjects in its anatomical location. This study investigated whether EBA activity can be detected by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) that imposes few physical constraints on the subjects and has higher temporal but lower spatial resolutions compared to fMRI. For this purpose the subject's brain activity in the occipitotemporal area during observation of images of body parts and objects was measured using fNIRS. The NIRS optode positions were recorded using a 3D digitizer and mapped onto a probabilistic anatomical model. We found that the activity in the occipitotemporal region during observation of body stimuli was significantly greater than that of object stimuli in 11 out of 16 subjects. The group analyses also showed that channels located near the position where the previous studies reported EBA activation were more activated during observation of the body stimuli compared to the object stimuli. The spatial variance of those channels among subjects was relatively small. These results suggest that EBA activity and its anatomical location can be sufficiently measured by using fNIRS and a 3D digitizer. PMID:24111457

Shimada, Sotaro

2013-01-01

298

Radon concentration in soil gas around local disjunctive tectonic zones in the Krakow area.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate radon in the vicinity of geologic fault zones within the Krakow region of Poland, and to determine the influence of such formations on enhanced radon concentrations in soil. Radon ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) concentration measurements in soil gas (using ionization chamber AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO and diffusion chambers with CR-39 detectors), as well as radioactive natural isotopes of radium, thorium and potassium in soil samples (using gamma ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors), were performed. Site selection was based on a geological map of Krakow. Geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar and shallow acoustic seismic) were applied to recognize the geological structure of the area and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and thoron in soil gas were found in the study area when compared with those observed in an earlier survey covering Krakow agglomeration. For (222)Rn, the arithmetic mean of registered concentration values was 39 kBq/m(3) (median: 35.5 kBq/m(3)). For (220)Rn, the arithmetic mean was 10.8 kBq/m(3) and median 11.8 kBq/m(3). PMID:15511556

Swako?, J; Kozak, K; Paszkowski, M; Gradzi?ski, R; ?oskiewicz, J; Mazur, J; Janik, M; Bogacz, J; Horwacik, T; Olko, P

2005-01-01

299

Local Bryozoan biostratigraphic zones of the Eifelian stage (Middle Devonian) of the western Altai-Sayan Folded Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bryozoan assemblages from the lower part of the Middle Devonian of the western Altai-Sayan Folded Area are studied because of the recent discovery of Eifelian ammonoids (Cabrieroceras crispiforme Zone) in the Safonovo Formation, which had been previously dated as Givetian. The bryozoan collection (21 species) was sampled from six sections of the Mamontovo Regional Substage ("Horizon") of the Eifelian Stage, seven sections of the Safonovo formation of Salair, and one section of the upper part of the Melnichnaya Formation of Rudnyi Altai. Two groups of bryozoans with different species composition are recognized, one of which occurs in the Malaya Salairka Beds of the Mamontovo Horizon, whereas the other occurs in the Safonovo Formation immediately below the Cabrieroceras crispiforme Zone. Two local biostratigraphic zones are recognized on the basis of these groups (Eridotrypella distributa and Leptotrypa spinosa zones), characterizing the lower and upper parts of the Eifelian Stage of the western Altai-Sayan Folded Area.

Mesentseva, O. P.; Udodov, Yu. V.; Gumerova, N. V.

2014-07-01

300

Pregnancy-associated outcomes in women who spent some of their childhood looked after by local authorities: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives There has been very little description of the health and social outcomes at pregnancy and early motherhood of girls who were previously looked after by local authorities. The objectives of this study were to compare the sociodemographic and health profiles of mothers who had spent time in a children's home or with foster parents as a child to mothers who had not. In particular, to examine associations between being looked after and the likelihood of smoking during pregnancy, birth weight, the presence of symptoms of maternal depression and the initiation of breastfeeding. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study using the baseline questionnaire of the Millennium Cohort Study. Setting The UK. Participants A nationally representative study of 18?492 mothers of babies born in the UK during 2000–2002. Exposure A history of spending time in a children's home or with foster parents. Outcome measures (1) Smoking during pregnancy; (2) low birth weight; (3) symptoms of maternal depression and (4) initiation of breastfeeding. Results In univariable analyses, women who had been looked after by local authorities were significantly less likely to be of a higher social class, live in a high-income household or have achieved a high level of education. They were more likely to have a low-birthweight baby and be a single parent. In multivariable analyses, women who had been looked after by local authorities were more likely to smoke during pregnancy (adjusted OR 3.0 95% CI 2.14 to 4.3) and were more likely to have symptoms of depression (adjusted OR 1.98 95% CI 1.4 to 2.7) compared with women who had not been looked after. Conclusions Our results suggest that these women carry social disadvantage into motherhood, with the potential of continuing the cycle of deprivation. There is a case for increasing our attention on this group, which can be readily accessed by maternity and early years’ services. PMID:25510884

Botchway, Stella K; Quigley, Maria A; Gray, Ron

2014-01-01

301

Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

2009-01-01

302

The German Bight (North Sea) is a nursery area for both locally and externally produced sprat juveniles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand the role of the German Bight (GB) as a nursery area for juvenile North Sea sprat Sprattus sprattus we sought to determine whether the area may receive only locally or also externally produced offspring. We sampled juveniles during 3 trawl surveys in the GB in August, September, and October 2004 and applied otolith microstructure analysis in order to reconstruct their distributions of the day-of-first-increment-formation ( dif). These were contrasted with spatial and seasonal patterns of sprat egg abundance in the GB and its adjacent areas, observed during 6 monthly plankton surveys. It was found that the majority of juveniles originated mainly from April/May 2004, coinciding with high spawning activity west of the GB, whereas spawning and larval production inside the GB peaked notably later, in May/June. This indicated that a large proportion of juveniles was produced outside the GB and transported subsequently into it through passive and/or active migration. Shifts to later mean difs from one survey to the next and length distributions indicative of the simultaneous presence of multiple cohorts, supported the notion that the GB is a complex retention and nursery area for sprat offspring from different North Sea spawning grounds and times. Later born juveniles had significantly faster initial growth rates than earlier born conspecifics, which was likely temperature-mediated, given the strong correlation between back-calculated growth histories and sea surface temperature as a proxy for thermal histories of juveniles ( r2 = 0.52).

Baumann, Hannes; Malzahn, Arne M.; Voss, Rudi; Temming, Axel

2009-04-01

303

Local Scale Comparisons of Biodiversity as a Test for Global Protected Area Ecological Performance: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Terrestrial protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of global biodiversity conservation. Their efficacy in terms of maintaining biodiversity is, however, much debated. Studies to date have been unable to provide a general answer as to PA conservation efficacy because of their typically restricted geographic and/or taxonomic focus, or qualitative approaches focusing on proxies for biodiversity, such as deforestation. Given the rarity of historical data to enable comparisons of biodiversity before/after PA establishment, many smaller scale studies over the past 30 years have directly compared biodiversity inside PAs to that of surrounding areas, which provides one measure of PA ecological performance. Here we use a meta-analysis of such studies (N?=?86) to test if PAs contain higher biodiversity values than surrounding areas, and so assess their contribution to determining PA efficacy. We find that PAs generally have higher abundances of individual species, higher assemblage abundances, and higher species richness values compared with alternative land uses. Local scale studies in combination thus show that PAs retain more biodiversity than alternative land use areas. Nonetheless, much variation is present in the effect sizes, which underscores the context-specificity of PA efficacy. PMID:25162620

Coetzee, Bernard W. T.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Chown, Steven L.

2014-01-01

304

Locality of Area Coverage on Digital Acoustic Communication in Air using Differential Phase Shift Keying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally evaluate the locality of digital acoustic communication in air. Digital acoustic communication in air is suitable for a small cell system, because acoustic waves have a short propagation distance in air. In this study, optimal cell size is experimentally evaluated. Each base station (BS) transmits different commands. In our experiment, differential phase shift keying (DPSK), especially binary DPSK (DBPSK), is adopted as a modulation and demodulation scheme. The evaluated system consists of a personal computer (PC), a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a loud speaker (SP), a microphone (MIC), and transceiver software. All experiments are performed in an anechoic room. The cell size of the transmitter can be limited under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. If another transmitter works, cell size is limited by the effect of the interference from that transmitter. The cell size-to-distance ratio of transmitter A to transmitter B is 37.5%, if cell edge bit-error-rate (BER) is taken as 10-3.

Mizutani, Keiichi; Ebihara, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

2009-07-01

305

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...into good-faith negotiations. Local Boards, chief elected officials...exhausting other alternatives. The Local Board and partners must document the negotiations and efforts...failure to execute an MOU between a Local Board and a required...

2011-04-01

306

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

...into good-faith negotiations. Local Boards, chief elected officials...exhausting other alternatives. The Local Board and partners must document the negotiations and efforts...failure to execute an MOU between a Local Board and a required...

2014-04-01

307

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...into good-faith negotiations. Local Boards, chief elected officials...exhausting other alternatives. The Local Board and partners must document the negotiations and efforts...failure to execute an MOU between a Local Board and a required...

2012-04-01

308

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...into good-faith negotiations. Local Boards, chief elected officials...exhausting other alternatives. The Local Board and partners must document the negotiations and efforts...failure to execute an MOU between a Local Board and a required...

2013-04-01

309

CATLAC: Calibration and validation analysis tool of local area coverage for the SeaWiFS mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration and validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage (CATLAC) is an analysis package for selecting and graphically displaying Earth and space targets for calibration and validation activities on a polar orbiting satellite. The package is written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and includes a graphical user interface. Although it is designed specifically for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, the package can be used for analysis on other Earth-viewing missions. An individual can use text or graphical methods in CATLAC to select Earth targets to be scanned by a satellite. Additional onboard calibration activities (such as observations of the moon, or solar irradiance from a solar diffuser), which use data recorder time, can also be specified. All information pertinent to the creation of a command schedule can be written to a file which is read by a command scheduler. The scheduler can be invoked and the Local Area Coverage (LAC) recording periods can be visually verified using CATLAC. The schedule can also be verified by examining record and error files written by the scheduler.

Woodward, Robert H.; Gregg, Watson W.; Patt, Frederick S.

1994-01-01

310

15 CFR 923.41 - Identification of authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The state chosen agency or agencies (including local governments, area-wide agencies, regional agencies, or interstate...condemnation); and what agency (or agencies) of government have the authority for the specified type of...

2010-01-01

311

Accurate single-sequence prediction of solvent accessible surface area using local and global features.  

PubMed

We present a new approach for predicting the Accessible Surface Area (ASA) using a General Neural Network (GENN). The novelty of the new approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Instead we use solely sequential window information and global features such as single-residue and two-residue compositions of the chain. The resulting predictor is both highly more efficient than sequence alignment-based predictors and of comparable accuracy to them. Introduction of the global inputs significantly helps achieve this comparable accuracy. The predictor, termed ASAquick, is tested on predicting the ASA of globular proteins and found to perform similarly well for so-called easy and hard cases indicating generalizability and possible usability for de-novo protein structure prediction. The source code and a Linux executables for GENN and ASAquick are available from Research and Information Systems at http://mamiris.com, from the SPARKS Lab at http://sparks-lab.org, and from the Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine at http://mathmed.org. PMID:25204636

Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

2014-11-01

312

Automatic localization of backscattering events due to particulate in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM), emitted by vehicles in urban traffic, can greatly affect environment air quality and have direct implications on both human health and infrastructure integrity. The consequences for society are relevant and can impact also on national health. Limits and thresholds of pollutants emitted by vehicles are typically regulated by government agencies. In the last few years, the interest in PM emissions has grown substantially due to both air quality issues and global warming. Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a costeffective alternative to monitor large regions of the atmosphere. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements and to guarantee reliable, automatic monitoring of large areas, new data analysis techniques are required. In this paper, an original tool, the Universal Multi-Event Locator (UMEL), is applied to the problem of automatically indentifying the time location of peaks in Lidar measurements for the detection of particulate matter emitted by anthropogenic sources like vehicles. The method developed is based on Support Vector Regression and presents various advantages with respect to more traditional techniques. In particular, UMEL is based on the morphological properties of the signals and therefore the method is insensitive to the details of the noise present in the detection system. The approach is also fully general, purely software and can therefore be applied to a large variety of problems without any additional cost. The potential of the proposed technique is exemplified with the help of data acquired during an experimental campaign in the field in Rome.

Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, Andrea; Parracino, Stefano; Richetta, M.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

2014-10-01

313

Fog events and local atmospheric features simulated by regional climate model for the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to evaluate the impact of the horizontal resolution of a RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model version 3) in order to reproduce local features of climate, particularly fog, in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil. RegCM3 simulations with horizontal resolutions of 50 km (R50) and 20 km (R20) are conducted for 2003 and 2004 austral winters, June to September (JJAS). Simulations are compared with both gridded analysis and station observations. An objective criterion, is used in the simulations (applied at 09 and 21 local time) to search fog events based on relative humidity and precipitation thresholds in order to identify mainly radiation fog formation. The overall result shows improvements in order to reproduce the local climate using the finest resolution simulation, since R20 simulates better the observed spatial patterns. The evaluations of the daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, and pressure show that both R50 and R20 simulate mean values comparable to the local observations of MASP. Firstly, there is high time correlation and small root mean square error for air temperature (mean, maximum and minimum) using R20 simulation. Additionally, R20 reduces the rainfall overestimation of R50 due to the more realistic representation of topography and coastlines. Both R20 and R50 are able to simulate the fog event frequency similar to the observed ones during 2003 and 2004 JJAS periods, with overestimation below 10%. Local observation and simulations (R50 and R20) present a higher frequency of fog in 2003 than 2004. Regarding fog characteristic, it is found that: (1) stations located in the valleys as well as coastal areas have different patterns with the first ones presenting higher frequency of fog events; (2) the atmospheric variable errors during fog events are clearly smaller than for the whole JJAS period; (3) it is simulated properly for the relative humidity increase, temperature decrease and small specific humidity increase during fog events; and (4) the synoptic pattern during fog event can be clearly characterized by R20 simulation. Therefore, R20 and R50 indicate the modeling ability in order to characterize fog events over MASP.

da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Gonçalves, Fábio L. T.; Segalin, Bruna

2015-01-01

314

Publication criteria and recommended areas of improvement within school psychology journals as reported by editors, journal board members, and manuscript authors.  

PubMed

Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be improved. Although prior surveys have targeted these issues in general, none have been conducted in school psychology or examined differences in perspectives between those who serve in a reviewing capacity or those who have served only in an author capacity. Results identified the most important characteristics for a manuscript submitted for publication to be positively reviewed as well as identified differences in the expectations for such characteristics between novice authors (who do not contribute to the journal editorial process) and those authors who serve the journal editorial process more extensively (e.g., editors and associate editors). In addition, key areas to target for improvement (e.g., reducing potential reviewer bias) within the reviewing process were identified. PMID:22272792

Albers, Craig A; Floyd, Randy G; Fuhrmann, Melanie J; Martínez, Rebecca S

2011-12-01

315

Chemical character of ground water in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight deep wells are being monitored in the Memphis, Tenn., area to detect any changes in the chemical character of water moving through the Memphis Sand towards major pumping centers. These wells are strategically located so as to intercept groundwater enroute through the Memphis Sand from the outcrop-recharge area. Although water quality analyses are available for many wells in the shallow water-table aquifer, no specific investigation has been made to characterize the quality of the water in this aquifer from which the Memphis Sand also receives part of its recharge. This investigation is to determine the chemical character of groundwater in the shallow water-table aquifer at selected localities in the Memphis area. Methods used to install eight shallow wells at abandoned dump sites containing chemical and/or industrial waste are described. Water samples from the eight shallow wells and two deep wells in the Memphis Sand were collected and analyzed. Results of the analysis are presented and the locations of the wells and dumps are shown on maps. (USGS)

Parks, William Scott; Graham, D.D.; Lowery, J.F.

1981-01-01

316

Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the contractor. A decision was reached between the NTS regulator and NSTec, opting for alternative authorized limits from DOE Headquarters. In doing so, NSTec personnel performed a dose model using the DOE-approved modeling code RESRAD-BUILD v3.5 to evaluate scenarios. The parameters used in the dose model were conservative. NSTec’s Radiological Engineering Calculation, REC-2010-001, “Public Dose Estimate from the EMAD 25 Ton Locomotive,” concluded that the four scenarios evaluated were below the 25-millirem per year limit, the “likely” dose scenarios met the “few millirem in a year” criteria, and that the EMAD 25-ton locomotive met the radiological requirements to be released with residual radioactivity to the public.

Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

2010-04-08

317

Detailed crustal structure in the area of the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border from local earthquake tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new seismic velocity model for the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc border region with the aim to better define the crustal structures at the northern edge of the Ionian subduction zone. This sector also includes the Pollino Mts. area, where a seismic sequence of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes has been recorded between spring 2010 and 2013. In this sector a seismic gap was previously hypothesized by paleoseismological evidences associated with the lack of major earthquakes in historical catalogs. To perform the tomographic inversion we selected ca. 3600 earthquakes that have occurred in the last thirty years and recorded by permanent and temporary networks managed by INGV and Calabria University. Using for the first time the Local Tomography Software for passive tomography inversion (LOTOS hereinafter) to crustal analysis in southern Italy, we have computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. The obtained velocity model, jointly evaluated with results of synthetic modeling, as well as with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, gives us new constraints on the geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. The comparison between the shallow tomography sections and surface geology shows good correlation between velocity patterns and the main geological features of the study area. In the upper crust a low-velocity anomaly of P- and S-waves is detectable beneath the Pollino Mts. area and seems to separate the Calabrian and southern Apennines domains, characterized by higher velocities. The distributions of high Vp/Vs ratio, representing strongly fractured rocks with likely high fluid content, clearly correlate with areas of significant seismicity. In the lower crust we detect a clear transition from high to low seismic velocities in correspondence with the Tyrrhenian coast of the study area, which may represent the transition from the thinner Tyrrhenian crust to the thicker one beneath Calabria. In this area, also characterized by a progressive detachment of a retreating lithospheric slab, the generation of a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault zone, that laterally decouples subducting lithosphere from non-subducting lithosphere in a scissor type of fashion, may have taken place. These conditions imply the existence of a kinematic decoupling which allows for differential movement between the Calabrian Arc and the southern Apennine chain. The low velocity anomaly separating the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc domain may be related to fluid upwelling occurring in correspondence with the northern edge of the Calabrian subducting slab.

Totaro, C.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.

2014-12-01

318

In search of common ground: towards a model for the integration of local and scientific perspectives in the selection of community-based Marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key challenge in selecting community-based Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is to identify sites for protection that are both socially acceptable and ecologically viable. It is increasingly argued that in order to meet this challenge, the values, knowledge and priorities of both local communities and scientists need to be integrated. However, little attention has been given to examining how local

Christopher Kuster

2011-01-01

319

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-02-01

320

Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

2009-01-01

321

Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-dihydrotestosterone in the preoptic area, hypothalamus, and amygdala of a male rhesus monkey  

SciTech Connect

In a preliminary study, autoradiography was used to localize target cells for /sup 3/H-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a non-aromatizable androgen, in the brain of the rhesus monkey. One castrated male was injected intravenously with 2 mCi of /sup 3/H-DHT (0.42 ..mu..g/kg), and was killed one hour later. Neurons that concentrated radioactivity in their nuclei were located in widespread areas of the brain, which included the medial and suprachiasmatic preoptic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septal nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, ventromedial, arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, ventral premammillary nucleus, and medial, cortical, basal accessory, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei. These results indicate that the topographic distribution of androgen target neurons is considerably wider than that observed in a study using /sup 3/H-testosterone (T) in the male rhesus monkey. However, further work is needed to elucidate these differences before attempting correlations between behavioral activity and androgen receptors in the brain.

Michael, R.P.; Rees, H.D.

1982-06-14

322

Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied including: qualitative methods such as interviews, group discussions and fuzzy cognitive mapping to identify land use/cover change processes, their driving forces and possible consequences, and final scenario generation; and geospatial methods such as GIS, geostatistics and environmental modeling in an environment for geoprocessing objects (Dinamica EGO) for spatial allocation of these scenarios. The methods were applied in the Italian Alps and the Romanian Carpathians. Both are mountainous areas, however they differ in terms of past and most likely future socio-economic development, and therefore consequent land use/cover changes. Whereas we focused on urban expansion due to tourism development in the Alps, we focused on possible deforestation trajectories in the Carpathians. In both areas, the recognized most significant driving forces were either not covered by accessible data, or were characterized as intangible. With the proposed framework we were able to generate futures scenarios despite these shortcomings, and enabling the transferability of the method.

Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

2014-05-01

323

A taxonomic revision of two local endemic Radix spp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from Khodutka geothermal area, Kamchatka, Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Khodutka geothermal area is located near Khodutka and Priemysh volcanoes and is one of the largest geothermal areas of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Vakin (2003) described geological, geochemical and geothermic conditions of this geothermal area in detail. The main thermal water sources have temperatures up to 87°C and a discharge of approximately 150 l×sec.-1 are flows out into the warm lake with dimensions of ca. 250 m length and 80 m width. This warm river is ca. 20 m in width beginning from the lake and flows to the Bolshaya Khodutka River basin. Two local endemic Radix species were described from this geothermal area, especially Lymnaea (Radix) hadutkae Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 and L. (R.) thermokamtschatica Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989 (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Kruglov 2005). These species were separated using proportions of shell and reproductive system (Kruglov & Starobogatov 1989, 1993; Starobogatov et al. 2004). According to the diagnosis, L. (R.) hadutkae differs in the ear-shape shell, a form of the provaginal duct with cylindrical distal part and conical proximal part, and larger value of the index of the copulatory apparatus (ICA: proportion of the preputium to phallotheca is 1.27) from other species within the section Thermoradix Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1989. The last whorl is large, 0.86-0.89 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.15-0.16 of the aperture height. L. (R.) thermokamtschatica has the cylindrical provaginal duct, relatively short bursa duct (1.5X longer than the bursa copulatrix diameter) and very long phallotheca (ICA is 0.77). The last whorl is large, 0.85-0.87 of the shell height; an excess of the last whorl over upper margin of the aperture is 0.2-0.25 of the aperture height. In accordance with an identification key (Starobogatov et al. 2004), the main diagnostic feature is an excess of the last whorl over the shell aperture, which has ?0.78 and ?0.80 of the penultimate whorl width in the first and second species, respectively. In the present paper, we revised these taxa using newly collected topotypes and additional Radix spp. specimens from other areas of the Russian Far East.  PMID:25283942

Bolotov, Ivan; Bespalaya, Yulia; Aksenova, Olga; Aksenov, Andrey; Bolotov, Nikita; Gofarov, Mikhail; Kondakov, Alexander; Paltser, Inga; Vikhrev, Ilya

2014-01-01

324

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos potenciales de los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) y áreas protegidas (APs) sobre los resultados ambientales y las subsistencias locales en los países en desarrollo son polémicos y se han debatido ampliamente. La evidencia disponible es escasa; ha habido pocas evaluaciones rigurosas de los impactos ambientales y sociales de las APs y particularmente los PSA. Medimos el impacto sobre los bosques y el bienestar humano en tres diferentes programas de PSA que se llevan a cabo dentro de dos APs en el norte de Camboya usando un panel de aldeas de intervención y controles emparejados. Tanto los PSA como las APs brindaron resultados ambientales adicionales en relación a los contrafácticos, esto quiere decir que redujeron las tasas de deforestación significativamente en relación a los controles. Las áreas protegidas incrementaron el acceso seguro a los recursos del suelo y el bosque para las viviendas locales, beneficiando a los usuarios de los recursos del bosque pero restringiendo la habilidad de las viviendas para expandirse y diversificar su agricultura. Los impactos de los pagos por servicios ambientales sobre el bienestar de las viviendas estuvieron relacionados con la magnitud de los pagos proporcionados. Los dos programas de PSA de mayor paga y con conexión al mercado tuvieron impactos positivos significativos, mientras que un programa de menor paga con el objetivo de proteger a la biodiversidad no tuvo un efecto detectable sobre las viviendas, a pesar de sus resultados ambientales positivos. Las viviendas que se inscribieron a los programas de PSA con mayor paga, sin embargo, necesitaban típicamente más bienes capitales, por lo que eran menos pobres y tenían mayor seguridad alimentaria que otros aldeanos. Por esto, mientras los impactos de las APs sobre el bienestar de las viviendas fueron limitados en general y variaron dependiendo de las estrategias de subsistencia, los programas de PSA tuvieron impactos positivos significativos sobre las viviendas para aquellos que podían co

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-01-01

325

Comparison of Systemic and Local Methamphetamine Treatment on Acetylcholine and Dopamine Levels in the Ventral Tegmental Area in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important mediator of dopamine (DA) release and the behavioral reinforcing characteristics of drugs of abuse in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the interaction of DA with ACh appears to be integral in mediating motivated behaviors. However, the effects of methamphetamine on VTA ACh and DA release remain poorly characterized. The current investigation performed microdialysis to evaluate the effects of methamphetamine on extracellular levels of ACh and DA. Male C57BL/6J mice received an IP injection (saline, 2 mg/kg, or 5 mg/kg) and an intra-VTA infusion (vehicle, 100 µM or 1 mM) of methamphetamine. Locally perfused methamphetamine resulted in no change in extracellular ACh compared to vehicle, but caused a strong, immediate and dose-dependent increase in extrasynaptic DA levels (1240% and 2473% of baseline, respectively) during the 20-minute pulse perfusion. An IP injection of methamphetamine increased extrasynaptic DA to 275% and 941% of baseline (2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively). Systemic methamphetamine significantly increased ACh levels up to 275% of baseline for 40 – 60 minutes (2 mg/kg) and 397% of baseline for 40 – 160 minutes (5 mg/kg) after injection. ACh remained elevated above baseline for 2 to 3 hours post injection, depending on the methamphetamine dose. Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity was dose-dependently correlated with extrasynaptic VTA ACh, but not DA levels. These data suggest that methamphetamine acts in the VTA to induce a robust and short-lived increase in extracellular DA release but acts in an area upstream from the VTA to produce a prolonged increase in ACh release in the VTA. We conclude that methamphetamine may activate a recurrent loop in the mesocorticolimbic DA system to stimulate pontine cholinergic nuclei and produce a prolonged ACh release in the VTA. PMID:18760336

Dobbs, Lauren K.; Mark, Gregory P.

2008-01-01

326

Area per lipid and cholesterol interactions in membranes from separated local-field (13)C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Investigations of lipid membranes using NMR spectroscopy generally require isotopic labeling, often precluding structural studies of complex lipid systems. Solid-state (13)C magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy at natural isotopic abundance gives site-specific structural information that can aid in the characterization of complex biomembranes. Using the separated local-field experiment DROSS, we resolved (13)C-(1)H residual dipolar couplings that were interpreted with a statistical mean-torque model. Liquid-disordered and liquid-ordered phases were characterized according to membrane thickness and average cross-sectional area per lipid. Knowledge of such structural parameters is vital for molecular dynamics simulations, and provides information about the balance of forces in membrane lipid bilayers. Experiments were conducted with both phosphatidylcholine (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and egg-yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM) lipids, and allowed us to extract segmental order parameters from the (13)C-(1)H residual dipolar couplings. Order parameters were used to calculate membrane structural quantities, including the area per lipid and bilayer thickness. Relative to POPC, EYSM is more ordered in the ld phase and experiences less structural perturbation upon adding 50% cholesterol to form the lo phase. The loss of configurational entropy is smaller for EYSM than for POPC, thus favoring its interaction with cholesterol in raftlike lipid systems. Our studies show that solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy is applicable to investigations of complex lipids and makes it possible to obtain structural parameters for biomembrane systems where isotope labeling may be prohibitive. PMID:25418296

Leftin, Avigdor; Molugu, Trivikram R; Job, Constantin; Beyer, Klaus; Brown, Michael F

2014-11-18

327

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...state, tribe, or local government that...existing electronic document receiving system...state, tribe, or local government with an existing electronic document receiving system...state, tribe, or local government electronic document receiving...

2012-07-01

328

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...state, tribe, or local government that...existing electronic document receiving system...state, tribe, or local government with an existing electronic document receiving system...state, tribe, or local government electronic document receiving...

2013-07-01

329

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

...state, tribe, or local government that...existing electronic document receiving system...state, tribe, or local government with an existing electronic document receiving system...state, tribe, or local government electronic document receiving...

2014-07-01

330

COCA: A secure distributed online certification authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

COCA is a fault-tolerant and secure online certification authority that has been built and deployed both in a local area network and in the Internet. Extremely weak assumptions characterize environments in which COCA's protocols execute correctly: no assumption is made about execution speed and message delivery delays; channels are expected to exhibit only intermittent reliability; and with 3 may be

Lidong Zhou; Fred B. Schneider; Robbert Van Renesse

2002-01-01

331

Channel access schemes and fiber optic configurations for integrated-services local area networks. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local Area Networks are in common use for data communications and have enjoyed great success. Recently, there is a growing interest in using a single network to support many applications in addition to traditional data traffic. These additional applications introduce new requirements in terms of volume of traffic and real-time delivery of data which are not met by existing networks. To satisfy these requirements, a high-bandwidth tranmission medium, such as fiber optics, and a distributed channel access scheme for the efficient sharing of the bandwidth among the various applications are needed. As far as the throughput-delay requirements of the various application are concerned, a network structure along with a distributed channel access are proposed which incorporate appropriate scheduling policies for the transmission of outstanding messages on the network. A dynamic scheduling policy was devised which outperforms all existing policies in terms of minimizing the expected cost per message. A broadcast mechanism was devised for the efficient dissemination of all relevant information. Fiber optic technology is considered for the high-bandwidth transmisison medium.

Nassehi, M. Mehdi

1987-01-01

332

Wireless local area networking for linking a PC reporting system and PACS: clinical feasibility in emergency reporting.  

PubMed

Although local area networks (LANs) are commonplace in hospital-based radiology departments today, wireless LANs are still relatively unknown and untried. A linked wireless reporting system was developed to improve work throughput and efficiency. It allows radiologists, physicians, and technologists to review current radiology reports and images and instantly compare them with reports and images from previous examinations. This reporting system also facilitates creation of teaching files quickly, easily, and accurately. It consists of a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine 3.0-based picture archiving and communication system (PACS), a diagnostic report server, and portable laptop computers. The PACS interfaces with magnetic resonance imagers, computed tomographic scanners, and computed radiography equipment. The same kind of functionality is achievable with a wireless LAN as with a wired LAN, with comparable bandwidth but with less cabling infrastructure required. This wireless system is presently incorporated into the operations of the emergency and radiology departments, with future plans calling for applications in operating rooms, outpatient departments, all hospital wards, and intensive care units. No major problems have been encountered with the system, which is in constant use and appears to be quite successful. PMID:12006700

Yoshihiro, Akiko; Nakata, Norio; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shimpei

2002-01-01

333

Energetics and atomic relaxations of Cu nanowires: the effect of local strain and cross-sectional area.  

PubMed

We have calculated the activation energies for several single atom and vacancy diffusion processes on Cu nanowires with the axial orientation of [Formula: see text], using the nudged elastic band technique based on the interaction potential obtained from the embedded atom method. It is shown that the dimer-initiated local strain and its relief at the transition state have a significant effect on the characteristics of self-surface diffusion mechanisms on nanowires. Contrary to the case for cylindrical multishell-type Cu nanowires, the vacancy formation energy for rectangular nanowires is maximum in the core region and is nearly zero at the corner of the nanowire. In addition, the activation energy barriers for the vacancy diffusion processes taking place in the core region are found to be higher than those occurring near the corner of the nanowire. Our calculations further show that the vacancy diffusion processes taking place near the corner of the wire are dictated by the lower coordination of the surrounding atoms. From the structural investigation of nanowires, we have also established that multilayer relaxations for rectangular nanowires with smaller cross-sectional area cannot be defined. PMID:19417435

Onat, Berk; Konuk, Mine; Durukano?lu, Sondan; Dereli, Gülay

2009-02-18

334

Author! Author! Beverly Cleary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief biography of author Beverly Cleary. Born on April 12, 1916 in McMinnville, Oregon (Yamhill County), Beverly Cleary celebrated her eighty-ninth birthday in 2005. Cleary is probably best known for creating "Ramona" and the other children's book characters who live on Klickitat Street in Portland, Oregon. A selective…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

335

Localization of osteoblast inflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and VEGF to the matrix of the trabecula of the femur, a target area for metastatic breast cancer cell colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone likely provides a hospitable environment for cancer cells as suggested by their preferential localization to the skeleton.\\u000a Previous work has shown that osteoblast-derived cytokines increased in the presence of metastatic breast cancer cells. Thus,\\u000a we hypothesized that osteoblast-derived cytokines, in particular IL-6, MCP-1, and VEGF, would be localized to the bone metaphyses,\\u000a an area to which breast cancer cells

Karen M. Bussard; Noriaki Okita; Neil Sharkey; Thomas Neuberger; Andrew Webb; Andrea M. Mastro

2010-01-01

336

20 CFR 662.310 - Is there a single MOU for the local area or are there to be separate MOU's between the Local...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be negotiated with each partner annually to clarify funding of services and operating costs of the system under the MOU. (b) WIA emphasizes full and effective partnerships between Local Boards, chief elected officials and...

2010-04-01

337

Money for value: the Kinzigtal-way to measure the produced value and health gain in a local area  

PubMed Central

‘Triple Aim’ is the buzzword for the initiatives of the Obama-administration in the US and is referring to a famous article of Don Berwick et al. in 2008 in health affairs asking for better health, better health care, and lower per capita costs. A similar venture started already in 2006 in Germany. One of the most challenging ventures towards reorienting health care in the direction of outcome-orientation is the measurement of the produced value and health gain in a local area. In this keynote the financial architecture and the specific way to measure the produced value and health gain in the integrated care pilot ‘Gesundes Kinzigtal’ will be described—as well some of the operating details and the results within. Located in Southwest Germany, Gesundes Kinzigtal is the only population-based integrated care approaches in Germany, organising care across all health service sectors and indications, that is thoroughly scientifcally evaluated on its medical outcomes in regard to normal care. The system serving nearly half of the population of the region is run by a regional health management company in cooperation with the physicians’ network in the region, a German health care management company with a background in medical sociology and health economics and with two statutory health insurers. Having started in 2006 the more effective trans-sector organisation of the local health care system and increased investments in well-designed preventive and health promotion programmes have led to a reduction in morbidity and mortality, and in particular to reduced overall costs for the insurees of these sickness funds. The results for one of the insurers show a substantial morbidity adjusted efficiency gain already for the years 2007–2010, rising to more than 16% of total costs (included are pharmaceutical, hospital, nursing, emergency as well as physiotherapist and sick leave costs). More Information can be found on www.optimedis.de and www.gesundes-kinzigtal.de and on the evaluation (in German and English) www.ekiv.org.

Hildebrandt, Helmut

2012-01-01

338

Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of Local Group galaxies: detection of M 31 and search for M 33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Cosmic rays (CRs) can be studied through the galaxy-wide gamma-ray emission that they generate when propagating in the interstellar medium. The comparison of the diffuse signals from different systems may inform us about the key parameters in CR acceleration and transport. Aims: We aim to determine and compare the properties of the cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission of several Local Group galaxies. Methods: We use 2 years of nearly continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for gamma-ray emission from M 31 and M 33. We compare the results with those for the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud, the Milky Way, and the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253. Results: We detect a gamma-ray signal at 5? significance in the energy range 200 MeV-20 GeV that is consistent with originating from M 31. The integral photon flux above 100 MeV amounts to (9.1 ± 1.9stat ± 1.0sys) × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1. We find no evidence for emission from M 33 and derive an upper limit on the photon flux >100 MeV of 5.1 × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1 (2?). Comparing these results to the properties of other Local Group galaxies, we find indications of a correlation between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity that also holds for the starburst galaxies. Conclusions: The gamma-ray luminosity of M 31 is about half that of the Milky Way, which implies that the ratio between the average CR densities in M 31 and the Milky Way amounts to ? = 0.35 ± 0.25. The observed correlation between gamma-ray luminosity and star formation rate suggests that the flux of M 33 is not far below the current upper limit from the LAT observations. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. Do Couto E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Jean, P.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Martin, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pepe, M.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Strigari, L.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ziegler, M.

2010-11-01

339

Copyright 2011 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. German, L., G. C. Schoneveld, and P. Pacheco. 2011. Local social and environmental impacts of biofuels  

E-print Network

, L., G. C. Schoneveld, and P. Pacheco. 2011. Local social and environmental impacts of biofuels Impacts of Biofuels Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Global Comparative Assessment witnessed the rapid expansion of biofuel plantations in the global South in the context of a growing trend

340

A Survey of Users' Reactions to the Local Area Network in the Library School at the University of North Texas. A Research Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research analyzing users' reactions to the implementation of automation and computer technology in the industrial and business fields indicates that users will respond more positively to these new technologies if they are adequately trained beforehand. To measure response in the academic sector, users' reactions to the local area network (LAN) in…

Brazile, Orella Ramsey

341

The mission of the Research Centers is to serve the specific needs of the clientele in local production areas and the broader needs of Montana agriculture  

E-print Network

production areas and the broader needs of Montana agriculture in general through applied research directed programs benefits Montana agriculture and the scientific community at local, state and national levels. This knowledge is disseminated to the agricultural industry in Montana through publications and teaching

Dyer, Bill

342

Rapid Technical Change and the Speed of Lock-in: Standard Battles in the Local Area Network Industry in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of Fast Ethernet as the dominant standard for high speed connection in the Local Area Network industry is chosen to analyse the relevance of increasing returns and network externalities in determining the speed of standard diffusion. Although it was not the first standard to emerge, Fast Ethernet was able to catch up an out-compete existing alternatives due its

Roberto Fontana

2003-01-01

343

Using Multiple Environmental Age Tracers to Investigate Interactions between Hydrothermal and Shallow Local Systems in the Norris Geyser Basin Area, Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple age tracers are used to constrain the evolution of groundwater and interactions between shallow local flow and the hydrothermal system in the area surrounding Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park. Springs, ranging in temperature from 4°C - 92°C, were sample for dissolved chloroflourocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) concentrations and tritium concentrations. Sample springs had a wide distribution of

P. Gardner; D. Susong; D. K. Solomon; H. Heasler

2008-01-01

344

Copyright 2003 by the author(s). Published here under licence by The Resilience Alliance. Ricketts, T. and M. Imhoff. 2003. Biodiversity, urban areas, and agriculture: locating priority ecoregions  

E-print Network

. Ricketts, T. and M. Imhoff. 2003. Biodiversity, urban areas, and agriculture: locating priority ecoregions Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation Taylor Ricketts1 and Marc Imhoff2 ABSTRACT. Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats

Vermont, University of

345

A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) Directors and Local School District Special Education Directors in Four Counties of Southern California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceived level of job satisfaction of SELPA directors with that of local school district special education directors in the counties of Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Orange of Southern California and to identify factors that contribute to their job satisfaction. Additionally, this…

Alexander, Gregory Haynes, III

2009-01-01

346

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State,...

2010-07-01

347

40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State,...

2011-07-01

348

Re-irradiation of a second localization of idiopathic midline destructive disease in the head and neck area.  

PubMed

Idiopathic midline destructive disease is a rare disease, characterized by a progressive ulceration and destruction of midline facial structures. We report a case with localization on the palate for which she received radiotherapy. Later she developed a second localization on the posterior pharyngeal wall for which she was re-irradiated, without severe sequels. Twice a complete regression was observed. PMID:17647007

Poorter, Robert L; de Bree, Remco; Leemans, C René; van der Valk, Paul; Slotman, Ben J; Langendijk, Johannes A

2007-12-01

349

Local perceptions of jaguars ( Panthera onca) and pumas ( Puma concolor) in the Iguaçu National Park area, south Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaguars (Panthera onca) have been killed by local residents within the boundaries and lands surrounding Iguaçu National Park (INP), Brazil. Both jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) occur in the region, however, livestock predation by pumas has rarely been reported. Our objective was to assess the local perceptions about jaguars and pumas. We identified two major factors that distinguished the perceptions

Valéria Amorim Conforti; Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo

2003-01-01

350

Comparative abundance and population structure of sympatric Afrotropical tortoises in six rainforest areas: the differential effects of ``traditional veneration'' and of ``subsistence hunting'' by local people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hinge-back tortoises are actively hunted by human populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and are currently threatened in wide areas of their ranges. The wide wetlands and moist rainforests of the Niger Delta (southeastern Nigeria, west Africa) house three sympatric species of hinge-back tortoises: Kinixys erosa, K. homeana, and K. belliana nogueyi. These tortoises are subjected to strong hunting pressure for several reasons (mainly domestic consumption), but in a few places in Bayelsa and Rivers States (eastern axis of the Niger Delta), they are traditionally venerated as "holy animals" bringing happiness. These few places may represent ideal laboratories for monitoring the effects of hundreds of years of "traditional conservation" on the wild populations of a tropical reptile. Here, I compare the apparent abundance, sex ratio, body sizes, microhabitats, and seasonal occurrence of free-ranging Kinixys populations inhabiting three of these "traditional sanctuaries" with the same ecological aspects of conspecifics from three neighbouring areas where the tortoises are actively hunted. K. homeana was the most common species at all sites, followed by K. erosa, whereas K. belliana was extremely rare. Adult sex ratio did not depart significantly from equality both in K. erosa and in K. homeana, and was not influenced by locality or by type of "management" (veneration or harvesting). The frequency of juveniles of K. homeana was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas of harvesting, but the same pattern was not observed in K. erosa. There was a significant decrease in terms of the number of observed specimens between areas of traditional protection and areas of usual harvesting in all species, and this trend was more obvious in K. homeana than in K. erosa. The ratio "number of observed erosa/number of observed homeana" was not dependent on the presence of traditional veneration. Mean body sizes were not different in harvest areas and in veneration areas in K. homeana, but the same comparisons were not done for K. erosa because sample sizes were too small. Tortoises in veneration areas inhabited a wider range of microhabitats than in harvest areas, where they were found almost only in dense bushes. Specimens of both K. erosa and K. homeana were observed mainly during the wet season, and this excess of observed specimens was significantly affected both by locality and by type of management, i.e., the frequency of observed specimens of both species during the dry season was significantly higher in areas with traditional veneration than in areas with local harvesting. The conservation implications of the ecological patterns observed are discussed.

Luiselli, Luca

2003-07-01

351

An assessment of local risk. [to area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A status report is presented on the assessment of the risk at Washington National Airport and the surrounding Washington, D.C. area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite in their structures. The presentation is outlined as follows: (1) overall strategy; (2) need for individual airport results; (3) airport-metro area model - submodels, method, assumptions and data; and (4) preliminary results for National Airport - D.C. area.

Pocinki, L. S.

1979-01-01

352

Localized Sensor Area Coverage With Low Communication Overhead Antoine Gallais, Jean Carle and David Simplot-Ryl  

E-print Network

and affordable since recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), digital electronics, these objects are allowed to turn into sleep mode as soon as they are not required for the local monitoring task

Boyer, Edmond

353

Local seismicity in the area of Tornio River (northern Fennoscandia) revealed by analysis of local events registered by the POLENET/LAPNET array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region of Tornio river (22-26 deg E and 66.5-69 deg N) is very interesting for seismological studies because it is crossed by systems of tectonic faults spreading in two different directions. 56 local earthquakes originated from this region were recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET temporary array from May, 2007 to May, 2009. Hypocenter depths of earthquakes are in the range of 1-35 km and their magnitudes vary from 0.8 to 2.2. For events detection we used the bulletin of the Institute of Seismology (Helsinki university) and Norway Global Beam Forming bulletin, compiled on the base of automatic detection of events, using the data of Noress, Arcess, Finess, SPA, HFS, APA arrays. In addition to local earthquakes, the array recorded 364 blasts from this region during the POLENET/LAPNET observation period. The events were relocated using manually measured travel times of refracted P waves from events at local distances (less than 200 km) and the 1-D velocity model along the wide-angle reflection and refraction HUKKA profile. The epicenters of relocated events show good correlation with known faults in the region. For each earthquake we constructed travel-time curves with reduction velocity of 8 km/s and compared them with the theoretical travel-time curves, in order to avoid phase misinterpretation. We found out that the largest reduction of travel time residuals during relocation was reached for deep earthquakes, due to more precise depth determination. The other aim of our study was to estimate what part of travel time residuals is not connected with the reference 1D velocity model and accuracy of location, but is rather due to 3-D heterogeneities in the crust. We also analyzed the amplitude characteristics of P-wave arrivals from different layers in the crust and upper mantle and also compared spectrograms of deep earthquakes, shallow earthquakes and blasts.

Kozlovskaya, E.; Usoltseva, O.; Konstantinovskaya, N.

2012-04-01

354

Three dimensional images of geothermal systems: local earthquake P-wave velocity tomography at the Hengill and Krafla geothermal areas, Iceland, and The Geysers, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Local earthquake tomography - the use of earthquake signals to form a 3-dimensional structural image - is now a mature geophysical analysis method, particularly suited to the study of geothermal reservoirs, which are often seismically active and severely laterally inhomogeneous. Studies have been conducted of the Hengill (Iceland), Krafla (Iceland) and The Geysers (California) geothermal areas. All three systems are exploited for electricity and/or heat production, and all are highly seismically active. Tomographic studies of volumes a few km in dimension were conducted for each area using the method of Thurber (1983).

Julian, B.R.; Prisk, A.; Foulger, G.R.; Evans, J.R.

1993-01-01

355

Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland?  

PubMed Central

It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on interactions between individual and environmental factors in shaping health and health inequalities. PMID:18599170

Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

2008-01-01

356

Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.  

PubMed

It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on interactions between individual and environmental factors in shaping health and health inequalities. PMID:18599170

Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

2008-09-01

357

Interpretation of the concentrations of aldehydes in rainwater over a wide area and local areas of Japan by some dominant factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainwater pollution with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other aliphatic aldehydes was investigated from May 2008 to June 2011 at 19 locations over a wide area in Japan to survey the pollution level. The pollution level was remarkably controlled by the amount of precipitation. The concentrations of total aliphatic aldehydes and formaldehyde sometimes exceeded 0.6 mg L-1 and 0.2 mg L-1 when the rainfall was small, and decreased rapidly with increasing the amount of rainfall. And in larger rainfall, the concentrations were converged to ca. 0.09 mg L-1 and 0.06 mg L-1 respectively. It was found that the concentration of the pollutants collected in a bottle for a single rainfall event is expressed by an equation based on a dilution model where heavy deposition occurred only at early rainfall followed by continuous dilution of the water with less polluted rainwater. These results were interpreted that the aldehydes in air were washed out very quickly due to their high solubility in water. As progressing of rainfall, the pollution level attained to an equilibrium state between influx and outflux of the pollutants. Precise investigation through a sequential sampling of rainwater by 1 mm during a rainfall event was also performed at several sites. It was found that a break of rainfall is another dominant factor to control the pollution level. A break of rainfall quickly enhanced the pollution level of the resumed rain. Regional difference on rainwater pollution level was observed only at the early stage throughout a rainfall event. The air-pollution levels were high just before beginning rainfall, and they decreased quickly with increasing the amount of rainfall, but never converged to zero. These results suggest that continuous influx of the pollutants occurs in a wide area in Japan besides regional influx.

Taguchi, Shigeru; Murai, Keita; Takamatsu, Mizuho; Hayakawa, Yukari; Tamizu, Shinya; Kuwata, Makoto; Katayama, Yuuki; Kuramitz, Hideki; Hata, Noriko

2012-12-01

358

CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Evolutionary Self-Questioning Games with Local Contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game on small-world networks in a realistic social context where individuals consider their local contributions to their group and update their strategies by self-questioning. An individual with introspection can determine whether its current strategy is superior by playing a virtual round of the game and its local contribution is defined as the sum of all the payoffs its neighbors collect against it. In our model, the performance of an individual is determined by both its payoff and local contribution through a linear combination. We demonstrate that the present mechanism can produce very robust cooperative behavior in both games. Furthermore, we provide theoretical analysis based on mean-field approximation, and find that the analytical predictions are qualitatively consistent with the simulation results.

Liu, Yong-Kui; Li, Zhi; Chen, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Long

2009-08-01

359

Partitioning, sources and variability of regional and local oxidant (OX?=?O3?+?NO 2) in a coastal rural area in the southwest of Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to investigate the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX?=?NO2?+?O3), for the first time, in a rural coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, affected by several air masses types. Detailed database (built-up over the years 2008 to 2011, and containing around 500,000 data) from the Atmospheric Sounding Station "El Arenosillo" was used. The observed daily cycles of NO x and OX were influenced by air masses coming from industrial and urban area. It can be seen that the concentration of OX is made up of a NO x -independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O3 background), and a linearly NO x -dependent 'local' contribution from primary emissions, such as traffic. The local emission is very low in this area. Also, the regional contribution is similar to unpolluted sites and presents seasonal variation, being higher in May. However, our measurements showed that the proportion of OX in the form of NO2 increases with the increase in NO x concentration during the day. The higher proportion of NO2 observed at night must be due to the conversion of NO to NO2 by the NO?+?O3 reaction. With regards to the source of the local NO x -dependent contribution, it may be attributed to industrial emission, or the termolecular reaction 2NO?+?O2?=?2NO2, at high-NO x levels and stagnant air during several days. Finally, we estimated the photolysis rate of NO2, J NO2, an important key atmospheric reaction coupled with ozone. We also present surface plots of annual variation of the daily mean NO x and OX levels, which indicate that oxidants come from transport processes instead of local emissions associated as local photochemistry. PMID:23529402

Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

2013-09-01

360

Soldiers' negotiations in combat areas : The effects of role clarity and concern for members of the local population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this exploratory study is to assess the impact of role clarity and concern for the other party's goals on soldiers' negotiations with members of the local population within a combat zone. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Following the Dual Concerns Model it was hypothesized that soldiers experiencing high concern for the needs of their Iraqi counterparts would engage

Orly Ben-Yoav Nobel; Donald Campbell; Sean T. Hannah; Brian Wortinger

2010-01-01

361

A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming.  

PubMed

Movements of water that transport pathogens mean that in net-pen aquaculture diseases are often most effectively managed collaboratively among neighbours. Such area management is widely and explicitly applied for pathogen management in marine salmon farms. Effective area management requires the active support of farm managers and a simple game-theory based framework was developed to identify the conditions required under which collaboration is perceived to be in their own best interest. The model applied is based on area management as practiced for Scottish salmon farms, but its simplicity allows it to be generalised to other area-managed net-pen aquaculture systems. In this model managers choose between purchasing tested pathogen-free fish or cheaper, untested fish that might carry pathogens. Perceived pay-off depends on degree of confidence that neighbours will not buy untested fish, risking input of pathogens that spread between farms. For a given level of risk, confidence in neighbours is most important in control of moderate-impact moderate-probability diseases. Common low-impact diseases require high confidence since there is a high probability a neighbour will import, while testing for rare high-impact diseases may be cost-effective regardless of neighbours actions. In some cases testing may be beneficial at an area level, even if all individual farms are better off not testing. Higher confidence is required for areas with many farms and so focusing management on smaller, epidemiologically imperfect, areas may be more effective. The confidence required for collaboration can be enhanced by the development of formal agreements and the involvement of outside disinterested parties such as trade bodies or government. PMID:24767813

Murray, Alexander G

2014-08-01

362

Health authorities. HAs beens?  

PubMed

Health authorities are likely to emerge as the poor relations in the current NHS reorganisation, just as they did following the 1990 reforms. Planning for health is a key NHS task and primary care groups will not be large enough to take it on. Radical thinking is needed. Future options include abolishing HAs and making local authorities, regional government or NHS regions responsible for planning. Another option would be creating fewer, bigger authorities for strategic planning. PMID:10345650

Higgins, J

1999-01-28

363

ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements.

Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

1997-10-01

364

The Influence of Local Urban Containment Policies and Statewide Growth Management on the Size of United States Urban Areas &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?In an attempt to slow the consumption of urban land for a given population, and the negative outcomes thought by some to be generated by such sprawl, regulations in the form of (i) the local imposition of urban containment policies that restrict or prohibit the amount and/or the type of urban settlement beyond a certain line and (ii) the statewide

Robert W. Wassmer

2006-01-01

365

The impact of the biotechnology industry on local economic development in the Boston and San Diego metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-technology\\/knowledge-intensive industries have become of increasing importance as sources of job growth and revenue to communities seeking to develop their economies. Communities want these industries so that they can be as economically vigorous as possible. However, although high-tech industries such as biotechnology are coveted as drivers of economic development, the local development impact of these clusters of regional innovation is

Michael Sable

2007-01-01

366

New multichannel optical local area network based on an original star topology with an adapted multi-Ethernet protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new optical physical layer and protocol for optical Load Area Networks (LANs), which allow a large number of hosts to be connected while offering a large capacity and exhibiting a high degree of modularity and scalability. The physical layer of the optical LAN is first presented. It is based on a passive star topology and exploits the

Caroline Brisson; Alain Kueng; P.-A. Nicati; Philippe-Alain Robert; Daniel Rodellar; C. Bungarzeanu

1998-01-01

367

Contingent valuation of ecotourism in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal: Implications for sustainable park finance and local development  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine willingness to pay (WTP) for candidate entry fees, contingent valuation surveys were administered to 315 foreign visitors to the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, during April and May of 2006. The results of logit regression showed that the bid amount, family size, visitors' satisfaction, the use of a guide, and group size were the most significant predictors of WTP.

Nabin Baral; Marc J. Stern; Ranju Bhattarai

2008-01-01

368

A METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ARMY TRAINING AND TESTING AREA CARRYING CAPACITY (ATTACC) VEHICLE SEVERITY FACTORS AND LOCAL CONDITION FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) program is a methodology for estimating training and testing land carrying capacity. The methodology is used to determine land rehabilitation and maintenance costs associated with land-based training. ATTACC is part of...

369

Medial canthal area reconstruction with horizontal advancement flap.  

PubMed

The medial canthal area is a common site for the development of skin cancer, the reconstruction of this area can be challenging for the dermatologic surgeon. The author describes the reconstruction of a defect measured about 1.5 × 1.5 cm, localized on the inner canthal area of the left eye with a horizontal advancement flap. PMID:23082757

Goulão, João

2014-10-01

370

Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient (-0.02) and decreasing concentration

J. B. Czarnecki; L. Kroitoru; D. Ronen; M. Magaritz

1992-01-01

371

Retinal ganglion cell layer of the Caspian seal Pusa caspica: topography and localization of the high-resolution area.  

PubMed

Retinal topography, cell density and sizes of ganglion cells in the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) were analyzed in retinal whole mounts stained with cresyl-violet. The topographic distribution of ganglion cells displayed an area of high cell density located in the temporal quadrant of the retina and was similar to the area centralis of terrestrial carnivores. It extended nasally, above the optic disk, as a streak of increased cell density. In different whole mounts, the peak cell density in the high-density area ranged from 1,684 to 1,844 cells/mm² (mean 1,773 cells/mm²). The cell density data predict a retinal resolution of around 8.5 cycles/degree in water. A distinctive feature of the Caspian seal's retina is the large size of ganglion cells and the low cell density compared to terrestrial mammals. The ganglion cell diameter ranged from 10 to 58 ?m. Cell size histograms featured bimodal patterns with groups of small and large ganglion cells. The large cells appeared similar to ?-cells of terrestrial mammals and constituted 7% of the total ganglion cell population. PMID:21079394

Mass, Alla M; Supin, A Y

2010-01-01

372

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2012-04-01

373

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2013-04-01

374

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2011-04-01

375

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2014-04-01

376

20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT...Management Provisions § 670.945 Are Job Corps operators and service providers...

2010-04-01

377

Learning from Local Strategic Partnerships: LGA Advice Note for Working with the Community and Voluntary Sectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is intended to assist local authorities in England and Wales who are interested in forming local strategic partnerships (LSPs) with the community and voluntary sectors. Section 1 presents the following guidelines for LSPs when developing a community strategy to meet local priorities: (1) have each local area prepare a plan to improve…

2002

378

Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas--a localized spatio-temporal environmental inequality analysis.  

PubMed

Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French metropolitan areas (Lille in the North, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the South, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (?g/m(3)) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities can be made. PMID:25199972

Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica M; Rossello, Philippe; Le Nir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

2014-10-01

379

Partnership out of Conflict: The Emerging Relationship of Teacher Learning Representatives and Local Authority Continuing Professional Development Quality Improvement Officers in Scotland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Union learning representatives have become significant in the Scottish educational system--particularly in response to the McCrone Report, which dealt with the future of continuing professional development (CPD) of Scottish teachers and made significant recommendations in this area. The Educational Institute of Scotland, the teacher union that…

Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

2008-01-01

380

A comparative study of factors influencing decisions on desired family size among married men and women in Bokkos, a rural local government area in Plateau state.  

PubMed

The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population. PMID:24069744

Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N

2013-03-01

381

Local History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local history studied by the professional historian applying new methods gained from social history has provided abundant new evidence which challenges a number of conventional opinions about larger historical phenomena. (Author/MB)

Goubert, Pierre

1971-01-01

382

Experimental study and mathematical simulation of the mixed convection in a rectangular area with a local heat source and the heat sink at the external boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the experimental determination of temperatures and numerical simulation of temperature fields in a mixed convection in a rectangular area with a heat-conducting walls at a local energy source on the bottom are presented. For the experimental determination of temperature fields in a mixed convection method of thermocouple measurements was used. Studies were conducted at Reynolds numbers 10 ?Re ? 1500 and Rayleigh 103 ?Ra ? 105. For the verification of obtained experimental data mathematical simulation of mixed convection in the region with the use of a software package Comsol Multiphysics is carried out. A good agreement between the results of experimental determination of the local characteristics of mixed convection in a rectangular volume with a local source of energy and heat-conducting walls with theoretical consequences obtained in the simulation of convective flows using a mathematical package is established. It makes it possible to make a conclusion about the possibility of application for the analysis of flow conditions of viscous heat-conducting gas of experimental procedure based on methods of thermocouple measurements. At the same time the developed approach to the experimental study of mixed convection is applicable in a wide enough range of the main flow parameters and the experimental conditions.

Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornov, Dmitriy A.

2014-08-01

383

Broadband, wide-area active control of sound radiated from vibrating structures using local surface-mounted radiation suppression devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new active noise-control device, which offers a practical solution for complex noise problems, has been developed and experimentally evaluated. Noise reduction is achieved by distributing an array of control devices over the surface of the radiating structure (e.g., aircraft fuselage interior). Each device consists of a motion sensor, a control circuit, and a loudspeaker. The control circuits are independent and can be manufactured inexpensively from analog components. The loudspeaker is driven such that it reduces the volume velocity of the radiating structure within its close proximity. Experimental verification of this concept was performed using a uniformly vibrating circular plate with a single device. The controller transfer function was derived and implemented in an analog circuit. Broadband (50-500 Hz) sound reductions in the range of 10-20 dB were achieved over a wide spatial area, including the immediate vicinity of the device. The controller was found to be stable and robust. Since this device in its final implementation may be mounted behind the aircraft trim panels, it was covered by a large, flexible panel. The performance was measured and found to be excellent.

Mason, V. Bradford; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Toth, G. K.

384

Sulfide-Sulfate Mineralizations in Verzino Area (Crotone Basin, Southern Italy): New insights on localized hydrothermal fluid circulations and their relationship with tectonics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this early stage of the work we present a preliminary study of hydrothermal mineralizations found in Verzino locality, Crotone Basin, Southern Appennines, (Calabria, Italy). Both geochemical and petrographic investigations were developed with the aim of understanding the genesis of the sulfide-sulfate associations present in the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" formation, deepening their relationship with fluids circulation. These mineralizations have been recognized only in two "Calanchi" morphostructures - Badlands like morphology developed by the differential erosional pattern of the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" fm. - and constituting the northwestern flank of a little valley evolved in the Miocene sedimentary sequence from "Conglomerato di S.Nicola" fm. to "Evaporiti Superiori" fm. The mineralizations are distributed along isooriented centimetric veins (with mean direction of N120) and in nodules diffused close to the veins. These hydrothermal mineralizations are constituted by an associations of Pyrite spherical nodules (millimetric to centimetric in radius with occurrences of well developed octahedral habit single crystals), sulphate crystals (Gypsum, Jarosite, NatroJarosite), Oxides (Goethite mainly), millimetric veins of Barite and micrometric Ankerite specimens. The data (mineral habits, semiquantitative compositions and x-Ray spectra), obtained by an integration of S.E.M and XRD investigations, permit us, at the current stage of the study, to hypothesize a possible hydrothermal origin (whose temperature range estimate needs further investigations) for the sulfide-sulfate mineral phases. At the moment, we exclude their primary or secondary sedimentary provenance. The comparison of our results with the previous scientific literature focused on hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate systems (Vinogradov and Stephanov, 1964; Kostov, 1968; Plummer 1971; Boles, 1978; Ferrini and Moretti 1998) allows us to propose a possible "thermal window" ranging in the interval 50°C-230°C, characterizing an exalative-ephitermal facies condition for the genesis of the here presented mineralizations. The supposed hydrothermal genesis, together with the localization and oriented distribution of the vein/nodule systems, suggest a strong control on the fluid circulation by the very local fault systems characterizing the tectonic of the investigated area. A very close relationship between faults and fluids in Calabria region has been recently claimed by Italiano et al (2010); the presence of thermal and sulphur-rich ground-waters farther south and west of the study area (Belvedere di Spinello, Verzino, Casabona and Cotronei), strongly supports our inferences. The study area (and in general the Crotone basin) has suffered two destructive earthquakes in 1638 and 1832, with an estimated magnitude of 6.5-6.8. Moreover, recent paleoseismological studies (Galli and Bosi, 2003; Galli et al., 2008) re-evaluated the seismic hazard of the area, by detecting some historical strong earthquakes along previously unknown fault systems. This work, with the reported results on mineral associations developed by important fluid/fault interactions, highlights the role and the timing of both localized stress and pore pressures cycles in an active tectonic setting, and may represent a new interpretation key and a clue reference for a deeper understanding of a not well known italian seismic area characterized, at least, by the presence of three regional active master faults: the Marchesato Fault, the Lakes fault the Cerenzia-San Nicola-Strongoli Line. Geochemical and isotopic analyses on mineralizations, host rock and spring fluids are in progress to better define and understand the local hydrothermal system and to propose a model of time and control of the tectonic on the fluid circulation.

Berardi, Gabriele; Lucci, Federico; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Pizzino, Luca; Cantucci, Barbara; Quattrocchi, Fedora

2010-05-01

385

The contribution of permanent GPS station PW data on heavy local rainfall events in the Greek area.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two decades GPS has demonstrated its ability to estimate and monitor the magnitude of atmospheric water vapor with good time resolution and under all meteorological conditions. In this study, the precipitable water (pw) values estimated over specific permanent GPS stations of various Greek networks are analyzed by using different processing options dealing with the selection of different mapping functions for the computation of troposheric delay. Another, basic topic of this study is the combination of pw values with ground meteorological data and more specifically with precipitation values, recorded few days before and after the heavy rainfall events. These events occurred within the year 2013 at various locations of the Greek territory like, Epirus, Central Macedonia, the city of Athens and Rhodes island, and included various rainfall kinds like the flash flood type. For example, the amount of precipitation in the case of Rhodes over passed the 100 mm within few hours. In order to account for the tropospheric delay gradients and for the estimation of precipitable water GPS data were processed with high precision software such as GAMIT of MIT. Pw values were estimated for all GPS permanent stations around and inside of each test area. The estimated values which derived are discussed through the comparison and statistical analysis between various parameters, like the pw precipitation, rate of time changing and tropospheric delay gradients time series. The main analysis applied indicates the complexity of the phenomena close to rainfall zone at time of precipitation in order to provide a clear precursor of the torrential rainfall events. For this type of successful scenarios more kind of atmospheric data may be needed. However, some peculiar conclusions through the monitoring process can be highlighted.

Pikridas, Christos; Katsougiannopoulos, Symeon; Bitharis, Stylianos; Chatzinikos, Miltiadis; Zinas, Nikolaos; Kouroudi, Aikaterini; Argyris, Ilias

2014-05-01

386

A systematic review to identify areas of enhancements of pandemic simulation models for operational use at provincial and local levels  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, computer simulation models have supported development of pandemic influenza preparedness policies. However, U.S. policymakers have raised several concerns about the practical use of these models. In this review paper, we examine the extent to which the current literature already addresses these concerns and identify means of enhancing the current models for higher operational use. Methods We surveyed PubMed and other sources for published research literature on simulation models for influenza pandemic preparedness. We identified 23 models published between 1990 and 2010 that consider single-region (e.g., country, province, city) outbreaks and multi-pronged mitigation strategies. We developed a plan for examination of the literature based on the concerns raised by the policymakers. Results While examining the concerns about the adequacy and validity of data, we found that though the epidemiological data supporting the models appears to be adequate, it should be validated through as many updates as possible during an outbreak. Demographical data must improve its interfaces for access, retrieval, and translation into model parameters. Regarding the concern about credibility and validity of modeling assumptions, we found that the models often simplify reality to reduce computational burden. Such simplifications may be permissible if they do not interfere with the performance assessment of the mitigation strategies. We also agreed with the concern that social behavior is inadequately represented in pandemic influenza models. Our review showed that the models consider only a few social-behavioral aspects including contact rates, withdrawal from work or school due to symptoms appearance or to care for sick relatives, and compliance to social distancing, vaccination, and antiviral prophylaxis. The concern about the degree of accessibility of the models is palpable, since we found three models that are currently accessible by the public while other models are seeking public accessibility. Policymakers would prefer models scalable to any population size that can be downloadable and operable in personal computers. But scaling models to larger populations would often require computational needs that cannot be handled with personal computers and laptops. As a limitation, we state that some existing models could not be included in our review due to their limited available documentation discussing the choice of relevant parameter values. Conclusions To adequately address the concerns of the policymakers, we need continuing model enhancements in critical areas including: updating of epidemiological data during a pandemic, smooth handling of large demographical databases, incorporation of a broader spectrum of social-behavioral aspects, updating information for contact patterns, adaptation of recent methodologies for collecting human mobility data, and improvement of computational efficiency and accessibility. PMID:22463370

2012-01-01

387

Behaviour and variability of local and regional oxidant levels (OX = O3 + NO2) measured in a polluted area in central-southern of Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the photochemical air pollution in central-southern of the Iberian Peninsula, analysing the behaviour and variability of oxidant levels (OX = O(3) + NO(2)), measured in a polluted area with the highest concentration of heavy industry in central Spain. A detailed air pollution database was observed from two monitoring stations. The data period used was 2008 and 2009, around 210,000 data, selected for its pollution and meteorological statistics, which are very representative of the region. Data were collected every 15 min, however hourly values were used to analyse the seasonal and daily ozone, NO, NO(2) and OX cycles. The variation of OX concentrations with NO(x) is investigated, for the first time, in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The concentration of OX was calculated using the sum of a NO(x)-independent 'regional' contribution (i.e. the O(3) background), and a linearly NO(x)-dependent 'local' contribution. Monthly dependence of regional and local OX concentration was observed to determine when the maximum values may be expected. The variation of OX concentrations with levels of NO(x) was also measured, in order to pinpoint the atmospheric sources of OX in the polluted areas. The ratios [NO(2)]/[OX] and [NO(2)]/[NO(x)] vs. [NO(x)] were analysed to find the fraction of OX in the form of NO(2), and the possible source of the local NO(x)-dependent contribution, respectively. The progressive increase of the ratio [NO(2)]/[OX] with [NO(x)] observed shows a greater proportion of OX in the form of NO(2) as the level of NO( x ) increases. The higher measured values in the ratio [NO(2)]/[NO(x)] should not be attributed to NO(x) emissions by vehicles; they could be explained by industrial emission, termolecular reactions or formaldehyde and HONO directly emitted by vehicles exhausts. We also estimate the rate of NO(2) photolysis, J (NO(2)) = 0.18-0.64 min(-1), a key atmospheric reaction that influence O(3) production and then the regional air quality. The first surface plot study of annual variation of the daily mean oxidant levels, obtained for this polluted area may be used to improve the atmospheric photochemical dynamic in this region of the Iberian Peninsula where there are undeniable air quality problems. PMID:22645005

Notario, Alberto; Bravo, Iván; Adame, José Antonio; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana

2013-01-01

388

AUTHOR COPY ONLY REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH  

E-print Network

and sperm protein extracts obtained from chicken semen. Plasma NAMPT levels, determined by enzymeAUTHOR COPY ONLY REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH NAMPT (visfatin) in the chicken testis: influence of sexual maturation on cellular localization, plasma levels and gene and protein expression Olga M Oco´n-Grove, Susan

Ramachandran, Ramesh

389

A hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a dynamic add/drop function based on Fourier code for local area networks.  

PubMed

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a dynamic add/drop function based on Fourier code for local area networks. Dynamic function is implemented by mechanically tuning the Fourier encoder/decoder for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) encoding/decoding. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is utilized for node assignment and 4-chip Fourier code recovers the matched signal from the codes. For an optical source well adapted to WDM channels and its short optical pulse generation, reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) are used with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and gain-switched. To demonstrate we experimentally investigated a two-node hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a 4-chip Fourier encoder/decoder fabricated by cascading four FBGs with the bit error rate (BER) of <10(-9) for the node span of 10.64 km at 1.25 Gb/s. PMID:21451649

Choi, Yong-Kyu; Hosoya, Kenta; Lee, Chung Ghiu; Hanawa, Masanori; Park, Chang-Soo

2011-03-28

390

Local sensitivity to stimulus orientation and spatial frequency within the receptive fields of neurons in visual area 2 of macaque monkeys  

PubMed Central

We used dynamic dense noise stimuli and local spectral reverse correlation methods to reveal the local sensitivities of neurons in visual area 2 (V2) of macaque monkeys to orientation and spatial frequency within their receptive fields. This minimized the potentially confounding assumptions that are inherent in stimulus selections. The majority of neurons exhibited a relatively high degree of homogeneity for the preferred orientations and spatial frequencies in the spatial matrix of facilitatory subfields. However, about 20% of all neurons showed maximum orientation differences between neighboring subfields that were greater than 25 deg. The neurons preferring horizontal or vertical orientations showed less inhomogeneity in space than the neurons preferring oblique orientations. Over 50% of all units also exhibited suppressive profiles, and those were more heterogeneous than facilitatory profiles. The preferred orientation and spatial frequency of suppressive profiles differed substantially from those of facilitatory profiles, and the neurons with suppressive subfields had greater orientation selectivity than those without suppressive subfields. The peak suppression occurred with longer delays than the peak facilitation. These results suggest that the receptive field profiles of the majority of V2 neurons reflect the orderly convergence of V1 inputs over space, but that a subset of V2 neurons exhibit more complex response profiles having both suppressive and facilitatory subfields. These V2 neurons with heterogeneous subfield profiles could play an important role in the initial processing of complex stimulus features. PMID:22114163

Tao, X.; Zhang, B.; Smith, E. L.; Nishimoto, S.; Ohzawa, I.

2012-01-01

391

Age and proximity to local ore-smelters as determinants of tissue metal levels in beaver (Castor canadensis) of the sudbury (Ontario) area.  

PubMed

An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area beaver (Castor canadensis) revealed that animals in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Ni and Pb in the liver and kidneys. Tissue concentrations averaged 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting through food chain contamination. Tissue levels of Cu, Cd and Zn did not vary in relation to distance from source. Tissue Cd levels were uniformly elevated throughout the four populations examined and are believed to reflect an enhanced level of food chain transfer occurring on the poorly buffered, acid-sensitive soils of the area. Burden: body weight correlations indicated that tissue concentrations of Cd increased whereas Cu levels decreased as a function of animal age. Most striking among these age-related trends was the disproportionate uptake of Cd by renal tissues, resulting in 10-fold higher burdens than those present within the liver. PMID:15091874

Hillis, T L; Parker, G H

1993-01-01

392

Government Regulations and Housing Markets: An Index to Characterize Local Land Use Regulatory Environments for Residential Markets in the Houston - Galveston Area  

E-print Network

the stringency of local regulatory environments. In response to this lack of evidence of the characteristics of local land use regulatory environments in Texas, this research created the first city-level index characterizing local regulatory environments...

Estevez Jimenez, Luis

2012-07-16

393

An assessment of the microseismic activity and focal mechanisms of the Izmir (Smyrna) area from a new local network (IzmirNET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Izmir metropolitan area is one of the biggest cities of Turkey in terms of population and industrial density. Amount of recordings and quality of located events increased since the new local seismic array, IzmirNET, was installed in 2008. Present study addresses to elucidate seismotectonics of Izmir vicinity by a new data set and reveal first results of seismological analysis obtained for 4.5 years. 930 small earthquakes are well located within less than 1.0 km horizontal error (RMS ? 0.15 s) over a total of 1421 recorded events. Data were processed by using SEISAN Earthquake Analysis Software implemented at SeismoLab of Dokuz Eylul University. The Orhanli-Tuzla Fault Zone and Izmir faults are capable of producing a destructive earthquake. Events show clear clusters around the Outer Bay of Izmir Gulf and Sigacik Bay. We also detected some dense clusters Sigacik Bay to the South, and in the outer bay of Izmir Gulf along NW-SE direction. We investigated kinematics of active faults around the Izmir and Foca areas by using 41 focal mechanism solutions from different algorithms. Foca is located 60 km in the NW direction of Izmir. Mechanisms generally resulted in pure normal or dominant normal faulting with minor strike-slip components in agreement with the kinematics of the other fault zones in Western Turkey. A stress tensor study using selected fault plane solution indicates that the study area is under extension regime in an N-S direction with 71° plunge for maximum compressive principal stress axis (S1), and closer to horizontals for intermediate (S2) and minimum compressive principal stress axis (S3).

Gok, Elcin; Polat, Orhan

2014-11-01

394

Author's Response.  

PubMed

This letter to the editor rebuts flawed analyses made by O'Reilly (2014) and points out duplicative comments that have already been rebutted in the peer-reviewed literature. O'Reilly (2014) provides little new scientific information on the source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments, and the author stands by the results of her research. PMID:25430873

Crane, Judy L

2015-01-01

395

Utah Authors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A smattering of Utah's talented children's book authors. The Girls: Shannon Hale Jessica Day George One of her books: Dragon Slippers Lisa Mangum The Boys: Brandon Mull His New York Times Bestselling series: Fablehaven James Dashner s Blog One of his books: The 13th Reality ...

Brittani

2009-06-25

396

Military Authority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

2001-01-01

397

Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

2011-01-01

398

Visiting Author  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

1999-01-01

399

The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

Background Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. Methods In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to contextualize aspects of organizational response and performance, we recruited two types of key informants: public health professionals who were involved with the epidemiology and surveillance response for each jurisdiction, as well as the health officer or his/her designee responsible for H1N1 response activities. Information about the organization, data sources for situation awareness, decision-making, and issues related to surge capacity, continuity of operations, and sustainability were collected during the key informant interviews. Content and interpretive analyses were conducted using ATLAS.ti software. Results The study found that disease investigations were important in the first months of the pandemic, often requiring additional staff support and sometimes forcing other public health activities to be put on hold. We also found that while the Incident Command System (ICS) was used by all participating agencies to manage the response, the manner in which it was implemented and utilized varied. Each local health department (LHD) in the study collected epidemiologic data from a variety of sources, but only case reports (including hospitalized and fatal cases) and laboratory testing data were used by all organizations. While almost every LHD attempted to collect school absenteeism data, many respondents reported problems in collecting and analyzing these data. Laboratory capacity to test influenza specimens often aided an LHD’s ability to conduct disease investigations and implement control measures, but the ability to test specimens varied across the region and even well-equipped laboratories exceeded their capacity. As a whole, the health jurisdictions in the region communicated regularly about key decision-making (continued on next page) (continued from previous page) related to the response, and prior regional collaboration on pandemic influenza planning helped to prepare the region for the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. The study did find, however, that many respondents (including the majority of epidemiologists interviewed) desired an increase in regional communication about epidemiology and surveillance issues. Conclusion The study collected information about the epidemiology and surveillance response among LHDs in the San Francisco Bay Area that has implications for public health preparedness and emergency response training, public health best practices, regional public health collaboration, and a perceived need for information sharing. PMID:23530722

2013-01-01

400

40 CFR 40.110 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorizes grants for research and demonstration...authorizes grants for research relating to the human and environmental effects of radiation...authorizes grants for research and demonstration...research in the pesticides areas with...

2010-07-01

401

40 CFR 40.110 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...authorizes grants for research and demonstration...authorizes grants for research relating to the human and environmental effects of radiation...authorizes grants for research and demonstration...research in the pesticides areas with...

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR 40.110 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...authorizes grants for research and demonstration...authorizes grants for research relating to the human and environmental effects of radiation...authorizes grants for research and demonstration...research in the pesticides areas with...

2012-07-01

403

40 CFR 40.110 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...authorizes grants for research and demonstration...authorizes grants for research relating to the human and environmental effects of radiation...authorizes grants for research and demonstration...research in the pesticides areas with...

2011-07-01

404

Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?45%). Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p?local and regional health authorities led by a NCM (GoHeart) improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up. PMID:25396055

Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

2014-01-01

405

Community attitude towards the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, the Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic remains a major public health problem. In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS has already reversed the post-independence developmental gains. Purpose This study assessed community attitudes regarding the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Design and methods In a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study, the sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 67% of the target population has a negative attitude regarding the reproductive rights of PLWHA; a confidence interval (CI) of 95% was used. A minimum sample size of 340 was obtained using the formula n = Z2pq/d2. An anticipated 10% nonresponse rate was added to obtain a sample size of 374; a multistage sampling technique was utilized to select a total of 450 respondents. Data collected through a semistructured standardized and pretested questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 15. Results The study revealed that 283 (66.6%) and 142 (33.4%) of respondents were urban and rural dwellers, respectively. Mean age of respondents was 28.7 years ± 2.2 years. Four hundred and two (94.6%) respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 88.7% had knowledge of at least six different modes of HIV/AIDS transmission. About 30.7% of respondents had discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLWHA, and 50.9% and 44.8% had negative attitudes towards their sexual and reproductive rights, respectively. There were significant associations between gender, marital status, educational status, occupation, and residential area of respondents and their attitude towards the reproductive and sexual right of PLWHA (P < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation Discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes to PLWHA found among respondents translated into a negative attitude regarding the reproductive and sexual rights of PLWHA. There is an urgent need to institute programs for raising community awareness about the rights of PLWHA, especially in rural areas, and to strengthen legislative provisions for protecting and preserving the reproductive rights of PLWHA. PMID:23807862

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Adebimpe, WO; Olugbenga-Bello, AI

2013-01-01

406

A survey of the repository of groundwater potential and distribution using geoelectrical resistivity method in Itu Local Government Area (L.G.A), Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical electrical sounding (VES), employing a Schlumberger electrode configuration, was used to investigate the sediments and aquifer repositories in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. This was done in sixteen (16) locations/communities with the maximum current electrode spread ranging between 800-1000m. The field data were interpreted using forward and iterative least square inversion modeling, which gives a resolution with 3-5 geoelectric layers. The observed frequencies in curve types include 31.25% of AKH, 18.8% of AAK and HK and 6.25% of K, QHK, AKH, KA and KHQ, respectively. These sets of curves show a wide range of variabilities in resistivities between and within the layers penetrated by current. The presence of K and H curve types in the study area indicates the alteration of the geomaterials with limited hydrologic significance to the prolific groundwater repository. A correlation of the constrained nearby borehole lithology logs with the VES results shows that the layers were all sandy formations (fine and well sorted sands to gravelly sands or medium to coarse-grained sands as described by nearby lithology logs) with some wide ranges of electrical resistivity values and thicknesses caused by electrostratigraphic inhomogeneity. The geologic topsoil (motley topsoil) is generally porous and permeable and as such the longitudinal conductance (S) values for the covering/protective layer is generally less than unity of Siemens (S < 1?-1), the value considered for efficient protection of the underlying aquifers by the topmost and overlying layer. The spatial orientations and the leveling patterns of the most economically viable potential groundwater repository within the maximum current electrode separations has been delineated in 2-D and 3-D contoured maps. The estimated depth range for the desired groundwater repository is 32.6-113.1m and its average depth value is 74.30m. The thickness of this layer ranges from 27.9-103m while its average depth has been evaluated to be 63.02m. Also, its resistivity range and average value have been estimated to be 507-5612m and 3365.125?m

Ibuot, J.; Akpabio, G.; George, N.

2013-12-01

407

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 ...(a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found in §...

2013-10-01

408

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 ...(a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found in §...

2012-10-01

409

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 ...(a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found in §...

2011-10-01

410

43 CFR 3585.0-3 - Authority.  

...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White Mountains National Recreation Area, Alaska § 3585.0-3 ...(a) Authority for leasing minerals in the White Mountains National Recreation Area—Alaska is found in §...

2014-10-01

411

Seismic structure in and around the source area of the 2004 mid-Niigata, Japan, earthquake: 3-D waveform modelling based on local tomography images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic velocity structure in and around the source area of the 2004 mid-Niigata earthquake, which featured complicated heterogeneities, was investigated by combining waveform modelling and traveltime tomography inversion using low-frequency (0.05 <= f <= 0.2 Hz) and high-frequency (f >= ~1 Hz) data, respectively. On the footwall of the main shock that includes multiplanar faults, 3-D finite-difference waveform modelling using only a previously proposed tomography model was not sufficient to synthesize the observed waveforms in 0.05 <= f <= 0.2 Hz at most stations. Thus, we derived a final 3-D model 3DM-28, examining body wave amplitudes, phases and traveltimes. The image produced by model 3DM-28 shows a clearer contrast between low- and high-velocities than that seen in the original tomography models due to the higher velocity on the footwall. This increase in velocity, particularly in the seismogenic zone, also indicates that short-wavelength low-velocity anomalies revealed in the revised tomography image may be more localized in the vicinity of the multiplanar faults than that shown in the original one. Moreover, the low-velocity anomaly zone within a depth range of 15-20 km beneath the seismogenic zone (lower crust) appears to be associated with the short-wavelength low velocity anomalies at shallower depths (upper crust). These characteristics may support the hypothesis of infiltration of pressurized fluids from the lower crust into the multiplanar fault system. The volumes or distributions of such fluids may be clarified by further examination of `unsatisfactory fit waveforms' recorded at stations along the strikes of the major faults. We suggest that the clear velocity contrasts between the hangingwall and footwall and the upper crust and lower crust, including the effects of fluids, all seem to be essential characteristics of the seismogenic conditions in this earthquake sequence.

Tajima, Reiko; Tajima, Fumiko; Kato, Aitaro

2009-04-01

412

COCA: A Secure Distributed On-line Certification Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract COCA is a fault-tolerant and secure on-line certification authority that has been built and deployed both in a local area network and in the Internet. Extremely weak assumptions characterize environments in which COCA’s protocols execute correctly: no assumption is made about execution speed and message delivery delays; channels are expected to exhibit only inter- mittent reliability; and with 3t

Lidong Zhou; Fred B. Schneider; Robbert van Renesse

2000-01-01

413

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2010-07-01

414

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2013-07-01

415

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2012-07-01

416

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2011-07-01

417

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2014-07-01

418

Federal Labor Relations Authority  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA) is an independent agency that is responsible for administering the labor-management relations program for close to 2 million federal employees across the world. As noted on the Web site, their mission is "to promote stable and constructive labor-management relations that contribute to an efficient and effective government." To achieve that end, the FLRA's site provides a host of information about recent cases decided by the Authority, along with information about its activities and current staff roster. Visitors to the site will want to take a look at the FLRA strategic plan for the period from 2002-2005, and review previous annual reports filed by the Authority, which are located in the News and Publications area of the site.

419

Decentralisation for Schools, but Not for Knowledge: The RSA Area Based Curriculum and the Limits of Localism in Coalition Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of local environments and stakeholders to illuminate the school curriculum, and increase ownership of it, has been demonstrated by international research as an effective means by which to make the curriculum more relevant and engaging to students. Localism is a key tenet of the Government's policy platform, and in education policy the…

Thomas, Louise

2011-01-01

420

A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR programs, in France, UK and Spain (Alvarez, 2007; Kemp, 2007). The emissions were then estimated using an adjusted tier 3 method. For aviation emissions a tier three method was also used. The findings of this research are mixed. HSR would emit 66% less GHG emissions using today's energy mixes for California and Nevada. Using California's 2020 target energy mix HSR would emit 80% less GHG emissions. However, using today's energy mix HSR would cause 33% more LAP than air travel. Using California's 2020 mix the HSR would cause 22% less LAP the air travel. However this 20% improvement would likely be eroded by aircraft emissions improvement between now and 2020. To conclude, this research found that HSR does offer significant GHG emission reductions, when compared to air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. However is less clear regarding LAP, though HSR has the potential to create savings here in the future as well. For other corridors around the U.S.A., earmarked for HSR, similar studies should be carried out to examine the benefits of such mode transfer.

Mullins, Damien

421

SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey local areas in and near the western edge of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, Nevada have probable resource potential for silver and small amounts of associated lead, zinc, and gold.

McKee, Edwin H.; Schmauch, Steven W.

1984-01-01

422

20 CFR 664.710 - Do Local Boards have the flexibility to offer services to area youth who are not eligible under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...One-Stop services for non-eligible youth must be funded by programs that are authorized to provide services to such youth. For example, basic labor exchange services under the Wagner-Peyser Act may be provided to any...

2010-04-01

423

Authors' Complimentary Copy Authors' Complimentary Copy  

E-print Network

Authors' Complimentary Copy Authors' Complimentary Copy Ivan Gentil, Zhongmin Qian, Cyril Roberto Evolution Equations MATRIX PRESS Mathematical Notebooks Vol III #12;Authors' Complimentary Copy Authors' Complimentary CopyPublished by Matrix Press ltd. Copyright c2011 by the Authors & to the Collection by MATRIX

Gentil, Ivan

424

MULTICRITERION ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR DECISION-MAKING FOR THE SPATIAL LOCALIZATION OF AREAS UNDER HEAVY HUMAN PRESSURE : A CASE STUDY OF THE NAÂMA DEPARTMENT IN ALGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, arid and semi-arid areas in the high southern Oran plains have presented favourable conditions for the extension of land degradation. In this area, land degradation is often accentuated by harmful activities caused by human pressure. These increasingly harmful activities generated by man on the environment are the result of the population increase and the techniques used without

Abdelkrim BENSAID; Malika BARKI; Okacha TALBI; Khatir BENHANIFIA

425

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Baghlan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter P in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Baghlan mineral district, which has industrial clay and gypsum deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2006, 2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

2013-01-01

426

Evaluation of local versus remote areas of CH4 sources at IC3 stations using a combined analysis of 222Rn tracer and Atmospheric Particles Transport Model (APTM) results. Application at the Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3), Spain.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the IC3 (Institut Català de Ciències del Clima) atmospheric monitoring network. This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park (40.22º N; -5.14º E) in the Spanish central plateau. The IC3 network consists of 8 stations distributed across Spain. It has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Since 2012, CO2, CH4, 222Rn (a natural radioactive gas) and meteorological variables are continuously measured at GIC3 at 20 m a.g.l. (1100 m a.s.l.). Furthermore, 4-days backward simulations are run daily for each IC3 station using the FLEXPART model. Simulations use ECMWF meteorological data as input and a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.2 degrees. The Laboratory of the Atmosphere and the Oceans (LAO) of the IC3 has elaborated a new approach to evaluate the local or remote greenhouse gases emissions using the radon gas as tracer and the atmospheric particles transport model FLEXPART under nocturnal and winter conditions. The ratios between the normalized and rescaled measured concentrations of CH4 and 222Rn during nocturnal hours (21h, 00h, 03h and 06h) and in the winter season, in order to reduce local radon flux and methane source due to seasonal livestock migration and to get stable atmospheric conditions, have been analyzed in relation to the influence of the local area (set to an initial dimension of 20x20 km2). The influence area (IA) has been defined as the percentage of the ratio between the residence time of the fictitious particles released in FLEXPART simulations over the area of interest (TLocal Area) and the residence time of these fictitious particles over the total area included in the simulation (TTotal Area ), i.e. IA = (TLocal Area/TTotal Area * 100). First results considering an area of interest of 20x20 km2 show a linear increase of the radon concentration with IA until reaching a maximum when IA is about 50%. This can be explained taking into consideration that GIC3 station area has high radon exhalation rates according to the literature and the radon uptake from air masses can reach a plateau. On the other hand, CH4 concentrations do not seem to be significantly influenced by IA. The log-log plot between the ratio of normalized and rescaled gases concentrations (CH4/222Rn) and the percentage of the influence of the local area shows a negative linear relation under nocturnal and winter conditions which could depend on the increase of the radon not compensated by the methane increase. Indeed, when the influence of the local area of Gredos and Iruelas station is under the 20% the major methane contribution seems to come from outside the 20x20 km2 IA. Results considering a larger area of interest (up to 80x80 km2) may indicate possible methane sources detected at the GIC3 station.

Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Àgueda, Alba; Arnold, Delia; Batet, Oscar; Cañas, Lidia; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Vogel, Felix; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

2014-05-01

427

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2012-10-01

428

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2014-10-01

429

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2011-10-01

430

43 CFR 8224.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-3 Authority. This subpart is issued under the authority of the San...

2013-10-01

431

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2013-10-01

432

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2014-10-01

433

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2011-10-01

434

43 CFR 3581.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver in Confirmed Private Land Grants § 3581.0-3 Authority. Authority for leasing gold, silver, or quicksilver in confirmed private land grants is...

2012-10-01

435

80Mb\\/s QPSK and 72Mb\\/s 64-QAM flexible and scalable digital OFDM transceiver ASICs for wireless local area networks in the 5GHz band  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of mobile communications, voice telecommunications became wireless. Future applications, however, target multimedia, messaging, and high-speed internet access, all expressing the need for a broadband high-speed wireless access technique. Both the domestic multimedia and the wireless local area network (WLANs) business markets are addressed. Es- tablished systems deliver 2-11 Mb\\/s based on spectrally inefficient spread-spectrum techniques, where scalability

Wolfgang Eberle; Veerle Derudder; Geert Vanwijnsberghe; Mario Vergara; Luc Deneire; Liesbet Van der Perre; Marc G. E. Engels; Ivo Bolsens; H. De Man

2001-01-01

436

Local Perception of Environmental Change in a Semi-Arid Area of Northeast Brazil: A New Approach for the Use of Participatory Methods at the Level of Family Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture,\\u000a pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests).\\u000a The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further\\u000a scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural

Shana Sampaio Sieber; Patrícia Muniz Medeiros; Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque

437

Boston Redevelopment Authority  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) "plans Boston's future while respecting its past.â? Working with the private sector, the BRA helps guide physical, social, and economic change in Boston's neighborhoods and its downtown. The agencyâ??s homepage features an interactive map of the city that allows visitors to view current and future development projects. Additionally, users can search via parcel ID or address. In the Neighborhoods area, visitors can browse around the officially identified list of neighborhoods to see what's on the docket. Clicking on Business Development is a great way to learn about long-term business opportunities, including the Boston Business Hub and various initiatives designed to encourage the growth of certain value added businesses. Moving on, the Research & Maps area contains rich data sets, interactive maps, and a raft of research papers, including "Boston in Context: Neighborhoods" and "Grocery Stores in Boston.â?

438

Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.  

PubMed

The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:22927655

Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

2012-11-01

439

IACR Guidelines for Authors Dear Author,  

E-print Network

IACR Guidelines for Authors Sept 2014 Dear Author, The purpose of this document is to clarify and workshops are in confidence. Re- viewers are not allowed to disclose information about the authors will not be reviewed by reviewers who have a conflict of interest with at least one author of the submission. The IACR

International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

440

Implementing a Spinosad-Based Local Bait Station to Control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in High Rainfall Areas of Reunion Island.  

PubMed

Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

2015-01-01

441

Modelling and mapping the local distribution of representative species on the Le Danois Bank, El Cachucho Marine Protected Area (Cantabrian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management and protection of potentially vulnerable species and habitats require the availability of detailed spatial data. However, such data are often not readily available in particular areas that are challenging for sampling by traditional sampling techniques, for example seamounts. Within this study habitat modelling techniques were used to create predictive maps of six species of conservation concern for the Le Danois Bank (El Cachucho Marine Protected Area in the South of the Bay of Biscay). The study used data from ECOMARG multidisciplinary surveys that aimed to create a representative picture of the physical and biological composition of the area. Classical fishing gear (otter trawl and beam trawl) was used to sample benthic communities that inhabit sedimentary areas, and non-destructive visual sampling techniques (ROV and photogrammetric sled) were used to determine the presence of epibenthic macrofauna in complex and vulnerable habitats. Multibeam echosounder data, high-resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS system) and geological data from box-corer were used to characterize the benthic terrain. ArcGIS software was used to produce high-resolution maps (75×75 m2) of such variables in the entire area. The Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) technique was used to process these data and create Habitat Suitability maps for six species of special conservation interest. The model used seven environmental variables (depth, rugosity, aspect, slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) in fine and broad scale and morphosedimentary characteristics) to identify the most suitable habitats for such species and indicates which environmental factors determine their distribution. The six species models performed highly significantly better than random (p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney test) when Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were tested. This indicates that the environmental variables chosen are relevant to distinguish the distribution of these species. The Jackknife test estimated depth to be the key factor structuring their distribution, followed by the seabed morpho-sedimentary characteristics and rugosity variables. Three of the species studied (Asconema setubalense, Callogorgia verticillata and Helicolenus dactylopterus) were found to have small suitable areas as a result of being restrictive species related to the environmental characteristics of the top of the bank. The other species (Pheronema carpenteri, Phycis blennoides and Trachyscorpia cristulata), which were species less restrictive to the environmental variables used, had highly suitable areas of distribution. The study provides high-resolution maps of species that characterize the habitat of two communities included in OSPAR and NATURA networks, whose distributions corroborate the adequate protection of this area by the management measures applied at present.

García-Alegre, Ana; Sánchez, Francisco; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Hinz, Hilmar; Serrano, Alberto; Parra, Santiago

2014-08-01

442

MODFLOW-2005, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - Documentation of the Multiple-Refined-Areas Capability of Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the addition of the multiple-refined-areas capability to shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package of MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR now provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow by using one or more block-shaped, higher resolution local grids (child model) within a coarser grid (parent model). LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundaries. The ability to have multiple, nonoverlapping areas of refinement is important in situations where there is more than one area of concern within a regional model. In this circumstance, LGR can be used to simulate these distinct areas with higher resolution grids. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. The BFH Package can be used to simulate these situations by using either the parent or child models independently.

Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

2007-01-01

443

Areas, Volumes, Surface Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).

Manura, David

2002-10-18

444

A summary of niobium and rare earth localities from Ha'il and other areas in western Saudi Arabia: a preliminary study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations in 1965 located veins containing radioactive material in the Halaban Group on the east side of a granite pluton at Jabal Aja near Ha'il. Later study extended the known area of radioactivity to a total length of about 30 km. Mineralogic studies indicated that the samples were low in uranium and that the radioactivity was due principally to thorium in niobium-bearing minerals. Two samples were reexamined to identify the sources of radioactivity, but X-ray and alpha plate studies did not reveal the radioactive minerals, even though uranium mineralization was indicated by the alpha plates. Further sampling is suggested to isolate the sources of radioactivity. This study indicates that niobium occurrences are related to alkaline intrusives in many areas of western Saudi Arabia. These areas should be investigated for their possible niobium and rare earth contents; their uranium content is apparently too low to be of economic interest.

Matzko, John J.; Naqvi, Mohammed Ibne

1978-01-01

445

Local-scale heterogeneity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), absorbed PAR and net radiation as a function of topography, sky conditions and leaf area index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local-scale spatial distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), absorbed PAR (APAR) and net all-wave radiation (Q?) across the top of a forest canopy was investigated as a function of topography, sky conditions and forest heterogeneity for a forested hilly study site located in south-central Indiana, USA that is part of the FLUXNET and SpecNet networks. The method to estimate

Andrew Oliphant; C. Susan; B. Grimmond; Hans-Peter Schmid; Craig A. Wayson

2006-01-01

446

1. Thesis Title: Poverty and Local Environment Nexus: Evidence From Two Slum Communities in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh 2. Name of the Author: Md. Jahan Boksh Moral 3. Name of Adviser and Committee Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this study has been to know the relationship between poverty and local environmental degradation while examining the present involvement of the government in improving poverty and environment condition. To avoid the hypothetical discover, the study analyze the UNDP\\/GOB project activities. The UNDP\\/GOB project entitled 'Local Partnerships for Urban Poverty Alleviation' is one of the biggest projects

Vilas Nitivattananon

447

Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Zarkashan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter G in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Zarkashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA criteria for value added products, which are not copyrighted, according to the ALOS end-user license agreement. The selection criteria for the satellite imagery used in our mosaics were images having (1) the highest solar-elevation angles (near summer solstice) and (2) the least cloud, cloud-shadow, and snow cover. The multispectral and panchromatic data were orthorectified with ALOS satellite ephemeris data, a process which is not as accurate as orthorectification using digital elevation models (DEMs); however, the ALOS processing center did not have a precise DEM. As a result, the multispectral and panchromatic image pairs were generally not well registered to the surface and not coregistered well enough to perform resolution enhancement on the multispectral data. Therefore, it was necessary to (1) register the 10-m AVNIR multispectral imagery to a well-controlled Landsat image base, (2) mosaic the individual multispectral images into a single image of the entire area of interest, (3) register each panchromatic image to the registered multispectral image base, and (4) mosaic the individual panchromatic images into a single image of the entire area of interest. The two image-registration steps were facilitated using an automated control-point algorithm developed by the USGS that allows image coregistration to within one picture element. Before rectification, the multispectral and panchromatic images were converted to radiance values and then to relative-reflectance values using the methods described in Davis (2006). Mosaicking the multispectral or panchromatic images started with the image with the highest sun-elevation angle and the least atmospheric scattering, which was treated as the standard image. The band-reflectance values of all other multispectral or panchromatic images within the area were sequentially adjusted to that of the standard image by determining band-reflectance correspondence between overlapping images using linear least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased

Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

2012-01-01

448

Psychological Science The Author(s) 2013  

E-print Network

.1177/0956797612474938Finkel et al.Reappraising Conflict research-article2013 Corresponding Author: Eli J. Finkel, NorthwesternPsychological Science XX(X) 1­7 © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub-affect reciprocity--a chain of retaliatory negativity between spouses during marital conflict, such as when a husband

Reber, Paul J.

449

Modeling the local biodiversity impacts of agricultural water use: case study of a wetland in the coastal arid area of Peru.  

PubMed

Global water use is dominated by agriculture and has considerable influence on people's livelihood and ecosystems, especially in semiarid and arid regions. Methods to address the impacts of water withdrawal and consumption on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems within life cycle assessment are still sparse and very generic. Regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for a groundwater-fed wetland at the arid coast of Peru are developed for groundwater and surface water withdrawal and consumption in order to address the spatial dependency of water use related impacts. Several agricultural scenarios for 2020 were developed in a workshop with local stakeholders and used for calculating total biodiversity impacts. In contrast to assumptions used in top-down approaches (e.g., Pfister et al. Environ. Sci Technol. 2009, 43, 4098 ), irrigation with surface water leads in this specific region to benefits for the groundwater-fed wetland, due to additional groundwater recharge from surplus irrigation water. However, irrigation with groundwater leads to ecological damage to the wetland. The CFs derived from the different scenarios are similar and can thus be used as general CFs for this region, helping local decision-makers to plan future agricultural development, including irrigation technologies, crop choices, and protection of the wetland. PMID:22463711

Verones, Francesca; Bartl, Karin; Pfister, Stephan; Jiménez Vílchez, Ricardo; Hellweg, Stefanie

2012-05-01

450

Integrating Sources Describing What Authors Are Doing*  

E-print Network

See over Integrating Sources Describing What Authors Are Doing* Citation and attribution, attribution is the public association of an author with a particular assertion or finding. In this section and expression. IDENTIFYING AUTHORS WITH AREAS OF STUDY examine ­ "MinZhan Lu (1992) has examined

451

Groundwater demand management at local scale in rural areas of India: a strategy to ensure water well sustainability based on aquifer diffusivity and community participation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed development programmes provide an opportunity for sustainable management strategies, although currently, they remain largely `supply-side' mechanisms of water resources development. Hydrogeological conditions, community participation and status of groundwater usage are important in evolving strategies on `demand-side' groundwater management. Neemkheda aquifer is a typical low-storage, low-hydraulic conductivity aquifer from a watershed in the dryland regions of Madhya Pradesh State of central India. A shallow unconfined aquifer, it consists of an upper coarse, calcareous sandstone unit underlain by a fine-grained sandstone unit. A `well commune' of seven wells is poised to test the concept of joint groundwater management, wherein wells are mechanisms of tapping a common water source, the Neemkheda aquifer. The strategy for systematic groundwater management in the Neemkheda well commune is based upon the relationship between Transmissivity (T) and Storage coefficient (S), i.e. aquifer diffusivity, and its variation within the aquifer. Wells within a high diffusivity domain tend to dewater more quickly than wells within a low diffusivity domain. A well-use schedule during the dry season, based upon aquifer diffusivity forms the basis of the groundwater management concept. The distribution of local aquifer diffusivities governs the relationship between local and regional aquifer depletion times and forms the basis of the groundwater management exercise being proposed for the Neemkheda aquifer. Los programas de desarrollo de una cuenca hídrica son una oportunidad para el uso de estrategias de gestión sostenible, aunque hoy en día estas siguen siendo principalmente mecanismos para el desarrollo de recursos hídricos con énfasis en la ``oferta''. Las condiciones hidrogeológicas, la participación comunitaria y la condición de utilización del agua subterránea, son importantes en el desarrollo de estrategias para la gestión del agua subterránea, desde el punto de vista de la ``demanda''. El acuífero de Neemkheda es un acuífero típico de almacenamiento bajo y conductividad hidráulica baja, perteneciente a una cuenca hídrica ubicada en las regiones secas del Estado de Madhya Pradesh, en la parte central de India. Un acuífero de tipo libre, somero, formado por una unidad superior de arenisca calcárea de grano grueso, subyacida por una unidad de arenisca de grano fino. Un campo de pozos comunitario compuesto por siete pozos, pone a prueba el concepto de gestión conjunta del agua subterránea, dentro del cual los pozos son mecanismos para usar una fuente de agua común: El acuífero de Neemkheda. La estrategia usada para la gestión sistemática del agua subterránea, en el campo de pozos comunitario de Neemkheda, se basa en la relación existente entre Transmisividad (T) y Coeficiente de Almacenamiento (S), es decir en la Difusividad del Acuífero y en su variación observada dentro del mismo acuífero. Los pozos cuya difusividad esta dentro de un rango alto, tienden a experimentar un descenso en su nivel mas rápidamente que aquellos pozos con una difusividad baja. El concepto de gestión de agua subterránea se basa en un programa especial de operación para cada pozo durante la estación seca, el cual a su vez se basa en la difusividad del acuífero. La distribución de difusividades locales del acuífero rige las relaciones entre las épocas de descensos de nivel en el acuífero a escala regional y local, y además constituyen la base del ejercicio de la gestión del agua subterránea que se esta proponiendo para el acuífero de Neemkheda. Les programmes de développement des bassins versants offrent une occasion de développer des stratégies pour une gestion durable, bien qu' à présent elles restent en grande mesure `le terme source' dans le mécanisme de développement de la ressource en eau. Les conditions hydrogéologiques, la participation de la communauté et l'usage des eaux souterraines sont importants pour le `terme demande' dans les stratégies de gestion des eaux souterraines. L'aquifèr

Kulkarni, Himanshu; Vijay Shankar, P. S.; Deolankar, S. B.; Shah, Mihir

452

MODFLOW–LGR—Documentation of ghost node local grid refinement (LGR2) for multiple areas and the boundary flow and head (BFH2) package  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the addition of ghost node Local Grid Refinement (LGR2) to MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater flow model. LGR2 provides the capability to simulate groundwater flow using multiple block-shaped higher-resolution local grids (a child model) within a coarser-grid parent model. LGR2 accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the grid-refinement interface boundary. LGR2 can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined groundwater systems. Traditional one-way coupled telescopic mesh refinement methods can have large, often undetected, inconsistencies in heads and fluxes across the interface between two model grids. The iteratively coupled ghost-node method of LGR2 provides a more rigorous coupling in which the solution accuracy is controlled by convergence criteria defined by the user. In realistic problems, this can result in substantially more accurate solutions and require an increase in computer processing time. The rigorous coupling enables sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty analysis that reflects conditions in both model grids. This report describes the method used by LGR2, evaluates accuracy and performance for two-and three-dimensional test cases, provides input instructions, and lists selected input and output files for an example problem. It also presents the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH2) Package, which allows the child and parent models to be simulated independently using the boundary conditions obtained through the iterative process of LGR2.

Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

2013-01-01

453

The Enhancement of Water Ice Content in the Local Area Northeast of Arcadia Planitia: Evidence from Neutron Data from HEND (Mars Odyssey) and Elevation from MOLA (MGS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first year of neutron mapping measurements from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft revealed enormous hydrogen-rich regions in the southern and northern hemispheres of the Martian crust that imply significant amounts of near surface water ice. The hydrogen-rich areas of the southern and northern regions appear generally comparable in spatial extent and water ice content. This observation is interesting in light of topography measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, which shows a significant difference in elevation between northern lowlands and southern highlands that could imply a difference in seasonal CO2 condensation. In this study we correlate the high energy neutron flux observed by HEND (Mars Odyssey) and surface elevation measured by MOLA in order to interpret the seasonal change in epithermal neutron flux in terms near-surface water ice content.

Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Tretyakov, V.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

2003-01-01

454

Document Management in Local Government.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest in electronic document management in British local government is discussed. Finance, revenues, and benefits systems of leading vendors to local authorities are highlighted. A planning decisions archive management system and other information services are discussed. (AEF)

Williams, Bernard J. S.

1998-01-01

455

43 CFR 1882.0-3 - Authority.  

...ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.0-3 Authority...and their political subdivisions to relieve social or economic impacts resulting from the development of Federal minerals leased under the...

2014-10-01

456

43 CFR 1882.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.0-3 Authority...and their political subdivisions to relieve social or economic impacts resulting from the development of Federal minerals leased under the...

2012-10-01

457

43 CFR 1882.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.0-3 Authority...and their political subdivisions to relieve social or economic impacts resulting from the development of Federal minerals leased under the...

2011-10-01

458

43 CFR 1882.0-3 - Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.0-3 Authority...and their political subdivisions to relieve social or economic impacts resulting from the development of Federal minerals leased under the...

2013-10-01

459

Chlorofluorocarbon and Tritium Concentration in Springs in the Norris Geyser Basin Area: Constraining Circulation Rate, Mixing Processes, and Ground-Water Evolution of Locally Derived Ground-Water in Yellowstone National Park, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium concentrations were measured in cool to warm springs in the Norris area of Yellowstone National Park to constrain the scale and rate of circulation within the shallow, local ground-water system and investigate interactions between locally derived water and the geothermal system. Water from more than 65 springs in and surrounding the Norris Geyser Basin, varying in temperature from 3°C to 90°C, was sampled and analyzed for CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and tritium. Apparent CFC age was calculated by using noble gas recharge temperature and the elevation of the surrounding volcanic flows. Measured tritium content ranged from 1 to 14 tritium units and apparent CFC age ranged from 1965 to modern. Tritium values were corrected for decay during transport by using the apparent CFC age, yielding the CFC age corrected initial tritium content. Initial tritium concentrations were then compared to an interpolated tritium precipitation curve for Yellowstone National Park, that has been smoothed via transport in the subsurface over a characteristic length scale. CFC ratio analysis shows no evidence of large-scale mixing, or systematic contamination or degradation. CFC age-corrected initial tritium contents match the historical input curve within the uncertainty of the input function, further indicating lack of large-scale mixing, and viability of CFC ages. These results imply that a large volume of ground water in the Norris Geyser Basin area is relatively young and likely recharged within the park.

Gardner, P.; Susong, D.; Solomon, K.; Heasler, H.

2007-12-01

460

Crystallographic dependent in-situ CBr4 selective nano-area etching and local regrowth of InP/InGaAs by MOVPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective area etching and growth in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor on nano-scale structures have been examined. Using different mask orientations, crystallographic dependent etching of InP can be observed when carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is used as an etchant. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation of etch profiles showed formation of a U-shaped groove along the [01¯1¯] direction, terminated by {111}B planes with an 15 nm {100} plateau and transitional {311}B planes, developed in a self-limiting manner. In the perpendicular direction [01¯1] etching with a dominant lateral component driven by fast etched {111}A and {311}A side planes was observed. A directly grown single InGaAs QW in the etched grooves demonstrated different QW profiles: a crescent-shaped on {311}B and {100} planes (along the [01¯1¯] direction) and two separated quarter-circle curvatures grown preferably on {311}A along [01¯1¯]. Room temperature micro-photoluminescence measurements indicated a wavelength red-shift in over 125 nm along [01¯1¯] comparing to [01¯1], which is related to both growth enhancement and composition variation of the grown material.

Kuznetsova, N.; Kulkova, I. V.; Semenova, E. S.; Kadhodazadeh, S.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Yvind, K.

2014-11-01

461

Author to Author: Extending Literacy through Letters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that writing to published authors deepens students' understanding of children's literature and gives them a greater awareness of writing techniques. Suggests that when letter writing takes place within the context of a writing workshop, it is an effective strategy for literacy growth. Outlines how to choose authors, find addresses, and…

Vos, Miriam

2003-01-01

462

Regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl in a 188,000 km 2 area in the European arctic as displayed by terrestrial moss samples-long-range atmospheric transport vs local impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl have been mapped in a 188,000 km2 area of the European Arctic (N Finland, N Norway, NW Russia) using the moss technique. The Russian nickel mining and smelting industry (Nikel and Zapoljarnij (Pechenganikel) and Monchegorsk (Severonikel)) in the eastern part of the survey area represents two of the largest point sources for S0 2 and metal emissions on a world wide basis. In contrast, parts of northern Finland and northern Norway represent still some of the most pristine areas in Europe. The terrestrial mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were used as monitors of airborne deposition. Samples in all three countries were collected during the summer of 1995 and analysed in one laboratory using ICP-MS. Maps for most elements clearly show elevated element concentrations near the industrial sites and delineate the extent of contamination. Pollution follows the main wind and topographical directions in the area (N-S). The gradients of deposition are rather steep. Background levels for all the elements are reached within 150-200 km from the industrial plants. The relative importance of long-range atmospheric transport of air pollutants from industrial point sources on the world wide increase of heavy metals observed in the atmosphere is thus debatable for many elements. Increasing population and traffic density, accompanied by increasing local dust levels, may play a much more important role than industrial emissions. The regional distribution patterns as displayed in the maps show some striking differences between the elements. The regional distribution of Hg and TI in the survey area is completely dominated by sources other than industry.

Reimann, Clemens; De Caritat, Patrice; Halleraker, Jo H.; Finne, Tor Erik; Boyd, Rognvald; Jæger, Øystein; Volden, Tore; Kashulina, Galina; Bogatyrev, Igor; Chekushin, Viktor; Pavlov, Vladimir; Äyräs, Matti; Räisänen, Marja Liisa; Niskavaara, Heikki

463

24 CFR 599.107 - Required State and local commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nominating State and local governments must agree...during which the area is a Renewal...the nominated area's State and/or local governments and community-based...The State and local governments in which a nominated area is...

2010-04-01

464

Authoring Newspaper Science Articles: A Rewarding Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.

Wilson J. González-Espada

2009-01-01

465

Design Editorial First Author  

E-print Network

Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial First Author At one time or another, all of us have filled forms? There is a bit of a mystery here. Thus it is also with the sequence of listing authors of scientific papers with multiple co-authors. Who is the first author? For that matter, who is second or third

Papalambros, Panos

466

30 CFR 764.25 - Regulatory authority responsibility for implementation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING STATE PROCESSES FOR DESIGNATING AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS...chapter. (b) The regulatory authority shall maintain a map or other unified and cumulative record of areas...

2010-07-01

467

30 CFR 764.25 - Regulatory authority responsibility for implementation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING STATE PROCESSES FOR DESIGNATING AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS...chapter. (b) The regulatory authority shall maintain a map or other unified and cumulative record of areas...

2011-07-01

468

Strenghening Safeguards Authorities and Institutions  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system has changed in major ways from the establishment of the IAEA in 1957 until the present. Changes include strengthening the legal framework of safeguards; improvements in concepts and approaches for safeguards implementation; and significant improvements in the technical tools available to inspectors. In this paper, we explore three broad areas related to strengthening safeguards authorities and institutions: integrated safeguards and State-Level Approaches; special inspections; and NPT withdrawal and the continuation of safeguards.

Goodman,M.; Lockwood, d.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Tape, J.W.

2008-06-06

469

10 CFR 63.31 - Construction authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.31...construction of a geologic repository operations area at the Yucca Mountain site if it determines: (a) Safety. (1)...

2011-01-01

470

10 CFR 63.31 - Construction authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.31...construction of a geologic repository operations area at the Yucca Mountain site if it determines: (a) Safety. (1)...

2013-01-01

471

10 CFR 63.31 - Construction authorization.  

...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.31...construction of a geologic repository operations area at the Yucca Mountain site if it determines: (a) Safety. (1)...

2014-01-01

472

10 CFR 63.31 - Construction authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.31...construction of a geologic repository operations area at the Yucca Mountain site if it determines: (a) Safety. (1)...

2012-01-01

473

Utah Transit Authority Creating a Model Transit  

E-print Network

Utah Transit Authority Creating a Model Transit Safety Organization Global Level Crossing Safety Service Area UTAH #12;UTA Rail Openings 140 Miles in 14 years · TRAX (Light Rail) North South 15 mi Dec

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

474

Local variations of seismic velocity in the Imperial Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

The authors inverted local earthquake arrival times to estimate spatial variations of seismic velocity. Their model consisted of near-surface station corrections and local perturbations to a standard crustal velocity model. The authors found a zone of relatively high-velocity trending southeast from the Salton Sea. This zone corresponds to the region of thickest sediments. The authors compared results with those of teleseismic studies by Savino et al (1977). The agreement was excellent, suggesting that the teleseismic delays are caused primarily by crustal velocity variations. Residual delays between the teleseismic observations and predicted crustal delays imply crustal thinning of 3 or 4 km along the axis of the valley. Known geothermal resource areas at Salton Sea (or Obsidian Buttes), Brawley, and East Mesa, lie on the axis of a zone of thin crust, and they may be intimately related to the Brawley fault. Neither local earthquake nor teleseismic arrival times can discriminate between these hypotheses, but the issue might be resolved by combining both types of data. Known geothermal resource areas at Heber, Dunes, and Glamis, lie away from the projected trace of the Brawley fault. These areas are nearly aseismic, and overlie crust with apparent seismic velocities only mildly higher than the regional average. These apparent velocity anomalies could be related to crustal thinning, but because of the very mild Bouguer gravity anomalies in these areas, it seems more likely that the velocity anomalies occur entirely within the crust. 7 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

Jackson, D.D.; Lee, W.B.

1981-12-01

475

Broca's area - Thalamic connectivity.  

PubMed

Broca's area is crucially involved in language processing. The sub-regions of Broca's area (pars triangularis, pars opercularis) presumably are connected via corticocortical pathways. However, growing evidence suggests that the thalamus may also be involved in language and share some of the linguistic functions supported by Broca's area. Functional connectivity is thought to be achieved via corticothalamic/thalamocortical white matter pathways. Our study investigates structural connectivity between Broca's area and the thalamus, specifically ventral anterior nucleus and pulvinar. We demonstrate that Broca's area shares direct connections with these thalamic nuclei and suggest a local Broca's area-thalamus network potentially involved in linguistic processing. Thalamic connectivity with Broca's area may serve to selectively recruit cortical regions storing multimodal features of lexical items and to bind them together during lexical-semantic processing. In addition, Broca's area-thalamic circuitry may enable cortico-thalamo-cortical information transfer and modulation between BA 44 and 45 during language comprehension and production. PMID:25555132

Bohsali, Anastasia A; Triplett, William; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Gullett, Joseph M; McGregor, Keith; FitzGerald, David B; Mareci, Thomas; White, Keith; Crosson, Bruce

2015-02-01

476

THE ORIGINAL AUTHORITY ON QUESTIONING AUTHORITY THE ORIGINAL  

E-print Network

THE ORIGINAL AUTHORITY ON QUESTIONING AUTHORITY THE ORIGINAL AUTHORITY ON QUESTIONING AUTHORITY THE ORIGINAL AUTHORITY ON QUESTIONING AUTHORITY Whose door will you open? Chancellor's AssociAtes #12;KNOCK

California at Santa Cruz, University of

477

Psychological Science The Author(s) 2011  

E-print Network

). The fragility of subliminal influences in masking para- digms has been related to the strong degradation of bottom-up activation in successive perceptual areas, subliminal influences are expected to decrease

Faivre, Nathan

478

Web Service Authorization Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web Services represent an important technology for distributed applications and will replace various other technologies for distributed application development soon. A lot of problems of the early days of Web Services are solved now. However, for authorization no appropriate solution is available and ready to use. We define requirements for authorization of Web Services and investigate existing authorization solutions concerning

Thomas Ziebermayr; Stefan Probst

2004-01-01

479

Authorization Patient Information  

E-print Network

Authorization Patient Information Student Health Center 501 Student Health Irvine, CA 92697-5200 949-824-5302 Fax 949-824-3033 Author